WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-energy particle environment

  1. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the Earth and Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B

    2005-01-01

    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source--the Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (> or = 100 keV) and proton (> or = 1 MeV) populations--the dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4th largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are -0.1 krad(Si) d(-1) at the geosynchronous orbit and -30 krad(Si) d((-1) at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield--a factor of -300 between the two planets.

  2. Comparison of high-energy trapped particle environments at the earth and jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    The 'Van Allen belts' of the trapped energetic particles in the Earth's magnetosphere were discovered by the Explorer I satellite in 1958. In addition, in 1959, it was observed that UHF radio emissions from Jupiter probably had a similar source - The Jovian radiation belts. In this paper, the global characteristics of these two planets' trapped radiation environments and respective magnetospheres are compared and state-of-the-art models used to generate estimates of the high-energy electron (≥100 keV) and proton ≥1 MeV) populations - The dominant radiation particles in these environments. The models used are the AP8/ AE8 series for the Earth and the Divine-Garrett/GIRE model for Jupiter. To illustrate the relative magnitude of radiation effects at each planet, radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the total ionising dose levels at the geosynchronous orbit for the Earth and at Europa (Jupiter's 4. largest moon) for Jupiter. The results show that the dose rates are ∼0.1 krad(Si) d -1 at the geosynchronous orbit and ∼30 krad(Si) d -1 at Europa for a 2.5 mm spherical shell aluminium shield - a factor of ∼300 between the two planets. (authors)

  3. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol

  4. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  5. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  6. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  7. Particle physics experiments at high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2011-01-01

    Written by one of the detector developers for the International Linear Collider, this is the first textbook for graduate students dedicated to the complexities and the simplicities of high energy collider detectors. It is intended as a specialized reference for a standard course in particle physics, and as a principal text for a special topics course focused on large collider experiments. Equally useful as a general guide for physicists designing big detectors. (orig.)

  8. Superconductivity in high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmueser, P.

    2002-08-01

    The basics of superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the features which are relevant for the application in magnets and radio frequency cavities for high energy particle accelerators. The special properties of superconducting accelerator magnets are described in detail: design principles, magnetic field calculations, magnetic forces, quench performance, persistent magnetization currents and eddy currents. The design principles and basic properties of superconducting cavities are explained as well as the observed performance limitations and the countermeasures. The ongoing research efforts towards maximum accelerating fields are addressed and the coupling of radio frequency power to the particle beam is treated. (orig.)

  9. Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.

    2000-01-27

    This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.

  10. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  11. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs

  12. High energy particle physics in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The paper reviews the U.K. participation in High Energy Particle Physics (HEPP) research. The funding of science in Higher Education and the Research Councils; high energy particle physics; relevance of particle physics to science and technology; particle physics in the U.K.; CERN; and the opportunity cost of HEPP within the science budget; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  13. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  14. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  15. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP)

  16. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  17. Fluctuations in high-energy particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronqvist, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    We study fluctuations that are omnipresent in high-energy particle collisions. These fluctuations can be either of either classical or quantum origin and we will study both. Firstly, we consider the type of quantum fluctuations that arise in proton-proton collisions. These are computable perturbatively in quantum field theory and we will focus on a specific class of diagrams in this set-up. Secondly, we will consider the fluctuations that are present in collisions between nuclei that can be heavier than protons. These are the quantum laws of nature that describe the positions of nucleons within a nucleus, but also the hydrodynamic fluctuations of classical, thermal origin that affect the evolution of the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. The fluctuations arising in proton-proton collisions can be computed analytically up to a certain order in perturbative quantum field theory. We will focus on one-loop diagrams of a fixed topology. Loop diagrams give rise to integrals that typically are hard to evaluate. We show how modern mathematical methods can be used to ease their computation. We will study the relations among unitarity cuts of a diagram, the discontinuity across the corresponding branch cut and the coproduct. We show how the original integral corresponding to a given diagram can be reconstructed from the information contained in the coproduct. We expect that these methods can be applied to solve more complicated topologies and help in the computation of new amplitudes in the future. Finally, we study the two types of fluctuations arising in heavy-ion collisions. These are related either to the initial state or the intermediate state of matter produced in such collisions. The initial state fluctuations are experimentally observed to give rise to non-Gaussianities in the final-state spectra. We show how these non-Gaussianities can be explained by the random position and interaction energy of 'sources' in the colliding nuclei. Furthermore, we

  18. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z 0 with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R ampersand D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs

  19. Studies in theorectical high energy particles physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Panigrahi, P.; Sukhatme, U.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses the research being done at the University of Illinois in theoretical high energy physics. Some areas discussed are string models, collider physics, symmetries in gauge theories, sigma model, radiative decay of mesons, supersymmetry, superconducting, and hydroproduction of charm

  20. Some problems of high-energy elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of high-energy elementary particle physics are discussed. It is pointed out that the modern theory of elementary-particle physics has no solutions of some large physical problems: origin of the mass, electric charge, identity of particle masses, change of the mass of elementary particles in time and others. 7 refs

  1. High energy particle collisions near black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaslavskii O. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect. The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process.

  2. The acceleration of particles to high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    The common occurrence, and often spectacular consequence, of fast particles in active astrophysical bodies has attracted the attention of physicists for more than four decades. The acceleration mechanisms, whatever they may be, are remarkably efficient, converting a major fraction of the total energy into fast particles. A variety of ideas have arisen, suggesting how and why fast particles are generated in various circumstances. The principal limitation on particle acceleration theories has been the realization that the universe in not filled with a hard vacuum, but rather is pervaded everywhere by tenuous ionized gases quite able to short circuit any large-scale electric fields that occur under ordinary circumstances. A number of the early ideas on the acceleration of cosmic rays have been discarded for this reason. The basic theoretical ideas can be grouped roughly into five parts: 1. hydromagnetic fields; 2. field in reduced conductivity; 3. plasma turbulence; 4. low frequency electromagnetic waves; 5. supernova explosion. Each of these is considered in turn. (Auth.)

  3. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  4. Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Henry J.; Engelage, Jon M.

    1999-01-01

    Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year

  5. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1991-05-01

    Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included

  6. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z; O` Connor, D J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  7. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  8. High energy particle experiment for the GEOTAIL mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The high energy particle experiment for GEOTAIL mission was designed to understand the particle acceleration mechanism, energy flow, boundary dynamics and magnetic reconnection mechanism in the geotail region, solar flare particle acceleration mechanism, the propagation mechanism through interplanetary space, and the origin, lifetime and propagation mechanism of cosmic ray heavy ions. In order to achieve these objectives, particle detectors, burst detectors, medium energy isotope telescopes and a high energy isotope telescope will be placed in the spacecraft which will be launched in 1992 as one of the spacecraft missions in the International Solar Terrestrial Physics program. With these detectors, electrons, protons and helium, carbon, silicon and iron particles will be detected. The characteristics and the main technique used for each instrument to observe high energy particles are summarized. The details of the scientific objectives, the basic principle of particle identification, the electronic system and data processing system, key parameter information, telemetry data formats, preflight and in-flight calibration method and data an analysis plan are described in this report. (K.I.)

  9. Numerical evaluation of high energy particle effects in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Wu, Y.

    1994-03-01

    The interaction of high energy ions with magnetohydrodynamic modes is analyzed. A numerical code is developed which evaluates the contribution of the high energy particles to mode stability using orbit averaging of motion in either analytic or numerically generated equilibria through Hamiltonian guiding center equations. A dispersion relation is then used to evaluate the effect of the particles on the linear mode. Generic behavior of the solutions of the dispersion relation is discussed and dominant contributions of different components of the particle distribution function are identified. Numerical convergence of Monte-Carlo simulations is analyzed. The resulting code ORBIT provides an accurate means of comparing experimental results with the predictions of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics. The method can be extended to include self consistent modification of the particle orbits by the mode, and hence the full nonlinear dynamics of the coupled system

  10. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.; Duran, I.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Muller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures, are discussed, most relevant devices are reported along 90 pages with 98 references. (Author) 98 refs

  11. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez, L.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Mueller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures are discussed, most relevant devices are reported. (author)

  12. Azimuthal asymmetry of slow particles in high energy nuclear interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Subir; Goswami, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    An asymmetry in the angular distribution of slow particles in the azimuthal plane has been observed during high energy nuclear disintegration of photo emulsion nuclei exposed to 1.8 GeV/c k - and 20 GeV/c protons. The mechanism of disintegration is not in accordance with the cascade-evaporation model, which is based on isotropic emission of slow particles. Deviation from isotropy indicates that some of the slow particles might be emitted well before the thermal equilibrium is reached in the disintegrating system. (author)

  13. [Studies of elementary particles and high energy phenomena: [Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumalat, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The scope of work under this contract is unclassified and shall consist of experimental, theoretical, and phenomenological research on the fundamental properties of high energy subnuclear particles at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the SSC laboratory, and the University of Colorado with emphasis on photon beam experiments, electron-positron interactions, charmed particles, production of new vector bosons, advanced data acquisition systems, two photon physics, particle lifetimes, supergravity, supersymmetry, superstrings, quantum chromodynamics, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, cosmology, phase transitions, lattice gauge theory, anomaly-free theories, gravity and instrumentation development. These topics are covered in this report

  14. High energy behaviour of particles and unified statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Theories and experiments suggest that particles at high energy appear to possess a new statistics unifying Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics via the GAMMA distribution. This hypothesis can be obtained from many models, and agrees quantitatively with scaling, the multiplicty, large transverse momentum, the mass spectrum, and other data. It may be applied to scatterings at high energy, and agrees with experiments and known QED's results. The Veneziano model and other theories have implied new statistics, such as, the B distribution and the Polya distribution. They revert to the GAMMA distribution at high energy. The possible inapplicability of Pauli's exclusion principle within the unified statistics is considered and associated to the quark constituents

  15. Laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams using the inverse Cherenkov effect is well suited for applications with large linear colliders. Very high gradient (>0.5 MG/cm) lenses result that can be added sequentially without AG cancellation. These lenses are swell understood, have small geometric aberrations, and offer the possibility of correlating phase and energy aberrations to produce an achromatic final focus

  16. Neutrino fluxes produced by high energy solar flare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeets, E.V.; Shmonin, V.L.

    1975-01-01

    In this work the calculated differential energy spectra of neutrinos poduced by high energy protons accelerated during 'small' solar flares are presented. The muon flux produced by neutrino interactions with the matter at large depths under the ground is calculated. The obtained flux of muons for the total number of solar flare accelerated protons of 10 28 - 10 32 is within 10 9 - 10 13 particles/cm 2 X s x ster. (orig.) [de

  17. Plasma focusing and diagnosis of high energy particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin.

    1990-09-01

    Various novel concepts of focusing and diagnosis of high energy charged particle beams, based on the interaction between the relativistic particle beam and the plasma, are reviewed. This includes overdense thin plasma lenses, and (underdense) adiabatic plasma lens, and two beam size monitor concepts. In addition, we introduce another mechanism for measuring flat beams based on the impulse received by heavy ions in an underdense plasma. Theoretical investigations show promise of focusing and diagnosing beams down to sizes where conventional methods are not possible to provide. 21 refs

  18. Broken flavor symmetries in high energy particle phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antaramian, A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past couple of decades, the Standard Model of high energy particle physics has clearly established itself as an invaluable tool in the analysis of high energy particle phenomenon. However, from a field theorists point of view, there are many dissatisfying aspects to the model. One of these, is the large number of free parameters in the theory arising from the Yukawa couplings of the Higgs doublet. In this thesis, we examine various issues relating to the Yukawa coupeng structure of high energy particle field theories. We begin by examining extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which contain additional scalar fields. By appealing to the flavor structure observed in the fermion mass and Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, we propose a reasonable phenomenological parameterization of the new Yukawa couplings based on the concept of approximate flavor symmetries. It is shown that such a parameterization eliminates the need for discrete symmetries which limit the allowed couplings of the new scalars. New scalar particles which can mediate exotic flavor changing reactions can have masses as low as the weak scale. Next, we turn to the issue of neutrino mass matrices, where we examine a particular texture which leads to matter independent neutrino oscillation results for solar neutrinos. We, then, examine the basis for extremely strict limits placed on flavor changing interactions which also break lepton- and/or baryon-number. These limits are derived from cosmological considerations. Finally, we embark on an extended analysis of proton decay in supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories. In such theories, the dominant decay diagrams involve the Yukawa couplings of a heavy triplet superfield. We argue that past calculations of proton decay which were based on the minimal supersymmetric SU(5) model require reexamination because the Yukawa couplings of that theory are known to be wrong

  19. High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, K.; Takada, H.; Meigo, S.; Ikeda, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgrade version of NMTC/JAERI97. The available energy range of NMTC/JAM is, in principle, extended to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons including the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. We compare the calculations by NMTC/JAM code with the experimental data of thin and thick targets for proton induced reactions up to several 10 GeV. The results of NMTC/JAM code show excellent agreement with the experimental data. From these code validation, it is concluded that NMTC/JAM is reliable in neutronics optimization study of the high intense spallation neutron utilization facility. (author)

  20. Recipients of 2013 EPS High Energy & Particle Physics Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    (From left) Joe Incandela, Peter Higgs, Francois Englert, Tejinder Virdee, Dave Charlton, and Peter Jenni. Higgs and Englert gave the prizes to the recipients of the 2013 European Physical Society's High Energy and Particle Physics Prize, for an outstanding contribution to high energy physics. "For the discovery of a Higgs boson, as predicted by the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism," the prize was awarded to the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Spokesperson for CMS, Incandela, and Spokesperson for ATLAS, Charlton, accepted the awards on their collaborations' behalf. "For their pioneering and outstanding leadership roles in the making of the ATLAS and CMS experiments," the prize was awarded to Jenni, Virdee, and Michel Della Negra (not present). Image: ATLAS

  1. High-energy tail distributions and resonant wave particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leubner, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    High-energy tail distributions (k distributions) are used as an alternative to a bi-Lorentzian distribution to study the influence of energetic protons on the right- and left-hand cyclotron modes in a hot two-temperature plasma. Although the parameters are chosen to be in a range appropriate to solar wind or magnetospheric configurations, the results apply not only to specific space plasmas. The presence of energetic particles significantly alters the behavior of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes, leading to a wide range of unstable frequencies and increased growth rates. From the strongly enhanced growth rates it can be concluded that high-energy tail distributions should not show major temperature anisotropies, which is consistent with observations.

  2. High-energy particles associated with solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Klimas, A.J.

    1974-05-01

    High energy particles, the so-called solar cosmic rays, are often generated in association with solar flares, and then emitted into interplanetary space. These particles, consisting of electrons, protons, and other heavier nuclei, including the iron-group, are accelerated in the vicinity of the flare. By studying the temporal and spatial variation of these particles near the earth's orbit, their storage and release mechanisms in the solar corona and their propagation mechanism can be understood. The details of the nuclear composition and the rigidity spectrum for each nuclear component of the solar cosmic rays are important for investigating the acceleration mechanism in solar flares. The timing and efficiency of the acceleration process can also be investigated by using this information. These problems are described in some detail by using observational results on solar cosmic rays and associated phenomena. (U.S.)

  3. Elementary particles and high energy phenomena: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumalat, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the research being done at the University of Colorado in High Energy Physics. Topics discussed in this paper are: Charmed Photoproduction; Hadronic Production of Charm Particles; Photoproduction of States Containing Heavy Quarks; Electron-Positron Physics with the MAC Detector at PEP; Electron-Positron Physics with the Upgraded Mark II Detector at SLC; The SLD Detector at SLC; Nonperturbative Studies of QCD; Hadron Phenomenology - Application to Experiment; Perturbative QCD and Weak Matrix Elements; Quarkonium Physics; Supersymmetry, Supergravity, and Superstrings; and Experimental Gravity. 50 refs., 13 figs

  4. Electronic Instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics and Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00452332

    The present dissertation describes design, qualification and operation of several electronic instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics experiments (LHCb) and Neutrino Physics experiments (CUORE and CUPID). Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity and several of its detectors will be redesigned. The RICH detector will require a completely new optoelectronic readout system. The development of such system has already reached an advanced phase, and several tests at particle beam facilities allowed to qualify the performance of the entire system. In order to achieve a higher stability and a better power supply regulation for the front-end chip, a rad-hard low dropout linear regulator, named ALDO, has been developed. Design strategies, performance tests and results from the irradiation campaign are presented. In the Neutrino Physics field, large-scale bolometric detectors, like those adopted by CUORE and its future upgrade CUPID, offer u...

  5. Cryogenic Beam Screens for High-Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Tavian, L; van Weelderen, R

    2013-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key enabling technology for high-energy particle accelerators, thus making them large helium cryogenic systems operating at very low temperature. The circulation of high-intensity particle beams in these machines generates energy deposition in the first wall through different processes. For thermodynamic efficiency, it is advisable to intercept these beam-induced heat loads, which may be large in comparison with cryostat heat in-leaks, at higher temperature than that of the superconducting magnets of the accelerator, by means of beam screens located in the magnet apertures. Beam screens may also be used as part of the ultra-high vacuum system of the accelerator, by sheltering the gas molecules cryopumped on the beam pipe from impinging radiation and thus avoiding pressure runaway. Space being extremely tight in the magnet apertures, cooling of the long, slender beam screens also raises substantial problems in cryogenic heat transfer and fluid flow. We present sizing rule...

  6. High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-03-01

    We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI97. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM is extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation and fission process, we have also implemented a new model, GEM, by which the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus can be described. According to the extension of the applicable energy, we have upgraded the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data by employing new systematics. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field has been implemented for the beam transport calculations. In this upgrade, some new tally functions are added and the format of input of data has been improved very much in a user friendly manner. Due to the implementation of these new calculation functions and utilities, consequently, NMTC/JAM enables us to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than before. This report serves as a user manual of the code. (author)

  7. IceCube: Particle Astrophysics with High Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 7 May 2012 17h. - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg IceCube: Particle Astrophysics with High Energy Neutrinos Prof. Francis Halzen / University of Wisconsin, Madison Construction and commissioning of the cubic-kilometer IceCube neutrino detector and its low energy extension DeepCore have been completed. The instrument detects neutrinos over a wide energy range: from 10 GeV atmospheric neutrinos to 1010 GeV cosmogenic neutrinos. We will discuss initial results based on a subsample of the ~100,000 neutrino events recorded during construction. We will emphasize the first measurement of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino spectrum, the search for the still enigmatic sources of the Galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays and for the particle nature of dark matter. Une ve...

  8. High-energy charged particles in space at one astronomical unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, J.; Gabriel, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    Single-event effects and many other spacecraft anomalies are caused by positively charged high-energy particles impinging on the vehicle and its component parts. Here, the authors review the current knowledge of the interplanetary particle environment in the energy ranges that are most important for these effects. State-of-the-art engineering models are described briefly along with comments on the future work required in this field

  9. New challenges in high-energy particle radiobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Densely ionizing radiation has always been a main topic in radiobiology. In fact, α-particles and neutrons are sources of radiation exposure for the general population and workers in nuclear power plants. More recently, high-energy protons and heavy ions attracted a large interest for two applications: hadrontherapy in oncology and space radiation protection in manned space missions. For many years, studies concentrated on measurements of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the energetic particles for different end points, especially cell killing (for radiotherapy) and carcinogenesis (for late effects). Although more recently, it has been shown that densely ionizing radiation elicits signalling pathways quite distinct from those involved in the cell and tissue response to photons. The response of the microenvironment to charged particles is therefore under scrutiny, and both the damage in the target and non-target tissues are relevant. The role of individual susceptibility in therapy and risk is obviously a major topic in radiation research in general, and for ion radiobiology as well. Particle radiobiology is therefore now entering into a new phase, where beyond RBE, the tissue response is considered. These results may open new applications for both cancer therapy and protection in deep space. PMID:24198199

  10. High energy electromagnetic particle transportation on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canal, P. [Fermilab; Elvira, D. [Fermilab; Jun, S. Y. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, J. [Fermilab; Paterno, M. [Fermilab; Apostolakis, J. [CERN

    2014-01-01

    We present massively parallel high energy electromagnetic particle transportation through a finely segmented detector on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Simulating events of energetic particle decay in a general-purpose high energy physics (HEP) detector requires intensive computing resources, due to the complexity of the geometry as well as physics processes applied to particles copiously produced by primary collisions and secondary interactions. The recent advent of hardware architectures of many-core or accelerated processors provides the variety of concurrent programming models applicable not only for the high performance parallel computing, but also for the conventional computing intensive application such as the HEP detector simulation. The components of our prototype are a transportation process under a non-uniform magnetic field, geometry navigation with a set of solid shapes and materials, electromagnetic physics processes for electrons and photons, and an interface to a framework that dispatches bundles of tracks in a highly vectorized manner optimizing for spatial locality and throughput. Core algorithms and methods are excerpted from the Geant4 toolkit, and are modified and optimized for the GPU application. Program kernels written in C/C++ are designed to be compatible with CUDA and OpenCL and with the aim to be generic enough for easy porting to future programming models and hardware architectures. To improve throughput by overlapping data transfers with kernel execution, multiple CUDA streams are used. Issues with floating point accuracy, random numbers generation, data structure, kernel divergences and register spills are also considered. Performance evaluation for the relative speedup compared to the corresponding sequential execution on CPU is presented as well.

  11. An environment for high energy physics code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisinski, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    As the size and complexity of high energy experiments increase there will be a greater need for better software tools and new programming environments. If these are not commercially available, then we must build them ourselves. This paper describes a prototype programming environment featuring a new type of file system, a ''smart'' editor, and integrated file management tools. This environment was constructed under the IBM VM/SP operating system. It uses the system interpreter, the system editor and the NOMAD2 relational database management system to create a software ''shell'' for the programmer. Some extensions to this environment are explored. (orig.)

  12. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1989--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1990-05-01

    The theoretical and experimental high energy physics program is reviewed, including developments on particle detectors. Among the topics addressed are the following: the CLEO experiment; gamma ray astrophysics; highest-weight representations of affine Kac-Moody algebras; supersymmetric field theories; parity- violating effects and superconductivity in 2 + 1 dimensional supersymmetric QED; neutrino oscillations with applications to solar and supernova neutrinos; a search for the quark-gluon plasma using the Fermilab collider; the Solenoid Detector Collaboration at SSC; the high-resolution vertex chamber at TRISTAN; CP violation in e + e - →φ→K L K S ; deviations from Coulomb's Law; and the electric charge and equations of state of neutron stars

  13. High-Energy Solar Particle Events in Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Thakur, N.

    2015-01-01

    The Sun is already in the declining phase of cycle 24, but the paucity of high-energy solar energetic particle (SEP) events continues with only two ground level enhancement (GLE) events as of March 31, 2015. In an attempt to understand this, we considered all the large SEP events of cycle 24 that occurred until the end of 2014. We compared the properties of the associated CMEs with those in cycle 23. We found that the CME speeds in the sky plane were similar, but almost all those cycle-24 CMEs were halos. A significant fraction of (16%) of the frontside SEP events were associated with eruptive prominence events. CMEs associated with filament eruption events accelerate slowly and attain peak speeds beyond the typical GLE release heights. When we considered only western hemispheric events that had good connectivity to the CME nose, there were only 8 events that could be considered as GLE candidates. One turned out to be the first GLE event of cycle 24 (2012 May 17). In two events, the CMEs were very fast (>2000 km/s) but they were launched into a tenuous medium (high Alfven speed). In the remaining five events, the speeds were well below the typical GLE CME speed (2000 km/s). Furthermore, the CMEs attained their peak speeds beyond the typical heights where GLE particles are released. We conclude that several factors contribute to the low rate of high-energy SEP events in cycle 24: (i) reduced efficiency of shock acceleration (weak heliospheric magnetic field), (ii) poor latitudinal and longitudinal connectivity), and (iii) variation in local ambient conditions (e.g., high Alfven speed).

  14. PREFACE: High Energy Particle Physics Workshop (HEPPW2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Alan S.; Mellado, B.

    2015-10-01

    The motivation for this workshop began with the discovery of the Higgs boson three years ago, and the realisation that many problems remain in particle physics, such as why there is more matter than anti-matter, better determining the still poorly measured parameters of the strong force, explaining possible sources for dark matter, naturalness etc. While the newly discovered Higgs boson seems to be compatible with the Standard Model, current experimental accuracy is far from providing a definitive statement with regards to the nature of this new particle. There is a lot of room for physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge in the exploration of the Higgs boson. Recent measurements in high-energy heavy ion collisions at the LHC have shed light on the complex dynamics that govern high-density quark-gluon interactions. An array of results from the ALICE collaboration have been highlighted in a recent issue of CERN courier. The physics program of high-energy heavy ion collisions promises to further unveil the intricacies of high-density quark-gluon plasma physics. The great topicality of high energy physics research has also seen a rapid increase in the number of researchers in South Africa pursuing such studies, both experimentally through the ATLAS and ALICE colliders at CERN, and theoretically. Young researchers and graduate students largely populate these research groups, with little experience in presenting their work, and few support structures (to their knowledge) to share experiences with. Whilst many schools and workshops have sought to educate these students on the theories and tools they will need to pursue their research, few have provided them with a platform to present their work. As such, this workshop discussed the various projects being pursued by graduate students and young researchers in South Africa, enabling them to develop networks for future collaboration and discussion. The workshop took place at the iThemba Laboratories - North facility, in

  15. Radiation safety aspects of high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiah, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are widely used for various applications in industry, medicine and research. These accelerators are capable of accelerating both ions and electrons over a wide range of energy and subsequently are made to impinge on the target materials. Apart from generating intended reactions in the target, these projectiles can also generate highly penetrating radiations such as gamma rays and neutrons. Over exposure to these radiations will cause deleterious effects on the living beings. Various steps taken to protect workers and general public from these harmful radiations is called radiation safety. The primary objective in establishing permissible values for occupational workers is to keep the radiation worker well below a level at which adverse effects are likely to be observed during one's life time. Another objective is to minimize the incidence of genetic effects for the population as a whole. Today's presentation on radiation safety of accelerators will touch up on the following sub-topics: Types of particle accelerators and their applications; AERB directives on dose limits; Radiation Source term of accelerators; Shielding Design-Use of Transmission curves and Tenth Value layers; Challenges for accelerator health physicists

  16. High energy particles from {gamma}-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waxman, E [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2001-11-15

    A review is presented of the fireball model of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs), and of the production in GRB fireballs of high energy protons and neutrinos. Constraints imposed on the model by recent afterglow observations, which support the association of GRB and ultra-high energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) sources, are discussed. Predictions of the GRB model for UHECR production, which can be tested with planned large area UHECR detectors and with planned high energy neutrino telescopes, are reviewed. (author)

  17. Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-07-30

    This is the final report of a program of research on "Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Interactions at High Energies'' of the High Energy Physics (HEP) group of The Rockefeller University. The research was carried out using the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Three faculty members, two research associates, and two postdoctoral associates participated in this project. At CDF, we studied proton-antiproton collisions at an energy of 1.96 TeV. We focused on diffractive interactions, in which the colliding antiproton loses a small fraction of its momentum, typically less than 1%, while the proton is excited into a high mass state retaining its quantum numbers. The study of such collisions provides insight into the nature of the diffractive exchange, conventionally referred to as Pomeron exchange. In studies of W and Z production, we found results that point to a QCD-based interpretation of the diffractive exchange, as predicted in a data-driven phenomenology developed within the Rockefeller HEP group. At CMS, we worked on diffraction, supersymmetry (SUSY), dark matter, large extra dimensions, and statistical applications to data analysis projects. In diffraction, we extended our CDF studies to higher energies working on two fronts: measurement of the single/double diffraction and of the rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV, and development of a simulation of diffractive processes along the lines of our successful model used at CDF. Working with the PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo simulation authors, we implemented our model as a PYTHIA8-MBR option in PYTHIA8 and used it in our data analysis. Preliminary results indicate good agreement. We searched for SUSY by measuring parameters in the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) and found results which, combined with other experimental constraints and theoretical considerations, indicate

  18. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  19. PREFACE: The EPS High Energy Particle Physics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger

    2008-03-01

    HEPP2007, the EPS High Energy Particle Physics Conference, was held in Manchester from July 19-26 2007. It brought together 580 delegates across the whole subject: from string theorists to detector technologists, from young postgraduate students to senior professors. Geographically they came from the UK, from the rest of Europe, from North America, and from the rest of the world. It covered the whole spectrum of the subject, not only accelerator-based experiments but also its astrophysical and cosmological aspects. The parallel and plenary talks can be found in these proceedings. A key feature of the conference, as always, was the award of the prizes: this year the EPS prize was awarded to Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa for their explanation of CP violation with a 6 quark model—Kobayashi came to accept it in person. The Gribov medal went to Niklas Beisert, the outreach prize to Richard Jacobsson and Charles Timmermans and the Young Physicist prizer to I Furic, G Gomez-Ceballos and S Menzemer. Parallel sessions were held in Manchester University, and plenary talks were held in the Bridgewater Hall in Manchester Town centre, a magnificent modern venue whose positive and co-operative staff enabled the conference to make the most of the impressive surroundings. We were able to put the hall to its proper purpose one evening with a concert by the Fairey Band—one of the distinctive brass bands who form part of the rich musical tradition of the North of England, and came as something new and different to many of the delegates. The conference ran smoothly and successfully, thanks largely to hard work by the local organising committee who devoted a lot of time to planning, producing ideas, and anticipating potential problems. Many of them were not from Manchester itself but from other universities and laboratories in the North of England, so their dedication was especially appreciated. The EPS committee also played a major part, by the selection of plenary

  20. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G

    2012-01-01

    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  1. Relevance of axionlike particles for very-high-energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, Alessandro; Galanti, Giorgio; Roncadelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Several extensions of the standard model and, in particular, superstring theories suggest the existence of axionlike particles (ALPs), which are very light spin-zero bosons with a two-photon coupling. As a consequence, photon-ALP oscillations occur in the presence of an external magnetic field, and ALPs can lead to observable effects on the measured photon spectrum of astrophysical sources. An intriguing situation arises when blazars are observed in the very-high-energy (VHE) band--namely, above 100 GeV--as it is the case with the presently operating Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes H.E.S.S, Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescope, Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a Gamma Ray Observatory in the Outback III, and VERITAS. The extragalactic background light produced by galaxies during cosmic evolution gives rise to a source dimming which becomes important in the VHE band and increases with energy, since hard photons from a blazar scatter off soft extragalactic background light photons thereby disappearing into e + e - pairs. This dimming can be considerably reduced by photon-ALP oscillations, and since they are energy independent the resulting blazar spectra become harder than expected. We consider throughout a scenario first proposed by De Angelis, Roncadelli, and Mansutti in which the above strategy is implemented with photon-ALP oscillations triggered by large-scale magnetic fields, and we systematically investigate its implications for VHE blazars. We find that for ALPs lighter than 5·10 -10 eV the photon survival probability is larger than predicted by conventional physics above a few hundred GeV. Specifically, a boost factor of 10 can easily occur for sources at large distance and large energy, e.g. at 8 TeV for the blazar 1ES 0347-121 at redshift z=0.188. This is a clear-cut prediction which can be tested with the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array and the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment (HAWC) water Cherenkov

  2. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  3. Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending...

  4. Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending...

  5. Particles colliders at the Large High Energy Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we present an elementary introduction to particle accelerators, a basic guide of existing colliders and a description of the large european laboratories devoted to Elementary Particle Physics. This work is a large, corrected and updated version of an article published in: Ciencia-Tecnologia-Medio Ambiente Annual report 1996 Edition el Pais (Author)

  6. Inelastic two composite particle systems scattering at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yushun.

    1986-11-01

    In this paper, by using the collective coordinate of Bohr and phenomenological deformed optical potentials, the scattering amplitudes of two composite particle systems can be obtained and the collective excitation for two composite particle systems in the scattering process is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  7. High energy particle detectors utilizing cryogenic charge storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coon, D; Engels, E Jr; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Yang, Y [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Sopira, M; Papania, R [Westinghouse Research and Development Labs., Monroeville, PA (USA)

    1984-09-15

    The mechanism of cryogenic charge storage as a method of particle detection is reviewed. A description of a simple multielement strip detector operated in this mode is given, and partial results on its operating characteristics presented.

  8. Shutter designed to block high-energy particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnadille, B.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a shutter designed for temporarily closing off an opening formed in the wall of an irradiation room for the passage of a particle beam. A cylindrical metal block can rotate about its axis and occupy two stable positions which are 180 0 from one another. A cylindrical cage closed at its two ends by two circular plates is equipped respectively with eccentric holes for the passage of the particle beam. The block is provided with a longitudinal passage through which there can pass the particle beam and a blind hole or ''pit'' disposed symmetrically to the longitudinal passage and which can block the particle beam according to the positioning of the block by respect with the eccentric holes

  9. Lattice Design in High-energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    This lecture gives an introduction into the design of high-energy storage ring lattices. Applying the formalism that has been established in transverse be am optics, the basic principles of the development of a magnet lattice are explained and the characteristics of the resulting magnet structure are discussed. The periodic assembly of a storage ring cell with its boundary conditions concerning stability and scaling of the beam optics parameters is addressed as well as special lattice insertions such as drifts, mini beta sections, dispersion suppressors, etc. In addition to the exact calculations that are indispensable for a rigorous treatment of the matter, scaling rules are shown and simple rules of thumb are included that enable the lattice designer to do the first estimates and get the basic numbers ‘ on the back of an envelope.

  10. Practical aspects of shielding high-energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA

    1993-09-01

    The experimental basis of shielding design for high-energy accelerators that has been established over the past thirty years is described. Particular emphasis is given to the design of large accelerators constructed underground. The first data obtained from cosmic-ray physics were supplemented by basic nuclear physics. When these data proved insufficient, experiments were carried out and interpreted by several empirical formulae -- the most successful of which has been the Moyer Model. This empirical model has been used successfully to design the shields of most synchrotrons currently in operation, and is still being used in preliminary design and to check the results of neutron transport calculations. Accurate shield designs are needed to reduce external radiation levels during accelerator operations and to minimize environmental impacts such as open-quotes skyshineclose quotes and the production of radioactivity in groundwater. Examples of the cost of minimizing such environmental impacts are given

  11. A practical guide to modern high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to convey an understanding of how particle accelerators work and why they look the way they do. The approach taken is physically intuitive rather than mathematically rigorous. The emphasis is on the description of proton circular accelerators and colliders. Linear accelerators are mentioned only in passing as sources of protons for higher energy rings. Electron accelerators/storage rings and antiproton sources are discussed only by way of brief descriptions of the features which distinguish them from proton accelerators. The basics of how generic accelerators work are discussed, focusing on descriptions of what sets the overall scale, single particle dynamics and stability, and descriptions of the phase space of the particle beam, the information thus presented is then used to go through the exercise of designing a Superconducting Super Collider

  12. Particle production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.

    1985-05-01

    Recent data on the production of pions and strange particles at the Bevalac and Synchrophasotron accelerators are reviewed, covering pion spectra and multiplicity distributions, Λ, K + and K - yields and spectra, and Λ polarization. Emphasis is placed on recent progress in determining the equation of state of compressed fireball nuclear matter from the observed pion yield in central collisions. Further, the information derived from apparent spectral temperatures is critically examined, along with a discussion of thermal and chemical equilibrium attainment in the reactions, as revealed by particle spectra and yields. (orig.)

  13. Fully integrated CMOS pixel detector for high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstraelen, G.; Debusschere, I.; Claeys, C.; Declerck, G.

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of position and energy sensitive, monolithic pixel array with integrated readout electronics is proposed. Special features of the design are a reduction of the number of output channels and of the amount of output data, and the use of transistors on the high resistivity silicon. The number of output channels for the detector array is reduced by handling in parallel a number of pixels, chosen as a function of the time resolution required for the system, and by the use of an address decoder. A further reduction of data is achieved by reading out only those pixels which have been activated. The pixel detector circuit will be realized in a 3 μm p-well CMOS process, which is optimized for the full integration of readout electronics and detector diodes on high resistivity Si. A retrograde well is formed by means of a high energy implantation, followed by the appropriate temperature steps. The optimization of the well shape takes into account the high substrate bias applied during the detector operation. The design is largely based on the use of MOS transistors on the high resistivity silicon itself. These have proven to perform as well as transistors on standard doped substrate. The basic building elements as well as the design strategy of the integrated pixel detector are presented in detail. (orig.)

  14. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied sulfuric acid aerosol nucleation in an atmospheric pressure reaction chamber using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear contribution from ion-induced nucleation and consider this to be the first unambiguous observation of the ion......-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions that resemble the Earth's atmosphere. By comparison with ionization using a gamma source we further show that the nature of the ionizing particles is not important for the ion-induced component of the nucleation. This implies that inexpensive...... ionization sources - as opposed to expensive accelerator beams - can be used for investigations of ion-induced nucleation....

  15. Scattering of high-energy α particles on 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1977-04-01

    Glauber multiple scattering theory is applied to analyse the elastic and inelastic scattering of 1.37 GeV α particles on 12 C. An approach which treats the N-α amplitude at the incident nucleon kinetic energy equal to the α-kinetic energy per particle as the basic interaction is adopted. Using the gaussian model for 4 He to obtain the N-α amplitude in terms of the NN amplitude, it is found that, in general, the experimental data are qualitatively explained. However, large discrepancies in terms of the magnitude of the cross-sections in the small angle region and the positions of the minima in the angular distribution at larger angles are generally present. Effects of the two-body correlations in the projectile as well as in the target are also investigated

  16. Modeling the radar scatter off of high-energy neutrino-induced particle cascades in ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; van Eijndhoven, Nick; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Toscano, Simona; Scholten, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the radar detection method as a probe for high-energy neutrino induced particle cascades in ice. In a previous work we showed that the radar detection techniqe is a promising method to probe the high-energy cosmic neutrino flux above PeV energies. This was done by considering a simplified

  17. Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A., E-mail: beck@llr.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS-IN2P3, Palaiseau 91128 (France); Frederiksen, J.T. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Dérouillat, J. [CEA, Maison de La Simulation, 91400 Saclay (France)

    2016-09-01

    In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation campaigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. In this paper, we compare the results given by different codes and point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. These limitations are illustrated in the context of electron laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The main limitation we identify in state-of-the-art Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes is computational load imbalance. We propose an innovative algorithm to deal with this specific issue as well as milestones towards a modern, accurate high-performance PIC code for high energy particle acceleration.

  18. Scintillating plastic optical fiber radiation detectors in high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bross, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the application of scintillating optical fiber in instrumentation for high energy particle physics. The basic physics of the scintillation process in polymers is discussed first and then we outline the fundamentals of scintillating fiber technology. Fiber performance, optimization, and characterization measurements are given. Detector applications in the areas of particle tracking and particle energy determination are then described. 13 refs., 12 figs

  19. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    The effect of ions in aerosol nucleation is a subject where much remains to be discovered. That ions can enhance nucleation has been shown by theory, observations, and experiments. However, the exact mechanism still remains to be determined. One question is if the nature of the ionization affects...... the nucleation. This is an essential question since many experiments have been performed using radioactive sources that ionize differently than the cosmic rays which are responsible for the majority of atmospheric ionization. Here we report on an experimental study of sulphuric acid aerosol nucleation under near...... atmospheric conditions using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear and significant contribution from ion induced nucleation and consider this to be an unambiguous observation of the ion-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions not far...

  20. High-energy collisions of particles, strings, and branes

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes some 25 years of work on the transplanckian-energy collisions of particles, strings, and branes, seen as a theoretical laboratory for understanding how gravity and quantum mechanics can be consistently combined in string theory. The ultimate aim of the exercise is to understand whether and how a consistent quantization of gravity can solve some longstanding paradoxes, such as the apparent loss of information in the production and decay of black holes at a semiclassical level. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the emergence of General Relativity expectations and in evaluating several kinds of quantum string corrections to them in the weak-gravity regime while keeping unitarity manifest. While some progress has also been made in the strong-gravity/gravitational collapse domain, full control of how unitarity works in that regime is still lacking.

  1. Frontiers of particle beam and high energy density plasma science using pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on “Frontiers of Particle Beam and High Energy Density Plasma Science using Pulse Power Technology” held in November 20-21, 2009 at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected. The papers reflect the present status and resent progress in the experiment and theoretical works on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  2. High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Aleksandrin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover, the particle bursts are observed several hours before strong earthquakes; L-shells of particle bursts and corresponding earthquakes are practically the same. Some features of a seismo-magnetosphere connection model, based on the interaction of electromagnetic emission of seismic origin and radiation belt particles, were considered. Key words. Ionospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; energetic particles, precipitating; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  3. Limiting technologies for particle beams and high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1985-07-01

    Since 1930 the energy of accelerators had grown by an order of magnitude roughly every 7 years. Like all exponential growths, be they human population, the size of computers, or anything else, this eventually will have to come to an end. When will this happen to the growth of the energy of particle accelerators and colliders. Fortunately, as the energy of accelerators has grown the cost per unit energy has decreased almost as fast as has the increase in energy. The result is that while the energy has increased so dramatically the cost per new installation has increased only by roughly an order of magnitude since the 1930's (corrected for inflation), while the number of accelerators operating at the frontier of the field has shrunk. As is shown in the by now familiar Livingston chart this dramatic decrease in cost has been achieved largely by a succession of new technologies, in addition to the more moderate gains in efficiency due to improved design, economies of scale, etc. We are therefore facing two questions: (1) Is there good reason scientifically to maintain the exponential growth, and (2) Are there new technologies in sight which promise continued decreases in unit costs. The answer to the first question is definitely yes; the answer to the second question is maybe

  4. High energy radiation fluences in the ISS-USLab: Ion discrimination and particle abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaconte, Veronica; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; La Tessa, Chiara; Larosa, Marianna; Narici, Livio; Picozza, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    The ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts) detector was used to characterize the radiation environment inside the USLab of the International Space Station (ISS), where it measured the abundances of ions from Be to Fe. We compare the ALTEA results with Alteino results obtained in the PIRS module of the Russian segment of the ISS, and normalize to the high energy Si abundances given by Simpson. These are the first particle spectral measurements, which include ions up to Fe, performed in the USLab. The small differences observed between those made inside the USLab and the Simpson abundances can be attributed to the transport through the spacecraft hull. However, the low abundance of Fe cannot be attributed to only this process.

  5. Emission of high-energy, light particles from intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.; Auble, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    One of the early surprises in examining reaction products from heavy ion reactions at 10 MeV/nucleon and above was the large yield of light particles emitted and the high energies to which the spectra of these particles extended. The interpretation of the origin of the high energy light ions has evolved from a picture of projectile excitation and subsequent evaporation to one of pre-equilibrium (or nonequilibrium) emission. The time scale for particle emission has thus moved from one that occurs following the initial collision to one that occurs at the very early stages of the collision. Research at ORNL on this phenomenon is reviewed

  6. Modelling of prompt losses of high energy charged particles in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillner, Oe.; Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1990-01-01

    A simple analytical expression for the total prompt loss fraction of high energy charged particles in an axisymmetric Tokamak is derived. The results are compared with predictions obtained from numerical simulations and show good agreement. An application is made to sawtooth induced changes in the losses of fusion generated high energy charged particles. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of sawtooth induced profile changes of the background ion densities and temperature as well as to redistribution of particles which have accumulated during the sawtooth rise but are being lost by redistribution at the sawtooth crash. (au)

  7. Providing a computing environment for a high energy physics workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    Although computing facilities have been provided at conferences and workshops remote from the hose institution for some years, the equipment provided has rarely been capable of providing for much more than simple editing and electronic mail over leased lines. This presentation describes the pioneering effort involved by the Computing Department/Division at Fermilab in providing a local computing facility with world-wide networking capability for the Physics at Fermilab in the 1990's workshop held in Breckenridge, Colorado, in August 1989, as well as the enhanced facilities provided for the 1990 Summer Study on High Energy Physics at Snowmass, Colorado, in June/July 1990. Issues discussed include type and sizing of the facilities, advance preparations, shipping, on-site support, as well as an evaluation of the value of the facility to the workshop participants

  8. Numerical analysis of energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Lu Zhongdao

    2004-01-01

    Energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions are calculated with infinite series expansion method and Gauss-Laguerre formulas in numerical integration separately, and the results of these two methods are compared, the higher terms and linear terms in series expansion are also compared. The results show that Gauss-Laguerre formulas is a good method in calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  9. Simulation of high-energy particle production through sausage and kink instabilities in pinched plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruki, Takayuki; Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Masugata, Katsumi; Sakai, Jun-Ichi; Mizuguchi, Yusuke; Makino, Nao; Ito, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    In an experimental plasma, high-energy particles were observed by using a plasma focus device, to obtain energies of a few hundred keV for electrons, up to MeV for ions. In order to study the mechanism of high-energy particle production in pinched plasma discharges, a numerical simulation was introduced. By use of a three-dimensional relativistic and fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, the dynamics of a Z-pinch plasma, thought to be unstable against sausage and kink instabilities, are investigated. In this work, the development of sausage and kink instabilities and subsequent high-energy particle production are shown. In the model used here, cylindrically distributed electrons and ions are driven by an external electric field. The driven particles spontaneously produce a current, which begins to pinch by the Lorentz force. Initially the pinched current is unstable against a sausage instability, and then becomes unstable against a kink instability. As a result high-energy particles are observed

  10. Prediction of high-energy (> 0.3 MeV) substorm-related magnetospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.; Higbie, P.R.; Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements both at 6.6 R/sub E/ and in the plasma sheet (greater than or equal to 18 R/sub E/) show that high energy substorm-accelerated particles occur preferentially when the solar wind speed (V/sub sw/) is high. Virtually no > 0.3 MeV protons, for example, are observed in association with substorms that occur when V/sub sw/ is 700 km/sec. These results suggest that realtime monitoring of interplanetary conditions could allow simple, effective prediction of high energy magnetospheric particle disturbances. 7 references

  11. An empirical model of the high-energy electron environment at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Santacruz, M.; Garrett, H. B.; Evans, R. W.; Jun, I.; Kim, W.; Paranicas, C.; Drozdov, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present an empirical model of the energetic electron environment in Jupiter's magnetosphere that we have named the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron Model version-2 (GIRE2) since it is based on Galileo data from the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD). Inside 8RJ, GIRE2 adopts the previously existing model of Divine and Garrett because this region was well sampled by the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft but poorly covered by Galileo. Outside of 8RJ, the model is based on 10 min averages of Galileo EPD data as well as on measurements from the Geiger Tube Telescope on board the Pioneer spacecraft. In the inner magnetosphere the field configuration is dipolar, while in the outer magnetosphere it presents a disk-like structure. The gradual transition between these two behaviors is centered at about 17RJ. GIRE2 distinguishes between the two different regions characterized by these two magnetic field topologies. Specifically, GIRE2 consists of an inner trapped omnidirectional model between 8 to 17RJ that smoothly joins onto the original Divine and Garrett model inside 8RJ and onto a GIRE2 plasma sheet model at large radial distances. The model provides a complete picture of the high-energy electron environment in the Jovian magnetosphere from ˜1 to 50RJ. The present manuscript describes in great detail the data sets, formulation, and fittings used in the model and provides a discussion of the predicted high-energy electron fluxes as a function of energy and radial distance from the planet.

  12. Biological Effects of Particles with Very High Energy Deposition on Mammalian Cells Utilizing the Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wang, Minli

    2013-01-01

    High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei and secondary protons and neutrons, and secondaries from protons in SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk to astronauts due to induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Experiments with high energy particles mimicking the space environment for estimation of radiation risk are being performed at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL. Experiments with low energy particles comparing to high energy particles of similar LET are of interest for investigation of the role of track structure on biological effects. For this purpose, we report results utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at BNL. The primary objective of our studies is to elucidate the influence of high vs low energy deposition on track structure, delta ray contribution and resulting biological responses. These low energy ions are of special relevance as these energies may occur following absorption through the spacecraft and shielding materials in human tissues and nuclear fragments produced in tissues by high energy protons and neutrons. This study will help to verify the efficiency of these low energy particles and better understand how various cell types respond to them.

  13. Multiple Coulomb scattering of high-energy heavy charged particle beams used in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Ludewigt, B.; Phillips, M.; Curtis, S.; Tobias, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors measured lateral displacement and angular distributions of high-energy heavy charged particles emerging from a target at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory BEVALAC with beams used in radiobiology experiments. Multiple Coulomb scattering occurring in the target material generally spreads the beam laterally and increases its divergence. The apparatus consists of four sets of position-sensitive semiconductor detectors located along the beam line. Each providing two position signals and one energy signal. The difference between the two position signals is used to determine the particle position in one dimension. The two position signals are constrained to add up to the energy deposition signal in order to reject multiple-particle traversals. The vector directions for the incident and emerging particles are reconstructed in three dimensions from their measured coordinated positions. Lateral and angular distributions are reported for beams of high-energy neon, iron and uranium ions incident on targets of aluminum, cooper, lead and water

  14. Introduction to the study of particle accelerators. Atomic, nuclear and high energy physics for engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnecke, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    This book is destined for engineers taking part in the design building and running of nuclear physics and high-energy physics particle accelerators. It starts with some notions on the theory of relativity, analytical and statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. An outline of the properties of atomic nuclei, the collision theory and the elements of gaseous plasma physics is followed by a discussion on elementary particles: characteristic parameters, properties, interactions, classification [fr

  15. Response of spherical gravitational wave antenna modes to high-energy cosmic ray particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr, R M Marinho; Magalhaes, N S; Aguiar, O D; Frajuca, C

    2002-01-01

    High-energy cosmic ray particles are expected to be a significant source of noise in resonant mass gravitational wave detectors close to the quantum limit. The spherical, fourth generation antennas have been designed to attain such a limit. In this work we will show how the energy of a cosmic ray particle interacting with such an antenna is distributed over its eigenmodes. We will then make some comments on the relevant consequences of such a distribution for gravitational wave detection

  16. Response of spherical gravitational wave antenna modes to high-energy cosmic ray particles

    CERN Document Server

    Marinho, R M; Aguiar, O D; Frajuca, C

    2002-01-01

    High-energy cosmic ray particles are expected to be a significant source of noise in resonant mass gravitational wave detectors close to the quantum limit. The spherical, fourth generation antennas have been designed to attain such a limit. In this work we will show how the energy of a cosmic ray particle interacting with such an antenna is distributed over its eigenmodes. We will then make some comments on the relevant consequences of such a distribution for gravitational wave detection.

  17. Higgs radiation off top particles in high-energy e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouadi, A.; Technische Hochschule Aachen; Kalinowski, J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1991-10-01

    Higgs particles can be radiated off heavy top quarks which will be produced copiously in high energy e + e - colliders. This process can be used to measure the Higgs-top quark coupling. We present the cross section for the production of Higgs bosons in the Standard Model. In addition we have studied the production of neutral and charged Higgs particles in association with heavy fermions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. (orig.)

  18. Overview of lunar detection of ultra-high energy particles and new plans for the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Clancy W.; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Bray, Justin D.; Buitink, Stijn; Dagkesamanskii, Rustam D.; Ekers, Ronald D.; Falcke, Heino; Gayley, Ken; Huege, Tim; Mevius, Maaijke; Mutel, Rob; Scholten, Olaf; Spencer, Ralph; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The lunar technique is a method for maximising the collection area for ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic ray and neutrino searches. The method uses either ground-based radio telescopes or lunar orbiters to search for Askaryan emission from particles cascading near the lunar surface. While experiments

  19. Measurement methods for high energy particle identification in gaseous mixture detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Patrick.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, we discuss some methods for high energy particle identification. We study and design a MWPC equipped with a preamplifier gap for increased resolution. In addition, we propose a new mehod of counting primary collisions. The electronic system used for multiplexing analog wire signals is also described [fr

  20. Study on the forward-feed neural network used for the classification of high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Guangxuan; Dai Guiliang

    1997-01-01

    Neural network has been applied in the field of high energy physics experiment for the classification of particles and gained good results. The author emphasizes the systematic analysis of the fundamental principle of the forward-feed neural network and discusses the problems and solving methods in application

  1. Long-Pulse Operation and High-Energy Particle Confinement Study in ICRF Heating of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutoh, Takashi; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Seki, Tetsuo

    2004-01-01

    Long-pulse operation and high-energy particle confinement properties were studied using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating for the Large Helical Device. For the minority-ion mode, ions with energies up to 500 keV were observed by concentrating the ICRF heating power near the plasma axis. The confinement of high-energy particles was studied using the power-modulation technique. This confirmed that the confinement of high-energy particles was better with the inward-shifted configuration than with the normal configuration. This behavior was the same for bulk plasma confinement. Long-pulse operation for more than 2 min was achieved during the experimental program in 2002. This was mainly due to better confinement of the helically trapped particles and accumulation of fewer impurities in the region of the plasma core, in conjunction with substantial hardware improvements. Currently, the plasma operation time is limited by an unexpected density rise due to outgassing from the chamber materials. The temperature of the local carbon plates of the divertor exceeded 400 deg, C, and a charge-coupled device camera observed the hot spots. The hot spot pattern was well explained by a calculation of the accelerated-particle orbits, and those accelerated particles came from outside the plasma near the ICRF antenna

  2. Collective processes in a tokamak with high-energy particles: general problems of the linear theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Some general problems of the theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions are considered. It is assumed that such ions are due to either ionization of fast neutral atoms, injected into the tokamak, or production of them under thermo-nuclear conditions. Small-oscillation equations are derived for the Alfven-type waves, which allow for both destabilizing effects, associated with the high-energy particles, and stabilizing ones, such as effects of shear and bulk-plasm dissipation. A high-energy ion contribution is calculated into the growth rate of the Alfven waves. The author considers the role of trapped-electron collisional dissipation

  3. PAMELA’S MEASUREMENTS OF MAGNETOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON HIGH-ENERGY SOLAR PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Barbarino, G. C. [Department of Physics, University of Naples “Federico II,” I-80126 Naples (Italy); Bazilevskaya, G. A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RU-119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bellotti, R.; Bruno, A. [University of Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Carbone, R. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bogomolov, E. A. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RU-194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bottai, S. [INFN, Sezione di Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Bravar, U. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Cafagna, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Campana, D. [INFN, Sezione di Naples, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Carlson, P. [KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Casolino, M.; De Donato, C. [INFN, Sezione di Rome “Tor Vergata,” I-00133 Rome (Italy); Castellini, G. [IFAC, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Christian, E. R.; Nolfo, G. A. de, E-mail: georgia.a.denolfo@nasa.gov [Heliophysics Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); and others

    2015-03-01

    The nature of particle acceleration at the Sun, whether through flare reconnection processes or through shocks driven by coronal mass ejections, is still under scrutiny despite decades of research. The measured properties of solar energetic particles (SEPs) have long been modeled in different particle-acceleration scenarios. The challenge has been to disentangle the effects of transport from those of acceleration. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument enables unique observations of SEPs including the composition and angular distribution of the particles about the magnetic field, i.e., pitch angle distribution, over a broad energy range (>80 MeV)—bridging a critical gap between space-based and ground-based measurements. We present high-energy SEP data from PAMELA acquired during the 2012 May 17 SEP event. These data exhibit differential anisotropies and thus transport features over the instrument rigidity range. SEP protons exhibit two distinct pitch angle distributions: a low-energy population that extends to 90° and a population that is beamed at high energies (>1 GeV), consistent with neutron monitor measurements. To explain a low-energy SEP population that exhibits significant scattering or redistribution accompanied by a high-energy population that reaches the Earth relatively unaffected by dispersive transport effects, we postulate that the scattering or redistribution takes place locally. We believe that these are the first comprehensive measurements of the effects of solar energetic particle transport in the Earth’s magnetosheath.

  4. Development of High Energy Particle Detector for the Study of Space Radiation Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Bok Jo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Next Generation Small Satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1 is scheduled to launch in 2017 and Instruments for the Study of Space Storm (ISSS is planned to be onboard the NEXTSat-1. High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD is one of the equipment comprising ISSS and the main objective of HEPD is to measure the high energy particles streaming into the Earth radiation belt during the event of a space storm, especially, electrons and protons, to obtain the flux information of those particles. For the design of HEPD, the Geometrical Factor was calculated to be 0.05 to be consistent with the targets of measurement and the structure of telescope with field of view of 33.4° was designed using this factor. In order to decide the thickness of the detector sensor and the classification of the detection channels, a simulation was performed using GEANT4. Based on the simulation results, two silicon detectors with 1 mm thickness were selected and the aluminum foil of 0.05 mm is placed right in front of the silicon detectors to shield low energy particles. The detection channels are divided into an electron channel and two proton channels based on the measured LET of the particle. If the measured LET is less than 0.8 MeV, the particle belongs to the electron channel, otherwise it belongs to proton channels. HEPD is installed in the direction of 0°,45°,90° against the along-track of a satellite to enable the efficient measurement of high energy particles. HEPD detects electrons with the energy of 0.1 MeV to several MeV and protons with the energy of more than a few MeV. Thus, the study on the dynamic mechanism of these particles in the Earth radiation belt will be performed.

  5. Cryogenics for high-energy particle accelerators: highlights from the first fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067931

    2017-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key technology for high-energy particle accelerators, allowing to reach higher beam energy while containing size, capital expenditure and operating costs. Large and powerful cryogenic systems are therefore ancillary to low-temperature superconducting accelerator devices – magnets and high-frequency cavities – distributed over multi-kilometre distances and operating generally close to the normal boiling point of helium, but also above 4.2 K in supercritical and down to below 2 K in superfluid. Additionally, low-temperature operation in accelerators may also be required by considerations of ultra-high vacuum, limited stored energy and beam stability. We discuss the rationale for cryogenics in high-energy particle accelerators, review its development over the past half-century and present its outlook in future large projects, with reference to the main engineering domains of cryostat design and heat loads, cooling schemes, efficient power refrigeration and cryogenic flu...

  6. Feigenbaum scenario for turbulence and Cantorian E-infinity theory of high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The work draws some fundamental connections between Feigenbaum's golden mean renormalization group and scenario for turbulence on the one side and high energy particle physics on the other side. The analysis which is based on the natural and obvious connections between the Fibonacci-like geometrical growth rate of ε (∞) spacetime and Feigenbaum's renormalization gives vital information to basic questions not only of quantum geometry, but also of quantum field theory

  7. Shocks from high-energy nuclear-interacting particles in the mountain Chakaltajya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    Experimental investigations of extensive air showers at the height of 5200 m above the sea level have been performed. The behaviour of high energy nuclear active particles in the cores of the showers has been studied using the nuclear knock-on method. The cross section of the proton inelastic interaction with the air is shown to increase with energy in the energy range of 3-9 TeV.

  8. HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLES FLUX ORIGIN IN THE CLOUDS, DARK LIGHTNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem of high-energy particles flux origin in clouds is discussed. Conditions in which dark lightning preceding the ordinary one and creating additional ionization, fluxes of fast electrons with MeV energy prior to the earthquake detected among lightning initiating ball-lightning, glow, sprites are considered. All above phenomena appear to be of general nature founded on quantum entanglement of hydrogen bonds protons in water clasters inside clouds.

  9. Gas-liquid transition in the model of particles interacting at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    2013-01-01

    An application of the ideas of the inertial confinement fusion process in the case of particles interacting at high energy is investigated. A possibility of the gas-liquid transition in the gas is considered using different approaches. In particular, a shock wave description of interactions between particles is studied and a self-similar solution of Euler's equation is discussed. Additionally, the Boltzmann equation is solved for a self-consistent field (Vlasov's equation) in the linear approximation for the case of a gas under external pressure and the corresponding change of the Knudsen number of the system is calculated. (orig.)

  10. [High energy particle physics]: Task A, High energy physics program: Experiment and theory; Task B, High energy physics program: Numerical simulation of quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannutti, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following research: fixed target experiments; collider experiments; computing, networking and VAX upgrade; SSC preparation, detector development and detector construction; solid argon calorimetry; absorption of CAD system geometries into GEANT for SSC; and particle theory programs

  11. DYNECHARM++: a toolkit to simulate coherent interactions of high-energy charged particles in complex structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagli, Enrico; Guidi, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    A toolkit for the simulation of coherent interactions between high-energy charged particles and complex crystal structures, called DYNECHARM++ has been developed. The code has been written in C++ language taking advantage of this object-oriented programing method. The code is capable to evaluating the electrical characteristics of complex atomic structures and to simulate and track the particle trajectory within them. Calculation method of electrical characteristics based on their expansion in Fourier series has been adopted. Two different approaches to simulate the interaction have been adopted, relying on the full integration of particle trajectories under the continuum potential approximation and on the definition of cross-sections of coherent processes. Finally, the code has proved to reproduce experimental results and to simulate interaction of charged particles with complex structures.

  12. Production and supply of radioisotopes with high-energy particle accelerators current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    Although the production of radioisotopes in reactors or in low to medium energy cyclotrons appears to be relatively well established, especially for those isotopes that are routinely used and have a commercial market, certain isotopes can either be made only in high-energy particle accelerators or their production is more cost effective when made this way. These facilities are extremely expensive to build and operate, and isotope production is, in general, either not cost-effective or is in conflict with their primary mandate or missions which involve physics research. Isotope production using high-energy accelerators in the US, therefore, has been only an intermittent and parasitic activity. However, since a number of isotopes produced at higher energies are emerging as being potentially useful for medical and other applications, there is a renewed concern about their availability in a continuous and reliable fashion. In the US, in particular, the various aspects of the prediction and availability of radioisotopes from high-energy accelerators are presently undergoing a detailed scrutiny and review by various scientific and professional organizations as well as the Government. A number of new factors has complicated the supply/demand equation. These include considerations of cost versus needs, reliability factors, mission orientation, research and educational components, and commercial viability. This paper will focus on the present status and projected needs of radioisotope production with high-energy accelerators in the US, and will compare and examine the existing infrastructure in other countries for this purpose

  13. Ab-initio Pulsar Magnetosphere: Particle Acceleration in Oblique Rotators and High-energy Emission Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    We perform global particle-in-cell simulations of pulsar magnetospheres, including pair production, ion extraction from the surface, frame-dragging corrections, and high-energy photon emission and propagation. In the case of oblique rotators, the effects of general relativity increase the fraction of the open field lines that support active pair discharge. We find that the plasma density and particle energy flux in the pulsar wind are highly non-uniform with latitude. A significant fraction of the outgoing particle energy flux is carried by energetic ions, which are extracted from the stellar surface. Their energies may extend up to a large fraction of the open field line voltage, making them interesting candidates for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. We show that pulsar gamma-ray radiation is dominated by synchrotron emission, produced by particles that are energized by relativistic magnetic reconnection close to the Y-point and in the equatorial current sheet. In most cases, the calculated light curves contain two strong peaks, which is in general agreement with Fermi observations. The radiative efficiency decreases with increasing pulsar inclination and increasing efficiency of pair production in the current sheet, which explains the observed scatter in L γ versus \\dot{E}. We find that the high-frequency cutoff in the spectra is regulated by the pair-loading of the current sheet. Our findings lay the foundation for quantitative interpretation of Fermi observations of gamma-ray pulsars.

  14. Application of the non-extensive statistical approach to high energy particle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Gábor; Barnaföldi, Gergely Gábor; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Ürmössy, Károly

    2017-06-01

    In high-energy collisions the number of created particles is far less than the thermodynamic limit, especially in small colliding systems (e.g. proton-proton). Therefore final-state effects and fluctuations in the one-particle energy distribution are appreciable. As a consequence the characterization of identified hadron spectra with the Boltzmann - Gibbs thermodynamical approach is insuffcient [1]. Instead particle spectra measured in high-energy collisions can be described very well with Tsallis -Pareto distributions, derived from non-extensive thermodynamics [2, 3]. Using the Tsallis q-entropy formula, a generalization of the Boltzmann - Gibbs entropy, we interpret the microscopic physics by analysing the Tsallis q and T parameters. In this paper we give a quick overview on these parameters, analyzing identified hadron spectra from recent years in a wide center-of-mass energy range. We demonstrate that the fitted Tsallis-parameters show dependency on the center-of-mass energy and particle species. Our findings are described well by a QCD inspired evolution ansatz. Based on this comprehensive study, apart from the evolution, both mesonic and barionic components found to be non-extensive (q > 1), beside the mass ordered hierarchy observed in parameter T.

  15. Configuration of particle drain for the high energy charged particles in the magnetic dipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirkhanov, I.V.; Zhidkov, E.P.; Ignatov, V.V.; Il'ina, A.N.; Il'in, V.D.; Kuznetsov, S.N.; Yushkov, B.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    The boundary of particle leakage from the magnetic dipole trap depending on the value of adiabatic parameter is investigated. By trajectory computation a generalized analytical expression is determined for the shape of particle drain by x ≤ 1. It is shown that generally accepted adiabatic loss cone is a particular case of x → 0

  16. Axion-like particles: possible hints and constraints from the high-energy Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The high-energy Universe is potentially a great laboratory for searching new light bosons such as axion-like particles (ALPs). Cosmic sources are indeed the scene of violent phenomena that involve strong magnetic field and/or very long baselines, where the effects of the mixing of photons with ALPs could lead to observable effects. Two examples are archetypal of this fact, that are the Universe opacity to gamma-rays and the imprints of astrophysical magnetic turbulence in the energy spectra of high-energy sources. In the first case, hints for the existence of ALPs can be proposed whereas the second one is used to put constraints on the ALP mass and coupling to photons

  17. Production and supply of radioisotopes with high-energy particle accelerators current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    Although the production of radioisotopes in reactors or in low to medium energy cyclotrons appears to be relatively well established, certain isotopes can either be made only in high-energy particle accelerators or their production is more cost effective when made this way. These facilities are extremely expensive to build and operate, and isotope production is, in general, either not cost-effective or is in conflict with their primary mandate or missions which involve physics research. Isotope production using high-energy accelerators in the U.S., therefore, has been only an intermittent and parasitic activity. However, since a number of isotopes produced at higher energies are emerging as being potentially useful for medical and other applications, there is a renewed concern about their availability in a continuous and reliable fashion. In the U.S., in particular, the various aspects of the production and availability of radioisotopes from high-energy accelerators are presently undergoing a detailed scrutiny and review by various scientific and professional organizations as well as the Government. A number of new factors has complicated the supply/demand equation. These include considerations of cost versus needs, reliability factors, mission orientation, research and educational components, and commercial viability. This paper will focus on the present status and projected needs of radioisotope production with high-energy accelerators in the U.S., and will compare and examine the existing infrastructure in other countries for this purpose. The nature of the U.S. decisions to address many of the above-mentioned issues and an eventual plan of attack to resolve them are bound to have a world-wide impact in the radioisotope user communities. These will be discussed with a view to evaluating the best possible solutions in order to eliminate the shortage in the future supply of radioisotopes produced in high energy accelerators. (author)

  18. Study of a charge-coupled device for high-energy-particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.H.

    1983-05-01

    This presentation is based on measurements made to evaluate the application of charge-coupled devices as detectors of high-energy particles. The experiment was performed with a Fairchild Linear 256-Cell CCD111 array (size 8μm x 17 μm/cell), utilizing a light source instead of a particle beam. It was observed that the minimum detectable signal was limited to approx. 488 electrons at -50 0 C, where the readout and exposure times were about 260 ms and 400 ms respectively. The transfer inefficiency of the CCD111 was determined to be approx. 10 -4 . It has been concluded that at a lower temperature (approx. -100 0 C) or with faster readout (approx. 10 ms), the CCD111 would be able to detect the total deposited energy of minimum-ionizing charged particles

  19. Hands on CERN an education project on the Internet using real high energy particle collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, E K

    1999-01-01

    An educational project primarily aimed at teachers and 15 to 18 year- old students describing the essential features of a modern high energy physics experiment has been created. The whole education package is available on the Internet. It gives a detailed description of the physics processes involved and the Standard Model of Microcosm. Real particle collisions produced with the facilities at the European particle physics laboratory (CERN) are displayed using the platform-independent programming language Java, enabling interaction with the user. The project has been used by several groups of teachers and students, and has increased their knowledge of, and interest in, particle physics. This project complements the traditional physics education and introduces students to contemporary fundamental physics. (7 refs).

  20. On the efficiency of high-energy particle identification statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingaryan, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to analyze the statistical methods of making decisions on the high-energy particle identification. The Bayesian approach is shown to provide the most complete account of the primary discriminative information between the particles of various tupes. It does not impose rigid requirements on the density form of the probability function and ensures the account of the a priori information as compared with the Neyman-Pearson approach, the mimimax technique and the heristic rules of the decision limits construction in the variant region of the specially chosen parameter. The methods based on the concept of the nearest neighbourhood are shown to be the most effective one among the local methods of the probability function density estimation. The probability distances between the training sample classes are suggested to make a decision on selecting the high-energy particle detector optimal parameters. The method proposed and the software constructed are tested on the problem of the cosmic radiation hadron identification by means of transition radiation detectors (the ''PION'' experiment)

  1. Probing the stability of superheavy dark matter particles with high-energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Arman; Peres, O.L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There is currently mounting evidence for the existence of dark matter in our Universe from various astrophysical and cosmological observations, but the two of the most fundamental properties of the dark matter particle, the mass and the lifetime, are only weakly constrained by the astronomical and cosmological evidence of dark matter. We derive lower limits on the lifetime of dark matter particles with masses in the range 10 TeV - 10 18 GeV from the non-observation of ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the AMANDA, IceCube, Auger and ANITA experiments. All these experiments probe different energy windows and perfectly complement each other. For dark matter particles which produce neutrinos in a two body or a three body decay, we find that the dark matter lifetime must be longer than ∼ 10 26 s for masses between 10 TeV and the Grand Unification scale. We will consider various scenarios where the decay of the dark matter particle produces high energy neutrinos. Neutrinos travel in the Universe without suffering an appreciable attenuation, even for EeV neutrinos, in contrast to photons which rapidly lose their energy via pair production. This remarkable property makes neutrinos a very suitable messenger to constrain the lifetime of superheavy dark matter particles. Finally, we also calculate, for concrete particle physics scenarios, the limits on the strength of the interactions that induce the dark matter decay. (author)

  2. Searching for squeezed particle-antiparticle correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, Sandra S.; Socolowski, O. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Squeezed correlations of particle-antiparticle pairs were predicted to exist if the hadron masses were modified in the hot and dense medium formed in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Although well-established theoretically, they have not yet been observed experimentally. We suggest here a clear method to search for such a signal by analyzing the squeezed correlation functions in terms of measurable quantities. We illustrate this suggestion for simulated φφ pairs at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies.

  3. New directions in elementary particle physics: p anti p from very low to very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1979-01-01

    The review covers low energy anti pp physics including annihilation processes, the spectroscopy of baryonium states, quasinuclear states and their relation to baryonium, the spectroscopy of protonium, and access to the whole charmonium family. High energy anti pp physics is reviewed covering total cross section rise, the common shape of cross sections, real part of forward amplitude, particle production, quantum number excitation, high transverse momentum, and high mass lepton pair. Also reviewed are the search for the weak bosons, hadron physics at collider energies, and the anti pp collider program. 47 references

  4. Neural nets with varying topology for high energy particle recognition. Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, A.L.; Basti, G.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Picozza, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a strategy to solve the problem of parallel compuation based on a dynamic definition of the net topology showing its effectiveness for problems of particle track recognition in high-energy physics. In this way, we can maintain the linear architecture like in the geometric perceptron, but with a partial and dynamic connectivity so to overcome the intrinsic limiations of the geometric perceptron. Namely, the computation is truly parallel because of the partial connectivity but the net topology is always the optimal one because of its dynamic redefinition on the single input pattern. For these properties, we call this new architecture dynamic perceptron

  5. Particle production in high energy nucleus--nucleus experiments at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1976-09-01

    A review of high energy nucleus-nucleus experiments performed at the Berkeley Bevalac is presented. Earlier results on projectile and target fragmentation and pion production are briefly summarized. More recent results on Coulomb effects in projectile fragmentation, heavy ion total cross-sections, γ-ray production, and charged particle multiplicities are presented. Also, recent experiments which may shed light on phenomena arising from the central collision of two energetic nuclei, including recent evidence for and against the observation of nuclear shock waves, are reviewed

  6. Scattering of massless vector, tensor, and other particles in string theory at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, E.N.

    1990-01-01

    The 2 → 2 and 2 → 3 processes are studied in the multi-Regge kinematics for gluons and gravitons, the first excited states of the open and closed strings. The factorization of the corresponding amplitudes is demonstrated. Explicit relations generalizing the Low-Gribov expressions are obtained in the kinematics where one of the external particles is produced with small transverse momentum. The expressions in the limit α' → 0 coincide with the results of Yang-Mills theory and gravitation at high energies

  7. Charged-particle mutagenesis 2. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 sq micrometer and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(exp -3) sq micrometer respectively. The maximum values were obtained by Fe-56 with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(exp -5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  8. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 micrometer2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(-3) micrometer2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(-5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  9. Why is solar cycle 24 an inefficient producer of high-energy particle events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Rami; Raukunen, Osku; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.; Afanasiev, Alexandr

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the reason for the low productivity of high-energy SEPs in the present solar cycle. Methods: We employ scaling laws derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory and simulation studies including proton-generated upstream Alfvén waves to find out how the changes observed in the long-term average properties of the erupting and ambient coronal and/or solar wind plasma would affect the ability of shocks to accelerate particles to the highest energies. Results: Provided that self-generated turbulence dominates particle transport around coronal shocks, it is found that the most crucial factors controlling the diffusive shock acceleration process are the number density of seed particles and the plasma density of the ambient medium. Assuming that suprathermal populations provide a fraction of the particles injected to shock acceleration in the corona, we show that the lack of most energetic particle events as well as the lack of low charge-to-mass ratio ion species in the present cycle can be understood as a result of the reduction of average coronal plasma and suprathermal densities in the present cycle over the previous one.

  10. Annotated references on shielding experiment and calculation of high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T.

    1990-12-01

    The literature on shielding experiment and calculation of high energy particles above 20 MeV has been surveyed. The survey covers thirteen journals, from 1965 up to 1989. For each paper, applicable information is listed on type and energy of the projectile, the accelerator used, composition and thickness of the target and shielding materials, shielding geometry, the experimental and calculational methods, and the quantities obtained. The references on shielding experiment and on shielding calculation are accessed through two indices which list the projectile-target and shielding material combination, shielding geometry and the projectile energy range. The literature on neutron, photon and hadron production from thick target bombarded by charged particles has been surveyed mainly from 1984 as a complement of the previous work. (author)

  11. Theoretical aspects of some collective instabilities in high-energy particle storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, F.

    1986-01-01

    After an introduction to single-particle dynamics, based on a unified Hamiltonian treatment of betatron and synchrotron oscillations, we consider two examples of collective instabilities which can limit the performances of high-energy storage rings: the transverse mode coupling instability, due to wake fields, and the incoherent beam-beam instability. Special emphasis is placed on the localization of the interactions between particles and surrounding structures, such as the accelerating RF cavities. We derive an exact invariant for the linearized synchrotron motion and, starting from the Vlasov equation, we discuss the coherent synchro-betatron resonances caused by localized impedance. Under suitable assumptions, we show that the effect of the beam-beam kicks in electron-positron machines can be described by new diffusive terms in a ''renormalized'' Fokker-Planck equation and is therefore equivalent to an additional source of noise for the betatron oscillations. (orig.)

  12. Particle size of radioactive aerosols generated during machine operation in high-energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kanda, Yukio; Kondo, Kenjiro; Endo, Akira

    2000-01-01

    In high-energy accelerators, non-radioactive aerosols are abundantly generated due to high radiation doses during machine operation. Under such a condition, radioactive atoms, which are produced through various nuclear reactions in the air of accelerator tunnels, form radioactive aerosols. These aerosols might be inhaled by workers who enter the tunnel just after the beam stop. Their particle size is very important information for estimation of internal exposure doses. In this work, focusing on typical radionuclides such as 7 Be and 24 Na, their particle size distributions are studied. An aluminum chamber was placed in the EP2 beam line of the 12-GeV proton synchrotron at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). Aerosol-free air was introduced to the chamber, and aerosols formed in the chamber were sampled during machine operation. A screen-type diffusion battery was employed in the aerosol-size analysis. Assuming that the aerosols have log-normal size distributions, their size distributions were obtained from the radioactivity concentrations at the entrance and exit of the diffusion battery. Radioactivity of the aerosols was measured with Ge detector system, and concentrations of non-radioactive aerosols were obtained using condensation particle counter (CPC). The aerosol size (radius) for 7 Be and 24 Na was found to be 0.01-0.04 μm, and was always larger than that for non-radioactive aerosols. The concentration of non-radioactive aerosols was found to be 10 6 - 10 7 particles/cm 3 . The size for radioactive aerosols was much smaller than ordinary atmospheric aerosols. Internal doses due to inhalation of the radioactive aerosols were estimated, based on the respiratory tract model of ICRP Pub. 66. (author)

  13. Particle accelerator physics and technology for high energy density physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Blazevic, A.; Rosmej, O.N.; Spiller, P.; Tahir, N.A.; Weyrich, K. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, GSI-Darmstadt, Plasmaphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dafni, T.; Kuster, M.; Ni, P.; Roth, M.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D. [Darmstadt Univ., Institut fur Kernphysik, Technische Schlobgartenstr. 9 (Germany); Jacoby, J. [Frankfurt Univ., Institut fur Angewandte Physik (Germany); Kain, V.; Schmidt, R.; Zioutas, K. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneve (Switzerland); Zioutas, K. [Patras Univ., Dept. of Physics (Greece); Mintsev, V.; Fortov, V.E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Sharkov, B.Y. [Institut for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-15

    Interaction phenomena of intense ion- and laser radiation with matter have a large range of application in different fields of science, extending from basic research of plasma properties to applications in energy science, especially in inertial fusion. The heavy ion synchrotron at GSI now routinely delivers intense uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Our simulations show that the new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. A natural example of hot dense plasma is provided by our neighbouring star the sun, and allows a deep insight into the physics of fusion, the properties of matter at high energy density, and is moreover an excellent laboratory for astro-particle physics. As such the sun's interior plasma can even be used to probe the existence of novel particles and dark matter candidates. We present an overview on recent results and developments of dense plasma physics addressed with heavy ion and laser beams combined with accelerator- and nuclear physics technology. (authors)

  14. Investigation of rare particle production in high energy nuclear collisions. Progress report, December 15, 1997--December 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.

    1998-01-01

    The program is an investigation of the hadronization process through experimental measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. These interactions provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. The authors are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. They have completed the first physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. They have prototyped the STAR trigger and are in the process of fabricating its components and installing them in the STAR detector

  15. EVOLUTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION IN MATURE SHELL-TYPE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Houdun; Xin, Yuliang; Liu, Siming; Zhang, Shuinai [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Jokipii, J. R. [University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721 (United States); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhd@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2017-01-10

    Multi-wavelength observations of mature supernova remnants (SNRs), especially with recent advances in γ -ray astronomy, make it possible to constrain energy distribution of energetic particles within these remnants. In consideration of the SNR origin of Galactic cosmic rays and physics related to particle acceleration and radiative processes, we use a simple one-zone model to fit the nonthermal emission spectra of three shell-type SNRs located within 2° on the sky: RX J1713.7−3946, CTB 37B, and CTB 37A. Although radio images of these three sources all show a shell (or half-shell) structure, their radio, X-ray, and γ -ray spectra are quite different, offering an ideal case to explore evolution of energetic particle distribution in SNRs. Our spectral fitting shows that (1) the particle distribution becomes harder with aging of these SNRs, implying a continuous acceleration process, and the particle distributions of CTB 37A and CTB 37B in the GeV range are harder than the hardest distribution that can be produced at a shock via the linear diffusive shock particle acceleration process, so spatial transport may play a role; (2) the energy loss timescale of electrons at the high-energy cutoff due to synchrotron radiation appears to be always a bit (within a factor of a few) shorter than the age of the corresponding remnant, which also requires continuous particle acceleration; (3) double power-law distributions are needed to fit the spectra of CTB 37B and CTB 37A, which may be attributed to shock interaction with molecular clouds.

  16. HEPD on NEXTSat-1: A High Energy Particle Detector for Measurements of Precipitating Radiation Belt Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jongdae; Lee, Jaejin; Min, Kyoungwook; Lee, Junchan; Lee, Seunguk; Lee, Daeyoung; Jo, Gyeongbok; Yi, Yu; Na, Gowoon; Kang, Kyung-In; Shin, Goo-Hwan

    2018-05-01

    Radiation belt particles of the inner magnetosphere precipitate into the atmosphere in the subauroral regions when they are pitch-angle scattered into the loss cone by wave-particle interactions. Such particle precipitations are known to be especially enhanced during space storms, though they can also occur during quiet times. The observed characteristics of precipitating electrons can be distinctively different, in their time series as well as in their spectra, depending on the waves involved. The present paper describes the High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD) on board the Next Generation Small Satellite-1 (NEXTSat-1), which will measure these radiation belt electrons from a low-Earth polar orbit satellite to study the mechanisms related to electron precipitation in the sub-auroral regions. The HEPD is based on silicon barrier detectors and consists of three telescopes that are mounted on the satellite to have angles of 0°. 45°, and 90°, respectively with the local geomagnetic field during observations. With a high time resolution of 32 Hz and a high spectral resolution of 11 channels over the energy range from 350 keV to 2 MeV, together with the pitch angle information provided by the three telescopes, HEPD is capable of identifying physical processes, such as microbursts and dust-side relativistic electron precipitation (DREP) events associated with electron precipitations. NextSat-1 is scheduled for launch in early 2018.

  17. Elementary Particle Physics and High Energy Phenomena: Final Report for FY2010-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumalat, John P.; de Alwis, Senarath P.; DeGrand, Thomas A.; DeWolfe, Oliver; Ford, William T.; Hasenfratz, Anna; Mahanthappa, K. T.; Marino, Alysia D.; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James G.; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen R.; Zimmerman, Eric D.

    2013-06-27

    The work under this grant consists of experimental, theoretical, and phenomenological research on the fundamental properties of high energy subnuclear particles. The work is conducted at the University of Colorado, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and other facilities, employing neutrino-beam experiments, test beams of various particles, and proton-proton collider experiments. It emphasizes mass generation and symmetry-breaking, neutrino oscillations, bottom particle production and decay, detector development, supergravity, supersymmetry, superstrings, quantum chromodynamics, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, cosmology, phase transitions, lattice gauge theory, and anomaly-free theories. The goals are to improve our understanding of the basic building blocks of matter and their interactions. Data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN have revealed new interactions responsible for particle mass, and perhaps will lead to a more unified picture of the forces among elementary material constituents. To this end our research includes searches for manifestations of theories such as supersymmetry and new gauge bosons, as well as the production and decay of heavy-flavored quarks. Our current work at J-PARC, and future work at new facilities currently under conceptual design, investigate the specifics of how the neutrinos change flavor. The research is integrated with the training of students at all university levels, benefiting both the manpower and intellectual base for future technologies.

  18. N-type doping of InGaN by high energy particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA, 94720 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    This article reviews our extensive studies of the effects of native defects introduced by high energy particles on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN alloys. We show that the electronic properties of irradiated InGaN can be well described by the amphoteric defect model. Because of the extremely low position of the conduction band edge of InN the formation energy of native donor defects is very low in In-rich InGaN alloys. High energy particle irradiation of InN and In-rich InGaN, will therefore produce donor defects and result in more n-type materials. As the irradiation dose increases, the electron concentration increases until the Fermi energy E{sub F} approaches the Fermi stabilization energy E{sub FS}. At this point both donor and acceptor-type defects are formed at similar rates, and compensate each other, leading to stabilization of E{sub F} and a saturation of the electron concentration. Hence a large increase and then saturation in the Burstein-Moss shift of the optical absorption edge is also observed. Furthermore we also found that mobilities in the irradiated films can be well described by scattering from triply charged defects, providing strong evidence that native defects in InN are triple donors. The excellent agreement between the experimental results and predictions based on the ADM suggests that particle irradiation can be an effective and simple method to control the doping (electron concentration) in In-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N via native point defects. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. N-type doping of InGaN by high energy particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews our extensive studies of the effects of native defects introduced by high energy particles on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN alloys. We show that the electronic properties of irradiated InGaN can be well described by the amphoteric defect model. Because of the extremely low position of the conduction band edge of InN the formation energy of native donor defects is very low in In-rich InGaN alloys. High energy particle irradiation of InN and In-rich InGaN, will therefore produce donor defects and result in more n-type materials. As the irradiation dose increases, the electron concentration increases until the Fermi energy E F approaches the Fermi stabilization energy E FS . At this point both donor and acceptor-type defects are formed at similar rates, and compensate each other, leading to stabilization of E F and a saturation of the electron concentration. Hence a large increase and then saturation in the Burstein-Moss shift of the optical absorption edge is also observed. Furthermore we also found that mobilities in the irradiated films can be well described by scattering from triply charged defects, providing strong evidence that native defects in InN are triple donors. The excellent agreement between the experimental results and predictions based on the ADM suggests that particle irradiation can be an effective and simple method to control the doping (electron concentration) in In-rich In x Ga 1-x N via native point defects. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. A Simple Engineering Analysis of Solar Particle Event High Energy Tails and Their Impact on Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Walker, Steven A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical models for Solar Particle Event (SPE) high energy tails are constructed with several di erent algorithms. Since limited measured data exist above energies around 400 MeV, this paper arbitrarily de nes the high energy tail as any proton with an energy above 400 MeV. In order to better understand the importance of accurately modeling the high energy tail for SPE spectra, the contribution to astronaut whole body e ective dose equivalent of the high energy portions of three di erent SPE models has been evaluated. To ensure completeness of this analysis, simple and complex geometries were used. This analysis showed that the high energy tail of certain SPEs can be relevant to astronaut exposure and hence safety. Therefore, models of high energy tails for SPEs should be well analyzed and based on data if possible.

  1. High energy particle colliders: past 20 years, next 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir D.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    Particle colliders for high energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the collider has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size and the cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but its pace of progress has greatly slowed down. In this paper we very briefly review the method and the history of colliders, discuss in detail the developments over the past two decades and the directions of the R and D toward near future colliders which are currently being explored. Finally, we make an attempt to look beyond the current horizon and outline the changes in the paradigm required for the next breakthroughs.

  2. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)

  3. Characteristics of particle production in high energy nuclear collisions a model-based analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Guptaroy, P; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, D P

    2002-01-01

    The present work pertains to the production of some very important negatively charged secondaries in lead-lead and gold-gold collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. We would like to examine here the role of the particular version of sequential chain model (SCM), which was applied widely in the past in analysing data on various high-energy hadronic collisions, in explaining now the latest findings on the features of particle production in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The agreement between the model of our choice and the measured data is found to be modestly satisfactory in cases of the most prominent and abundantly produced varieties of the secondaries in the above-stated two nuclear collisions. (25 refs).

  4. Axion-like particle imprint in cosmological very-high-energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez, A.; Sánchez-Conde, M.A.; Prada, F.

    2011-01-01

    Discoveries of very high energy (VHE) photons from distant blazars suggest that, after correction by extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption, there is a flatness or even a turn-up in their spectra at the highest energies that cannot be easily explained by the standard framework. Here, it is shown that a possible solution to this problem is achieved by assuming the existence of axion-like particles (ALPs) with masses ∼ 1 neV. The ALP scenario is tested making use of observations of the highest redshift blazars known in the VHE energy regime, namely 3C 279, 3C 66A, PKS 1222+216 and PG 1553+113. In all cases, better fits to the observed spectra are found when including ALPs rather than considering EBL only. Interestingly, quite similar critical energies for photon/ALP conversions are also derived, independently of the source considered

  5. Equipment and detectors calibration behind shielding of CERN high-energy particle accelerator SPS: June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej

    2008-02-01

    High energy stray radiation fields have been realised since 1993 at CERN also in the frame of CEC-CERN collaboration on the project: 'Detection and the Dosimetry of Neutrons and Charged Particles at Aviation Altitudes in the Earth's Atmosphere'. They are formed at the H6 beam of the north experimental area of the SPS facility. Two shielding configurations have been built, with the top concrete, resp. top iron shielding. Many intercalibration experiments have been realised since the beginning. After an interruption due to technical problems, two other campaigns have been realised during 2006 year, another one during the June 2007. This report describes analyses and discusses the most of results obtained during the last, 2007 run.. (author)

  6. Control of the radiation environment and the worker in high-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy behind the prediction, measurement, monitoring and limitation by access control of the radiation hazard in high-energy accelerator facilities is compared with that which could be employed for controlling similar hazards due to cosmic radiation in civil aircraft flights. Special mention is made of computer simulations of the radiation environment as a means of predicting necessary control measures, of the reliability and integration of radiation measuring devices into control procedures and of the relevance of different access control procedures. (author)

  7. Address on the report of the High Energy Particle Physics Review Group's inquiry into UK participation in high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrew, J.

    1985-01-01

    The UK international participation is mainly at CERN although some British high energy physicists work at DESY in Germany, the Fermi Laboratory in the USA and, indeed, elsewhere as well. The UK subscription to CERN is 16% of the budget. The present state of high energy physics at CERN is summarized and the building of LEP explained. The Group's recommendations are that the UK's financial contribution to CERN should continue until LEP is built (by the early 1990s) but should then, because of the prevailing financial climate gradually be reduced by 25%. (U.K.)

  8. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, Gregory A.; Vazquez, Marcelo; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Slater, James M.; Pearlstein, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. METHODS: Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. ROTAROD TEST: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. OPEN FIELD TEST: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. MORRIS WATER MAZE: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the CNS. ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process.

  9. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, G.A.; Slater, J.M.; Pearlstein, R.D.; Laskowitz, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. Rotarod test: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. Open field test: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. Morris water maze: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process. (author)

  10. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, G.A.; Slater, J.M.; Pearlstein, R.D. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center; Vazquez, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Laskowitz, D.T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center

    2002-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. Rotarod test: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. Open field test: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. Morris water maze: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process. (author)

  11. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.W.; Sheu, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with 252 Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing 252 Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6-8 extended-range sphere versus the 6'' standard sphere). (authors)

  12. High throughput on-chip analysis of high-energy charged particle tracks using lensfree imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei; Shabbir, Faizan; Gong, Chao; Gulec, Cagatay; Pigeon, Jeremy; Shaw, Jessica; Greenbaum, Alon; Tochitsky, Sergei; Joshi, Chandrashekhar [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ozcan, Aydogan, E-mail: ozcan@ucla.edu [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bioengineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI), University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    We demonstrate a high-throughput charged particle analysis platform, which is based on lensfree on-chip microscopy for rapid ion track analysis using allyl diglycol carbonate, i.e., CR-39 plastic polymer as the sensing medium. By adopting a wide-area opto-electronic image sensor together with a source-shifting based pixel super-resolution technique, a large CR-39 sample volume (i.e., 4 cm × 4 cm × 0.1 cm) can be imaged in less than 1 min using a compact lensfree on-chip microscope, which detects partially coherent in-line holograms of the ion tracks recorded within the CR-39 detector. After the image capture, using highly parallelized reconstruction and ion track analysis algorithms running on graphics processing units, we reconstruct and analyze the entire volume of a CR-39 detector within ∼1.5 min. This significant reduction in the entire imaging and ion track analysis time not only increases our throughput but also allows us to perform time-resolved analysis of the etching process to monitor and optimize the growth of ion tracks during etching. This computational lensfree imaging platform can provide a much higher throughput and more cost-effective alternative to traditional lens-based scanning optical microscopes for ion track analysis using CR-39 and other passive high energy particle detectors.

  13. High-energy particle emission from galena and pyrite bombarded with Cs and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpuzov, D.S.; McIntyre, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    The ejection of energetic particles during steady-state ion surface bombardment has been investigated by means of a dynamic computer simulation as well as in a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)/low-energy ion scattering from surfaces (LEIS) experiment. The emphasis of this comparative study is on the mass dependence of high-energy tails in sputtering and backscattering for the bombardment of galena (PbS) and pyrite (FeS 2 ) with keV energy ion beam of cesium and oxygen. In the experiment, kinetic energy distributions of sputtered secondary ions (S + , Fe + , Pb + , S - ), as well as backscattered or re-sputtered primary ions (Cs + , O + , O - ), have been measured on a modified Cameca IMS-3f magnetic sector mass spectrometer for keV cesium (Cs + ) and oxygen (O 2 + , O - ) bombardment of galena and pyrite. Ejection of high-energy particles, with emission energies of up to ∼40% or up to ∼60% of the bombarding energy for sputtering of the lighter component (S ± ) with cesium or oxygen, respectively, and of up to ∼40% (Cs + ) and ∼80% (O ± ) for backscattering, has been observed for PbS. The computer simulations were based on the well-known MARLOWE code. In order to model the change of the stoichiometry of the binary compounds, dynamic modification of the target composition in the near-surface region was introduced. Cs incorporation was included, and a relative enrichment of the metallic component (Pb, Fe) in the top few layers due to preferential sputtering of sulfur was allowed. The computer simulations provide information on the formation of altered layer under sputter equilibrium as well as on the energy and angular emission distributions of sputtered and backscattered particles in steady-state conditions. Multiple scattering of Cs projectiles and dynamic re-sputtering of cesium that was previously incorporated in the altered near-surface region can be distinguished in the simulation, and matched with the experimental observations. In addition

  14. Current problems in semiconductor detectors for high energy physics after particle irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, Ionel

    2002-01-01

    The use of semiconductor materials as detectors in high radiation environments, as expected in future high energy accelerators or in space missions, poses severe problems in long-time operations, due to changes in the properties of the material, and consequently in the performances of detectors. This talk presents the major theoretical areas of current problems, reviews the works in this field and the stage of their understanding, including author's contributions The mechanisms of interaction of the projectile with the semiconductor, the production of primary defects, the physical quantities and the equations able to characterise and describe the radiation effects, and the equations of kinetics of defects are considered. Correlation between microscopic damage and detector performances and the possible ways to optimise the radiation hardness of materials are discussed. (author)

  15. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10 5 ) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10 3 , similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.

  16. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, W.

    2000-02-22

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results

  17. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, W.

    2000-01-01

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results from each project

  18. Integrating INIS into a high energy physics information environment thoughts from CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Yeomans, Joanne; Baudic, Romain; Picchioli, Ingrid; International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management : Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development. Special Session : The Role of INIS in Knowledge Preservation

    2004-01-01

    Information searchers from the high energy physics community expect an integrated information environment. The CERN Library offers its print and electronic collections through a combined Web interface and maintains the database by semi-automated processes to upload bibliographic and full-text records. Suggestions are offered by which INIS could develop its own Web interface and better match HEP users’ expectations. These include implementing full-text linking, increasing currency, expanding search and display functions and developing the richness of the data. Links with the National Nuclear Data Center and Crossref could also increase its visibility.

  19. DCHAIN-SP 2001: High energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Fujio; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of contribution to safety design calculations for induced radioactivities in the JAERI/KEK high-intensity proton accelerator project facilities, the DCHAIN-SP which calculates the high energy particle induced radioactivity has been updated to DCHAIN-SP 2001. The following three items were improved: (1) Fission yield data are included to apply the code to experimental facility design for nuclear transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste where fissionable materials are treated. (2) Activation cross section data below 20 MeV are revised. In particular, attentions are paid to cross section data of materials which have close relation to the facilities, i.e., mercury, lead and bismuth, and to tritium production cross sections which are important in terms of safety of the facilities. (3) User-interface for input/output data is sophisticated to perform calculations more efficiently than that in the previous version. Information needed for use of the code is attached in Appendices; the DCHAIN-SP 2001 manual, the procedures of installation and execution of DCHAIN-SP, and sample problems. (author)

  20. On the high energy gamma ray spectrum and the particle production model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Itaru; Tezuka, Ikuo.

    1979-01-01

    A small emulsion chamber, 25 cm x 20 cm in area and 12 radiation lengths in thick, was exposed with JAL jet-cargo at an atmospheric depth of 260 g/cm 2 during 150 hrs. The gamma ray spectrum derived by combining data from X-ray films and nuclear emulsions is well represented by I sub(r) (>=Er) = (3.65 +- 0.30) x 10 -8 [E sub(r)/TeV]sup(-1.89+0.06-0.09)/cm 2 sr sec in the energy range 200 - 3,000 GeV. This result is in good agreement with those of several other groups. We discuss our data in terms of Feynman's and Koba-Nielsen-Olesen's scaling law of high energy particle production model. Interpreted in terms of an assumption of mild violation of the scaling law as x.d delta-s / delta-s indx = AE sup(2a)exp (-BE sup(a)x), our gamma ray spectrum results suggest an existence of a violation parameter of a = 0.18, which is consistent with results from gamma ray spectrum observations at great depth such as the mountain elevations. (author)

  1. Direct electron-pair production by high energy heavy charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Dong, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Direct electron pain production via virtual photons by moving charged particles is a unique electro-magnetic process having a substantial dependence on energy. Most electro-magnetic processes, including transition radiation, cease to be sensitive to the incident energy above 10 TeV/AMU. Thus, it is expected, that upon establishment of cross section and detection efficiency of this process, it may provide a new energy measuring technique above 10 TeV/AMU. Three accelerator exposures of emulsion chambers designed for measurements of direct electron-pains were performed. The objectives of the investigation were to provide the fundamental cross-section data in emulsion stacks to find the best-fit theoretical model, and to provide a calibration of measurements of direct electron-pairs in emulsion chamber configurations. This paper reports the design of the emulsion chambers, accelerator experiments, microscope measurements, and related considerations for future improvements of the measurements, and for possible applications to high energy cosmic ray experiments. Also discussed are the results from scanning 56m of emulsion tracks at 1200x magnification so that scanning efficiency is optimized. Measurements of the delta-ray range spectrum were also performed for much shorter track lengths, but with sufficiently large statistics in the number of measured delta-rays.

  2. The high energy multicharged particle exposure of the microbial ecology evaluation device on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The high energy multicharged cosmic-ray-particle exposure of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device package on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft was monitored using cellulose nitrate, Lexan polycarbonate, nuclear emulsion, and silver chloride crystal nuclear-track detectors. The results of the analysis of these detectors include the measured particle fluences, the linear energy transfer spectra, and the integral atomic number spectrum of stopping particle density. The linear energy transfer spectrum is used to compute the fractional cell loss in human kidney (T1) cells caused by heavy particles. Because the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device was better shielded, the high-energy multicharged particle exposure was less than that measured on the crew passive dosimeters.

  3. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  4. Dynamic high energy density plasma environments at the National Ignition Facility for nuclear science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerjan, Ch J.; Bernstein, L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cassata, W. S.; Brune, C. R.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G.; Hagmann, Chr; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Hartouni, E. P.; Henry, E. A.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khater, H. Y.; Kim, Y.; Kritcher, A.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Merrill, F.; Moody, K.; Neumayer, P.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Yeamans, Ch; Velsko, C.; Wiescher, M.; Couder, M.; Zylstra, A.; Schneider, D.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of dynamic high energy density plasmas in the pico- to nano-second time domain at high-energy laser facilities affords unprecedented nuclear science research possibilities. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the primary goal of inertial confinement fusion research has led to the synergistic development of a unique high brightness neutron source, sophisticated nuclear diagnostic instrumentation, and versatile experimental platforms. These novel experimental capabilities provide a new path to investigate nuclear processes and structural effects in the time, mass and energy density domains relevant to astrophysical phenomena in a unique terrestrial environment. Some immediate applications include neutron capture cross-section evaluation, fission fragment production, and ion energy loss measurement in electron-degenerate plasmas. More generally, the NIF conditions provide a singular environment to investigate the interplay of atomic and nuclear processes such as plasma screening effects upon thermonuclear reactivity. Achieving enhanced understanding of many of these effects will also significantly advance fusion energy research and challenge existing theoretical models.

  5. On the cosmological propagation of high energy particles in magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves Batista, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    In the present work the connection between high energy particles and cosmic magnetic fields is explored. Particularly, the focus lies on the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and very-high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs) over cosmological distances, under the influence of cosmic magnetic fields. The first part of this work concerns the propagation of UHECRs in the magnetized cosmic web, which was studied both analytically and numerically. A parametrization for the suppression of the UHECR flux at energies ∝ 10 18 eV due to diffusion in extragalactic magnetic fields was found, making it possible to set an upper limit on the energy at which this magnetic horizon effect sets in, which is

  6. Low-energy particle production and residual nuclei production from high-energy hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmiller, F.S.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Hermann, O.W.

    1987-01-01

    The high-energy hadron-nucleus collision model, EVENTQ, has been modified to include a calculation of the excitation and kinetic energy of the residual compound nucleus. The specific purpose of the modification is to make it possible to use the model in the high-energy radiation transport code, HETC, which, in conjunction with MORSE, is used to transport the low energy particles. It is assumed that the nucleons in the nucleus move in a one-dimensional potential well and have the momentum distribution of a degenerate Fermi gas. The low energy particles produced by the deexcitation of the residual compound nucleus, and the final residual nucleus, are determined from an evaporation model. Comparisons of multiplicities and residual nuclei distributions with experimental data are given. The ''grey'' particles, i.e., charged particles with 0.25 < β < 0.7, are in good agreement with experimental data but the residual nuclei distributions are not. 12 refs., 3 figs

  7. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillin, I.V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bandiera, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders. (orig.)

  8. Time-Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup Development for High Energy TNSA Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, S.; Simone, A.; Turner, E.; Ginnane, M. K.; Glisic, M.; Kousar, B.; Smith, A.; Sangster, C.; Regan, S.

    2015-11-01

    MTW and OMEGA EP Lasers at LLE utilize ultra-intense laser light to produce high-energy ion pulses through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). A Time Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF) was designed and built to collect and differentiate protons from heavy ions (HI) produced during TNSA. The TRTF includes a replaceable thickness absorber capable of stopping a range of user-selectable HI emitted from TNSA plasma. HI stop within the primary cup, while less massive particles continue through and deposit their remaining charge in the secondary cup, releasing secondary electrons in the process. The time-resolved beam current generated in each cup will be measured on a fast storage scope in multiple channels. A charge-exchange foil at the TRTF entrance modifies the charge state distribution of HI to a known distribution. Using this distribution and the time of flight of the HI, the total HI current can be determined. Initial tests of the TRTF have been made using a proton beam produced by SUNY Geneseo's 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. A substantial reduction in secondary electron production, from 70% of the proton beam current at 2MeV down to 0.7%, was achieved by installing a pair of dipole magnet deflectors which successfully returned the electrons to the cups in the TRTF. Ultimately the TRTF will be used to normalize a variety of nuclear physics cross sections and stopping power measurements. Based in part upon work supported by a DOE NNSA Award#DE-NA0001944.

  9. Particle-in-cell simulations of high energy electron production by intense laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susumu, Kato; Eisuke, Miura; Kazuyoshi, Koyama [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mitsumori, Tanimoto [Meisei Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Hino, Tokyo (Japan); Masahiro, Adachi [Hiroshima Univ., Graduate school of Advanced Science of Matter, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The propagation of intense laser pulses and the generation of high energy electrons from underdense plasmas are investigated using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When the ratio of the laser power to the critical power of relativistic self-focusing gets the optimal value, the laser pulse propagates in a steady way and electrons have maximum energies. (author)

  10. Particle-in-cell simulations of high energy electron production by intense laser pulses in underdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susumu, Kato; Eisuke, Miura; Kazuyoshi, Koyama; Mitsumori, Tanimoto; Masahiro, Adachi

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of intense laser pulses and the generation of high energy electrons from underdense plasmas are investigated using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When the ratio of the laser power to the critical power of relativistic self-focusing gets the optimal value, the laser pulse propagates in a steady way and electrons have maximum energies. (author)

  11. Detection systems for high energy particle producing gaseous ionization; Sistemas de deteccion de particulas de alta energia mediante ionizacion gaseosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L; Duran, I

    1985-07-01

    This report contains a review on the most used detectors based on the collection of the ionization produced by high energy particles: proportional counters, multiwire proportional chambers, Geiger-Muller counters and drift chambers. In six sections, the fundamental principles, the field configuration and useful gas mixtures, are discussed, most relevant devices are reported along 90 pages with 98 references. (Author) 98 refs.

  12. Particle production in high energy collisions and the non-relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.; Nyiri, J.

    1981-07-01

    The present review deals with multiparticle production processes at high energies using ideas which originate in the non-relativistic quark model. Consequences of the approach are considered and they are compared with experimental data. (author)

  13. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. Progress report for FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  14. HEPLIB '91: International users meeting on the support and environments of high energy physics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstad, H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this meeting is to discuss the current and future HEP computing support and environments from the perspective of new horizons in accelerator, physics, and computing technologies. Topics of interest to the Meeting include (but are limited to): the forming of the HEPLIB world user group for High Energy Physic computing; mandate, desirables, coordination, organization, funding; user experience, international collaboration; the roles of national labs, universities, and industry; range of software, Monte Carlo, mathematics, physics, interactive analysis, text processors, editors, graphics, data base systems, code management tools; program libraries, frequency of updates, distribution; distributed and interactive computing, data base systems, user interface, UNIX operating systems, networking, compilers, Xlib, X-Graphics; documentation, updates, availability, distribution; code management in large collaborations, keeping track of program versions; and quality assurance, testing, conventions, standards

  15. Vacuum Simulations in High Energy Accelerators and Distribution Properties of Continuous and Discrete Particle Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Aichinger, Ida; Kersevan, Roberto

    The underlying thesis on mathematical simulation methods in application and theory is structured into three parts. The first part sets up a mathematical model capable of predicting the performance and operation of an accelerator’s vacuum system based on analytical methods. A coupled species-balance equation system describes the distribution of the gas dynamics in an ultra-high vacuum system considering impacts of conductance limitations, beam induced effects (ion-, electron-, and photon-induced de- sorption), thermal outgassing and sticking probabilities of the chamber materials. A new solving algorithm based on sparse matrix representations, is introduced and presents a closed form solution of the equation system. The model is implemented in a Python environment, named PyVasco, and is supported by a graphical user interface to make it easy available for everyone. A sensitivity analysis, a cross-check with the Test-Particle Monte Carlo simulation program Molflow+ and a comparison of the simulation results t...

  16. Analytical expressions for noise and crosstalk voltages of the High Energy Silicon Particle Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, I.; Shrimali, H.; Liberali, V.; Andreazza, A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of a silicon particle detector array with the derived closed form equations of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and crosstalk voltages. The noise analysis demonstrates the effect of interpixel capacitances (IPC) between center pixel (where particle hits) and its neighbouring pixels, resulting as a capacitive crosstalk. The pixel array has been designed and simulated in a 180 nm BCD technology of STMicroelectronics. The technology uses the supply voltage (VDD) of 1.8 V and the substrate potential of -50 V. The area of unit pixel is 250×50 μm2 with the substrate resistivity of 125 Ωcm and the depletion depth of 30 μm. The mathematical model includes the effects of various types of noise viz. the shot noise, flicker noise, thermal noise and the capacitive crosstalk. This work compares the results of noise and crosstalk analysis from the proposed mathematical model with the circuit simulation results for a given simulation environment. The results show excellent agreement with the circuit simulations and the mathematical model. The average relative error (AVR) generated for the noise spectral densities with respect to the simulations and the model is 12% whereas the comparison gives the errors of 3% and 11.5% for the crosstalk voltages and the SNR results respectively.

  17. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  18. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. Progress report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z{sup 0} with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R&D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  19. Design of Compact Particle Detector System Using FPGA for Space Particle Environment Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We have designed a high resolution proton and electron telescope for the detection of high energy particles, which constitute a major part of the space environment. The flux of the particles, in the satellite orbits, can vary abruptly according to the position and solar activities. In this study, a conceptual design of the detector, for adapting these variations with a high energy resolution, was made and the performance was estimated. In addition, a parallel processing algorithm was devised and embodied using FPGA for the high speed data processing, capable of detecting high flux without losing energy resolution, on board a satellite.

  20. SRAM-Based Passive Dosimeter for High-Energy Accelerator Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Makowski, D R; Napieralski, A; Swiercz, B P

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a novel NVRAM-based neutron dose monitor (REM counter). The principle of this device is based on the radiation effect initiating the Single Event Upset SEU in high density microelectronic memories. Several batches of Non-Volatile memories from different manufactures were examined in various radiation environments, i.e. 241Am-Be (alpha,n) and Linear accelerators produced radiation fields. A suitable moderator was used to enhance the detector sensitivity. Further experiments were carried out in Linear Accelerators: Linac II, TTF2 and Beam Loss Environment of various Experimental Facilities at DESY Research Centre in Hamburg. A separate batch of SRAM was irradiated with 60Co-gamma rays up to a dose of about 60 Gy. No Single Event Upset (SEU) was registered. This validates, that gamma radiation has a negligible effect to trigger SEU in the SRAM. The proposed detector could be ideal for a neutron dose measurement produced by a high-energy electron linac, including synchrotron and Free Electron L...

  1. Peroxidation of the dried thin film of lipid by high-energy alpha particles from a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    High-energy α particles produced a dose-dependent linear increase in different lipid peroxidation products (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes, and hydroperoxides) in the dried thin film state. An inverse dose-rate effect was observed when the dose rate was varied by changing either the α-particle fluence rate or the α-particle energy. The antioxidants α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) suppressed the α-particle-induced lipid peroxidation in the dried thin film state, and in this respect α-tocopherol was found superior to BHT. It was found that α-tocopherol was equally efficient in inhibiting lipid peroxidations by α particles and ultraviolet light

  2. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics: Technical progress report [February 1987-February 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhatme, U.P.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Kovacs, E.

    1988-02-01

    This is a technical progress report for grant No. FG02-84ER40173 for the period February 1987 to February 1988. Our research on supersymmetric quantum mechanics has yielded many interesting results. In particular, a systematic approach to the tunneling problem in double well potentials has been developed. Higgs boson related physics at the high energy hadron colliders has been extensively studied

  3. A new trends in high-energy physics. Current topics in nuclear and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    The hottest subjects in high energy physics for the last couple of years are discussed in some details. The contents of this talk include: exotic nuclei; color ball as pomeron; neutrino masses and mixings; Higgs scalar mass; superparticles; substructure of quarks and leptons; structure of the universe and conclusion and future prospects

  4. Spin-1/2 particles in non-inertial reference frames. Low- and high-energy approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Papini, G.

    2000-01-01

    Spin-1/2 particles can be used to study inertial and gravitational effects by means of interferometers, particle accelerators, and ultimately quantum systems. These studies require, in general, knowledge of the Hamiltonian and of the inertial and gravitational quantum phases. The procedure followed gives both in the low- and high-energy approximations. The latter affords a more consistent treatment of mass at high energies. The procedure is based on general relativity and on a solution of the Dirac equation that is exact to first-order in the metric deviation. Several previously known acceleration- and rotation-induced effects are rederived in a comprehensive, unified way. Several new effects involve spin, electromagnetic and inertial/gravitational fields in different combinations

  5. Multi-particle correlation observables in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, R.

    1981-01-01

    Global features of exclusively measured events, including number correlations and vector correlations, and hybrid analysis of measurements of one or two specific fragments like spectator nuclei, high transverse momentum particles, polarization of one particle, etc., are considered

  6. Simulation of electron density disturbances of the ionospheric D region produced by high-energy particle fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the large-scale tim expansion analytical solutions of electron concentration balance equation in D-region of the ionosphere for pulsed and periodic changes in the rate of ion formatin under the effect of fluxes of precipitating high-energy particles are obtained. Possible effect of disturbances of temperature of nutrals is taken into account. On the basis of model representations the space-time structure of emerging ionospheric disturbances is discussed

  7. A high energy photon beam derived from neutral strange particle decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, K.; Ruchti, R.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods for generating photon beams include: tagged beams in which the photons are derived from electron bremsstrahlung in a radiator target; and broad band beams in which the photons are derived from π/sup 0/ decay - the hadronic component (n, K/sub s//sup 0/) accompanying such a beam is usually suppressed by passage of the beam through a low Z (D/sub 2/) filter. Although one can generate high energy photons by these techniques, the major drawback to these beams is that the photon energy spectrum obtained is peaked at very low E/sub γ/. (Recall that the bremsstrahlung spectrum falls as 1/k). With very high energy proton beams (20 TeV/c), one can image other alternatives for photon beam design. The authors consider one such option here

  8. The origin of mass and experiments on high-energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    The visible world is one consisting of nucleons and electrons. The mass of nucleon arises from chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics, so high energy accelerator experiments cannot give a clue to the nature of mass of matter in the visible world. The origin of the mass of the matter will be clarified when the mechanism of chiral symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics is established [ru

  9. Research in high energy elementary particle physics: Annual progress report, [March 1, 1986-February 29, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.; Ramond, P.; Thorn, C.; Avery, P.; Walker, J.; Tanner, D.; Sikivie, P.; Sullivan, N.; Majeswki, S.

    1988-01-01

    This is a progress report covering the period March 1, 1986 through February 29, 1988 for the High Energy Physics program at the University of Florida (DOE Florida Demonstration Project grant FG05-86-ER40272). Our research program covers a braod range of topics in theoretical and experimental physics and includes detector development and an Axion search. Included in this report is a summary of our program and a discussion of the research progress

  10. Characteristics of Cu–Al2O3 composites of various starting particle size obtained by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIŠESLAVA RAJKOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The powder Cu– Al2O3 composites were produced by high-energy milling. Various combinations of particle size and mixtures and approximately constant amount of Al2O3 were used as the starting materials. These powders were separately milled in air for up to 20 h in a planetary ball mill. The copper matrix was reinforced by internal oxidation and mechanical alloying. During the milling, internal oxidation of pre-alloyed Cu-2 mass %-Al powder generated 3.7 mass % Al2O3 nano-sized particles finely dispersed in the copper matrix. The effect of different size of the starting copper and Al2O3 powder particles on the lattice parameter, lattice distortion and grain size, as well as on the size, morphology and microstructure of the Cu– Al2O3 composite powder particles was studied.

  11. Dynamic chaos phenomenon and coherent radiation accompanying high energy particle motion through crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiezer, A.I.; Truten', V.I.; Shul'ga, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    A crystal has a regular structure, therefore every motion in such a structure seems to be regular. However, it is not actually so and even in perfect crystals the particle motion may be either regular or chaotic. Everything depends on the number of integrals of motion determining a particle trajectory. The character of particle motion in a crystal, i.e. its regularity or chaoticity, affects many physical processes accompanying the particle's motion. In this paper we shall consider the effect of dynamic chaos on the coherent radiation of fast particles in a crystal. We also consider the validity conditions of coherent radiation theory results, the role of the second and higher Born approximations in the radiation theory of fast particles in crystals, the continuous string approximation in this theory, the coherent radiation in the model of random strings, and the multiple scattering effect on the coherent radiation. (author)

  12. Deflection of high energy channeled charged particles by elastically bent silicon single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Kim, I.J.; Pisharodoy, M.; Salman, S.M.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, G.H.; Wijayawardana, R.; Forster, J.S.; Mitchell, I.V.; Baker, S.I.; Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Toohig, T.E.; Avdeichikov, V.V.; Ellison, J.A.; Siffert, P.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to observe the deflection of charged particles by planar channeling in bent single crystals of silicon for protons with energy up to 180 GeV. Anomolous loss of particles from the center point of a three point bending apparatus was observed at high incident particle energy. This effect has been exploited to fashion a 'dechanneling spectrometer' to study dechanneling effects due to centripital displacement of channeled particle trajectories in a bent crystal. The bending losses generally conform to the predictions of calculations based on a classical model. (orig.)

  13. Physics of high energy particle accelerators. AIP conference proceedings No. 127

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.; Dahl, P.F.; Dienes, M.

    1985-01-01

    Topics covered in this workshop include accelerator physics, particle physics, and new acceleration methods. Eighteen lectures were presented. Individual abstracts were prepared separately for the data base

  14. High-energy kink in the single-particle spectra of cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cojocaru, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' and C.N.I.S.M., Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy); Institute of Applied Physics, Chisinau 2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Citro, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' and C.N.I.S.M., Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy)], E-mail: citro@sa.infn.it; Marinaro, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' and C.N.I.S.M., Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Italy); I.I.A.S.S., Via G. Pellegrino, n. 19 84019 Vietri sul Mare (Italy)

    2008-04-01

    Within a phenomenological model where electrons are coupled to a bosonic mode in a generic form of damped oscillator, we analyze the high-energy kink recently observed in ARPES experiments on cuprates. It is shown that the model allows to describe the main anomalous features found in experiments, such as the broad incoherent spectral weight, the 'waterfall dispersion', its doping and temperature dependence. In contrast to the low-energy kink, presence of significant damping is required to account for the anomalies. The 'bosonic mode' is related to the incoherent excitation peak observed in optical conductivity spectra of cuprates.

  15. High-energy kink in the single-particle spectra of cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, S.; Citro, R.; Marinaro, M.

    2008-01-01

    Within a phenomenological model where electrons are coupled to a bosonic mode in a generic form of damped oscillator, we analyze the high-energy kink recently observed in ARPES experiments on cuprates. It is shown that the model allows to describe the main anomalous features found in experiments, such as the broad incoherent spectral weight, the 'waterfall dispersion', its doping and temperature dependence. In contrast to the low-energy kink, presence of significant damping is required to account for the anomalies. The 'bosonic mode' is related to the incoherent excitation peak observed in optical conductivity spectra of cuprates

  16. The development of Micromegas for high particle-flux environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giomataris, Y.; Mangeot, Ph.; Rebourgeard, Ph.; Robert, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Detectors able to operate in high rate environments, with particle flux beyond 10 14 particles/mm 2 /s, are needed for future high energy physics projects and medical radiography. A new promising technique called Micromegas has been proposed. It consists of a 2-stage parallel-plate avalanche chamber of small amplification gap (100 μm) combined with a conversion-drift space. In this paper we present results obtained with such a detector and we see that the detector combines most of the qualities required for high-rate position-sensitive particle detection, particularly it shows excellent spatial and energy resolutions. (author)

  17. Theoretical aspects of effects of high-energy particles on MHD modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we adopt a global approach. The TAEs are computed globally in true toroidal geometry consistent with an ideal MHD equilibrium. Kinetic effects (damping and driving mechanisms) and fast particles are treated perturbatively. More precisely, we first obtain the global eigenmodes an then use these given eigenmode fields to evaluate the global overall wave-particle power transfer assuming given fast particle density profiles. The marginal stability point is obtained by scaling the number of fast particles so that the overall power transfer is zero. The wave-particle power transfers are evaluated using the drift-kinetic equations. The paper is structured as follows: In section two, the plasma model in toroidal geometry is briefly presented. The expressions for the DKE powers are derived for the various species in the companion paper in these proceedings. In section 3 we show the results of our model applied to a wide variety of plasma parameters. In particular, the critical volume-averaged fast particle beta corresponding to marginal stability, f > cr , is calculated for a wide range of bulk plasma parameters and fast particle profile widths. We discuss the results in section 4 and draw some conclusions in section 5.(author) 13 figs., 21 refs

  18. Environment of micro-quasars and other high energy sources in our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Yael

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of the environment of two micro-quasars and one soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR), mainly based on infrared (IR) images taken with ISOCAM, the camera on board of the ISO satellite, between 4 to 18 micron. The results are compared to other wavelengths ones, from radio to X-ray. GRS1915+105's study reveals mid-IR thermal emission from dust surrounding the micro-quasar, and probably heated by its activity. The multi-wavelength observation of two possible counterpart of this X-ray binary relativistic jet interactions with the surrounding medium, situated at more than 10 parsec from the source, are inconclusive. SS433 has also been observed with PHOT, another instrument on board of ISO, spectroscopically at 2-12 micron and in far IR photometry. Spectra and mass-loss estimate imply the visible companion of this micro-quasar, the nature of which has never been precisely determined, to be likely a Wolf-Rayet star. The mass ejected by this star escapes from the X-ray binary to form probably dust surrounding the system and emitting in far IR. W50, the radio nebula surrounding SS433 and elongated under its relativistic jet action has been partly mapped at 15 micron. No particular emission was found in the eastern lobe. In the western lobe, IR hot-spots, partly corresponding to radio emission and coincident with molecular clouds, lie in the apparent X-ray relativistic jet course, and they possibly trace its interactions with the denser medium of this lobe. Near and mid-IR images of SGR1806-20 do not show any evidence of its high energy activity, but they reveal a young star cluster still enshrouded in their birth cloud, which could also be the original place of the SGR, and then possibly be a key for the understanding of its particular properties. (author) [fr

  19. Hard scattering contribution to particle production in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, Pooja; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Global observables like the multiplicity of produced charged particles and transverse energy, are the key observables used to characterize the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions. In order to study the dependence of the charged particle density on colliding system, center of mass energy and collision centrality, there have been measurements starting few GeV to TeV energies at LHC. There is a need to understand the particle production contribution coming from the QCD hard processes, which scale with number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, N coll and soft processes scaling with number of participant nucleons, N part

  20. Investigations of percutaneous uptake of ultrafine TiO{sub 2} particles at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, F. E-mail: fmenzel@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Reinert, T.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T

    2004-06-01

    Micronised TiO{sub 2} particles with a diameter of about 15 nm are used in sunscreens as physical UV filter. Due to the small particle size it may be supposed that TiO{sub 2} particles can pass through the uppermost horny skin layer (stratum corneum) via intercellular channels and penetrate into deeper vital skin layers. Accumulations of TiO{sub 2} particles in the skin can decrease the threshold for allergies of the immune system or cause allergic reactions directly. Spatially resolved ion beam analysis (PIXE, RBS, STIM and secondary electron imaging) was carried out on freeze-dried cross-sections of biopsies of pig skin, on which four different formulations containing TiO{sub 2} particles were applied. The investigations were carried out at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION in Leipzig with a 2.25 MeV proton beam, which was focused to a diameter of 1 {mu}m. The analysis concentrated on the penetration depth and on pathways of the TiO{sub 2} particles into the skin. In these measurements a penetration of TiO{sub 2} particles through the s. corneum into the underlying stratum granulosum via intercellular space was found. Hair follicles do not seem to be important penetration pathways because no TiO{sub 2} was detected inside. The TiO{sub 2} particle concentration in the stratum spinosum was below the minimum detection limit of about 1 particle/{mu}m{sup 2}. These findings show the importance of coating the TiO{sub 2} particles in order to prevent damage of RNA and DNA of skin cells by photocatalytic reactions of the penetrated particles caused by absorption of UV light.

  1. Investigations of percutaneous uptake of ultrafine TiO2 particles at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, F.; Reinert, T.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.

    2004-01-01

    Micronised TiO 2 particles with a diameter of about 15 nm are used in sunscreens as physical UV filter. Due to the small particle size it may be supposed that TiO 2 particles can pass through the uppermost horny skin layer (stratum corneum) via intercellular channels and penetrate into deeper vital skin layers. Accumulations of TiO 2 particles in the skin can decrease the threshold for allergies of the immune system or cause allergic reactions directly. Spatially resolved ion beam analysis (PIXE, RBS, STIM and secondary electron imaging) was carried out on freeze-dried cross-sections of biopsies of pig skin, on which four different formulations containing TiO 2 particles were applied. The investigations were carried out at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION in Leipzig with a 2.25 MeV proton beam, which was focused to a diameter of 1 μm. The analysis concentrated on the penetration depth and on pathways of the TiO 2 particles into the skin. In these measurements a penetration of TiO 2 particles through the s. corneum into the underlying stratum granulosum via intercellular space was found. Hair follicles do not seem to be important penetration pathways because no TiO 2 was detected inside. The TiO 2 particle concentration in the stratum spinosum was below the minimum detection limit of about 1 particle/μm 2 . These findings show the importance of coating the TiO 2 particles in order to prevent damage of RNA and DNA of skin cells by photocatalytic reactions of the penetrated particles caused by absorption of UV light

  2. High energy particles with negative and positive energies in the vicinity of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that the energy in the centre of mass frame of two colliding particles in free fall at any point of the ergosphere of the rotating black hole can grow without limit for fixed energy values of particles on infinity. The effect takes place for large negative values of the angular momentum of one of the particles. It occurs that the geodesics with negative energy in equatorial plane of rotating black holes cannot originate or terminate inside the ergosphere. Their length is always finite and this leads to conclusion that they must originate and terminate inside the gravitational radius of the ergosphere. The energy in the centre of mass frame of one particle falling into the gravitational radius and the other arriving from the area inside it is growing without limit on the horizon.

  3. What could we learn about high energy particle physics from cosmological observations at largest spatial scales ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The very well known example of cosmology testing particle physics is the number of relativistic particles (photons and three active neutrinos within the Standard Model at primordial nucleosynthesis. These days the earliest moment we can hope to probe with present cosmological data is the early time inflation. The particle physics conditions there and now are different because of different energy scales and different values of the scalar fields, that usually prohibits a reliable connection between the particle physics parameters at the two interesting epochs. The physics at the highest energy scales may be probed with observations at the largest spatial scales (just somewhat smaller than the size of the visible Universe. However, we are not (yet ready to make the tests realistic, because of lack of a self-consistent theoretical description of the presently favorite cosmological models to be valid right after inflation.

  4. Three particle scattering at high energies in a model with eikonal Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.F.; Kuzmichev, V.E.

    1980-04-01

    The three particle collision process 3 → 3 with relative motion of each pair of particles described by a model with eikonal Hamiltonian is investigated. No additional restrictions on the motion of the particles (such as the fixed scattering centre approximation) are imposed. A unique, exact analytical solution of the three-particle problem is then shown to exist. An explicit expression for the 3 → 3 amplitude in the general case off the energy shell is obtained as the result of the exact summation of the multiple scattering series. It is shown that this series terminates on the energy shell. A new formula for the mutual cancellation of terms in the multiple scattering series in a model with eikonal Hamiltonian is found. (orig.)

  5. Particle physics explanations for ultra-high energy cosmic ray events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this talk I briefly summarize several proposed particle physics explanations: a breakdown ... as primaries, and magnetic monopoles with mass below 1010 GeV as primaries. .... these monopoles would be the ultimate test of this explanation.

  6. Coordinate determination of high energy charged particles by silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    The coordinate determination accuracy of minimum ionizing and short-range particles by silicon strip detectors has been considered. The charge collection on neighboring strips of the detector is studied and the influence of diffusion and the electric field distribution on the accuracy of the coordinate determination is analyzed. It has been shown that coordinates of both minimum ionizing and short-range particles can be determined with accuracy to a few microns using silicon strip detectors. 11 refs.; 8 figs

  7. U.C. Davis high energy particle physics research: Technical progress report -- 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    Summaries of progress made for this period is given for each of the following areas: (1) Task A--Experiment, H1 detector at DESY; (2) Task C--Experiment, AMY detector at KEK; (3) Task D--Experiment, fixed target detectors at Fermilab; (4) Task F--Experiment, PEP detector at SLAC and pixel detector; (5) Task B--Theory, particle physics; and (6) Task E--Theory, particle physics.

  8. MnBi particles with high energy density made by spark erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Phi-Khanh, E-mail: phi@ucsd.edu; Jin, Sungho [Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Berkowitz, Ami E. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    We report on the properties of low-temperature phase (LTP)-MnBi particles produced by the rapid-quenching technique of spark-erosion. The as-prepared powder consists of amorphous, crystalline, and superparamagnetic particles, mostly as porous aggregates. The major fraction of the powder consists of 20–30 nm particles. A short anneal crystallizes the amorphous particles producing a high moment, >90% of theoretical M{sub S}, albeit with H{sub C} of a few kOe. If lightly milled, the agglomerates are broken up to yield H{sub C} of 1 T. These findings are supported by the x-ray diffraction pattern showing broadened peaks of the predominant LTP-MnBi phase. The combination of spark erosion, milling, and annealing has produced randomly oriented particles with (BH){sub MAX} ∼ 3.0 MGOe. The particles are expected to show record energy product when aligned along their crystallographic easy axes.

  9. High energy scattering phenomena in the accelerators and colliders, and a study in the role of the 'leading particle effect' on the multiplicity of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    1989-01-01

    The role of the leading particles in high energy scattering phenomena has assumed much importance in recent times but it has not been duly considered in some theoretical studies. This oversight is pointed out, and some other shortcomings and insufficiencies of most of the contemporary theoretical studies not only from considerations of the leading particle effect (LPE) but also from some other viewpoints are mentio ned. A revised comparative study on the behaviour of the average multiplicity by taking into account some of the competing theoretical models and the influence of the leading particle effect on them is also presented. (author). 33 refs

  10. Theory of elementary particles and accelerator theory: Task C: Experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics group at the University of Oregon broadened its effort during the past year. The SLD effort extends from maintaining and operating the SLD luminosity monitor which was built at Oregon, to significant responsibility in physics analysis, such as event selection and background analysis for the left-right asymmetry measurement. The OPAL work focussed on the luminosity monitor upgrade to a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Building on the work done at Oregon for SLD, the tungsten for this upgrade was machined by the Oregon shops and shipped to CERN for assembly. The Oregon GEM effort now concentrates on tracking, specifically silicon tracking. Oregon also has developed a silicon strip preradiator prototype, and tested it in a Brookhaven beam

  11. Correlations between high momentum particles in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbink, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes an experiment performed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The experiment studies the reaction p+p→h 1 +h 2 +X at two centre-of-mass energies, √s=44.7 GeV and √s=62.3 GeV. Two of the outgoing particles (h 1 and h 2 ) are detected in opposite c.m.s. hemispheres at small polar angles with respect to the direction of two incident protons. The remaining particles produced (X) are not detected. The hadrons hsub(i) are identified mesons (π + , π - , K + , K - ) or baryons (p, Λ) with relatively large longitudinal psub(L) and small transverse momentum psub(T). The aim of the experiment is twofold. The first aim is to study whether the momentum distributions of the fast particles hsub(i) are correlated and thereby to constrain the possible interaction mechanisms responsible for the production of high psub(L), low psub(T) particles. The second aim is to establish to what extent the production of pions and kaons in inclusive proton-proton collisions (e.g. p+p→π+X, X=all other particles) resembles the production of pions and kaons in diffractive proton-proton collisions (e.g. p+p→p+π+X, in which the final-state proton has a momentum close to its maximum possible value). (Auth.)

  12. Software tool for representation and processing of experimental data on high energy interactions of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanov, E.O.; Skachkov, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    The software tool is developed for detailed and evident displaying of information about energy and space distribution of secondary particles produced in the processes of elementary particles collisions. As input information the data on the components of 4-momenta of secondary particles is used. As for these data the information obtained from different parts of physical detector (for example, from the calorimeter or tracker) as well as the information obtained with the help of event generator is taken. The tool is intended for use in Windows operation system and is developed on the basis of Borland Delphi. Mathematical architecture of the software tool allows user to receive complete information without making additional calculations. The program automatically performs analysis of structure and distributions of signals and displays the results in a transparent form which allows their quick analysis. To display the information the three-dimensional graphic methods as well as colour decisions based on intuitive associations are also used. (author)

  13. Emission of high-energy charged particles at 00 in Ne-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcea, C.; Gierlik, E.; Kalinin, A.M.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Oganessia, Yu.Ts.; Pawlat, T.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Ryakhlyuk, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusive energy spectra have been measured for light charged particles emitted in the bombardment of 232 Th, 181 Ta, sup(nat)Ti and 12 C targets by 22 Ne ions at 178 MeV and sup(nat)Ti target by 20 Ne ions at 196 MeV. The reaction products were analysed and detected by means of a ΔE-E telescope placed in the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer located at an angle of 0 deg with respect to the beam direction. In all the reactions studied light charged particles with an energy close to the respective calculated kinematic limit for a two-body exit channel are produced with relatively great probability. The results obtained make it possible to draw some conclusions about the reaction mechanism involving the emission of light charged particles

  14. Shower and Slow Particle Productions in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at High Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayd, Hamdy M. M.; Rahim, Magda A.; Fakhraddin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of shower, grey, and black particles produced in interactions of 4 He, 12 C, 16 O, 22 Ne, and 28 Si with emulsion (Em) at 4.1–4.5 A GeV/c beam energies, and their dependence on target groups (H, CNO, and AgBr) is presented and has been reproduced by multisource thermal model. The multiplicity and the angular distributions of the three types of particles have been investigated. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding ones from the model. We found that the experimental data agrees with theoretical calculations using multisource thermal model

  15. Particle production in very-high-energy cosmic-ray emulsion chamber events: Usual and unusual events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.G.S.; Halzen, F.; Salles, C.

    1995-01-01

    We show that a simple scaling model of very forward particle production, consistent with accelerator and air shower data, can describe the overall features of the very-high-energy interactions recorded with emulsion chambers. The rapidity and transverse momentum distribution of the secondaries are quantitatively reproduced. This is somewhat surprising after numerous claims that the same data implied large scaling violations or new dynamics. Interestingly, we cannot describe some of the Centauro events, suggesting that these events are anomalous independently of their well-advertised unusual features such as the absence of neutral secondaries

  16. Particle accelerators, colliders, and the story of high energy physics. Charming the cosmic snake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic mythological Cosmic Serpent, Ouroboros, is said to be coiled in the depths of the sea, surrounding the Earth with its tail in its mouth. In physics, this snake is a metaphor for the Universe, where the head, symbolizing the largest entity - the Cosmos - is one with the tail, symbolizing the smallest - the fundamental particle. Particle accelerators, colliders and detectors are built by physicists and engineers to uncover the nature of the Universe while discovering its building blocks. ''Charming the Cosmic Snake'' takes the readers through the science behind these experimental machines: the physics principles that each stage of the development of particle accelerators helped to reveal, and the particles they helped to discover. The book culminates with a description of the Large Hadron Collider, one of the world's largest and most complex machines operating in a 27-km circumference tunnel near Geneva. That collider may prove or disprove many of our basic theories about the nature of matter. The book provides the material honestly without misrepresenting the science for the sake of excitement or glossing over difficult notions. The principles behind each type of accelerator is made accessible to the undergraduate student and even to a lay reader with cartoons, illustrations and metaphors. Simultaneously, the book also caters to different levels of reader's background and provides additional materials for the more interested or diligent reader. (orig.)

  17. Properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements for particle detectors in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviano, G.; Ferrini, M.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Colafranceschi, S.; KjØlbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Grassini, S.; Parvis, M.

    2018-03-01

    Gas detectors for elementary particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This work studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements by computing the physical and chemical parameters relevant for use as detector media, and suggests candidates to be considered for experimental investigation.

  18. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  19. Particle accelerators, colliders, and the story of high energy physics. Charming the cosmic snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, Raghavan

    2012-07-01

    The Nordic mythological Cosmic Serpent, Ouroboros, is said to be coiled in the depths of the sea, surrounding the Earth with its tail in its mouth. In physics, this snake is a metaphor for the Universe, where the head, symbolizing the largest entity - the Cosmos - is one with the tail, symbolizing the smallest - the fundamental particle. Particle accelerators, colliders and detectors are built by physicists and engineers to uncover the nature of the Universe while discovering its building blocks. ''Charming the Cosmic Snake'' takes the readers through the science behind these experimental machines: the physics principles that each stage of the development of particle accelerators helped to reveal, and the particles they helped to discover. The book culminates with a description of the Large Hadron Collider, one of the world's largest and most complex machines operating in a 27-km circumference tunnel near Geneva. That collider may prove or disprove many of our basic theories about the nature of matter. The book provides the material honestly without misrepresenting the science for the sake of excitement or glossing over difficult notions. The principles behind each type of accelerator is made accessible to the undergraduate student and even to a lay reader with cartoons, illustrations and metaphors. Simultaneously, the book also caters to different levels of reader's background and provides additional materials for the more interested or diligent reader. (orig.)

  20. Critical review of a quantitative study of a specialty in high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of the authors' series of quantitative, historical, and social studies of the weak interactions of elementary particles. A short intellectual history, the quantitative methodology, and a summary of the papers analyzing specific episodes in this field are presented. The social organization of the field is described, and an overall policy for resource management is discussed. 6 figures, 3 tables

  1. Particle accelerators, colliders, and the story of high energy physics charming the cosmic snake

    CERN Document Server

    Jayakumar, Raghavan

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic mythological Cosmic Serpent, Ouroboros, is said to be coiled in the depths of the sea, surrounding the Earth with its tail in its mouth. In physics, this snake is a metaphor for the Universe, where the head, symbolizing the largest entity – the Cosmos – is one with the tail, symbolizing the smallest – the fundamental particle. Particle accelerators, colliders and detectors are built by physicists and engineers to uncover the nature of the Universe while discovering its building blocks. “Charming the Cosmic Snake” takes the readers through the science behind these experimental machines: the physics principles that each stage of the development of particle accelerators helped to reveal, and the particles they helped to discover. The book culminates with a description of the Large Hadron Collider, one of the world’s largest and most complex machines operating in a 27-km circumference tunnel near Geneva. That collider may prove or disprove many of our basic theories about the nature of matt...

  2. Some interesting features of charged particles produced in high-energy hadron-emulsion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushnood, H.; Ansari, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The emission characteristics of secondary charged particles produced in 400 GeV proton-emulsion interactions were compared with those obtained at other energies. The results revealed that the angular distribution of grey particles does not depend on the nature and energy of the projectile. The dependence of the average multiplicity of the grey, black, shower, and heavily ionizing tracks on the mass of the target nucleus (A) and the nature and energy of the projectiles are also examined. The ratio of the valance quarks in pions (π - ) and protons (p) was found to be almost equal to the ratio of the grey particles produced in π - -A and p-A collisions at the same energy. The values of the normalized moments of the multiplicity distributions of charged shower particles in different N h intervals were found to nearly the same. However, this value increased with increasing values of the moment index, K. Finally, the values of the normalized and central moments were almost equal for both p-p and p-A interactions

  3. The production of charmed particles in high-energy 16O-emulsion central interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Hoshino, K.; Kitamura, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Kodama, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, M.; Nakanishi, S.; Niu, K.; Niwa, K.; Nomura, M.; Tajima, H.; Tsukagoshi, K.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Poulard, G.; Meddi, F.; Rosa, G.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Simone, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Tasaka, S.; Sato, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The production of charmed particles has been detected in 200 GeV per nucleon 16 O-emulsion central interactions. Their production cross section in elementary nucleon-nucleon processes has been estimated to be σ charm =[14.1±9.3(stat.) -8.4 +5.6 (syst.)]μb. (orig.)

  4. Type conversion by high-energy particles in Hg1-xCdxTe compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, C.; Favre, J.; Barbot, J.F.; Desoyer, J.C.; Toulemonde, M.; Konczykowski, M.; Le Scoul, D.; Dessus, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    p-type crystals of the ternary compounds Hg 1-x Cd x Te have been irradiated with high-energy ions and electrons. Electron-beam-induced current signals on xenon- and krypton-irradiated Hg 1-x Cd x Te show that n-type conversion, occurring all along the ion path, is related to the presence of mercury atoms. Resistivity and Hall measurements on carbon-, oxygen-, xenon- and electron-irradiated Hg 0.8 Cd 0.2 Te crystals allow us to determine the effective cross section for atomic displacement. We observe, for electron-irradiated samples, a saturation in carrier concentration interpreted as the pinning of the Fermi level at a resonant donor state 370 meV above the bottom of the conduction band. Comparison between ion and electron irradiations shows that electrically active produced defects are mainly due to atomic collisions. Additional reduction of defect production efficiency for xenon ions may be the onset of some energy transfer from electronic loss to target atoms

  5. Microstructures for high-energy x-ray and particle-imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stone, G.F.; Hawryluk, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    Coded imaging techniques using thick, micro-Fresnel zone plates as coded apertures have been used to image x-ray emissions (2-20 keV) and 3.5 MeV Alpha particle emissions from laser driven micro-implosions. Image resolution in these experiments was 3-8 μm. Extension of this coded imaging capability to higher energy x-rays (approx. 100 keV) and more penetrating charged particles (e.g. approx. 15 MeV protons) requires the fabrication of very thick (50-200 μm), high aspect ratio (10:1), gold Fresnel zone plates with narrow linewidths (5-25 μm) for use as coded aperatures. A reactive ion etch technique in oxygen has been used to produce thick zone plate patterns in polymer films. The polymer patterns serve as electroplating molds for the subsequent fabrication of the free-standing gold zone plate structures

  6. Free-parameterless model of high energy particle collisions with atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    In result of studies, it has been discovered that: a) Intensive emission of fast nucleons of kinetic energy from 20 to 400 MeV proceeds independently of the pion production process; b) The particle production in hadron-nucleon collisions is mediated by intermediate objects produced first in a 2 → 2 type endoergic reaction and decaying after lifetime tausub(g) > or approximately 10 - 22 s into commonly known resonances and particles; c) Inside of massive enough atomic nuclei quasi-onedimensional cascades of the intermediate objects can develop; d) A definite simple connection exists between the characteristics of the secondaries appearing in hadron-nucleus collision events and corresponding hadron-nucleon collision events, the target-nucleus size and the nucleon density distribution in it. The yield of the hadron-nucleus collisions is described in a convincing manner in terms of the hadron-nucleon collision data by means of simple formulas

  7. Moment-Preserving Computational Approach for High Energy Charged Particle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-16

    posed, but with modified cross sections such that the resulting single-event Monte Carlo simulation is computationally efficient (minutes vs . days...configurations, which are all characteristics of real world applications. In other words , it is possible to simulate real, physical phenomena using charged...0 < 0.95) ~ 1 2() ≫ 1, (3) Demonstrating that scattering is highly forward peaked. Thus, the picture of charged particle interactions

  8. Scanned beams of high-energy charged particles and features of their collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zor'ko, K.I.; Kudoyarov, M.F.; Matyukov, A.V.; Mukhin, S.A.; Patrova, M.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The coordinate distributions of the accelerated charged particle flux density that are simultaneously formed by sinusoidal scanning and collimation are analyzed. Under certain formation conditions, the edge portions of these distributions are shown to take a two-humped shape. The experimental data obtained are in good agreement with the calculation. Recommendations are made about practical use of these beams in view of the above effects [ru

  9. Space-time structure of particle production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Naohiko; Ohnishi, Akira [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Nara, Yasushi; Maruyama, Tomoyuki

    1998-07-01

    Space-Time structure of freeze-out of produced particles in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the framework of two different cascade models, either with or without higher baryonic resonances. While higher excited baryonic resonances do not influence the spatial source size of freeze-out point, the freeze-out time distribution is shifted to be later by these resonances. (author)

  10. Investigation of radiation defects in InSb formed by charged high energy nuclear particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhlij, G.A.; Karpenko, A.Ya.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Tarabrova, L.I.; Groza, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    A possibility of creation of high concentrations of radiation defects in the bulk of InSb samples by 47 MeV protons and 80 MeV alpha particles is considered. Dose dependences of electroconductivity, optical absorption spectra as well as temperature and field relations of galvanomagnetic properties of samples with defects are investigated. Annealing stages and electrical properties of defects annealed at these stages are determined. 17 refs.; 7 figs

  11. Production of massless particles in collisions of strings at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    The authors obtain explicit formulas (generalizing the Low-Gribov expressions) for the production amplitude of massless particles (gluons and gravitons) with low transverse momenta in the scattering of lower-mass excitations of open and closed strings. In the limit α' → 0 they reproduce the results of calculation of effective vertices for inelastic scattering amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics in the Yang-Mills theory and in gravitation

  12. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering. [Quark-parton model, 225 GeV, structure functions, particle ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10/sup 10/ muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s//sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/ decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering is determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the framework of the quark-parton model. 29 references.

  13. Study of particle size distribution and formation mechanism of radioactive aerosols generated in high-energy neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Noguchi, H; Tanaka, S; Iida, T; Furuichi, S; Kanda, Y; Oki, Y

    2003-01-01

    The size distributions of sup 3 sup 8 Cl, sup 3 sup 9 Cl, sup 8 sup 2 Br and sup 8 sup 4 Br aerosols generated by irradiations of argon and krypton gases containing di-octyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols with 45 MeV and 65 MeV quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were measured in order to study the formation mechanism of radioactive particles in high energy radiation fields. The effects of the size distribution of the radioactive aerosols on the size of the added DOP aerosols, the energy of the neutrons and the kinds of nuclides were studied. The observed size distributions of the radioactive particles were explained by attachment of the radioactive atoms generated by the neutron-induced reactions to the DOP aerosols. (author)

  14. Star Formation in High Pressure, High Energy Density Environments: Laboratory Experiments of ISM Dust Analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van; Bajt, S.; Bradley, J.; Bringa, E.; Dai, Z.; Felter, T.; Graham, G.; Kucheyev, S.; Torres, D.; Tielens, A.; Baragiola, R.; Dukes, C.; Loeffler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Dust grains control the chemistry and cooling, and thus the gravitational collapse of interstellar clouds. Energetic particles, shocks and ionizing radiation can have a profound influence on the structure, lifetime and chemical reactivity of the dust, and therefore on the star formation efficiency. This would be especially important in forming galaxies, which exhibit powerful starburst (supernovae) and AGN (active galactic nucleus) activity. How dust properties are affected in such environments may be crucial for a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The authors present the results of experiments at LLNL which show that irradiation of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust analog forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) with swift heavy ions (10 MeV Xe) and a large electronic energy deposition amorphizes its crystalline structure, without changing its chemical composition. From the data they predict that silicate grains in the ISM, even in dense and cold giant molecular clouds, can be amorphized by heavy cosmic rays (CR's). This might provide an explanation for the observed absence of crystalline dust in the ISM clouds of the Milky Way galaxy. This processing of dust by CR's would be even more important in forming galaxies and galaxies with active black holes

  15. Progress in the optoelectronic analog signal transfer for high energy particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, T.; Radeka, V.

    1992-05-01

    We report the progress in the development of a radiation hard Optoelectronic analog system to transfer particle detector signals with high accuracy. We will present the motivation of this study, the operating principle of the optoelectronic system, the system noise study, the recent R ampersand D efforts on radiation effect, temperature stability, and the realization of an integrated l x l6 optical modulator. The issue of photon source for driving such a large-scale optoelectronic modulators is a major concern. We will address this problem by examining different possible photon sources and comment on other possible alternative for signal transfer

  16. Description of charged particle multiplicity distribution in high energy strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Keyu

    1994-01-01

    With the assumption that the probability for n-charged particles production in hadron-hadron collision is Pn and proper choice of 1 , 2 , k and x in Pn, the true multiplicity distribution in full phase space can be described successfully at the centre of mass energy √S GeV. Using the experimental data of non singe-diffractive collisions between proton and antiproton at centre of mass energies of 200 and 900 GeV, the supposition has been examined and confirmed: it is very good to describe the facts. The theoretical bases of supposition were discussed

  17. Response of some passive detectors to high-energy particles; examples of applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, 3/4 (2006), s. 139-144 ISSN 1210-7085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : calibration * carbon 12 beams * LET Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  18. Finding the bearings of a source of high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotyshev, E.V.; Suprunov, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    Different methods are now used to find the direction of a radiation source. One method is based on the analysis information provided by the detection block that includes a system of six two-dimensional coordinate-sensitive semiconductor detectors (CSSDs) forming a cube filled with a special absorber. The CSSD numbers, the coordinates measured by them, and the order of crossing the cube edges bear all the information necessary to find the bearings of a radiation source. However, in this method the efficiency of detection depends on the relative orientation of the detection block and the radiation flux. In addition, the size of the detection block is limited by the condition of direct passage which, in combination with the demand of an unchanging shape, make it impossible to mount it with other devices. In this work the authors address the problem of finding the bearings of a source of charged particles that is fast and allows the detection block to be mounted with the components of other devices. It is shown that the bearings of a source of charged particles can be found by analyzing signals from NN s detector elements located on N s symmetric surfaces inserted into each other and separated by an absorber. The method is fast and makes it possible structurally to combine the detector block with other components. 5 refs., 2 figs

  19. Universality of hadron jets in soft and hard particle interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Didenko, L.A.; Grishin, V.G.; Kuznetsov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The hadron jet production in soft π - p- and cumulative π - pC-interactions at a 40 GeV/c momentum is studied. The collective characteristics of jets and the functions of the quark and diquark fragmentation into charged pions and neutral strange particles are analysed. The results obtained are compared with analogous data for e + e - - and ν(anti ν)p- interactions. The hadron jet properties are also studied using relativistic invariant variables - the squared relative 4-velocities b sub(ik).-(Psub(i)/msub(i)-Psub(k)sup(2)/msub(k) (where Psub(i), Psub(k) are 4-momenta of i-th and K-th particles and msub(i), msub(k) are their masses). The results obtained show that the quark (diquark) fragmentation proceed in a similar manner in soft hadron-hadron collisions, cumulative interactions on light nuclei, in e + e - -annihilation and deep inelastic ν(anti ν)p-scattering

  20. High speed optical wireless data transmission system for particle sensors in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, W.; Corsini, R.; Ciaramella, E.; Dell'Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.

    2015-08-01

    High speed optical fiber or copper wire communication systems are frequently deployed for readout data links used in particle physics detectors. Future detector upgrades will need more bandwidth for data transfer, but routing requirements for new cables or optical fiber will be challenging due to space limitations. Optical wireless communication (OWC) can provide high bandwidth connectivity with an advantage of reduced material budget and complexity of cable installation and management. In a collaborative effort, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna and INFN Pisa are pursuing the development of a free-space optical link that could be installed in a future particle physics detector or upgrade. We describe initial studies of an OWC link using the inner tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector as a reference architecture. The results of two experiments are described: the first to verify that the laser source transmission wavelength of 1550 nm will not introduce fake signals in silicon strip sensors while the second was to study the source beam diameter and its tolerance to misalignment. For data rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s over a 10 cm working distance it was observed that a tolerance limit of ±0.25 mm to ±0.8 mm can be obtained for misaligned systems with source beam diameters of 0.38 mm to 3.5 mm, respectively.

  1. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  2. Effect of free-particle collisions in high energy proton and pion-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, N.P. Jr.

    1975-07-01

    The effect of free-particle collisions in simple ''knockout'' reactions of the form (a,aN) and in more complex nuclear reactions of the form (a,X) was investigated by using protons and pions. Cross sections for the 48 Ti(p,2p) 47 Sc and the 74 Ge(p,2p) 73 Ga reactions were measured from 0.3 to 4.6 GeV incident energy. The results indicate a rise in (p,2p) cross section for each reaction of about (25 +- 3) percent between the energies 0.3 and 1.0 GeV, and are correlated to a large increase in the total free-particle pp scattering cross sections over the same energy region. Results are compared to previous (p,2p) excitation functions in the GeV energy region and to (p,2p) cross section calculations based on a Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation model. Cross section measurements for (π/sup +-/, πN) and other more complex pion-induced spallation reactions were measured for the light target nuclei 14 N, 16 O, and 19 F from 45 to 550 MeV incident pion energy. These measurements indicate a broad peak in the excitation functions for both (π,πN) and (π,X) reactions near 180 MeV incident energy. This corresponds to the large resonances observed in the free-particle π + p and π - p cross sections at the same energy. Striking differences in (π,πN) cross section magnitudes are observed among the light nuclei targets. The experimental cross section ratio sigma(π - ,π - n)/sigma(π + ,πN) at 180 MeV is 1.7 +- 0.2 for all three targets. The experimental results are compared to previous pion and analogous proton-induced reactions, to Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and to a semi-classical nucleon charge exchange model. (108 references) (auth)

  3. The generation of high fields for particle acceleration to very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A Workshop organised by the CERN Accelerator School, the European Committee for Future Accelerators and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare was held at the Frascati laboratory of INFN during the last week of September 1984. Its purpose was to bring together an inter-disciplinary group of physicists to review ideas for the acceleration of particles to energies beyond those attainable in machines whose construction is underway, or is currently contemplated. These proceedings contain some of the material presented and discussed at the Workshop, comprising papers on topics such as: the free-electron-laser, the lasertron, wakefield accelerators, the laser excitation of droplet arrays, a switched-power linac, plasma beat-wave accelerators and the choice of basic parameters for linear colliders intended for the TeV energy region. (orig.)

  4. The transmission diffraction patterns of silicon implanted with high-energy α-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.

    1995-01-01

    2 mm thick silicon wafers, implanted with 4.8 MeV α-particles are studied by means of transmission section topography and additionally by Lang and double-crystal methods. It was found that all three methods produced a negligible contrast in the symmetric transmission reflection apart from some fragments of the implanted area's boundaries. The interference fringes were observed in the case of asymmetric reflections. The asymmetric section topographs revealed distinct interference fringes, which cannot be explained in terms of simple bicrystal models. In particular, the curvature of these fringes may be interpreted as being due to the change in the implanted ion dose along the beam intersecting the crystal. Some features of the fringe pattern were reproduced by numerical integration of Takagi-Taupin equations. (author)

  5. Elementary particles and high energy phenomena. Progress report, May 1974--April 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauenberg, U.; Bartlett, D.F.

    1975-05-01

    The study of K 0 /sub L/(π 3 ) has now been published in final form. When compared with the matrix elements for the K + (π 3 ) evidence was found for parallel I = 1/2 parallel violation in the linear terms, but not in the quadratic. The data-taking phase of a measurement of K 0 /sub L/ → K 0 /sub S/ p and related reactions at SLAC were completed. The presence of neutrons in the beam permits one to study several new reactions. The apparatus for detecting tachyon monopoles was installed above the Fermilab 15' bubble chamber, and data-taking begun. No evidence yet found for these particles. The theoretical effort was devoted to supporting the kaon experiments and to the study of dynamical symmetry breaking and Higg's symmetry. One has also written two proposals for experiments at Fermilab. A list of publications is included. (U.S.)

  6. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  7. Systematic Analysis of the Non-Extensive Statistical Approach in High Energy Particle Collisions—Experiment vs. Theory †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Bíró

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of high-energy particle collisions is an excellent testbed for the non-extensive statistical approach. In these reactions we are far from the thermodynamical limit. In small colliding systems, such as electron-positron or nuclear collisions, the number of particles is several orders of magnitude smaller than the Avogadro number; therefore, finite-size and fluctuation effects strongly influence the final-state one-particle energy distributions. Due to the simple characterization, the description of the identified hadron spectra with the Boltzmann–Gibbs thermodynamical approach is insufficient. These spectra can be described very well with Tsallis–Pareto distributions instead, derived from non-extensive thermodynamics. Using the q-entropy formula, we interpret the microscopic physics in terms of the Tsallis q and T parameters. In this paper we give a view on these parameters, analyzing identified hadron spectra from recent years in a wide center-of-mass energy range. We demonstrate that the fitted Tsallis-parameters show dependency on the center-of-mass energy and particle species (mass. Our findings are described well by a QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics inspired parton evolution ansatz. Based on this comprehensive study, apart from the evolution, both mesonic and baryonic components found to be non-extensive ( q > 1 , besides the mass ordered hierarchy observed in the parameter T. We also study and compare in details the theory-obtained parameters for the case of PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo Generator, perturbative QCD and quark coalescence models.

  8. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  9. Neutral strange particle production in high energy charged current neutrino deuterium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, D.

    1982-01-01

    In an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot deuterium filled bubble chamber to a single horn focused wide band neutrino beam with energies between 10 and 250 GeV, 311 K/sub s/, 219 lambda and 7 Anti lambda are observed. These correspond to K 0 anti(K 0 ), lambda(Σ 0 ) and anti lambda production rates per charged current interaction of 0.170 +/- 0.010, 0.060 +/- 0.004, and 0.002 +/- 0.001, respectively, in 18.9 +/- 0.09% V 0 events of total charged current events. The inclusive lambda rate in nun interactions is significantly higher than that in nup interactions. The multiplicity of K 0 increases (or decreases) with increasing E/sub nu/, W, and Q 2 (or x/sub BETA), while that of lambda shows no significant variations. From a detailed study of lambda, lambda K 0 ], lambda K/sup */ +0 systems, the production rate of lambda from the charm quark decay is found to be (2.1 +/- 1.0)% of the total charged current, which leads to a small cross section for charmed baryon quasielastic production -40 cm 2 (90% CL) and a small semileptonic branching ratio of lambda/sub c/ + decay, B(lambda/sub c/ + → e + lambda x + , K 0 p, lambda π + π + π - , and antiK 0 pπ + π - decay modes of lambda/sub c/ + are studied and found consistent with our previous results. The gross probability that an (ss) pair is produced in lambda S = 0 neutrino reactions is estimated to be 0.19 +/- 0.06, which agrees well with that in hadronic experiments. The inclusive x/sub F/ and p/sub T 2 / distributions and their average values are very similar to those in hadronic experiments, which suggest that the majority of neutral strange particles are produced in neutrino reactions via the associated production mechanism

  10. Development of High Energy Particle Detector for the Study of Space Storms onboard Next Generation Small Satellite-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, J. D.; Min, K.; Lee, J.; Lee, D. Y.; Yi, Y.; Kang, K.; Shin, G. H.; Jo, G. B.; Lee, S. U.; Na, G.

    2017-12-01

    We reports the development of the High Energy Particle Detector (HEPD), one of the radiation detectors on board the Next Generation Small Satellite-1 to be launched into a low-Earth polar orbit in late 2017. The HEPD consists of three telescopes, each with a field of view of 33.4°, that are mounted on the satellite to have an angle of 0°, 45°, and 90° to the geomagnetic field during observations in the Earth's sub-auroral regions. The detection system of each telescope is composed of two silicon surface barrier detectors (SSDs), with the capability of measuring electrons from 300 keV to 2 MeV at 32 Hz that precipitate into the polar regions from the Earth's radiation belts when space storms occur. The successful operation of the HEPD in orbit will help us understand the interaction mechanisms between energetic electrons and plasma waves such as whistler and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves that are believed to be responsible for the energization and loss of high energy electrons in the Earth's radiation belts.

  11. The Joint NASA/Goddard-University of Maryland Research Program in Charged Particle and High Energy Photon Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipavich, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Univ. of Maryland portion investigated the following areas. The Space Physics Group performed studies of data from the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft CHEM experiment and found that the ratio of solar wind to photospheric abundances decreased rather smoothly with the first ionization potential (FIP) of the ion with the low FIP ion being about a factor of two overabundant. Carbon and hydrogen fit this trend particularly well. Several occurrences were analyzed of field aligned beams observed when CCE was upstream of the Earth's bow shock. Also using CHEM data, ring current intensity and composition changes during the main and recovery phases of the great geomagnetic storm that occurred in February 1986 was examined in detail. Still using CHEM data, ring current characteristics were examined in a survey of 20 magnetic storms ranging in size from -50 nT to -312 nT. A study was done of energetic ion anisotropy characteristics in the Earth's magnetosheath region using data from the UMD/MPE experiment on ISEE-1. The properties were analyzed of approx. 30 to 130 keV/e protons and alpha particles upstream of six quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks that passed by the ISEE-3 spacecraft during 1978 to 1979. Work from NASA-Goddard include studies from the High Energy Cosmic Ray Group, Low Energy Cosmic Ray Group, Low Energy Gamma Ray Group, High Energy Astrophysics Theory Group, and the X ray Astronomy Group.

  12. Structural and morphological changes in pseudobarrier films of anodic aluminum oxide caused by irradiation with high-energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernykh, M.A.; Belov, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the structural and morphological changes, occurring under the electron beam in pseudobarrier films of anodic aluminum oxide, prepared in seven different solutions and irradiated beforehand by protons of x-rays, with the aim of elucidating the structure of anodic aluminum oxides. An increased stability of the pseudobarrier films of anodic aluminum oxide has been observed towards the action of the electron beam of an UEMV-100K microscope at standard working regimes (75 keV) as a result of irradiation with protons or x-rays. A difference has been found to exist between structural and morphological changes of anodic aluminum oxide films, prepared in different solutions, when irradiated with high-energy particles. A structural and phase inhomogeneity of amorphous pseudobarrier films of anodic aluminum oxide has been detected and its influence on the character of solid-phase transformations under the maximum-intensity electron beam

  13. Kinetic Modeling of Radiative Turbulence in Relativistic Astrophysical Plasmas: Particle Acceleration and High-Energy Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John

    In the near future, next-generation telescopes, covering most of the electromagnetic spectrum, will provide a view into the very earliest stages of galaxy formation. To accurately interpret these future observations, accurate and high-resolution simulations of the first stars and galaxies are vital. This proposal is centered on the formation of the first galaxies in the Universe and their observational signatures in preparation for these future observatories. This proposal has two overall goals: 1. To simulate the formation and evolution of a statistically significant sample of galaxies during the first billion years of the Universe, including all relevant astrophysics while resolving individual molecular clouds, in various cosmological environments. These simulations will utilize a sophisticated physical model of star and black hole formation and feedback, including radiation transport and magnetic fields, which will lead to the most realistic and resolved predictions for the early universe; 2. To predict the observational features of the first galaxies throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, allowing for optimal extraction of galaxy and dark matter halo properties from their photometry, imaging, and spectra; The proposed research plan addresses a timely and relevant issue to theoretically prepare for the interpretation of future observations of the first galaxies in the Universe. A suite of adaptive mesh refinement simulations will be used to follow the formation and evolution of thousands of galaxies observable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) that will be launched during the second year of this project. The simulations will have also tracked the formation and death of over 100,000 massive metal-free stars. Currently, there is a gap of two orders of magnitude in stellar mass between the smallest observed z > 6 galaxy and the largest simulated galaxy from "first principles", capturing its entire star formation history. This project will eliminate this

  14. Ultrastructural findings in the brain of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mice exposed to high-energy particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Kraft, L.M.; D'Antoni-D'Amelio, E.; Benton, E.V.; Miquel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of high energy, heavy particle (HZE) radiation were studied in the brain of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) exposed to argon (40Ar) or krypton (84Kr) ions. In the flies exposed to argon the fluence ranged from 6 X 10(4) to 8 X 10(7) particles/cm2. The insects were killed 35 days after exposure. Extensive tissue fragmentation was observed at the higher fluence employed. At fluences ranging from 5 X 10(6) (one hit/two cell bodies) to 9 X 10(4) (one hit/90 cell bodies) particles/cm2, swelling of the neuronal cytoplasm and focally fragmented membranes was observed. Marked increase of glial lamellae around nerve cell processes was seen at fluences ranging from one hit/six to one hit/135 cell bodies. In the flies irradiated with krypton, the fluences employed were 5.8 X 10(3) and 2.2 X 10(6) particles/cm2. Acute and late effects were evaluated. In the flies killed 36 hours after exposure (acute effects) to either fluence, glycogen particles were found in the neuroglial compartment. The granules were no longer present in flies killed 35 days later (late effects). From these studies it appears that the Drosophila brain is a useful model to investigate radiation damage to mature neurons, neuroglia, and therefore, to the glio-neuronal metabolic unit. In a separate study, the synaptic profiles of the neuropil in layers II-III of the frontal cerebral cortex of anesthesized adult LAFl mice were quantitatively appraised after exposure to argon (40Ar) particles. The absorbed dose ranged from 0.05 to 5 gray (Gy) plateau. It was determined that the sodium pentobarbital anesthesia per se results in a significant decrease in synaptic profile length one day after anesthetization, with return to normal values after 2-28 days. Irradiation with 0.05-5 Gy argon particles significantly inhibited the synaptic shortening effect of anesthesia at one day after exposure

  15. H.323 based collaborative environment for high energy and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teiji Nakamura; Kiyoharu Hashimoto; Hitoshi Hirose; Yukio Karita; Youhei Morita; Soh Suzuki; Fukuko Yuasa

    2001-01-01

    After having evaluated various H.323 products for these two years, KEK and Japanese HENP community started to move from ISDN (H.320)-based video conferencing environment into IP(H.323)-based one. Primary reason for the move is to cut down the ever increasing ISDN communication cost. At the same time the H.323 can offer more powerful collaborative environment. In order to make KEK to be a center for the H.323-based collaborative environment in Japan, PictureTel's LIVE GATEWAY as a H.320/H.323 gateway, which is essential for the smooth transition, Cisco IP/VC 3510 as a H.323/MCU, and Cisco 2610 as a gatekeeper were installed at KEK in March 2001. And the transition started. The authors describe the collaborative environment which the users can have, together with its operational results

  16. Cross-platform validation and analysis environment for particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekanov, S. V.; Pogrebnyak, I.; Wilbern, D.

    2017-11-01

    A multi-platform validation and analysis framework for public Monte Carlo simulation for high-energy particle collisions is discussed. The front-end of this framework uses the Python programming language, while the back-end is written in Java, which provides a multi-platform environment that can be run from a web browser and can easily be deployed at the grid sites. The analysis package includes all major software tools used in high-energy physics, such as Lorentz vectors, jet algorithms, histogram packages, graphic canvases, and tools for providing data access. This multi-platform software suite, designed to minimize OS-specific maintenance and deployment time, is used for online validation of Monte Carlo event samples through a web interface.

  17. Design and test results of a low-noise readout integrated circuit for high-energy particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingming; Chen Zhongjian; Zhang Yacong; Lu Wengao; Ji Lijiu

    2010-01-01

    A low-noise readout integrated circuit for high-energy particle detector is presented. The noise of charge sensitive amplifier was suppressed by using single-side amplifier and resistors as source degeneration. Continuous-time semi-Gaussian filter is chosen to avoid switch noise. The peaking time of pulse shaper and the gain can be programmed to satisfy multi-application. The readout integrated circuit has been designed and fabricated using a 0.35 μm double-poly triple-metal CMOS technology. Test results show the functions of the readout integrated circuit are correct. The equivalent noise charge with no detector connected is 500-700 e in the typical mode, the gain is tunable within 13-130 mV/fC and the peaking time varies from 0.7 to 1.6 μs, in which the average gain is about 20.5 mV/fC, and the linearity reaches 99.2%. (authors)

  18. Structure of small-scale standing azimuthal Alfven waves interacting with high-energy particles in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimushkin, D.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of bounce-drift instability on the structure of small-scale azimuthal Alfven waves in the magnetosphere is studied with allowance for the curvature of the geomagnetic field lines. The pressure of the background plasma is assumed to be zero. As early as 1993, Leonovich and Mazur showed that Alfven waves with m>>1, being standing waves along magnetic field lines, propagate, at the same time, across the magnetic surfaces. As these waves propagate through the magnetosphere, they interact with a group of high-energy particles and, thereby, are amplified with a growth rate dependent on the radial coordinate, i.e., a coordinate perpendicular to the magnetic sheaths. Near the Alfven resonance surface, the growth rate approaches zero, and the waves are damped completely due to the energy dissipation in the ionosphere. As the growth rate increases, the maximum of the wave amplitude is displaced to the Alfven resonance region and the most amplified waves are those whose magnetic field vectors oscillate in the azimuthal direction. Among the waves excited in a plasma resonator that is formed near the plasmapause, the most amplified are those with radial polarization

  19. Structural-morphological variations in pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide under irradiation with high-energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernykh, M.A.; Belov, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    Comparative study of structural-morphological variations under electron beam effect in pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide, obtained in seven different solutions and proton or X-rays pre-irradiated to determine structure peculiarities of anode aluminium oxides, is presented. Such study is a matter of interest from the solid-phase transformation theory point of view and for anode aluminium films application under radiation. Stability increase of pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide to the effect of UEhMV-100 K microscope electron beam at standard modes of operation (75 kV) due to proton or X-rays irradiation is found. Difference in structural-monorphological variations obtained in different solutions of anode aluminium films under high-energy particles irradiation is determined. Strucural-phase microinhomogeneity of amorphous pseudo-barrier films of anode aluminium oxide and its influence on solid-phase transformations character under electron bean of maximal intensity are detected

  20. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  1. Proceedings of the HEPLIB'92/KEK international users meeting on the support and environments of high energy physics computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasuko; Amako, Katsuya

    1992-07-01

    This is the summary of the agreement, conclusion and consensus which were reached at the third HEPLIB users meeting held at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) on June 1 and 2, 1992. 34 scientists from Europe, Japan and USA met for two days to discuss on the support and environment of high energy physics computing. Tele-video conference was held during this meeting with the members at several HEP laboratories in USA, who were not able to attend the meeting in person. This third meeting concluded the first round of meetings in which various HEPLIB proposals were discussed. This summary represents the common viewpoints presented and concluded at the meeting as far as possible. HEPLIB is the world user group for the enhancement, communication and distribution of software primarily for HEP computing environment. Its activities, steering committee, the facility of information exchange and so on are reported. The issues at this meeting were the status of HEPLIB, HEPLIB consensus document, site reports, the subgroups of library structures, HEPLIB compilation and physics generators. The future meetings and workshops were scheduled. (K.I.)

  2. Spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC) energies and the possibility to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V.G.

    2015-01-01

    We study the phenomena of spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals in the range of high energies that will be available at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC). It is shown that these phenomena can be used to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles in this range of energies. We also demonstrate that the phenomenon of particle spin depolarization in crystals provides a unique possibility of measuring the anomalous magnetic moment of negatively-charged particles (e.g., beauty baryons), for which the channeling effect is hampered due to far more rapid dechanneling as compared to that for positively-charged particles. Channeling of particles in either straight or bent crystals with polarized nuclei could be used for polarization and the analysis thereof of high-energy particles.

  3. Damage parameters for non-metals in a high energy neutron environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, G.F.; Berry, H.C.; Lazareth, O.W.; Goland, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Simulation of radiation damage induced in monatomic and binary non-metals by FMIT and fusion neutrons is described. Damage produced by elastic scattering of recoil atoms and by ionization-assisted processes has been evaluated using the damage program DON. Displacement damage from gamma rays has been evaluated by using the technique of Oen and Holmes. A comparison of damage for an anticipated FMIT radiation environment generated by a coupled n-γ transport calculations and a fusion spectrum is made. Gamma-induced displacement damage is sufficiently small that it is dominated by neutron-induced recoil processes. Ionization-assisted displacements may be important depending upon the ionization cross section of the particular non-metal under consideration

  4. Theoretical Framework for Anomalous Heat Without High-Energy Particles from Deuteron Fusion in Deuterium-Transition Metal Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott R. Chubb; Talbot A. Chubb

    2000-01-01

    In cold fusion, two conflicting intuitive pictures have caused confusion. A local picture, involving particle-particle interaction, has been dominant for most physicists. However, we suggest that a second, nonlocal, 'counter-intuitive' picture is more appropriate because it places greater emphasis on the behavior of matter distributions and their interaction with the associated environment. This picture is relevant in solids because when charged particles possess large DeBroglie wavelengths, they frequently interact coherently, in a wavelike fashion, in which momentum is conserved globally but not locally. These wavelike effects can become important in periodically ordered solids since they may lead to large momentum transfer from an isolated location to many locations at once. The local picture fails to incorporate these kinds of effects. How hydrogen (H) nuclei can become delocalized is illustrated by anomalies in the diffusivity and vibrational behavior of H in transition metals. Also, it is well-known that in many-body systems, discontinuities in the local momentum (wave function cusps) can explain how near-perfect overlap between charged particles can occur at close separation (which may explain how the Coulomb barrier can be circumvented). We explore implications of these effects on cold fusion

  5. Arcing and rf signal generation during target irradiation by a high-energy, pulsed neutral particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robiscoe, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    We present a theory describing the dynamics of arc discharges in bulk dielectric materials on board space-based vehicles. Such ''punch-through'' arcs can occur in target satellites irradiated by high-energy (250 MeV), pulsed (100 mA x 10 ms) neutral particle beams. We treat the arc as a capacitively limited avalanche current in the target dielectric material, and we find expressions for the arc duration, charge transport, currents, and discharge energy. These quantities are adjusted to be consistent with known scaling laws for the area of charge depleted by the arc. After a brief account of the statistical distribution of voltages at which the arc starts and stops, we calculate the signal strength and frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation broadcast by the arc. We find that arcs from thick (/similar to/1 cm) targets can generate rf signals detectable up to 1000 km from the target, bu a radio receiver operating at frequency 80 MHz, bandwidth 100 kHz, and detection threshold -105 dBm. These thick-target arc signals are 10 to 20 dB above ambient noise at the receiver, and they provide target hit assessment if the signal spectrum can be sampled at several frequencies in the nominal range 30-200 MHz. Thin-target (/similar to/1 mm) arc signals are much weaker, but when they are detecable in conjunction with thick-target signals, target discrimination is possible by comparing the signal frequency spectra. 24 refs., 12 figs

  6. Light quantum particles in a metallic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegad, P.

    1986-04-01

    The basic mechanism that limits the quantum behavior of light particles are fluctuations in the environment. We here develop a path integral formalism that accounts for the influence of the environment on the quantum motion of such particles. As our prime example we discuss a particle that moves in a tight binding band and interacts with an electron gas environment. This situation has received experimental attention recently in the case of muon diffusion in metals, and in the theoretical discussion of hydrogen on metal surfaces. It is shown that the adiabatic approximation, usually applied to such problems, does not apply. This has basically two consequences. At low temperatures we find that the particle moves in Bloch states with a renormalized (more narrow) band width. For higher temperatures (k B T > W ren ) the Bloch states acquire a lifetime that is shorter than K/W ren , which means a complete breakdown of the Bloch picture. (orig.)

  7. Experiments in high energy elementary particle physics and processing of photographically filed data with the aid of a measuring and evaluating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, H [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Zeuthen. Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik

    1977-01-01

    The measuring and evaluating system includes pattern recognition and measuring instruments as well as a processor for data evaluation and checking procedures. The program chart and the application to evaluating photographs of particle tracks from high energy physics experiments are mentioned. The time-sharing effect of such systems in data evaluation is emphasized.

  8. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently

  9. From the numerics of dynamics to the dynamics of numerics and visa versa in high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Ting

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the concepts of statistical symmetry we consider different aspects of the connections between nonlinear dynamics and high energy physics. We pay special attention to the interplay between number theory and dynamics. We subsequently utilize the so obtained insight to compute vital constants relevant to the program of grand unification and quantum gravity.

  10. An Interactive and Comprehensive Working Environment for High-Energy Physics Software with Python and Jupyter Notebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, N.; Hauth, T.; Pulvermacher, C.; Ritter, M.

    2017-10-01

    Today’s analyses for high-energy physics (HEP) experiments involve processing a large amount of data with highly specialized algorithms. The contemporary workflow from recorded data to final results is based on the execution of small scripts - often written in Python or ROOT macros which call complex compiled algorithms in the background - to perform fitting procedures and generate plots. During recent years interactive programming environments, such as Jupyter, became popular. Jupyter allows to develop Python-based applications, so-called notebooks, which bundle code, documentation and results, e.g. plots. Advantages over classical script-based approaches is the feature to recompute only parts of the analysis code, which allows for fast and iterative development, and a web-based user frontend, which can be hosted centrally and only requires a browser on the user side. In our novel approach, Python and Jupyter are tightly integrated into the Belle II Analysis Software Framework (basf2), currently being developed for the Belle II experiment in Japan. This allows to develop code in Jupyter notebooks for every aspect of the event simulation, reconstruction and analysis chain. These interactive notebooks can be hosted as a centralized web service via jupyterhub with docker and used by all scientists of the Belle II Collaboration. Because of its generality and encapsulation, the setup can easily be scaled to large installations.

  11. On the unification of all fundamental forces in a fundamentally fuzzy Cantorian ε(∞) manifold and high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2004-01-01

    Quantum space time as given by topology and geometry of El Naschie's ε (∞) theory must be regarded as fundamentally fuzzy. It's geometry and topology belong to the mathematical category of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory. All lines are fuzzy fractal lines in fuzzy spaces and all exact values are exact fuzzy expectation values. That way we remove many paradoxes and contradictions in the standard model of high energy particle physics

  12. Linking high-energy cosmic particles by black-hole jets embedded in large-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Murase, Kohta

    2018-04-01

    The origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is a half-century-old enigma1. The mystery has been deepened by an intriguing coincidence: over ten orders of magnitude in energy, the energy generation rates of UHECRs, PeV neutrinos and isotropic sub-TeV γ-rays are comparable, which hints at a grand unified picture2. Here we report that powerful black hole jets in aggregates of galaxies can supply the common origin for all of these phenomena. Once accelerated by a jet, low-energy cosmic rays confined in the radio lobe are adiabatically cooled; higher-energy cosmic rays leaving the source interact with the magnetized cluster environment and produce neutrinos and γ-rays; the highest-energy particles escape from the host cluster and contribute to the observed cosmic rays above 100 PeV. The model is consistent with the spectrum, composition and isotropy of the observed UHECRs, and also explains the IceCube neutrinos and the non-blazar component of the Fermi γ-ray background, assuming a reasonable energy output from black hole jets in clusters.

  13. Reduction of 3-methoxytyramine concentrations in the caudate nucleus of rats after exposure to high-energy iron particles: evidence for deficits in dopaminergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to low doses of high-energy iron particles can alter motor behavior. The ability of rats to hang from a wire has been reported to be significantly degraded after exposure to doses as low as 0.5 Gy. In addition, deficits in the ability of acetylcholine to regulate dopamine release in the caudate nucleus (an area in the brain important for motor function) have been found. The concentrations of 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), a metabolite of dopamine whose concentrations reflect dopamine release in vivo, were measured after rats were exposed to different doses of high-energy iron particles to gain further information about the effect of radiation on the dopaminergic system. Concentrations of 3-MT were significantly reduced 3 days after exposure to 5 Gy but returned to control values by 8 days. After 6 months, concentrations were again less than control values. Exposure to 5 Gy of high-energy electrons or gamma photons had no effect 3 days after exposure. Very high doses of electrons were needed to alter 3-MT concentrations. One hundred grays of electrons decreased 3-MT 30 min after irradiation but levels returned to control values by 60 min. Gamma photons had no effect after doses up to 200 Gy. These results provide further evidence that exposure to heavy particles can degrade motor behavior through an action on dopaminergic mechanisms and that this can occur after doses much lower than those needed for low-LET radiation

  14. High and medium high energy lines in France. The SATURNE case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milleret, G.

    1994-01-01

    Located in the Paris area, the SATURNE accelerator produces high energy charged particles: protons, deuterons, helium 3, helium 4, neutrons. The beams, with very flexible characteristics (linear energy transfer, flexible environment, dimension and intensity) for simulation of cosmic particles or high energy accelerator environments, allow for testing various individual or complete components. The various commercial offers and prices are presented. 5 fig., 2 ref

  15. [High energy particle physics]: Progress report covering the period from August 1, 1987 to July 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In this document the High Energy Physics Group reviews its accomplishments and progress during the past year and presents plans for continuing research during the next several years. Some of the topics discussed in this report are: completed fixed target experiments; applications of QCD to hard hadronic processes; top quark signatures at the Tevatron collider; searching for supersymmetry at e + e/sup /minus// colliders; Monte Carlo simulations; and quantrum field theories

  16. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas; quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  17. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas: quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  18. Multiplicity distribution and multiplicity moment of black and grey particles in high energy nucleus–nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Datta, Utpal; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the multiplicity distribution of black and grey particles emitted from 16 O–AgBr interactions at 2.1 AGeV and 60 AGeV. We have also calculated the multiplicity moment up to the fifth order for both the interactions and for both kinds of emitted particles. The variation of multiplicity moment with the order number has been investigated. It is seen that in the case of black particles multiplicity moment up to fourth order remains almost constant as energy increases from 2.1 AGeV to 60 AGeV. Fifth order multiplicity moment increases insignificantly with energy. However in the case of grey particles no such constancy of multiplicity moment with energy of the projectile beam is obtained. Later we have extended our study on the basis of Regge–Mueller approach to find the existence of second order correlation during the emission of black as well as the grey particles. The second Mueller moment is found to be positive and it increases as energy increases in the case of black particles. On the contrary in the case of grey particles the second Mueller moment decreases with energy. It can be concluded that as energy increases correlation among the black particles increases. On the other hand with the increase of energy correlation among the grey particles is found to diminish. (author)

  19. Radiation environment in the tunnel of a high-energy proton accelerator at energies near 1 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Sun, R.K.S.; Swanson, W.P.

    1987-12-01

    Neutron energy spectra, fluence distributions and rates in the FNAL Tevatron tunnel are summarized. This work has application to radiation damage to electronics and research equipment at high energy accelerators, as well as to radiological protection. 7 refs., 4 figs

  20. Particles colliders at the Large High Energy Laboratories; Colisionadores de particulas en los grandes laboratorios de Fisica de Altas Energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, M

    1996-09-01

    In this work we present an elementary introduction to particle accelerators, a basic guide of existing colliders and a description of the large european laboratories devoted to Elementary Particle Physics. This work is a large, corrected and updated version of an article published in: Ciencia-Tecnologia-Medio Ambiente Annual report 1996 Edition el Pais (Author)

  1. Correlative degree and collective side ward flow of final state particles in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weigang

    1999-01-01

    A concept of correlative degree is proposed. Using the method of particle-group correlation's function, the effects of the particles with different correlative degrees on collective side ward flow are studied for 1.2A GeV Ar + Bal 2 collisions at the Bevalac stream chamber. The studies indicate that correlative degree is an important parameter on describing collective side ward flow properties. The minority of correlative particles (or fragments) with larger correlative degrees can produce the effect arising from the collective side ward flow, but the effect arising from high-order collective flow correlations can not be dominated by these minority of particles (or fragments). It is results from the collective contribution of the majority of collective particles (or fragments) with various correlative degrees

  2. Topological background on charmed and beauty particle pairs produced in high energy hadron interactions in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates that by making use of the fact that new flavors must be produced in pairs in strong interactions and that beauty particles are expected to decay often into charmed particles, the contribution of background simulating decays can be computed from a pure topological point of view. Topics covered include the emulsion data, the search for charmed particles, the search for beauty particles, detection efficiency, and the evaluation of mean life-time. It is assumed that in the interaction of (350-400) GeV hadrons in emulsion the production rate of charmed particle pairs is 5X10 -3 /interaction. The corresponding figures for BB production are estimated to be 10 3 times smaller. It is noted that some neutral decay topology, like 4 or more charged prongs, are much less affected by background

  3. Method of determining the partial cross sections in a heavy liquid. Application to the production of strange particles by high energy π"-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, Antonio

    1964-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study if the measurement of cross sections on proton, and more particularly the development of a method of determination of cross sections which takes problems raised by a heavy liquid into account. This method is applied with sufficiently high energies for the Fermi momentum to have no influence on cross sections. The author first presents the general method of determination of partial cross sections in a heavy liquid: case of a hydrogen chamber, ideal case of a heavy liquid chamber without possibility of secondary interactions nor evaporations, search for a formula removing secondary interactions, correction due to the fact that the number of neutrons is not equal to the number of protons in the mixture nuclei, application to cross sections of production of high energy strange particles, calculation of the number of produced high energy particles. The experiment is then presented with its chamber, its measurement and calculation techniques. The author then reports and discusses cross section calculations and compares results with those of previous experiments. The last part addresses the study of secondary interactions in nuclei

  4. High energy physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Described are modern views on the particle structure and particle interactions at high energies. According to the latest data recieved, all particles can be classified in three groups: 1) strong interacting hadrons; 2) leptons, having no strong interactions; 3) photon. The particle structure is described in a quark model, and with the use of gluons. The elementary particle theory is based on the quantum field theory. The energy increase of interacting particles enables to check the main theory principles, such as conventions for causality, relativistic invariance and unitarity. Investigations of weak interactions are of great importance. The progress in this field is connected with unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For weak interactions promissing are the experiments with colliding electron-proton rings. The new data, especially at higher energies, will lead to a further refinement of the nature of particles and their interactions

  5. Quantitative evaluation of high-energy O− ion particle flux in a DC magnetron sputter plasma with an indium-tin-oxide target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Taku; Bae, Hansin; Setaka, Kenta; Ogawa, Hayato; Fukuoka, Yushi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    O − ion flux from the indium tin oxide (ITO) sputter target under Ar ion bombardment is quantitatively evaluated using a calorimetry method. Using a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer, O − energy distribution is measured with spatial dependence. Directional high-energy O − ion ejected from the target surface is observed. Using a calorimetry method, localized heat flux originated from high-energy O − ion is measured. From absolute evaluation of the heat flux from O − ion, O − particle flux in order of 10 18 m −2 s −1 is evaluated at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Production yield of O − ion on the ITO target by one Ar + ion impingement at a kinetic energy of 244 eV is estimated to be 3.3  ×  10 −3 as the minimum value. (paper)

  6. Quantitative evaluation of high-energy O- ion particle flux in a DC magnetron sputter plasma with an indium-tin-oxide target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Taku; Bae, Hansin; Setaka, Kenta; Ogawa, Hayato; Fukuoka, Yushi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2017-11-01

    O- ion flux from the indium tin oxide (ITO) sputter target under Ar ion bombardment is quantitatively evaluated using a calorimetry method. Using a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer, O- energy distribution is measured with spatial dependence. Directional high-energy O- ion ejected from the target surface is observed. Using a calorimetry method, localized heat flux originated from high-energy O- ion is measured. From absolute evaluation of the heat flux from O- ion, O- particle flux in order of 1018 m-2 s-1 is evaluated at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Production yield of O- ion on the ITO target by one Ar+ ion impingement at a kinetic energy of 244 eV is estimated to be 3.3  ×  10-3 as the minimum value.

  7. First results of high energy particle measurements with the TUENDE-M telescopes on board the S/C VEGA-1 and -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A.J.; Erdoes, G.; Eroe, J.

    1986-02-01

    VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 space probes launched to comet Halley are equipped with identical TUENDE-M high energy particle detectors. Each TUENDE-M instrument consists of two particle telescopes viewing in the ecliptic plane at an angle of deg 55 and deg 90, respectively, to the east of the Sun. Technical data of the detectors are tabulated. In the period Dec 1984 - Apr 1985 several cases of interplanetary acceleration of charged particles up to MeV energies and a large solar flare event (27.Jan 1985) were observed by the TUENDE-M instruments. The latter event is described in detail and observation results (intensity profiles of different channels of various energies) are presented. (D.Gy.)

  8. Use of specific features of electron and positron interactions with monocrystals for the control of high-energy particle beam parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochek, G.L.; Vit'ko, V.I.; Grishaev, I.A.; Kovalenko, G.D.; Kulibaba, V.I.; Morokhovskij, V.L.; Shramenko, B.I.

    1977-01-01

    To study possibilities of using the effect of high energy positron and electron interactions with crystals in practice at the 2 GeV Kharkov lineac the effect of a light particle charge sign on the processes of bremsstrahlung, elastic scattering and revealing ''blocking effect'' in elastic scatterina has been investigated experimentally of 1 GeV electron (positron) beam is directed to a silicon crystal of 185 μkm thickness. Dependence of total bremsstrahlung flow on the angle between the beam direction and crystal axis has shown, that positron bremsstrahlung is minimum (positrons are channelling, but electron bremsstrahlung is maximum, when crystallographic axis direction coincides with particle direction. The process of positron annihilation in flight has been investigated in 300 μkm thick silicon monocrystal. Bremsstrahlung intensity for channeling positrons drops 4.4 times, and intensity of annihilation radiation - 1.6 times as compared to the case, when channeling regime is absent. Experimental data point out the possibility of using monocrystals for control of the parameters of high-energy particle control beams

  9. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adloff, C.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Marčišovský, Michal; Šícho, Petr; Vrba, Václav; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 654, č. 1 (2011), s. 97-109 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042; GA MŠk LA08032 Grant - others:EC(XE) RII3-CT-2006-026126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : lepton collider * electromagnetic calorimeter * embedded electronics * fake hits Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011 http://arxiv.org/pdf/arXiv:1102.3454v2

  10. The VAK of vacuum fluctuation, Spontaneous self-organization and complexity theory interpretation of high energy particle physics and the mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is a rather informal introduction to the concepts and results of the E-infinity Cantorian theory of quantum physics. The fundamental tools of complexity theory and non-linear dynamics (Hausdorff dimensions, fat fractals, etc.) are used to give what we think to be a new interpretation of high energy physics and to determine the corresponding mass-spectrum. Particular attention is paid to the role played by the VAK, KAM theorem, Arnold diffusion, Newhaus sinks and knot theory in determining the stability of an elementary 'particle-wave' which emerges in self-organizatory manner out of sizzling vacuum fluctuation

  11. Fragmentation into strange particles in high energy νp, νn, anti νp and anti νn interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allasia, D.; Cirio, R.; Gamba, D.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L.; Romero, A.; Rustichelli, S.; Angelini, C.; Baldini, A.; Bertanza, L.; Casali, R.; Fantechi, R.; Flaminio, V.; Pazzi, R.; Bloch, M.; Bolognese, T.; Borg, A.; Faccini-Turluer, M.L.; Lippi, I.; Louedec, C.; Vignaud, D.; Capiluppi, P.; Derkaoui, J.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Frodesen, A.G.; Jongejans, B.; Tenner, A.G.; Apeldoorn, G. van; Dam, P. van; Visser, C.; Wigmans, R.

    1985-01-01

    The fragmentation of the hardronic system into Λ, Σ(1385), K 0 and Ksup(*)(892) in deep-inelastic charged-current interactions of high energy neutrinos and antineutrinos with proton and neutron is analyzed. The results obtained for the production of these particles from the various initial states are compared with each other and with the predictions of the Lund fragmentation model. This comparison shows that a spectator diquark does not fragment as a whole in a fraction of the interactions. The role of the sea quarks in the baryon formation process is underlined. Strange vector and pseudoscalar mesons are likely to be produced at similar rates. (orig.)

  12. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  13. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  14. Improvement in the Design of Metal-Ceramic High Voltage Feedthroughs for use in High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W

    1999-01-01

    Large high-voltage devices operate in particle accelerators to steer charged particles in the desired direction. Solid and hollow rods of sintered alumina are used as insulating supports and high-voltage feedthroughs to power the electrodes of these electrostatic systems. The performance of the systems is often limited by voltage breakdown along the surface of the ceramic insulator (so-called surface flashover) or discharge between feedthrough and vacuum tank, which can lead to significant disruptions in terms of overall machine efficiency. Available results on the influence of the mechanical preparation, thermal history and particular cleaning techniques on commercially obtainable alumina samples have been studied in order to investigate possibilities for better preparation methodology of the insulating supports. Also the influence of the relative position of the feedthrough inside the vacuum tank on the high-voltage breakdown behaviour has been studied. This paper describes the theoretical and practical bac...

  15. Evidence for a new particle with naked ''beauty'' and for its associated production in high-energy (pp) interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Di Cesare, P.; Esposito, B.; Giusti, P.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Valenti, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bologna Univ.; Perugia Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is reported for the existence, with six standard deviations significance, of a new particle: the heaviest baryon observed so far, whose mass is measured to be m = (5,425 +- 75 175 ) MeV/c 2 . Its width is compatible with zero. It is electrically neutral and it decays into a proton, a D 0 , and a π - . This particle is produced in association with a hadronic state whose semileptonic decay contains a positive electron. The partial cross section for the observed effect is δσ = (3.8 +- 1.2) x 10 - 35 cm 2 . The interpretation of these results is in terms of the associated production of naked ''beauty'' states in (pp) interactions at √s = 62 GeV c.m. energy. The new particle is identified as the first ''beauty''-flavoured baryon with quark composition (udb), i.e. the #betta# 0 sub(b). The discrimination power of the experiment against ''known'' physics, is of the order of 10 - 10 . (author)

  16. CaloGAN: Simulating 3D high energy particle showers in multilayer electromagnetic calorimeters with generative adversarial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Michela; de Oliveira, Luke; Nachman, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The precise modeling of subatomic particle interactions and propagation through matter is paramount for the advancement of nuclear and particle physics searches and precision measurements. The most computationally expensive step in the simulation pipeline of a typical experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the detailed modeling of the full complexity of physics processes that govern the motion and evolution of particle showers inside calorimeters. We introduce CaloGAN, a new fast simulation technique based on generative adversarial networks (GANs). We apply these neural networks to the modeling of electromagnetic showers in a longitudinally segmented calorimeter and achieve speedup factors comparable to or better than existing full simulation techniques on CPU (100 ×-1000 × ) and even faster on GPU (up to ˜105× ). There are still challenges for achieving precision across the entire phase space, but our solution can reproduce a variety of geometric shower shape properties of photons, positrons, and charged pions. This represents a significant stepping stone toward a full neural network-based detector simulation that could save significant computing time and enable many analyses now and in the future.

  17. Proposal for the Award of Two Contracts for the Technical Services for Work on Components of CERN Particle Accelerators and High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts for the technical services for work on components of CERN particle accelerators and high energy physics experiments. Following a market survey carried out among 73 firms in fourteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3156/SPL) was sent on 4 November 2002 to three consortia in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from the three consortia. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of two contracts with: 1) the consortium SERCO FACILITIES MANAGEMENT (NL) - GERARD PERRIER INDUSTRIE (FR) - INEO ALPES (FR), the lowest bidder, for approximately 55% of the technical services for work on components of CERN particle accelerators and high energy physics experiments, for an initial period of five years and for a total amount not exceeding 37 435 270 euros (54 902 500 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2005. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-...

  18. Detailed study of strange particle production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althoff, M; Braunschweig, W; Kirschfink, F J; Luebelsmeyer, K; Martyn, H U; Rosskamp, P; Schmitz, D; Siebke, H; Wallraff, W; Eisenmann, J

    1985-02-01

    Results on K/sup 0/ and ..lambda.. production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at c.m. energies of 14, 22 and 34 GeV are presented. The shape of the K/sup 0/ and ..lambda.. differential cross sections are very similar to each other and to those of ..pi..sup(+-), Ksup(+-) and p(anti p). Scaling violation are observed for K/sup 0/ production. We obtain a value for the probability to product strange quark-antiquark pairs relative to that to produce up or down quark-antiquark pairs of 0.35+-0.02+-0.05. The value of Rsub(h)=sigma(e/sup +/e/sup -/->hX)/sigmasub(..mu mu..) is shown to rise steadily with c.m. energy for all particle species. At 34 GeV we find 1.48+-0.05 K/sup 0/ and 0.31+-0.04 ..lambda.. per event. We have searched for possible ..lambda.. polarization. The production of K/sup 0/'s and ..lambda..'s in jets is examined as a function of psub(T)/sup 2/ and rapidity and compared to that of all charged particles; the yields in two and three jets are also investigated. Results are presented from events with two baryons (..lambda.., anti ..lambda.., p or anti p) observed.

  19. Measuring the critical current in superconducting samples made of NT-50 under pulse irradiation by high-energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, P.G.; Vladimirova, N.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Goncharov, I.N.; Zajtsev, L.N.; Zel'dich, B.D.; Ivanov, V.I.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Khvostov, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The results of tests of superconducting samples of an uninsulated wire of the 0.5 mm diameter, containing 1045 superconducting filaments of the 10 μm diameter made of NT-50 superconductor in a copper matrix, are given. The upper part of the sample (''closed'') is placed between two glass-cloth-base laminate plates of the 50 mm length, and the lower part (''open'') of the 45 mm length is immerged into liquid helium. The sample is located perpendicular to the magnetic field of a superconducting solenoid and it is irradiated by charged particle beams at the energy of several GeV. The measurement results of permissible energy release in the sample depending on subcriticality (I/Isub(c) where I is an operating current through the sample, and Isub(c) is a critical current for lack of the beam) and the particle flux density, as well as of the maximum permissible fluence depending on subcriticality. In case of the ''closed'' sample irradiated by short pulses (approximately 1 ms) for I/Isub(c) [ru

  20. Disentangling random thermal motion of particles and collective expansion of source from transverse momentum spectra in high energy collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of a multisource thermal model, we describe experimental results of the transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in gold-gold (Au-Au), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), proton-lead (p-Pb), and proton-proton (p -p) collisions at various energies, measured by the PHENIX, STAR, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations, by using the Tsallis-standard (Tsallis form of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein), Tsallis, and two- or three-component standard distributions which can be in fact regarded as different types of ‘thermometers’ or ‘thermometric scales’ and ‘speedometers’. A central parameter in the three distributions is the effective temperature which contains information on the kinetic freeze-out temperature of the emitting source and reflects the effects of random thermal motion of particles as well as collective expansion of the source. To disentangle both effects, we extract the kinetic freeze-out temperature from the intercept of the effective temperature (T) curve as a function of particle’s rest mass (m 0) when plotting T versus m 0, and the mean transverse flow velocity from the slope of the mean transverse momentum ( ) curve as a function of mean moving mass (\\overline{m}) when plotting versus \\overline{m}.

  1. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  2. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cipiccia, S.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fonseca, R.A.; Goddard, B.; Gross, M.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jolly, S.; Kempkes, P.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.R.; McKenzie, J.W.; Meddahi, M.; Militsyn, B.L.; Moschuering, N.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Norreys, P.A.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Petrenko, A.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Reimann, O.; Ruhl, H.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Silva, L.O.; Sosedkin, A.; Tarkeshian, R.; Trines, R.M.G.N.; Tuckmantel, T.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN -- the AWAKE experiment -- has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  3. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, R; Gross, M; Bingham, R; Holloway, J; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Butterworth, A; Feldbaumer, E; Goddard, B; Gschwendtner, E; Buttenschön, B; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Jaroszynski, D; Fonseca, R A; Grulke, O; Kempkes, P; Huang, C; Jolly, S

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN—the AWAKE experiment—has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. (paper)

  4. Bragg-case synchrotron section topography of silicon implanted with high-energy protons and α particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1997-01-01

    Back reflection section topography using white-beam synchrotron radiation has been applied for the investigation of silicon implanted with 1 and 1.6 MeV protons and 4.8 MeV α particles. The beam width was limited to 5 μm, and a series of spots in the vicinity of a centrally adjusted reflection were indexed and analysed. The back-reflection section pattern of implanted crystals usually exhibits fringes corresponding to the reflection from the surface and a series of fringes corresponding to the rear region of the shot-through layer, the destroyed layer and the bulk. The patterns were used for direct evaluation of ion ranges and thicknesses of the shot-through layer. The overall characteristics of the obtained patterns were successfully reproduced in simulations based on numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations. The agreement between the simulation and experiment proves that the lattice-parameter depth-distribution profiles can be assumed to be proportional to interstitial-vacancy distributions obtained using the Monte Carlo method from the Biersack-Ziegler theory. The simulation also reproduced interference tails observed in some section patterns. It was found that these tails are caused by the ion-dose change along the beam and they were probably formed due to the interference between the radiation reflected from the bulk and those rays reflected by the rear region of the shot-through layer. (orig.)

  5. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high-energy XRD study of the local environment of copper in antibacterial copper-releasing degradable phosphate glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, David M.; Ahmed, Ifty; Fitzgerald, Victoria; Moss, Rob M.; Wetherall, Karen; Knowles, Jonathan C.; Smith, Mark E.; Newport, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate-based glasses of the general formula Na2O-CaO-P2O5 are degradable in an aqueous environment, and therefore can act as antibacterial materials through the inclusion of ions such as copper. In this study, CuO and Cu2O were added to Na2O-CaO-P2O5 glasses (1-20 mol% Cu) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) used to probe the local environment of the copper ions. Copper K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra confirm the oxi...

  6. Mitigated FPGA design of multi-gigabit transceivers for application in high radiation environments of High Energy Physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusati, M.; Camplani, A.; Cannon, M.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.

    2017-01-01

    SRAM-ba8ed Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) logic devices arc very attractive in applications where high data throughput is needed, such as the latest generation of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. FPGAs have been rarely used in such experiments because of their sensitivity to radiation. The present paper proposes a mitigation approach applied to commercial FPGA devices to meet the reliability requirements for the front-end electronics of the Liquid Argon (LAr) electromagnetic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, located at CERN. Particular attention will be devoted to define a proper mitigation scheme of the multi-gigabit transceivers embedded in the FPGA, which is a critical part of the LAr data acquisition chain. A demonstrator board is being developed to validate the proposed methodology. :!\\litigation techniques such as Triple Modular Redundancy (T:t\\IR) and scrubbing will be used to increase the robustness of the design and to maximize the fault tolerance from Single-Event Upsets (SEUs).

  7. Performance implications of virtualization and hyper-threading on high energy physics applications in a Grid environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, Laura; Cobban, M; Iqbal, Saima; Jenwei, Hsieh; Newman, R; Pepper, R; Tseng, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The simulations used in the field of high energy physics are compute intensive and exhibit a high level of data parallelism. These features make such simulations ideal candidates for Grid computing. We are taking as an example the GEANT4 detector simulation used for physics studies within the ATLAS experiment at CERN. One key issue in Grid computing is that of network and system security, which can potentially inhibit the wide spread use of such simulations. Virtualization provides a feasible solution because it allows the creation of virtual compute nodes in both local and remote compute clusters, thus providing an insulating layer which can play an important role in satisfying the security concerns of all parties involved. However, it has performance implications. This study provides quantitative estimates of the virtualization and hyper- threading overhead for GEANT on commodity clusters. Results show that virtualization has less than 15% run-time overhead, and that the best run time (with the non-SMP lice...

  8. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Repond, J.; Smith, J.; Trojand, D.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Benyamna, M.; Carloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Gottlicher, P.; Gunter, C.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Marchesini, I.; Meyer, N.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Feege, N.; Haller, J.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Eckert, P.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Uozumi, S.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.M.; Bartsch, V.; Salvatore, F.; Laktineh, I.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Frey, A.; Kiesling, C.; Simon, F.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Marcisovsky, M.; Sicho, P.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.

    2011-01-01

    Application Specific Integrated Circuits, ASICs, similar to those envisaged for the readout electronics of the central calorimeters of detectors for a future lepton collider have been exposed to high-energy electromagnetic showers. A salient feature of these calorimeters is that the readout electronics will be embedded into the calorimeter layers. In this article it is shown that interactions of shower particles in the volume of the readout electronics do not alter the noise pattern of the ASICs. No signal at or above the MIP level has been observed during the exposure. The upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the frequency of faked signals is smaller than 1x10^{-5} for a noise threshold of about 60% of a MIP. For ASICs with similar design to those which were tested, it can thus be largely excluded that the embedding of the electronics into the calorimeter layers compromises the performance of the calorimeters.

  9. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  10. Lasers and future high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-02-01

    Future high energy colliders, directions for particle physics and relationship to new technology such as lasers are discussed. Experimental approaches to explore New Physics with emphasis on the utility of high energy colliders are also discussed

  11. Proceedings of progress in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauchy Hwang, W.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Lee, C.E.; Ernst, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of progress in high energy physics. Topics covered include: Particle Phenomology; Particles and Fields; Physics in 2 and 1 Dimensions; Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Gravitation; Some Perspertives on the Future of Particle Physics

  12. Calculation of Nuclear Particles Production at High-Energy Photon Beams from a Linac Operating at 6, 10 and 15 MV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Renato; Bettega, Daniela; Calzolari, Paola; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2017-05-01

    Production of photonuclear particles in a tissue-equivalent medium has been calculated for linacs at 6, 10 and 15 MV from Varian TrueBeam. Based on the knowledge of bremsstrahlung fluence spectra and linac photon beam parameters, numerical integration was performed on the cross sections for photoparticle production of the constituent elements of tissue (2H,12C,13C,16O,17O,18O,14N,15N). At 15 MV, at the depth of photon maximum dose, the total absorbed dose due to neutrons, protons, alphas and residual nuclei from photon reactions in tissue (5.5E-05 Gy per Gy of photons) is comparable to that due to neutrons from accelerator head. Results reasonably agree with data reported in the literature using Monte Carlo models simulating linac head components. This work suggests a simple method to estimate the dose contributed by the photon-induced nuclear particles for high-energy photon beams produced by linacs in use, as it might be relevant for late stochastic effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  14. Processing and performance of topobathymetric lidar data for geomorphometric and morphological classification in a high-energy tidal environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Skovgaard; Gergely, Áron; Al-Hamdani, Zyad K.

    2017-01-01

    of detecting features with a size of less than 1 m2. The derived high-resolution DEM was applied for detection and classification of geomorphometric and morphological features within the natural environment of the study area. Initially, the bathymetric position index (BPI) and the slope of the DEM were used...... area into six specific types of morphological features (i.e. subtidal channel, intertidal flat, intertidal creek, linear bar, swash bar and beach dune). The developed classification method is adapted and applied to a specific case, but it can also be implemented in other cases and environments....

  15. Development of the radio astronomical method of cosmic particle detection for extremely high-energy cosmic ray physics and neutrino astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznykh Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to use ground based radio telescopes for detection of Askaryan radio pulses from particle cascades arising when extremely high-energy (EHE > 1020 eV cosmic rays (including neutrinos interact with the lunar regolith of multi gigaton mass was made at the end of 1980s in the framework of the Russian (Soviet DUMAND Program. During more than a quarter of century a number of lunar experiments were carried out mainly in the 1–3 GHz frequency range using the large radio telescopes of Australia, USA, Russia and other countries but these experiments only put upper limits to the EHE cosmic rays fluxes. For this reason, it would be of great interest to search for nanosecond radio pulses from the Moon in a wider interval of frequencies (including lower ones of 100–350 MHz with larger radio detectors – for example the giant radio telescope SKA (Square Kilometer Array which is constructed in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In this paper possibilities are discussed to use one of the most sensitive meter-wavelength (∼ 110 MHz Large Phased Array (LPA of 187 × 384 m2 and the wide field of view meter-wavelength array of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory as prototypes of low frequency radio detectors for lunar experiments. The new scheme for fast simulation of ultrahigh and extremely high-energy cascades in dense media is also suggested. This scheme will be used later for calculations of radio emission of cascades in the lunar regolith with energies up to 1020 eV and higher in the wide frequency band of 0.1− a few GHz.

  16. The Milky Way's central black hole and its environment: high energy observations with Integral and XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The main subject of this doctoral thesis of the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way galaxy: SgrA*. The means by which the study of this object and the various astrophysical systems that populate the core of the Galaxy was carried out, is through high energy observations of the region with the space observatories XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL. With XMM-Newton, I was able to focus in on the radiation from processes closely tied to the central black hole itself, and in particular, perform a detailed study the spectral and temporal characteristics of the emission during X-ray ares originating very near the event horizon of this massive black hole. Of the two X-ray ares detected by XMM-Newton in March and August 2004, both of which reached peak luminosities of 10"3"5 ergs s"-"1, corresponding to roughly a factor of 40 above the quiescent X-ray luminosity, the latter proved to be very interesting indeed. This flaring event lasted nearly 10 ks, hence allowing a meaningful investigation of the possible periodic or semi-periodic quality of the emission. A fine power spectral analysis uncovered the clear presence of a semi-periodic signal centred on 1330 s (22.2 min). The theoretical statistical probability that this peak in the periodogram is caused by random fluctuations in a white noise background is 10"-"1"0. The probability is found to be 10"-"6, when calculated empirically using simulations of event lists having the same statistical properties as the are data itself. This is the most convincing result yet; some ares in SgrA* exhibit semi-periodic qualities. With INTEGRAL, I have brought to light the first detection of soft-rays above 20 keV from the central parsecs of the Galaxy. The central portion of the Galaxy was observed extensively and with the analysis of the first two years of data obtained with INTEGRAL, the central Galactic centre source, IGR J17456-2901, was found to be weak but persistent, with a 20-200 keV luminosity of L≅5*10"3"5 ergs s"-"1

  17. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  18. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  19. Removal of ultrafine particles from indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    in a CFD simulation or if particles are considered of one single size, a deviation from reality may occur. It was concluded that an ozone generating air cleaning technology may increase the level of ozone to a level that exceeds the allowed level of 120 μgm-3 according to Air Quality Guidelines for Europe...... effect on the removal effectiveness in a room with a displacement airflow pattern. According to the simulation study of particle dispersion in a room, it was concluded that the location of a particle source has impact on the UFP concentration profile in the room....

  20. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Energetic Particles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solid state detectors with pulse height discrimination measure proton, alpha-particle, and electron fluxes. E1 and I1 channels are responding primarily to trapped...

  1. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  2. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  3. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  4. MC-TESTER v. 1.23: A universal tool for comparisons of Monte Carlo predictions for particle decays in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, N.; Golonka, P.; Przedziński, T.; Waş, Z.

    2011-03-01

    Theoretical predictions in high energy physics are routinely provided in the form of Monte Carlo generators. Comparisons of predictions from different programs and/or different initialization set-ups are often necessary. MC-TESTER can be used for such tests of decays of intermediate states (particles or resonances) in a semi-automated way. Since 2002 new functionalities were introduced into the package. In particular, it now works with the HepMC event record, the standard for C++ programs. The complete set-up for benchmarking the interfaces, such as interface between τ-lepton production and decay, including QED bremsstrahlung effects is shown. The example is chosen to illustrate the new options introduced into the program. From the technical perspective, our paper documents software updates and supplements previous documentation. As in the past, our test consists of two steps. Distinct Monte Carlo programs are run separately; events with decays of a chosen particle are searched, and information is stored by MC-TESTER. Then, at the analysis step, information from a pair of runs may be compared and represented in the form of tables and plots. Updates introduced in the program up to version 1.24.4 are also documented. In particular, new configuration scripts or script to combine results from multitude of runs into single information file to be used in analysis step are explained. Program summaryProgram title: MC-TESTER, version 1.23 and version 1.24.4 Catalog identifier: ADSM_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSM_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 250 548 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 290 610 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, FORTRAN77 Tested and compiled with: gcc 3.4.6, 4

  5. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    Brief reports are given on the work of several professors. The following areas are included: quantum chromodynamics calculations using numerical lattice gauge theory and a high-speed parallel computer; the ''spin wave'' description of bosonic particles moving on a lattice with same-site exclusion; a high-temperature expansion to 13th order for the O(4)-symmetric φ 4 model on a four-dimensional F 4 lattice; spin waves and lattice bosons; superconductivity of C 60 ; meson-meson interferometry in heavy-ion collisions; baryon number violation in the Standard Model in high-energy collisions; hard thermal loops in QCD; electromagnetic interactions of anyons; the relation between Bose-Einstein and BCS condensations; Euclidean wormholes with topology S 1 x S 2 x R; vacuum decay and symmetry breaking by radiative corrections; inflationary solutions to the cosmological horizon and flatness problems; and magnetically charged black holes

  6. UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) Level 3TP V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) Level 3TP data product consists of daily, 65.536 second and 2.048 interval time-ordered, vertical profiles of electron and...

  7. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  8. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  9. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  10. High energy physics and grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuansong

    2004-01-01

    The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)

  11. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the tradition, the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics are presented under a common header, they are: Department of Particle Theory (Dept 5); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept 11); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept 12); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept 13); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). The research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY) is also presented. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy (UMM). This location, close to the Jagiellonian University (JU), facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the UMM. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of the activities is teaching and training students from the academic community in Cracow. Joint research, teaching and academic training in the high energy physics are carried out within the M. Miesowicz

  12. Instrumentation in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation in high energy physics is a wide and advanced domain which cannot be covered in a single lesson. The main basic physics processes for charged and neutral particles are recalled with the definition of a few concepts needed to understand or design a detector. The application of these principles to charged particle measurement devices (momentum), light detection or energy measurement are presented mostly with examples from collider experiments. The particle identification which is often the combination of different techniques in a same experiment is also discussed. Finally in a very short section, a few considerations about electronics/processing with their impact on the detector performance are given

  13. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  14. Tolerance of the High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology ASIC to potentially destructive radiation processes in Earth-orbit-equivalent environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D. F.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Wilson, M.; Benmoussa, A.; Campola, M.; Christe, S. D.; Gissot, S.; Jones, L.; Newport, J.; Prydderch, M.; Richards, S.; Seller, P.; Shih, A. Y.; Thomas, S.

    2018-02-01

    The High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology (HEXITEC) ASIC is designed on a 0.35 μm CMOS process to read out CdTe or CZT detectors and hence provide fine-pixellated spectroscopic imaging in the range 2-200 keV. In this paper, we examine the tolerance of HEXITEC to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event radiation effects. Bare ASICs are irradiated with X-rays up to a total ionising dose (TID) of 1 Mrad (SiO2) and bombarded with heavy ions with linear energy transfer (LET) up to 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. HEXITEC is shown to operate reliably below a TID of 150 krad, have immunity to fatal single event latchup (SEL) and have high tolerance to non-fatal SEL up to LETs of at least 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. The results are compared to predictions of TID and SELs for various Earth-orbits and aluminium shielding thicknesses. It is found that HEXITEC's radiation tolerance to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event effects is sufficient to reliably operate in these environments with moderate shielding.

  15. Entanglement and decoherence in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of entanglement occurs in very heavy quantum systems of particle physics. We find analogies but also differences to the entangled spin-1/2 or photon systems. In particular we discuss the features of entangled 'strangeness', the K-meson system, where a Bell inequality exists which has a remarkable connection to CP (charge conjugation and parity) and its violation. Stability of entangled quantum states is studied by allowing the system to interact with an environment. We consider possible decoherence of entangled 'beauty', the B-meson system, produced at the particle colliders at very high energies (10 GeV). Finally, we discuss a criterion for detecting entangled/separable states, a generalized Bell inequality and entanglement witness. We illustrate its geometric features by the two-spin example Alice and Bob. (author)

  16. Optimization of a particle optical system in a mutilprocessor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lei; Yin Hanchun; Wang Baoping; Tong Linsu

    2002-01-01

    In the design of a charged particle optical system, many geometrical and electric parameters have to be optimized to improve the performance characteristics. In every optimization cycle, the electromagnetic field and particle trajectories have to be calculated. Therefore, the optimization of a charged particle optical system is limited by the computer resources seriously. Apart from this, numerical errors of calculation may also influence the convergence of merit function. This article studies how to improve the optimization of charged particle optical systems. A new method is used to determine the gradient matrix. With this method, the accuracy of the Jacobian matrix can be improved. In this paper, the charged particle optical system is optimized with a Message Passing Interface (MPI). The electromagnetic field, particle trajectories and gradients of optimization variables are calculated on networks of workstations. Therefore, the speed of optimization has been increased largely. It is possible to design a complicated charged particle optical system with optimum quality on a MPI environment. Finally, an electron gun for a cathode ray tube has been optimized on a MPI environment to verify the method proposed in this paper

  17. SEL monitoring of the earth's energetic particle radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Environment Laboratory (SEL) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) maintains instruments on board the GOES series of geostationary satellites, and aboard the NOAA/TIROS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellites, which provide monitoring of the energetic particle radiation environment as well as monitoring the geostationary magnetic field and the solar x-ray flux. The data are used by the SEL Space Environment Services Center (SESC) to help provide real-time monitoring and forecasting of the state of the near earth environment and its disturbances, and to maintain a source of reliable information to research and operational activities of a variety of users

  18. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  19. Detection and localisation of very high energy particles in underwater acoustic; Detection et localisation de particules de tres hautes energies en acoustique sous-marine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juennard, N

    2007-12-15

    The theme of this thesis is included in the Antares international project whose object is to build a neutrino telescope located in a deep water environment in the Mediterranean sea. In deep water sea, a neutrino can interact with a water molecule. The collision generates a luminous flash and an acoustic wave. The goal of this work is to study this acoustic sound wave and develop a system able to detect the corresponding wave front and to estimate the initial direction of the particle. We first focus on the acoustic sound wave. Two different models are studied, and works made recently have led to a mathematical expression of both signal and wave front. Then, several detection methods are studied, from the most classical to the more recent ones. The experimental comparison in semi-real situation leads to the choice of a detection method: the Extended stochastic matched filter. Position and direction of the neutrino are now estimated with a Gauss-Newton inspired algorithm. This estimator is based on a wave front propagation model and on the time detection information given by the telescope hydro-phones. Performances of the system are then estimated. An antenna structure is then proposed and a global simulation finalizes this thesis. In this simulation, detection and estimation are based on the results found in the previous sections. Underwater sea noise is real and the results of the simulation valid our works. (author)

  20. Formation and alteration of airborne particles in the subway environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T; Querol, X; Martins, V; Minguillón, M C; Reche, C; Ku, L H; Eun, H R; Ahn, K H; Capdevila, M; de Miguel, E

    2017-01-25

    Most particles in the rail subway environment are sub-micron sized ferruginous flakes and splinters generated mechanically by frictional wear of brake pads, wheels and rails. To better understand the mechanisms of formation and the alteration processes affecting inhalable particles in subways, PM samples (1-2.5 μm and 2.5-10 μm) were collected in the Barcelona Metro and then studied under a scanning electron microscope. Most particles in these samples are hematitic (up to 88%), with relatively minor amounts of mineral matter (up to 9%) and sulphates (up to 5%). Detailed microscopy (using back scattered and TEM-DRX imaging) reveals how many of the metallic particles comprise the metallic Fe nucleus surrounded by hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and a coating of sulphate and chloride salts mixed with mineral matter (including Ca-carbonates, clay minerals and quartz). These observations record the emission of fine to ultrafine FePM by frictional wear at elevated temperatures that promote rapid partial (or complete) oxidation of the native metal. Water condensing on the PM surface during cooling leads to the adsorption of inorganic mineral particles that coat the iron oxide. The distinctively layered polymineralic structure that results from these processes is peculiar to particles generated in the subway environment and very different from PM typically inhaled outdoors.

  1. Characteristics of background radiation behind one-dimensional radiation shielding of high-energy particle beams; Kharakteristiki fonovogo izlucheniya za odnomernymi radiatsionnymi zashchitami puchkov vysokoehnergeticheskikh chastits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatkov, D V; Kryuchkov, V P

    1994-12-31

    The calculational investigations of component, spatial and energy distributions of background radiation behind radiation shielding of high-energy hadron beams were carried out. The relations between different ingredients of radiation have been obtained. The numerous data of spatial and energy distribution of protons, neutrons, pions and photons in homogeneous and heterogeneous shielding from concrete and iron, presented in the paper, can be used as a reference data. 23 refs., 50 figs.

  2. Temporal and spatial distribution of high energy electrons at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.; Ratliff, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) were used to study the high energy electron environment in the Jovian magnetosphere, especially in the region between 8 to 18 Rj (1 Rj = 1 Jovian radius = 71,400 km). 10-minute averages of the EPD data collected between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and the orbit number 33 (I33) in 2002 form an extensive dataset, which has been extremely useful to observe temporal and spatial variability of the Jovian high energy electron environment. The count rates of the EPD electron channels (0.174, 0.304, 0.527, 1.5, 2.0, and 11 MeV) were grouped into 0.5 Rj or 0.5 L bins and analyzed statistically. The results indicate that: (1) a log-normal Gaussian distribution well describes the statistics of the high energy electron environment (for example, electron differential fluxes) in the Jovian magnetosphere, in the region studied here; (2) the high energy electron environments inferred by the Galileo EPD measurements are in a close agreement with the data obtained using the Divine model, which was developed more than 30 years ago from Pioneer 10, 11 and Voyager 1, 2 data; (3) the data are better organized when plotted against magnetic radial parameter L than Rj; (4) the standard deviations of the 0.174, 0.304, 0.527 MeV channel count rates are larger than those of the 1.5, 2.0, 11 MeV count rates in 12 Rj. These observations are very helpful to understand short- and long-term, and local variability of the Jovian high energy electron environment, and are discussed in detail.

  3. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  4. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  5. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  6. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  7. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community

  8. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  9. Engineered nano particles: Nature, behavior, and effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Linee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash; Das, Pallabi; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kumar, Sandeep; Adelodun, Adedeji A

    2017-07-01

    Increased application of engineered nano particles (ENPs) in production of various appliances and consumer items is increasing their presence in the natural environment. Although a wide variety of nano particles (NPs) are ubiquitously dispersed in ecosystems, risk assessment guidelines to describe their ageing, direct exposure, and long-term accumulation characteristics are poorly developed. In this review, we describe what is known about the life cycle of ENPs and their impact on natural systems and examine if there is a cohesive relationship between their transformation processes and bio-accessibility in various food chains. Different environmental stressors influence the fate of these particles in the environment. Composition of solid media, pore size, solution chemistry, mineral composition, presence of natural organic matter, and fluid velocity are some environmental stressors that influence the transformation, transport, and mobility of nano particles. Transformed nano particles can reduce cell viability, growth and morphology, enhance oxidative stress, and damage DNA in living organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Track detectors in particle accelerator environment: an overview on existing and new methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.P.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of high energy, high intensity particle accelerators, with increasing applications in various fields has lead to the involvement of more users and operators. The complex (secondary) radiation field in an accelerator environment, generated by the primary beam hitting a target, is highly directional, dynamic, pulsed and mixed in nature, which poses a unique challenge for the radiological safety aspects, specially the neutrons contributing to a significant dose even beyond the shields. Solid polymeric track detectors (SPTDs), due to their insensitivity to low LET radiations and integrating nature of signal registration, are found to be effective and convenient for neutron measurements. This paper reviews some of the existing and frequently used methods of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using SPTDs and explores new approaches as well. The paper elaborates on the extended energy response and rapid etching techniques of SPTDs along with some new results. An overview on the recently introduced microwave-induced chemical etching (MICE) technique is also presented. (author)

  11. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  12. On a connection between the VAK, knot theory and El Naschie's theory of the mass spectrum of the high energy elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work we give an introduction to the ε (∞) Cantorian space-time theory. In this theory every particle can be interpreted as a scaling of another particle. Some particles are a scaling of the proton and are expressed in terms of phi and α-bar 0 . Following the VAK suggestion of El Naschie, the limit sets of Kleinian groups are Cantor sets with Hausdorff dimension phi or a derivative of phi such as 1/phi, 1/phi 2 , 1/phi 3 , etc. Consequently and using ε (∞) theory, the mass spectrum of elementary particles may be found from the limit set of the Moebius-Klein geometry of quantum space-time as a function of the golden mean phi=(}5-1)/2=0.618033989 as discussed recently by Datta (see Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 17 (2003) 621-630)

  13. On a connection between the VAK, knot theory and El Naschie's theory of the mass spectrum of the high energy elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek-Crnjac, L

    2004-02-01

    In the present work we give an introduction to the {epsilon}{sup ({infinity}}{sup )} Cantorian space-time theory. In this theory every particle can be interpreted as a scaling of another particle. Some particles are a scaling of the proton and are expressed in terms of phi and {alpha}-bar{sub 0}. Following the VAK suggestion of El Naschie, the limit sets of Kleinian groups are Cantor sets with Hausdorff dimension phi or a derivative of phi such as 1/phi, 1/phi{sup 2}, 1/phi{sup 3}, etc. Consequently and using {epsilon}{sup ({infinity}}{sup )} theory, the mass spectrum of elementary particles may be found from the limit set of the Moebius-Klein geometry of quantum space-time as a function of the golden mean phi=({r_brace}5-1)/2=0.618033989 as discussed recently by Datta (see Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 17 (2003) 621-630)

  14. Particle Acceleration in Mildly Relativistic Shearing Flows: The Interplay of Systematic and Stochastic Effects, and the Origin of the Extended High-energy Emission in AGN Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Rieger, F. M.; Aharonian, F. A., E-mail: ruoyu@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: aharon@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    The origin of the extended X-ray emission in the large-scale jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) poses challenges to conventional models of acceleration and emission. Although electron synchrotron radiation is considered the most feasible radiation mechanism, the formation of the continuous large-scale X-ray structure remains an open issue. As astrophysical jets are expected to exhibit some turbulence and shearing motion, we here investigate the potential of shearing flows to facilitate an extended acceleration of particles and evaluate its impact on the resultant particle distribution. Our treatment incorporates systematic shear and stochastic second-order Fermi effects. We show that for typical parameters applicable to large-scale AGN jets, stochastic second-order Fermi acceleration, which always accompanies shear particle acceleration, can play an important role in facilitating the whole process of particle energization. We study the time-dependent evolution of the resultant particle distribution in the presence of second-order Fermi acceleration, shear acceleration, and synchrotron losses using a simple Fokker–Planck approach and provide illustrations for the possible emergence of a complex (multicomponent) particle energy distribution with different spectral branches. We present examples for typical parameters applicable to large-scale AGN jets, indicating the relevance of the underlying processes for understanding the extended X-ray emission and the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays.

  15. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with advanced computing applications in physics, and in particular in high energy physics environments. The main subjects covered are networking; vector and parallel processing; and embedded systems. Also examined are topics such as operating systems, future computer architectures and commercial computer products. The book presents solutions that are foreseen as coping, in the future, with computing problems in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. In the experimental environment the large amounts of data to be processed offer special problems on-line as well as off-line. For on-line data reduction, embedded special purpose computers, which are often used for trigger applications are applied. For off-line processing, parallel computers such as emulator farms and the cosmic cube may be employed. The analysis of these topics is therefore a main feature of this volume

  16. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Following our long-time tradition we will present under a common header the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics: Department of Particle Theory (Dept. V); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept XI); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept XII); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept XIII); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). At the end we will list our common activities: lectures and courses as well as seminars. Our research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluation of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY, Hamburg) is also carried out. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy. This location, close to the Jagiellonian University, facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the University of Mining and Metallurgy. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of our activities is teaching and training students from

  17. Particle spectra and mass composition in the ultra-high energy region in the framework of the Galactic origin of cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for a self-consistent description of all the basic features of the observed cosmic ray spectra and primary composition variations in the energy range of 1015 ÷ 1020 eV within the Galactic origin scenario is examined. We assume the existence of Galactic sources that accelerate particles up to ∼ 3 · 1018Z eV and take into account a highly inhomogeneous (fractal-like distribution of matter and magnetic fields in the Galaxy that leads to extremely large free paths of particles (“Lévy flights”, along with an overwhelming contribution to the cosmic ray fluxes observed above ∼1018 eV from particles reaching the Solar System without scattering. Our scenario was refined on the basis of recent experimental results on primary mass composition. Model predictions, which could be verified with the improved high-precision measurements in the nearest future are discussed.

  18. Current trends in non-accelerator particle physics: 1, Neutrino mass and oscillation. 2, High energy neutrino astrophysics. 3, Detection of dark matter. 4, Search for strange quark matter. 5, Magnetic monopole searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yudong

    1995-07-01

    This report is a compilation of papers reflecting current trends in non-accelerator particle physics, corresponding to talks that its author was invited to present at the Workshop on Tibet Cosmic Ray Experiment and Related Physics Topics held in Beijing, China, April 4--13, 1995. The papers are entitled 'Neutrino Mass and Oscillation', 'High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics', 'Detection of Dark Matter', 'Search for Strange Quark Matter', and 'Magnetic Monopole Searches'. The report is introduced by a survey of the field and a brief description of each of the author's papers

  19. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics of the evolution of the early universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including studies of the nature of dark matter and the signature of annihilations in the galactic halo, where the resulting γ-ray fluxes are potentially observable, and in stars, where stellar evolution may be affects. We will develop constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon, examining the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in both flat and curved cosmological models, and implications for observations of large-scale galaxy clustering and structure formation theories. We will also study spectral distortions in the microwave background radiation that are produced by exotic particle decays in the very early universe. We expect such astrophysical considerations to provide fruitful insights both into high-energy particle physics and into possible cosmological for the early universe

  20. The mass spectrum of high energy elementary particles via El Naschie's E sup ( supinfinity sup ) golden mean nested oscillators, the Dunkerly-Southwell eigenvalue theorems and KAM

    CERN Document Server

    Marek-Crnjac, L

    2003-01-01

    In the present work we give a classical nested mechanical model and corresponding expressions for the theoretical masses of elementary particles, including the masses of quarks as being the joint eigenvalues of combined vibrating sets using the Southwell and the Dunkerly theorems. The role played by the golden mean in KAM theory and consequently our present model is also discussed.

  1. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, C.O.A.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhofer, A.; Felis, I.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L.A.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schussler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6∘ for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with

  2. The mass spectrum of high energy elementary particles via El Naschie's E(∞) golden mean nested oscillators, the Dunkerly-Southwell eigenvalue theorems and KAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work we give a classical nested mechanical model and corresponding expressions for the theoretical masses of elementary particles, including the masses of quarks as being the joint eigenvalues of combined vibrating sets using the Southwell and the Dunkerly theorems. The role played by the golden mean in KAM theory and consequently our present model is also discussed

  3. The Higgs and the expectation value of the number of elementary particles in a supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Supersymmetry, colours and chirality are utilized to develop three minimally extended versions of the standard model. Based on these models, it is possible to predict that few new elementary particles are likely to be found experimentally at an energy scale which is very modestly above that of the electroweak. Connections to the 8064 massless states of Heterotic string theory are also discussed

  4. Optical tracking of nanoscale particles in microscale environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, P. P.; Liddle, J. A.; Stavis, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    The trajectories of nanoscale particles through microscale environments record useful information about both the particles and the environments. Optical microscopes provide efficient access to this information through measurements of light in the far field from nanoparticles. Such measurements necessarily involve trade-offs in tracking capabilities. This article presents a measurement framework, based on information theory, that facilitates a more systematic understanding of such trade-offs to rationally design tracking systems for diverse applications. This framework includes the degrees of freedom of optical microscopes, which determine the limitations of tracking measurements in theory. In the laboratory, tracking systems are assemblies of sources and sensors, optics and stages, and nanoparticle emitters. The combined characteristics of such systems determine the limitations of tracking measurements in practice. This article reviews this tracking hardware with a focus on the essential functions of nanoparticles as optical emitters and microenvironmental probes. Within these theoretical and practical limitations, experimentalists have implemented a variety of tracking systems with different capabilities. This article reviews a selection of apparatuses and techniques for tracking multiple and single particles by tuning illumination and detection, and by using feedback and confinement to improve the measurements. Prior information is also useful in many tracking systems and measurements, which apply across a broad spectrum of science and technology. In the context of the framework and review of apparatuses and techniques, this article reviews a selection of applications, with particle diffusion serving as a prelude to tracking measurements in biological, fluid, and material systems, fabrication and assembly processes, and engineered devices. In so doing, this review identifies trends and gaps in particle tracking that might influence future research.

  5. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  6. Radioactive particles in the environment: sources, particle characterization and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, radioactive particles have been released to the environment from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear fuel cycle operations. However, measurements of environmental radioactivity and any associated assessments are often based on the average bulk mass or surface concentration, assuming that radionuclides are homogeneously distributed as simple ionic species. It has generally not been recognised that radioactive particles present in the environment often contain a significant fraction of the bulk sample activity, leading to sample heterogeneity problems and false and/or erratic measurement data. Moreover, the inherent differences in the transport and bioavailability of particle bound radionuclides compared with those existing as molecules or ions have largely been ignored in dose assessments. To date, most studies regarding radionuclide behaviour in the soil-plant system have dealt with soluble forms of radionuclides. When radionuclides are deposited in a less mobile form, or in case of a superposition of different physico-chemical forms, the behaviour of radionuclides becomes much more complicated and extra efforts are required to provide information about environmental status and behaviour of radioactive particles. There are currently no documents or international guides covering this aspect of environmental impact assessments. To fill this gap, between 2001 and 2008 the IAEA performed a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP- G4.10.03) on the 'Radiochemical, Chemical and Physical Characterization of Radioactive Particles in the Environment' with the objective of development, adoption and application of standardized analytical techniques for the comprehensive study of radioactive particles. The CRP was in line with the IAEA project intended to assist the Member States in building capacity for improving environmental assessments and for management of sites contaminated with radioactive particles. This IAEA-TECDOC presents the findings and achievements of

  7. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  8. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  9. Comment on ;Acceleration of particles to high energy via gravitational repulsion in the Schwarzschild field; [Astropart. Phys. 86 (2017) 18-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Comments are due on a recent paper by McGruder III (2017) in which the author deals with the concept of gravitational repulsion in the context of the Schwarzschild-Droste solution. Repulsion (deceleration) for ingoing particles into a black hole is a concept proposed several times starting from Droste himself in 1916. It is a coordinate effect appearing to an observer at a remote distance from the black hole and when coordinate time is employed. Repulsion has no bearing and relation to the local physics of the black hole, and moreover it cannot be held responsible for accelerating outgoing particles. Thereby, the energy boost of cosmic rays cannot be produced by repulsion.

  10. AN ENERGY-CONSERVING, PARTICLE-DOMINATED, TIME-DEPENDENT MODEL OF 3C 58 AND ITS OBSERVABILITY AT HIGH ENERGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Diego F.; Martin Rodriguez, Jonatan [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Torre C5, 2a planta, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Cillis, Analia N. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67-Suc. 28 (C1428ZAA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-01-20

    We present a time-dependent spectral model of the nebula 3C 58 and compare it with available data. The model is for a leptonic nebula in which particles are subject to synchrotron, inverse Compton, self-synchrotron Compton, adiabatic, and bremsstrahlung processes. We find that 3C 58 is compatible with being a particle-dominated nebula, with a magnetic field of 35 {mu}G. A broken power-law injection fits well the multi-frequency data, with a break energy at about 40 GeV. We find that 3C 58 is not expected to appear in VERITAS or MAGIC II, unless the local IR background is a factor of {approx}20 off Galactic models' averages. For cases in which the cosmic microwave background dominates the inverse Compton contribution, we find that 3C 58 will not be visible either for the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  11. Microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics includes particle motion in an electromagnetic field, conformal transformations, conformally invariant theory of gravitation, particle orbits, Friedman models with k = 0, +-1, the history and present status of steady-state cosmology, and the nature of mass. (U.S.)

  12. High-Energy Physics: Exit America?

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Budget cuts and cancellations threaten to end U.S. exploration of the particle frontier. Fermilab's Tevatron, due to shut down around 200, could be the last large particle accelerator in the United States; the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva should ensure European dominance of high-energy physics (3 pages)

  13. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  14. High energy electron positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; Υ Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the Υ; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles

  15. Astrophysics at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, Felix; Bergstroem, Lars; Dermer, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Presents three complementary lectures on very-high-energy astrophysics given by worldwide leaders in the field. Reviews the recent advances in and prospects of gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Prepares readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors. With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA's Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergstroem presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.

  16. Cyberinfrastructure for high energy physics in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Jeung, Minho

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the hierarchy of cyberinfrastructure which consists of infrastructure (supercomputing and networks), Grid, e-Science, community and physics from bottom layer to top layer. KISTI is the national headquarter of supercomputer, network, Grid and e-Science in Korea. Therefore, KISTI is the best place to for high energy physicists to use cyberinfrastructure. We explain this concept on the CDF and the ALICE experiments. In the meantime, the goal of e-Science is to study high energy physics anytime and anywhere even if we are not on-site of accelerator laboratories. The components are data production, data processing and data analysis. The data production is to take both on-line and off-line shifts remotely. The data processing is to run jobs anytime, anywhere using Grid farms. The data analysis is to work together to publish papers using collaborative environment such as EVO (Enabling Virtual Organization) system. We also present the global community activities of FKPPL (France-Korea Particle Physics Laboratory) and physics as top layer.

  17. Error estimation and parameter dependence of the calculation of the fast ion distribution function, temperature, and density using data from the KF1 high energy neutral particle analyzer on Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlatter, Christian; Testa, Duccio; Cecconello, Marco; Murari, Andrea; Santala, Marko

    2004-01-01

    Joint European Torus high energy neutral particle analyzer measures the flux of fast neutrals originating from the plasma core. From this data, the fast ion distribution function f i fast , temperature T i,perpendicular fast , and density n i fast are derived using knowledge of various plasma parameters and of the cross section for the required atomic processes. In this article, a systematic sensitivity study of the effect of uncertainties in these quantities on the evaluation of the neutral particle analyzer f i fast , T i,perpendicular fast , and n i fast is reported. The dominant parameter affecting n i fast is the impurity confinement time and therefore a reasonable estimate of this quantity is necessary to reduce the uncertainties in n i fast below 50%. On the other hand, T i,perpendicular fast is much less sensitive and can certainly be provided with an accuracy of better than 10%

  18. Multiprocessors for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the role, status and progress of multiprocessor projects relevant to high energy physics. A short overview of the large variety of multiprocessors architectures is given, with special emphasis on machines suitable for experimental data reconstruction. A lot of progress has been made in the attempt to make the use of multiprocessors less painful by creating a ''Parallel Programming Environment'' supporting the non-expert user. A high degree of usability has been reached for coarse grain (event level) parallelism. The program development tools available on various systems (subroutine packages, preprocessors and parallelizing compilers) are discussed in some detail. Tools for execution control and debugging are also developing, thus opening the path from dedicated systems for large scale, stable production towards support of a more general job mix. At medium term, multiprocessors will thus cover a growing fraction of the typical high energy physics computing task. (orig.)

  19. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report discusses research by Columbia University staff in high energy physics. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: lattice gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; parity doublets; solitons; baryon number violation; black holes; magnetic monopoles; gluon plasma; Chern-Simons theory; and the inflationary universe

  20. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklorsky, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)

  1. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  2. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  3. High energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  4. High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] High Energy Physics Home Division ES&H Personnel Collider Physics Cosmic Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theory & Computing Detector R&D Electronic Design Mechanical Design Neutrino Physics Theoretical Physics Seminars HEP Division Seminar HEP Lunch Seminar HEP

  5. High-Energy X-Ray Imaging of the Pulsar Wind Nebula MSH 15-52: Constraints on Particle Acceleration and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fryer, Chris L.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15-52 in the hard X-ray band (8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. The hard-band maps show a relative deficit of counts in the northern region toward the RCW 89 thermal remnant, with significant asymmetry. We find that the integrated PWN spectra measured with NuSTAR and Chandra suggest that there is a spectral break at 6 keV, which may be explained by a break in the synchrotron emitting electron distribution at approximately 200 TeV and/or imperfect cross calibration. We also measure spatially resolved spectra, showing that the spectrum of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B1509-58, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models. We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50 of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the N(sub H) map. We discuss possible origins of the shell-like structure and their implications.

  6. Estimation of the R134a gas refractive index for use as a Cherenkov radiator, using a high energy charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitonidis, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Gatignon, L.

    2017-11-01

    Gases with relatively high refractive index, n - 1 ≥ 500 ×10-6 at atmospheric pressure, giving a satisfactory photoelectron yield at relatively low pressures (≤ 5 bar) are rare. These gases are often the only practical solution for low momentum particle identification in conventional secondary beam lines. The refractive index of R134a, one of the most common gases available to the physics community, has never been measured or reported. In the present note, the results of a dedicated experiment to estimate the refractive index of R134a, using mixed hadron/electron beams in the range 0.5-10 GeV are presented.

  7. Magnetic particle detection in unshielded environment using orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrefai, Ahmed L., E-mail: a.lotfyelrefai@gmail.com; Sasada, Ichiro [Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    A new detection system for magnetic particles, which can operate in an unshielded environment, is developed using a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate gradiometer. The proposed detection system offers the advantages of cost, size, and weight reduction as compared to contamination detection systems using superconducting quantum interference device sensor. The detection system can be used to detect metallic contamination in foods or lithium ion battery production lines. The system has been investigated numerically to optimize various design parameters of the system. Experimental setup has been developed to evaluate some of the numerically predicted results. Steel balls were successfully detected down to the diameter of 50 μm.

  8. Isotopic distribution of Rb, In and Cs, produced in interactions of high energy protons, deuterons and alpha particles with Ta nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, S.P.; Karnaukhov, V.A.; Korovin, G.Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Nad', T.; Petrov, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to clarify how the isotopical distribution form of deep fissaon products depends on the type of the bombarding particles. Isotopical distributions of Rb, In, Cs, produced at interactions of protons, deuterons ( 8 GeV) and α particles (15.2 GeV) with Ta nuclei are measured by means of the ''off-line'' mass separation. The isotopical distributions are obtained by the experimentally measured yields directly without complex procedure of processing necessary for transition to the charge distribution. It was found that neither the position of the maximum, nor the shape of the curve are changed essentially at variation of the projectile. In all the cases the relative behaviour of the distribution is in a qualitative agreement with the calculations based upon the semiempirical formula by Rudstam. For indium the mesurements are performed also with the proton beam of energy 0.66 GeV. In this case the shape of the isotopic distribution is influenced by the fission process [ru

  9. High-energy X-ray imaging of the pulsar wind nebula MSH 15-52: constraints on particle acceleration and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15−52 in the hard X-ray band (8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3–7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolutio......We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15−52 in the hard X-ray band (8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3–7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high...... of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B1509−58, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models.We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50...... of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the NH map.We discuss possible origins...

  10. High energy proton PIXE [HEPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) have been widespread and detailed in recent years and despite the fact that most data obtained are from low energy 1-3 MeV experiments, the value of higher energy proton work with its emphasis on K X-ray emission has become more marked as time has progressed. The purpose of this review paper is to outline the history of analysis using high energy protons and to compare and contrast the results obtained with those from lower energy analysis using more firmly established analytical techniques. The work described will concentrate exclusively on proton induced processes and will attempt to outline the rationale for selecting an energy, greater than 20 and up to 70 MeV protons for initiating particles. The relative ease and accuracy of the measurements obtained will be addressed. Clearly such X-ray studies should be seen as complementing low energy work in many instances rather than competing directly with them. However, it will be demonstrated that above a Z value of approximately 20, K X-ray analysis using high energy protons is the only way to go in this type of analysis. (author)

  11. High-energy solar flare observations at the Y2K maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. Gordon

    2000-04-01

    Solar flares afford an opportunity to observe processes associated with the acceleration and propagation of high-energy particles at a level of detail not accessible in any other astrophysical source. I will review some key results from previous high-energy solar flare observations, including those from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and the problems that they pose for our understanding of energy release and particle acceleration processes in the astrophysical environment. I will then discuss a program of high-energy observations to be carried out during the upcoming 2000-2001 solar maximum that is aimed at addressing and resolving these issues. A key element in this observational program is the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft, which will provide imaging spectroscopic observations with spatial, temporal, and energy resolutions commensurate with the physical processes believed to be operating, and will in addition provide the first true gamma-ray spectroscopy of an astrophysical source. .

  12. Ultra high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowczyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data on ultra high energy γ-rays are reviewed and a comparison of the properties of photon and proton initiated shower is made. The consequences of the existence of the strong ultra high energy γ-ray sources for other observations is analysed and possible mechanisms for the production of ultra high energy γ-rays in the sources are discussed. It is demonstrated that if the γ-rays are produced via cosmic ray interactions the sources have to produce very high fluxes of cosmic ray particles. In fact it is possible that a small number of such sources can supply the whole Galactic cosmic ray flux

  13. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  14. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  15. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Folger, F.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T.; Bruijn, R.; Melis, K.; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Coleiro, A.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M.; Donzaud, C.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Haren, H. van; Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B.; Marinelli, A.; Mele, R.; Vivolo, D.; Migliozzi, P.; Organokov, M.; Pradier, T.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tayalati, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6 "c"i"r"c"l"e for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with reconstructed shower energies above 10 TeV are observed. This is consistent with the expectation of about 5 events from atmospheric backgrounds, but also compatible with diffuse astrophysical flux measurements by the IceCube collaboration, from which 2-4 additional events are expected. A 90% C.L. upper limit on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux with a value per neutrino flavour of E"2 . Φ"9"0"% = 4.9 . 10"-"8 GeV . cm"-"2 . s"-"1 . sr"-"1 is set, applicable to the energy range from 23 TeV to 7.8 PeV, assuming an unbroken E"-"2 spectrum and neutrino flavour equipartition at Earth. (orig.)

  16. An algorithm for the reconstruction of high-energy neutrino-induced particle showers and its application to the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Universite de Haute Alsace, Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposicio, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Folger, F.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Sieger, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Quinn, L.; Salvadori, I.; Turpin, D. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Bourret, S.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gregoire, T.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Lachaud, C. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Illuminati, G.; Lotze, M.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia) c/Catedratico Jose Beltran, 2, 46980, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [LAM, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Jongen, M.; Michael, T. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruijn, R.; Melis, K. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Di Palma, I.; Perrina, C.; Vizzoca, A. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Science, 077125, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Celli, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Chiarusi, T. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M.; Sanchez-Losa, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Coleiro, A. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); IFIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia) c/Catedratico Jose Beltran, 2, 46980, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [CNRS, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Geoazur, UCA, Sophia Antipolis (France); Domi, A.; Hugon, C.; Sanguineti, M.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Donzaud, C. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Eberl, T. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); El Bojaddaini, I.; Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, B.P.717, Oujda (Morocco); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Versari, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Gay, P. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Clermont Universite, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Giordano, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Glotin, H. [LSIS, Aix Marseille Universite CNRS ENSAM LSIS UMR 7296, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon CNRS LSIS UMR 7296, La Garde (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje (Texel) (Netherlands); Kouchner, A.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (RU); Lefevre, D. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille Cedex 9 (FR); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (FR); Leonora, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (IT); Loucatos, S.; Vallage, B. [APC, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (FR); Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Marinelli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (IT); Mele, R.; Vivolo, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT); Migliozzi, P. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Organokov, M.; Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, Strasbourg (FR); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Tayalati, Y. [University Mohammed V in Rabat, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (MA)

    2017-06-15

    A novel algorithm to reconstruct neutrino-induced particle showers within the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. The method achieves a median angular resolution of 6 {sup circle} for shower energies below 100 TeV. Applying this algorithm to 6 years of data taken with the ANTARES detector, 8 events with reconstructed shower energies above 10 TeV are observed. This is consistent with the expectation of about 5 events from atmospheric backgrounds, but also compatible with diffuse astrophysical flux measurements by the IceCube collaboration, from which 2-4 additional events are expected. A 90% C.L. upper limit on the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux with a value per neutrino flavour of E{sup 2} . Φ{sup 90%} = 4.9 . 10{sup -8} GeV . cm{sup -2} . s{sup -1} . sr{sup -1} is set, applicable to the energy range from 23 TeV to 7.8 PeV, assuming an unbroken E{sup -2} spectrum and neutrino flavour equipartition at Earth. (orig.)

  17. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following research: Search for a Quark-Gluon Plasma; CDF Research; Research at the SSC (SDC); SSC Tracking Detector R ampersand D; Studies of Direct Photons, Charmonium; Study of Beauty Production; Research at the SSC (SFT); Particle-nucleus Collsions; Hadronic Charm Particle Production; Photo of Mesons; Computers; and, Detector R ampersand D Laboratory

  18. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  19. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  20. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This progress report presents a review of research done over the past five years by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This research has been centered at Fermilab where we have had a continuing involvement with both the Tevatron collider and fixed-target programs. In 1988 we began extensive detector R ampersand D for the SSC through its Major Subsystem Program. Duke has been an active member of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) since its formation. These last five years has also been used to finish the analysis of data from a series of hybrid bubble chamber experiments which formed the core of Duke's research program in the early 1980's

  1. Augmenting Sand Simulation Environments through Subdivision and Particle Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent advances in computer graphics and parallel processing hardware have provided disciplines with new methods to evaluate and visualize data. These advances have proven useful for earth and planetary scientists as many researchers are using this hardware to process large amounts of data for analysis. As such, this has provided opportunities for collaboration between computer graphics and the earth sciences. Through collaboration with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs, we are investigating techniques for simulating the behavior of sand. We are also collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) DARTS Lab to exchange ideas and gain feedback on our research. The DARTS Lab specializes in simulation of planetary vehicles, such as the Mars rovers. Their simulations utilize a virtual "sand box" to test how a planetary vehicle responds to different environments. Our research builds upon this idea to create a sand simulation framework so that planetary environments, such as the harsh, sandy regions on Mars, are more fully realized. More specifically, we are focusing our research on the interaction between a planetary vehicle, such as a rover, and the sand beneath it, providing further insight into its performance. Unfortunately, this can be a computationally complex problem, especially if trying to represent the enormous quantities of sand particles interacting with each other. However, through the use of high-performance computing, we have developed a technique to subdivide areas of actively participating sand regions across a large landscape. Similar to a Level of Detail (LOD) technique, we only subdivide regions of a landscape where sand particles are actively participating with another object. While the sand is within this subdivision window and moves closer to the surface of the interacting object, the sand region subdivides into smaller regions until individual sand particles are left at the surface. As an example, let's say

  2. Duke University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    The research program of the Duke High Energy Physics Group is described in this Progress Report and a separate Proposal containing their plans for 1994. These two documents are supplemented by compilations of selected publications, thesis abstracts, and the curriculum vitae of the eleven Ph.D. physicists who are carrying out this research program. This Progress Report contains a review of the research which has been done over the first half (1992 and 1993 to date) of the current three-year DOE grant, plus some earlier research to establish a broader perspective of the research interests. High energy physics research at Duke has three components. The first, Task A, is based upon experiments carried out at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider. The group is finishing the analysis of data from their first collider experiment (E735), a study of inclusive particle production from bar p p collisions at √ bar s = 1.8 TeV. The second component of the research, Task B, deals primarily with heavy flavor physics. The third part of the research program, Task D, deals with preparation for research at the SSC. The authors have been active in the development of tracking detectors for the SSC since 1989, and are now concentrating on the design and construction of straw tube drift chambers for the solenoid detector

  3. Duke University high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and Χ meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report

  4. Computing in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Lastly, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software

  5. Computing in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-04-01

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Finally, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software.

  6. High energy neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjon, R.; Breynat, G.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a generator of fast neutrons only slightly contaminated by neutrons of energy less than 15 MeV, comprising a source of charged particles of energy equal to at least 15 MeV, a target made of lithium deuteride, and means for cooling the target. The target comprises at least two elements placed in series in the path of the charged particles and separated from each other, the thickness of each of the elements being selected as a function of the average energy of the charged particles emitted from the source and the energy of the fast neutrons to be generated such that neutrons of energy equal to at least 15 MeV are emitted in the forward direction in response to the bombardment of the target from behind by the charged particles. The target cooling means comprises means for circulating between and around the elements a gas which does not chemically react with lithium deuteride

  7. High energy disintegration of silver and bromine nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, K.; Goswami, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    A nucleus excited by high energy projectile, disintegrates by emitting particles and fragments. The multiplicity of charged particle and fragments cnn be determined from the tracks produced in detectors like nuclear emulsion

  8. Characterization of aerosol particles in a mechanical workshop environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, S.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujiwara, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Yamanaka, K.; Watanabe, M.; Tsuboi, S.; Pelicon, P.; Zitnik, M.

    2008-01-01

    Indoor aerosols are directly affecting human lives. Especially aerosols in workshops, factories, and laboratories, where many chemical substances are used in treatment and production processes, might contain toxic elements: special care must be taken to alleviate air pollution and assure a clean breathing environment for the workers. For this study, size segregated aerosol particle sampling with a cascade impactor was performed in the machine workshop of Jozef Stefan Institute. The samples, collected during weekdays and weekend were analyzed with a microbeam facility at Tohoku University. Bulk PIXE analysis with scanning over the whole sample area was conducted along with multimodal microanalysis with microscopic scanning. Using bulk analysis, high concentrations of Pb and Ba were detected on weekend days, which was related to the removal of an old white paint from the furniture. On weekdays, concentrations of W and of soil origin elements increased, probably because of the machine operations and worker movements. At the same time high concentration of sulfur was detected. A microscopic multimodal analysis shows that it stems from a lubricant oil vapor. The combination of bulk and microanalysis of the size selected samples is an effective approach to aerosol characterization in the working environment. (author)

  9. Air quality and particles: impact on the environment and health. What to prescribe for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiss, Pierre; POISSON, Nathalie; Poulleau, Jean; Gondcaille, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    After having recalled that particles in the air are present under the form of liquid or solid matters and are characterized by their size, and that the term aerosol is generally used for a mix of air and particles in suspension, this publication proposes an overview of tools used to characterize particle pollutions, of the different impacts of particles on health, on the way ecosystems react with particle pollutions, on impacts of particles on building environment (outside and inside)

  10. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dose meters used in high-energy neutron environments improved and extended results based on a complete survey of all neutron spectra in IAEA-TRS-403

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oparaji, U.; Tsai, Y. H.; Liu, Y. C.; Lee, K. W.; Patelli, E.; Sheu, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents improved and extended results of our previous study on corrections for conventional neutron dose meters used in environments with high-energy neutrons (E n > 10 MeV). Conventional moderated-type neutron dose meters tend to underestimate the dose contribution of high-energy neutrons because of the opposite trends of dose conversion coefficients and detection efficiencies as the neutron energy increases. A practical correction scheme was proposed based on analysis of hundreds of neutron spectra in the IAEA-TRS-403 report. By comparing 252 Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values derived from fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this study provides recommendations for neutron field characterization and the corresponding dose correction factors. Further sensitivity studies confirm the appropriateness of the proposed scheme and indicate that (1) the spectral correction factors are nearly independent of the selection of three commonly used calibration sources: 252 Cf, 241 Am-Be and 239 Pu-Be; (2) the derived correction factors for Bonner spheres of various sizes (6''-9'') are similar in trend and (3) practical high-energy neutron indexes based on measurements can be established to facilitate the application of these correction factors in workplaces. (authors)

  11. Pi-nucleon phenomenology at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogitz, S.

    1973-01-01

    A brief introduction to the phenomenology of strong interactions at high energy is presented. This includes discussion of the topics including absorption, finite energy sum rules, and duality. The application of these ideas to two-particle inelastic reactions is examined. (author)

  12. Prizes reward high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The European Physical Society (EPS) has recognized four individuals and a collaboration for their work on charge-parity (CP) violation, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmology and outreach activities. Heinrich Wahl, formerly of CERN, and the NA31 collaboration share the 2005 High Energy and Particle Physics Prize for their work on CP violation at CERN (½ page)

  13. High energy particle interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyz, W.

    1978-01-01

    The recent interest in multiparticle production processes on nuclei was triggered by re-discovering their 'enigmatic simplicity' which has been known to cosmic ray physicists for over 20 years: the mean multiplicity and angular distributions of relativistic secondaries produced on nuclei do not differ markedly from what emerges from p-p collisions. The author considers how such reactions may provide a way of obtaining details of hadron structure. (Auth.)

  14. Nonlinear sound generation by high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westervelt, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with Project DUMAND, the proposal to utilize the ocean as a giant acoustic detector of neutrinos, the applicability of a recent theory of thermoacoustic arrays [Peter J. Westervelt and Richard S. Larson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 121 (1973)] is studied. In the static case or at very low frequencies, about 10% of the coefficient of thermal expansion for water at 20 0 C can be attributed to Debye-like modes. Debye-like modes generate sound via the nonlinear mechanism responsible for the operation of the parametric acoustic array [Peter J. Westervelt, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 535 (1963)]. The contribution of the Debye-like modes to the thermal expansion coefficient and thus to the sound pressure is essentially independent of the ambient water temperature. Hence if the Debye-like modes are not fully excited as is postulated to be the case at high frequencies, then the thermal expansion coefficient will be less than the static value by an amount that causes it to vanish at about 6 0 C instead of at 4 0 C, the temperature of maximum water density. This theory is in agreement with recent measurements of the temperature dependence of sound generated by proton deposition in water [L. Sulak, et al., Proceedings of the La Jolla Workshop on Acoustic Detection of Neutrinos, 25--29 July 1977, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, U.C.L.A., San Diego, Hugh Bradner, Ed.

  15. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-09-15

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors.

  16. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb - 1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989

  17. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10 5 Z's by the end of 1989 and 10 6 in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry

  18. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  19. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required

  20. High energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piroue, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this research is to understand the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. At this time, the following activities are underway: e + e - interactions and Z 0 physics at CERN; studies to upgrade the L3 detector at LHC; very high statistics charm physics at Fermilab; search for the H particle at BNL; search for the fifth force; rare kaon decay experiments at BNL; study of B-meson physics at hadron colliders; e + e - pair creation by light at SLAC; R ampersand D related to SSC experiments and the GEM detector; and theoretical research in elementary particle physics and cosmology. The main additions to the activities described in detail in the original grant proposal are (1) an experiment at SLAC (E-144) to study strong-field QED effects in e-laser and γ-laser collisions, and (2) a search for the H particle at BNL (E-188). The R ampersand D efforts for the GEM detector have also considerably expanded. In this paper we give a brief status report for each activity currently under way

  1. On a connection between the limit set of the Moebius-Klein transformation, periodic continued fractions, El Naschie's topological theory of high energy particle physics and the possibility of a new axion-like particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work we first give a general representation of the derivatives of the irrational number phi, for instance ((1)/(phi)), ((1)/(phi 2 )), ((1)/(phi 3 )) etc., as periodic continued fractions. Any irrational number can then be expanded in an infinite continued fraction. The limit set of the Kleinian transformation acting on the E-infinity Cantorian spacetime turned out to be this set of periodic continued fractions, consequently the vacuum of the E-infinity is described by this limit set. As discussed by El Naschie, every particle can be interpreted geometrically as a scaling of another. This is done using the topology of hyperbolic Kleinian space of VAK, which is nothing but our limit set. Here we will present the ratios of the theoretical masses of certain elementary particles to that of some chosen particles in term of phi. Many of these masses are quite close to integer multiples of the mass of a chosen particle. Finally we discuss the possibility of new transfinite, axion-like particles as discussed recently by Krauss and El Naschie [Quintessence, Vintage, London, 1999

  2. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1989-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale--free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry-breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large-scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions, massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study of the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  3. [High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1988-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry--breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large--scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation in galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  4. 22nd DAE High Energy Physics Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings gather invited and contributed talks presented at the XXII DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics (HEP) Symposium, which was held at the University of Delhi, India, on 12–16 December 2016. The contributions cover a variety of topics in particle physics, astroparticle physics, cosmology and related areas from both experimental and theoretical perspectives, namely (1) Neutrino Physics, (2) Standard Model Physics (including Electroweak, Flavour Physics), (3) Beyond Standard Model Physics, (4) Heavy Ion Physics & QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics), (5) Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, (6) Future Experiments and Detector Development, (7) Formal Theory, and (8) Societal Applications: Medical Physics, Imaging, etc. The DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics Symposium, widely considered to be one of the leading symposiums in the field of Elementary Particle Physics, is held every other year in India and supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India. As man...

  5. Cosmic physics: the high energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F W

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies 10 8 times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic γ-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violations of Lorentz invariance as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity. (topical review)

  6. High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Richard L; Bray, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    This report was developed under a SBIR contract. Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) capacitors exhibit several promising characteristics for high energy density capacitor applications in extreme environments...

  7. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  8. Standard Test Method for Measuring Extreme Heat-Transfer Rates from High-Energy Environments Using a Transient, Null-Point Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the heat-transfer rate or the heat flux to the surface of a solid body (test sample) using the measured transient temperature rise of a thermocouple located at the null point of a calorimeter that is installed in the body and is configured to simulate a semi-infinite solid. By definition the null point is a unique position on the axial centerline of a disturbed body which experiences the same transient temperature history as that on the surface of a solid body in the absence of the physical disturbance (hole) for the same heat-flux input. 1.2 Null-point calorimeters have been used to measure high convective or radiant heat-transfer rates to bodies immersed in both flowing and static environments of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, and mixtures of these and other gases. Flow velocities have ranged from zero (static) through subsonic to hypersonic, total flow enthalpies from 1.16 to greater than 4.65 × 101 MJ/kg (5 × 102 to greater than 2 × 104 ...

  9. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets Around Low-mass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Ardila, David; Barman, Travis; Beasley, Matthew; Bowman, Judd D.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jacobs, Daniel; Jewell, April; Llama, Joe; Meadows, Victoria; Nikzad, Shouleh; Scowen, Paul; Swain, Mark; Zellem, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Roughly seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M stars in the far-UV and near-UV, measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously over at least one complete stellar rotation (5 - 45 days). SPARCS will also advance UV detector technology by flying high quantum efficiency, UV-optimized detectors developed at JPL. These Delta-doped detectors have a long history of deployment demonstrating greater than five times the quantum efficiency of the detectors used by GALEX. SPARCS will pave the way for their application in missions like LUVOIR or HabEx, including interim UV-capable missions. SPARCS will also be capable of ‘target-of-opportunity’ UV observations for the rocky planets in M dwarf HZs soon to be discovered by NASA’s TESS mission, providing the needed UV context for the first habitable planets that JWST will characterize.Acknowledgements: Funding for SPARCS is provided by NASA’s Astrophysics Research and Analysis program, NNH16ZDA001N.

  10. [High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An intense analysis effort on the data we obtained in a seven month run on E704 last year has produced a flood of new results on polarization effects in particle production at 200 GeV/c. We are fortunate to be able to report in detail on those results. Our other Fermilab experiment, E683 (photoproduction of jets) has been delayed an unbelievable amount of time by Fermilab schedule slippages. It was scheduled and ready for beam two years ago exclamation point As this report is being written, we have been running for two months and are expecting four months of production data taking. In this report we show some of our preliminary results. In addition we are near the end of a six month run on our CERN experiment, NA47 (SMC) which will measure the spin dependent structure functions for the proton and neutron. It is with a sense of relief, mixed with pride, that we report that all the equipment which we constructed for that experiment is currently working as designed. The random coincidence of accelerator schedules has left us slightly dazed, but all experiments are getting done and analyzed in a timely fashion. As members of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration, we have been preparing for the only currently approved experiment at the SSC. Here we report on our scintillating fiber tracker design and simulation activities. In addition we report the results of our investigation of the detector response to heavy Z particles. Since our last report, we have joined the D0 collaboration with the primary aim of contributing to the D0 upgrade over the next few years. It is also important for us to gain experience in collider physics during the period leading up to the SDC turn-on

  11. Crystallization by particle attachment in synthetic, biogenic, and geologic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Yoreo, James; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Lee Penn, R.; Whitelam, S.; Joester, D.; Zhang, H.; Rimer, J.D.; Navrotsky, A.; Banfield, J.F.; Wallace, A.F.; Marc Michel, F.; Meldrum, F.C.; Cölfen, H.; Dove, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Field and laboratory observations show that crystals commonly form by the addition and attachment of particles that range from multi-ion complexes to fully formed nanoparticles. The particles involved in these nonclassical pathways to crystallization are diverse, in contrast to classical models that

  12. Shrinkage of Newly Formed Particles in an Urban Environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škrabalová, Lenka; Zíková, Naděžda; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2015), s. 1313-1324 ISSN 1680-8584 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/11/1342 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : aerosol dynamics * ultrafine particles * particle shrinkage Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.393, year: 2015

  13. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets around Lowmass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya

    Seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). JWST will characterize HZ M dwarf planets and attempt the first spectroscopic search for life beyond the Solar System. Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The UV flux emitted during the super-luminous premain sequence phase of M stars drives water loss and photochemical O2 buildup for terrestrial planets within the HZ. This phase can persist for up to a billion years for the lowest mass M stars. Afterwards, UV-driven photochemistry during the main sequence phase strongly affects a planet’s atmosphere, could limit the planet’s potential for habitability, and may confuse studies of habitability by creating false chemical biosignatures. Our proposed CubeSat observatory will be the first mission to provide the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. These measurements are crucial to interpreting observations of planetary atmospheres around low-mass stars. Mission: The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to monitoring 25 M stars in two UV bands: SPARCS far-UV (S- FUV: 153–171 nm) and SPARCS near-UV (S-NUV: 260– 300 nm). For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously between one and three complete stellar rotations (4–45 days) over a mission lifetime of 2 years. A UV characterization survey of M dwarfs, the most common of planet hosts, is a perfect experiment for a CubeSat: - UV astronomy cannot be done from the ground because of Earth’s atmospheric absorption

  14. Challenges associated with the behaviour of radioactive particles in the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salbu, Brit; Kashparov, Valery; Lind, Ole Christian

    2018-01-01

    sites. Thus, whenever refractory radionuclides are released to the environment following nuclear events, radioactive particles should be expected. Results from many years of research have shown that particle characteristics such as elemental composition depend on the source, while characteristics...... on advanced techniques, with emphasis on particle weathering processes as well as on heterogeneities in biological samples to evaluate potential uptake and retention of radioactive particles.......A series of different nuclear sources associated with the nuclear weapon and fuel cycles have contributed to the release of radioactive particles to the environment. Following nuclear weapon tests, safety tests, conventional destruction of weapons, reactor explosions and fires, a major fraction...

  15. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  16. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-01-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO 2 and NO X emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO 2 -rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO 3 , which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO 3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO 2 atmosphere due to the higher CO 2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO 2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO 2 atmospheres.

  17. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  18. High energy hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Fujio

    1983-02-01

    This is a lecture note concerning high energy hadron-nucleus collision. The lecture gives the inelastic total cross section and the Glanber approximate multiple scattering formula at first. The mechanism of nuclear spallation is described in a cylindrical image. The multiplicity, the one particle distribution and the time-space structure of particle production are discussed. Various models are presented. The attenuation of forward particles and the structure of hadrons are discussed for each model. The atomic number (A) dependence of the production of large transverse momentum particles and jet, and the A dependence of charged multiplicity are presented. The backward production of particles and many body correlation are discussed. Lepton pair production and the initial interaction of constituents, collective interaction, multi quark state and phase transition are described. (Kato, T.)

  19. Enhanced Research Opportunity to Study the Atmospheric Forcing by High-Energy Particle Precipitation at High Latitudes: Emerging New Satellite Data and the new Ground-Based Observations in Northern Scandinavia, including the EISCAT_3D Incoherent Scatter Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, E. S.; Ulich, T.; Kero, A.; Tero, R.; Verronen, P. T.; Norberg, J.; Miyoshi, Y.; Oyama, S. I.; Saito, S.; Hosokawa, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observational and model results on the particle precipitation as source of atmospheric variability challenge us to implement better and continuously monitoring observational infrastructure for middle and upper atmospheric research. An example is the effect of high-energy electron precipitation during pulsating aurora on mesospheric ozone, the concentration of which may be reduced by several tens of percent, similarily as during some solar proton events, which are known to occur more rarely than pulsating aurora. So far the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change did not include explicitely the particle forcing of middle and upper atmosphere in their climate model scenarios. This will appear for the first time in the upcoming climate simulations. We review recent results related to atmospheric forcing by particle precipitation via effects on chemical composition. We also show the research potential of new ground-based radio measurement techniques, such as spectral riometry and incoherent scatter by new phased-array radars, such as EISCAT_3D, which will be a volumetric, 3- dimensionally imaging radar, distributed in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. It is expected to be operational from 2020 onwards, surpassing all the current IS radars of the world in technology. It will be able to produce continuous information of ionospheric plasma parameters in a volume, including 3D-vector plasma velocities. For the first time we will be able to map the 3D electric currents in ionosphere, as well as we will have continuous vector wind measurements in mesosphere. The geographical area covered by the EISCAT_3D measurements can be expanded by suitably selected other continuous observations, such as optical and satellite tomography networks. A new 100 Hz all-sky camera network was recently installed in Northern Scandinavia in order to support the Japanese Arase satellite mission. In near future the ground-based measurement network will also include new

  20. Proposed activity - Budget for research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, V.; Camerini, U.; Carlsmith, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper contains task reports on the following topics: Hadron physics at Fermilab; Lepton hadron scattering; Electroweak and weak interactions at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Hyperon beam program/hadroproduction of heavy flavors at Fermilab; High energy physics colliding beam detector facility at Fermilab; Data analysis facility; Institute for Elementary Particle Physics research; Study of weak and electromagnetic interactions at Desy and Cern; Theoretical high energy physics; Dumand; and Ultra high energy gamma rays

  1. Individual Dosimetry for High Energy Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of individuals on board aircraft increased interest in individual dosimetry in high energy radiation fields. These fields, both in the case of cosmic rays as primary radiation and at high energy particle accelerators are complex, with a large diversity of particle types, their energies, and linear energy transfer (LET). Several already existing individual dosemeters have been tested in such fields. For the component with high LET (mostly neutrons) etched track detectors were tested with and without fissile radiators, nuclear emulsions, bubble detectors for both types available and an albedo dosemeter. Individual dosimetry for the low LET component has been performed with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), photographic film dosemeters and two types of electronic individual dosemeters. It was found that individual dosimetry for the low LET component was satisfactory with the dosemeters tested. As far as the high LET component is concerned, there are problems with both the sensitivity and the energy response. (author)

  2. Origin of the universe and high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Z, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this book it is briefly exposed what it is done in the world in relation with the high energy physics. Also, it is presented a brief historical description of the earth evolution, the universe and physics in general. This book counts with eight chapters. The first chapter deals with the relationship of man with science. The second chapter speaks about the origin of universe. The third chapter comments about the stars and galaxies formation. The fourth chapter treats how the scientists and researchers continue to studying the subnuclear world. The fifth chapter deals with subjects and models of nuclear physics. In the sixth chapter it is described the function of the particles accelerator. The seventh chapter comments about the multidisciplinary aspects of the research of elementary particles. Finally, the eighth chapter deals with the advances of high energy physics in the andean region of Latin America. (author)

  3. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.

    2015-05-22

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  4. Modeling the C. elegans nematode and its environment using a particle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönkkö, Mauno; Wong, Garry

    2008-07-21

    A particle system, as understood in computer science, is a novel technique for modeling living organisms in their environment. Such particle systems have traditionally been used for modeling the complex dynamics of fluids and gases. In the present study, a particle system was devised to model the movement and feeding behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in three different virtual environments: gel, liquid, and soil. The results demonstrate that distinct movements of the nematode can be attributed to its mechanical interactions with the virtual environment. These results also revealed emergent properties associated with modeling organisms within environment-based systems.

  5. High-energy accelerators in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Mandrillon, Pierre

    1992-05-04

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to "light ions" ( Carbon, Oxygen, Neon) has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. The rationale for this new radiotherapy, the high energy accelerators and the beam delivery systems are presented in these two lectures.

  6. An experimental high energy physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental high energy physics program is reviewed, including particle detectors. Topics discussed include τ and B physics, gamma-ray astronomy, neutrino oscillations in matter with three flavors applied to solar and supernova neutrinos, effective field theories, a possible fifth force, the dynamics of hadrons and superstrings, mathematics of grand unified theories, chiral symmetry breaking, physics at the Fermilab collider, and development of the TOPAZ detector

  7. High energy excitations in itinerant ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Itinerant magnets, those whose electrons move throughout the crystal, are described by band theory. Single particle excitations offer confirmation of band theory, but their description requires important corrections. The energetics of magnetism in iron and nickel is also described in band theory but requires complex bands. Magnetism above the critical temperature and the location of the critical temperature offer discriminants between the two major models of magnetism at high temperature and can be addressed by high energy excitations

  8. Quark model and high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyiri, J.; Kobrinsky, M.N.

    1982-06-01

    The aim of the present review is to show that the additive quark model describes well not only the static features of hadrons but also the interaction processes at high energies. Considerations of the hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus interactions and of the hadron production in multiparticle production processes suggest serious arguments in favour of the nucleus-like hadron structure and show the possibility to apply the rules of quark statistics to the description of the secondary particle production. (author)

  9. Introduction to high energy cosmic ray physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Grillo, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    After a few general qualitative considerations about the characteristics of primary cosmic rays arriving at the top of atmosphere, the fundamental concepts on their propagation and acceleration are discussed. The experimental situation, both from direct and indirect experiments, is presented, followed by a discussion on some concepts on hadronic interactions at high energy which are applied in a simplified and analytical model to the production of secondary particles in atmosphere

  10. Challenges associated with the behaviour of radioactive particles in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbu, Brit; Kashparov, Valery; Lind, Ole Christian; Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael; Johansen, Mathew P; Child, David P; Roos, Per; Sancho, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    A series of different nuclear sources associated with the nuclear weapon and fuel cycles have contributed to the release of radioactive particles to the environment. Following nuclear weapon tests, safety tests, conventional destruction of weapons, reactor explosions and fires, a major fraction of released refractory radionuclides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) were present as entities ranging from sub microns to fragments. Furthermore, radioactive particles and colloids have been released from reprocessing facilities and civil reactors, from radioactive waste dumped at sea, and from NORM sites. Thus, whenever refractory radionuclides are released to the environment following nuclear events, radioactive particles should be expected. Results from many years of research have shown that particle characteristics such as elemental composition depend on the source, while characteristics such as particle size distribution, structure, and oxidation state influencing ecosystem transfer depend also on the release scenarios. When radioactive particles are deposited in the environment, weathering processes occur and associated radionuclides are subsequently mobilized, changing the apparent K d . Thus, particles retained in soils or sediments are unevenly distributed, and dissolution of radionuclides from particles may be partial. For areas affected by particle contamination, the inventories can therefore be underestimated, and impact and risk assessments may suffer from unacceptable large uncertainties if radioactive particles are ignored. To integrate radioactive particles into environmental impact assessments, key challenges include the linking of particle characteristics to specific sources, to ecosystem transfer, and to uptake and retention in biological systems. To elucidate these issues, the EC-funded COMET and RATE projects and the IAEA Coordinated Research Program on particles have revisited selected contaminated sites and archive samples. This COMET position

  11. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  12. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors

  13. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rutjes (Casper); D. Sarria (David); A.B. Skeltved (Alexander Broberg); A. Luque (Alejandro); G. Diniz (Gabriel); N. Østgaard (Nikolai); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires

  14. Evaluation of monte carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Casper; Sarria, David; Skeltved, Alexander Broberg; Luque, Alejandro; Diniz, Gabriel; Østgaard, Nikolai; Ebert, Ute

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate

  15. Research activities on dosimetry for high energy neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The external dosimetry research group of JAERI has been calculating dose conversion coefficients for high-energy radiations using particle transport simulation codes. The group has also been developing radiation dose measurement techniques for high-energy neutrons in collaboration with some university groups. (author)

  16. Channeling and dechanneling at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used as an accelerator extraction element and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but appear remote. The major advantage in using a bent crystal rather than a magnet is the large deflection that can be achieved in a short length. The major disadvantage is the low transmission. A good understanding of dechanneling is important for applications. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. Application of nanotechnologies in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelucci, R.; Corticelli, F.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G.M.; Malferraxi, L.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Rizzoli, R.; Summonte, C.

    2003-01-01

    In the past, the progressive reduction of electronics integration scale has allowed high energy physics experiments to build particle detectors with a high number of sensitive channels and high spatial granularity, down to the micron scale. Nowadays, the increasing effort towards nanoelectronics and progresses in various fields of nanotechnologies, suggests that the time for nanodetectors is not far to come. As an example of possible application of nanotechnologies in HEP, we present results on fabrication of nanochannel matrices in anodic porous alumina as a template for preparing an array of carbon nanotubes, which we believe can be a promising building block in developing particle detectors with high spatial resolution

  18. High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-11-01

    We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)

  19. Dictionary of high-energy physics English, German, French, Russian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains nearly 4500 entries from branches of high-energy physics including cosmic radiation, elementary particles, elementary particle detection and measurement, field theories, and particle accelerators. Each English entry is numbered and followed by corresponding terms in the other languages. Alphabetical indexes of the German, French, and Russian terms are included

  20. Indexed compilation of experimental high energy physics literature. [Synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, C.P.; Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.

    1978-09-01

    An indexed compilation of approximately 12,000 experimental high energy physics documents is presented. A synopsis of each document is presented, and the documenta are indexed according to beam/target/momentum, reaction/momentum, final-state-particle, particle/particle-property, accelerator/detector, and (for a limited set of the documents) experiment. No data are given.

  1. Indexed compilation of experimental high energy physics literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, C.P.; Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.

    1978-09-01

    An indexed compilation of approximately 12,000 experimental high energy physics documents is presented. A synopsis of each document is presented, and the documenta are indexed according to beam/target/momentum, reaction/momentum, final-state-particle, particle/particle-property, accelerator/detector, and (for a limited set of the documents) experiment. No data are given

  2. Research in high energy theoretical physics: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavelli, L.J.; Harms, B.C.; Jones, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses many papers submitted in theoretical High Energy Physics by the Physics Department of the University of Alabama. Most papers cover superstring theory, parity violations, and particle decay

  3. Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.

  4. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulware, D.

    1988-01-01

    We are carrying out a research program in high energy experimental particle physics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions and leptoproduction processes continue using several experimental techniques. Progress has been made on the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. Ultra-high energy cosmic ray nucleus-nucleus interactions have been investigated by the Japanese American Cosmic Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) using balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors. In the area of particle astrophysics, our studies of cosmic ray nuclear interactions have enabled us to make the world's most accurate determination of the composition of the cosmic rays above 10 13 eV. We have the only detector that can observe interaction vertices and identify particles at energies up to 10--15 eV. Our observations are getting close to placing limits on the acceleration mechanisms postulated for pulsars in which the spin and magnetic moment axes are at different angles. In June, 1989 approval was given by NASA for our participation in the Space Station program. The SCINATT experiment will make use of emulsion chamber detectors, similar to the planned JACEE hybrid balloon flight detectors. These detectors will permit precise determination of secondary particle charges, momenta and rapidities, and the accumulation of data will be at least a factor of 10 to 100 greater than in balloon experiments. Emulsion chamber techniques are also employed in an experiment using accelerator heavy ion beams at CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate particle production processes in central collisions of nuclei in the energy range 15--200A GeV. Our study of hadroproduction in lepton interactions is continuing with approval of another 8 months run for deep inelastic muon scattering experiment E665 at Fermilab

  5. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  6. Task A, High energy physics program experiment and theory: Task B, High energy physics program numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses progress in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics at Florida State University. Fixed target experiments, collider experiments, computing, networking, VAX upgrade, SSC preparation, detector development, and particle theory are some of the areas covered

  7. A high-energy (35-500 MeV) proton monitor for the Gravity Probe-B Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. E-mail: stil@may.ie; Rusznyak, Peter; Buchman, Sasha; Shestople, Paul; Thatcher, John

    2003-02-11

    An innovative fault tolerant, high-energy particle monitor designed to record protons in the range 35-500 MeV when in polar orbit aboard NASA's Gravity Probe B spacecraft, is described. This device, which is configured to provide continuous, reliable operation in the hostile particle environment traversed by the spacecraft, can potentially be used either as an onboard monitor or as a scientific experiment.

  8. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-15

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'.

  10. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress in the following research in high energy physics: The crystal ball experiment; delco at PEP; proton decay experiment; MACRO detector; mark III detector; SLD detector; CLEO II detector; and the caltech L3 group

  11. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin

    1989-01-01

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'

  12. Problems of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some problems of high energy physics are discussed. The main attention is paid to describibg the standard model. The model comprises quantum chromodynamics and electroweak interaction theory. The problem of CP breaking is considered as well. 8 refs.; 1 tab

  13. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2009 physics pp. 3–60. Developments in high energy theory .... and operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), this ma- ...... [2] S Dodelson, Modern cosmology (Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2003).

  14. CR-39 α track detector and its application in observing of the hot particles in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Benchuan

    1992-01-01

    CR-39 α track detector is a new α remitting radionuclides plastic detector. It is audio-visual, convenient and economic in the detection of α particle track and the distribution of α emitting radionuclides in environmental samples. CR-39 α track detector is used to observe the hot particles in rock and the hot particles coming from the liquid effluents discharged by spent fuel reprocessing plant in UK in marine environment and got good results

  15. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerators have been devised and built for two reasons: In the first place, by physicists who needed high energy particles in order to have a means to explore the interactions between particles that probe the fundamental elementary forces of nature. And conversely, sometimes accelerator builders produce new machines for higher energy than ever before just because it can be done, and then challenge potential users to make new discoveries with the new means at hand. These two approaches or motivations have gone hand in hand. This lecture traces how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to the gigantic projects of today. So far all the really high-energy machines built and planned in the world--except the SLC--have been ring accelerators and storage rings using the strong-focusing method. But this method has not removed the energy limit, it has only pushed it higher. It would seem unlikely that one can go beyond the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)--but in fact a workshop was held in Sicily in November 1991, concerned with the question of extrapolating to 100 TeV. Other acceleration and beam-forming methods are now being discussed--collective fields, laser acceleration, wake-field accelerators etc., all aimed primarily at making linear colliders possible and more attractive than with present radiofrequency methods. So far it is not entirely clear which of these schemes will dominate particle physics in the future--maybe something that has not been thought of as yet

  16. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contact AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March of 1989 to February of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a precision study of the A-dependence of massive muon-pion production and a study of low-multiplicity decay modes of charm. We are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. Finally, a minor effort is being given to analyzing data from Fermilab of particles with lifetime between 10 -12 and 10 -13 seconds. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group can be found in the narrative accompanying our grant renewal proposal. 10 refs

  17. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche

  18. Bell inequalities in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yibing; Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng

    2007-01-01

    We review in this paper the research status on testing the completeness of Quantum mechanics in High Energy Physics, especially on the Bell Inequalities. We briefly introduce the basic idea of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen paradox and the results obtained in photon experiments. In the content of testing the Bell inequalities in high energy physics, the early attempts of using spin correlations in particle decays and later on the mixing of neutral mesons used to form the quasi-spin entangled states are covered. The related experimental results in K 0 and B 0 systems are presented and discussed. We introduce the new scheme, which is based on the non-maximally entangled state and proposed to implement in φ factory, in testing the Local Hidden Variable Theory. And, we also discuss about the possibility of realising it to the tau charm factory. (authors)

  19. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-15

    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  20. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  1. ANTARES: A High Energy Neutrino Undersea Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration, formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological defects, Q-balls, etc.). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented. (author)

  2. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coghen, T.

    1995-01-01

    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given

  3. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghen, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e{sup +} e{sup -} interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given.

  4. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghen, T [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e{sup +} e{sup -} interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given.

  5. Elementary particles. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, G.; Ranft, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this part the subject is covered under the following headings, methods for producing high-energy particles; interaction of high-energy particles with matter; methods for the detection of high-energy particles; symmetry properties and conservation laws; quantum number and selection rules; theorem of scattering behaviour at asymptotically high energies; statistical methods in elementary particle physics; interaction of high-energy particles with nuclei; relations of high-energy physics to other branches of science and its response to engineering. Intended as information on high-energy physics for graduate students and research workers familiar with the fundamentals of classical and quantum physics

  6. Polarized beams in high energy storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montague, B W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1984-11-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable advance in understanding the spin motion of particles in storage rings and accelerators. The survey presented here outlines the early historical development in this field, describes the basic ideas governing the kinetics of polarized particles in electromagnetic fields and shows how these have evolved into the current description of polarized beam behaviour. Orbital motion of particles influences their spin precession, and depolarization of a beam can result from excitation of spin resonances by orbit errors and oscillations. Electrons and positrons are additionally influenced by the quantized character of synchrotron radiation, which not only provides a polarizing mechanism but also enhances depolarizing effects. Progress in the theoretical formulation of these phenomena has clarified the details of the physical processes and suggested improved methods of compensating spin resonances. Full use of polarized beams for high-energy physics with storage rings requires spin rotators to produce longitudinal polarization in the interaction regions. Variants of these schemes, dubbed Siberian snakes, provide a curious precession topology which can substantially reduce depolarization in the high-energy range. Efficient polarimetry is an essential requirement for implementing polarized beams, whose utility for physics can be enhanced by various methods of spin manipulation.

  7. High energy neutrino astronomy and its telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1995-01-01

    Doing astronomy with photons of energies in excess of a GeV has turned out to be extremely challenging. Efforts are underway to develop instruments that may push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than 10 -14 cm by mapping the sky using high energy neutrinos instead. Neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, will reach outside the galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology. The field is immersed in technology in the domains of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. To mind come the search for neutrino mass, cold dark matter (supersymmetric particles?) and the monopoles of the Standard Model. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building telescopes with effective area in excess of 0.01 km 2 , we show here that the natural scale of a high energy neutrino telescope is 1 km 2 . With several thousand optical modules and a price tag unlikely to exceed 100 million dollars, the scope of a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan

  8. Interactive intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, Thomas; Vanherpe, Liesbeth; Baudin, Mathieu; Theis, Chris; Braesch, Christian; Feral, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    A core issue during the planning of a maintenance intervention in a facility with ionizing radiation is the minimization of the integrated equivalent dose contracted by the maintenance workers during the intervention. In this work, we lay down the concepts for intervention planning in an irradiated environment and present a new software program for intervention planning, which provides interactive visualization of facilities and radiation levels, as well as tools for interactive trajectory planning. The software includes automatic calculation of the expected integrated equivalent radiation dose contracted during an intervention

  9. Interactive intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.fabry@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Vanherpe, Liesbeth [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Baudin, Mathieu [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); LCPI, ENSAM ParisTech, 151 Boulevard de l' Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Theis, Chris [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Braesch, Christian [SYMME, Université de Savoie, Polytech Annecy-Chambry, 5 chemin de Bellevue, 74944 Annecy le Vieux (France); Feral, Bruno [European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-04-21

    A core issue during the planning of a maintenance intervention in a facility with ionizing radiation is the minimization of the integrated equivalent dose contracted by the maintenance workers during the intervention. In this work, we lay down the concepts for intervention planning in an irradiated environment and present a new software program for intervention planning, which provides interactive visualization of facilities and radiation levels, as well as tools for interactive trajectory planning. The software includes automatic calculation of the expected integrated equivalent radiation dose contracted during an intervention.

  10. Interactive intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabry, Thomas; Baudin, Mathieu; Theis, Chris; Braesch, Christian; Feral, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    A core issue during the planning of a maintenance intervention in a facility with ionizing radiation is the minimization of the integrated equivalent dose contracted by the maintenance workers during the intervention. In this work, we lay down the concepts for intervention planning in an irradiated environment and present a new software program for intervention planning, which provides interactive visualization of facilities and radiation levels, as well as tools for interactive trajectory planning. The software includes automatic calculation of the expected integrated equivalent radiation dose contracted during an intervention.

  11. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  12. Strengthening CERN and particle physics in a changing global environment

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    As we welcome Romania as our 22nd Member State in late July, now is a good time to reflect on the geographical enlargement process that was initiated in 2010.   Let me begin by setting the context. CERN operates in an increasingly complex and globalised world. Political and economic developments in the European neighbourhood and well beyond can have an impact on our work – directly or indirectly, in the short term or in a much longer perspective. We need to anticipate that change as far as we can, while also being agile enough to meet the challenges that we do not expect. The UK’s EU referendum on 23 June is a case in point. Because CERN is an organisation founded to facilitate cooperation across borders, Brexit is an uncomfortable truth to many of us. It is, nevertheless, the outcome of the political processes of one of our founding Member States, and is something we must respect. Whatever direction the UK now takes, we will be working with the country’s particle ph...

  13. Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Smith, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    At our current understanding of elementary particle physics, the fundamental constituents are the photon, quarks, gluons and leptons with a few highly forecasted heavy bosons. Calorimeters are essential for detecting all of these particles. Quarks and gluons fragment into many particles - at high energies, so many particles that one may not want to measure each one separately. This group of both charged and neutral particles can only be measured by calorimeters. The energy of an electron needs to be measured by a calorimeter and muon identification is enhanced by the recognition of a minimum ionizing particle passing through the calorimeter. Sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers - are reviewed. What follows is a very cursory overview of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First, the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then, examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described. 21 references

  14. High frequency sonar variability in littoral environments: Irregular particles and bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Simon D.; Leighton, Timothy G.; White, Paul R.

    2002-11-01

    Littoral environments may be characterized by high concentrations of suspended particles. Such suspensions contribute to attenuation through visco-inertial absorption and scattering and may therefore be partially responsible for the observed variability in high frequency sonar performance in littoral environments. Microbubbles which are prevalent in littoral waters also contribute to volume attenuation through radiation, viscous and thermal damping and cause dispersion. The attenuation due to a polydisperse suspension of particles with depth-dependent concentration has been included in a sonar model. The effects of a depth-dependent, polydisperse population of microbubbles on attenuation, sound speed and volume reverberation are also included. Marine suspensions are characterized by nonspherical particles, often plate-like clay particles. Measurements of absorption in dilute suspensions of nonspherical particles have shown disagreement with predictions of spherical particle models. These measurements have been reanalyzed using three techniques for particle sizing: laser diffraction, gravitational sedimentation, and centrifugal sedimentation, highlighting the difficulty of characterizing polydisperse suspensions of irregular particles. The measurements have been compared with predictions of a model for suspensions of oblate spheroids. Excellent agreement is obtained between this model and the measurements for kaolin particles, without requiring any a priori knowledge of the measurements.

  15. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures notes on field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP violation, experimental aspects of CP violation in K and B decays, relativistic heavy-ion physics, and the scientific programme of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These core scientific topics are complemented by a lecture about the physics of ski jumping.

  16. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  17. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  18. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac endash Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e + e - collisions at CERN; bar p endash p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab

  19. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)