Sample records for high-energy focused ion

  1. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.


    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  3. Novel Lithium Ion High Energy Battery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR project a new chemistry for Li-ion cells will be developed that will enable a major advance in secondary battery gravimetric and volumetric energy...

  4. Fragmentation of very high energy heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgini, M


    A stack of CR39 (C12H18O7)n nuclear track detectors with a Cu target was exposed to a 158 A GeV lead ion beam at the CERN-SPS, in order to study the fragmentation properties of lead nuclei. Measurements of the total, break-up and pick-up charge-changing cross sections of ultrarelativistic Pb ions on Cu and CR39 targets are presented and discussed.

  5. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE...MM-YYYY)   14-03-2017 2. REPORT TYPE  Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  01 May 2013 to 31 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High energy ion acceleration...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 3/15/2017 1 HIGH ENERGY ION ACCELERATION BY

  6. Trajectories of high energy electrons in a plasma focus (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Lee, J. H.; Mcfarland, D. R.


    Measurements are made of high-energy electron trajectories in a plasma focus as functions of position, time, energy, and angle of emission. The spatial resolution of the X-ray emission shows that low-energy X-rays are emitted from the anode surface. It is also suggested that the highest energy X-rays originate from a small region on the axis. The so-called shadow technique shows that the electron beam is perpendicular to the anode surface. Polar diagrams of medium and high-energy X-rays agree with the bremsstrahlung emission from a relativistic electron beam, the current of which is several 100 A.

  7. Ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, Frank [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik


    The problem of ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR is studied in the present report. Positive ions are trapped in the negative potential well of the antiproton beam. The ions are produced by the interaction between the antiproton beam and the residual gas. The adverse effects of ion trapping like tune shifts, tune spreads and coherent instabilities are reviewed. The ion production rate by ionization of the residual gas molecules is estimated. The negative potential well and the corresponding electric fields of the antiproton beam are evaluated in order to study the transverse and longitudinal motion of the ions and the accumulation in trapping pockets. The removal of ions can be achieved using clearing electrodes and under certain conditions resonant transverse beam shaking. Diagnostic tools and measurements of trapped ion effects are sketched. (orig.)

  8. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon


    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.


    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  10. Structure of High Energy, Heavy Ions in Venus' Upper Ionosphere (United States)

    Persson, Moa; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Nilsson, Hans; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Hamrin, Maria; Fedorov, Andrei; Barabash, Stas


    The solar wind interacts with the atmosphere of Venus, and can reach directly down to the ionosphere. The interaction has previously been studied using the Pioneer Venus mission (PVO) and is now known to cause variations in the density in the ionosphere [Taylor et al., 1980], a transport of ions towards the night side [Knudsen et al., 1980], and an outflow of ions from the atmosphere [Barabash et al., 2007]. Measurements made by PVO showed that the main constituents of Venus ionosphere in the altitude range 150-400 km is the O+ and O2+ ions, where the former dominates from 180 km and higher, and the latter dominates from 180 km down to 150 km [Taylor et al., 1980]. New measurements, made by the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) onboard the Venus Express spacecraft, reveal the high-energy (10 eV to 15 keV) plasma characteristics in the ionosphere of Venus. Using the data collected during the low altitude (down to 130 km) pericentre passages during the aerobraking time period, we are able to extract the height profile of the total heavy ion content (O+ and O2+ ions) of Venus ionosphere. The results show two scale heights separated at 200 km; 10 km for 200 km. We interpret the results as two heavy ion components, namely, the O+ ions are dominant for >200 km, while the O2+ is dominant for methods of mass separation, to extract the two ion components of the scale height profiles, (O+ and O2+). First method is to use the moderate mass separation capabilities of the IMA instrument. The individual mass spectra are fitted by two Gaussian curves, representing O+ and O2+, derived from ground calibration information. The second method uses the energy spectrum, which sometimes has two discrete peaks. By assuming the same velocity for different components in the spacecraft reference frame (resulting in different energy for different masses), we can separate the composition. We will discuss the results of the obtained mass separated height profiles.

  11. Production of High Energy Ions Near an Ion Thruster Discharge Hollow Cathode (United States)

    Katz, Ira; Mikellides, I. G.; Goebel, D. M.; Jameson, K. K.; Wirz, R.; Polk, James E.


    Several researchers have measured ions leaving ion thruster discharge chambers with energies far greater than measured discharge chamber potentials. Presented in this paper is a new mechanism for the generation of high energy ions and a comparison with measured ion spectra. The source of high energy ions has been a puzzle because they not only have energies in excess of measured steady state potentials, but as reported by Goebel et. al. [1], their flux is independent of the amplitude of time dependent plasma fluctuations. The mechanism relies on the charge exchange neutralization of xenon ions accelerated radially into the potential trough in front of the discharge cathode. Previous researchers [2] have identified the importance of charge exchange in this region as a mechanism for protecting discharge cathode surfaces from ion bombardment. This paper is the first to identify how charge exchange in this region can lead to ion energy enhancement.

  12. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  13. High-Energy Ion Linacs Based on Spoke Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, K W; Ostromov, P N


    The applicability of superconducting TEM-class spoke cavities to high-energy ion linacs is discussed, and detailed designs for two TEM-class, triple-spoke-loaded superconducting niobium resonant cavities are presented. The 345 MHz cavities have a velocity range of 0.4

  14. Focusing Optics for High-Energy X-ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinert, U.; Schulze, C.; Honkimäki, V.


    Novel focusing optical devices have been developed for synchrotron radiation in the energy range 40-100 keV. Firstly, a narrow-band-pass focusing energy-tuneable fixed-exit monochromator was constructed by combining meridionally bent Laue and Bragg crystals. Dispersion compensation was applied...

  15. Dense Plasma Focus With High Energy Helium Beams for Radiological Source Replacement (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrea; Ellsworth, Jennifer; Falabella, Steve; Link, Anthony; Rusnak, Brian; Sears, Jason; Tang, Vincent


    A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a compact accelerator that can produce intense high energy ion beams (multiple MeV). It could be used in place of americium-beryllium (AmBe) neutron sources in applications such as oil well logging if optimized to produce high energy helium beams. AmBe sources produce neutrons when 5.5 MeV alphas emitted from the Am interact with the Be. However, due to the very small alpha-Be cross section for alphas AmBe source replacement would have to accelerate ~0.15 μC of He to 2 + MeV in order to produce 107 neutrons per pulse. We are using our particle in cell (PIC) model in LSP of a 4 kJ dense plasma focus discharge to guide the optimization of a compact DPF for the production of high-energy helium beam. This model is fluid for the run-down phase, and then transitions to fully kinetic prior to the pinch in order to include kinetic effects such as ion beam formation and anomalous resistivity. An external pulsed-power driver circuit is used at the anode-cathode boundary. Simulations will be benchmarked to He beam measurements using filtered and time-of-flight Faraday cup diagnostics. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work supported by US DOE/NA-22 Office of Non-proliferation Research and Development. Computing support for this work came from the LLNL Institutional Computing Grand Challenge program.

  16. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction...... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....

  17. High energy ion hit technique to local area using microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu; Sakai, Takuro; Hirao, Toshio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Single energetic ion hit technique has been developed as an application of ion microbeam technique, in order to study the effect of local damage or injury to materials and living organisms. The overall performance is basically defined by those of separate techniques: microbeam formation, microbeam positioning, single ion detection, detection signal processing, hit timing control, and hit verification. Recent progress on the developments of these techniques at JAERI-TIARA facility are reviewed. (author)

  18. LET effects of high energy ion beam irradiation on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shu; Kanzaki, Kenichi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Masaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Shibata, Hiromi


    Thin films of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) were irradiated with 2-20 MeV H{sup +} and He{sup +} ion beams. The beams caused heterogeneous reactions of crosslinking and main chain scission in the films. The relative efficiency of the crosslinking was drastically changed in comparison with that of main chain scission. The anomalous change in the molecular weight distribution was analyzed with increasing irradiation fluence, and the ion beam induced reaction radius; track radius was determined for the radiation sources by the function of molecular weight dispersion. Obtained values were 59{+-}15 A and 14{+-}6 A for 2 MeV He{sup +} and 20 MeV H{sup +} ion beams respectively. (author)

  19. Proceedings of the 8th high energy heavy ion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.W. (ed.); Wozniak, G.J. (ed.)


    This was the eighth in a series of conferences jointly sponsored by the Nuclear Science Division of LBL and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in West Germany. Sixty papers on current research at both relativistic and intermediate energies are included in this report. Topics covered consisted of: Equation of State of Nuclear Matter, Pion and High Energy Gamma Emission, Theory of Multifragmentation, Intermediate Energies, Fragmentation, Atomic Physics, Nuclear Structure, Electromagnetic Processes, and New Facilities planned for SIS-ESR. The latest design parameters of the Bevalac Upgrade Proposal were reviewed for the user community. Also, the design of a new electronic 4..pi.. detector, a time projection chamber which would be placed at the HISS facility, was presented.

  20. Interaction of the high energy deuterons with the graphite target in the plasma focus devices based on Lee model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akel, M., E-mail:; Alsheikh Salo, S.; Ismael, Sh. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P. O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Saw, S. H. [INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148 (Australia); Lee, S. [INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Numerical experiments are systematically carried out using the Lee model code extended to compute the ion beams on various plasma focus devices operated with Deuterium gas. The deuteron beam properties of the plasma focus are studied for low and high energy plasma focus device. The energy spectral distribution for deuteron ions ejected from the pinch plasma is calculated and the ion numbers with energy around 1 MeV is then determined. The deuteron–graphite target interaction is studied for different conditions. The yield of the reaction {sup 12}C(d,n){sup 13}N and the induced radioactivity for one and multi shots plasma focus devices in the graphite solid target is investigated. Our results present the optimized high energy repetitive plasma focus devices as an alternative to accelerators for the production of {sup 13}N short lived radioisotopes. However, technical challenges await solutions on two fronts: (a) operation of plasma focus machines at high rep rates for a sufficient period of time (b) design of durable targets that can take the thermal load.

  1. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Markert, Christina [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  2. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  3. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  4. Topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, L.G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Porcelli, F. [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Berk, H.L. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies


    An analysis of nonstandard guiding centre orbits is presented, which is relevant to MeV ions in a Tokamak. The orbit equation has been simplified from the start, allowing to present an analytic classification of the possible orbits. The topological transitions of the orbits during collisional slowing down are described. In particular, the characteristic equations reveal the existence of a single fixed point in the relevant phase plane, and the presence of a bifurcation curve corresponding to the locus of the pinch orbits. A significant particle inward pinch has been discovered. (authors). 7 figs.

  5. Photon and dilepton production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 7, 2015 ... The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, obtained particularly at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the ...

  6. Modified Thomson spectrometer design for high energy, multi-species ion sources. (United States)

    Gwynne, D; Kar, S; Doria, D; Ahmed, H; Cerchez, M; Fernandez, J; Gray, R J; Green, J S; Hanton, F; MacLellan, D A; McKenna, P; Najmudin, Z; Neely, D; Ruiz, J A; Schiavi, A; Streeter, M; Swantusch, M; Willi, O; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M


    A modification to the standard Thomson parabola spectrometer is discussed, which is designed to measure high energy (tens of MeV/nucleon), broad bandwidth spectra of multi-species ions accelerated by intense laser plasma interactions. It is proposed to implement a pair of extended, trapezoidal shaped electric plates, which will not only resolve ion traces at high energies, but will also retain the lower energy part of the spectrum. While a longer (along the axis of the undeflected ion beam direction) electric plate design provides effective charge state separation at the high energy end of the spectrum, the proposed new trapezoidal shape will enable the low energy ions to reach the detector, which would have been clipped or blocked by simply extending the rectangular plates to enhance the electrostatic deflection.

  7. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in high energy heavy ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belousov, Anton


    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research are becoming more and more significant with the increase of beam intensity due to upgrades. Moreover a new accelerator is being constructed on the basis of GSI within the project of facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). Beam intensities will be increased by factor of 100 and energies by factor of 10. Radiation fields in the vicinity of beam lines will increase more than 2 orders of magnitude and so will the effects on semiconductor devices. It is necessary to carry out a study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices considering specific properties of radiation typical for high energy heavy ion accelerators. Radiation effects on electronics in accelerator environment may be divided into two categories: short-term temporary effects and long-term permanent degradation. Both may become critical for proper operation of some electronic devices. This study is focused on radiation damage to CCD cameras in radiation environment of heavy ion accelerator. Series of experiments with irradiation of devices under test (DUTs) by secondary particles produced during ion beam losses were done for this study. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to simulate the experiment conditions and conditions expected in future accelerator. Corresponding comparisons and conclusions were done. Another device typical for accelerator facilities - industrial Ethernet switch was tested in similar conditions during this study. Series of direct irradiations of CCD and MOS transistors with heavy ion beams were done as well. Typical energies of the primary ion beams were 0.5-1 GeV/u. Ion species: from Na to U. Intensities of the beam up to 10{sup 9} ions/spill with spill length of 200-300 ns. Criteria of reliability and lifetime of DUTs in specific radiation conditions were formulated, basing on experimental results of the study. Predictions of electronic device reliability and lifetime were

  8. Investigation of Substrates and Mounting Techniques for the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Abdali, Salim; Christensen, Finn Erland


    The High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) is a balloon-borne system for obtaining arcminute imagery in the 20-100 keV energy band. The hard X-ray optics are baselined to use thin epoxy-replicated aluminum foil substrates coated with graded-d multilayers, and we show some results on X-ray performa......The High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) is a balloon-borne system for obtaining arcminute imagery in the 20-100 keV energy band. The hard X-ray optics are baselined to use thin epoxy-replicated aluminum foil substrates coated with graded-d multilayers, and we show some results on X...

  9. Jet and Leading Hadron Production in High-energy Heavy-ionCollisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin-Nian


    Jet tomography has become a powerful tool for the study ofproperties of dense matter in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. I willdiscuss recent progresses in the phenomenological study of jet quenching,including momentum, colliding energy and nuclear size dependence ofsingle hadron suppression, modification of dihadron correlations and thesoft hadron distribution associatedwith a quenched jet.

  10. Complementary vertical bipolar transistor process using high-energy ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ragay, F.W.; Ragay, F.W.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wallinga, Hans


    High-energy ion implantation is used as a key processing step in the formation of a complementary bipolar process with both transistor types being vertical. Both n-p-n and p -n-p transistors are made vertically with a deep implanted collector region. Combinations of epitaxial and buried layers are

  11. Fabrication of Pt nanoparticle incorporated polymer nanowires by high energy ion and electron beam irradiation (United States)

    Tsukuda, Satoshi; Takahasi, Ryouta; Seki, Shu; Sugimoto, Masaki; Idesaki, Akira; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro


    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-Pt nanoparticles (NPs) hybrid nanowires were fabricated by high energy ion beam irradiation to PVP thin films including H2PtCl6. Single ion hitting caused crosslinking reactions of PVP and reduction of Pt ions within local cylindrical area along an ion trajectory (ion track); therefore, the PVP nanowires including Pt NPs were formed and isolated on Si substrate after wet-development procedure. The number of Pt NPs was easily controlled by the mixed ratio of PVP and H2PtCl6. However, increasing the amount of H2PtCl6 led to decreasing the radial size and separation of the hybrid nanowires during the wet-development. Additional electron beam irradiation after ion beam improved separation of the nanowires and controlled radial sizes due to an increase in the density of crosslinking points inner the nanowires.

  12. Non-linear interaction between high energy ions and MHD-modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergkvist, Tommy


    When heating a fusion plasma with ICRE or NBI a non-Maxwellian distribution function with high energy ions is created. Ions which are in resonance with a MHD mode will interact with the electric field from the mode and in some circumstances energy will flow from the particles to the mode or opposite. A quasi-linear model for the interaction between high energy ions and a MHD mode has been developed. To solve the time evolution of the MHD mode a module has been implemented into the Monte Carlo code FIDO, which is used for calculating a 3-dimensional distribution function. The model has been tested for an internal kink mode during fishbone oscillations.

  13. Isolated and clustered DNA lesions induced by high-energy iron and carbon ions (United States)

    Ide, H.; Tanaka, R.; Nakaarai, Y.; Terato, H.; Furusawa, Y.

    During space flight astronauts are exposed to various types of radiation from sun and galactic cosmic rays, the latter of which contain high-energy charged particles such as Fe and C ions. The radiation risk to astronauts toward such high-energy charged particles has been assessed by ground-based experiments. When irradiated by ionizing radiation, DNA molecules suffer from oxidation of bases and strand breaks. The distribution of these lesions along the DNA strand may differ significantly between densely ionizing high-energy Fe and C ions and sparsely ionizing radiation like 60Co gamma-rays. Among various types of DNA damage, bistranded clustered lesions comprised of multiple oxidized bases or strand breaks on opposite strands within a few helical turns are of particular interest since they are assumed to be resistant to repair or induce faulty repair, hence resulting in cell killing and mutations. In the present study, we have analyzed isolated and clustered DNA lesions generated by high-energy Fe and C ions to elucidate the nature of DNA lesions. Plasmid DNA (pDEL19) was irradiated in 10 mM Tris buffer (pH 7.5) by Fe (500 MeV/amu) and C (290 MeV/amu) ions and 60Co gamma-rays. Single-strand breaks (SSB) and double-strand breaks (DSB) were quantified by analysis of conformational changes using agarose gel electrophoresis. For quantification of isolated and bistranded clustered base lesions, irradiated plasmid was exhaustively digested prior to agarose gel analysis by Endo III and Fpg that preferentially incise DNA at oxidative pyrimidine and purine lesions, respectively. The yield (site/Gy/nucleotide) of isolated damages (SSB and bases lesions) tended to decrease with increasing LET [gamma (0.2 keV/μ m) mutations was decreased with increasing LET [relative yield: 1 (gamma) > 0.77 (C) > 0.69 (Fe)]. This result is in contrast to the higher biological effectiveness (e.g. cell killing) of high-energy Fe and C ions than gamma-rays, suggesting a role of more complex

  14. Ion Trapping in the SLAC B-factory High Energy Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villevald, D.; Heifets, S.; /SLAC


    The presence of trapped ions in electron storage rings has caused significant degradation in machine performance. The best known way to prevent the ion trapping is to leave a gap in the electron bunch train. The topic of this paper is the dynamics of ions in the field of the bunch train with uneven bunch filling. We consider High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-factory. In the first section we summarize mechanisms of the ion production. Then the transverse and longitudinal dynamics are analyzed for a beam with and without gap. After that, the effect of the ions is considered separating all ions in the ring in several groups depending on their transverse and longitudinal stability. The main effects of the ions are the tune shift and the tune spread of the betatron oscillations of the electrons. The tune spread is produced by bunch to bunch variation of the electric field of ions and by nonlinearity of the field. It is shown that the main contribution to the shift and spread of the betatron tune of the beam is caused by two groups of ions: one-turn ions and trapped ions. One-turn ions are the ions generated during the last passage of the bunch train. Trapped ions are the ions with stable transverse and longitudinal motion. In the last section we discuss shortly related problems of parameters of the clearing electrodes, injection scenario, and collective effects. Clearing electrodes should be located at the defocusing in x-plane quadrupole magnets. An electric DC field of value 1.0 kv/cm will be enough to prevent the ion trapping process. During the injection, it is recommended to fill the bucket with the design number of the particles per bunch N{sub B} before going to the next bucket. In addition, it is recommended to have the sequential filling of the ring, i.e. the filling from one bucket to the next sequentially. It was shown that ions will not be trapped at the location of the interaction point. The reason for this is that the current of the positron beam is

  15. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam (United States)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua; Liu, Wenjing; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Chen, Hao; Wei, Junzhe


    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10-3 s-1 and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10-2 s-1.

  16. Live cell imaging combined with high-energy single-ion microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Na; Du, Guanghua, E-mail:; Liu, Wenjing; Wu, Ruqun; Wei, Junzhe [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Guo, Jinlong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou (China); Chen, Hao [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Lanzhou, Lanzhou (China)


    DNA strand breaks can lead to cell carcinogenesis or cell death if not repaired rapidly and efficiently. An online live cell imaging system was established at the high energy microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics to study early and fast cellular response to DNA damage after high linear energy transfer ion radiation. The HT1080 cells expressing XRCC1-RFP were irradiated with single high energy nickel ions, and time-lapse images of the irradiated cells were obtained online. The live cell imaging analysis shows that strand-break repair protein XRCC1 was recruited to the ion hit position within 20 s in the cells and formed bright foci in the cell nucleus. The fast recruitment of XRCC1 at the ion hits reached a maximum at about 200 s post-irradiation and then was followed by a slower release into the nucleoplasm. The measured dual-exponential kinetics of XRCC1 protein are consistent with the proposed consecutive reaction model, and the measurements obtained that the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 recruitment to DNA strand break is 1.2 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1} and the reaction rate constant of the XRCC1 release from the break-XRCC1 complex is 1.2 × 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}.

  17. Unique aqueous Li-ion/sulfur chemistry with high energy density and reversibility. (United States)

    Yang, Chongyin; Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Wang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Gao, Tao; Fan, Xiulin; Hou, Singyuk; Ma, Zhaohui; Amine, Khalil; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng


    Leveraging the most recent success in expanding the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes, in this work we create a unique Li-ion/sulfur chemistry of both high energy density and safety. We show that in the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte, lithiation of sulfur experiences phase change from a high-order polysulfide to low-order polysulfides through solid-liquid two-phase reaction pathway, where the liquid polysulfide phase in the sulfide electrode is thermodynamically phase-separated from the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte. The sulfur with solid-liquid two-phase exhibits a reversible capacity of 1,327 mAh/(g of S), along with fast reaction kinetics and negligible polysulfide dissolution. By coupling a sulfur anode with different Li-ion cathode materials, the aqueous Li-ion/sulfur full cell delivers record-high energy densities up to 200 Wh/(kg of total electrode mass) for >1,000 cycles at ∼100% coulombic efficiency. These performances already approach that of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using a nonaqueous electrolyte, along with intrinsic safety not possessed by the latter. The excellent performance of this aqueous battery chemistry significantly promotes the practical possibility of aqueous LIBs in large-format applications.

  18. Changes in the surface electronic states of semiconductor fine particles induced by high energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Shibata, Hiromi


    The changes in the surface electronic states of Q-sized semiconductor particles in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, induced by high energy ion irradiation, were examined by observation of ion induced emission and photoluminescence (PL). Various emission bands attributed to different defect sites in the band gap were observed at the initial irradiation stage. As the dose increased, the emissions via the trapping sites decreased in intensity while the band-edge emission developed. This suggests that the ion irradiation would remove almost all the trapping sites in the band gap. The low energy emissions, which show a multiexponential decay, were due to a donor-acceptor recombination between the deeply trapped carriers. It was found that the processes of formation, reaction, and stabilization of the trapping sites would predominantly occur under the photooxidizing conditions. (author)

  19. Final Report - Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jagat [3M Company, Maplewood, MN (United States)


    Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) technology’s potential to enable a commercially viable high energy density is the key to a lower $/Wh, thereby a low cost battery. The design of a LIB with high energy, high power, safety and long life is a challenge that requires cell design from the ground up and synergy between all components. 3M Company (3M), the Recipient, led by its Principal Investigator, Jagat Singh, pursued this challenging task of a LIB by ‘teaming’ key commercial businesses [General Motors (GM), Umicore and Iontensity] and labs [Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL)]. The technology from each team member was complimentary and a close working relationship spanning the value chain drove productivity.The completion of this project is a significant step towards more energy efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles, making America less dependent on imported oil.

  20. Effects of gamma-ray and high energy carbon ion irradiation on swimming velocity of Euglena gracilis (United States)

    Sakashita, T.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, H.; Fuma, S.; Häder, D.-P.

    The effects of gamma-ray and high energy carbon ion irradiation on the swimming velocity of the photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis strain Z were studied, focusing on a dose-effect relationship. Cells were exposed to 60Co gamma-rays at 6 doses of 10, 15, 20, 40, 100 and 200 Gy for water, and also to 290 MeV/amu carbon ions from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at 7 doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 50, 100 and 200 Gy for water). The swimming velocity was measured by a biomonitoring system, called ECOTOX. The swimming velocities of Euglena gracilis cells were significantly decreased by >40 Gy gamma-rays and >5 Gy carbon ions, respectively. The 50% effective doses for inhibition, 34±4 Gy (gamma-rays) and 13±1 Gy (290 MeV/amu carbon ions), were estimated from the best fit to data of the logistic model. The relative biological effectiveness (2.6±0.4) was calculated by the ratio of 50% effective doses. The inhibition of the swimming velocity of the cells irradiated with gamma-rays was still present after 3 days, while recovery of the swimming velocity was shown in the cells exposed to 290 MeV/amu carbon ions. It is suggested that ionizing radiation inhibits ATP production and/or increases frictional drag on beating of the flagellum, thus decreasing swimming velocity.

  1. Photoluminescence and reflectivity studies of high energy light ions irradiated polymethyl methacrylate films (United States)

    Bharti, Madhu Lata; Singh, Fouran; Ramola, R. C.; Joshi, Veena


    The self-standing films of non-conducting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were irradiated in vacuum using high energy light ions (HELIs) of 50 MeV Lithium (Li+3) and 80 MeV Carbon (C+5) at various ion dose to induce the optical changes in the films. Upon HELI irradiation, films exhibit a significant enhancement in optical reflectivity at the highest dose. Interestingly, the photoluminescence (PL) emission band with green light at (514.5 nm) shows a noticeable increase in the intensity with increasing ion dose for both ions. However, the rate of increase in PL intensity is different for both HELI and can be correlated with the linear energy transfer by these ions in the films. Origin of PL is attributed to the formation of carbon cluster and hydrogenated amorphous carbon in the polymer films. HAC clusters act as PL active centres with optical reflectivity. Most of the harmful radiation like UV are absorbed by the material and is becoming opaque after irradiation and this PL active material are useful in fabrication of optoelectronic devices, UV-filter, back-lit components in liquid crystal display systems, micro-components for integrate optical circuits, diffractive elements, advanced materials and are also applicable to the post irradiation laser treatment by means of ion irradiation.

  2. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J. [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H.; Morita, Y.; Ohshima, T.


    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  3. Ion production and ionization effect in the atmosphere during the Bastille day GLE 59 due to high energy SEPs (United States)

    Mishev, A. L.; Velinov, P. I. Y.


    The influence of high energy particles, specifically cosmic rays, on atmospheric physics and chemistry is highly discussed. In most of the proposed models the role of ionization in the atmosphere due to cosmic rays is not negligible. Moreover, effect(s) on minor constituents and aerosols are recently observed, specifically over the polar regions during strong solar particle events. According to the recent findings for such effects it is necessary an essential increase of ion production, specifically during the winter period. The galactic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere. Occasionally, the atmospheric ionization is significantly enhanced during strong solar energetic particles events, specifically over the polar caps. During the solar cycle 23 several strong ground level enhancements were observed. One of the strongest was the Bastille day event occurred on 14 July 2000. Using a full Monte Carlo 3-D model, we compute the atmospheric ionization, considering explicitly the contribution of cosmic rays with galactic and solar origin, focusing on high energy particles. The model is based on atmospheric cascade simulation with the PLANETOCOSMICS code. The ion production rate is computed as a function of the altitude above the sea level. The ion production rate is computed on a step ranging from 10 to 30 min throughout the event, considering explicitly the spectral and angular characteristics of the high energy part of solar protons as well as their time evolution. The corresponding event averaged ionization effect relative to the average due to galactic cosmic rays is computed in lower stratosphere and upper troposphere at various altitudes, namely 20 km, 15 km, 12 km and 8 km above the sea level in a sub-polar and polar regions. The 24h and the weekly ionization effects are also computed in the troposphere and low stratosphere. Several applications are discussed.

  4. Gettering centres in high-energy ion-implanted silicon investigated by point defect recombination (United States)

    Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Werner, P.; Skorupa, W.; Gösele, U.


    Self-interstitials were introduced by additional Si + implantation into the vacancy-dominated depth range around half of the projected ion range, RP/2, of high-energy ion-implanted Si in order to balance radiation-induced excess vacancies. The undesired gettering of Cu atoms in this region ( RP/2 effect) could be suppressed. The threshold was determined necessary to remove the Cu gettering at RP/2. It does approximately agree with the number of the calculated excess vacancies. Additional interstitial-type dislocation loops were formed during annealing at RP/2 as the Si + fluence exceeds this threshold. Interstitial clusters were not proven to be the gettering centres for Cu trapping.

  5. Apparatus, Method and Program Storage Device for Determining High-Energy Neutron/Ion Transport to a Target of Interest (United States)

    Wilson, John W. (Inventor); Tripathi, Ram K. (Inventor); Badavi, Francis F. (Inventor); Cucinotta, Francis A. (Inventor)


    An apparatus, method and program storage device for determining high-energy neutron/ion transport to a target of interest. Boundaries are defined for calculation of a high-energy neutron/ion transport to a target of interest; the high-energy neutron/ion transport to the target of interest is calculated using numerical procedures selected to reduce local truncation error by including higher order terms and to allow absolute control of propagated error by ensuring truncation error is third order in step size, and using scaling procedures for flux coupling terms modified to improve computed results by adding a scaling factor to terms describing production of j-particles from collisions of k-particles; and the calculated high-energy neutron/ion transport is provided to modeling modules to control an effective radiation dose at the target of interest.

  6. Yolk-shell structured Sb@C anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Junhua; Yan, Pengfei; Luo, Langli; Qi, Xingguo; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Biwei; Feng, Shuo; Wang, Chongmin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Yuehe; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin


    Despite great advances in sodium-ion battery developments, the search for high energy and stable anode materials remains a challenge. Alloy or conversion-typed anode materials are attractive candidates of high specific capacity and low voltage potential, yet their applications are hampered by the large volume expansion and hence poor electrochemical reversibility and fast capacity fade. Here, we use antimony (Sb) as an example to demonstrate the use of yolk-shell structured anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries. The Sb@C yolk-shell structure prepared by controlled reduction and selective removal of Sb2O3 from carbon coated Sb2O3 nanoparticles can accommodate the Sb swelling upon sodiation and improve the structural/electrical integrity against pulverization. It delivers a high specific capacity of ~554 mAh•g-1, good rate capability (315 mhA•g-1 at 10C rate) and long cyclability (92% capacity retention over 200 cycles). Full-cells of O3-Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 cathodes and Sb@C-hard carbon composite anodes demonstrate a high specific energy of ~130 Wh•kg-1 (based on the total mass of cathode and anode) in the voltage range of 2.0-4.0 V, ~1.5 times energy of full-cells with similar design using hard carbon anodes.

  7. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries (United States)

    Goldman, Jason


    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  8. In-situ spectroscopy of radiation damage of PTFE irradiated with high-energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, A.O.; Rizzutto, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Severin, D.; Seidl, T.; Neumann, R.; Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)


    Full text: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) shows an outstanding combination of chemical and physical properties such as excellent resistance to chemical reagents, thermal stability in a wide temperature range, high electric resistance, and low friction coefficient. However, PTFE is known to be extremely sensitive to high energy radiation undergoing scission of the main chain. Depending on the irradiation parameters, temperature, and atmosphere, cross-linking mechanisms can be also observed. Sometimes these mechanisms have a very short lifetime, therefore it is necessary to measure the radiation damages during the irradiation process. PTFE films (50 {mu}m thick, Enflo Canada Ltd.) were irradiated with U and Au ions up to energies of 1.3 GeV and fluences of 1 x 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} at the accelerator UNILAC at the GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. The irradiations were performed at cryo (T 23K) and room temperature in the new setup at the M3-beam line of the materials research M-Branch. This setup allows in-situ investigations of ion irradiation induced material changes with infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and residual gas analysis (RGA). Mass spectra recorded during room temperature ion irradiation show outgassing of several fragments, with CF and CF{sub 3} being the most dominant species. Almost no fragments are observed during the cryo-irradiation. However, subsequent sample heating to room temperature leads to outgassing of the fragments starting above 150 K. This result indicates that at low irradiation temperatures small fragments are frozen in and accumulated in the sample. The online FTIR analysis of the irradiated samples shows a decrease in the absorption intensity of the bands assigned to the CF{sub 2} bonds, evidencing scission of the main polymer chain. The CF{sub 2} degradation is accompanied by the formation of the CF{sub 3} group indicated by two new bands, one at 738 cm{sup -1} (terminal - CF{sub 3} group) and another at 985 cm{sup -1} (-CF{sub 3} side

  9. Flexible Aqueous Li-Ion Battery with High Energy and Power Densities. (United States)

    Yang, Chongyin; Ji, Xiao; Fan, Xiulin; Gao, Tao; Suo, Liumin; Wang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Chen, Ji; Chen, Long; Han, Fudong; Miao, Ling; Xu, Kang; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Chunsheng


    A flexible and wearable aqueous symmetrical lithium-ion battery is developed using a single LiVPO4 F material as both cathode and anode in a "water-in-salt" gel polymer electrolyte. The symmetric lithium-ion chemistry exhibits high energy and power density and long cycle life, due to the formation of a robust solid electrolyte interphase consisting of Li2 CO3 -LiF, which enables fast Li-ion transport. Energy densities of 141 Wh kg-1 , power densities of 20 600 W kg-1 , and output voltage of 2.4 V can be delivered during >4000 cycles, which is far superior to reported aqueous energy storage devices at the same power level. Moreover, the full cell shows unprecedented tolerance to mechanical stress such as bending and cutting, where it not only does not catastrophically fail, as most nonaqueous cells would, but also maintains cell performance and continues to operate in ambient environment, a unique feature apparently derived from the high stability of the "water-in-salt" gel polymer electrolyte. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A prediction model for bipolar RAMs in a high energy ion/proton environment (United States)

    Myers, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.


    A model has been developed which predicts the relative susceptibility of bipolar RAMs to heavy ion and proton upset. During the course of evaluating this model, physical and electrical variations were also evaluated indicating that the minimum internal signal level is the primary upset susceptibility indicator. Unfortunately, all of the physical and electrical variations expected during a normal product development cycle are in direct opposition to improved high-energy particle upset tolerance. Hence, a trade-off between highly susceptible, low power (medium speed) devices must be made against the less susceptible, higher power (high speed) equivalent device, taking into account the systems trade-off with respect to system power, software, error correction procedures and/or circuit redundancy.

  11. A new relativistic hydrodynamics code for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kazuhisa [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Akamatsu, Yukinao [Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Osaka University, Department of Physics, Toyonaka (Japan); Stony Brook University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Nonaka, Chiho [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States)


    We construct a new Godunov type relativistic hydrodynamics code in Milne coordinates, using a Riemann solver based on the two-shock approximation which is stable under the existence of large shock waves. We check the correctness of the numerical algorithm by comparing numerical calculations and analytical solutions in various problems, such as shock tubes, expansion of matter into the vacuum, the Landau-Khalatnikov solution, and propagation of fluctuations around Bjorken flow and Gubser flow. We investigate the energy and momentum conservation property of our code in a test problem of longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion with an initial condition for high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We also discuss numerical viscosity in the test problems of expansion of matter into the vacuum and conservation properties. Furthermore, we discuss how the numerical stability is affected by the source terms of relativistic numerical hydrodynamics in Milne coordinates. (orig.)

  12. Collective Longitudinal Polarization in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions at Very High Energy (United States)

    Becattini, F.; Karpenko, Iu.


    We study the polarization of particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at very high energy along the beam direction within a relativistic hydrodynamic framework. We show that this component of the polarization decreases much slower with center-of-mass energy compared to the transverse component, even in the ideal longitudinal boost-invariant scenario with nonfluctuating initial state, and that it can be measured by taking advantage of its quadrupole structure in the transverse momentum plane. In the ideal longitudinal boost-invariant scenario, the polarization is proportional to the gradient of temperature at the hadronization and its measurement can provide important information about the cooling rate of the quark-gluon plasma around the critical temperature.

  13. Jet quenching and γ-jet correlation in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)


    Medium modification of γ-tagged jets in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is investigated within a linearized Boltzmann transport model which includes both elastic parton scattering and induced gluon emission. In Pb + Pb collisions at √(s)=2.76 TeV, a γ-tagged jet is seen to lose 15% of its energy at 0–10% central collisions. Simulations also point to a sizable azimuthal angle broadening of γ-tagged jets at the tail of a distribution which should be measurable when experimental errors are significantly reduced. An enhancement at large z{sub jet}=p{sub L}/E{sub jet} in jet fragmentation function at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be attributed to the dominance of leading particles in the reconstructed jet. A γ-tagged jet fragmentation function is shown to be more sensitive to jet quenching, therefore a better probe of the jet transport parameter.

  14. Advanced Electrode Materials for High Energy Next Generation Li ion Batteries (United States)

    Hayner, Cary Michael

    Lithium ion batteries are becoming an increasingly ubiquitous part of modern society. Since their commercial introduction by Sony in 1991, lithium-ion batteries have grown to be the most popular form of electrical energy storage for portable applications. Today, lithium-ion batteries power everything from cellphones and electric vehicles to e-cigarettes, satellites, and electric aircraft. Despite the commercialization of lithium-ion batteries over twenty years ago, it remains the most active field of energy storage research for its potential improvement over current technology. In order to capitalize on these opportunities, new materials with higher energy density and storage capacities must be developed. Unfortunately, most next-generation materials suffer from rapid capacity degradation or severe loss of capacity when rapidly discharged. In this dissertation, the development of novel anode and cathode materials for advanced high-energy and high-power lithium-ion batteries is reported. In particular, the application of graphene-based materials to stabilize active material is emphasized. Graphene, a unique two-dimensional material composed of atomically thin carbon sheets, has shown potential to address unsatisfactory rate capability, limited cycling performance and abrupt failure of these next-generation materials. This dissertation covers four major subjects: development of silicon-graphene composites, impact of carbon vacancies on graphene high-rate performance, iron fluoride-graphene composites, and ternary iron-manganese fluoride synthesis. Silicon is considered the most likely material to replace graphite as the anode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its ability to alloy with large amounts of lithium, leading to significantly higher specific capacities than the graphite standard. However, Si also expands in size over 300% upon lithiation, leading to particle fracture and isolation from conductive support, resulting in cell failure within a few

  15. Fluence correction factor for graphite calorimetry in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam (United States)

    Lourenço, A.; Thomas, R.; Homer, M.; Bouchard, H.; Rossomme, S.; Renaud, J.; Kanai, T.; Royle, G.; Palmans, H.


    The aim of this work is to develop and adapt a formalism to determine absorbed dose to water from graphite calorimetry measurements in carbon-ion beams. Fluence correction factors, {{k}\\text{fl}} , needed when using a graphite calorimeter to derive dose to water, were determined in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed in a 290 MeV/n carbon-ion beam with a field size of 11  ×  11 cm2, without modulation. In order to sample the beam, a plane-parallel Roos ionization chamber was chosen for its small collecting volume in comparison with the field size. Experimental information on fluence corrections was obtained from depth-dose measurements in water. This procedure was repeated with graphite plates in front of the water phantom. Fluence corrections were also obtained with Monte Carlo simulations through the implementation of three methods based on (i) the fluence distributions differential in energy, (ii) a ratio of calculated doses in water and graphite at equivalent depths and (iii) simulations of the experimental setup. The {{k}\\text{fl}} term increased in depth from 1.00 at the entrance toward 1.02 at a depth near the Bragg peak, and the average difference between experimental and numerical simulations was about 0.13%. Compared to proton beams, there was no reduction of the {{k}\\text{fl}} due to alpha particles because the secondary particle spectrum is dominated by projectile fragmentation. By developing a practical dose conversion technique, this work contributes to improving the determination of absolute dose to water from graphite calorimetry in carbon-ion beams.

  16. Fluence correction factor for graphite calorimetry in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. (United States)

    Lourenço, A; Thomas, R; Homer, M; Bouchard, H; Rossomme, S; Renaud, J; Kanai, T; Royle, G; Palmans, H


    The aim of this work is to develop and adapt a formalism to determine absorbed dose to water from graphite calorimetry measurements in carbon-ion beams. Fluence correction factors, [Formula: see text], needed when using a graphite calorimeter to derive dose to water, were determined in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed in a 290 MeV/n carbon-ion beam with a field size of 11  ×  11 cm(2), without modulation. In order to sample the beam, a plane-parallel Roos ionization chamber was chosen for its small collecting volume in comparison with the field size. Experimental information on fluence corrections was obtained from depth-dose measurements in water. This procedure was repeated with graphite plates in front of the water phantom. Fluence corrections were also obtained with Monte Carlo simulations through the implementation of three methods based on (i) the fluence distributions differential in energy, (ii) a ratio of calculated doses in water and graphite at equivalent depths and (iii) simulations of the experimental setup. The [Formula: see text] term increased in depth from 1.00 at the entrance toward 1.02 at a depth near the Bragg peak, and the average difference between experimental and numerical simulations was about 0.13%. Compared to proton beams, there was no reduction of the [Formula: see text] due to alpha particles because the secondary particle spectrum is dominated by projectile fragmentation. By developing a practical dose conversion technique, this work contributes to improving the determination of absolute dose to water from graphite calorimetry in carbon-ion beams.

  17. Doping of two-dimensional MoS2 by high energy ion implantation (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Zhao, Yuda; Lin, Ziyuan; Long, Yan; Wang, Yi; Chan, Mansun; Chai, Yang


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been demonstrated to be promising candidates for next generation electronic circuits. Analogues to conventional Si-based semiconductors, p- and n-doping of 2D materials are essential for building complementary circuits. Controllable and effective doping strategies require large tunability of the doping level and negligible structural damage to ultrathin 2D materials. In this work, we demonstrate a doping method utilizing a conventional high-energy ion-implantation machine. Before the implantation, a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) protective layer is used to decelerate the dopant ions and minimize the structural damage to MoS2, thus aggregating the dopants inside MoS2 flakes. By optimizing the implantation energy and fluence, phosphorus dopants are incorporated into MoS2 flakes. Our Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results show that only negligibly structural damage is introduced to the MoS2 lattice during the implantation. P-doping effect by the incorporation of p+ is demonstrated by Photoluminescence (PL) and electrical characterizations. Thin PMMA protection layer leads to large kinetic damage but also a more significant doping effect. Also, MoS2 with large thickness shows less kinetic damage. This doping method makes use of existing infrastructures in the semiconductor industry and can be extended to other 2D materials and dopant species as well.

  18. Ion Anisotropy and High-Energy Variability of Large Solar Particle Events: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Tan, Lun C.; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.


    We have made comparative studies of ion anisotropy and high-energy variability of solar energetic particle (SEP) events previously examined by the Solar, Heliospheric, and Interplanetary Environment (SHINE) Workshop campaign. We have found distinctly different characteristics of SEPs between two large "gradual" events having very similar solar progenitors (the 2002 April 21 and August 24 events). Since the scattering centers of SEPs are approximately frozen in the solar wind, we emphasize work in the solar-wind frame where SEPs tend to be isotropized, and small anisotropies are easier to detect. While in the August event no streaming reversal occurred, in the April event the field-aligned anisotropy of all heavy ions showed sign of streaming reversal. The difference in streaming reversal was consistent with the difference in the presence of the outer reflecting boundary. In the April event the magnetic mirror, which was located behind the interplanetary shock driven by the preceding coronal mass ejection (CME), could block the stream of SEPs, while in the August event SEPs escaped freely because of the absence of nearby boundary. The magnetic mirror was formed at the bottleneck of magnetic field lines draped around a flank of the preceding CME. In the previous SHINE event analysis the contrasting event durations and Fe/O ratios of the both events were explained as the interplay between shock geometry and seed population. Our new findings, however, indicate that event duration and time as well as spectral variation are also affected by the presence of a nearby reflecting boundary.

  19. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology (United States)

    Rawat, R. S.


    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  20. Emittance evolution of a tightly focused electron bunch with high energy spread

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, A R


    The production of a self injected high energy electron beam from laser-plasma interaction is one of the goals at the LI2FE infrastructure at LNF. The formation and acceleration of a beam produced with the experimental setting available in Frascati has been simulated by C. Benedetti et al. by means of the code AlaDyn [1]; the results, shown in Figure 1, foresee that the bunch should have a total charge of about 3.5 nC, a transverse size of few microns and a very broad spectrum, ranging from a few MeV up to about 1 GeV, in agreement with other numerical and experimental results produced world wide. In particular, a neatly separated charge portion at high energy is present (Figure 2), whose main parameters are reported in Table 1, which constitutes the most interesting product of the plasma based accelerator.

  1. Hardening of ODS ferritic steels under irradiation with high-energy heavy ions (United States)

    Ding, Z. N.; Zhang, C. H.; Yang, Y. T.; Song, Y.; Kimura, A.; Jang, J.


    Influence of the nanoscale oxide particles on mechanical properties and irradiation resistance of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels is of critical importance for the use of the material in fuel cladding or blanket components in advanced nuclear reactors. In the present work, impact of structures of oxide dispersoids on the irradiation hardening of ODS ferritic steels was studied. Specimens of three high-Cr ODS ferritic steels containing oxide dispersoids with different number density and average size were irradiated with high-energy Ni ions at about -50 °C. The energy of the incident Ni ions was varied from 12.73 MeV to 357.86 MeV by using an energy degrader at the terminal so that a plateau of atomic displacement damage (∼0.8 dpa) was produced from the near surface to a depth of 24 μm in the specimens. A nanoindentor (in constant stiffness mode with a diamond Berkovich indenter) and a Vickers micro-hardness tester were used to measure the hardeness of the specimens. The Nix-Gao model taking account of the indentation size effect (ISE) was used to fit the hardness data. It is observed that the soft substrate effect (SSE) can be diminished substantially in the irradiated specimens due to the thick damaged regions produced by the Ni ions. A linear correlation between the nano-hardeness and the micro-hardness was found. It is observed that a higher number density of oxide dispersoids with a smaller average diameter corresponds to an increased resistance to irradiation hardening, which can be ascribed to the increased sink strength of oxides/matrix interfaces to point defects. The rate equation approach and the conventional hardening model were used to analyze the influence of defect clusters on irradiation hardening in ODS ferritic steels. The numerical estimates show that the hardening caused by the interstitial type dislocation loops follows a similar trend with the experiment data.

  2. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries. (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping


    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Ion Conveyor. An ion focusing and conveying device. (United States)

    Colburn, Alex W; Giannakopulos, A E; Derrick, Peter J


    The control and transmission of ions or small charged droplets in the intermediate to high-pressure regime is of primary importance in areas such as atmospheric pressure ionisation. Where small apertures separate differentially pumped vacuum regions in the inlet systems to mass spectrometers, a large proportion of the available ion current is lost to the surrounding electrode structures. A new ion-optical device, named the ion conveyor, incorporating electrodynamic focusing and conveying of charged entities is described. Results from ion-optical simulations are presented demonstrating the performance of the device in various operating modes and electrode configurations.

  4. DLTS spectra of silicon diodes with p+-n-junction irradiated with high energy krypton ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Poklonski


    Full Text Available p+-n-Diodes have been studied. The diodes were manufactured on wafers (thickness 460 μm, (111 plane of uniformly phosphorus doped float-zone-grown single-crystal silicon. The resistivity of silicon was 90 Ω cm and the phosphorus concentration was 5×1013 cm−3. The diodes were irradiated with 250 MeV krypton ions. The irradiation fluence was 108 cm−2. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS was used to examine the defects induced by high energy krypton ion implantation. The DLTS spectra were recorded at a frequency of 1 MHz in the 78–290 K temperature range. The capacity-voltage characteristics have been measured at a reverse bias voltage from 0 to −19 V at a frequency of 1 MHz. We show that the main irradiation-induced defects are A-centers and divacancies. The behavior of DLTS spectra in the 150–260 K temperature range depends essentially on the emission voltage Ue. The variation of Ue allows us to separate the contributions of different defects into the DLTS spectrum in the 150–260 K temperature range. We show that, in addition to A-centers and divacancies, irradiation produces multivacancy complexes with the energy level Et = Ec−(0.5±0.02 eV and an electron capture cross section of ~4×10–13 cm2.

  5. Effects of very low fluences of high-energy protons or iron ions on irradiated and bystander cells. (United States)

    Yang, H; Magpayo, N; Rusek, A; Chiang, I-H; Sivertz, M; Held, K D


    In space, astronauts are exposed to radiation fields consisting of energetic protons and high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) particles at very low dose rates or fluences. Under these conditions, it is likely that, in addition to cells in an astronaut's body being traversed by ionizing radiation particles, unirradiated cells can also receive intercellular bystander signals from irradiated cells. Thus this study was designed to determine the dependence of DNA damage induction on dose at very low fluences of charged particles. Novel techniques to quantify particle fluence have been developed at the NASA Space Radiation Biology Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The approach uses a large ionization chamber to visualize the radiation beam coupled with a scintillation counter to measure fluence. This development has allowed us to irradiate cells with 1 GeV/nucleon protons and iron ions at particle fluences as low as 200 particles/cm(2) and quantify biological responses. Our results show an increased fraction of cells with DNA damage in both the irradiated population and bystander cells sharing medium with irradiated cells after low fluences. The fraction of cells with damage, manifest as micronucleus formation and 53BP1 focus induction, is about 2-fold higher than background at doses as low as ∼0.47 mGy iron ions (∼0.02 iron ions/cell) or ∼70 μGy protons (∼2 protons/cell). In the irradiated population, irrespective of radiation type, the fraction of damaged cells is constant from the lowest damaging fluence to about 1 cGy, above which the fraction of damaged cells increases with dose. In the bystander population, the level of damage is the same as in the irradiated population up to 1 cGy, but it does not increase above that plateau level with increasing dose. The data suggest that at fluences of high-energy protons or iron ions less than about 5 cGy, the response in irradiated cell populations may be dominated by the bystander response.

  6. Investigation of High-Energy Ion-Irradiated MA957 Using Synchrotron Radiation under In-Situ Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Mo


    Full Text Available In this study, an MA957 oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS alloy was irradiated with high-energy ions in the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System. Fe ions at an energy of 84 MeV bombarded MA957 tensile specimens, creating a damage region ~7.5 μm in depth; the peak damage (~40 dpa was estimated to be at ~7 μm from the surface. Following the irradiation, in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements were performed at the Advanced Photon Source in order to study the dynamic deformation behavior of the specimens after ion irradiation damage. In-situ X-ray measurements taken during tensile testing of the ion-irradiated MA957 revealed a difference in loading behavior between the irradiated and un-irradiated regions of the specimen. At equivalent applied stresses, lower lattice strains were found in the radiation-damaged region than those in the un-irradiated region. This might be associated with a higher level of Type II stresses as a result of radiation hardening. The study has demonstrated the feasibility of combining high-energy ion radiation and high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study materials’ radiation damage in a dynamic manner.

  7. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions (United States)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu


    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  8. Fractal characteristics of fracture morphology of steels irradiated with high-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Yongqiang; Liu, Juan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Chonghong, E-mail: [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jiachao [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Yang, Yitao; Zhang, Liqing; Song, Yin [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    Highlights: • Fractal dimensions of fracture surfaces of steels before and after irradiation were calculated. • Fractal dimension can effectively describe change of fracture surfaces induced by irradiation. • Correlation of change of fractal dimension with embrittlement of irradiated steels is discussed. - Abstract: A fractal analysis of fracture surfaces of steels (a ferritic/martensitic steel and an oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic steel) before and after the irradiation with high-energy ions is presented. Fracture surfaces were acquired from a tensile test and a small-ball punch test (SP). Digital images of the fracture surfaces obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) by using the pixel covering method. Boundary of binary image and fractal dimension were determined with a MATLAB program. The results indicate that fractal dimension can be an effective parameter to describe the characteristics of fracture surfaces before and after irradiation. The rougher the fracture surface, the larger the fractal dimension. Correlation of the change of fractal dimension with the embrittlement of the irradiated steels is discussed.

  9. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  10. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Montgomery Village, Maryland 20886 (United States); McClelland, J. J. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)


    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  11. Designing and Thermal Analysis of Safe Lithium Ion Cathode Materials for High Energy Applications (United States)

    Hu, Enyuan

    Safety is one of the most critical issues facing lithium-ion battery application in vehicles. Addressing this issue requires the integration of several aspects, especially the material chemistry and the battery thermal management. First, thermal stability investigation was carried out on an attractive high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. New findings on the thermal-stability and thermal-decomposition-pathways related to the oxygen-release are discovered for the high-voltage spinel Li xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) with ordered (o-) and disordered (d-) structures at fully delithiated (charged) state using a combination of in situ time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Both fully charged o--LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 and d-LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 start oxygen-releasing structural changes at temperatures below 300 °C, which is in sharp contrast to the good thermal stability of the 4V-spinel LixMn2O4 with no oxygen being released up to 375 °C. This is mainly caused by the presence of Ni4+ in LNMO, which undergoes dramatic reduction during the thermal decomposition. In addition, charged o-LNMO shows better thermal stability than the d-LNMO counterpart, due to the Ni/Mn ordering and smaller amount of the rock-salt impurity phase in o-LNMO. Newly identified two thermal-decomposition-pathways from the initial LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 spinel to the final NiMn2O4-type spinel structure with and without the intermediate phases (NiMnO3 and alpha-Mn 2O3) are found to play key roles in thermal stability and oxygen release of LNMO during thermal decomposition. In addressing the safety issue associated with LNMO, Fe is selected to partially substitute Ni and Mn simultaneously utilizing the electrochemical activity and structure-stabilizing high spin Fe3+. The synthesized LiNi1/3Mn4/3Fe1/3O4 showed superior thermal stability and satisfactory electrochemical performance. At charged state, it is able to withstand the temperature as

  12. Soft errors in 10-nm-scale magnetic tunnel junctions exposed to high-energy heavy-ion radiation (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Makino, Takahiro; Onoda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shoji; Sato, Hideo; Inocencio Enobio, Eli Christopher; Endoh, Tetsuo; Ohno, Hideo


    The influences of various types of high-energy heavy-ion radiation on 10-nm-scale CoFeB-MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicular easy axis have been investigated. In addition to possible latent damage, which has already been pointed out in previous studies, high-energy heavy-ion bombardments demonstrated that the magnetic tunnel junctions may exhibit clear flips between their high- and low-resistance states designed for a digital bit 1 or 0. It was also demonstrated that flipped magnetic tunnel junctions still may provide proper memory functions such as read, write, and hold capabilities. These two findings proved that high-energy heavy ions can produce recoverable bit flips in magnetic tunnel junctions, i.e., soft errors. Data analyses suggested that the resistance flips stem from magnetization reversals of the ferromagnetic layers and that each of them is caused by a single strike of heavy ions. It was concurrently found that an ion strike does not always result in a flip, suggesting a stochastic process behind the flip. Experimental data also showed that the flip phenomenon is dependent on the device and heavy-ion characteristics. Among them, the diameter of the device and the linear energy transfer of the heavy ions were revealed as the key parameters. From their dependences, the physical mechanism behind the flip was discussed. It is likely that a 10-nm-scale ferromagnetic disk loses its magnetization due to a local temperature increase induced by a single strike of heavy ions; this demagnetization is followed by a cooling period associated with a possible stochastic recovery process. On the basis of this hypothesis, a simple analytical model was developed, and it was found that the model accounts for the results reasonably well. This model also predicted that magnetic tunnel junctions provide sufficiently high soft-error reliability for use in space, highlighting their advantage over their counterpart conventional semiconductor memories.

  13. High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEI Corporation proposes to develop a mixed metal oxide nanocomposite cathode that is designed for delivering high energy density with good rate performance at low...

  14. High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Donghai [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Manthiram, Arumugam [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wang, Chao-Yang [EC Power LLC, State College, PA (United States); Liu, Gao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Zhengcheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    cell fabrication and test, full pouch cells with high capacity of 2.2 Ah and 1.2 Ah have been fabricated and delivered. The cells show great uniformity and good cycling performance. The prelithiation method effectively compensate the loss in the first cycle. The cell with high energy density and long-cycle life has been achieved.

  15. Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled SiO-SnxCoyCz Anode for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Song, Xiangyun; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Gao


    A SiOSnCoC composite anode is assembled using a conductive polymer binder for the application in next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries. A specific capacity of 700 mAh/g is achieved at a 1C (900 mA/g) rate. A high active material loading anode with an areal capacity of 3.5 mAh/cm(2) is demonstrated by mixing SiOSnCoC with graphite. To compensate for the lithium loss in the first cycle, stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) is used for prelithiation; when paired with a commercial cathode, a stable full cell cycling performance with a 86% first cycle efficiency is realized. By achieving these important metrics toward a practical application, this conductive polymer binder/SiOSnCoC anode system presents great promise to enable the next generation of high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Parameter correlations for deep penetration welding with high energy focused beams (United States)

    Peretz, R.; Mayer, H. G.

    The theoretical description of deep penetration welding (d.p.w.) with focused beams by the two-dimensional line source model of Swift-Hook and Gick does not provide analytic expressions covering the whole range of variation of the parameters involved, especially those combinations which are most frequently encountered in practice. The authors' first step was to demonstrate that the transition zone in the concluding diagram of Swift-Hook and Gick: 'dimensionless welding speed/dimensionless power' is linear when the logarithmic scales are abandoned. This result made possible a complete three-dimensional analysis of d.p.w., taking into account the in-depth variation of weld width. New dimensionless parameter expressions were obtained by integration of local relationships for the general case (irregular cross-section profile of the resolidified weld) and for simple fitting geometries. A selection of the numerous electron beam vacuum welding experiments carried out at the authors' Institute was chosen to verify the theory, while electron beam atmosphere welding results were used to determine the source to workpiece energy transfer efficiency. The model of Babenko and Tychinskii for gas jet laser cutting proved to be similar to the Swift-Hook and Gick model for d.p.w. The difference in the results of the two models is explained.

  17. Advanced Cathode for Ultra-High Energy Li-Ion Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are currently under development for Extravehicular Activity Suits, Altair Lunar Landers, and Lunar Mobility Systems. However,...

  18. HEDgeHOB High-energy density matter generated by heavy ion beams at the future facility for antiprotons and ion research

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Wouchuk, G; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E; Hoffmann, D H H; Schmidt, R


    This paper presents an overview of the theoretical work that has been carried out during the past few years to assess the capabilities of intense heavy ion beams to induce states of High-Energy Density (HED) in matter. This work has shown that two different experimental schemes can be used to study HED physics employing intense ion beams. These schemes have been named HIHEX [Heavy Ion Heating and EXpansion] and LAPLAS [LAboratory PLAnetary Sciences], respectively. The first scheme involves isochoric and uniform heating and subsequent isentropic expansion of matter while the latter deals with low entropy compression of matter using multiple shock reflection technique. This work has been done within the framework of the HEDgeHOB [High Energy Density Matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams] collaboration that has been formed to organize and facilitate construction of experimental facilities and later to perform experimental work in the field of HED matter at the future accelerator facility, FAIR [Facility for Antipr...

  19. High-energy metal ion implantation for reduction of surface resistivity of alumina ceramica) (United States)

    Gushenets, V. I.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.


    In this work, the possibility to increase the surface conductivity of ceramic insulators through their treatment with accelerated metal ion beams produced by a MevvaV.Ru vacuum arc source is demonstrated. The increase in surface conductivity is made possible due to experimental conditions in which an insulated collector is charged by beam ions to a potential many times lower than the accelerating voltage, and hence, than the average beam ion energy. The observed effect of charge neutralization of the accelerated ion beam is presumably associated with electrons knocked out of the electrodes of the accelerating system of the source and of the walls of the vacuum chamber by the accelerated ions.

  20. Research on aspheric focusing lens processing and testing technology in the high-energy laser test system (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Fu, Xiu-hua; Jia, Zong-he; Wang, Zhe; Dong, Huan


    In the high-energy laser test system, surface profile and finish of the optical element are put forward higher request. Taking a focusing aspherical zerodur lens with a diameter of 100mm as example, using CNC and classical machining method of combining surface profile and surface quality of the lens were investigated. Taking profilometer and high power microscope measurement results as a guide, by testing and simulation analysis, process parameters were improved constantly in the process of manufacturing. Mid and high frequency error were trimmed and improved so that the surface form gradually converged to the required accuracy. The experimental results show that the final accuracy of the surface is less than 0.5μm and the surface finish is □, which fulfils the accuracy requirement of aspherical focusing lens in optical system.

  1. Influence of high energy ion irradiation on fullerene derivative (PCBM) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Trupti, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Singhal, Rahul; Vishnoi, Ritu [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Lakshmi, G.B.V.S. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Post Box No. 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Biswas, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India)


    Highlights: • Spin casted PCBM thin films (∼100 nm) are irradiated with 55 MeV Si{sup 4+} ion beam. • The decrease in band gap is observed after irradiation. • The surface properties is also dependent on incident ion fluences. • Polymerization reactions induced by energetic ions leads to modifications. - Abstract: The modifications produced by 55 MeV Si{sup 4+} swift heavy ion irradiation on the phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) thin films (thickness ∼ 100 nm) has been enlightened. The PCBM thin films were irradiated at 1 × 10{sup 10}, 1 × 10{sup 11} and 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} fluences. After ion irradiation, the decreased optical band gap and FTIR band intensities were observed. The Raman spectroscopy reveals the damage produced by energetic ions. The morphological variation were investigated by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements and observed to be influenced by incident ion fluences. After 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence, the overlapping of ion tracks starts and produced overlapping effects.

  2. Homologous recombination contributes to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by high-energy iron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Faria; Seidler, Sara B.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia


    To test the contribution of homologous recombinational repair (HRR) in repairing DNA damaged sites induced by high-energy iron ions, we used: (1) HRR-deficient rodent cells carrying a deletion in the RAD51D gene and (2) syngeneic human cells impaired for HRR by RAD51D or RAD51 knockdown using RNA interference. We show that in response to iron ions, HRR contributes to cell survival in rodent cells, and that HRR-deficiency abrogates RAD51 foci formation. Complementation of the HRR defect by human RAD51D rescues both enhanced cytotoxicity and RAD51 foci formation. For human cells irradiated with iron ions, cell survival is decreased, and, in p53 mutant cells, the levels of mutagenesis are increased when HRR is impaired. Human cells synchronized in S phase exhibit more pronounced resistance to iron ions as compared with cells in G1 phase, and this increase in radioresistance is diminished by RAD51 knockdown. These results implicate a role for RAD51-mediated DNA repair (i.e. HRR) in removing a fraction of clustered lesions induced by charged particle irradiation. Our results are the first to directly show the requirement for an intact HRR pathway in human cells in ensuring DNA repair and cell survival in response to high-energy high LET radiation.

  3. Experimental study and simulation of the residual activity induced by high-energy argon ions in copper (United States)

    Strašík, I.; Mustafin, E.; Seidl, T.; Pavlovič, M.


    The paper presents new experimental results and FLUKA-simulations of residual activation induced by high-energy argon ions in copper. It follows the previous residual activation studies performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt with uranium ions as a preparatory work for constructing the FAIR facility. Copper samples were irradiated by 1 GeV/u and 500 MeV/u 40Ar ions and investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry. The isotopes with dominating contribution to the total residual activity were identified and their partial activities were quantified. Depth-profiling of the partial residual activities of all identified isotopes was performed by measurements of individual target foils. The experimental results were compared with simulations by the FLUKA-code. A satisfactory agreement between the experiment and the simulations was observed.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A wide range of ion species and velocity distributions are expected to be found as the Giotto spacecraft traverses the coma of Halley's Comet. The outer coma is...

  5. Novel Anodes for Rapid Recharge High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TIAX proposes to develop as a novel negative electrode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. This material will fill the gap between the...

  6. High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries do not fully meet the energy density, power density and safety requirements specified by NASA for future exploration missions....

  7. The AMS02 Cherenkov imager prototype In-beam tests with high-energy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Buénerd, Michel


    A prototype of the AMS Cherenkov imager has been tested at CERN with 20 and per nucleon ion obtained by fragmentation of a primary beam of Pb and In ions, respectively. Data have been collected with single low-intensity beam settings, over the range of nuclear charges 2

  8. Scintillation screen materials for beam profile measurements of high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Renuka


    For the application as a transverse ion beam diagnostics device, various scintillation screen materials were analysed. The properties of the materials such as light output, image reproduction and radiation stability were investigated with the ion beams extracted from heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18. The ion species (C, Ne, Ar, Ta and U) were chosen to cover the large range of elements in the periodic table. The ions were accelerated to the kinetic energies of 200 MeV/u and 300 MeV/u extracted with 300 ms pulse duration and applied to the screens. The particle intensity of the ion beam was varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 9} particles per pulse. The screens were irradiated with typically 40 beam pulses and the scintillation light was captured using a CCD camera followed by characterization of the beam spot. The radiation hardness of the screens was estimated with high intensity Uranium ion irradiation. In the study, a linear light output for 5 orders of magnitude of particle intensities was observed from sensitive scintillators and ceramic screens such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The highest light output was recorded by CsI:Tl and the lowest one by Herasil. At higher beam intensity saturation of light output was noticed from Y and Mg doped ZrO{sub 2} screens. The light output from the screen depends not only on the particle intensity but also on the ion species used for irradiation. The light yield (i.e. the light intensity normalised to the energy deposition in the material by the ion) is calculated from the experimental data for each ion beam setting. It is shown that the light yield for light ions is about a factor 2 larger than the one of heavy ions. The image widths recorded exhibit a dependence on the screens material and differences up to 50 % were registered. On radiation stability analysis with high particle intensity of Uranium ions of about 6 x 10{sup 8} ppp, a stable performance in light output and image reproduction was documented from Al

  9. The measurements of light high-energy ions in NINA-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leonov


    Full Text Available The flux of energetic light ions at low altitude is both an important input and output for self-consistent calculations of albedo particles resulting from the interaction of trapped and cosmic ray particles, with the upper atmosphere. In addition, data on the flux of light ions are needed to evaluate radiation damages on space-borne instruments and on space mission crews. In spite of that, sources of data on the flux of energetic ions at LEO are roughly limited to the AP-8 model, CREME/CREME96 codes and the SAMPEX, NOAA/TIROS satellites. The existing and operational European SAC-C/ICARE and PROBA-1/SREM instruments could also be potential sources for proton data at LEO. Although AP-8 and SAMPEX/PSB97 may be publicly accessed through the SPENVIS, they exhibit an order of magnitude difference in low altitude proton fluxes and they do not contain helium fluxes. Therefore, improved light ion radiation models are still needed.

    In this paper we present a procedure to identify and measure the energy of ions that are not stopped in the NINA-2 instrument. Moreover, problems related to particles that cross the instrument in the opposite direction are addressed and shown to be a possible cause of particle misidentification. Measuring fluxes of low abundance elements like energetic helium ions requires a good characterisation of all possible sources of backgrounds in the detector. Hints to determine the several contributions to the background are presented herein and may be applied to extract an order of magnitude of energetic ions fluxes from existing data sets, while waiting for dedicated high performance instruments.

  10. Probing Multi-Strange Dibaryon with Proton-Omega Correlation in High-energy Heavy Ion Collisions


    Morita, Kenji; Ohnishi, Akira; Etminan, Faisal; Hatsuda, Tetsuo(Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198, Japan)


    Two-particle intensity correlation between the proton ($p$) and the Omega-baryon ($\\Omega$) in high-energy heavy ion collisions is studied to unravel the possible spin-2 $p\\Omega$ dibaryon recently suggested by lattice QCD simulations. The ratio of correlation functions between small and large collision systems, $C_{\\rm SL}(Q)$, is proposed to be a new measure to extract the strong $p\\Omega$ interaction without much contamination from the Coulomb attraction. Relevance of this quantity to the ...

  11. SAXS investigation of latent track structure in HDPE irradiated with high energy Fe ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Yang; Huang, Can [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Mingwang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute of Electronic Engineering, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Liu, Qi; Wang, Yuzhu; Liu, Yi; Tian, Feng; Lin, Jun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu, Zhiyong, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)


    Semi-crystalline high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were irradiated with 1.157 GeV {sup 56}Fe ion beams to fluences ranging from 1 × 10{sup 11} to 6 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}. The radiation induced changes in nano/microstructure were investigated with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The scattering contributions from HDPE matrix and ion tracks are successfully separated and analyzed through tilted SAXS measurements with respect to the X-ray beam direction. Lorentz correction, one-dimensional correlation function calculation, fractal nature analysis of the isotropic scattering pattern reveal that HDPE long period polymeric structures are damaged and new materials, possibly clusters of carbon-rich materials, are formed inside the ion tracks. Least square curve fitting of the scattering contribution from the ion track reveals that the track is composed of a core of about 5.3 nm in radius, characterized by a significant density deficit compared to the virgin HDPE, surrounded by a shell of about 4.3 nm in thickness with less density reduction.

  12. Trans-projected-range gettering of copper in high-energy ion-implanted silicon (United States)

    Gueorguiev, Y. M.; Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Mücklich, A.; Panknin, D.; Yankov, R. A.; Skorupa, W.


    Strong gettering of Cu atoms beyond the projected ion range RP has been found in single-crystal Si implanted with P+ and As+ ions at MeV energies. We call this phenomenon the "trans-RP effect." The formation of a separate Cu gettering band below RP, as detected by secondary ion mass spectrometry, indicates the presence of a significant amount of defects therein. These defects have not been detected by transmission electron microscopy and we suggest that they are small interstitial clusters. The amount of Cu atoms gettered beyond RP is, particularly for the P implants, much greater than that in the gettering layer at RP, indicating that the gettering ability of the point defects beyond RP is higher than that of the extended defects at RP. A mechanism responsible for their formation and clustering in the trans-RP region is proposed, and an explanation is given of the differences in the results for the P and As implants.

  13. Damage induced by high energy multiply charged oxygen ions in oxide coated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)]. E-mail:; Dahiwale, S.S. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Kulkarni, V.R. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Bogle, K.A. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Shinde, N.S. [Ecotopia Science Institute, Division of Energy Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)


    P-type oxide coated silicon samples of resistivity 120 {omega} cm were irradiated with 60 MeV oxygen ions of fixed charge states 4{sup +}, 5{sup +}, 6{sup +} and 7{sup +} at an equal fluence of, {phi}, {approx}10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The induced damage was estimated by Hall voltage, Hall coefficient, carrier concentration and lifetime of minority carriers. The results indicate that Hall voltage (V {sub H}) and Hall coefficient (R {sub H}) increases, while carrier concentration (n) decreases with the charge state of impinging oxygen ions. The V {sub H} increases from 22 mV to 76.5 mV at typical current of 0.5 mA, R {sub H} from 0.42 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 3}/C to 2.16 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 3}/C and n decreases from 9 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} to 2.88 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for the different charge states. This fact is an evidence that the oxygen ions with an individual fixed charge state passing through very thin 40 A layer of silicon dioxide, induces significant damage at the SiO{sub 2}-Si interface through the mechanism of electronic stopping power. The lifetime of minority charge carriers, {tau} (bulk property), remains constant at around 6 {mu}s for all the charge states of the 60 MeV energy oxygen ion irradiated samples at a constant fluence of, {phi}, 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Commercialization of a high energy neutral beam ion source. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This final report summarizes the effort and presents the results of a Phase II fabrication effort to build an industrial prototype of the LBL developed high energy neutral beam source. The effort was primarily concentrated on incorporating hard vacuum dielectric seals and a ceramic high voltage accelerator insulator. Several other design changes were incorporated for cost, reliability or life improvements to include: (1) accelerator grid locating dowel pins to aid final alignment, (2) plasma source to accelerator captive fasteners to aid filament replacement during source maintenance, (3) molybdenum cooling tubes on all accelerator grids, (4) additional fasteners in the plasma generator to facilitate hard seals, (5) modified suppressor grid rails and holders to simplify final grid alignment, (6) adjusting screws on exit grid rail holders to simplify final grid alignment, (7) addition of adjusting screws to the grid end pieces to simplify alignment, and (8) addition of accelerator hat shims to allow two different grid positioning locations.

  15. Collective flows in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at AGS and SPS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Proton collective flows in heavy-ion collisions from AGS ((2–11) A GeV) to. SPS ((40, 158) A GeV) energies are investigated in a nonequilibrium transport model with nuclear mean-field (MF). Sideward 〈px〉, directed v1, and elliptic v2 flows are systematically studied with different assumptions on the nuclear ...

  16. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    SEUs typically appear as transient pluses in logic or support circuitry, or as bit flips in memory cells or registers. Also possible is a multiple-bit SEU in which a single ion hits two or more bits causing simultaneous errors. Multiple-bit SEU is a problem for single-bit error detection and correction. (EDAC) where it is impossible to ...

  17. Photon and dilepton production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 7, 2015 ... Hard production of photons and dileptons. One of the big successes in electromagnetic radiation measurements in relativistic heavy- ion collisions is the observation of high pT direct photons that are produced in the initial hard scattering [9]. Figures 4a and 4b show the latest direct photon pT spectra in Au+ ...

  18. Evolution of the surface structures of solids under irradiation with high energy heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Didyk, A Y; Cheblukov, Y N; Dmitriev, S N; Hofmann, A; Semina, V K; Suvorov, A L


    The results on the study of surface structure of solids, like metals, metal alloys, amorphous metal alloys and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) under irradiation with heavy sup 8 sup 6 Kr ions (ion energy is 245 MeV, irradiation fluences are 10 sup 1 sup 3 , 10 sup 1 sup 4 , 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2) and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi (ion energy is 705 MeV, irradiation fluences are 10 sup 1 sup 2 , 10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 2) are presented. The sputtering coefficients for metals (Ni, W, Au), stainless steel Cr18Ni10, amorphous alloy Ni sub 5 sub 8 Nb sub 4 sub 2 and HOPG are measured. It is shown that the sputtering coefficients of annealed polycrystals (Ni, Au) and single crystals (W, HOPG) are not large at low defect concentration in materials. At this stage, the sputtering of grain boundaries predominantly takes place. The sputtering yields become to increase significantly with the growth of damage concentration at ion fluences of the order of 10 sup 1 sup 5 cm sup - sup 2. Analogous results were o...

  19. Spatial Wilson loops in the classical field of high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petreska, Elena


    It has been previously shown numerically that the expectation value of the magnetic Wilson loop at the initial time of a heavy-ion collision exhibits area law scaling. This was obtained for a classical non-Abelian gauge field in the forward light cone and for loops of area $A\\gtrsim 2/Q_s^2$. Here,

  20. High-energy heavy-ion-induced single event transients in epitaxial structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dussault, H. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics Rome Lab., Griffiss AFB, NY (United States)); Howard, J.W. Jr.; Block, R.C. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics); Pinto, M.R. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)); Stapor, W.J. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Knudson, A.R. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States) Sachs/Freeman Associates, Landover, MD (United States))


    This paper describes numerical and experimental heavy-ion charge collection studies using P[sup +]N junctions on epitaxial layers. The numerical simulations provide insights into the basic mechanisms contributing to transient currents and charge collection in devices on epitaxial layers. This paper also presents charge collection data from [approximately]2 GeV [sup 127]I ions incident upon P[sup +]N junctions on both bulk silicon and epitaxial layers and compares the experimental data with the simulation results. The experimental data show that charge deposited below the epitaxial layer can be collected. This work is unique and important because this GeV-energy-range [sup 127]I ion more nearly represents a cosmic ray compared to lower energy, heavy-ions in the hundreds of MeV energy range. This paper also discusses the simulation results with respect to the experimental data and charge collection models for epitaxial transistors. Additionally, a shunting model is proposed to model the early transient current responses.

  1. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy densityphysics and heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy,P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, Qin H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev,E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.


    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport; and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by > 50 X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. They are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy.

  2. High-energy ion treatments of amorphous As40Se60 thin films for optical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Chauhan


    Full Text Available The treatment of 100 MeV Ag swift-heavy ion (SHI irradiation with five different fluences (3×1010, 1×1011, 3×1011, 1×1012, and 3×1012 ions/cm2 was used to design optical and structural properties of amorphous (a- As40Se60 chalcogenide thin films. Swanepoel method was applied on transmission measurements to determine the changes in optical bandgap, Tauc parameter and linear optical parameters, i.e., linear optical absorption, extinction coefficient and linear refractive index. Dispersion of the material was determined by Wemple–DiDomenico relation. Changes in nonlinear optical parameters of third-order optical susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined using semi-empirical relations. Changes in surface morphology of the films were investigated using SEM observation, which indicated that fluence 3×1012 ions/cm2 was upper threshold limit for these films for ion treatment. It is observed that optical bandgap reduces from 1.76 eV to 1.64 eV, and nonlinear refractive index increases from 1.31×10−10 [esu] to 1.74×10−10 [esu]. Linear refractive index initially increases from 2.80 to 3.52 (for fluence 3×1010 ions/cm2 and then keeps decreasing. The observed changes in optical properties upon irradiation were explained in terms of structural rearrangements by Raman measurement. The study was compiled with the previous literature to propose SHI as an effective optical engineering technique to achieve desired changes according to the need of optical/photonic applications.

  3. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo


    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  4. Scalable synthesis of silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite for high-energy lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Ko, Minseong; Chae, Sujong; Ma, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyung; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi; Cho, Jaephil


    Existing anode technologies are approaching their limits, and silicon is recognized as a potential alternative due to its high specific capacity and abundance. However, to date the commercial use of silicon has not satisfied electrode calendering with limited binder content comparable to commercial graphite anodes for high energy density. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a next-generation hybrid anode using silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon. This architecture allows compatibility between silicon and natural graphite and addresses the issues of severe side reactions caused by structural failure of crumbled graphite dust and uncombined residue of silicon particles by conventional mechanical milling. This structure shows a high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (92%) and a rapid increase of the Coulombic efficiency to 99.5% after only 6 cycles with a capacity retention of 96% after 100 cycles, with an industrial electrode density of >1.6 g cm-3, areal capacity loading of >3.3 mAh cm-2, and <4 wt% binding materials in a slurry. As a result, a full cell using LiCoO2 has demonstrated a higher energy density (1,043 Wh l-1) than with standard commercial graphite electrodes.

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS (United States)

    Durante, Marco


    include carcinogenesis, late degenerative tissue effects (including damage to the central nervous system), and hereditary effects. For these studies, microbeams represent an essential tool, considering that in space each cell in the human body will not experience more than one heavy-ion traversal. Both NASA and ESA are investing important resources in ground-based space radiation research programs, to reduce risk uncertainty and to develop countermeasures. For both cancer therapy and space radiation protection a better understanding of the effects of energetic heavy ions is needed. Physics should be improved, especially the measurements of nuclear fragmentation cross-sections, and the transport calculations. Biological effects need to be studied in greater detail, and clearly only understanding the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced biological damage will reduce the uncertainty on late effects in humans. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics aims to provide the state-of-the-art of the biophysics of energetic heavy ions and to highlight the areas where more research is urgently needed for therapy and the space program. Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics Contents Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications K O Voss, C Fournier and G Taucher-Scholz Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight L Narici Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy Hirohiko Tsujii, Tadashi Kamada, Masayuki Baba, Hiroshi Tsuji, Hirotoshi Kato, Shingo Kato, Shigeru Yamada, Shigeo Yasuda, Takeshi Yanagi, Hiroyuki Kato, Ryusuke Hara, Naotaka Yamamoto and Junetsu Mizoe Heavy-ion effects: from track structure to DNA and chromosome damage F Ballarini, D Alloni, A Facoetti and A Ottolenghi Shielding experiments with high-energy heavy ions for spaceflight applications C Zeitlin, S Guetersloh, L Heilbronn, J Miller, N Elkhayari, A Empl, M LeBourgeois, B W Mayes, L Pinsky

  6. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.


    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  7. Improvement of the magnetron sputtered coating adhesion through pulsed bombardment by high-energy ions (United States)

    Melnik, Yu A.; Metel, A. S.


    Comparative study of titanium nitride deposition has been carried out, the growing coating being uninterruptedly bombarded by 100-eV ions or ions accelerated by high-voltage pulses applied to the substrate. The study revealed that microhardness of coatings synthesized using 25-kV pulses rises from 21 GPa to 29 GPa when percentage of nitrogen in the mixture with argon increases from 15% to 20%. With a further increase of nitrogen percentage to 30%, the microhardness slightly diminishes to 27 GPa. In contrast to golden coatings synthesized at low-voltage substrate biasing, the color of titanium nitride coating produced using high-voltage pulses is brown. The most striking difference of coating deposited using high-voltage pulses applied to the substrate is its perfect adhesion despite the interface formation at the room temperature without any preheating and activation. The adhesion characterization using a scratch-tester has revealed that critical loads of coatings synthesized using 25-kV pulses are several times higher than those of conventional nitride coatings synthesized at uninterrupted substrate biasing of 100 V. When the pulse amplitude diminishes to 5 kV, the critical loads and microhardness of the coating decrease to conventional values.

  8. High energy electron and ion generation from thin target using ultra short table top laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K.; Oishi, Y.; Fujii, T.; Nayuki, T.; Takizawa, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sekiya, T; Okano, Y.; Hironaka, Y.; Nakamura, K. G.; Horioka, K.; Kondo, K. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Toyko Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The influence of laser pulse duration on energetic electrons and protons generation was investigated using a Ti:sapphire laser. Energetic electrons with the temperature of 350 keV were produced by the irradiation of 90 mJ and 50 fs pulse onto a 30 {mu} m copper tape target. For ions, when laser pulse was changed by varying grating distance in the pulse compressor with keeping laser energy at constant value, the maximum proton energy was not changed so much in the region where laser pulse duration was between 55 fs and 400 fs and laser intensity was order of 10{sup 18} W/ cm{sup 2}. The maximum proton energy seems to more depend on the laser energy density on the target than laser intensity. When we evaluate the performance of ion acceleration using the value of E{sub p-max}/U{sub p} (the maximum proton energy normalized by the ponderomotive potential of the laser field), it increasing along with increasing of laser pulse duration.

  9. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Ion Beams: the HEDgeHOB Collaboration (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Piriz, A. R.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Deutsch, C.


    Intense particle beams provide a novel tool to generate large samples of HED matter with uniform physical conditions [1]. Theoretical studies have shown that an ion beam can be employed using different experimental schemes to study HED states in matter. These include HIHEX [2,3] and LAPLAS [4,5]. The former involves isochoric and uniform heating of matter by an ion beam that is followed by isentropic expansion of the heated material. This allows one to access the entire phase diagram including those regions which can not be accessed by traditional methods of shock waves. The latter considers a multiple shock reflection technique that leads to a low-entropy compression of a test material like H or water which generates physical conditions that are expected to exist in the interior of giant planets. Interesting problems like Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities have also been investigated in detail.This work has provided the necessary basis for the HEDgeHOB proposal for future experiments at the FAIR facility at Darmstadt. [1] N.A. Tahir et al., PRE 60 (1999) 4715. [2] D.H.H. Hoffmann et al., PoP 9 (2002) 3652. [3] N.A. Tahir et al., PRL 95 (2005) 035001. [4] N.A. Tahir et al., PRE 62 (2001) 016402. [5] N.A. Tahir et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 577 (2007) 238.

  10. Fractionated exposure of high energy iron ions has a sparing effect in vivo (United States)

    Chang, P. Y.; Bakke, J.; Puey, A.

    The radiation environment in deep space is complex and includes a broad spectrum of charged and highly energetic particle radiations. Exposure to these types of radiations may pose potential health risks in manned space missions. The detection of particle radiation-induced genomic alterations in vivo, particularly in slow or non-dividing tissues, is therefore important to provide relevant information in estimating risks. We are using a plasmid-based lacZ transgenic mouse model system to rapidly measure, in a statistically reliable way, the mutagenic potential of charged particle radiations relevant in the space environment. The lacZ transgenic mouse has been constructed so that every cell of the animal contains multiple copies of an integrated target reporter gene, allowing us to measure tissue-specific radiation-induced changes as a function of dosing regime. The nature of these mutations can also be characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). To examine the impact of dose protraction, animals were exposed to a single dose or daily fractions of 1 GeV/n iron ions. Cytotoxicity in the peripheral blood was measured by enumerating the frequency of circulating micronucleated reticulocytes (fMN-RET) in a time course from 24 h up to 1 week after completion of the radiation protocol. Brain and spleen tissues were harvested at 8 weeks after exposure and mutant frequencies (MF) in the transgene in these tissues were measured. Results from the fractionated protocol were compared to the responses obtained after the animals were exposed to the single dose treatment. We noted significantly lower levels of micronucleated reticulocytes in peripheral blood at 48 h after fractionated doses of iron ions when compared to the same total dose delivered in a single exposure demonstrating that protracted exposures of particle radiation resulted in an overall sparing effect in cytogenetic toxicity in the hematopoietic system in animals. Transgene mutation analysis

  11. Resolving the Antibaryon-Production Puzzle in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, R


    We argue that the observed antiproton production in heavy-ion collisions at CERN-SpS energies can be understood if (contrary to most sequential scattering approaches) the backward direction in the process $p\\bar p \\leftrightarrow \\bar{n}\\pi$ (with $\\bar{n}$=5-6) is consistently accounted for within a thermal framework. Employing the standard picture of subsequent chemical and thermal freezeout, which induces an over-saturation of pion number with associated chemical potentials of $\\mu_\\pi\\simeq$~60-80 MeV, enhances the backward reaction substantially. The resulting rates and corresponding cross sections turn out to be large enough to maintain the abundance of antiprotons at chemical freezeout until the decoupling temperature, in accord with the measured $\\bar{p}/p$ ratio in Pb(158AGeV)+Pb collisions.

  12. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, M.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.


    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many μm in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  13. Direct photon production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manko, V.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Agnihotri, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefiev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Baldine, A.; Barabach, L.; Barlag, C.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bock, R.; Bohne, E.-M.; Boeroecz, Z.; Bucher, D.; Buijs, A.; Buesching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chalyshev, V.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherbatchev, R.; Chujo, T.; Claussen, A.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Djordjadze, V.; Donni, P.; Doubovik, I.; Dutt, S.; Majumdar, M.R. Dutta; El Chenawi, K.; Eliseev, S.; Enosawa, K.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrischuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Glasow, R.; Gupta, S. K.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H. A.; Gutbrod, H. H.; Higuchi, R.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Kampert, K.-H.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kato, S.; Kees, S.; Kim, H.; Kolb, B. W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kruempel, T.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Kurita, K.; Kuzmin, N.; Langbein, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Loehner, H.; Luquin, L.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Martin, M.; Maximov, A.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mgebrichvili, G.; Miake, Y.; Mikhalev, D.; Mir, Md.F.; Mishra, G.C.; Miyamoto, Y.; Morrison, D.; Mukhopadhyay, D. S.; Myalkovski, V.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B. K.; Nayak, S. K.; Nayak, T. K.; Neumaier, S.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nilsson, P.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokonov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Obenshain, F.E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Pachr, M.; Parfenov, A.; Pavliouk, S.; Peitzmann, T.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Pinanaud, W.; Purschke, M.L.; Raeven, B.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Roy, C.; Rubio, J.M.; Sako, H.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.-R.; Shabratova, G.; Shah, T.H.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soederstroem, K. [and others


    Direct thermal photons in the p{sub t} range of 0 - 5 GeV/c are expected to provide a sensitive probe of the hot dense matter formed in the early stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The production of single photons in 158 AGeV Pb+Pb interactions has been studied with the 10080 detector lead glass calorimeter of the WA98 experiment at CERN. Neutral {pi}{sup 0} cross section has been measured via its two-photon decay branch. At p{sub t} {>=}{approx}GeV/c single photon yields of {approx}20% of the decay photon yields are observed consistently with different photon identification criteria both for the peripheral and central events.

  14. Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities (United States)

    Choi, Jang Wook; Aurbach, Doron


    Energy density is the main property of rechargeable batteries that has driven the entire technology forward in past decades. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) now surpass other, previously competitive battery types (for example, lead-acid and nickel metal hydride) but still require extensive further improvement to, in particular, extend the operation hours of mobile IT devices and the driving mileages of all-electric vehicles. In this Review, we present a critical overview of a wide range of post-LIB materials and systems that could have a pivotal role in meeting such demands. We divide battery systems into two categories: near-term and long-term technologies. To provide a realistic and balanced perspective, we describe the operating principles and remaining issues of each post-LIB technology, and also evaluate these materials under commercial cell configurations.

  15. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai


    A newly designed dense SiOx@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite with a high conductivity of 3.5 S cm−1 and tap density of 1.13 g cm−3 was prepared, in which the CNTs were stripped by physical energy crushing and then coated on SiOx nanoparticles. The composite exhibits high capacities of 835 and 687 mAh g−1 at current densities of 100 and 200 mA g−1, which can be finely persevered over 100 cycles. Benefiting from this promising anode, two new full cells of SiOx@CNTs/LiMn2O4 and SiOx@CNTs/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high energy densities of 2273 and 2747 Wh kganode−1 (i. e. 413 and 500 Wh kgcathode−1), respectively, were successfully assembled and can cycle more than 400 cycles. Even with further cycling at the elevated temperature of 45 °C, the cells can still deliver relatively high capacities of 568 and 465 mAh ganode−1, respectively, over 100 cycles. Such desired high-energy lithium-ion batteries with working voltages over 4.0 V can be widely developed for diverse applications (e. g. in handheld devices, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  16. Interface modifications by anion receptors for high energy lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Gu, Meng; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Ji-Guang


    Li-rich, Mn-rich (LMR) layered composite has attracted extensive interests because of its highest energy density among all cathode candidates for lithium ion batteries (LIB). However, capacity degradation and voltage fading remain the major challenges for LMR cathodes prior to their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate that anion receptor, tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane ((C6F5)3B, TPFPB), substantially enhances the stability of electrode/electrolyte interface and thus improves the cycling stability of LMR cathode Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2. In the presence of 0.2 M TPFPB, Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 shows an improved capacity retention of 76.8% after 500 cycles. It is proposed that TPFPB effectively confines the highly active oxygen species released from structural lattice through its strong coordination ability and high oxygen solubility. The electrolyte decomposition caused by the oxygen species attack is therefore largely mitigated, forming reduced amount of byproducts on the cathode surface. Additionally, other salts such as insulating LiF derived from electrolyte decomposition are also soluble in the presence of TPFPB. The collective effects of TPFPB mitigate the accumulation of parasitic reaction products and stabilize the interfacial resistances between cathode and electrolyte during extended cycling, thus significantly improving the cycling performance of Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2.

  17. A portable and high energy efficient desalination/purification system by ion concentration polarization (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon


    The shortage of fresh water is one of the acute challenges that the world is facing now and, thus, energy efficient desalination strategies can provide substantial answers for the water-crisis. Current desalination methods utilizing reverse-osmosis and electrodialysis mechanisms required high power consumptions/large-scale infrastructures which do not make them appropriate for disaster-stricken area or underdeveloped countries. In addition, groundwater contamination by heavy metal compounds, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, poses significant public health challenges, especially in developing countries. Existing water purification strategies for heavy metal removal are not readily applicable due to technological, environmental, and economical barriers. This presentation elucidates a novel desalination/purification process, where a continuous contaminated stream is divided into filtered and concentrated stream by the ion concentration polarization. The key distinct feature is that both salts and larger particles (cells, viruses, and microorganisms) are pushed away from the membrane, in continuous flow operations, eliminating the membrane fouling that plagues the membrane filtration methods. The power consumption is less than 5Wh/L, comparable to any existing systems. The energy and removal efficiency, and low cost manufacturability hold strong promises for portable, self-powered water purification/desalination system that can have significant impacts on water shortage in developing/rural part of the world.

  18. A Step toward High-Energy Silicon-Based Thin Film Lithium Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Reyes Jiménez, Antonia; Klöpsch, Richard; Wagner, Ralf; Rodehorst, Uta C; Kolek, Martin; Nölle, Roman; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias


    The next generation of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with increased energy density for large-scale applications, such as electric mobility, and also for small electronic devices, such as microbatteries and on-chip batteries, requires advanced electrode active materials with enhanced specific and volumetric capacities. In this regard, silicon as anode material has attracted much attention due to its high specific capacity. However, the enormous volume changes during lithiation/delithiation are still a main obstacle avoiding the broad commercial use of Si-based electrodes. In this work, Si-based thin film electrodes, prepared by magnetron sputtering, are studied. Herein, we present a sophisticated surface design and electrode structure modification by amorphous carbon layers to increase the mechanical integrity and, thus, the electrochemical performance. Therefore, the influence of amorphous C thin film layers, either deposited on top (C/Si) or incorporated between the amorphous Si thin film layers (Si/C/Si), was characterized according to their physical and electrochemical properties. The thin film electrodes were thoroughly studied by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We can show that the silicon thin film electrodes with an amorphous C layer showed a remarkably improved electrochemical performance in terms of capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. The C layer is able to mitigate the mechanical stress during lithiation of the Si thin film by buffering the volume changes and to reduce the loss of active lithium during solid electrolyte interphase formation and cycling.

  19. A new oxyfluorinated titanium phosphate anode for a high-energy lithium-ion battery. (United States)

    Ma, Zhaohui; Sun, Chunwen; Lyu, Yingchun; Wang, Yuesheng; Kim, Youngsik; Chen, Liquan


    Na3[Ti2P2O10F] was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. It has an open framework structure consisting of TiFO5 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra. The feasibility of Na3[Ti2P2O10F] as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries was first studied. Na3[Ti2P2O10F] exhibits a reversible capacity of more than 200 mAh g(-1) at a discharge/charge current rate of 20 mA g(-1) (∼0.1 C) and 105 mA g(-1) at a discharge/charge current rate of 400 mA g(-1) (∼2 C) with a lower intercalation voltage. The result of in situ X-ray diffraction test shows the structural evolution during the first discharge/charge cycle. The structure of Na3[Ti2P2O10F] was kept during discharge/charge with a slight change of the lattice parameters, which indicates a lithium solid solution behavior.

  20. Spectroscopy at the high-energy electron beam ion trap (Super EBIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.


    The following progress report presents some of the x-ray measurements performed during the last year on the Livermore SuperEBIT facility. The measurements include: direct observation of the spontaneous emission of the hyperfine transition in ground state hydrogenlike holmium, {sup 165}Ho{sup 66{plus}}; measurements of the n {equals} 2 {r_arrow} 2 transition energies in neonlike thorium, Th{sup 80{plus}}, through lithiumlike thorium, Th{sup 87{plus}}, testing the predictions of quantum electrodynamical contributions in high-Z ions up to the 0.4{percent} level; measurements of the isotope shift of the n= 2 {r_arrow} 2 transition energies between lithiumlike through carbonize uranium, {sup 233}U{sup 89{plus}...86{plus}} and {sup 238}U{sup 89{plus}...86{plus}}, inferring the variation of the mean- square nuclear charge radius; and high-resolution measurements of the K{alpha} radiation of heliumlike xenon, Xe{sup 52 {plus}}, using a transmission-type crystal spectrometer, resolving for the first time the ls2p{sup 3}P{sub 1} {r_arrow} 1S{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} and ls2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} {r_arrow} 1S{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} transitions individually. 41 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Capillary suspensions as beneficial formulation concept for high energy density Li-ion battery electrodes (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Gallasch, Tobias; Schroeder, Melanie; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Willenbacher, Norbert


    We introduce a novel formulation concept to prepare high capacity graphite electrodes for lithium ion batteries. The concept is based on the capillary suspension phenomenon: graphite and conductive agent are dispersed in an aqueous binder solution and the organic solvent octanol is added as immiscible, secondary fluid providing the formation of a sample-spanning network resulting in unique stability and coating properties. No additional processing steps compared to conventional slurry preparation are required. The resulting ultra-thick electrodes comprise mass loadings of about 16.5 mg cm-2, uniform layer thickness, and superior edge contours. The adjustment of mechanical energy input ensures uniform distribution of the conductive agent and sufficient electronic conductivity of the final dry composite electrode. The resulting pore structure is due to the stable network provided by the secondary fluid which evaporates residue-free during drying. Constant current-constant potential (CC-CP) cycling clearly indicates that the corresponding microstructure significantly improves the kinetics of reversible Li+ (de-) intercalation. A double layer electrode combining a conventionally prepared layer coated directly onto the Cu current collector with an upper layer stabilized with octanol was prepared applying wet-on-wet coating. CC-CP cycling data confirms that staged porosity within the electrode cross section results in superior electrochemical performance.

  2. Color screening and regeneration of bottomonia in high-energy heavy-ion collisions (United States)

    Du, X.; He, M.; Rapp, R.


    The production of ground-state and excited bottomonia in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is investigated within a kinetic-rate equation approach including regeneration. We augment our previous calculations by an improved treatment of medium effects, with temperature-dependent binding energies and pertinent reaction rates, B -meson resonance states in the equilibrium limit near the hadronization temperature, and a lattice-QCD based equation of state for the bulk medium. In addition to the centrality dependence of the bottomonium yields, we compute their transverse-momentum (pT) spectra and elliptic flow with momentum-dependent reaction rates and a regeneration component based on b -quark spectra from a nonperturbative transport model of heavy-quark diffusion. The latter has noticeable consequences for the shape of the bottomonium pT spectra. We quantify how uncertainties in the various modeling components affect the predictions for observables. Based on this we argue that the Υ (1 S ) suppression is a promising observable for mapping out the in-medium properties of the QCD force, while Υ (2 S ) production can help to quantify the role of regeneration from partially thermalized b quarks.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of high-energy O- ion particle flux in a DC magnetron sputter plasma with an indium-tin-oxide target (United States)

    Suyama, Taku; Bae, Hansin; Setaka, Kenta; Ogawa, Hayato; Fukuoka, Yushi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka


    O- ion flux from the indium tin oxide (ITO) sputter target under Ar ion bombardment is quantitatively evaluated using a calorimetry method. Using a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer, O- energy distribution is measured with spatial dependence. Directional high-energy O- ion ejected from the target surface is observed. Using a calorimetry method, localized heat flux originated from high-energy O- ion is measured. From absolute evaluation of the heat flux from O- ion, O- particle flux in order of 1018 m-2 s-1 is evaluated at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Production yield of O- ion on the ITO target by one Ar+ ion impingement at a kinetic energy of 244 eV is estimated to be 3.3  ×  10-3 as the minimum value.

  4. Design and performance simulation of a segmented-absorber based muon detection system for high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S. [University of Kashmir, Srinagar (India); Bhaduri, P.P. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Jahan, H. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Senger, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Adak, R.; Samanta, S. [Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Prakash, A. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Dey, K. [Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Lebedev, A. [Institute für Kernphysik, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Kryshen, E. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chattopadhyay, S., E-mail: [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Bhattacharjee, B. [Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Ghosh, S.K.; Raha, S. [Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Irfan, M.; Ahmad, N. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Farooq, M. [University of Kashmir, Srinagar (India); Singh, B. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)


    A muon detection system (MUCH) based on a novel concept using a segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments. The system consists of 6 hadron absorber blocks and 6 tracking detector triplets. Behind each absorber block a detector triplet is located which measures the tracks of charged particles traversing the absorber. The performance of such a system has been simulated for the CBM experiment at FAIR (Germany) that is scheduled to start taking data in heavy ion collisions in the beam energy range of 6–45 A GeV from 2019. The muon detection system is mounted downstream to a Silicon Tracking System (STS) that is located in a large aperture dipole magnet which provides momentum information of the charged particle tracks. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits measured by the muon detector triplets behind the absorber segments. This method allows the identification of muon tracks over a broad range of momenta including tracks of soft muons which do not pass through all the absorber layers. Pairs of oppositely charged muons identified by MUCH could therefore be combined to measure the invariant masses in a wide range starting from low mass vector mesons (LMVM) up to charmonia. The properties of the absorber (material, thickness, position) and of the tracking chambers (granularity, geometry) have been varied in simulations of heavy-ion collision events generated with the UrQMD generator and propagated through the setup using the GEANT3, the particle transport code. The tracks are reconstructed by a Cellular Automaton algorithm followed by a Kalman Filter. The simulations demonstrate that low mass vector mesons and charmonia can be clearly identified in central Au+Au collisions at beam energies provided by the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)

  5. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.


    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  6. Radiosensitivity to high energy iron ions is influenced by heterozygosity for Atm, Rad9 and Brca1 (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Smilenov, L. B.; Lieberman, H. B.; Ludwig, T.; Hall, E. J.


    Loss of function of DNA repair genes has been implicated in the development of many types of cancer. In the last several years, heterozygosity leading to haploinsufficiency for proteins involved in DNA repair was shown to play a role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis after DNA damage is induced, for example by ionizing radiation. Since the effect of heterozygosity for one gene is relatively small, we hypothesize that predisposition to cancer could be a result of the additive effect of heterozygosity for two or more genes critical to pathways that control DNA damage signaling, repair or apoptosis. We investigated the role of heterozygosity for Atm, Rad9 and Brca1 on cell oncogenic transformation and cell survival induced by 1 GeV/ n56Fe ions. Our results show that cells heterozygous for both Atm and Rad9 or Atm and Brca1 have high survival rates and are more sensitive to transformation by high energy iron ions when compared with wild-type controls or cells haploinsufficient for only one of these proteins. Since mutations or polymorphisms for similar genes exist in a small percentage of the human population, we have identified a radiosensitive sub-population. This finding has several implications. First, the existence of a radiosensitive sub-population may distort the shape of the dose-response relationship. Second, it would not be ethical to put exceptionally radiosensitive individuals into a setting where they may potentially be exposed to substantial doses of radiation.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of silicon-based 3D electrodes for high-energy lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Smyrek, P.; Rakebrandt, J.-H.; Kübel, Ch.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.


    For next generation of high energy lithium-ion batteries, silicon as anode material is of great interest due to its higher specific capacity (3579 mAh/g). However, the volume change during de-/intercalation of lithium-ions can reach values up to 300 % causing particle pulverization, loss of electrical contact and even delimitation of the composite electrode from the current collector. In order to overcome these drawbacks for silicon anodes we are developing new 3D electrode architectures. Laser nano-structuring of the current collectors is developed for improving the electrode adhesion and laser micro-structuring of thick film composite electrodes is applied for generating of freestanding structures. Freestanding structures could be attributed to sustain high volume changes during electrochemical cycling and to improve the capacity retention at high C-rates (> 0.5 C). Thick film composite Si and Si/graphite anode materials with different silicon content were deposited on current collectors by tape-casting. Film adhesion on structured current collectors was investigated by applying the 90° peel-off test. Electrochemical properties of cells with structured and unstructured electrodes were characterized. The impact of 3D electrode architectures regarding cycle stability, capacity retention and cell life-time will be discussed in detail.

  8. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results (United States)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.


    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  9. Light element analysis in steel by high-energy heavy-ion time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, W.; Hayakawa, S.; Gohshi, Y. [University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7 chome, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Maeda, K.; Fukuda, S. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)


    Time of flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA) using high-energy heavy ions has been applied to determining the composition of light elements in stainless-steel (SUS304) samples before and after welding in order to monitor the variation in the composition of light elements in sample surfaces during a welding process. An argon-welding method using a welding rod (SUS304) and an arc-welding method using a welding rod were used to prepare samples. Four samples, welded and non-welded using two welding methods, were measured. {sup 40}Ar ions accelerated to 40.3 MeV were used as a probe. Carbon, oxygen and sodium were measured. It was found that the oxygen distributions near to the surfaces of the welded samples increased compared with those of the non-welded samples. However, variations in the carbon distributions were relatively smaller than that of oxygen distributions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Gated pinhole camera imaging of the high-energy ions emitted by a discharge produced Sn plasma for extreme ultraviolet generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielissen, K.; Sidelnikov, Y.; Glushkov, D.; Soer, W.A.; Banine V.Y.; Van der Mullen, J.J.A.M.


    The origin and nature of the high-energy ions emitted by a dischargeproduced plasma source are studied using gated pinhole camera imaging. Time-of-flight analysis in combination with Faraday cup measurements enables characterization of the high-velocity component of theionic debris. The use of an

  11. Development of intense high-energy noble gas ion beams from in-terminal ion injector of tandem accelerator using an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M., E-mail: [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai Research and Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakanoya, T.; Hanashima, S.; Takeuchi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai Research and Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)


    An ECRIS-based heavy ion injector was constructed in the high-voltage terminal of JAEA-Tokai Tandem Accelerator to develop new beam species of highly charged noble gas ions. This work was associated with a lot of development to operate the ion source on the 20UR Pelletron high voltage terminal in high pressure SF{sub 6} gas environment. Highly charged ions of N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe have been accelerated satisfactorily. Operating data integrated during many years long beam delivery service are summarized.

  12. Direct deposition of gold on silicon with focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiker, P.W.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muehle, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Irradiation with ions at very low energies (below 500 eV) no longer induces a removal of substrate material, but the ions are directly deposited on the surface. In this way, gold has been deposited on silicon with focused ion beam exposure and the properties of the film have been investigated with atomic force microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref.

  13. Focused Ion Beam Nano-structuring for Applications in Photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ay, F.; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus


    To date, nano- and micro-structuring has commonly been implemented by a combination of specifically optimized processes of electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching, thus limiting the range of materials that can be structured to only a few. In this talk we will introduce focused ion beam

  14. The Regularities of the Induction and Reparation of DNA Double Strand Breaks in Human Lymphocytes after Irradiation by Carbon Ions with High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Boreyko, A V


    The regularities of the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes after irradiation by different doses of accelerated carbon ions (480 MeV/nucleon, LET = 10.6 keV/$\\mu $m) and $\\gamma $-rays $^{60}$?? by using of comet assay were investigated. It was shown that dependence of DSB formation increases linearly with growing of the dose of carbon ions and $\\gamma $-rays. The biological effectiveness of carbon ions with high energy was similar to $\\gamma $-rays. The kinetics of DSB reparation in human lymphocytes after irradiation by both carbon ions and $\\gamma $-rays was studied. It is revealed that the reparation proceeds effectively with heavy ion and $\\gamma $-ray irradiation.

  15. Formation of high intensity ion beams with ballistic focusing (United States)

    Koval, T. V.; Ryabchikov, A. I.; Shevelev, A. E.; Kim, An Tran My; Tarakanov, V. P.


    This investigation presents the results of experimental investigation and theoretical simulations of the influence of plasma and negative bias parameters on formation, transportation and focusing of high intensity ion beams of titanium and nitrogen (with an ion current density up to 1 A/cm2 and pulsed power density up to 2.6 kW/cm2). It was shown that the conditions of space charge neutralization of the focusing beam have a significant influence on the distribution and magnitude of the ion current at the collector.

  16. High-energy X-ray focusing and applications to pair distribution function investigation of Pt and Au nanoparticles at high pressures. (United States)

    Hong, Xinguo; Ehm, Lars; Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit; Duffy, Thomas S; Weidner, Donald J


    We report development of micro-focusing optics for high-energy x-rays by combining a sagittally bent Laue crystal monchromator with Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) X-ray focusing mirrors. The optical system is able to provide a clean, high-flux X-ray beam suitable for pair distribution function (PDF) measurements at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). A focused beam of moderate size (10-15 μm) has been achieved at energies of 66 and 81 keV. PDF data for nanocrystalline platinum (n-Pt) were collected at 12.5 GPa with a single 5 s X-ray exposure, showing that the in-situ compression, decompression, and relaxation behavior of samples in the DAC can be investigated with this technique. PDFs of n-Pt and nano Au (n-Au) under quasi-hydrostatic loading to as high as 71 GPa indicate the existence of substantial reduction of grain or domain size for Pt and Au nanoparticles at pressures below 10 GPa. The coupling of sagittally bent Laue crystals with K-B mirrors provides a useful means to focus high-energy synchrotron X-rays from a bending magnet or wiggler source.

  17. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef


    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  18. Material and Structural Design of Novel Binder Systems for High-Energy, High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Shi, Ye; Zhou, Xingyi; Yu, Guihua


    conductive polymer gel binders with 3D framework nanostructures. These gel binders provide multiple functions owing to their structure derived properties. The gel framework facilitates both electronic and ionic transport owing to the continuous pathways for electrons and hierarchical pores for ion diffusion. The polymer coating formed on every particle acts as surface modification and prevents particle aggregation. The mechanically strong and ductile gel framework also sustains long-term stability of electrodes. In addition, the structures and properties of gel binders can be facilely tuned. We further introduce the development of multifunctional binders by hybridizing conductive polymers with other functional materials. Meanwhile mechanistic understanding on the roles that novel binders play in the electrochemical processes of batteries is also reviewed to reveal general design rules for future binder systems. We conclude with perspectives on their future development with novel multifunctionalities involved. Highly efficient binder systems with well-tailored molecular and nanostructures are critical to reach the entire volume of the battery and maximize energy use for high-energy and high-power lithium batteries. We hope this Account promotes further efforts toward synthetic control, fundamental investigation, and application exploration of multifunctional binder materials.

  19. Monte Carlo simulations of nanoscale focused neon ion beam sputtering. (United States)

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Rack, Philip D


    A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to model the physical sputtering of aluminum and tungsten emulating nanoscale focused helium and neon ion beam etching from the gas field ion microscope. Neon beams with different beam energies (0.5-30 keV) and a constant beam diameter (Gaussian with full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 nm) were simulated to elucidate the nanostructure evolution during the physical sputtering of nanoscale high aspect ratio features. The aspect ratio and sputter yield vary with the ion species and beam energy for a constant beam diameter and are related to the distribution of the nuclear energy loss. Neon ions have a larger sputter yield than the helium ions due to their larger mass and consequently larger nuclear energy loss relative to helium. Quantitative information such as the sputtering yields, the energy-dependent aspect ratios and resolution-limiting effects are discussed.

  20. High energy ion irradiation effects on polymer materials. LET dependence of G value of scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudoh, H.; Sasuga, T.; Seguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Linear energy transfer (LET) dependence on the probability of main chain scission of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was investigated. The probability was obtained from decreases in molecular weight measured by the gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and LET was evaluated by TRIM code. The scission probability as a function of LET was almost constant in the low LET, and decreased in the high LET ion irradiation. The mechanism was interpreted from the model of spur-overlapping along an ion`s path. (author)

  1. High-energy collision-induced dissociation of histidine ions, [His+H](+) and [His-H](-) , and histidine dimer [His2 +H](). (United States)

    Khreis, Jusuf M; Reitshammer, Julia; Vizcaino, Violaine; Klawitter, Kevin; Feketeová, Linda; Denifl, Stephan


    Histidine (His) is an essential amino acid, whose side group consists of aromatic imidazole moiety that can bind a proton or metal cation and act as a donor in intermolecular interactions in many biological processes. While the dissociation of His monomer ions is well known, information on the kinetic energy released in the dissociation has been missing. Using a new home built electrospray ionization (ESI) source adapted to a double focusing mass spectrometer of BxE geometry, we investigated the fragmentation reactions of protonated and deprotonated His, [His+H](+) and [His-H](-) , and the protonated His dimer [His2 +H](+) , accelerated to 6 keV in a high-energy collision with He gas. We have evaluated the kinetic energy release (KER) for the observed dissociation channels. ESI of the His solution in positive mode led to the formation of His clusters [Hisn +H](+) , n = 1 - 6, with notably enhanced stability of the tetramer. [His+H](+) dissociates predominantly by loss of (H2 O+CO) with a KER of 278 meV, while the dominant dissociation channel of [His-H](-) involves loss of NH3 with a high KER of 769 meV. Dissociation of [His2 +H](+) is dominated by loss of the monomer but smaller losses are also observed. The KER for HCOOH loss from both [His+H](+) and [His-H](-) is similar at 278 and 249 meV, respectively, which suggest the collision-induced dissociation takes place via a similar mechanism. The loss of COOH and C2 H5 NO2 from the dimer suggests that the dimer of His binds through a shared proton between the imidazole moieties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Large modification in insulator-metal transition of VO2 films grown on Al2O3 (001) by high energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering (United States)

    Azhan, Nurul Hanis; Okimura, Kunio; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Shin-ichi; Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe


    High energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering enabled significant modification of insulator-metal transition (IMT) properties of VO2 films grown on Al2O3 (001). Even at a high biasing voltage with mean ion energy of around 325 eV induced by the rf substrate biasing power of 40 W, VO2 film revealed low IMT temperature (TIMT) at 309 K (36 °C) together with nearly two orders magnitude of resistance change. Raman measurements from -193 °C evidenced that the monoclinic VO2 lattice begins to transform to rutile-tetragonal lattice near room temperature. Raman spectra showed the in-plane compressive stress in biased VO2 films, which results in shortening of V-V distance along a-axis of monoclinic structure, aM-axis (cR-axis) and thus lowering the TIMT. In respect to that matter, significant effects in shortening the in-plane axis were observed through transmission electron microscopy observations. V2p3/2 spectra from XPS measurements suggested that high energy ion irradiation also induced oxygen vacancies and resulted for an early transition onset and rather broader transition properties. Earlier band gap closing against the temperature in VO2 film with higher biasing power was also probed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Present results with significant modification of IMT behavior of films deposited at high-energy ion irradiation with TIMT near the room temperature could be a newly and effective approach to both exploring mechanisms of IMT and further applications of this material, due to the fixed deposition conditions and rather thicker VO2 films.

  3. Dominance of high-energy (>150 keV) heavy ion intensities in Earth's middle to outer magnetosphere (United States)

    Cohen, Ian J.; Mitchell, Donald G.; Kistler, Lynn M.; Mauk, Barry H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Westlake, Joseph H.; Ohtani, Shinichi; Hamilton, Douglas C.; Turner, Drew L.; Blake, J. Bernard; Fennell, Joseph F.; Jaynes, Allison N.; Leonard, Trevor W.; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Allen, Robert C.; Burch, James L.


    Previous observations have driven the prevailing assumption in the field that energetic ions measured by an instrument using a bare solid state detector (SSD) are predominantly protons. However, new near-equatorial energetic particle observations obtained between 7 and 12 RE during Phase 1 of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission challenge the validity of this assumption. In particular, measurements by the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instruments have revealed that the intensities of heavy ion species (specifically oxygen and helium) dominate those of protons at energies ≳150-220 keV in the middle to outer (>7 RE) magnetosphere. Given that relative composition measurements can drift as sensors degrade in gain, quality cross-calibration agreement between EIS observations and those from the SSD-based Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS) sensors provides critical support to the veracity of the measurement. Similar observations from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft extend the ion composition measurements into the middle magnetosphere and reveal a strongly proton-dominated environment at L≲6 but decreasing proton intensities at L≳6. It is concluded that the intensity dominance of the heavy ions at higher energies (>150 keV) arises from the existence of significant populations of multiply-charged heavy ions, presumably of solar wind origin.

  4. An apparatus for in situ spectroscopy of radiation damage of polymers by bombardment with high-energy heavy ions


    BAAKE, Olaf; SEIDL, Tim; HOSSAIN, Umme Habiba; DELGADO, A. O.; BENDER, Markus; SEVERIN, Daniel; ENSINGER, Wolfgang


    A new target station providing Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and residual gas analysis (RGA) for in situ observation of ion-induced changes in polymers has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research. The installations as well as first in situ measurements at room temperature are presented here. A foil of polyimide Kapton HN (R) was irradiated with 1.1 GeV Au ions. During irradiation several in situ FT-IR spectra were recorded. Simultaneously outgassing...

  5. Impurity gettering by vacancy-type defects in high-energy ion-implanted silicon at Rp /2 (United States)

    Krause-Rehberg, R.; Börner, F.; Redmann, F.


    Vacancy-type defects were studied after high-energy self-implantation of Si and subsequent rapid thermal annealing by means of a depth-resolution enhanced positron beam technique. Two different types of open-volume defects were found at a depth of Rp/2 and Rp, respectively. The defect type at Rp/2 is an agglomeration of point defects containing vacancies. This defect getters diffusing copper atoms. The vacancy-type defect observed in a depth of Rp could be connected to the interstitial loops formed there. The positron annihilation parameters suggest that this detected defect is not decorated by diffusing copper atoms.

  6. Gettering of Co in Si by high-energy B ion-implantation and by p/p+ epitaxial Si (United States)

    Benton, J. L.; Boone, T.; Jacobson, D. C.; Rafferty, C. S.


    Detection and gettering of Co contamination in processed Si is an important issue in integrated circuit fabrication. In this work, Co was intentionally introduced into Si by ion implantation, and its diffusion monitored by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The surface layer recombination lifetime in p/p+ epitaxial Si is unaffected by the Co at doses of 1×1011cm-2 or 1×1012cm-2. In the case of 2.5 MeV, 4×1014B/cm2 ion implanted bulk Si, two mechanisms for Co redistribution during high temperature furnace, 900 °C, 30 min, processing are evident. First, regions of high boron concentration provide gettering sites for Co contamination. Second, the final distribution of Co in Si reflects ion-implantation induced defect evolution during annealing. Both mechanisms will operate during device processing and will control the effect of the metal on the electrical properties of the Si.

  7. Structuring of silicon with low energy focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiker, P.W.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muehle, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)


    The defect production in silicon induced by focused ion beam irradiation as a function of energy and projectile mass has been investigated and compared to the measured sputter yield. The aim was to find optimal beam parameters for the structuring of semiconductors with a minimum amount of defects produced per removed atom. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  8. Ion beam extraction from a matrix ECR plasma source by discrete ion-focusing effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, Mihai


    with high current densities that can treat surfaces placed adjacent to the extraction region. This work introduces a new phenomenology for ion beam extraction using the discrete ion-focusing effect associated with three-dimensional plasma-sheath-lenses [1, 2]. Experiments are performed in a matrix......Torr and plasma densities around 1016 m-3. A rectangular plasma-sheath-lens is created by an electrode-insulator interface designed by finite element simulations. The discrete ion-focusing effect deflects the ions to and extraction aperture on the electrode. A linearly distributed positive ion beam is extracted......Positive or negative ion beams extracted from plasma are used in a large variety of surface functionalization techniques such as implantation, etching, surface activation, passivation or oxidation. Of particular importance is the surface treatment of materials sensitive to direct plasma exposure...

  9. Lithium and sodium ion capacitors with high energy and power densities based on carbons from recycled olive pits (United States)

    Ajuria, Jon; Redondo, Edurne; Arnaiz, Maria; Mysyk, Roman; Rojo, Teófilo; Goikolea, Eider


    In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitors (LIC and NIC) entirely based on electrodes designed from recycled olive pit bio-waste derived carbon materials. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. On the other hand, the same hard carbon was chemically activated with KOH to obtain a high specific surface area activated carbon that was further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. Both electrodes were custom-made to be assembled in a hybrid cell to either build a LIC or NIC in the corresponding Li- and Na-based electrolytes. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5 M Et4NBF4/acetonitrile electrolyte was also built. Both LIC and NIC systems demonstrate remarkable energy and power density enhancement over its EDLC counterpart while showing good cycle life. This breakthrough offers the possibility to easily fabricate versatile hybrid ion capacitors, covering a wide variety of applications where different requirements are demanded.

  10. A Final Focus Model for Heavy Ion Fusion Driver System Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J J; Bangerter, R O; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I D; Logan, B G; Meier, W R; Rose, D V; Santhanam, P; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R; Yu, S S


    The need to reach high temperatures in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) target (or a target for the study of High Energy Density Physics, HEDP) requires the ability to focus ion beams down to a small spot. System models indicate that within the accelerator, the beam radius will be of order centimeters, whereas at the final focal spot on the target, a beam radius of order millimeters is required, so radial compression factors of order ten are required. The IFE target gain (and hence the overall cost of electricity) and the HEDP target temperature are sensitive functions of the final spot radius on target. Because of this sensitivity, careful attention needs to be paid to the spot radius calculation. We review our current understanding of the elements that enter into a systems model (such as emittance growth from chromatic, geometric, and non-linear space charge forces) for the final focus based on a quadrupolar magnet system.

  11. A bifunctional ion-electron conducting interlayer for high energy density all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery (United States)

    Zhu, Yuewu; Li, Jie; Liu, Jin


    A bifunctional ion-electron conducting layer is designed for all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery. This layer consists of electronic conductor and solid polymer electrolyte that is intercalated between the cathode and electrolyte. By forming a gradient of electrons and lithium ions, the electrochemical performance and interfacial compatibility of the battery are obviously enhanced. When a pure sulfur powder is directly used as an active material of the cathode, the battery with the interlayer delivers the initial discharge capacity of 1457 mAh g-1 and the discharge capacity of 792.8 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at 0.5 C and 80 °C, while the battery with the same cathode and without the interlayer only has the discharge capacity of 291.9 mAh g-1 after the same number of cycles.

  12. Toward practical application of functional conductive polymer binder for a high-energy lithium-ion battery design. (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Zhihui; Lu, Peng; Jiang, Meng; Shi, Feifei; Song, Xiangyun; Zheng, Ziyan; Zhou, Xin; Fu, Yanbao; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Zhi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zaghib, Karim; Liu, Gao


    Silicon alloys have the highest specific capacity when used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries; however, the drastic volume change inherent in their use causes formidable challenges toward achieving stable cycling performance. Large quantities of binders and conductive additives are typically necessary to maintain good cell performance. In this report, only 2% (by weight) functional conductive polymer binder without any conductive additives was successfully used with a micron-size silicon monoxide (SiO) anode material, demonstrating stable and high gravimetric capacity (>1000 mAh/g) for ∼500 cycles and more than 90% capacity retention. Prelithiation of this anode using stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) improves the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of a SiO/NMC full cell from ∼48% to ∼90%. The combination enables good capacity retention of more than 80% after 100 cycles at C/3 in a lithium-ion full cell.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; Benitez, Janilee Y.; Lyneis, Claude M.; Todd,Damon S.; Ropponen,Tommi; Ropponen,Janne; Koivisto, Hannu; Gammino, Santo


    High performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, such as VENUS (Versatile ECR for Nuclear Science), produce large amounts of x-rays. By studying their energy spectra, conclusions can be drawn about the electron heating process and the electron confinement. In addition, the bremsstrahlung from the plasma chamber is partly absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. Germanium or NaI detectors are generally used for x-ray measurements. Due to the high x-ray flux from the source, the experimental set-up to measure bremsstrahlung spectra from ECR ion sources is somewhat different than for the traditional nuclear physics measurements these detectors are generally used for. In particular the collimation and background shielding can be problematic. In this paper we will discuss the experimental set-up for such a measurement, the energy calibration and background reduction, the correction for detector efficiency, the shielding of the detector and collimation of the x-ray flux. We will present x-ray energy spectra and cryostat heating rates in dependence of various ion source parameters such as confinement fields, minimum B-field, rf power and heating frequency.

  14. Focused ion beam induced deflections of freestanding thin films (United States)

    Kim, Y.-R.; Chen, P.; Aziz, M. J.; Branton, D.; Vlassak, J. J.


    Prominent deflections are shown to occur in freestanding silicon nitride thin membranes when exposed to a 50 keV gallium focused ion beam for ion doses between 1014 and 1017 ions/cm2. Atomic force microscope topographs were used to quantify elevations on the irradiated side and corresponding depressions of comparable magnitude on the back side, thus indicating that what at first appeared to be protrusions are actually the result of membrane deflections. The shape in high-stress silicon nitride is remarkably flattopped and differs from that in low-stress silicon nitride. Ion beam induced biaxial compressive stress generation, which is a known deformation mechanism for other amorphous materials at higher ion energies, is hypothesized to be the origin of the deflection. A continuum mechanical model based on this assumption convincingly reproduces the profiles for both low-stress and high-stress membranes and provides a family of unusual shapes that can be created by deflection of freestanding thin films under beam irradiation. PMID:22485053

  15. Measurements of Coulomb Cross Section for Production of Direct Electron-pairs by High Energy Ions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia


    QED predicts copious direct electron pair production by ultrarelativistic heavy nuclei in a high Z medium such as nuclear emulsion. First order QED calculations (combined screening and non-screening) for this process show that 1000@+32 electron pairs above 100~keV energy) should be emitted for a total |1|6O track length of 10.9~m in nuclear emulsion at 200~GeV/AMU. Emulsion exposures with oxygen (and other nuclei if available) at 60 and 200~GeV/AMU will be used to calibrate the energy dependent cross section @s~@j~(1n~E)|2|-|3, whose exponent depends on atomic screening. The oxygen tracks in the developed emulsions will be scanned with a microscope, and the number of direct electron pairs will be counted for individual tracks. The exposed stacks will contain sufficient emulsion (and CR39 plastic to check for possible interactions) that adequate path length will be available for exposures to @$>$~10|4~ions at each energy and ion species. \\\\ \\\\ If the absolute value of this cross section is confirmed as large a...

  16. Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries for Stationary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Singh


    Full Text Available A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48% exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48% showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes.

  17. Focused ion beam lithography for rapid prototyping of metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osswald, Patrick; Kiermaier, Josef; Becherer, Markus; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Elektronik, TU Muenchen, Munich (Germany)


    We present FIB-lithography methods for rapid and cost-effective prototyping of metal structures covering the deep-submicron- to the millimeter-range in a single lithography cycle. Focused ion beam (FIB) systems are widely used in semiconductor industry and research facilities for both analytical testing and prototyping. A typical application is to apply electrical contact to micron-sized sensors/particles by FIB induced metal deposition. However, as for E-beam lithography, patterning times for large area bonding pads are unacceptably long, resulting in cost-intensive prototyping. In this work, we optimized FIB lithography processing for negative and positive imaging mode to form metallic structures for large-areas down do the sub-100 nm range. For negative lithography features are defined by implanting Ga{sup +}-ions into a commercial photo resist, without affecting the underlying structures by impinging ions. The structures are highly suitable for following lift-off processing due to the undercut of the resist.Metallic feature size of down to 150 nm are achievable. For positive lithography a PMMA resist is exposed in FIB irradiation. Due to the very low dose (3.10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}) the writing time for an e.g. 100 {mu}m x 100 {mu}m square is approx. 15 seconds. The developed resist is used for subsequent wet chemical etching, obtaining a 100 nm resolution in metal layers.

  18. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. Annual report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.L.


    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multiple-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-ion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization.

  19. Bendable and thin sulfide solid electrolyte film: a new electrolyte opportunity for free-standing and stackable high-energy all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. (United States)

    Nam, Young Jin; Cho, Sung-Ju; Oh, Dae Yang; Lim, Jun-Muk; Kim, Sung Youb; Song, Jun Ho; Lee, Young-Gi; Lee, Sang-Young; Jung, Yoon Seok


    Bulk-type all-solid-state lithium batteries (ASLBs) are considered a promising candidate to outperform the conventional lithium-ion batteries. Unfortunately, the current technology level of ASLBs is in a stage of infancy in terms of cell-based (not electrode-material-based) energy densities and scalable fabrication. Here, we report on the first ever bendable and thin sulfide solid electrolyte films reinforced with a mechanically compliant poly(paraphenylene terephthalamide) nonwoven (NW) scaffold, which enables the fabrication of free-standing and stackable ASLBs with high energy density and high rate capabilities. The ASLB, using a thin (∼70 μm) NW-reinforced SE film, exhibits a 3-fold increase of the cell-energy-density compared to that of a conventional cell without the NW scaffold.

  20. A new relativistic viscous hydrodynamics code and its application to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kazuhisa [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nonaka, Chiho [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States)


    We construct a new relativistic viscous hydrodynamics code optimized in the Milne coordinates. We split the conservation equations into an ideal part and a viscous part, using the Strang spitting method. In the code a Riemann solver based on the two-shock approximation is utilized for the ideal part and the Piecewise Exact Solution (PES) method is applied for the viscous part. We check the validity of our numerical calculations by comparing analytical solutions, the viscous Bjorken's flow and the Israel-Stewart theory in Gubser flow regime. Using the code, we discuss possible development of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  1. Self-assembled film thickness determination by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejeu, J. [Institut UTINAM, UMR 6213 CNRS-UFC - equipe Materiaux et Surfaces Structures, Universite de Franche-Comte, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Salut, R. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-UFC-UTBM-ENSMM, Centrale MIMENTO, Universite de Franche-Comte, 32 avenue de l' Observatoire - 25044 Besancon Cedex (France); Spajer, M. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-UFC-UTBM-ENSMM, Centrale MIMENTO, Universite de Franche-Comte, 32 avenue de l' Observatoire - 25044 Besancon Cedex (France); Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-UFC-UTBM-ENSMM, Departement d' Optique, Universite de Franche-Comte, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Membrey, F.; Foissy, A. [Institut UTINAM, UMR 6213 CNRS-UFC - equipe Materiaux et Surfaces Structures, Universite de Franche-Comte, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Charraut, D. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS-UFC-UTBM-ENSMM, Departement d' Optique, Universite de Franche-Comte, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray - 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)


    The thickness evolution of multilayer film is investigated by focused ion beam (FIB) in the domain of polymer multilayers. This method, currently used in the modification and the characterization of integrated circuits, proves it is possible to determine the polymer film thickness. Sample cutting and its observation of the cross-section are performed in the FIB without leaving the vacuum chamber. Two main conclusions can be drawn: (1) the roughness of the film increases with the number of layer deposit, (2) the film growth changes from nonlinear (called exponential) to linear beyond 300 nm (70 layers)

  2. Optical fiber sensors fabricated by the focused ion beam technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wang, Fei; Bang, Ole


    crystal fiber (PCF). Using this technique we fabricate a highly compact fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot (FP) refractive index sensor near the tip of fiber taper, and a highly sensitive in-line temperature sensor in PCF. We also demonstrate the potential of using FIB to selectively fill functional fluid......Focused ion beam (FIB) is a highly versatile technique which helps to enable next generation of lab-on-fiber sensor technologies. In this paper, we demonstrate the use application of FIB to precisely mill the fiber taper and end facet of both conventional single mode fiber (SMF) and photonic...

  3. Focused Ion Beam Analysis of Banana Peel and Its Application for Arsenate Ion Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil R. Memon


    Full Text Available Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H2SO4. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples.

  4. Analytical possibilities of highly focused ion beams in biomedical field (United States)

    Ren, M. Q.; Ji, X.; Vajandar, S. K.; Mi, Z. H.; Hoi, A.; Walczyk, T.; van Kan, J. A.; Bettiol, A. A.; Watt, F.; Osipowicz, T.


    At the Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), a 3.5 MV HVEE Singletron™ accelerator serves to provide MeV ion beams (mostly protons or He+) to six state-of-the-art beam lines, four of which are equipped with Oxford triplet magnetic quadrupole lens systems. This facility is used for a wide range of research projects, many of which are in the field of biomedicine. Here we presented a discussion of currently ongoing biomedical work carried out using two beamlines: The Nuclear Microscopy (NM) beamline is mainly used for trace elemental quantitative mapping using a combination of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), to measure the trace elemental concentration of inorganic elements, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to characterise the organic matrix, and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide information on the lateral areal density variations of the specimen. Typically, a 2.1 MeV proton beam, focused to 1-2 μm spot size with a current of 100 pA is used. The high resolution single cell imaging beamline is equipped with direct STIM to image the interior structure of single cells with proton and alpha particles of sub-50 nm beam spot sizes. Simultaneously, forward scattering transmission ion microscopy (FSTIM) is utilized to generate images with improved contrast of nanoparticles with higher atomic numbers, such as gold nanoparticles, and fluorescent nanoparticles can be imaged using Proton Induced Fluorescence (PIF). Lastly, in this facility, RBS has been included as an option if required to determine the depth distribution of nanoparticles in cells, albeit with reduced spatial resolution.

  5. Countering the Segregation of Transition-Metal Ions in LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 Cathode for Ultralong Life and High-Energy Li-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Fang, Shaohua; Tamiya, Yu; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-Ichi


    High-voltage layered lithium transition-metal oxides are very promising cathodes for high-energy Li-ion batteries. However, these materials often suffer from a fast degradation of cycling stability due to structural evolutions. It seriously impedes the large-scale application of layered lithium transition-metal oxides. In this work, an ultralong life LiMn1/3 Co1/3 Ni1/3 O2 microspherical cathode is prepared by constructing an Mn-rich surface. Its capacity retention ratio at 700 mA g(-1) is as large as 92.9% after 600 cycles. The energy dispersive X-ray maps of electrodes after numerous cycles demonstrate that the ultralong life of the as-prepared cathode is attributed to the mitigation of TM-ions segregation. Additionally, it is discovered that layered lithium transition-metal oxide cathodes with an Mn-rich surface can mitigate the segregation of TM ions and the corrosion of active materials. This study provides a new strategy to counter the segregation of TM ions in layered lithium transition-metal oxides and will help to the design and development of high-energy cathodes with ultralong life. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Restoring Neurological Physiology: The Innovative Role of High-Energy MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound (HIMRgFUS). Preliminary Data from a New Method of Lesioning Surgery. (United States)

    Giugno, Antonella; Maugeri, Rosario; Graziano, Francesca; Gagliardo, Cesare; Franzini, Angelo; Catalano, Carlo; Midiri, Massimo; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo


    Tremor is a disabling condition, common to several neurodegenerative diseases. Lesioning procedures and deep brain stimulation, respectively, of the ventralis intermedius nucleus for intentional tremor, and of the subthalamic nucleus for parkinsonian resting tremor, have been introduced in clinical practice for patients refractory to medical treatment. The combination of high-energy focused ultrasound (HIFUS) with sophisticated magnetic resonance (MR) instrumentation, together with accurate knowledge of the stereotactic brain coordinates, represents a revolution in neuromodulation. At the Neurosurgical Clinic and the Radiology Department of the University of Palermo,, two patients affected by severe and refractory forms of intentional tremor were treated by MRI-guided FUS (MRgFUS) with a unique 1.5 T MR scanner prototype that uses FUS. This apparatus is the only one of its type in the world." This is the first Italian experience, and the second in Europe, of treatment with MRI-gFUS for intentional tremor. But this is the very first experience in which a 1.5 T MRI apparatus was used. In both patients, the treatment completely abolished the tremor on the treated side, with results being excellent and stable after 7 and 5 months, respectively; no side effects were encountered. MRgFUS, recently introduced in clinical practice, and widely used at several clinical centers, has been shown to be a valid therapeutic alternative in the treatment of tremor in several neurodegenerative diseases. It is virtually safe, noninvasive, and very efficacious. We report this technique in which a 1.5 T MR scanner was used. Further investigations with long-term follow up and larger clinical series are needed.

  7. The distribution of InCl sub x compounds in model polymeric LEDs A combined low and high-energy ion beam analysis study

    CERN Document Server

    Reijme, M A; Simons, D P L; Schok, M; Ijzendoorn, L J V; Brongersma, H H; De Voigt, M J A


    A combination of low- and high-energy ion beam analysis techniques was used to determine the distribution of indium chloride compounds in model polymeric light-emitting diodes (p-LEDs). Parts of polymeric LEDs (polydialkoxyphenylenevinylene (OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrates) were exposed to a HCl/Ar flow to simulate the processes occurring during conversion of precursor PPVs and acid treatment of polymers. Samples with variable exposure times as well as pristine samples were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The RBS measurements show that after HCl exposure indium is distributed throughout the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. LEIS and XPS measurements indicate that the indium and chlorine are present at the outermost surface of the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. PIXE measurements in combination with the RBS data demonstrate that th...

  8. Silicon Nanoparticle/Nanowire and Graphite Composite Anode with Increased Binder for Lithium-Ion Coin Cells Aimed at High Energy Density Battery Applications (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Ali

    Silicon and graphite composite anode materials were prepared for a lithium ion half-cell with lithium metal as the reference electrode. All silicon/graphite composite anodes were prepared in the lab with mixing of slurry using ball milling technique. Battery grade copper foil was used as the current collector for the anode. The anode was coated using the doctor blade technique with thickness of 100μm and further calendared to provide higher energy densities for active material per cubic volume. The ratio of binder used was significantly higher than previously tested to show silicon material takes longer to detach from current collector with increased cycle life. Galvanostatic cycling show lithiation and de-lithiation of silicon anode with respect to lithium metal. Impedance measurements were taken for coin cells prior to cycle life tests. Silicon anode half-cell was charged/discharged for many cycles showing improved cycle life with great capacity retention. Charts show silicon expansion of material after cycle life however due to increased amount of binder material less silicon separates from the copper current collector initially. The coin cells made provide reproducible results which can be used for practical applications and have the ability for large volume production of high energy Li-ion batteries.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, Marina


    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  10. Mechanism of thermoluminescence in high energy carbon ion irradiated Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphor for carbon ion beam dosimetry (United States)

    Satyanarayana Reddy, S.; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran


    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 80 MeV C6+ ion irradiated pure and Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors are reported. Undoped and Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors are synthesized by solution combustion method. Crystalline phase is analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and average crystallite size is found to be ~64 nm. XRD pattern of Al2O3:Tb3+ (0.05 mol%) is analyzed by Rietveld refinement using the FULLPROF program. TL glow curves of C6+ ion irradiated pure and Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors are recorded for low fluence (5.06  ×  106 to 2.05  ×  108 ions cm-2) and high fluence (1  ×  1010 to 5  ×  1012 ions cm-2). TL glow curves of C6+ ion irradiated pure Al2O3 shows prominent peaks at ~466 K and ~623 K with shoulder at ~569 K. These glow peaks are ascribed to Cr3+and Mn4+ emissions. The effect of Tb3+ concentration on TL is investigated and optimum Tb3+ concentration is found to be 0.05 mol%. These Tb3+ doped TL glow curves exhibit a new well resolved prominent peak at 569 K with small humps at 466 K and 623 K. This new TL glow peak is due to Tb3+ characteristic emission. Further, linearity, kinetic parameters, repeatability and fading effect of pure and Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors are studied and they exhibit appropriate properties for carbon beam dosimetry in radiation therapy.

  11. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York


    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  12. Ion beam focusing with cone optics for WDM experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Jun, E-mail: [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kondo, Kotaro; Oguri, Yoshiyuki [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Horioka, Kazuhiko [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)


    Beam focusing properties of cone optics were systematically investigated by Monte Carlo simulations under various combinations of beam and cone parameters. To optimize the cone optic design for accelerator-driven WDM experiments, the beam intensity gains after cone focusing were evaluated from the simulation results as functions of cone wall material and shape parameters such as taper angle and wall curvature. The uniformity of the cone-focused beam was also examined by considering not only various cone parameters but also the cases involving the misalignment of the cone optic. From the results, a parabolic gold cone was found to be the best choice at least for relatively light ions such as lithium having MeV energies. It is also found that although smaller taper angle improves the total beam transport efficiency in the optic, it brings more difficulties in the alignment of the optic because the alignment accuracy should be less than a half of the taper angle to obtain acceptable uniformity in the beam energy deposition on the target.

  13. Focused ion beam fabrication of boron-doped diamond ultramicroelectrodes. (United States)

    Hu, Jingping; Holt, Katherine B; Foord, John S


    The fabrication of ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) for analytical electrochemical applications has been explored, using boron-doped diamond as the active electrode material in an insulating coating formed by deposition of electrophoretic paint. Because of the rough nature of the diamond film, the property of such coatings that is normally exploited in the fabrication of UMEs, namely the tendency to retract automatically from sharp protrusions, cannot be used in the present instance. Instead focused ion beam (FIB) sputtering was employed to controllably produce UMEs with well-defined geometry, critical dimension of a few micrometers, and very thin insulating coatings. If the FIB machining is carried out at normal incidence to the diamond electrode surface, significant ion beam damage reduces the yield of successful electrodes. However, if a parallel machining geometry is employed, high yields of ultramicroelectrodes with a flat disk geometry can be obtained very reliably. The electrochemical properties of diamond UMEs are characterized. They show much lower background currents than the equivalent Pt or carbon fiber electrodes but more varied electrochemical response than macroscopic diamond electrodes.

  14. Atomistic simulations of focused ion beam machining of strained silicon (United States)

    Guénolé, J.; Prakash, A.; Bitzek, E.


    The focused ion beam (FIB) technique has established itself as an indispensable tool in the material science community, both to analyze samples and to prepare specimens by FIB milling. In combination with digital image correlation (DIC), FIB milling can, furthermore, be used to evaluate intrinsic stresses by monitoring the strain release during milling. The irradiation damage introduced by such milling, however, results in a change in the stress/strain state and elastic properties of the material; changes in the strain state in turn affect the bonding strength, and are hence expected to implicitly influence irradiation damage formation and sputtering. To elucidate this complex interplay between strain, irradiation damage and sputtering, we perform TRIM calculations and molecular dynamics simulations on silicon irradiated by Ga+ ions, with slab and trench-like geometries, whilst simultaneously applying uniaxial tensile and compressive strains up to 4%. In addition we calculate the threshold displacement energy (TDE) and the surface binding energy (SBE) for various strain states. The sputter rate and amount of damage produced in the MD simulations show a clear influence of the strain state. The SBE shows no significant dependence on strain, but is strongly affected by surface reconstructions. The TDE shows a clear strain-dependence, which, however, cannot explain the influence of strain on the extent of the induced irradiation damage or the sputter rate.

  15. Introduction to focused ion beams instrumentation, theory, techniques and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Giannuzzi, Lucille A


    The focused ion beam (FIB) instrument has experienced an intensive period of maturation since its inception. Numerous new techniques and applications have been brought to fruition, and over the past few years, the FIB has gained acceptance as more than just an expensive sample preparation tool. It has taken its place among the suite of other instruments commonly available in analytical and forensic laboratories, universities, geological, medical and biological research institutions, and manufacturing plants. Although the utility of the FIB is not limited to the preparation of specimens for subsequent analysis by other analytical techniques, it has revolutionized the area of TEM specimen preparation. The FIB has also been used to prepare samples for numerous other analytical techniques, and offers a wide range of other capabilities. While the mainstream of FIB usage remains within the semiconductor industry, FIB usage has expanded to applications in metallurgy, ceramics, composites, polymers, geology, art, bio...

  16. Focused Ion Beam Nanopatterning for Carbon Nanotube Ropes Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Focused Ion Beam (FIB technology has been used to realize electrode patterns for contacting Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs ropes for chemical gas sensor applications. Two types of transducers, based on a single rope and on bundles, have been realized starting from silicon/Si3N4 substrate. Electrical behaviour, at room temperature, in toxic gas environments, has been investigated and compared to evaluate contribution of a single rope based sensor respect to bundles one. For all the devices, upon exposure to NO2 and NH3, the conductance has been found to increase or decrease respectively. Conductance signal is stronger for sensor based on bundles, but it also evident that response time in NO2 is faster for device based on a single rope. FIB technology offers, then, the possibility to contact easily a single sensitive nanowire, as carbon nanotube rope.

  17. Solenoidal Fields for Ion Beam Transport and Focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward P.; Leitner, Matthaeus


    In this report we calculate time-independent fields of solenoidal magnets that are suitable for ion beam transport and focusing. There are many excellent Electricity and Magnetism textbooks that present the formalism for magnetic field calculations and apply it to simple geometries [1-1], but they do not include enough relevant detail to be used for designing a charged particle transport system. This requires accurate estimates of fringe field aberrations, misaligned and tilted fields, peak fields in wire coils and iron, external fields, and more. Specialized books on magnet design, technology, and numerical computations [1-2] provide such information, and some of that is presented here. The AIP Conference Proceedings of the US Particle Accelerator Schools [1-3] contain extensive discussions of design and technology of magnets for ion beams - except for solenoids. This lack may be due to the fact that solenoids have been used primarily to transport and focus particles of relatively low momenta, e.g. electrons of less than 50 MeV and protons or H- of less than 1.0 MeV, although this situation may be changing with the commercial availability of superconducting solenoids with up to 20T bore field [1-4]. Internal reports from federal laboratories and industry treat solenoid design in detail for specific applications. The present report is intended to be a resource for the design of ion beam drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy [1-5] and Warm Dense Matter experiments [1-6], although it should also be useful for a broader range of applications. The field produced by specified currents and material magnetization can always be evaluated by solving Maxwell's equations numerically, but it is also desirable to have reasonably accurate, simple formulas for conceptual system design and fast-running beam dynamics codes, as well as for general understanding. Most of this report is devoted to such formulas, but an introduction to the Tosca{copyright} code [1-7] and some

  18. High-energy ion-implantation-induced gettering of copper in silicon beyond the projected ion range: The trans-projected-range effect (United States)

    Gueorguiev, Y. M.; Kögler, R.; Peeva, A.; Mücklich, A.; Panknin, D.; Yankov, R. A.; Skorupa, W.


    Five different species, namely B, Si, P, Ge, and As, were implanted at MeV energies into (100)-oriented n-type Czohralski Si, in order to form deep gettering layers during the subsequent annealing. Then the samples were contaminated with Cu by implanting the impurity on the backface and performing additional annealing. The resulting Cu depth distributions were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Strong gettering of Cu atoms beyond the projected ion range RP and formation of a well-defined separate Cu gettering band therein is found for P and As implants. We call this phenomenon the "trans-RP effect." It arises from the presence of a significant amount of defects in the regions much deeper than RP. Their gettering ability is higher than that of the extended defects around RP, as the amount of Cu atoms gettered beyond RP is, especially for the P implants, much greater than that in the implanted gettering layer at RP. These deep defects have not been detected by transmission electron microscopy, and we suggest that they are small interstitial clusters. A mechanism responsible for the migration of self-interstitials from RP into the trans-RP region and their clustering therein is proposed. An explanation is given of the possible reasons for the differences in the results for the P+ and As+ implants.

  19. Nano-sized Mo- and Nb-doped TiO2 as anode materials for high energy and high power hybrid Li-ion capacitors. (United States)

    Bauer, Dustin; Roberts, Alexander J; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Darr, Jawwad A


    Nano-sized Mo-doped titania (Mo0.1Ti0.9O2) and Nb-doped titania (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2) were directly synthesized via a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process. Materials characterization was conducted using physical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurements and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors were made with either a Mo-doped or Nb-doped TiO2 negative electrode material and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrode. Cells were evaluated using electrochemical testing (cyclic voltammetry, constant charge discharge cycling). The hybrid Li-ion capacitors showed good energy densities at moderate power densities. When cycled in the potential window 0.5-3.0 V, the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor showed the highest energy densities of 51 Wh kg-1 at a power of 180 W kg-1 with energy densities rapidly declining with increasing applied specific current. In comparison, the Nb0.25Ti0.75O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor maintained its energy density of 45 Wh kg-1 at 180 W kg-1 better, showing 36 Wh g-1 at 3200 W kg-1, which is a very promising mix of high energy and power densities. Reducing the voltage window to the range 1.0-3.0 V led to an increase in power density, with the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor giving energy densities of 12 Wh kg-1 and 2.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 6700 W kg-1 and 14 000 W kg-1, respectively.

  20. Nano-sized Mo- and Nb-doped TiO2 as anode materials for high energy and high power hybrid Li-ion capacitors (United States)

    Bauer, Dustin; Roberts, Alexander J.; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Darr, Jawwad A.


    Nano-sized Mo-doped titania (Mo0.1Ti0.9O2) and Nb-doped titania (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2) were directly synthesized via a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process. Materials characterization was conducted using physical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurements and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors were made with either a Mo-doped or Nb-doped TiO2 negative electrode material and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrode. Cells were evaluated using electrochemical testing (cyclic voltammetry, constant charge discharge cycling). The hybrid Li-ion capacitors showed good energy densities at moderate power densities. When cycled in the potential window 0.5-3.0 V, the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor showed the highest energy densities of 51 Wh kg-1 at a power of 180 W kg-1 with energy densities rapidly declining with increasing applied specific current. In comparison, the Nb0.25Ti0.75O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor maintained its energy density of 45 Wh kg-1 at 180 W kg-1 better, showing 36 Wh g-1 at 3200 W kg-1, which is a very promising mix of high energy and power densities. Reducing the voltage window to the range 1.0-3.0 V led to an increase in power density, with the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor giving energy densities of 12 Wh kg-1 and 2.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 6700 W kg-1 and 14 000 W kg-1, respectively.

  1. First Principles Investigation of Li/Fe-Oxide as a High Energy Material for Hybrid All-in-One Li-ion/Li-O2 Batteries (United States)

    Kinaci, Alper; Trahey, Lynn; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kirklin, Scott; Wolverton, Christopher; Chan, Maria K. Y.; CenterElectrical Energy Storage Collaboration


    We recently introduced a vision for high energy all-in-one electrode/electrocatalyst materials that can be used in hybrid Li-ion/Li-O2 (Li-air) cells. Recent experiments using Li5FeO4 demonstrated substantially smaller voltage polarizations and hence higher energy efficiency compared to standard Li-O2 cells forming Li2O2. The mechanism by which the charge process activates the Li5FeO4, however, is not well understood. Here, we present first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to establish the thermodynamic conditions for the extraction of Li/Li +O from Li5FeO4. A step-by-step, history-dependent, removal process has been followed and the stability of the Li and Li +O deficient samples is investigated on the basis of the energies of the extraction reactions. Various stages of Li/Li +O removal are identified, and structural changes and electronic structure evolution, as well as computed XRD, XANES, and PDF characterizations are reported.

  2. Cryo-focused-ion-beam applications in structural biology. (United States)

    Rigort, Alexander; Plitzko, Jürgen M


    The ability to precisely control the preparation of biological samples for investigations by electron cryo-microscopy is becoming increasingly important for ultrastructural imaging in biology. Precision machining instruments such as the focused ion beam microscope (FIB) were originally developed for applications in materials science. However, today we witness a growing use of these tools in the life sciences mainly due to their versatility, since they can be used both as manipulation and as imaging devices, when complemented with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The advent of cryo-preparation equipment and accessories made it possible to pursue work on frozen-hydrated biological specimens with these two beam (FIB/SEM) instruments. In structural biology, the cryo-FIB can be used to site-specifically thin vitrified specimens for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tomography. Having control over the specimen thickness is a decisive factor for TEM imaging, as the thickness of the object under scrutiny determines the attainable resolution. Besides its use for TEM preparation, the FIB/SEM microscope can be additionally used to obtain three-dimensional volumetric data from biological specimens. The unique combination of an imaging and precision manipulation tool allows sequentially removing material with the ion beam and imaging the milled block faces by scanning with the electron beam, an approach known as FIB/SEM tomography. This review covers both fields of cryo-FIB applications: specimen preparation for TEM cryo-tomography and volume imaging by cryo-FIB/SEM tomography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High energy density aluminum battery (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan


    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  4. Electromigration study of focused ion beam modified metal lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.L.; Yao, D.H. [IBM Microelectronics Div., Essex Junction, VT (United States)


    Focus ion beam (FIB) technology is a commonly used tool for integrated circuit device modification, failure analysis, and a variety of other applications. However, limited reliability data of FIB altered circuit is available. This study describes the electromigration mechanism of FIB-altered Al(Cu-Si)/Ti-layered metal lines. The electromigration failures encountered resulted in Al voids at the anode end of FIB-deposited W and Al{sub 2}Cu precipitates at the cathode end. A higher frequency of Al extrusions was also observed on samples stressed at higher temperatures. These observations indicated that FIB-W was an effective blocking boundary for Al and Cu, and confirmed that Cu does electromigrate before Al. The electromigration mechanism of the FIB-altered line closely resembles the published results from two-level Al/W-line/stud interconnect studies. An activation energy of 0.66 eV, with a current exponent of 1.9 and a lognormal sigma of 0.55, was determined from the kinetic analysis of the FIB-altered metal line.

  5. The prospects of a subnanometer focused neon ion beam. (United States)

    Rahman, F H M; McVey, Shawn; Farkas, Louis; Notte, John A; Tan, Shida; Livengood, Richard H


    The success of the helium ion microscope has encouraged extensions of this technology to produce beams of other ion species. A review of the various candidate ion beams and their technical prospects suggest that a neon beam might be the most readily achieved. Such a neon beam would provide a sputtering yield that exceeds helium by an order of magnitude while still offering a theoretical probe size less than 1-nm. This article outlines the motivation for a neon gas field ion source, the expected performance through simulations, and provides an update of our experimental progress. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nano-engineering with a focused helium ion beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, D.J.; Drift, E.W. van der; Veldhoven, E. van; Meessen, J.; Rudneva, M.; Alkemade, P.F.A.


    Although Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM) was introduced only a few years ago, many new application fields are budding. The connecting factor between these novel applications is the unique interaction of the primary helium ion beam with the sample material at and just below its surface. In particular,

  7. Deposition, milling, and etching with a focused helium ion beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, P.F.A.; Veldhoven, E. van


    The recent successful development of the helium ion microscope has produced both a new type of microscopy and a new tool for nanoscale manufacturing. This chapter reviews the first explorations in this new field in nanofabrication. The studies that utilize the Orion helium ion microscope to grow or

  8. Improvement of high T{sub c} superconductor by near-optimum pinning centers created by high Z, high-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy, E-mail: [Texas Center for Superconductivity, Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. 1, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Parks, Drew; Mayes, Billy [Texas Center for Superconductivity, Physics Department, 632 Science and Research Bldg. 1, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)


    Damage tracks left by high Z, high-energy ions in high temperature superconductor (HTS) can serve the need to pin in place the magnetic field quanta. Such pinning centers (PCs) can serve to dramatically increase the critical current density, J{sub c}. Specific energy loss, S{sub e}, which is effective in the YBCO superconductor (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) lies in the range 0.7 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To S{sub e} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 3.5 keV/A. At 77 K, a sharp peak in J{sub c} occurs at S{sub e} {approx} 2.1 keV/A, for fluences of 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, where record in-field J{sub c} is achieved in large-grain YBCO. For example, J{sub c} = 340 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, applied field of 1 T. At closely similar conditions record in-field J{sub c} is achieved in thick coated conductor, e.g., J{sub c} = 543 kA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, 1 T. When corrected to the optimum S{sub e}, this J{sub c} increases to 770 kA/cm{sup 2}. These near-optimum PCs have very small diameter of damage (d{sub d} {approx} 6.6 nm) close to the value, predicted theoretically. However, they are very discontinuous, whereas theory predicts that continuous columnar PCs are the best to obtain high J{sub c}. We find that the advantages of discontinuous PCs at S{sub e} = 2.1 keV/A, are (a) a factor of 12 less damage to the HTS (resulting in improved percolation and T{sub c}) and (b) entanglement of fluxoids (even for parallel PCs). This results in five times higher J{sub c} than can be achieved with continuous columnar PCs. In large-grain HTS, these pinning centers increase J{sub c} by a factor of 17, indicating that the dominant reduction of J{sub c} in large-grain HTS is due not to weak links, voids, non-optimum oxygenation, etc., but to a dearth of pinning centers.

  9. Improved Force Spectroscopy Using Focused-Ion-Beam-Modified Cantilevers. (United States)

    Faulk, J K; Edwards, D T; Bull, M S; Perkins, T T


    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in biophysics, including force-spectroscopy studies of protein folding and protein-ligand interactions. The precision of such studies increases with improvements in the underlying quality of the data. Currently, data quality is limited by the mechanical properties of the cantilever when using a modern commercial AFM. The key tradeoff is force stability vs short-term force precision and temporal resolution. Here, we present a method that avoids this compromise: efficient focused-ion-beam (FIB) modification of commercially available cantilevers. Force precision is improved by reducing the cantilever's hydrodynamic drag, and force stability is improved by reducing the cantilever stiffness and by retaining a cantilever's gold coating only at its free end. When applied to a commonly used short cantilever (L=40μm), we achieved sub-pN force precision over 5 decades of bandwidth (0.01-1000Hz) without significantly sacrificing temporal resolution (~75μs). Extending FIB modification to an ultrashort cantilever (L=9μm) also improved force precision and stability, while maintaining 1-μs-scale temporal resolution. Moreover, modifying ultrashort cantilevers also eliminated their inherent underdamped high-frequency motion and thereby avoided applying a rapidly oscillating force across the stretched molecule. Importantly, fabrication of FIB-modified cantilevers is accessible after an initial investment in training. Indeed, undergraduate researchers routinely modify 2-4 cantilevers per hour with the protocol detailed here. Furthermore, this protocol offers the individual user the ability to optimize a cantilever for a particular application. Hence, we expect FIB-modified cantilevers to improve AFM-based studies over broad areas of biophysical research. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa


    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  11. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ian


    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join

  12. Development of a linear-type double reflectron for focused imaging of photofragment ions from mass-selected complex ions (United States)

    Okutsu, Kenichi; Nakashima, Yuji; Yamazaki, Kenichiro; Fujimoto, Keita; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Ohshimo, Keijiro; Misaizu, Fuminori


    An ion imaging apparatus with a double linear reflectron mass spectrometer has been developed, in order to measure velocity and angular distributions of mass-analyzed fragment ions produced by photodissociation of mass-selected gas phase complex ions. The 1st and the 2nd linear reflectrons were placed facing each other and controlled by high-voltage pulses in order to perform the mass-separation of precursor ions in the 1st reflectron and to observe the focused image of the photofragment ions in the 2nd reflectron. For this purpose, metal meshes were attached on all electrodes in the 1st reflectron, whereas the mesh was attached only on the last electrode in the 2nd reflectron. The performance of this apparatus was evaluated using imaging measurement of Ca+ photofragment ions from photodissociation reaction of Ca+Ar complex ions at 355 nm photoexcitation. The focused ion images were obtained experimentally with the double linear reflectron at the voltages of the reflection electrodes close to the predictions by ion trajectory simulations. The velocity and angular distributions of the produced Ca+ ([Ar] 4p1, 2P3/2) ion were analyzed from the observed images. The binding energy D0 of Ca+Ar in the ground state deduced in the present measurement was consistent with those determined theoretically and by spectroscopic measurements. The anisotropy parameter β of the transition was evaluated for the first time by this instrument.

  13. Breakthrough in 4? ion emission mechanism understanding in plasma focus devices


    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Zarinshad, Arefe; Habibi, Morteza


    Ion emission angular distribution mechanisms in plasma focus devices (PFD) have not yet been well developed and understood being due to the lack of an efficient wide-angle ion distribution image detection system to characterize a PFD space in detail. Present belief is that the acceleration of ions points from ?anode top? upwards in forward direction within a small solid angle. A breakthrough is reported in this study, by mega-size position-sensitive polycarbonate ion image detection systems i...

  14. Fabrication of nano structures in thin membranes with focused ion beam technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadgil, V.J.; Tong, D.H.; Cesa, Y.; Bennink, Martin L.


    In recent years, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has emerged as an important tool for nanotechnology [V.J. Gadgil, F. Morrissey, Encyclopaedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, American Science Publishers, ISBN: 1-58883-057-8, 2004, p101.]. In this paper, applications of focused ion beam

  15. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.


    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10{sup 5} Z`s by the end of 1989 and 10{sup 6} in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry.

  16. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  17. Experimental simulation of radiation damage of polymers in space applications by cosmic-ray-type high energy heavy ions and the resulting changes in optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, U.H.; Ensinger, W., E-mail:


    Devices operating in space, e.g. in satellites, are being hit by cosmic rays. These include so-called HZE-ions, with High mass (Z) and energy (E). These highly energetic heavy ions penetrate deeply into the materials and deposit a large amount of energy, typically several keV per nm range. Serious damage is created. In space vehicles, polymers are used which are degraded under ion bombardment. HZE ion irradiation can experimentally be simulated in large scale accelerators. In the present study, the radiation damage of aliphatic vinyl- and fluoro-polymers by heavy ions with energies in the GeV range is described. The ions cause bond scission and create volatile small molecular species, leading to considerable mass loss of the polymers. Since hydrogen, oxygen and fluorine-containing molecules are created and these elements are depleted, the remaining material is carbon-richer than the original polymers and contains conjugated CC double bonds. This process is investigated by measuring the optical band gap with UV–Vis absorption spectrometry as a function of ion fluence. The results show how the optical band gaps shift from the UV into the Vis region upon ion irradiation for the different polymers.

  18. Large modification in insulator-metal transition of VO{sub 2} films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) by high energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhan, Nurul Hanis; Okimura, Kunio, E-mail: [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, Hiratsuka 259-1292 (Japan); Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Shin-ichi [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)


    High energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering enabled significant modification of insulator-metal transition (IMT) properties of VO{sub 2} films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001). Even at a high biasing voltage with mean ion energy of around 325 eV induced by the rf substrate biasing power of 40 W, VO{sub 2} film revealed low IMT temperature (T{sub IMT}) at 309 K (36 °C) together with nearly two orders magnitude of resistance change. Raman measurements from −193 °C evidenced that the monoclinic VO{sub 2} lattice begins to transform to rutile-tetragonal lattice near room temperature. Raman spectra showed the in-plane compressive stress in biased VO{sub 2} films, which results in shortening of V–V distance along a-axis of monoclinic structure, a{sub M}-axis (c{sub R}-axis) and thus lowering the T{sub IMT}. In respect to that matter, significant effects in shortening the in-plane axis were observed through transmission electron microscopy observations. V2p{sub 3/2} spectra from XPS measurements suggested that high energy ion irradiation also induced oxygen vacancies and resulted for an early transition onset and rather broader transition properties. Earlier band gap closing against the temperature in VO{sub 2} film with higher biasing power was also probed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Present results with significant modification of IMT behavior of films deposited at high-energy ion irradiation with T{sub IMT} near the room temperature could be a newly and effective approach to both exploring mechanisms of IMT and further applications of this material, due to the fixed deposition conditions and rather thicker VO{sub 2} films.

  19. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydenko, V., E-mail:; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Karpushov, A. N. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Uhlemann, R. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research-Plasma Physics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)


    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  20. Development of electron optical system using annular pupils for scanning transmission electron microscope by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsutani, Takaomi, E-mail: [Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Yasumoto, Tsuchika; Tanaka, Takeo [Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Ichihashi, Mikio [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ikuta, Takashi [Osaka Electro-Communication University, 18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530 (Japan)


    Annular pupils for electron optics were produced using a focused ion beam (FIB), enabling an increase in the depth of focus and allowing for aberration-free imaging and separation of the amplitude and phase images in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Simulations demonstrate that an increased focal depth is advantageous for three-dimensional tomography in the STEM. For a 200 kV electron beam, the focal depth is increased to approximately 100 nm by using an annular pupil with inner and outer semi-angles of 29 and 30 mrad, respectively. Annular pupils were designed with various outer diameters of 40-120 {mu}m and the inner diameter was designed at 80% of the outer diameter. A taper angle varying from 1 Degree-Sign to 20 Degree-Sign was applied to the slits of the annular pupils to suppress the influence of high-energy electron scattering. The fabricated annular pupils were inspected by scanning ion beam microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These annular pupils were loaded into a STEM and no charge-up effects were observed in the scintillator projection images recorded by a CCD camera.

  1. High-resolution direct-write patterning using focused ion beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocola, L.E.; Rue, C.; Maas, D.J.


    Over the last few years, significant improvements in sources, columns, detectors, control software, and accessories have enabled a wealth of new focused ion beam applications. In addition, modeling has provided many insights into ion-sample interactions and the resultant effects on the sample. With

  2. High resolution magnetic force microscopy using focused ion beam modified tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, G.N.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.


    Atomic force microscope tips coated by the thermal evaporation of a magnetic 30 nm thick Co film have been modified by focused ion beam milling with Ga+ ions to produce tips suitable for magnetic force microscopy. Such tips possess a planar magnetic element with high magnetic shape anisotropy, an

  3. Magnetic and topographical modifications of amorphous Co–Fe thin films induced by high energy Ag{sup 7+} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pookat, G.; Hysen, T. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Harthi, S.H.; Al-Omari, I.A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, P.O. Box 36, Code 123 (Oman); Lisha, R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India)


    We have investigated the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on thermally evaporated 44 nm thick, amorphous Co{sub 77}Fe{sub 23} thin films on silicon substrates using 100 MeV Ag{sup 7+} ions fluences of 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}, 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, 1 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}, and 3 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The structural modifications upon swift heavy irradiation were investigated using glancing angle X-ray diffraction. The surface morphological evolution of thin film with irradiation was studied using Atomic Force Microscopy. Power spectral density analysis was used to correlate the roughness variation with structural modifications investigated using X-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometry and the observed variation in coercivity of the irradiated films is explained on the basis of stress relaxation. Magnetic force microscopy images are subjected to analysis using the scanning probe image processor software. These results are in agreement with the results obtained using vibrating sample magnetometry. The magnetic and structural properties are correlated.

  4. Breakthrough in 4π ion emission mechanism understanding in plasma focus devices. (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Zarinshad, Arefe; Habibi, Morteza


    Ion emission angular distribution mechanisms in plasma focus devices (PFD) have not yet been well developed and understood being due to the lack of an efficient wide-angle ion distribution image detection system to characterize a PFD space in detail. Present belief is that the acceleration of ions points from "anode top" upwards in forward direction within a small solid angle. A breakthrough is reported in this study, by mega-size position-sensitive polycarbonate ion image detection systems invented, on discovery of 4π ion emission from the "anode top" in a PFD space after plasma pinch instability and radial run-away of ions from the "anode cathodes array" during axial acceleration of plasma sheaths before the radial phase. These two ion emission source mechanisms behave respectively as a "Point Ion Source" and a "Line Ion Source" forming "Ion Cathode Shadows" on mega-size detectors. We believe that the inventions and discoveries made here will open new horizons for advanced ion emission studies towards better mechanisms understanding and in particular will promote efficient applications of PFDs in medicine, science and technology.

  5. Comparison of Nanoscale Focused Ion Beam and Electrochemical Lithiation in β-Sn Microspheres (United States)

    Takeuchi, Saya; McGehee, William R.; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Truman M.; Twedt, Kevin A.; Chang, Eddie H.; Soles, Christopher L.; Oleshko, Vladimir P.; McClelland, Jabez J.


    The development of Li focused ion beams (Li-FIB) enables controlled Li ion insertion into materials with nanoscale resolution. We take the first step toward establishing the relevance of the Li-FIB for studies of ion dynamics in electrochemically active materials by comparing FIB lithiation with conventional electrochemical lithiation of isolated β-Sn microspheres. Samples are characterized by cross-sectioning with Ga FIB and imaging via electron microscopy. The Li-FIB and electrochemical lithiated Sn exhibit similarities that suggest that the Li-FIB can be a powerful tool for exploring dynamical Li ion-material interactions at the nanoscale in a range of battery materials. PMID:28690337

  6. Focused ion beam techniques for fabricating geometrically-complex components and devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Thomas Michael; Adams, David Price; Hodges, V. Carter; Vasile, Michael J.


    We have researched several new focused ion beam (FIB) micro-fabrication techniques that offer control of feature shape and the ability to accurately define features onto nonplanar substrates. These FIB-based processes are considered useful for prototyping, reverse engineering, and small-lot manufacturing. Ion beam-based techniques have been developed for defining features in miniature, nonplanar substrates. We demonstrate helices in cylindrical substrates having diameters from 100 {micro}m to 3 mm. Ion beam lathe processes sputter-define 10-{micro}m wide features in cylindrical substrates and tubes. For larger substrates, we combine focused ion beam milling with ultra-precision lathe turning techniques to accurately define 25-100 {micro}m features over many meters of path length. In several cases, we combine the feature defining capability of focused ion beam bombardment with additive techniques such as evaporation, sputter deposition and electroplating in order to build geometrically-complex, functionally-simple devices. Damascene methods that fabricate bound, metal microcoils have been developed for cylindrical substrates. Effects of focused ion milling on surface morphology are also highlighted in a study of ion-milled diamond.

  7. Investigation of Thermal Processes in Two-Layer Materials Exposed to High-Energy Heavy Ions in the Framework of a Thermal Peak Model with Constant Thermal Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirkhanov, I V; Muzafarov, D Z; Puzynin, I V; Puzynina, T P; Sarker, N R; Sarhadov, I; Sharipov, Z A


    A system of equations for temperatures of electronic gas and lattice around and along a trajectory of a 710-MeV heavy ion of bismuth $^{209}$Bi in a two-layer material Ni(2 $\\mu $m)/W at constant thermal parameters is solved numerically in an axial-symmetric cylindrical system of coordinates. On the basis of the obtained dependences of lattice temperature on radius around the ion trajectory and depth, one can make a conclusion that the ionization energy losses of bismuth ion in the target material are sufficient for melting. The sizes of regions with maximum radius and depth in the target material, where the phase transformations can take place, are estimated.

  8. Discrete focusing effect of positive ions by a plasma-sheath lens. (United States)

    Stamate, E; Sugai, H


    We demonstrate that the sheath created adjacent to the surface of a negatively biased electrode that interfaces an insulator acts as a lens that focuses the positive ions to distinct regions on the surface. Thus, the positive ion flux is discrete, leading to the formation of a passive surface, of no ion impact, near the edge and an active surface at the center. Trajectories of positive ions within the sheath are obtained by solving in three dimensions the Poisson equation for electrodes of different geometry. Simulations are confirmed by developing the ion flux profile on the electrode surface as the sputtering pattern produced by ion impact. Measurements are performed in a dc plasma produced in Ar gas.

  9. High-energy detector (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY


    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  10. Development of a long-pulse (30-s), high-energy (120-keV) ion source for neutral-beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.


    Multimegawatt neutral beams of hydrogen or deuterium atoms are needed for fusion machine applications such as MFTB-B, TFTR-U, DIII-U, and FED (INTOR or ETR). For these applications, a duoPIGatron ion source is being developed to produce high-brightness deuterium beams at a beam energy of approx. 120 keV for pulse lengths up to 30 s. A long-pulse plasma generator with active water cooling has been operated at an arc level of 1200 A with 30-s pulse durations. The plasma density and uniformity are sufficient for supplying a 60-A beam of hydrogen ions to a 13- by 43-cm accelerator. A 10- by 25-cm tetrode accelerator has been operated to form 120-keV hydrogen ion beams. Using the two-dimensional (2-D) ion extraction code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a 13- by 43-cm tetrode accelerator has been designed and is being fabricated. The aperture shapes of accelerator grids are optimized for 120-keV beam energy.

  11. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server


    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental and phenomenological physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, Monte Carlo generators, relativistic heavy-ion physics, the flavour dynamics and CP violation in the Standard Model, cosmology, and high-energy neutrino astronomy with IceCube.

  12. Focused-ion beam patterning of organolead trihalide perovskite for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal


    The coherent amplified spontaneous emission and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency of organolead trihalide perovskite have led to research interest in this material for use in photonic devices. In this paper, the authors present a focused-ion beam patterning strategy for methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr3) perovskite crystal for subwavelength grating nanophotonic applications. The essential parameters for milling, such as the number of scan passes, dwell time, ion dose, ion current, ion incident angle, and gas-assisted etching, were experimentally evaluated to determine the sputtering yield of the perovskite. Based on our patterning conditions, the authors observed that the sputtering yield ranged from 0.0302 to 0.0719 μm3/pC for the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystal. Using XeF2 for the focused-ion beam gas-assisted etching, the authors determined that the etching rate was reduced to between 0.40 and 0.97, depending on the ion dose, compared with milling with ions only. Using the optimized patterning parameters, the authors patterned binary and circular subwavelength grating reflectors on the MAPbBr3 perovskite crystal using the focused-ion beam technique. Based on the computed grating structure with around 97% reflectivity, all of the grating dimensions (period, duty cycle, and grating thickness) were patterned with nanoscale precision (>±3 nm), high contrast, and excellent uniformity. Our results provide a platform for utilizing the focused-ion beam technique for fast prototyping of photonic nanostructures or nanodevices on organolead trihalide perovskite.

  13. High energy semiconductor switch (United States)

    Risberg, R. L.


    The objective was a controller for electric motors. By operating standard Nema B induction motors at variable speed a great deal of energy is saved. This is especially true in pumping and air conditioning applications. To allow wider use of variable speed AC drives, and to provide improved performance, a better semiconductor switch was sought. This was termed the High Energy Semiconductor Switch.

  14. Experimental high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Paula, L


    A summary of the contributions on experimental high energy physics to the XXIV Brazilian National Meeting on Particle and Fields is presented. There were 5 invited talks and 32 submitted contributions. The active Brazilian groups are involved in several interesting projects but suffer from the lack of funding and interaction with Brazilian theorists.

  15. High Energy Exoplanet Transits (United States)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.


    X-ray and ultraviolet transits of exoplanets allow us to probe the atmospheres of these worlds. High energy transits have been shown to be deeper but also more variable than in the optical. By simulating exoplanet transits using high-energy observations of the Sun, we can test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of these planets in the presence of stellar activity. We use both disk-resolved images of the Solar disk spanning soft X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical and also disk-integrated Sun-as-a-star observations of the Lyα irradiance to simulate transits over a wide wavelength range. We find that for stars with activity levels similar to the Sun, the planet-to-star radius ratio can be overestimated by up to 50% if the planet occults an active region at high energies. We also compare our simulations to high energy transits of WASP-12b, HD 189733, 55 Cnc b, and GJ 436b.

  16. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.


    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  17. High energy particle astronomy. (United States)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.


    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  18. Freestanding rGO-SWNT-STN Composite Film as an Anode for Li Ion Batteries with High Energy and Power Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseup Song


    Full Text Available Freestanding Si-Ti-Ni alloy particles/reduced graphene oxide/single wall carbon nanotube composites have been prepared as an anode for lithium ion batteries via a simple filtration method. This composite electrode showed a 9% increase in reversible capacity, a two-fold higher cycle retention at 50 cycles and a two-fold higher rate capability at 2 C compared to pristine Si-Ti-Ni (STN alloy electrodes. These improvements were attributed to the suppression of the pulverization of the STN active material by the excellent mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide-single wall carbon nanotube networks and the enhanced kinetics associated with both electron and Li ion transport.

  19. Amorphous and Crystalline Vanadium Oxides as High-Energy and High-Power Cathodes for Three-Dimensional Thin-Film Lithium Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Mattelaer, Felix; Geryl, Kobe; Rampelberg, Geert; Dendooven, Jolien; Detavernier, Christophe


    Flexible wearable electronics and on-chip energy storage for wireless sensors drive rechargeable batteries toward thin-film lithium ion batteries. To enable more charge storage on a given surface, higher energy density materials are required, while faster energy storage and release can be obtained by going to thinner films. Vanadium oxides have been examined as cathodes in classical and thin-film lithium ion batteries for decades, but amorphous vanadium oxide thin films have been mostly discarded. Here, we investigate the use of atomic layer deposition, which enables electrode deposition on complex three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures, to obtain both amorphous and crystalline VO2 and V2O5, and we evaluate their thin-film cathode performance. Very high volumetric capacities are found, alongside excellent kinetics and good cycling stability. Better kinetics and higher volumetric capacities were observed for the amorphous vanadium oxides compared to their crystalline counterparts. The conformal deposition of these vanadium oxides on silicon micropillar structures is demonstrated. This study shows the promising potential of these atomic layer deposited vanadium oxides as cathodes for 3D all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion batteries.

  20. Focusing surface plasmons on Er3+ ions with convex/concave plasmonic lenses (United States)

    Rivera, V. A. G.; Ferri, F. A.; Osorio, S. P. A.; Nunez, L. A. O.; Zanatta, A. R.; Marega, E., Jr.


    Plasmonic lenses consisting of convex/concave concentric rings with different periods were milled with a Focused Gallium Ion Beam on a gold thin film deposited onto an Er3+-doped tellurite glass. The plasmonic lenses were vertically illuminated with an Argon Ion laser (488 nm) highly focused by means of a 20x objective lens. The focusing mechanism of the plasmonic lenses is explained by using a simple coherent interference model of surface plasmon-polariton generation on the circular grating as a result of the incident field. Particularly, this beam focusing structure has a modulated groove depth (concave/convex). As a result, phase modulation can be accomplished by the groove depth profile, similarly to a nano-slit array with different thicknesses. This focusing allows a high confinement of SPPs which excited the Er3+ ions of the substrate. The luminescence spectrum of Er3+ ions was then measured in the far-field, where we could verify the excitation yield of the plasmonic lens on the Er3+ ions. We analyze the influence of physical and geometrical parameters on the emission spectra, such as the periodicity and depth profile of the rings. The variation of these parameters resulted in considerable changes of the luminescence spectra.

  1. Molecular dynamics and dynamic Monte-Carlo simulation of irradiation damage with focused ion beams (United States)

    Ohya, Kaoru


    The focused ion beam (FIB) has become an important tool for micro- and nanostructuring of samples such as milling, deposition and imaging. However, this leads to damage of the surface on the nanometer scale from implanted projectile ions and recoiled material atoms. It is therefore important to investigate each kind of damage quantitatively. We present a dynamic Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation code to simulate the morphological and compositional changes of a multilayered sample under ion irradiation and a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation code to simulate dose-dependent changes in the backscattering-ion (BSI)/secondary-electron (SE) yields of a crystalline sample. Recent progress in the codes for research to simulate the surface morphology and Mo/Si layers intermixing in an EUV lithography mask irradiated with FIBs, and the crystalline orientation effect on BSI and SE yields relating to the channeling contrast in scanning ion microscopes, is also presented.

  2. Atomistic investigation of the wear of nanoscale diamond cutting tools shaped by focused ion beam


    Tong, Zhen; Jiang, Xiang; Bai, Qingshun; Blunt, Liam; Luo, Xichun


    In recent years, micro/nanoscale diamond cutting tools shaped by focused ion beam (FIB) has been developed to the deterministic fabrication of micro/nano-structures owing to its unprecedented merits of high throughput, one-step, and highly flexible precision capabilities. However, the exposure of a diamond tool to FIB will result in the implantation of ion source material and the irradiation damage in cutting edges, and thus affect the tool life. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulati...

  3. Use of ring-repeller, double-skimmer electrodes for efficient ion focusing in mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Junichi; Saito, Genta; Imasaka, Totaro


    The design and construction of a new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described. The instrument was designed to improve the ionization efficiency and to efficiently detect ions. The system performance was evaluated using the SIMION software, and was compared with the experimental results. The shapes of the repeller, extraction, and ground electrodes had a strong effect on the trajectory of ions in the processes of ion acceleration and focusing. The major difference between the theory and the experiment can be attributed to space-charge effects.

  4. Evaluation of neon focused ion beam milling for TEM sample preparation. (United States)

    Pekin, T C; Allen, F I; Minor, A M


    Gallium-based focused ion beams generated from liquid-metal sources are widely used in micromachining and sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy, with well-known drawbacks such as sample damage and contamination. In this work, an alternative (neon) focused ion beam generated by a gas field-ionization source is evaluated for the preparation of electron-transparent specimens. To do so, electron-transparent sections of Si and an Al alloy are prepared with both Ga and Ne ion beams for direct comparison. Diffraction-contrast imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are used to evaluate the relative damage induced by the two beams, and cross-sections of milled trenches are examined to compare the implantation depth with theoretical predictions from Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that for the beam voltages and materials systems investigated, Ne ion beam milling does not significantly reduce the focused ion beam induced artefacts. However, the Ne ion beam does enable more precise milling and may be of interest in cases where Ga contamination cannot be tolerated. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Focused ion beam fabrication of graded channel FETs in GaAs and Si (United States)

    Melngailis, John


    The goal of this research is to exploit the novel capability of the focused ion beam to implant dopants whose density is a function of the lateral position. Thus, Field Effect Transistors in Gallium Arsenide and Silicon can be fabricated with a gradient of doping from source to drain. We have fabricated and tested such graded FET's in GaAs and have fabricated Si devices up to the point of focused ion beam implantation. In addition, programs for modeling the devices on the computer have been written. Recently, we have conceived and fabricated a new device: a tunable Gunn oscillator which makes use of doping gradients. To carry out these implantations, we have further developed the performance of our focused ion beam machine.

  6. Characterization of Defects in N-type 4H-SiC After High-Energy N Ion Implantation by RBS-Channeling and Raman Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kummari, Venkata C.; Reinert, Tilo; Jiang, Weilin; McDaniel, Floyd D.; Rout, Bibhudutta


    Implantation with 1 MeV N ions was performed at room temperature in n-type 4H-SiC(0001) to four implantation fluences (or doses in dpa (displacements per atom) at the damage peak) of 1.5×1013(0.0034), 7.8×1013(0.018), 1.5×1014(0.034), and 7.8×1014(0.18) ions/cm2, respectively. The evolution of disorder was studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode (RBS-C) and Raman spectroscopy. The disorder in the Si sub-lattice was found to be less than 10% for the dpa of 0.0034 and 0.0178 and increased to 40% and 60% for the dpa of 0.034 and 0.178 respectively. Raman Spectroscopy was performed using a green laser of wavelength 532 nm as excitation source. The normalized Raman Intensity, In shows disorder of 41%, 69%, 77% and 100% for the dpa of 0.0034, 0.017, 0.034 and 0.178 respectively. In this paper, the characterizations of the defects produced due to the Nitrogen implantation in 4H-SiC are presented and the results are discussed.

  7. Characterization of defects in n-type 4H-SiC after high-energy N ion implantation by RBS-channeling and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kummari, Venkata C.; Reinert, Tilo [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311427, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Jiang, Weilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); McDaniel, Floyd D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311427, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Rout, Bibhudutta, E-mail: [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311427, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Center for Advanced Research and Technology, University of North Texas, 3940 North Elm Street, Denton, TX 76207 (United States)


    Implantation with 1 MeV N ions was performed at room temperature in n-type 4H-SiC (0 0 0 1) at four implantation fluences (or doses in dpa (displacements per atom) at the damage peak) of 1.5 × 10{sup 13} (0.0034), 7.8 × 10{sup 13} (0.018), 1.5 × 10{sup 14} (0.034), and 7.8 × 10{sup 14} (0.178) ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The evolution of disorder was studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode (RBS-C), Raman spectroscopy, and optical transmission. The disorder in the Si sub-lattice was found to be less than 10% for the dpa of 0.0034 and 0.0178 and increased to 40% and 60% for the dpa of 0.034 and 0.178 respectively. The normalized Raman intensity I{sub n}, shows disorder of 41%, 69%, 77% and 100% for the dpa of 0.0034, 0.0178, 0.034 and 0.178, respectively. In this paper, the characterization of the defects produced due to the nitrogen implantation in 4H-SiC are presented and the results are discussed.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li3V2(PO4)3 nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei


    Monoclinic Li3V2(PO4)3 compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li3V2(PO4)3 particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g-1 at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g-1 for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li3V2(PO4)3@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.


    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  10. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878 (United States); Twedt, K. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)


    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  11. Whole-cell imaging at nanometer resolutions using fast and slow focused helium ions. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Udalagama, Chammika N B; Chen, Ce-Belle; Bettiol, Andrew A; Pickard, Daniel S; Venkatesan, T; Watt, Frank


    Observations of the interior structure of cells and subcellular organelles are important steps in unraveling organelle functions. Microscopy using helium ions can play a major role in both surface and subcellular imaging because it can provide subnanometer resolutions at the cell surface for slow helium ions, and fast helium ions can penetrate cells without a significant loss of resolution. Slow (e.g., 10-50 keV) helium ion beams can now be focused to subnanometer dimensions (∼0.25 nm), and keV helium ion microscopy can be used to image the surfaces of cells at high resolutions. Because of the ease of neutralizing the sample charge using a flood electron beam, surface charging effects are minimal and therefore cell surfaces can be imaged without the need for a conducting metallic coating. Fast (MeV) helium ions maintain a straight path as they pass through a cell. Along the ion trajectory, the helium ion undergoes multiple electron collisions, and for each collision a small amount of energy is lost to the scattered electron. By measuring the total energy loss of each MeV helium ion as it passes through the cell, we can construct an energy-loss image that is representative of the mass distribution of the cell. This work paves the way to use ions for whole-cell investigations at nanometer resolutions through structural, elemental (via nuclear elastic backscattering), and fluorescence (via ion induced fluorescence) imaging. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidia, S.M.; Bieniosek, F.; Henestroza, E.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.


    Laboratory high energy density experiments using ion beam drivers rely upon the delivery of high-current, high-brightness ion beams with high peak intensity onto targets. Solid-state scintillators are typically used to measure the ion beam spatial profile but they display dose-dependent degradation and aging effects. These effects produce uncertainties and limit the accuracy of measuring peak beam intensities delivered to the target. For beam tuning and characterizing the incident beam intensity, we have developed a cross-calibrating diagnostic suite that extends the upper limit of measurable peak intensity dynamic range. Absolute intensity calibration is obtained with a 3 {micro}m thick tungsten foil calorimeter and streak spectrometer. We present experimental evidence for peak intensity measures in excess of 400 kW/cm{sup 2} using a 0.3 MV, 25 mA, 5-20 {micro}sec K{sup +1} beam. Radiative models and thermal diffusion effects are discussed because they affect temporal and spatial resolution of beam intensity profiles.

  13. High-Energy/Power and Low-Temperature Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: In Situ XRD Study and Superior Full-Cell Performance. (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Peng-Fei; Wu, Xing-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yan, Qingyu; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Guo, Yu-Guo


    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are still confronted with several major challenges, including low energy and power densities, short-term cycle life, and poor low-temperature performance, which severely hinder their practical applications. Here, a high-voltage cathode composed of Na3 V2 (PO4 )2 O2 F nano-tetraprisms (NVPF-NTP) is proposed to enhance the energy density of SIBs. The prepared NVPF-NTP exhibits two high working plateaux at about 4.01 and 3.60 V versus the Na+ /Na with a specific capacity of 127.8 mA h g-1 . The energy density of NVPF-NTP reaches up to 486 W h kg-1 , which is higher than the majority of other cathode materials previously reported for SIBs. Moreover, due to the low strain (≈2.56% volumetric variation) and superior Na transport kinetics in Na intercalation/extraction processes, as demonstrated by in situ X-ray diffraction, galvanostatic intermittent titration technique, and cyclic voltammetry at varied scan rates, the NVPF-NTP shows long-term cycle life, superior low-temperature performance, and outstanding high-rate capabilities. The comparison of Ragone plots further discloses that NVPF-NTP presents the best power performance among the state-of-the-art cathode materials for SIBs. More importantly, when coupled with an Sb-based anode, the fabricated sodium-ion full-cells also exhibit excellent rate and cycling performances, thus providing a preview of their practical application. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Applications of focused MeV light ion beams for high resolution channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Breese, M.B.H.; Prawer, S.; Dooley, S.P.; Allen, M.G.; Bettiol, A.A.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Ryan, C.G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience


    The technique of Nuclear Microscopy, utilizing a focused ion probe of typically MeV H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions, can produce images where the contrast depends on typical Ion Beam Analysis (lBA) processes. The probe forming lens system usually utilizes strong focusing, precision magnetic quadrupole lenses and the probe is scanned over the target to produce images. Originally, this imaging technique was developed to utilize backscattered particles with incident beam currents typically of a few nA, and the technique became known as Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM). Recently, the technique has been developed further to utilize the forward scattering of ions incident along a major crystal axis in thin crystals. This technique is known as Channeling Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (CSTIM). Since nearly all incident ions are detected, CSTIM is highly efficient and very low beam currents are sufficient for imaging, typically as low as a few fA. This allows probes as small as 50 nm to be used. In this paper we briefly review the recent applications of these emerging techniques to a variety of single crystal materials (authors). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  15. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G


    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  16. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger


    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  17. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.


    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  18. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor


    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  19. Facile green synthesis of a Co3V2O8 nanoparticle electrode for high energy lithium-ion battery applications. (United States)

    Soundharrajan, Vaiyapuri; Sambandam, Balaji; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Jo, Jeonggeun; Duong, Pham Tung; Kim, Seokhun; Mathew, Vinod; Kim, Jaekook


    In the present study, a metal-organic framework (MOF) derived from a facile water-assisted green precipitation technique is employed to synthesize phase-pure cobalt vanadate (Co3V2O8, CVO) anode for lithium-ion battery (LIB) application. The material obtained by this eco-friendly method is systematically characterized using various techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. By using as an anode, an initial discharge capacity of 1640mAhg-1 and a reversible capacity of 1194mAhg-1 are obtained at the applied current densities after the 240th cycle (2Ag-1 for 200 cycles followed by 0.2Ag-1 for 40 cycles). Moreover, a reversible capacity as high as 962mAhg-1 is retained at high current densities even after 240 cycles (4Ag-1 for 200 cycles followed by 2Ag-1 for 40 cycles), revealing the long life stability of the electrode. Significantly, CVO anode composed of fine nanoparticles (NPs) registered a substantial rate performance and reversible specific capacities of 275, 390, 543 and 699mAhg-1 at high reversibly altered current densities of 10, 5, 2, and 1Ag-1, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Toward practical all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and safety: Comparative study for electrodes fabricated by dry- and slurry-mixing processes (United States)

    Nam, Young Jin; Oh, Dae Yang; Jung, Sung Hoo; Jung, Yoon Seok


    Owing to their potential for greater safety, higher energy density, and scalable fabrication, bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASLBs) employing deformable sulfide superionic conductors are considered highly promising for applications in battery electric vehicles. While fabrication of sheet-type electrodes is imperative from the practical point of view, reports on relevant research are scarce. This might be attributable to issues that complicate the slurry-based fabrication process and/or issues with ionic contacts and percolation. In this work, we systematically investigate the electrochemical performance of conventional dry-mixed electrodes and wet-slurry fabricated electrodes for ASLBs, by varying the different fractions of solid electrolytes and the mass loading. This information calls for a need to develop well-designed electrodes with better ionic contacts and to improve the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes. As a scalable proof-of-concept to achieve better ionic contacts, a premixing process for active materials and solid electrolytes is demonstrated to significantly improve electrochemical performance. Pouch-type 80 × 60 mm2 all-solid-state LiNi0·6Co0·2Mn0·2O2/graphite full-cells fabricated by the slurry process show high cell-based energy density (184 W h kg-1 and 432 W h L-1). For the first time, their excellent safety is also demonstrated by simple tests (cutting with scissors and heating at 110 °C).

  1. Understanding the interfacial phenomena of a 4.7 V and 55 °C Li-ion battery with Li-rich layered oxide cathode and grap2hite anode and its correlation to high-energy cycling performance (United States)

    Pham, Hieu Quang; Hwang, Eui-Hyung; Kwon, Young-Gil; Song, Seung-Wan


    Research progress of high-energy performance and interfacial phenomena of Li1.13Mn0.463Ni0.203Co0.203O2 cathode and graphite anode in a 55 °C full-cell under an aggressive charge cut-off voltage to 4.7 V (4.75 V vs. Li/Li+) is reported. Although anodic instability of conventional electrolyte is the critical issue on high-voltage and high-temperature cell operation, interfacial phenomena and the solution to performance improvement have not been reported. Surface spectroscopic evidence revealed that structural degradation of both cathode and anode materials, instability of surface film at cathode, and metal-dissolution from cathode and -deposition at anode, and a rise of interfacial resistance with high-voltage cycling in 55 °C conventional electrolyte are resolved by the formation of a stable surface film with organic/inorganic mixtures at cathode and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at anode using blended additives of fluorinated linear carbonate and vinylene carbonate. As a result, significantly improved cycling stability of 77% capacity retention delivering 227-174 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles is obtained, corresponding to 819-609 Wh per kg of cathode active material. Interfacial stabilization approach would pave the way of controlling the performance and safety, and widening the practical application of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials and high-voltage electrolyte materials in various high-energy density Li-ion batteries.

  2. Focused ion beam milling of nanocavities in single colloidal particles and self-assembled opals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldering, L.A.; Otter, A.M.; Husken, B.H.; Vos, Willem L.


    We present a new method of realizing single nanocavities in individual colloidal particles on the surface of silicon dioxide artificial opals using a focused ion beam milling technique. We show that both the radius and the position of the nanocavity can be controlled with nanometre precision, to

  3. Focusing surface plasmons on Er3+ ions through gold planar plasmonic lenses (United States)

    Rivera, V. A. G.; Ferri, F. A.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Zanatta, A. R.; Marega, E.


    Gold plasmonic lenses consisting of a planar concentric rings-groove with different periods were milled with a focused gallium ion beam on a gold thin film deposited onto an Er3+-doped tellurite glass. The plasmonic lenses were vertically illuminated with an argon ion laser highly focused by means of a 50× objective lens. The focusing mechanism of the plasmonic lenses is explained using a coherent interference model of surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) generation on the circular grating due to the incident field. As a result, phase modulation can be accomplished by the groove gap, similar to a nanoslit array with different widths. This focusing allows a high confinement of SPPs that can excite the Er3+ ions of the glass. The Er3+ luminescence spectra were measured in the far-field (500-750 nm wavelength range), where we could verify the excitation yield via the plasmonic lens on the Er3+ ions. We analyze the influence of the geometrical parameters on the luminescence spectra. The variation of these parameters results in considerable changes of the luminescence spectra.

  4. Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy Applied to Electrically Insulating Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, D.A.M.


    The Focused Ion Beam – Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM) is a versatile instrument originating from the semiconductor industry. The FIB is used to produce cross sections of pre-defined locations of interest, which are imaged and analyzed with the SEM. Repeated FIB cross sectioning and

  5. Setup and commissioning of a cryogenic system for the production of targets to be used in experiments with high energy lasers and heavy ion beams; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme einer Kryoanlage zur Targeterzeugung fuer Experimente mit Hochenergielasern und Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jurij Alexander


    Part of this work was the development of a cryogenic system to produce solid state targets out of nitrogen and rare gases but also hydrogen and deuterium. For target optimization a portable cryogenic test and development chamber has been set up, which can be used offline at different experimental places. Cryogenic targets with different geometries have been produced. Targets with a high aspect ratio having a thickness of only a few micrometers and transverse sizes of millimeters are of special interest for the envisioned investigations. Such targets permit the generation of laser plasmas with a high degree of homogeneity, thus enabling the measurement of the ion energy loss under well defined conditions. Nevertheless, high aspect ratio targets are technologically demanding. Thus, in view of energy loss experiments a simpler geometry has also been considered. Therefore, cryogenic nitrogen targets with cm sizes have been produced and irradiated by the nhelix high energy laser system. The free electron density of the generated plasma has been measured in the range up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The measured electron temperature was about 200 eV. The experimental results have been compared to computer simulations and analyzed. It turned out that simulation and experiment are in good agreement, but the free electron density was too low and inhomogeneous for reliable energy loss experiments. Therefore, further deuterium targets with a high aspect ratio but varying geometries have been produced. These targets have been probed by the UNILAC ion beam and it has been shown that the ion beam can penetrate through them. The targets have also been simultaneously irradiated by the high energy laser systems nhelix and Phelix. The free electron density inside the deuterium plasma has been measured and compared with computer simulations. As in the case of nitrogen plasmas a good agreement has been observed. A new measurement technique has been developed to characterize the target

  6. Ion Emittance Growth Due to Focusing Modulation from Slipping Electron Bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.


    Low energy RHIC operation has to be operated at an energy ranging from γ = 4.1 to γ = 10. The energy variation causes the change of revolution frequency. While the rf system for the circulating ion will operate at an exact harmonic of the revolution frequency (h=60 for 4.5 MHz rf and h=360 for 28 MHz rf.), the superconducting rf system for the cooling electron beam does not have a frequency tuning range that is wide enough to cover the required changes of revolution frequency. As a result, electron bunches will sit at different locations along the ion bunch from turn to turn, i.e. the slipping of the electron bunch with respect to the circulating ion bunch. At cooling section, ions see a coherent focusing force due to the electrons’ space charge, which differs from turn to turn due to the slipping. We will try to estimate how this irregular focusing affects the transverse emittance of the ion bunch.

  7. Future of high energy physics some aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prokofiev, Kirill


    This book comprises 26 carefully edited articles with well-referenced and up-to-date material written by many of the leading experts. These articles originated from presentations and dialogues at the second HKUST Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics are organized into three aspects, Theory, Accelerator, and Experiment, focusing on in-depth analyses and technical aspects that are essential for the developments and expectations for the future high energy physics.

  8. Applied Focused Ion Beam Techniques for Sample Preparation of Astromaterials for Integrated Nano-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G A; Teslich, N E; Kearsley, A T; Stadermann, F J; Stroud, R M; Dai, Z R; Ishii, H A; Hutcheon, I D; Bajt, S; Snead, C J; Weber, P K; Bradley, J P


    Sample preparation is always a critical step in study of micrometer sized astromaterials available for study in the laboratory, whether their subsequent analysis is by electron microscopy or secondary ion mass spectrometry. A focused beam of gallium ions has been used to prepare electron transparent sections from an interplanetary dust particle, as part of an integrated analysis protocol to maximize the mineralogical, elemental, isotopic and spectroscopic information extracted from one individual particle. In addition, focused ion beam techniques have been employed to extract cometary residue preserved on the rims and walls of micro-craters in 1100 series aluminum foils that were wrapped around the sample tray assembly on the Stardust cometary sample collector. Non-ideal surface geometries and inconveniently located regions of interest required creative solutions. These include support pillar construction and relocation of a significant portion of sample to access a region of interest. Serial sectioning, in a manner similar to ultramicrotomy, is a significant development and further demonstrates the unique capabilities of focused ion beam microscopy for sample preparation of astromaterials.

  9. High Energy Halogen Chemistry. (United States)


    ion 10 wa c app lied to (3- n itro - gave tri methyLsi lylr nethy l 2-fluoro-2.2-dinitroeth I ether. This propy l)tr imethy lsilane , (4-n itr ohuty...Polymer Intermediate Department Wilmington, Delaware 19898 Attn: Dr. Bergman IITRI 1 10 W. 35th Street Chicago, IL 60616 Attn : Dr. A. Tuff is Cordova

  10. Evaluating focused ion beam patterning for position-controlled nanowire growth using computer vision (United States)

    Mosberg, A. B.; Myklebost, S.; Ren, D.; Weman, H.; Fimland, B. O.; van Helvoort, A. T. J.


    To efficiently evaluate the novel approach of focused ion beam (FIB) direct patterning of substrates for nanowire growth, a reference matrix of hole arrays has been used to study the effect of ion fluence and hole diameter on nanowire growth. Self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowires were grown using molecular beam epitaxy and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To ensure an objective analysis, SEM images were analyzed with computer vision to automatically identify nanowires and characterize each array. It is shown that FIB milling parameters can be used to control the nanowire growth. Lower ion fluence and smaller diameter holes result in a higher yield (up to 83%) of single vertical nanowires, while higher fluence and hole diameter exhibit a regime of multiple nanowires. The catalyst size distribution and placement uniformity of vertical nanowires is best for low-value parameter combinations, indicating how to improve the FIB parameters for positioned-controlled nanowire growth.

  11. Comparison of technologies for nano device prototyping with a special focus on ion beams: A review (United States)

    Bruchhaus, L.; Mazarov, P.; Bischoff, L.; Gierak, J.; Wieck, A. D.; Hövel, H.


    Nano device prototyping (NDP) is essential for realizing and assessing ideas as well as theories in the form of nano devices, before they can be made available in or as commercial products. In this review, application results patterned similarly to those in the semiconductor industry (for cell phone, computer processors, or memory) will be presented. For NDP, some requirements are different: thus, other technologies are employed. Currently, in NDP, for many applications direct write Gaussian vector scan electron beam lithography (EBL) is used to define the required features in organic resists on this scale. We will take a look at many application results carried out by EBL, self-organized 3D epitaxy, atomic probe microscopy (scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope), and in more detail ion beam techniques. For ion beam techniques, there is a special focus on those based upon liquid metal (alloy) ion sources, as recent developments have significantly increased their applicability for NDP.

  12. Multi-beamlet focusing of intense negative ion beams by aperture displacement technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Oka, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Asano, E.; Akiyama, R.; Kawamoto, T.; Kuroda, T.; Ando, A.


    Multi-beamlet focusing of an intense negative ion beam has been performed using the beamlet steering by the aperture displacement. The apertures of the grounded grid were displaced as all beamlets of 270 (18 x 15) in the area of 25 cm x 26 cm would be steered to a common point (a focal point) in both the two-stage and the single-stage accelerators. The multi-beamlets were successfully focused and the e-folding half width of 10 cm was achieved 11.2 m downstream from the ion source in both the accelerators. The corresponding gross divergence angle is 9 mrad. The negative ion beamlets are deflected by the magnetic field for the electron deflection at the extraction grid and the deflection direction oppositely changes line by line, resulting in the beam split in the deflection direction. This beamlet deflection was well compensated also using the beamlet steering by the aperture displacement of the grounded grid. The beam acceleration properties related with the beam divergence and the H{sup -} ion current were nearly the same for both the two-stage and the single-stage accelerators, and were dependent on the ratio of the extraction to the acceleration electric fields. (author).

  13. Study of the thermal effect on silicon surface induced by ion beam from plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Z., E-mail: [Scientific Service Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Ahmad, M. [IBA Laboratory, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Chemistry Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M. [Physics Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box: 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)


    Structural modifications in form of ripples and cracks are induced by nitrogen ions from plasma focus on silicon surface. The investigation of such structures reveals correlation between ripples and cracks formation in peripheral region of the melt spot. The reason of such correlation and structure formation is explained as result of thermal effect. Melting and resolidification of the center of irradiated area occur within one micro second of time. This is supported by a numerical simulation used to investigate the thermal effect induced by the plasma focus ion beams on the silicon surface. This simulation provides information about the temperature profile as well as the dynamic of the thermal propagation in depth and lateral directions. In accordance with the experimental observations, that ripples are formed in latter stage after the arrival of last ion, the simulation shows that the thermal relaxation takes place in few microseconds after the end of the ion beam arrival. Additionally, the dependency of thermal propagation and relaxation on the distance of the silicon surface from the anode is presented.

  14. Effects of focused ion beam milling on austenite stability in ferrous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipling, K.E., E-mail: [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rowenhorst, D.J.; Fonda, R.W.; Spanos, G. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)


    The susceptibility of fcc austenite to transform to bcc during focused ion beam milling was studied in three commercial stainless steels. The alloys investigated, in order of increasing austenite stability, were: (i) a model maraging steel, Sandvik 1RK91; (ii) an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel; and (iii) AL-6XN, a super-austenitic stainless steel. Small trenches were milled across multiple austenite grains in each alloy using a 30 kV Ga{sup +} ion beam at normal incidence to the specimen surface. The ion beam dose was controlled by varying the trench depth and the beam current. The factors influencing the transformation of fcc austenite to bcc (listed in order of decreasing influence) were found to be: (i) alloy composition (i.e., austenite stability), (ii) ion beam dose (or trench depth), and (iii) crystallographic orientation of the austenite grains. The ion beam current had a negligible influence on the FIB-induced transformation of austenite in these alloys.

  15. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.


    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  16. Focused ion beam fabrication of graded channel FET's in GaAs and Si (United States)

    Melngailis, John


    The focused ion beam is a unique semiconductor fabrication tool with many applications. Of these, markless/resistless implantation is perhaps the one with the greatest potential impact. It permits implant dose to be varied from point to point on a wafer. Thus, devices can be fabricated side by side with different doping densities, and the doping density can be varied from point to point within a device. Thus, lateral gradients of doping are possible. The aim of this contract is to produce field effect transistors in GaAs and Si with graded implants from source to drain. To achieve this, alignment procedures have to be developed to permit the focused ion beam implant to be positioned precisely relative to features fabricated by conventional means. In addition, models of the behavior of graded devices have to be developed.

  17. Coordinate transformation based cryo-correlative methods for electron tomography and focused ion beam milling. (United States)

    Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Schrod, Nikolas; Schaffer, Miroslava; Feng, Li Rebekah; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Lucic, Vladan


    Correlative microscopy allows imaging of the same feature over multiple length scales, combining light microscopy with high resolution information provided by electron microscopy. We demonstrate two procedures for coordinate transformation based correlative microscopy of vitrified biological samples applicable to different imaging modes. The first procedure aims at navigating cryo-electron tomography to cellular regions identified by fluorescent labels. The second procedure, allowing navigation of focused ion beam milling to fluorescently labeled molecules, is based on the introduction of an intermediate scanning electron microscopy imaging step to overcome the large difference between cryo-light microscopy and focused ion beam imaging modes. These methods make it possible to image fluorescently labeled macromolecular complexes in their natural environments by cryo-electron tomography, while minimizing exposure to the electron beam during the search for features of interest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical and numerical study of the expansion of a laser-produced plasma: high energy ion acceleration; Etude theorique et numerique de l'expansion d'un plasma cree par laser: acceleration d'ions a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grismayer, T


    This work is a theoretical and numerical study on the high energy ion acceleration in laser created plasma expansion. The ion beams produced on the rear side of an irradiated foil reveal some characteristics (low divergence, wide spectra) which distinguish them from the ones coming from the front side. The discovery of these beams has renewed speculation for applications such as proton-therapy or proton radiography. The ion acceleration is performed via a self-consistent electrostatic field due to the charge separation between ions and hot electrons. In the first part of this dissertation, we present the fluid theoretical model and the hybrid code which simulates the plasma expansion. The numerical simulation of a recent experience on the dynamic of the electric field by proton radiography validates the theoretical model. The second part deals with the influence of an initial ion density gradient on the acceleration efficiency. We establish a model which relates the plasma dynamic and more precisely the wave breaking of the ion flow. The numerical results which predict a strong decrease of the ion maximum energy for large gradient length are in agreement with the experimental data. The Boltzmann equilibrium for the electron assumed in the first part has been thrown back into doubt in the third part. We adopt a kinetic description for the electron. The new version of the code can measure the Boltzmann law deviation which does not strongly modify the maximum energy that can reach the ions. (author)

  19. Transient current mapping obtained from silicon photodiodes using focused ion microbeams with several hundreds of MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)], E-mail:; Onoda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Oikawa, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Gunma University, 39-22 Showa-machi 3 chome, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Satoh, T.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)


    Single Event Effects (SEEs) triggered by energetic heavy ions traversing a sensitive parts of electric devices have been studied using high-energy heavy ion microbeams connected with Transient Ion Beam Induced Current (TIBIC) measuring system at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Applications (TIARA) facility. In the TIBIC system, SEE for semiconductor device, that is fast charge collection, has been observed in timescales of the order of picoseconds. In this paper, we show successful demonstration of the performance of the system, in which clear images of TIBIC map have been observed for Si pin photodiodes irradiated by 260 MeV {sup 20}Ne{sup 7+} and also by 520 MeV {sup 40}Ar{sup 14+} microbeams.

  20. Crystal Deflectors for High Energy Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W


    The motion of charged particles entering a crystal at small angles with respect to a crystalline plane is strongly influenced by the average electric field of the ordered nuclei. For sufficiently small angles the particles can be captured in channeling states, thus performing quasi-harmonic oscillations in the potential well between the crystal planes. Channeled particles in a bent crystal are deflected along the bent planes of the crystal. This provides a powerful method to steer and control particle trajectories that has been investigated and occasionally exploited for some decades already.

  1. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant


    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  2. Annealing recovery of nanoscale silicon surface damage caused by Ga focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Y.J.; Fang, F.Z., E-mail:; Xu, Z.W., E-mail:; Hu, X.T.


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The defects growth increased rapidly at low dose, and then significantly slowed down before continued amorphous layer formed. • The swelling of implantation region results from the combination of surface roughing and the decrease in the surface density. • Both melting on the top surface and recrystallization at crystalline/amorphous interface have existed as annealing at 2400 K, which is near the melting point. • Ga ions migrated together and were swept by the c-Si/a-Si interface during annealing, left sunken at the surface. - Abstracts: In this paper, molecular dynamics method with the Tersoff–ZBL combined interatomic potential was adopted to study the dynamics of focused ion beam (FIB) milling and subsequent annealing. The Ga FIB induced damage and its recovery mechanism during subsequent annealing process were investigated in nanoscale time and space. To investigate the nanoscale damage during FIB milling with the ion energy of 0.5 keV, 1 keV and 2 keV, radial distribution function, bond length distribution, bond angle distribution, and common neighbour analysis (CNA) were calculated and analyzed under various ion doses. FIB irradiated silicon substrate with ion dose of 2 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} was annealed at various annealing temperatures from 1400 K to 2400 K. Molecular dynamics simulation illustrated that as a-Si region was surrounded by c-Si after implantation, the recrystallization lead to a c-Si regrowth processes both from bottom towards top surface and from periphery to centre. The damage area profiles by CNA represented a shortest recovery time of 2.0 ns at 2200 K. Both melting on the top surface and recrystallization at crystalline/amorphous interface have existed as annealing at 2400 K, which is near the melting point. Ga migrated together and moved towards the surface with the a-Si/c-Si interface.

  3. Atomic mixing of metallic bilayers Ni/Ti irradiated with high energy heavy ions; Etude du melange ionique de bicouches metalliques Ni/Ti irradiees avec des ions lourds de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguay, R.


    We have studied the ionic mixing of Nl(105 angstrom) bilayers irradiated, at 80 and 300 K. with GeV heavy ions. In this energy range, the energy transfer from the incident ions to the target occurs mainly through electronic excitations. We have shown that this energy transfer induces a strong ionic mixing at the Nl/Ti interface. The thickness of the mixed interlayer increases with the fluence. At low fluences (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}), the Nl/Ti interface is rough ; at higher fluences (10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a homogeneous mixed interlayer appears ; and at even higher fluences (some 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a preferential diffusion of Ni into Ti is clearly seen. The characterization techniques used are: (1) electrical resistivity measurements which allow to follow in situ the damage kinetic. (II) neutron and X-ray reflectometry. (III) elaboration of transverse cuts on which was performed energy loss spectroscopy. (II) and (III) allow the determination of the concentration profiles of the different species present in the sample. (IV) transmission electron microscopy on the transverse cuts which gives a direct image of the different layers. (author). 11 refs., 103 figs., 23 tabs., 2 appends.

  4. Portable test bench for the studies concerning ion sources and ion beam extraction and focusing systems; Banco de pruebas portatil para el estudio de fuentes de iones y de la extraccion y enfoque del haz de iones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero Lopez, F.


    A portable test bench is described, which was designed to check ion sources, ion beam extraction and focusing systems before its use in a 600 KeV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The vacuum possibilities of the system are specially analyzed in connection with its particular use. The whole can be considered as a portable accelerator of low energy (50 keV). (Author)

  5. Determination of high-energy fragmentation of protonated peptides using a beqq hybrid mass spectrometer. (United States)

    Burlet, O; Orkiszewski, R S; Gaskell, S J


    A hybrid tandem instrument of BEqQ geometry was used to determine high-energy decomposition of protonated peptides, such as side-chain fragmentation yielding d n and w n ions. The transmission through both E and Q of such product ions, formed in the second field-free region, permits improved mass resolution and confident mass assignment. The experimental technique may involve synchronous scanning of E and Q, or, for the purpose of identification of specific products, limited-range scanning of either E or Q with the other analyzer fixed. These techniques are not equivalent, with respect to product ion transmission, to the double focusing of product ions achieved with four-sector instruments but nevertheless represent a critical improvement over conventional mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry analyses. Fragmentation of protonated peptides occurring in the second field-free region inside and outside the collision cell were distinguished by floating the collision cell above ground potential. Mass filtering using Q confirmed the mass assignments. The data indicate that product ions resulting from spontaneous decomposition are in some instances quantitatively more significant than those resulting from high-energy collisional activation. Furthermore, the differentiation of the products of low- and high-energy processes should facilitate spectral interpretation.

  6. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.


    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  7. Environmental sensing with optical fiber sensors processed with focused ion beam and atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Flores, Raquel; Janeiro, Ricardo; Dahlem, Marcus; Viegas, Jaime


    We report an optical fiber chemical sensor based on a focused ion beam processed optical fiber. The demonstrated sensor is based on a cavity formed onto a standard 1550 nm single-mode fiber by either chemical etching, focused ion beam milling (FIB) or femtosecond laser ablation, on which side channels are drilled by either ion beam milling or femtosecond laser irradiation. The encapsulation of the cavity is achieved by optimized fusion splicing onto a standard single or multimode fiber. The empty cavity can be used as semi-curved Fabry-Pérot resonator for gas or liquid sensing. Increased reflectivity of the formed cavity mirrors can be achieved with atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alternating metal oxides. For chemical selective optical sensors, we demonstrate the same FIB-formed cavity concept, but filled with different materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) which show selective swelling when immersed in different solvents. Finally, a reducing agent sensor based on a FIB formed cavity partially sealed by fusion splicing and coated with a thin ZnO layer by ALD is presented and the results discussed. Sensor interrogation is achieved with spectral or multi-channel intensity measurements.

  8. Soft X-Ray Magnetic Imaging of Focused Ion Beam Lithographically Patterned Fe Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Paul J.; Shen, Tichan H.; Grundy, PhilJ.; Im, Mi Young; Fischer, Peter; Morton, Simon A.; Kilcoyne, Arthur D.L.


    We illustrate the potential of modifying the magnetic behavior and structural properties of ferromagnetic thin films using focused ion beam 'direct-write' lithography. Patterns inspired by the split-ring resonators often used as components in meta-materials were defined upon 15 nm Fe films using a 30 keV Ga{sup +} focused ion beam at a dose of 2 x 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. Structural, chemical and magnetic changes to the Fe were studied using transmission soft X-ray microscopy at the ALS, Berkeley CA. X-ray absorption spectra showed a 23% reduction in the thickness of the film in the Ga irradiated areas, but no change to the chemical environment of Fe was evident. X-ray images of the magnetic reversal process show domain wall pinning around the implanted areas, resulting in an overall increase in the coercivity of the film. Transmission electron microscopy showed significant grain growth in the implanted regions.

  9. Alternating Phase Focusing in Low-Velocity Heavy-Ion Superconducting Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N


    The low-charge-state injector linac of the RIA post-accelerator is based on ~60 independently phased SC resonators providing total ~70 MV accelerating potential. The low charge-state beams, however, require stronger transverse focusing, particularly at low velocities, than is used in existing SC ion linacs. For the charge-to-mass ratios considered here (q/A = 1/66) the proper focusing can be reached by the help of strong SC solenoid lenses with the field up to 15 T. Magnetic field of the solenoids can be reduced to 9 T applying an Alternating Phase Focusing (APF). A method to set the rf field phases has been developed and studied both analytically and by the help of the three-dimensional ray tracing code. The paper discusses the results of these studies.

  10. Solid state synthesis of layered sodium manganese oxide for sodium-ion battery by in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (United States)

    Ma, Tianyuan; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Li, Yan; Ren, Yang; Sun, Chengjun; Heald, Steve M.; Jorne, Jacob; Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai


    In situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) and in situ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) were carried out to understand the solid state synthesis of NaxMnO2, with particular interest on the synthesis of P2 type Na2/3MnO2. It was found that there were multi intermediate phases formed before NaMnO2 appeared at about 600 °C. And the final product after cooling process is a combination of O‧3 NaMnO2 with P2 Na2/3MnO2. A P2 type Na2/3MnO2 was synthesized at reduced temperature (600 °C). The influence of Na2CO3 impurity on the electrochemical performance of P2 Na2/3MnO2 was thoroughly investigated in our work. It was found that the content of Na2CO3 can be reduced by optimizing Na2CO3/MnCO3 ratio during the solid state reaction or other post treatment such as washing with water. We expected our results could provide a good guide for future development of high performance cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries.

  11. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.


    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.


    Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.


    An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

  13. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D


    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  14. Simulation of Electron Beam Transport in Ion-Focused Regime Conditioning Cells (United States)


    leflhron Davis lgharay. Swft, I M. Arlington. VA 22Z02.4302. and to the office of Management and Budget. Paperwork Reduction Protect (07044 1in). Wahngon...nb(r, rz) and nh(r, rz) are the beam and ion densities, respectively, and vi is the gas ionization rate. In sir at pressure P, vi =P(torr) nsecŕ . In... Humphries and Ekdah156 and Fernsler, et al.57 FRIEZR employs a variation of Adler’s thin lens approximation to treat foil focusing. The impulse has the

  15. Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers using focused ion beam milled microchannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Yuan, Scott Wu; Hansen, Ole


    We introduce a versatile, robust, and integrated technique to selectively fill fluid into a desired pattern of air holes in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Focused ion beam (FIB) is used to efficiently mill a microchannel on the end facet of a PCF before it is spliced to a single-mode fiber (SMF......). Selected air holes are therefore exposed to the atmosphere through the microchannel for fluid filling. A low-loss in-line tunable optical hybrid fiber device is demonstrated by using such a technique. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America...

  16. Fabrication of micro DOE using micro tools shaped with focused ion beam. (United States)

    Xu, Z W; Fang, F Z; Zhang, S J; Zhang, X D; Hu, X T; Fu, Y Q; Li, L


    A novel method is proposed to fabricate micro Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) using micro cutting tools shaped with focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Micro tools with nanometric cutting edges and complicated shapes are fabricated by controlling the tool facet's orientation relative to the FIB. The tool edge radius of less than 30 nm is achieved for the nano removal of the work materials. Semi-circular micro tools and DOE-shaped micro tools are developed to fabricate micro-DOE and sinusoidal modulation templates. Experiments show that the proposed method can be a high efficient way in fabricating micro-DOE with nanoscale surface finishes.

  17. Simulation of topography evolution and damage formation during TEM sample preparation using focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxleitner, W. E-mail:; Hobler, G.; Klueppel, V.; Cerva, H


    Our recently developed simulation code FIBSIM is applied to topics related to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample preparation using focused ion beams (FIB). FIBSIM combines dynamic Monte Carlo simulation of collision cascades with two-dimensional, cell-based topography simulation. The influence of the scanning mode and of the beam current profile on the evolution of the surface contour is investigated. Furthermore, amorphous zones in silicon samples and damaged regions are predicted for different beam energies of 10, 30 and 50 keV. The thickness of the predicted amorphous regions is in good agreement with experimental TEM data.

  18. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth


    Fabrication of ultra-high aspect ratio exchangeable and customizable tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) using lateral focused ion beam (FIB) milling is presented. While on-axis FIB milling does allow high aspect ratio (HAR) AFM tips to be defined, lateral milling gives far better flexibility...... in terms of defining the shape and size of the tip. Due to beam-induced deformation, it has so far not been possible to define HAR structures using lateral FIB milling. In this work we obtain aspect ratios of up to 45, with tip diameters down to 9 nm, by a deformation-suppressing writing strategy. Several...

  19. Source-to-target simulation of simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing of heavy ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Welch


    Full Text Available Longitudinal bunching factors in excess of 70 of a 300-keV, 27-mA K^{+} ion beam have been demonstrated in the neutralized drift compression experiment [P. K. Roy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 234801 (2005PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.234801] in rough agreement with particle-in-cell source-to-target simulations. A key aspect of these experiments is that a preformed plasma provides charge neutralization of the ion beam in the last one meter drift region where the beam perveance becomes large. The simulations utilize the measured ion source temperature, diode voltage, and induction-bunching-module voltage waveforms in order to determine the initial beam longitudinal phase space which is critical to accurate modeling of the longitudinal compression. To enable simultaneous longitudinal and transverse compression, numerical simulations were used in the design of the solenoidal focusing system that compensated for the impact of the applied velocity tilt on the transverse phase space of the beam. Complete source-to-target simulations, that include detailed modeling of the diode, magnetic transport, induction bunching module, and plasma neutralized transport, were critical to understanding the interplay between the various accelerator components in the experiment. Here, we compare simulation results with the experiment and discuss the contributions to longitudinal and transverse emittance that limit the final compression.

  20. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM Through Focused ION Beam (FIB from Vitrified Chromium Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ballesteros-Elizondo


    Full Text Available This study shows how the Focused Ion Beam (FIB has been applied to vitrified materials obtained from chromiumwastes. Due to the issues arising during conventional Ar+ ion milling, it was necessary to thin these samples usingFIB. Difficulties came from the heterogeneous size between chromium spinels and the residual glass phase. The FIBwas applied to obtain thin foils from vitrified materials. These brittle and heterogeneous samples result in specimenswith many perforations and chipping when using conventional thinning below 100 nanometers. Alternatively, FIBallowed thinning in the range of 60 - 80 nanometers from specifically selected areas such as the areas containingspinel crystals Mg(Al,Cr2O4 in order to facilitate the final Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM observations. Inthis paper, FIB is shown to be a very powerful microtool as a brittle samples preparation method as well as providingan alternative way for performing conventional ceramography and Ar+ ion milling. FIB is a much less destructivemethod with greater observed capacity in the quantity and analysis of microcrystalline phases.

  1. Occurrence of particle debris field during focused Ga ion beam milling of glassy carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Qin [Centre for Industrial Photonics, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Alan Reece Building, 17 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); O' Neill, William, E-mail: [Centre for Industrial Photonics, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Alan Reece Building, 17 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)


    To explore the machining characteristics of glassy carbon by focused ion beam (FIB), particles induced by FIB milling on glassy carbon have been studied in the current work. Nano-sized particles in the range of tens of nanometers up to 400 nm can often be found around the area subject to FIB milling. Two ion beam scanning modes - slow single scan and fast repetitive scan - have been tested. Fewer particles are found in single patterns milled in fast repetitive scan mode. For a group of test patterns milled in a sequence, it was found that a greater number of particles were deposited around sites machined early in the sequence. In situ EDX analysis of the particles showed that they were composed of C and Ga. The formation of particles is related to the debris generated at the surrounding areas, the low melting point of gallium used as FIB ion source and the high contact angle of gallium on glassy carbon induces de-wetting of Ga and the subsequent formation of Ga particles. Ultrasonic cleaning can remove over 98% of visible particles. The surface roughness (R{sub a}) of FIB milled areas after cleaning is less than 2 nm.

  2. Focused ion beam fabrication of graded channel FET's (Field Effect Transistors) in GaAs and Si (United States)

    Melngailis, John J.


    The aim of this program is to fabricate field effect transistors in Silicon and GaAs in which the doping in the channel is varied as a function of distance from source to drain. The focused ion beam machine is a unique tool which is capable of producing such graded implants. In achieving this goal alignment procedures of the focused ion beam to existing features on the wafer have to be developed, and the focused ion beam implants must be characterized and compared to conventional implants. In addition, models of the behavior of the graded channel devices must be developed.

  3. Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R


    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet, Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-I1 IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  4. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Lee [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Greenwood, Zeno [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Wobisch, Marcus [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)


    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the DØ experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  5. MEET ISOLDE - High Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia


    Meet ISOLDE - High Energy Physics. ISOLDE is always developing, equipment moves on and off the hall floor, new groups start and end experiments regularly, visiting scientists come and go and experiments evolve. So it was a natural step for ISOLDE to expand from its core low energy science into high-energies.

  6. Focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in tissue structural research. (United States)

    Leser, Vladka; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco; Tkalec, Ziva Pipan; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana


    The focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are commonly used in material sciences for imaging and analysis of materials. Over the last decade, the combined FIB/SEM system has proven to be also applicable in the life sciences. We have examined the potential of the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope system for the investigation of biological tissues of the model organism Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Tissue from digestive glands was prepared as for conventional SEM or as for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. FIB-milled regions were secondary electron imaged, back-scattered electron imaged, or energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzed. Our results demonstrated that FIB/SEM enables simultaneous investigation of sample gross morphology, cell surface characteristics, and subsurface structures. The same FIB-exposed regions were analyzed by EDX to provide basic compositional data. When samples were prepared as for TEM, the information obtained with FIB/SEM is comparable, though at limited magnification, to that obtained from TEM. A combination of imaging, micro-manipulation, and compositional analysis appears of particular interest in the investigation of epithelial tissues, which are subjected to various endogenous and exogenous conditions affecting their structure and function. The FIB/SEM is a promising tool for an overall examination of epithelial tissue under normal, stressed, or pathological conditions.

  7. Focused-ion-beam induced interfacial intermixing of magnetic bilayers for nanoscale control of magnetic properties. (United States)

    Burn, D M; Hase, T P A; Atkinson, D


    Modification of the magnetic properties in a thin-film ferromagnetic/non-magnetic bilayer system by low-dose focused ion-beam (FIB) induced intermixing is demonstrated. The highly localized capability of FIB may be used to locally control magnetic behaviour at the nanoscale. The magnetic, electronic and structural properties of NiFe/Au bilayers were investigated as a function of the interfacial structure that was actively modified using focused Ga(+) ion irradiation. Experimental work used MOKE, SQUID, XMCD as well as magnetoresistance measurements to determine the magnetic behavior and grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity to elucidate the interfacial structure. Interfacial intermixing, induced by low-dose irradiation, is shown to lead to complex changes in the magnetic behavior that are associated with monotonic structural evolution of the interface. This behavior may be explained by changes in the local atomic environment within the interface region resulting in a combination of processes including the loss of moment on Ni and Fe, an induced moment on Au and modifications to the spin-orbit coupling between Au and NiFe.

  8. Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics Talk: Low energy spread Ion source for focused ion beam systems-Search for the holy grail (United States)

    Ward, Bill


    In this talk I will cover my personal experiences as a serial entrepreneur and founder of a succession of focused ion beam companies (1). Ion Beam Technology, which developed a 200kv (FIB) direct ion implanter (2). Micrion, where the FIB found a market in circuit edit and mask repair, which eventually merged with FEI corporation. and (3). ALIS Corporation which develop the Orion system, the first commercially successful sub-nanometer helium ion microscope, that was ultimately acquired by Carl Zeiss corporation. I will share this adventure beginning with my experiences in the early days of ion beam implantation and e-beam lithography which lead up to the final breakthrough understanding of the mechanisms that govern the successful creation and operation of a single atom ion source.

  9. Enhanced self-focusing of an ion beam pulse propagating through a background plasma along a solenoidal magnetic field. (United States)

    Dorf, Mikhail A; Kaganovich, Igor D; Startsev, Edward A; Davidson, Ronald C


    It is shown that the application of a weak solenoidal magnetic field along the direction of ion beam propagation through a neutralizing background plasma can significantly enhance the beam self-focusing for the case where the beam radius is small compared to the collisionless electron skin depth. The enhanced focusing is provided by a strong radial self-electric field that is generated due to a local polarization of the magnetized plasma background by the moving ion beam. A positive charge of the ion beam pulse becomes overcompensated by the plasma electrons, which results in the radial focusing of the beam ions. The expression for the self-focusing force is derived analytically and compared with the results of numerical simulations.

  10. Performance of a shallow-focus applied-magnetic-field diode for ion-beam-transport experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, F.C.; Neri, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Rose, D.V. [JAYCOR, Vienna (Vatican City State, Holy See); Jones, T.G.; Oliver, B.V.


    An applied-magnetic-field ion diode to study the transport of intense ion beams for light-ion inertial confinement fusion is being operated on the Gamble II generator at NRL. A Large-area (145-cm{sup 2}), shallow-focusing diode is used to provide the ion beam required for self-pinched transport (SPT) experiments. Experiments have demonstrated focusing at 70 cm for 1.2-MV, 40-kA protons. Beyond the focus, the beam hollows out consistent with 20--30 mrad microdivergence. The effect of the counter-pulse B-field on altering the ion-beam trajectories and improving the focus has been diagnosed with a multiple-pinhole-camera using radiachromic film. This diagnostic is also used to determine the radial and azimuthal uniformity of ion emission at the anode for different B-field conditions. Increasing the diode voltage to 1.5 MV and optimizing the ion current are planned before initiating SPT experiments. Experiments to measure the spatial beam profile at focus, i.e., the SPT channel entrance, are in progress. Results are presented.

  11. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  12. Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to CAIs and Primitive Meteorite Matrices (United States)

    Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.


    Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in CAIs and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of CAIs has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular CAI assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface

  13. submitter Light Extraction From Scintillating Crystals Enhanced by Photonic Crystal Structures Patterned by Focused Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Modrzynski, Pawel; Knapitsch, Arno; Kunicki, Piotr; Lecoq, Paul; Moczala, Magdalena; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Auffray, Etiennette


    “Photonic Crystals (PhC)” have been used in a variety of fields as a structure for improving the light extraction efficiency from materials with high index of refraction. In previous work we already showed the light extraction improvement of several PhC covered LYSO crystals in computer simulations and practical measurements. In this work, new samples are made using different materials and techniques which allows further efficiency improvements. For rapid prototyping of PhC patterns on scintillators we tested a new method using “Focused Ion Beam (FIB)” patterning. The FIB machine is a device similar to a “Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)”, but it uses ions (mainly gallium) instead of electrons for the imaging of the samples' surface. The additional feature of FIB devices is the option of surface patterning in nano-scale which was exploited for our samples. Three samples using FIB patterning have been produced. One of them is a direct patterning of the extraction face of a 0.8×0.8×10 $mm^3$ LYS...

  14. High Energy Density Capacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  15. Determination of the sequence of intersecting lines using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope. (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Kim, MinJung; An, JinWook; Kim, Yunje


    The aim of this study was to verify that the combination of focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) could be applied to determine the sequence of line crossings. The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. EDX was able to explore the chemical components and the corresponding elemental distribution in the intersection. The technique was successful in determining the sequence of heterogeneous line intersections produced using gel pens and red sealing ink with highest success rate (100% correctness). These observations show that the FIB/SEM was the appropriate instrument for an overall examination of document. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Tim


    Nano- and microelectromechanical structures for in situ operation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were fabricated with a turnaround time of 20 min and a resolution better than 100 nm. The structures are defined by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in 135 nm thin membranes of single....... The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge......, and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity...

  17. In Situ Tuning of Focused-Ion-Beam Defined Nanomechanical Resonators Using Joule Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homann, Lasse Vinther; Booth, Tim; Lei, Anders


    Nanomechanical resonators have a huge potential for a variety of applications, including high-resolution mass sensing. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel rapid prototyping method for fabricating nanoelectromechanical systems using focused-ion-beam milling as well as in situ electromechanical...... characterization using a transmission electron microscope. Nanomechanical resonators were cut out of thin membrane chips, which have been prefabricated using standard cleanroom processing. We have demonstrated the fabrication of double-clamped beams with feature sizes down to 200 nm using a fabrication time of 30...... min per device. Afterwards, the dynamic and structural properties of a double-clamped beam were measured after subsequent Joule heating events in order to ascertain the dependence of the internal structure on the Q-factor and resonant frequency of the device. It was observed that a change from...

  18. Exploration of the ultimate patterning potential achievable with focused ion beams. (United States)

    Gierak, J; Bourhis, E; Faini, G; Patriarche, G; Madouri, A; Jede, R; Bruchhaus, L; Bauerdick, S; Schiedt, B; Biance, A L; Auvray, L


    Decisive advances in the field of nanosciences and nanotechnologies are intimately related to the development of new instruments and of related writing schemes and methodologies. Therefore we have recently proposed the exploitation of the nano-structuring potential of a highly focused ion beam (FIB) as a tool, to overcome intrinsic limitations of current nano-fabrication techniques and to allow innovative patterning schemes that are urgently needed in many nanoscience challenges. In this work, we will first detail a very high-resolution FIB instrument we have developed specifically to meet these nano-fabrication requirements. Then we will introduce and illustrate an advanced FIB processing scheme that is the fabrication of artificial nanopores.

  19. Fabrication of nanoelectrodes for neurophysiology: cathodic electrophoretic paint insulation and focused ion beam milling. (United States)

    Qiao, Yi; Chen, Jie; Guo, Xiaoli; Cantrell, Donald; Ruoff, Rodney; Troy, John


    The fabrication and characterization of tungsten nanoelectrodes insulated with cathodic electrophoretic paint is described together with their application within the field of neurophysiology. The tip of a 127 mum diameter tungsten wire was etched down to less than 100 nm and then insulated with cathodic electrophoretic paint. Focused ion beam (FIB) polishing was employed to remove the insulation at the electrode's apex, leaving a nanoscale sized conductive tip of 100-1000 nm. The nanoelectrodes were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their electrochemical properties characterized by steady state linear sweep voltammetry. Electrode impedance at 1 kHz was measured too. The ability of a 700 nm tipped electrode to record well-isolated action potentials extracellularly from single visual neurons in vivo was demonstrated. Such electrodes have the potential to open new populations of neurons to study.

  20. Precise measurement of single carbon nanocoils using focused ion beam technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Suda, Yoshiyuki, E-mail:; Kunimoto, Ryuji; Takikawa, Hirofumi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Iida, Tamio [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Gifu College, Motosu, Gifu 501-0495 (Japan); Ue, Hitoshi [Fuji Research Laboratory, Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd., Oyama, Shizuoka 410-1431 (Japan); Shima, Hiroyuki [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan)


    We have developed a precise resistivity measurement system for quasi-one-dimensional nanomaterials using a focused ion beam. The system enables the resistivity of carbon nanocoils (CNCs) to be measured and its dependence on coil geometry to be elucidated. At room temperature, the resistivity of CNCs tended to increase with coil diameter, while that of artificially graphitized CNCs remained constant. These contrasting behaviors indicate coil-diameter-induced enhancement in structural disorder internal to CNCs. Low-temperature resistivity measurements performed on the CNCs revealed that electron transport through the helical axis is governed by the variable range hopping mechanism. The characteristic temperature in variable range hopping theory was found to systematically increase with coil diameter, which supports our theory that the population of sp{sup 2}-domains in CNCs decreases considerably with coil diameter.

  1. Material interface detection based on secondary electron images for focused ion beam machining. (United States)

    Joe, Hang-Eun; Lee, Won-Sup; Jun, Martin B G; Park, No-Cheol; Min, Byung-Kwon


    A method for interface detection is proposed for focused ion beam (FIB) processes of multilayered targets. As multilayers have emerged as promising structures for nanodevices, the FIB machining of multilayers has become a challenging issue. We proposed material interface detection by monitoring secondary electron (SE) images captured during the FIB process. The average of the gray-levels and the skewness coefficient of gray-level histograms of the SE images were evaluated to recognize endpoints for the FIB processes. The FIB process control with the proposed method was demonstrated by fabricating the nanostructures on the multilayered target without thickness information. It was also demonstrated on a curved surface. Grooves with a desired depth into the target and an aperture as an opening window were precisely fabricated by the FIB process control. The proposed strategy of the FIB process can be used for complex substrates such as curved or flexible targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of focused ion beam for the fabrication of AFM probes (United States)

    Kolomiytsev, A. S.; Lisitsyn, S. A.; Smirnov, V. A.; Fedotov, A. A.; Varzarev, Yu N.


    The results of an experimental study of the probe tips fabrication for critical-dimension atomic force microscopy (CD-AFM) using the focused ion beam (FIB) induced deposition are presented. Methods of the FIB-induced deposition of tungsten and carbon onto the tip of an AFM probe are studied. Based on the results obtained in the study, probes for the CD-AFM technique with a tip height about 1 μm and radius of 20 nm were created. The formation of CD-AFM probes by FIB-induced deposition allows creating a high efficiency tool for nanotechnology and nanodiagnostics. The use of modified cantilevers allows minimizing the artefacts of AFM images and increasing the accuracy of the relief measurement. The obtained results can be used for fabrication of AFM probes for express monitoring of the technological process in the manufacturing of the elements for micro- and nanoelectronics.

  3. High energy neutrinos from GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Orlando, D; Perrone, L


    It is by now recognized that GRBs can accelerate protons to relativistic energies and that high density media may be present nearby the source. We compute the high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from the decay of pions produced through the interaction of accelerated protons with nucleons in the surrounding medium. Then, we estimate the flux of high-energy muons induced on a detector by upward-going neutrinos interacting through charge current processes with the surrounding matter.

  4. High energy nuclear collisions: Theory overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review some basic concepts of relativistic heavy-ion physics and discuss our understanding of some key results from the experimental program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We focus in particular on the early time dynamics of nuclear collisions, some result from lattice QCD, hard probes and photons.

  5. Detection of nitro-based and peroxide-based explosives by fast polarity-switchable ion mobility spectrometer with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector. (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Haiyang


    Ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been widely deployed for on-site detection of explosives. The common nitro-based explosives are usually detected by negative IMS while the emerging peroxide-based explosives are better detected by positive IMS. In this study, a fast polarity-switchable IMS was constructed to detect these two explosive species in a single measurement. As the large traditional Faraday detector would cause a trailing reactant ion peak (RIP), a Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity was developed by reducing the detector radius to 3.3 mm and increasing the voltage difference between aperture grid and its front guard ring to 591 V, which could remove trailing peaks from RIP without loss of signal intensity. This fast polarity-switchable IMS with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector was employed to detect a mixture of 10 ng 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 50 ng hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) by polarity-switching, and the result suggested that [TNT-H](-) and [HMTD+H](+) could be detected in a single measurement. Furthermore, the removal of trailing peaks from RIP by the Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity also promised the accurate identification of KClO4, KNO3 and S in common inorganic explosives, whose product ion peaks were fairly adjacent to RIP.

  6. Nano-Tomography of Porous Geological Materials Using Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu


    Full Text Available Tomographic analysis using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM provides three-dimensional information about solid materials with a resolution of a few nanometres and thus bridges the gap between X-ray and transmission electron microscopic tomography techniques. This contribution serves as an introduction and overview of FIB-SEM tomography applied to porous materials. Using two different porous Earth materials, a diatomite specimen, and an experimentally produced amorphous silica layer on olivine, we discuss the experimental setup of FIB-SEM tomography. We then focus on image processing procedures, including image alignment, correction, and segmentation to finally result in a three-dimensional, quantified pore network representation of the two example materials. To each image processing step we consider potential issues, such as imaging the back of pore walls, and the generation of image artefacts through the application of processing algorithms. We conclude that there is no single image processing recipe; processing steps need to be decided on a case-by-case study.


    Marshall, L.


    An apparatus and method are described for separating charged, high energy particles of equal momentum forming a beam where the particles differ slightly in masses. Magnetic lenses are utilized to focus the beam and maintain that condition while electrostatic fields located between magnetic lenses are utilized to cause transverse separation of the particles into two beams separated by a sufficient amount to permit an aperture to block one beam. (AEC)

  8. High-energy astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Semikoz, A


    In these three lectures I discuss the present status of high-energy astroparticle physics including Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), high-energy gamma rays, and neutrinos. The first lecture is devoted to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. After a brief introduction to UHECR I discuss the acceleration of charged particles to highest energies in the astrophysical objects, their propagation in the intergalactic space, recent observational results by the Auger and HiRes experiments, anisotropies of UHECR arrival directions, and secondary gamma rays produced by UHECR. In the second lecture I review recent results on TeV gamma rays. After a short introduction to detection techniques, I discuss recent exciting results of the H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and Milagro experiments on the point-like and diffuse sources of TeV gamma rays. A special section is devoted to the detection of extragalactic magnetic fields with TeV gammaray measurements. Finally, in the third lecture I discuss Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) neutrinos. I review t...

  9. Interaction of powerful hot plasma and fast ion streams with materials in dense plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Gribkov, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Kubkowska, M.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Demina, E.V.; Pimenov, V.N.; Maslyaev, S.A. [Institution of Russian Academy of Sciences A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G.G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow (Russian Federation); Vilemova, M.; Matejicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the CAS, Prague (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: • Materials perspective for use in mainstream nuclear fusion facilities were studied. • Powerful streams of hot plasma and fast ions were used to induce irradiation. • High temporal, spatial, angular and spectral resolution available in experiments. • Results of irradiation were investigated by number of analysis techniques. - Abstract: A process of irradiating and ablating solid-state targets with hot plasma and fast ion streams in two Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices – PF-6 and PF-1000 was examined by applying a number of diagnostics of nanosecond time resolution. Materials perspective for use in chambers of the mainstream nuclear fusion facilities (mainly with inertial plasma confinement like NIF and Z-machine), intended both for the first wall and for constructions, have been irradiated in these simulators. Optical microscopy, SEM, Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, images in secondary electrons and in characteristic X-ray luminescence of different elements, and X-ray elemental analysis, gave results on damageability for a number of materials including low-activated ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, β-alloy of Ti, as well as two types of W and a composite on its base. With an increase of the number of shots irradiating the surface, its morphology changes from weakly pronounced wave-like structures or ridges to strongly developed ones. At later stages, due to the action of the secondary plasma produced near the target materials they melted, yielding both blisters and a fracturing pattern: first along the grain and then “in-between” the grains creating an intergranular net of microcracks. At the highest values of power flux densities multiple bubbles appeared. Furthermore, in this last case the cracks were developed because of microstresses at the solidification of melt. Presence of deuterium within the irradiated ferritic steel surface nanolayers is explained by capture of deuterons in lattice defects of the types of impurity atoms

  10. Subsurface Examination of a Foliar Biofilm Using Scanning Electron- and Focused-Ion-Beam Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Patricia K.; Arey, Bruce W.; Mahaffee, Walt F.


    The dual beam scanning electron microscope, equipped with both a focused ion- and scanning electron- beam (FIB SEM) is a novel tool for the exploration of the subsurface structure of biological tissues. The FIB can remove a predetermined amount of material from a selected site to allow for subsurface exploration and when coupled with SEM or scanning ion- beam microscopy (SIM) could be suitable to examine the subsurface structure of bacterial biofilms on the leaf surface. The suitability of chemical and cryofixation was examined for use with the FIB SEM to examine bacterial biofilms on leaf surfaces. The biological control agent, Burkholderia pyroccinia FP62, that rapidly colonizes the leaf surface and forms biofilms, was inoculated onto geranium leaves and incubated in a greenhouse for 7 or 14 days. Cryofixation was not suitable for examination of leaf biofilms because it created a frozen layer over the leaf surface that cracked when exposed to the electron beam and the protective cap required for FIB milling could not be accurately deposited. With chemically fixed samples, it was possible to precisely FIB mill a single cross section (5 µm) or sequential cross sections from a single site without any damage to the surrounding surface. Biofilms, 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), were composed of 2 to 5 bacterial cell layers while biofilms 14 DPI ranged from 5 to greater than 30 cell layers. Empty spaces between bacteria cells in the subsurface structure were observed in biofilms 7- and 14-DPI. Sequential cross sections inferred that the empty spaces were often continuous between FP62 cells and could possibly make up a network of channels throughout the biofilm. FIB SEM was a useful tool to observe the subsurface composition of a foliar biofilm.

  11. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona


    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  12. High-energy scissors mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojarov, R.; Faessler, A.; Dingfelder, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)


    All the orbital {ital M}1 excitations, at both low and high energies, obtained from a rotationally invariant quasiparticle random-phase approximation, represent the fragmented scissors mode. The high-energy {ital M}1 strength is almost purely orbital and resides in the region of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance. In heavy deformed nuclei the high-energy scissors model is strongly fragmented between 17 and 25 MeV (with uncertainties arising from the poor knowledge of the isovector potential). The coherent scissors motion is hindered by the fragmentation and {ital B}({ital M}1){lt}0.25{mu}{sub {ital N}}{sup 2} for single transitions in this region. The ({ital e},{ital e}{prime}) cross sections for excitations above 17 MeV are one order of magnitude larger for {ital E}2 than for {ital M}1 excitations even at backward angles.

  13. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V


    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  14. Modal focusing effect of positive and negative ions by a three-dimensional plasma-sheath lens. (United States)

    Stamate, E; Sugai, H


    A complex focusing effect of positive and negative ions caused by the sheath forming to biased electrodes that interface insulators has been found by solving in three dimensions the potential distribution and ion kinetics within the sheath. Thus, intrinsically correlated with the sheath shape, certain electrical charges are focused on the surface, forming well defined patterns named modal lines and modal spots. Their superposition to the previously reported discrete focusing leads to a total flux that represents a "fingerprint" of the entire sheath on the electrode surface. The ion flux pattern is developed experimentally on the surface of square and octagonal electrodes exposed to Ar/SF(6) and CF4 plasmas. Present results are of high potential importance for fundamental studies concerning sheath formation and charge kinetics and also in a wide range of plasma applications.

  15. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences


    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  16. Modern Focused-Ion-Beam-Based Site-Specific Specimen Preparation for Atom Probe Tomography. (United States)

    Prosa, Ty J; Larson, David J


    Approximately 30 years after the first use of focused ion beam (FIB) instruments to prepare atom probe tomography specimens, this technique has grown to be used by hundreds of researchers around the world. This past decade has seen tremendous advances in atom probe applications, enabled by the continued development of FIB-based specimen preparation methodologies. In this work, we provide a short review of the origin of the FIB method and the standard methods used today for lift-out and sharpening, using the annular milling method as applied to atom probe tomography specimens. Key steps for enabling correlative analysis with transmission electron-beam backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography are presented, and strategies for preparing specimens for modern microelectronic device structures are reviewed and discussed in detail. Examples are used for discussion of the steps for each of these methods. We conclude with examples of the challenges presented by complex topologies such as nanowires, nanoparticles, and organic materials.

  17. Suspended tungsten-based nanowires with enhanced mechanical properties grown by focused ion beam induced deposition (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Lorenzoni, Matteo; Pablo-Navarro, Javier; Magén, César; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; María De Teresa, José


    The implementation of three-dimensional (3D) nano-objects as building blocks for the next generation of electro-mechanical, memory and sensing nano-devices is at the forefront of technology. The direct writing of functional 3D nanostructures is made feasible by using a method based on focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). We use this technique to grow horizontally suspended tungsten nanowires and then study their nano-mechanical properties by three-point bending method with atomic force microscopy. These measurements reveal that these nanowires exhibit a yield strength up to 12 times higher than that of the bulk tungsten, and near the theoretical value of 0.1 times the Young’s modulus (E). We find a size dependence of E that is adequately described by a core-shell model, which has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and compositional analysis at the nanoscale. Additionally, we show that experimental resonance frequencies of suspended nanowires (in the MHz range) are in good agreement with theoretical values. These extraordinary mechanical properties are key to designing electro-mechanically robust nanodevices based on FIBID tungsten nanowires.

  18. Electronic and transport properties of Ge nanoparticle pellets structured by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondorf, Andreas; Geller, Martin; Lorke, Axel [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany)


    Semiconductor nanoparticles are of interest for future electronic and optoelectronic devices, especially low cost, flexible, printable electronics. We investigate here the transport properties (charge carrier concentration and mobility) of Ge nanoparticles, which were synthesized in the gas-phase and pressed into pellets. The nanoparticles inside these pellets sinter into a sponge-like structure, that may exhibit unusual magneto-transport properties similar to the strong magnetoresistance observed in nanoporous gold [Fujita, PRL 101, 166601 (2008)]. The measurements are made on directly contacted macroscopic pellets and on Hall-bar microstructures fabricated by a focused ion beam (FIB). In the FIB fabrication process, a lamella is cut out of a pellet and positioned onto a prestructured substrate with metal contacts. The sample is connected with the contacts by deposition of platinum. Finally the disk is etched by FIB into a Hallbar shape. We use I-V and Hall-measurements and find a very weak but measurable Hall-effect and a negative magnetoresistance of about 0.01% at 2.5 T. At room temperature, Ge nanoparticles show a charge carrier concentration of about 4.10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, comparable to the intrinsic charge carrier concentration in bulk germanium. Ge nanoparticles have a very low mobility of 0.1 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 25 C, which is comparable to the mobility of organic semiconductors, so that Ge nanoparticles may be suitable in some applications which are presently based on organic semiconductors.

  19. Suspended tungsten-based nanowires with enhanced mechanical properties grown by focused ion beam induced deposition. (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Lorenzoni, Matteo; Pablo-Navarro, Javier; Magén, César; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; De Teresa, José María


    The implementation of three-dimensional (3D) nano-objects as building blocks for the next generation of electro-mechanical, memory and sensing nano-devices is at the forefront of technology. The direct writing of functional 3D nanostructures is made feasible by using a method based on focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). We use this technique to grow horizontally suspended tungsten nanowires and then study their nano-mechanical properties by three-point bending method with atomic force microscopy. These measurements reveal that these nanowires exhibit a yield strength up to 12 times higher than that of the bulk tungsten, and near the theoretical value of 0.1 times the Young's modulus (E). We find a size dependence of E that is adequately described by a core-shell model, which has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and compositional analysis at the nanoscale. Additionally, we show that experimental resonance frequencies of suspended nanowires (in the MHz range) are in good agreement with theoretical values. These extraordinary mechanical properties are key to designing electro-mechanically robust nanodevices based on FIBID tungsten nanowires.

  20. Focused ion beam processing and engineering of devices in self-assembled supramolecular structures. (United States)

    Huyang, George; Canning, John; Gibson, Brant C; Khoury, Tony; Sum, Tze Jing; Neto, Chiara; Crossley, Maxwell J


    Self-assembled supramolecular structures such as optical wires, films and 2D slabs offer a new generation of electronic and optical devices. In particular, self-assembled porphyrin devices, including those integrated onto silica and silicon platforms, open new opportunities in photonic applications spanning molecular biosensing, photovoltaics and telecommunications. All reports to date, however, largely highlight the potential but have not established a clear pathway to the actual implementation of more complex device prototypes. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate the use of a focused ion beam (FIB) to process and fabricate devices in porphyrin-based supramolecular structures. These self-assembled structures have an initial root mean squared (rms) values for surface roughness of atomic force microscopy. Under appropriate FIB processing and cutting conditions, the rms value for surface roughness falls to < 0.4 nm, comparable with some of the best optical flatnesses obtained within, for example, structured optical fibres and integrated optical waveguides. The milling rate of the porphyrin structures was estimated to be approximately 70% of that of silica. The versatility of a FIB as a tool for rapid processing and fabricating 1D and 2D photonic waveguide structures within supramolecular self-assembled platforms is demonstrated by fabricating a 2D coupler, setting the groundwork for true optical device engineering and integration using these new organic systems.

  1. Focus Ion Beam Fabrication of Individual Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Tips (United States)

    Chai, Guangyu; Byahut, Sitaram; Chow, Lee


    Individual CNTs are excellent candidates as electron sources for electron microscopes. Comparing to conventional electron sources, CNTs have the following advantages: (1) unique geometry, (2) highly coherent electron beams, and (3) stability. In our laboratory, carbon fibers with a nanotube core have been synthesized with a conventional chemical vapor deposition method. The whole assembly of nanotube/fiber is similar to a coaxial cable with CNT sticking out from one end of the carbon fiber. In order to pick up individual CNT field emitters, focus ion beam (FIB) technique is applied for cutting and adhering the samples. The carbon fiber with nanotube tip was first welded onto a micro-manipulator. Afterwards, by applying the FIB milling function, the fiber was cut from the base. This enables us to handle the individual CNT tips conveniently. By the same method, we can attach the nanotube tip on a sharpened clean tungsten wire for field emission experiment. FIB is proven to be appropriate and powerful for the nano-fabrication.

  2. Thermal conductivity and nanocrystalline structure of platinum deposited by focused ion beam

    KAUST Repository

    Alaie, Seyedhamidreza


    Pt deposited by focused ion beam (FIB) is a common material used for attachment of nanosamples, repair of integrated circuits, and synthesis of nanostructures. Despite its common use little information is available on its thermal properties. In this work, Pt deposited by FIB is characterized thermally, structurally, and chemically. Its thermal conductivity is found to be substantially lower than the bulk value of Pt, 7.2 W m-1 K-1 versus 71.6 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature. The low thermal conductivity is attributed to the nanostructure of the material and its chemical composition. Pt deposited by FIB is shown, via aberration corrected TEM, to be a segregated mix of nanocrystalline Pt and amorphous C with Ga and O impurities. Ga impurities mainly reside in the Pt while O is homogeneously distributed throughout. The Ga impurity, small grain size of the Pt, and the amorphous carbon between grains are the cause for the low thermal conductivity of this material. Since Pt deposited by FIB is a common material for affixing samples, this information can be used to assess systematic errors in thermal characterization of different nanosamples. This application is also demonstrated by thermal characterization of two carbon nanofibers and a correction using the reported thermal properties of the Pt deposited by FIB.

  3. Collection and focusing of laser accelerated ion beams for therapy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Hofmann


    Full Text Available Experimental results in laser acceleration of protons and ions and theoretical predictions that the currently achieved energies might be raised by factors 5–10 in the next few years have stimulated research exploring this new technology for oncology as a compact alternative to conventional synchrotron based accelerator technology. The emphasis of this paper is on collection and focusing of the laser produced particles by using simulation data from a specific laser acceleration model. We present a scaling law for the “chromatic emittance” of the collector—here assumed as a solenoid lens—and apply it to the particle energy and angular spectra of the simulation output. For a 10 Hz laser system we find that particle collection by a solenoid magnet well satisfies requirements of intensity and beam quality as needed for depth scanning irradiation. This includes a sufficiently large safety margin for intensity, whereas a scheme without collection—by using mere aperture collimation—hardly reaches the needed intensities.

  4. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J., E-mail: [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished.

  5. Fabrication of oriented crystals as force measurement tips via focused ion beam and microlithography methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang; Chun, Jaehun; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Li, Dongsheng


    Detailed knowledge of the forces between nanocrystals is very crucial for understanding many generic (e.g., random aggregation/assembly and rheology) and specific (e.g., oriented attachment) phenomena at macroscopic length scales, especially considering the additional complexities involved in nanocrystals such as crystal orientation and corresponding orientation-dependent physicochemical properties. Because there are a limited number of methods to directly measure the forces, little is known about the forces that drive the various emergent phenomena. Here we report on two methods of preparing crystals as force measurement tips used in an atomic force microscope (AFM): the focused ion beam method and microlithography method. The desired crystals are fabricated using these two methods and are fixed to the AFM probe using platinum deposition, ultraviolet epoxy, or resin, which allows for the orientation-dependent force measurements. These two methods can be used to attach virtually any solid particles (from the size of a few hundreds of nanometers to millimeters). We demonstrate the force measurements between aqueous media under different conditions such as pH.

  6. Large area direct-write focused ion-beam lithography with dual-beam microscope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imre-Joshi, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Rich, L.; Klingfus, J. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)


    The authors have investigated the performance of focused ion-beam (FIB) direct-write lithography for large area (multiple write-field) patterning in an FEI Nova Nanolab 600 dual-beam microscope. Their system is configured with a 100 nm resolution X-Y stage and a RAITH ELPHY LITHOGRAPHY control interface, with its own integrated 16 bit DAC pattern generator and software. Key issues with regard to configuration, process parameters, and procedures have been addressed. Characterization of stitching errors, pattern repeatability, and drift were performed. Offset lithography (multiple exposures with offset write fields) and in-field registration marks were evaluated for correcting stitching errors, and a test microfluidic device covering an area of 1 x 1.4 mm{sup 2} was successfully fabricated. The authors found that by using a combination of offset lithography and in-field registration mark correction methods, the stitching errors can be kept well below 100 nm. They also found that due to higher beam deflection speed provided by the electrostatic scanning in FIB systems versus the wide-spread electron-beam systems with electromagnetic scanning, FIB lithography can be just as fast as electron-beam lithography for typical mill depths down to about 200-500 nm (material dependent). This opens the door for a large suite of applications for materials where pattern transfer is difficult or impossible by reactive methods.

  7. Comparison of silicon and 4H silicon carbide patterning using focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerapandian, S.K.P. [Chair of Electron Devices, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Beuer, S.; Rumler, M.; Stumpf, F. [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology (IISB), Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Thomas, K.; Pillatsch, L.; Michler, J. [Empa Materials Science and Technology, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Frey, L. [Chair of Electron Devices, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology (IISB), Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology (IISB), Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)


    In this work, focused ion beam (FIB) milling of different structures is studied and compared for two different electronic materials, i.e., silicon (Si) and silicon carbide (SiC). Results show that the same processing parameters yield different trench cross sections for Si and SiC, even when the different material removal rates (MRR) are taken into account. In order to investigate more complex structures, nanocone arrays were fabricated in Si and SiC. The difference in the shape of the trench cross section and complex structures can be mainly explained by the significant difference in the angle dependent MRR for both materials. Other effects which occur during FIB irradiation by the non-ideal beam shape such as swelling and damage outside of the purposely processed region are emulated and sensitively studied by scanning probe microscopy techniques such as atomic force microscopy (in-line and off-line) and scanning spreading resistance microscopy, respectively, for SiC and the results are compared with those for Si.

  8. Site-Specific Cryo-focused Ion Beam Sample Preparation Guided by 3D Correlative Microscopy. (United States)

    Arnold, Jan; Mahamid, Julia; Lucic, Vladan; de Marco, Alex; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus; Laugks, Tim; Mayer, Tobias; Hyman, Anthony A; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M


    The development of cryo-focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) for the thinning of frozen-hydrated biological specimens enabled cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) analysis in unperturbed cells and tissues. However, the volume represented within a typical FIB lamella constitutes a small fraction of the biological specimen. Retaining low-abundance and dynamic subcellular structures or macromolecular assemblies within such limited volumes requires precise targeting of the FIB milling process. In this study, we present the development of a cryo-stage allowing for spinning-disk confocal light microscopy at cryogenic temperatures and describe the incorporation of the new hardware into existing workflows for cellular sample preparation by cryo-FIB. Introduction of fiducial markers and subsequent computation of three-dimensional coordinate transformations provide correlation between light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/FIB. The correlative approach is employed to guide the FIB milling process of vitrified cellular samples and to capture specific structures, namely fluorescently labeled lipid droplets, in lamellas that are 300 nm thick. The correlation procedure is then applied to localize the fluorescently labeled structures in the transmission electron microscopy image of the lamella. This approach can be employed to navigate the acquisition of cryo-ET data within FIB-lamellas at specific locations, unambiguously identified by fluorescence microscopy. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the Standard Model, and proposals – including the radical ...

  10. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-energy physics; gauge theories; Standard Model; physics beyond the ... elusive goal. The Standard Model describes the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions, but only unifies the first two. Despite its spectacular success in ex ..... Towards the end of the 1960s, a path-breaking new 'deep inelastic' electron scat-.

  11. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics


    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  12. A high energy physics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.


    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  13. Cryo dualbeam focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the interface between cells and nanopatterned scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, E.A.D.; Lamers, Edwin; Walboomers, X. Frank; Domanski, Maciej; McKerr, George; O'Hagan, Barry M.; Barnes, Clifford A.; Peto, Lloyd; Lüttge, Regina; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Jansen, John A.


    With the advance of nanotechnology in biomaterials science and tissue engineering, it is essential that new techniques become available to observe processes that take place at the direct interface between tissue and scaffold materials. Here, Cryo DualBeam focused ion beam–scanning electron

  14. Extending the detection limit of dopants for focused ion beam prepared semiconductor specimens examined by off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Rivallin, Pierrette; Hartmann, Jean-Michel


    Silicon specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared for examination by off-axis electron holography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. FIB milling modifies the surfaces of the specimens due to gallium implantation and the creation of defects which has the effect of reducing the active...

  15. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V


    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  16. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kogler, Roman; Steder, Michael


    Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and pre...

  17. Focused Ion Beam Nanotomography of ruthenium-bearing nickel-base superalloys with focus on cast-microstructure and phase stability; Focused Ion Beam Nanotomographie von rutheniumhaltigen Nickelbasis-Superlegierungen mit Fokus auf Gussgefuege und Phasenstabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenanovic, Samir


    The influence of rhenium and ruthenium on the multi component system nickel-base superalloy is manifold and complex. An experimental nickel-base superalloy containing rhenium and ruthenium within defined contents, named Astra, was used to investigate the influences of these two elements on the alloy system. The last stage solidification of nickel-base superalloys after Bridgman casting and the high temperature phase stability of these alloys, could be explored with the aid of focused ion beam nanotomography. FIB-nt therefore was introduced and realized at the chair of General Materials Properties of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg. Cast Astra alloys are like other nickel-base superalloys morphologically very inhomogeneous and affected by segregation. In the interdendritic region different structures with huge γ' precipitates are formed. These inhomogeneities and remaining eutectics degrade the mechanical properties, witch makes an understanding of the subsiding processes at solidification of residual melt important for the casting process and the heat treatment. This is why the last stage solidification in the interdendritic region was analyzed. With the help of focused ion beam nanotomography, three different structures identified from 2-D sections could be assigned to one original 3-D structure. It was pointed out, that only the orientation of the plane of the 2-D cut influences the appearance in the 2-D section. The tomography information was used to explain the development during solidification and to create a model of last stage solidification. The interdendritic region is solidifying under the development of eutectic islands. The structure nucleates eutectically epitaxially at primary dendrite arms, with formation of fine γ/γ' precipitates. During solidification the γ' precipitates coarsen in a rod-like structure, and end up in large γ' precipitates. Simulations and other investigations could approve this model. First three

  18. Universal main magnetic focus ion source: A new tool for laboratory research of astrophysics and Tokamak microplasma (United States)

    Ovsyannikov, V. P.; Nefiodov, A. V.; Levin, A. A.


    A novel room-temperature ion source for the production of atomic ions in electron beam within wide ranges of electron energy and current density is developed. The device can operate both as conventional Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) and novel Main Magnetic Focus Ion Source. The ion source is suitable for generation of the low-, medium- and high-density microplasma in steady state, which can be employed for investigation of a wide range of physical problems in ordinary university laboratory, in particular, for microplasma simulations relevant to astrophysics and ITER reactor. For the electron beam characterized by the incident energy Ee = 10 keV, the current density je ˜ 20 kA/cm2 and the number density ne ˜ 2 × 1013 cm-3 were achieved experimentally. For Ee ˜ 60 keV, the value of electron number density ne ˜ 1014 cm-3 is feasible. The efficiency of the novel ion source for laboratory astrophysics significantly exceeds that of other existing warm and superconducting EBITs.

  19. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghen, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)


    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e{sup +} e{sup -} interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given.

  20. Focused Ion Beam and Advanced Electron Microscopy for Minerals: Insights and Outlook from Bismuth Sulphosalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana L. Ciobanu


    Full Text Available This paper comprises a review of the rapidly expanding application of nanoscale mineral characterization methodology to the study of ore deposits. Utilising bismuth sulphosalt minerals from a reaction front in a skarn assemblage as an example, we illustrate how a complex problem in ore petrology, can be approached at scales down to that of single atoms. We demonstrate the interpretive opportunities that can be realised by doing this for other minerals within their petrogenetic contexts. From an area defined as Au-rich within a sulphosalt-sulphide assemblage, and using samples prepared on a Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM platform, we identify mineral species and trace the evolution of their intergrowths down to the atomic scale. Our approach progresses from a petrographic and trace element study of a larger polished block, to high-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and High Angle Annular Dark Field (HAADF Scanning-TEM (STEM studies. Lattice-scale heterogeneity imaged in HAADF STEM mode is expressed by changes in composition of unit cell slabs followed by nanoparticle formation and their growth into “veins”. We report a progressive transition from sulphosalt species which host lattice-bound Au (neyite, lillianite homologues; Pb-Bi-sulphosalts, to those that cannot accept Au (aikinite. This transition acts as a crystal structural barrier for Au. Fine particles of native gold track this progression over the scale of several hundred microns, leading to Au enrichment at the reaction front defined by an increase in the Cu gradient (several wt %, and abrupt changes in sulphosalt speciation from Pb-Bi-sulphosalts to aikinite. Atom-scale resolution imaging in HAADF STEM mode allows for the direct visualisation of the three component slabs in the neyite crystal structure, one of the largest and complex sulphosalts of boxwork-type. We show for the first time the presence of aikinite nanoparticles a few nanometres in

  1. Focused ion beam sectioning and lift-out method for copper and resist vias in organic low-k dielectrics. (United States)

    Crawford, E J; Gignac, L; Barth, K; Petrus, J; Levine, E


    The focused ion beam lift-out technique for scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) sample preparation was shown to be applicable to copper/low-k dielectric semiconductor technology. High resolution SEM, TEM, and scanning transmission electron microscope analyses were performed on metal contacts and resist vias with no evidence of the interface damage or metal smearing commonly observed with mechanical polishing. Ion milling of the sample ex situ to the substrate provided decoration and adjustment of the exposed plane of the section when necessary for SEM analysis.

  2. High energy density redox flow device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, Craig W.; Ho, Bryan Y.; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa


    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  3. Progress toward high energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergei Nagaitsev


    All electron cooling systems in operation to date can be classified as low energy systems. The electron beam kinetic energy in such a system is limited to about 0.6-1 MeV by the use of a conventional commercial Cockcroft-Walton high-voltage power supply. This, in turn, bounds the maximum ion kinetic energy, accessible for cooling with today's standard technology, to about 2 GeV/nucleon (about a factor of 2-3 times higher than the electron systems in operation today). Electron cooling systems with kinetic energies above 1 MeV could provide economically justifiable improvements in the performance of many existing and proposed accelerator complexes, such as RHIC, Tevatron and HERA. This paper reviews the status of the development of the technology needed for high energy electron cooling.

  4. Duke University high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.


    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  5. Crystallization of amorphous zirconium thin film using ion implantation by a plasma focus of 1 kJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, L. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Bvrd. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail:; Gomez, B.J.; Feugeas, J. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Bvrd. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Sanctis, O. de [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR), Bvrd. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)


    In this work preliminary results of amorphous zirconium crystallization using ion beam pulses are presented. Energetic argon- and oxygen-ion beams generated by a plasma focus device were used to promote crystallization on amorphous ZrO{sub 2}-2.5 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} film deposited by chemical solution deposition onto silica glass substrate. The films were burnt at 370 deg. C for 1 h in normal atmosphere previous to plasma irradiation. The irradiation was performed by means of successive pulses of ion beams. The evolution of the surface morphology and crystallization was followed by AFM and X-rays diffraction in a grazing incidence asymmetric Bragg geometry (GIAB), respectively. Argon-irradiated films showed highly nucleated cubic zirconia after 10 pulses. On the other hand, oxygen-irradiated films showed a delayed and less extensive cubic nucleation, but a more ordered structure and well-defined grains.

  6. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiping Chen


    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  7. effect of the plasma ion channel on self-focusing of a Gaussian laser pulse in underdense plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Irani


    Full Text Available  We have considered the self-focusing of a Gaussian laser pulse in unmagnetized plasma. High-intensity electromagnetic fields cause the variation of electron density in plasma. These changes in the special conditions cause the acceleration of electrons to the higher energy and velocities. Thus the equation of plasma density evolution was obtained considering the electrons ponderomotive force. Then, an equation for the width of laser pulse with a relativistic mass correction term and the effect of ion channel were derived and the propagation of high-intensity laser pulse in an underdense plasma with weak relativistic approximation was investigated. It is shown that the ratio of ion channel radius to spot size could result in different forms of self focusing for the laser pulse in plasma.

  8. Free flow zone electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing using a microfabricated glass device with ion permeable membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlheyer, D.; Besselink, G.A.J.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.


    This paper describes a microfabricated free-flow electrophoresis device with integrated ion permeable membranes. In order to obtain continuous lanes of separated components an electrical field is applied perpendicular to the sample flow direction. This sample stream is sandwiched between two sheath

  9. Ion irradiation effects on a magnetic Si/Ni/Si trilayer and lateral magnetic-nonmagnetic multistrip patterning by focused ion beam (United States)

    Dev, B. N.; Banu, Nasrin; Fassbender, J.; Grenzer, J.; Schell, N.; Bischoff, L.; Groetzschel, R.; McCord, J.


    Fabrication of a multistrip magnetic/nonmagnetic structure in a thin sandwiched Ni layer [Si(5 nm)/Ni(15 nm)/Si] by a focused ion beam (FIB) irradiation has been attempted. A control experiment was initially performed by irradiation with a standard 30 keV Ga ion beam at various fluences. Analyses were carried out by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray reflectivity, magnetooptical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements and MOKE microscopy. With increasing ion fluence, the coercivity as well as Kerr rotation decreases. A threshold ion fluence has been identified, where ferromagnetism of the Ni layer is lost at room temperature and due to Si incorporation into the Ni layer, a Ni0.68Si0.32 alloy layer is formed. This fluence was used in FIB irradiation of parallel 50 nm wide stripes, leaving 1 µm wide unirradiated stripes in between. MOKE microscopy on this FIB-patterned sample has revealed interacting magnetic domains across several stripes. Considering shape anisotropy effects, which would favour an alignment of magnetization parallel to the stripe axis, the opposite behaviour is observed. Magneto-elastic effects introducing a stress-induced anisotropy component oriented perpendicular to the stripe axis are the most plausible explanation for the observed behaviour.

  10. Memory resistive switching in CeO2-based film microstructures patterned by a focused ion beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velichko, A.; Boriskov, P.; Grishin, A.


    Heteroepitaxial CeO2 (80 nm)/La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (500 nm) film structure has been pulsed laser deposited on a sapphire substrate. The Ag/CeO2 microjunctions patterned by a focused ion beam on a La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 film exhibit reproducible reversible switching between a high resistance state (OFF...

  11. Effective Use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) in Investigating Fundamental Mechanical Properties of Metals at the Sub-Micron Scale


    Greer, Julia R.


    Recent advances in the 2-beam focused ion beams technology (FIB) have enabled researchers to not only perform high-precision nanolithography and micro-machining, but also to apply these novel fabrication techniques to investigating a broad range of materials' properties at the submicron and nano-scales. In our work, the FIB is utilized in manufacturing of sub-micron cylinders, or nano-pillars, as well as of TEM cross-sections to directly investigate plasticity of metals at thes...

  12. The modification of the structure of multilayer Co/Pt films by the irradiation with a focused helium ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, S. A., E-mail:; Drozdov, M. N.; Ermolaeva, O. L.; Fraerman, A. A.; Gusev, N. S.; Sapozhnikov, M. V., E-mail:; Vdovichev, S. N. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Mikhailovskii, V. Yu.; Petrov, Yu. V., E-mail: [Saint Petersburg state University, St.Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, 199034 (Russian Federation)


    We report here on the possibility of a local modification of Co/Pt multilayered magnetic films by focused ion beam irradiation. The changes of structural and magnetic properties are experimentally investigated as a function of irradiation fluence. The method is used to form lateral structures with the periods up to 100 nm. The magnetic force microscopy accompanied by Hall effect measurements of the structure indicate the formation of magnetic skyrmion lattices in the absence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  13. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)


    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  14. Tactical high-energy laser (United States)

    Shwartz, Josef; Wilson, Gerald T.; Avidor, Joel M.


    The Nautilus Project was started in 1995 as a joint US-Israel feasibility study for using laser systems to defend against short-range artillery rockets. It has now matured into a successful laser weapon demonstration program - the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) Program. By now the THEL Demonstrator has engaged and destroyed a large number of artillery rockets in mid-flight in an extended series of demonstration tests at the US Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The THEL ACTD hardware and development process are described in this paper, as well as the major test results. The paper also describes the operational concept for a deployed THEL weapon system and some possible growth paths for the THEL ACTD Program.

  15. Computational Transport Modeling of High-Energy Neutrons Found in the Space Environment (United States)

    Cox, Brad; Theriot, Corey A.; Rohde, Larry H.; Wu, Honglu


    The high charge and high energy (HZE) particle radiation environment in space interacts with spacecraft materials and the human body to create a population of neutrons encompassing a broad kinetic energy spectrum. As an HZE ion penetrates matter, there is an increasing chance of fragmentation as penetration depth increases. When an ion fragments, secondary neutrons are released with velocities up to that of the primary ion, giving some neutrons very long penetration ranges. These secondary neutrons have a high relative biological effectiveness, are difficult to effectively shield, and can cause more biological damage than the primary ions in some scenarios. Ground-based irradiation experiments that simulate the space radiation environment must account for this spectrum of neutrons. Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS), it is possible to simulate a neutron environment that is characteristic of that found in spaceflight. Considering neutron dosimetry, the focus lies on the broad spectrum of recoil protons that are produced in biological targets. In a biological target, dose at a certain penetration depth is primarily dependent upon recoil proton tracks. The PHITS code can be used to simulate a broad-energy neutron spectrum traversing biological targets, and it account for the recoil particle population. This project focuses on modeling a neutron beamline irradiation scenario for determining dose at increasing depth in water targets. Energy-deposition events and particle fluence can be simulated by establishing cross-sectional scoring routines at different depths in a target. This type of model is useful for correlating theoretical data with actual beamline radiobiology experiments. Other work exposed human fibroblast cells to a high-energy neutron source to study micronuclei induction in cells at increasing depth behind water shielding. Those findings provide supporting data describing dose vs. depth across a water-equivalent medium. This

  16. Final Report on Institutional Computing Project s15_hilaserion, “Kinetic Modeling of Next-Generation High-Energy, High-Intensity Laser-Ion Accelerators as an Enabling Capability”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yin, Lin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stark, David James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This proposal sought of order 1M core-hours of Institutional Computing time intended to enable computing by a new LANL Postdoc (David Stark) working under LDRD ER project 20160472ER (PI: Lin Yin) on laser-ion acceleration. The project was “off-cycle,” initiating in June of 2016 with a postdoc hire.

  17. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa


    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  18. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fedkiw, Peter [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Khan, Saad [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huang, Alex [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fan, Jiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  19. Envelope model for passive magnetic focusing of an intense proton or ion beam propagating through thin foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lund


    Full Text Available Ion beams (including protons with low emittance and high space-charge intensity can be propagated with normal incidence through a sequence of thin metallic foils separated by vacuum gaps of order the characteristic transverse beam extent to transport/collimate the beam or to focus it to a small transverse spot. Energetic ions have sufficient range to pass through a significant number of thin foils with little energy loss or scattering. The foils reduce the (defocusing radial electric self-field of the beam while not altering the (focusing azimuthal magnetic self-field of the beam, thereby allowing passive self-beam focusing if the magnetic field is sufficiently strong relative to the residual electric field. Here we present an envelope model developed to predict the strength of this passive (beam generated focusing effect under a number of simplifying assumptions including relatively long pulse duration. The envelope model provides a simple criterion for the necessary foil spacing for net focusing and clearly illustrates system focusing properties for either beam collimation (such as injecting a laser-produced proton beam into an accelerator or for magnetic pinch focusing to a small transverse spot (for beam driven heating of materials. An illustrative example is worked for an idealization of a recently performed laser-produced proton-beam experiment to provide guidance on possible beam focusing and collimation systems. It is found that foils spaced on the order of the characteristic transverse beam size desired can be employed and that envelope divergence of the initial beam entering the foil lens must be suppressed to limit the total number of foils required to practical values for pinch focusing. Relatively modest proton-beam current at 10 MeV kinetic energy can clearly demonstrate strong magnetic pinch focusing achieving a transverse rms extent similar to the foil spacing (20–50  μm gaps in beam propagation distances of tens of mm

  20. Focused Ion Beam Preparation of Specimens for Micro-Electro-Mechanical System-based Transmission Electron Microscopy Heating Experiments. (United States)

    Vijayan, Sriram; Jinschek, Joerg R; Kujawa, Stephan; Greiser, Jens; Aindow, Mark


    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based heating holders offer exceptional control of temperature and heating/cooling rates for transmission electron microscopy experiments. The use of such devices is relatively straightforward for nano-particulate samples, but the preparation of specimens from bulk samples by focused ion beam (FIB) milling presents significant challenges. These include: poor mechanical integrity and site selectivity of the specimen, ion beam damage to the specimen and/or MEMS device during thinning, and difficulties in transferring the specimen onto the MEMS device. Here, we describe a novel FIB protocol for the preparation and transfer of specimens from bulk samples, which involves a specimen geometry that provides mechanical support to the electron-transparent region, while maximizing the area of that region and the contact area with the heater plate on the MEMS chip. The method utilizes an inclined stage block that minimizes exposure of the chip to the ion beam during milling. This block also allows for accurate and gentle placement of the FIB-cut specimen onto the chip by using simultaneous electron and ion beam imaging during transfer. Preliminary data from Si and Ag on Si samples are presented to demonstrate the quality of the specimens that can be obtained and their stability during in situ heating experiments.

  1. High energy chemical laser system (United States)

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.


    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  2. Application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in forensic chemistry and toxicology with focus on biological matrices (United States)

    Bernhard, Werner; Keller, Thomas; Regenscheit, Priska


    The IMS (Ion Mobility Spectroscopy) instrument 'Ionscan' takes advantage of the fact that trace quantities of illicit drugs are adsorbed on dust particles on clothes, in cars and on other items of evidence. The dust particles are collected on a membrane filter by a special attachment on a vacuum cleaner. The sample is then directly inserted into the spectrometer and can be analyzed immediately. We show casework applications of a forensic chemistry and toxicology laboratory. One new application of IMS in forensic chemistry is the detection of psilocybin in dried mushrooms without any further sample preparation.

  3. Predictions for squeezed back-to-back correlations of φφ and K{sup +}K{sup -} in high-energy heavy-ion collisions by event-by-event hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Wei-Ning [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Harbin, Heilongjiang (China)


    We calculate the squeezed back-to-back correlation (BBC) functions of φφ and K{sup +}K{sup -} for heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies, using (2 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamics with fluctuating initial conditions. The BBC functions averaged over event-by-event calculations for many events for the hydrodynamic sources are smoothed as a function of the particle momentum. For heavy-ion collisions of Au + Au at √(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV, the BBC functions are larger than those for collisions of Pb + Pb at √(S{sub NN}) = 2.76 TeV. The BBC of φφ may possibly be observed in peripheral collisions at the RHIC and LHC energies. It is large for the smaller sources of Cu + Cu collisions at √(S{sub NN}) = 200 GeV. (orig.)

  4. A new, high energy Sn-C/Li[Li(0.2)Ni(0.4)/3Co(0.4)/3Mn(1.6/3)]O2 lithium-ion battery. (United States)

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Wang, Jun; Bresser, Dominic; Li, Jie; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef


    In this paper we report a new, high performance lithium-ion battery comprising a nanostructured Sn-C anode and Li[Li0.2Ni0.4/3Co0.4/3Mn1.6/3]O2 (lithium-rich) cathode. This battery shows highly promising long-term cycling stability for up to 500 cycles, excellent rate capability, and a practical energy density, which is expected to be as high as 220 Wh kg(-1) at the packaged cell level. Considering the overall performance of this new chemistry basically related to the optimized structure, morphology, and composition of the utilized active materials as demonstrated by XRD, TEM, and SEM, respectively, the system studied herein is proposed as a suitable candidate for application in the lithium-ion battery field.

  5. A novel high energy hybrid Li-ion capacitor with a three-dimensional hierarchical ternary nanostructure of hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanoparticles/conductive polymer/carbon nanotubes anode and an activated carbon cathode (United States)

    Tang, Gang; Cao, Liujun; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Yunhuai; Liu, Hao


    Lithium ion capacitors (LICs) are considered to be high-performance energy storage devices that have stimulated intense attention to bridge the gap between lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. Currently, the major challenge for LICs has been to improve the energy density without sacrificing the high rate of power output performance. Herein, we designed a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nanostructure of hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanoparticles wrapped conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) framework with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrid (denoted as, H-TiO2/PPy/SWCNTs) anode material for LICs through a conventional and green approach. Such a unique network can offer continuous electron transport and reduce the diffusion length of lithium ions. A greatly lithium storage specific capacity is achieved with reversible discharge capacity ∼213 mA h g-1 (based on the mass of TiO2) over 50 cycles (@ 0.1 A g-1), which is almostly three times compared with raw TiO2 (a commercial TiO2 nanoparticles powder). In addition, coupled with commercial activated carbon (AC) cathode, the fully assembled H-TiO2/PPy/SWCNTs//AC LICs delivers a maximum energy and power densities of 31.3 Wh kg-1 and 4 kW kg-1, a reasonably good cycling stability (∼77.8% retention after 3000 cycles) within the voltage range of 1.0-3.0 V.

  6. Origin of the Difference in the Resistivity of As-Grown Focused-Ion- and Focused-Electron-Beam-Induced Pt Nanodeposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. De Teresa


    Full Text Available We study the origin of the strong difference in the resistivity of focused-electron- and focused-Ga-ion-beam-induced deposition (FEBID and FIBID, resp. of Pt performed in a dual beam equipment using (CH33Pt(CpCH3 as the precursor gas. We have performed in-situ and ex-situ resistance measurements in both types of nanodeposits, finding that the resistivity of Pt by FEBID is typically four orders of magnitude higher than Pt by FIBID. In the case of Pt by FEBID, the current-versus-voltage dependence is nonlinear and the resistance-versus-temperature behavior is strongly semiconducting, whereas Pt by FIBID shows linear current-versus-voltage dependence and only slight temperature dependence. The microstructure, as investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, consists in all cases of Pt single crystals with size about 3 nm embedded in an amorphous carbonaceous matrix. Due to the semiconducting character of the carbon matrix, which is the main component of the deposit, we propose that the transport results can be mapped onto those obtained in semiconducting materials with different degrees of doping. The different transport properties of Pt by FEBID and FIBID are attributed to the higher doping level in the case of FIBID, as given by composition measurements obtained with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

  7. Interdigitated 50 nm Ti electrode arrays fabricated using XeF{sub 2} enhanced focused ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santschi, Ch [Laboratoire de Microsystemes (LMIS), Station 17, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jenke, M [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee (LOA), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 17, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hoffmann, P [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee (LOA), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 17, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Brugger, J [Laboratoire de Microsystemes (LMIS), Station 17, CH1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    The fabrication of interdigitated titanium nanoelectrode arrays of 50 nm in width and spacing is described in this work. The nanoarrays have been realized using a Ga{sup +} focused ion beam (FIB). FIB milling is typically accompanied by redeposition of removed material, which represents an important hindrance for milling closely spaced nanostructures. Redeposition effects have been reduced by means of XeF{sub 2} gas assistance, which increases the etch yield by a factor of seven compared with pure ion milling. Furthermore, we used a simple adsorption model, which led to the conclusion that dwell time and refresh time should be <500 ns and >30 ms, respectively, for optimized XeF{sub 2} assisted Ti milling. The measured resistance R of the electrodes is higher than 1 G{omega}.

  8. Cesium removal from liquid acidic wastes with the primary focus on ammonium molybdophosphate as an ion exchanger: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.J.


    Many articles have been written concerning the selective removal of cesium from both acidic and alkaline defense wastes. The majority of the work performed for cesium removal from defense wastes involves alkaline feed solutions. Several different techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions have been evaluated such as precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review various techniques for cesium removal from acidic solutions. The main focus of the review will be on ion exchange techniques, particularly those involving ammonium molybdophosphate as the exchanger. The pertinent literature sources are condensed into a single document for quick reference. The information contained in this document was used as an aid in determining techniques to evaluate cesium removal from the acidic Idaho Chemical Processing Plant waste matrices. 47 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Cross-sectional STEM observation of nanoparticle-attached silicon wafer: specimen prepared by focused ion-beam. (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tetsu; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishihara, Hiroshi


    A thermal hydrosilylation process could successfully immobilize 5-heptene-1-thiol-stabilized gold nanoparticles onto hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. In order to understand the immobilization structures, it is very important to observe the linkage between the nanoparticles and the substrate surface. For this purpose, a cross-sectional observation of gold nanoparticle-attached silicon substrate was carried out by using a high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM). The specimens were prepared by using a focused ion-beam (FIB) machine. According to the Ga ion-beam irradiation, many single-nano-sized nanoparticles were fused to grow up to larger particles and amorphous Si layers were generated.

  10. Teaching an Old Material New Tricks: Easy and Inexpensive Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Sample Protection Using Conductive Polymers. (United States)

    Taillon, Joshua A; Ray, Valery; Salamanca-Riba, Lourdes G


    This letter describes an innovative spin-coating system, built from off-the-shelf components, that can easily and inexpensively be integrated into any laboratory environment. Combined with a liquid suspension of conductive polymer, such a "rotary coater" enables simple coating of planar samples to create a physical protective barrier on the sample surface. This barrier aids in charge dissipation during scanning electron microscope and focused ion beam (FIB) imaging and provides wide-scale protection of the sample surface from ion bombardment during FIB imaging and gas-assisted deposition. This polymer layer replaces the localized and time-consuming electron beam deposition step typically performed during transmission electron microscopy lamella preparation. After observation, the coating can be easily removed, if desired. The described spin-coating procedure has minimal cost while providing repeatable positive results, without the need for expensive commercial coating instrumentation.

  11. Experimental Facilities at the High Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.


    The main theme of the lectures covered the experimental work at hadron colliders, with a clear focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on the roadmap that led finally to the discovery of the Higgs boson. The lectures were not a systematic course on machine and detector technologies, but rather tried to give a physics-motivated overview of many experimental aspects that were all relevant for making the discovery. The actual lectures covered a much broader scope than what is documented here in this write- up. The successful concepts for the experiments at the LHC have benefitted from the experience gained with previous generations of detectors at lower- energy machines. The lectures included also an outlook to the future experimental programme at the LHC, with its machine and experiments upgrades, as well as a short discussion of possible facilities at the high energy frontier beyond LHC.

  12. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Mapelli, Alessandro

    This thesis deals with the development and study of microfluidic scintillation detectors, a technology of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles. Most of the interest for such devices comes from the use of a liquid scintillator, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to increased radiation resistance. A first part of the thesis focuses on the work performed in terms of design and modelling studies of novel prototype devices, hinting to new possibilities and applications. In this framework, the simulations performed to validate selected designs and the main technological choices made in view of their fabrication are addressed. The second part of this thesis deals with the microfabrication of several prototype devices. Two different materials were studied for the manufacturing of microfluidic scintillation detectors, namely the SU-8 photosensitive epoxy and monocrystalline silicon. For what concerns the former, an original fabrication appro...

  13. Laboratory high-energy astrophysics on lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, W.H.; Liedahl, D.A.; Walling, R.S.; Foord, M.E.; Osterheld, A.L.; Wilson, B.G.


    The tremendous range of temperatures and densities spanned by astrophysical plasmas has significant overlap with conditions attainable using high-power laser facilities. These facilities provide an opportunity to create, control, and characterize plasmas in the laboratory that mirror conditions in some of the most important cosmological systems. Moreover, laboratory experiments can enhance astrophysical understanding by focusing on and isolating important physical processes, without necessarily reproducing the exact conditions of the integral system. Basic study of radiative properties, transport phenomena, thermodynamic response and hydrodynamic evolution in plasmas under properly scaled conditions leads both directly and indirectly to improved models of complex astrophysical systems. In this paper, we will discuss opportunities for current and planned highpower lasers to contribute to the study of high-energy astrophysics.

  14. The first interdisciplinary experiments at the IMP high energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Guo, Na; Liu, Wenjing; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Lina; Li, Qiang [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Li, Huiyun [Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China)


    The high energy beam of tens to hundred MeV/u ions possesses mm-to-cm penetration depth in materials and can be easily extracted into air without significant energy loss and beam scattering. Combination of high energy ions and microbeam technology facilitates the microprobe application to many practical studies in large scale samples. The IMP heavy ion microbeam facility has recently been integrated with microscopic positioning and targeting irradiation system. This paper introduced the first interdisciplinary experiments performed at the IMP microbeam facility using the beam of 80.5 MeV/u carbon ions. Bystander effect induction via medium transferring was not found in the micro-irradiation study using HeLa cells. The mouse irradiation experiment demonstrated that carbon irradiation of 10 Gy dose to its tuberomammillary nucleus did not impair the sleep nerve system. The fault injection attack on RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) decryption proved that the commercial field-programmable gate array chip is vulnerable in single event effect to low linear-energy-transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of RSA private key. This work demonstrates the potential of high energy microbeam in its application to biology, biomedical, radiation hardness, and information security studies.

  15. The first interdisciplinary experiments at the IMP high energy microbeam (United States)

    Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Guo, Na; Liu, Wenjing; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Lina; Li, Qiang; Li, Huiyun


    The high energy beam of tens to hundred MeV/u ions possesses mm-to-cm penetration depth in materials and can be easily extracted into air without significant energy loss and beam scattering. Combination of high energy ions and microbeam technology facilitates the microprobe application to many practical studies in large scale samples. The IMP heavy ion microbeam facility has recently been integrated with microscopic positioning and targeting irradiation system. This paper introduced the first interdisciplinary experiments performed at the IMP microbeam facility using the beam of 80.5 MeV/u carbon ions. Bystander effect induction via medium transferring was not found in the micro-irradiation study using HeLa cells. The mouse irradiation experiment demonstrated that carbon irradiation of 10 Gy dose to its tuberomammillary nucleus did not impair the sleep nerve system. The fault injection attack on RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) decryption proved that the commercial field-programmable gate array chip is vulnerable in single event effect to low linear-energy-transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of RSA private key. This work demonstrates the potential of high energy microbeam in its application to biology, biomedical, radiation hardness, and information security studies.

  16. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server


    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D; and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative...

  17. Micro/nano analysis of tooth microstructures by Focused Ion Beam (FIB cross-sectioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Sezen


    Full Text Available Since dental structures are hard and fragile, cross-sectioning of these materials using ultramicrotomy and other techniques and following micro and nano analysis cause problems. The use of FIB-SEM dual beam platforms is the most convenient solution for investigating the microstructures, site-specifically and in certain geometries. Dual beam platforms allow for imaging at high magnifications and resolutions and simultaneous elemental analysis. In this study, the micro/nano-structural and chemical differences were revealed in dentin and enamel samples. The investigation of dental tissues having different morphologies and chemical components by ion-cross-sectioning is important for the use of FIB-SEM platforms in dentistry in Turkey.

  18. Rapid Focused Ion Beam Milling Based Fabrication of Plasmonic Nanoparticles and Assemblies via "Sketch and Peel" Strategy. (United States)

    Chen, Yiqin; Bi, Kaixi; Wang, Qianjin; Zheng, Mengjie; Liu, Qing; Han, Yunxin; Yang, Junbo; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Guanhua; Duan, Huigao


    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is a versatile maskless and resistless patterning technique and has been widely used for the fabrication of inverse plasmonic structures such as nanoholes and nanoslits for various applications. However, due to its subtractive milling nature, it is an impractical method to fabricate isolated plasmonic nanoparticles and assemblies which are more commonly adopted in applications. In this work, we propose and demonstrate an approach to reliably and rapidly define plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies using FIB milling via a simple "sketch and peel" strategy. Systematic experimental investigations and mechanism studies reveal that the high reliability of this fabrication approach is enabled by a conformally formed sidewall coating due to the ion-milling-induced redeposition. Particularly, we demonstrated that this strategy is also applicable to the state-of-the-art helium ion beam milling technology, with which high-fidelity plasmonic dimers with tiny gaps could be directly and rapidly prototyped. Because the proposed approach enables rapid and reliable patterning of arbitrary plasmonic nanostructures that are not feasible to fabricate via conventional FIB milling process, our work provides the FIB milling technology an additional nanopatterning capability and thus could greatly increase its popularity for utilization in fundamental research and device prototyping.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of advanced Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanocrystals@conducting polymer PEDOT for high energy lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Haiyan, E-mail:; Zhang, Gai; Li, Yongfei


    Highlights: • Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is explored as cathode material for Lithium-ion batteries. • The introduce of PEDOT is effectively way to enhance the electron condcutivity of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. • The Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: Monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} compound is gathering significant interest as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at the moment because of its high theoretical capacity, good safety and low cost. However, it suffers from bad rate capability and short cycling performance duo to the intrinsic low electronic conductivity. Herein, we report a design of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} particles coated by conducting polymer PEDOT through a facile method. When the cell is tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V, the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT electrode delivers a capacity of 128.5 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1C which is about 96.6% of the theoretical capacity. At a high rate of 8C, it can still maintain a capacity of 108.6 mAh g{sup −1} for over 15 cycles with capacity decay rate of only 0.049% per cycle. The impressive electrochemical performance could be attributed to the coated PEDOT layer which can provide a fast electronic connection. Therefore, it can be make a conclusion that the core-shell Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}@PEDOT composite is a promising cathode material for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  20. High-pressure generation using double stage micro-paired diamond anvils shaped by focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Takeshi, E-mail:; Ohfuji, Hiroaki [Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Yagi, Takehiko [Geochemical Research Center, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Irifune, Tetsuo [Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Suzuki, Yuya; Kuroda, Yasushi; Asakawa, Takayuki; Kanemura, Takashi [HITACHI High-Technologies, Hitachinaka 312-0033 (Japan)


    Micron-sized diamond anvils with a 3 μm culet were successfully processed using a focused ion beam (FIB) system and the generation of high pressures was confirmed using the double stage diamond anvil cell technique. The difficulty of aligning two second-stage micro-anvils was solved via the paired micro-anvil method. Micro-manufacturing using a FIB system enables us to control anvil shape, process any materials, including nano-polycrystalline diamond and single crystal diamond, and assemble the sample exactly in a very small space between the second-stage anvils. This method is highly reproducible. High pressures over 300 GPa were achieved, and the pressure distribution around the micro-anvil culet was evaluated by using a well-focused synchrotron micro-X-ray beam.

  1. Ultrafast Photoinduced Charge Separation Leading to High-Energy Radical Ion-Pairs in Directly Linked Corrole-C60 and Triphenylamine-Corrole-C60 Donor-Acceptor Conjugates. (United States)

    Sudhakar, Kolanu; Gokulnath, Sabapathi; Giribabu, Lingamallu; Lim, Gary N; Trâm, Tạ; D'Souza, Francis


    Closely positioned donor-acceptor pairs facilitate electron- and energy-transfer events, relevant to light energy conversion. Here, a triad system TPACor-C60 , possessing a free-base corrole as central unit that linked the energy donor triphenylamine (TPA) at the meso position and an electron acceptor fullerene (C60) at the β-pyrrole position was newly synthesized, as were the component dyads TPA-Cor and Cor-C60. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and DFT studies confirmed the molecular integrity and existence of a moderate level of intramolecular interactions between the components. Steady-state fluorescence studies showed efficient energy transfer from (1) TPA* to the corrole and subsequent electron transfer from (1) corrole* to fullerene. Further studies involving femtosecond and nanosecond laser flash photolysis confirmed electron transfer to be the quenching mechanism of corrole emission, in which the electron-transfer products, the corrole radical cation (Cor(⋅+) in Cor-C60 and TPA-Cor(⋅+) in TPACor-C60) and fullerene radical anion (C60(⋅-)), could be spectrally characterized. Owing to the close proximity of the donor and acceptor entities in the dyad and triad, the rate of charge separation, kCS , was found to be about 10(11)  s(-1), suggesting the occurrence of an ultrafast charge-separation process. Interestingly, although an order of magnitude slower than kCS , the rate of charge recombination, kCR , was also found to be rapid (kCR ≈10(10)  s(-1)), and both processes followed the solvent polarity trend DMF>benzonitrile>THF>toluene. The charge-separated species relaxed directly to the ground state in polar solvents while in toluene, formation of (3) corrole* was observed, thus implying that the energy of the charge-separated state in a nonpolar solvent is higher than the energy of (3) corrole* being about 1.52 eV. That is, ultrafast formation of a high-energy charge-separated state in toluene has been achieved in these closely spaced corrole

  2. Drift compression and final focus systems for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Hoon, Michiel Jan Laurens [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Longitudinal compression of space-charge dominated beams can be achieved by imposing a head-to-tail velocity tilt on the beam. This tilt has to be carefully tailored, such that it is removed by the longitudinal space-charge repulsion by the time the beam reaches the end of the drift compression section. The transverse focusing lattice should be designed such that all parts of the beam stay approximately matched, while the beam smoothly expands transversely to the larger beam radius needed in the final focus system following drift compression. In this thesis, several drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression. The occurrence of mismatches due to a rapidly increasing current was analyzed. In addition, the sensitivity of drift compression to errors in the initial velocity tilt and current profile was studied. These calculations were done using a new computer code that accurately calculates the longitudinal electric field in the space-charge dominated regime.

  3. Understanding the crack formation of graphite particles in cycled commercial lithium-ion batteries by focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy (United States)

    Lin, Na; Jia, Zhe; Wang, Zhihui; Zhao, Hui; Ai, Guo; Song, Xiangyun; Bai, Ying; Battaglia, Vincent; Sun, Chengdong; Qiao, Juan; Wu, Kai; Liu, Gao


    The structure degradation of commercial Lithium-ion battery (LIB) graphite anodes with different cycling numbers and charge rates was investigated by focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cross-section image of graphite anode by FIB milling shows that cracks, resulted in the volume expansion of graphite electrode during long-term cycling, were formed in parallel with the current collector. The crack occurs in the bulk of graphite particles near the lithium insertion surface, which might derive from the stress induced during lithiation and de-lithiation cycles. Subsequently, crack takes place along grain boundaries of the polycrystalline graphite, but only in the direction parallel with the current collector. Furthermore, fast charge graphite electrodes are more prone to form cracks since the tensile strength of graphite is more likely to be surpassed at higher charge rates. Therefore, for LIBs long-term or high charge rate applications, the tensile strength of graphite anode should be taken into account.

  4. Imaging the interphase of carbon fiber composites using transmission electron microscopy: Preparations by focused ion beam, ion beam etching, and ultramicrotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qing


    Full Text Available Three sample preparation techniques, focused ion beam (FIB, ion beam (IB etching, and ultramicrotomy (UM were used in comparison to analyze the interphase of carbon fiber/epoxy composites using transmission electron microscopy. An intact interphase with a relatively uniform thickness was obtained by FIB, and detailed chemical analysis of the interphase was investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy. It shows that the interphase region is 200 nm wide with an increasing oxygen-to-carbon ratio from 10% to 19% and an almost constant nitrogen-to-carbon ratio of about 3%. However, gallium implantation of FIB tends to hinder fine structure analysis of the interphase. For IB etching, the interphase region is observed with transition morphology from amorphous resin to nano-crystalline carbon fiber, but the uneven sample thickness brings difficulty for quantitative chemical analysis. Moreover, UM tends to cause damage and/or deformation on the interphase. These results are meaningful for in-depth understanding on the interphase characteristic of carbon fiber composites.

  5. MOF-derived crumpled-sheet-assembled perforated carbon cuboids as highly effective cathode active materials for ultra-high energy density Li-ion hybrid electrochemical capacitors (Li-HECs) (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhik; Upadhyay, Kush Kumar; Puthusseri, Dhanya; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Ogale, Satishchandra


    Lithium ion hybrid capacitors (Li-HECs) have attracted significant attention for use in next generation advanced energy storage technologies to satisfy the demand of both high power density as well as energy density. Herein we demonstrate the use of very high surface area 3D carbon cuboids synthesized from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a cathode material with Li4Ti5O12 as the anode for high performance Li-HECs. The energy density of the cell is ~65 W h kg-1 which is significantly higher than that achievable with commercially available activated carbon (~36 W h kg-1) and a symmetric supercapacitor based on the same MOF-derived carbon (MOF-DC ~20 W h kg-1). The MOF-DC/Li4Ti5O12 Li-HEC assembly also shows good cyclic performance with ~82% of the initial value (~25 W h kg-1) retained after 10 000 galvanostatic cycles under high rate cyclic conditions. This result clearly indicates that MOF-DC is a very promising candidate for future P-HEVs in a Li-HEC configuration.Lithium ion hybrid capacitors (Li-HECs) have attracted significant attention for use in next generation advanced energy storage technologies to satisfy the demand of both high power density as well as energy density. Herein we demonstrate the use of very high surface area 3D carbon cuboids synthesized from a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a cathode material with Li4Ti5O12 as the anode for high performance Li-HECs. The energy density of the cell is ~65 W h kg-1 which is significantly higher than that achievable with commercially available activated carbon (~36 W h kg-1) and a symmetric supercapacitor based on the same MOF-derived carbon (MOF-DC ~20 W h kg-1). The MOF-DC/Li4Ti5O12 Li-HEC assembly also shows good cyclic performance with ~82% of the initial value (~25 W h kg-1) retained after 10 000 galvanostatic cycles under high rate cyclic conditions. This result clearly indicates that MOF-DC is a very promising candidate for future P-HEVs in a Li-HEC configuration. Electronic supplementary information

  6. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server


    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  7. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J


    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  8. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  9. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  10. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David E; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle Howard; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.


    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  11. Synergistic effect of 3D electrode architecture and fluorine doping of Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2 for high energy density lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Ghosh, Sourav; Ghosal, Partha; Martha, Surendra K.


    Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2 (LMR NMC) is synthesized by solution combustion method followed by LiF coating onto LMR NMC by solid state synthesis. The electrochemical performance of the pristine LMR NMC and corresponding F-doped samples as cathodes for Lithium ion Batteries (LIBs) are investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The fluorine doped cathodes deliver high capacity of ∼300 mAh g-1 at C/10 rate (10-20% greater than the pristine LMR NMC cathodes), have high discharge voltage plateau (>0.25 V) and low charge voltage plateau (0.2-0.4 V) compared to pristine LMR NMC cathodes. Beside, irreversible capacity, voltage fade, capacity loss are significantly reduced in-relation to the pristine LMR NMC electrodes. LiF coating onto LMR NMC, partially replaces Msbnd O bonds of the material by Msbnd F bonds, thus increasing the interfacial and structural stability. Besides, the manuscript describes possible replacement of aluminium current collector with 3D carbon fiber current collector which delivers high capacity of >200 mAh g-1 at 1C rate, good capacity retentions for over 200 cycles. The study opens a possibility for LMR NMC cathode material which has almost double the capacity of currently used cathodes, can be a possible substitute cathode for LIBs used in electric vehicles.

  12. The evolution of software in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, Ren


    The paper reviews the evolution of the software in High Energy Physics from the time of expensive mainframes to grids and clouds systems using thousands of multi-core processors. It focuses on the key parameters or events that have shaped the current software infrastructure.

  13. High energy astrophysical neutrino flux and modified dispersion relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, J. L. Bazo; Bustamante, M.; Gago, A. M.


    Motivated by the interest in searches for violation of CPT invariance, we study its possible effects in the flavour ratios of high-energy neutrinos coming from cosmic accelerators. In particular, we focus on the effect of an energy independent new physics contribution to the neutrino flavour osci...

  14. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Hector [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)


    This year the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) High Energy Physics (HEP) group continued with the ongoing research program outlined in the grant proposal. The program is centered on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The main research focus is on data analysis and on the preparation for the High Luminosity (HL) LHC or experiment detector upgrade. The physics data analysis included Higgs Doublet Search and measurement of the (1) Λ0b branching fraction, (2) B meson mass, and (3) hyperon θ-b lifetime. The detector upgrade included work on the preparations for the Forward Pixel (FPIX) detector Silicon Sensor Testing in a production run at Fermilab. In addition, the group has taken responsibilities on the Software Release through our former research associate Dr. Eric Brownson who acted until last December as a Level Two Offline Manager for the CMS Upgrade. In support of the CMS data analysis activities carried out locally, the UPRM group has built and maintains an excellent Tier3 analysis center in Mayaguez. This allowed us to analyze large data samples and to continue the development of algorithms for the upgrade tracking robustness we started several years ago, and we plan to resume in the near future. This project involves computer simulation of the radiation damage to be suffered at the higher luminosities of the upgraded LHC. This year we continued to serve as a source of outstanding students for the field of high energy physics. Three of our graduate students finished their MS work in May, 2014, Their theses research were on data analysis of heavy quark b-physics. All of them are currently enrolled at Ph.D. physics program across the nation. One of them (Hector Moreno) at New Mexico University (Hector Moreno), one at University of New Hampshire (Sandra Santiesteban) and one at University of

  15. Comprehensive RNA-Seq expression analysis of sensory ganglia with a focus on ion channels and GPCRs in Trigeminal ganglia. (United States)

    Manteniotis, Stavros; Lehmann, Ramona; Flegel, Caroline; Vogel, Felix; Hofreuter, Adrian; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Schöbel, Nicole; Hatt, Hanns; Gisselmann, Günter


    The specific functions of sensory systems depend on the tissue-specific expression of genes that code for molecular sensor proteins that are necessary for stimulus detection and membrane signaling. Using the Next Generation Sequencing technique (RNA-Seq), we analyzed the complete transcriptome of the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of adult mice. Focusing on genes with an expression level higher than 1 FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads), we detected the expression of 12984 genes in the TG and 13195 in the DRG. To analyze the specific gene expression patterns of the peripheral neuronal tissues, we compared their gene expression profiles with that of the liver, brain, olfactory epithelium, and skeletal muscle. The transcriptome data of the TG and DRG were scanned for virtually all known G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as for ion channels. The expression profile was ranked with regard to the level and specificity for the TG. In total, we detected 106 non-olfactory GPCRs and 33 ion channels that had not been previously described as expressed in the TG. To validate the RNA-Seq data, in situ hybridization experiments were performed for several of the newly detected transcripts. To identify differences in expression profiles between the sensory ganglia, the RNA-Seq data of the TG and DRG were compared. Among the differentially expressed genes (> 1 FPKM), 65 and 117 were expressed at least 10-fold higher in the TG and DRG, respectively. Our transcriptome analysis allows a comprehensive overview of all ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in trigeminal ganglia and provides additional approaches for the investigation of trigeminal sensing as well as for the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of pain.

  16. High energy physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.


    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world`s highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t{bar t} decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-{mu}-{tau} universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices.

  17. High energy interactions of cosmic ray particles (United States)

    Jones, L. W.


    The highlights of seven sessions of the Conference dealing with high energy interactions of cosmic rays are discussed. High energy cross section measurements; particle production-models of experiments; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collision; searches for magnetic monopoles; and studies of nucleon decay are covered.

  18. Sub-0.1 mu m line fabrication by Focused ion beam and columnar structural Se-Ge resist

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Chung, H B


    As a method to enhance the sensitivity (S) of an inorganic resist for focused-ion-beam (FIB), lithography, sub-0.1 mu m patterning properties of a columnar structural alpha-Se sub 7 sub 5 Ge sub 2 sub 5 resist have been investigated using 30 keV low-energy Ga sup + -FIB exposure and CF sub 4 reactive-ion etching (RIE). development. The Se sub 7 sub 5 Ge sub 2 sub 5 thin films were 60 .deg. and 80 .deg. -obliquely deposited on Si substrate and parts of the films were annealed for several minutes at the glass transition temperature (T sub g =approx 220 .deg. C). Columnar structures with the angles of approximately 40 .deg. and 65 .deg. are observed in 60 .deg. and 80 .deg. -obliquely deposited films, respectively, and they disappear after annealing. Despite the disappearance of the columnar structures, a critical decrease in thickness is not observed. For the FIB exposures with a beam diameter of approx 0.1 mu m and around the threshold dose, the negative-type fine patterns with linewidth of about 0.06 approx 0...

  19. Skeletal Muscle Triad Junction Ultrastructure by Focused-Ion-Beam Milling of Muscle and Cryo-Electron Tomography. (United States)

    Wagenknecht, Terence; Hsieh, Chyongere; Marko, Michael


    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) has emerged as perhaps the only practical technique for revealing nanometer-level three-dimensional structural details of subcellular macromolecular complexes in their native context, inside the cell. As currently practiced, the specimen should be 0.1-0.2 microns in thickness to achieve optimal resolution. Thus, application of cryo-ET to intact frozen (vitreous) tissues, such as skeletal muscle, requires that they be sectioned. Cryo-ultramicrotomy is notoriously difficult and artifact-prone when applied to frozen cells and tissue, but a new technique, focused ion beam milling (cryo-FIB), shows great promise for "thinning" frozen biological specimens. Here we describe our initial results in applying cryo-FIB and cryo-ET to triad junctions of skeletal muscle.

  20. Effects of focused ion beam milling on electron backscatter diffraction patterns in strontium titanate and stabilized zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Bowen, Jacob R.


    This study investigates the effect of focused ion beam (FIB) current and accelerating voltage on electron backscatter diffraction pattern quality of yttria‐stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and Nb‐doped strontium titanate (STN) to optimize data quality and acquisition time for 3D‐EBSD experiments by FIB...... serial sectioning. Band contrast and band slope were used to describe the pattern quality. The FIB probe currents investigated ranged from 100 to 5000 pA and the accelerating voltage was either 30 or 5 kV. The results show that 30 kV FIB milling induced a significant reduction of the pattern quality...... milling. For 3D‐EBSD experiments of a material such as STN, it is recommended to combine a high kV FIB milling and low kV polishing for each slice in order to optimize the data quality and acquisition time....

  1. In-situ ER-doped GaN optical storage devices using high-resolution focused ion beam milling (United States)

    Lee, Boon K.; Chi, Chih-Jen; Chyr, Irving; Lee, Dong-Seon; Beyette, Fred R.; Steckl, Andrew J.


    High-density GaN:Er optical storage devices were fabricated with focused ion beam (FIB) milling techniques. In-situ Er-doped GaN films (1 - 1.5 micrometers thick) were grown on Si substrates. To `write' a bit, the GaN:Er film was selectively milled with a 30-keV Ga+ FIB. Data retrieval is accomplished by upconversion emission at 535/556 nm upon 1-micrometers IR laser stimulation. Regions where the Er-doped GaN layer is completely removed (and do not emit) are defined as logic `0,' while regions that are not milled (and do emit) are defined as logic `1.' Data patterns with submicron bit size (or 100 Mb/cm2 density) have been fabricated by FIB milling. Data written by this approach has a theoretical storage capacity approaching 10 Gbits/cm2.

  2. The field emission properties of high aspect ratio diamond nanocone arrays fabricated by focused ion beam milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.L. Wang, Q. Wang, H.J. Li, J.J. Li, P. Xu, Q. Luo, A.Z. Jin, H.F. Yang and C.Z. Gu


    Full Text Available High aspect ratio diamond nanocone arrays are formed on freestanding diamond film by means of focused ion beam (FIB milling technology and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD method. The structure and phase purity of an individual diamond nanocone are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The result indicates that the diamond cones with high aspect ratio and small tip apex radius can be obtained by optimizing the parameters of FIB milling and diamond growth. The diamond nanocone arrays were also used to study the electron field emission properties and electric field shielding effect, finding high emission current density, low threshold and weak shielding effect, all attributable to the high field enhancement factor and suitable cone density of the diamond nanocone emitter

  3. Combined microfiber knot resonator and focused ion beam-milled Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractive index measurement (United States)

    Gomes, André D.; André, Ricardo M.; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Dellith, Jan; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Frazão, Orlando


    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was created from a cavity milled in the taper region next to a microfiber knot resonator. A focused ion beam was used to mill the cavity with 47.8 μm in length. The microfiber knot resonator was created from an 11 μm diameter taper, produced using a filament fusion splicer. After milling the cavity, the microfiber knot resonator spectrum is still visible. The final response of the presented sensor is a microfiber knot resonator spectrum modulated by the Mach-Zehnder interference spectrum. A preliminary result of -8935 ± 108 nm/RIU was obtained for the refractive index sensitivity of the cavity component in a refractive index range of n = 1.333 to 1.341. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature using this combined structure is a future goal.

  4. Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wang, Fei; Savenko, Alexey


    We introduce a highly compact fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor integrated with a fluid channel that is fabricated directly near the tip of a 32 μm in diameter single-mode fiber taper. The focused ion beam technique is used to efficiently mill the microcavity from the fiber side...... and finely polish the end facets of the cavity with a high spatial resolution. It is found that a fringe visibility of over 15 dB can be achieved and that the sensor has a sensitivity of ∼1731 nm/RIU (refractive index units) and a detection limit of ∼5.78 × 10−6 RIU. This miniature integrated all...

  5. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo


    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  6. Overview of recent experimental works on high energy neutron shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, T; Yashima, H; Yonai, S


    Several experiments on high energy neutron shielding have recently been performed using medium to high energy accelerators of energies above 20 MeV. Below 100 MeV, the benchmark experiments have been done using 25 and 35 MeV p-Li quasi-monoenergetic neutrons at the Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Japan, 43 and 68 MeV p-Li quasi-monoenergetic neutrons at the Azimuthally Varying Field (AVF) cyclotron facility, TIARA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Above 100 MeV, the neutron shielding experiments have been done using 800 MeV protons at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton laboratory (RAL), England, 400 MeV/nucleon carbon ions at the heavy ion medical accelerator facility, HIMAC of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan, 500 MeV protons at the spallation neutron source facility, KEK spallation neutron source facility (KENS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Japan, 500 MeV protons at the accelerator facility, TRIUMF, Canada, 1.6 to 24 G...

  7. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Angel M. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)


    For the period of sixteen years covered by this report (June 1, 1997 - July 31, 2013) the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Puerto Rico’s Mayaguez Campus (UPRM) carried out an extensive research program that included major experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Cornell Electron-positron Collider and CERN. In particular, these were E831 (FOCUS) at Fermilab, CLEOc at Cornell and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The group’s history is one of successful execution and growth. Beginning with one faculty researcher in 1985, it eventually included four faculty researchers, one post-doctoral research associate, two undergraduates and as many as six graduate students at one time working on one of the experiments that discovered the Higgs boson. Some of this expansion was due to the group’s leveraging of funds from the Department of Energy’s core grant to attract funds from National Science Foundation programs not targeted to high energy physics. Besides the group’s research productivity, its other major contribution was the training of a large number of MS students who later went on to successful technical careers in industry as well as academia including many who obtained PhD degrees at US universities. In an attempt to document this history, this final report gives a general description of the Group’s work prior to June 1, 2010, the starting date for the last grant renewal period. Much more detail can, of course, be found in the annual reports submitted up to that date. The work during the last grant period is discussed in detail in a separate section. To summarize the group’s scientific accomplishments, one can point to the results of the experiments. Both FOCUS and CLEOc were designed to carry out precise measurements of processes involving the heavy quarks, charm and bottom. Heavy quarks are particularly interesting because, due to their mass, theoretical calculations

  8. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blewett, J.P.


    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  9. High Energy Particles from the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, R A


    The field of high energy particle astronomy is exciting and rapidly developing. In the last few years, we have detected extragalactic sources of intense TeV gamma radiation and individual cosmic ray particles with energies exceeding 25 Joules. Understanding the workings of astrophysics under extreme conditions is the primary goal of this field. Also important is the possibility of using high energy particles from space to probe beyond the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. This paper presents a review of high energy particle astronomy using photons, cosmic rays, and neutrinos.

  10. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel


    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  11. Focused Ion Beam Implantation (United States)


    vernier structures in PMMA aligned to vernier structures previously fabricated on the sample in both the x and y axis. Some of this work is described in...length of the order of micrometers . Electrons at an energy of 50 keV were used, and a minimum As a variation from the ordinary single-gate MODFET, we

  12. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E


    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  13. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)


    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  14. High-energy tail distributions and resonant wave particle interaction (United States)

    Leubner, M. P.


    High-energy tail distributions (k distributions) are used as an alternative to a bi-Lorentzian distribution to study the influence of energetic protons on the right- and left-hand cyclotron modes in a hot two-temperature plasma. Although the parameters are chosen to be in a range appropriate to solar wind or magnetospheric configurations, the results apply not only to specific space plasmas. The presence of energetic particles significantly alters the behavior of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron modes, leading to a wide range of unstable frequencies and increased growth rates. From the strongly enhanced growth rates it can be concluded that high-energy tail distributions should not show major temperature anisotropies, which is consistent with observations.

  15. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)


    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  16. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.


    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  17. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.


    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community.

  18. 1570 nm High Energy Fiber Laser Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of...

  19. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  20. New developments in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, H.A.


    Some of the important developments in the field of high energy physics are reviewed. Starting from the status of knowledge of the structure of matter the details of experiments leading to the discovery of charmed particles and psi resonances are emphasized. Also some of the areas of activity of the Indiana University High Energy group are reviewed and related to the principal unsolved problems in the field. (JFP)

  1. Heavy Quark Production at High Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D


    We report on QCD radiative corrections to heavy quark production valid at high energy. The formulae presented will allow a matched calculation of the total cross section which is correct at $O(\\as^3)$ and includes resummation of all terms of order $\\as^3 [\\as \\ln (s/m^2)]^n$. We also include asymptotic estimates of the effect of the high energy resummation. A complete description of the calculation of the heavy quark impact factor is included in an appendix.

  2. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.


    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  3. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  4. Systematic Optimization of Battery Materials: Key Parameter Optimization for the Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Energy, and High Stability LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Shen, Yun; Yang, Yao; Shen, Luxi; Levin, Barnaby D A; Yu, Yingchao; Muller, David A; Abruña, Héctor D


    Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (x > 0.5) (NMC) materials have attracted a great deal of interest as promising cathode candidates for Li-ion batteries due to their low cost and high energy density. However, several issues, including sensitivity to moisture, difficulty in reproducibly preparing well-controlled morphology particles and, poor cyclability, have hindered their large scale deployment; especially for electric vehicle (EV) applications. In this work, we have developed a uniform, highly stable, high-energy density, Ni-rich LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathode material by systematically optimizing synthesis parameters, including pH, stirring rate, and calcination temperature. The particles exhibit a spherical morphology and uniform size distribution, with a well-defined structure and homogeneous transition-metal distribution, owing to the well-controlled synthesis parameters. The material exhibited superior electrochemical properties, when compared to a commercial sample, with an initial discharge capacity of 205 mAh/g at 0.1 C. It also exhibited a remarkable rate capability with discharge capacities of 157 mAh/g and 137 mAh/g at 10 and 20 C, respectively, as well as high tolerance to air and moisture. In order to demonstrate incorporation into a commercial scale EV, a large-scale 4.7 Ah LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Al-full pouch cell with a high cathode loading of 21.6 mg/cm2, paired with a graphite anode, was fabricated. It exhibited exceptional cyclability with a capacity retention of 96% after 500 cycles at room temperature. This material, which was obtained by a fully optimized scalable synthesis, delivered combined performance metrics that are among the best for NMC materials reported to date.

  5. Fabrication of reproducible sub-5 nm nanogaps by a focused ion beam and observation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hu; Wani, Ishtiaq H.; Hayat, Aqib; Leifer, Klaus, E-mail: [Appled Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Jafri, S. Hassan M. [Appled Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Electrical Engineering, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur, Azad Kashmir, 10250 (Pakistan)


    Creating a stable high resistance sub-5 nm nanogap in between conductive electrodes is one of the major challenges in the device fabrication of nano-objects. Gap-sizes of 20 nm and above can be fabricated reproducibly by the precise focusing of the ion beam and careful milling of the metallic lines. Here, by tuning ion dosages starting from 4.6 × 10{sup 10} ions/cm and above, reproducible nanogaps with sub-5 nm sizes are milled with focused ion beam. The resistance as a function of gap dimension shows an exponential behavior, and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect was observed in nanoelectrodes with sub-5 nm nanogaps. The application of Simmon's model to the milled nanogaps and the electrical analysis indicates that the minimum nanogap size approaches to 2.3 nm.

  6. Focused-ion-beam nano-structured rib channel waveguides in KY(WO4)2 for laser applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardillou, F.; Romanyuk, Y.E.; Pavius, M.; Borca, C.N.; Salathé, R.P.; Pollnau, Markus


    Bulk $KY(WO_4)_2$ (hereafter KYW) laser crystals doped with rare-earth ions are recognized to be among the most promising host materials for obtaining novel solid-state lasers. The rare-earth ions $RE^{3+}$ are easily incorporated in the KYW structure by replacing the $Y{3+}$ ions, resulting in a

  7. Dileptons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Thus a consistent description of ... nature, characterized by a rather structureless continuum with a strength governed by free. 675 ..... 8 has been taken from a PHENIX event generator [37] which is based on an extrapolation of N–N collisions ...

  8. Dileptons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 60; Issue 4. Dileptons in ... In particular, recent results of the CERN-SPS low-energy runs are compared to model predictions and interpreted. Prospects for ... Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800, USA ...

  9. Fabrication of nanometer structures by means of a fine-focused ion beam; Herstellung von Nanometer-Strukturen mittels feinfokussiertem Ionenstrahl (FIB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucke, S.


    Focused Ion Beams are an important approach for nanostructure fabrication in the semiconductor industry and material sciences. Applications in sputtering and ion induced deposition of materials are investigated. The IMSA FIB system equipped with the high resolution Orsay Physics CANION M31plus ion column with current densities up to 10 A/cm{sup 2} including a gas injection system is applied. In this work the ion beam induced chemical vapour deposition of tungsten, wherefore tungsten hexacarbonyl as precursor gas is used for a first investigation. Conductive tungsten-nanowires with smallest cross-section upon a substrate of Si and SiO{sub 2} are produced. The ion beam parameters of this focused ion beam system are optimized for the metal deposition. A short insight in the theory of layer nucleation and growth induced by the ion beam during the metal deposition is given. The layer quality is determined by Auger electron analysis which shows the components in atomic percent like 80% W, 5% O, 6% C and 9% Ga in optimum. The nanowire geometry is investigated by scanning electron microscopy, where the length of the wires is determined to 20.. 100 {mu}m, a width down to 150 nm and a thickness up to 600 nm. An electrical specific resistance in the range of 150.. 320 {mu}{omega}cm of the nanowires is demonstrated. (orig.)

  10. Relativistic Thermodynamics: Transverse Momentum Distributions in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cleymans, J.


    Transverse momentum distributions measured by the STAR and PHENIX collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and by the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider can be considered in the framework of relativistic thermodynamics using the Tsallis distribution. Theoretical issues are clarified concerning the thermodynamic consistency in the case of relativistic high energy quantum distributions. An improved form is proposed for describing the transverse momentum distribution and fits are presented together with estimates of the parameter q and the temperature T.

  11. Heavy Quark and Quarkonium Transport in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kai [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dai, Wei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, Nu [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhuang, Pengfei [Physics Department, Tsinghua University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)


    The strong interaction between heavy quarks and the quark gluon plasma makes the open and hidden charm hadrons be sensitive probes of the deconfinement phase transition in high energy nuclear collisions. Both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects change with the colliding energy and significantly influence the heavy quark and charmonium yield and their transverse momentum distributions. The ratio of averaged quarkonium transverse momentum square and the elliptic flow reveal the nature of the QCD medium created in heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  12. Practical workflow for cryo focused-ion-beam milling of tissues and cells for cryo-TEM tomography. (United States)

    Hsieh, Chyongere; Schmelzer, Thomas; Kishchenko, Gregory; Wagenknecht, Terence; Marko, Michael


    Vitreous freezing offers a way to study cells and tissue in a near-native state by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), which is important when structural information at the macromolecular level is required. Many cells - especially those in tissue - are too thick to study intact in the cryo-TEM. Cryo focused-ion-beam (cryo-FIB) milling is being used in a few laboratories to thin vitreously frozen specimens, thus avoiding the artifacts and difficulties of cryo-ultramicrotomy. However, the technique is challenging because of the need to avoid devitrification and frost accumulation during the entire process, from the initial step of freezing to the final step of loading the specimen into the cryo-TEM. We present a robust workflow that makes use of custom fixtures and devices that can be used for high-pressure-frozen bulk tissue samples as well as for samples frozen on TEM grids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimized cryo-focused ion beam sample preparation aimed at in situ structural studies of membrane proteins. (United States)

    Schaffer, Miroslava; Mahamid, Julia; Engel, Benjamin D; Laugks, Tim; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M


    While cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) can reveal biological structures in their native state within the cellular environment, it requires the production of high-quality frozen-hydrated sections that are thinner than 300nm. Sample requirements are even more stringent for the visualization of membrane-bound protein complexes within dense cellular regions. Focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a well-established technique in material science, but there are only few examples of biological samples exhibiting sufficient quality for high-resolution in situ investigation by cryo-ET. In this work, we present a comprehensive description of a cryo-sample preparation workflow incorporating additional conductive-coating procedures. These coating steps eliminate the adverse effects of sample charging on imaging with the Volta phase plate, allowing data acquisition with improved contrast. We discuss optimized FIB milling strategies adapted from material science and each critical step required to produce homogeneously thin, non-charging FIB lamellas that make large areas of unperturbed HeLa and Chlamydomonas cells accessible for cryo-ET at molecular resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  15. Ga + focused-ion-beam implantation-induced masking for H2 etching of ZnO films (United States)

    Fang, Hsin-Chiao; Huang, Jun-Han; Chu, Wen-Huei; Liu, Chuan-Pu


    Gallium implantation of ZnO by a focused-ion beam is used to create a mask for ZnO dry etching with hydrogen. Effects of Ga + fluence on the etch stop properties and the associated mechanisms are investigated. The fluence of 2.8 × 1016 cm - 2 is determined to be optimum to render the best mask quality. While lower fluences would cause less etching selectivity, higher fluences would cause erosion of the surface and particles to be precipitated on the surface after H2 treatment at high temperature. In contrast to the commonly adopted gallium oxide formation on Si, transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals that, for the fluences = 4.6 × 1016 cm - 2, the surface particles are responsible for the etch stop and are identified as ZnGa2O4. We finally demonstrate a complicated pattern of 'NCKU' on ZnO by using this technique. The study not only helps clarify the related mechanisms, but also suggests a feasible extension of the etch stop process that can be applied to more functional material.

  16. Focused-ion-beam overlay-patterning of three-dimensional diamond structures for advanced single-photon properties (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Liu, Dongqi; Liu, Gangqin; Chang, Yanchun; Li, Wuxia; Pan, Xinyu; Gu, Changzhi


    Sources of single photons are of fundamental importance in many applications as to provide quantum states for quantum communication and quantum information processing. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, even at room temperature. However, the efficiency of photon collection of the color centers in bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, diamond structuring has been investigated by various methods. Among them, focused-ion-beam (FIB) direct patterning has been recognized as the most favorable technique. But it has been noted that diamond tends to present significant challenges in FIB milling, e.g., the susceptibility of forming charging related artifacts and topographical features. In this work, periodically-positioned-rings and overlay patterning with stagger-superimposed-rings were proposed to alleviate some problems encountered in FIB milling of diamond, for improved surface morphology and shape control. Cross-scale network and uniform nanostructure arrays have been achieved in single crystalline diamond substrates. High quality diamond solid immersion lens and nanopillars were sculptured with a nitrogen-vacancy center buried at the desired position. Compared with the film counterpart, an enhancement of about ten folds in single photon collection efficiency was achieved with greatly improved signal to noise ratio. All these results indicate that FIB milling through over-lay patterning could be an effective approach to fabricate diamond structures, potentially for quantum information studies.

  17. Matrix-mediated biomineralization in marine mollusks: a combined transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam approach. (United States)

    Saunders, Martin; Kong, Charlie; Shaw, Jeremy A; Clode, Peta L


    The teeth of the marine mollusk Acanthopleura hirtosa are an excellent example of a complex, organic, matrix-mediated biomineral, with the fully mineralized teeth comprising layers of iron oxide and iron oxyhydroxide minerals around a calcium apatite core. To investigate the relationship between the various mineral layers and the organic matrix fibers on which they grew, sections have been prepared from specific features in the teeth at controlled orientations using focused ion beam processing. Compositional and microstructural details of heterophase interfaces, and the fate of the organic matrix fibers within the mineral layers, can then be analyzed by a range of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Energy-filtered TEM highlights the interlocking nature of the various mineral phases, while high-angle annular dark-field scanning TEM imaging demonstrates that the organic matrix continues to exist in the fully mineralized teeth. These new insights into the structure of this complex biomaterial are an important step in understanding the relationship between its structural and physical properties and may help explain its high strength and crack-resistance behavior.

  18. 3D Plant cell architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. (United States)

    Bhawana; Miller, Joyce L; Cahoon, A Bruce


    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. • Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. • Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. • The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  19. A Coordinated Focused Ion Beam/Ultramicrotomy Technique for Serial Sectioning of Hayabusa Particles and Other Returned Samples (United States)

    Berger, E. L.; Keller, L. P.


    Recent sample return missions, such as NASA's Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 and JAXA's Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa, have returned particulate samples (typically 5-50 µm) that pose tremendous challenges to coordinated analysis using a variety of nano- and micro-beam techniques. The ability to glean maximal information from individual particles has become increasingly important and depends critically on how the samples are prepared for analysis. This also holds true for other extraterrestrial materials, including interplanetary dust particles, micrometeorites and lunar regolith grains. Traditionally, particulate samples have been prepared using microtomy techniques (e.g., [1]). However, for hard mineral particles ?20 µm, microtome thin sections are compromised by severe chatter and sample loss. For these difficult samples, we have developed a hybrid technique that combines traditional ultramicrotomy with focused ion beam (FIB) techniques, allowing for the in situ investigation of grain surfaces and interiors. Using this method, we have increased the number of FIB-SEM prepared sections that can be recovered from a particle with dimensions on the order of tens of µms. These sections can be subsequently analyzed using a variety of electron beam techniques. Here, we demonstrate this sample preparation technique on individual lunar regolith grains in order to study their space-weathered surfaces. We plan to extend these efforts to analyses of individual Hayabusa samples.

  20. Controlling the optical fiber output beam profile by focused ion beam machining of a phase hologram on fiber tip. (United States)

    Han, Jiho; Sparkes, Martin; O'Neill, William


    A phase hologram was machined on an optical fiber tip using a focused ion beam (FIB) system so that a ring-shaped beam emerges from the fiber tip. The fiber used for this work was a commercial single-mode optical fiber patch cable for a design wavelength of 633 nm with a germanosilicate core. The ring-shaped beam was chosen to ensure a simple geometry in the required phase hologram, though the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm can be used to calculate a hologram for an arbitrary beam shape. The FIB machining took approximately 45 min at 30 kV and 200 pA. The radius of the resulting ring beam was 0.083 m at 1 m standoff, as compared to 0.1 m as was initially desired. Results suggest that this imaging technique may provide a basis for a beam-shaping method with several advantages over the current commercial solutions, having permanent alignment, compactness, and mechanical robustness. However, it would appear that minimizing the speckle pattern will remain a critical challenge for this technique to become widely implemented.

  1. Charging suppression in focused-ion beam fabrication of visible subwavelength dielectric grating reflector using electron conducting polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal


    Nanoscale periodic patterning on insulating materials using focused-ion beam (FIB) is challenging because of charging effect, which causes pattern distortion and resolution degradation. In this paper, the authors used a charging suppression scheme using electron conducting polymer for the implementation of FIB patterned dielectric subwavelength grating (SWG) reflector. Prior to the FIB patterning, the authors numerically designed the optimal structure and the fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters (period, grating thickness, fill-factor, and low refractive index layer thickness) using the rigorous-coupled wave analysis computation. Then, the authors performed the FIB patterning on the dielectric SWG reflector spin-coated with electron conducting polymer for the anticharging purpose. They also performed similar patterning using thin conductive film anticharging scheme (30 nm Cr coating) for comparison. Their results show that the electron conducting polymer anticharging scheme effectively suppressing the charging effect during the FIB patterning of dielectric SWG reflector. The fabricated grating exhibited nanoscale precision, high uniformity and contrast, constant patterning, and complied with fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters across the entire patterned area. Utilization of electron conducting polymer leads to a simpler anticharging scheme with high precision and uniformity for FIB patterning on insulator materials.

  2. Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses (United States)

    Malik, A. M.; Fox, O. J. L.; Alianelli, L.; Korsunsky, A. M.; Stevens, R.; Loader, I. M.; Wilson, M. C.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; May, P. W.


    Diamond is a highly desirable material for use in x-ray optics and instrumentation. However, due to its extreme hardness and resistance to chemical attack, diamond is difficult to form into a structure suitable for x-ray lenses. Refractive lenses are capable of delivering x-ray beams with nanoscale resolution. A moulding technique for the fabrication of diamond lenses is reported. High-quality silicon moulds were made using photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. The study of the etch process conducted to achieve silicon moulds with vertical sidewalls and minimal surface roughness is discussed. Issues experienced when attempting to deposit diamond into a high-aspect-ratio mould by chemical vapour deposition are highlighted. Two generations of lenses have been successfully fabricated using this transfer-moulding approach with significant improvement in the quality and performance of the optics observed in the second iteration. Testing of the diamond x-ray optics on the Diamond Light Source Ltd synchrotron B16 beamline has yielded a line focus of sub-micrometre width.

  3. High Energy Description of Processes with Multiple Hard Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jeppe R


    High Energy Jets (HEJ) is a new framework for approximating the all-order perturbative corrections to multi-jet processes, with a focus on the hard, wide-angle QCD emissions, which underpins the perturbative description of hard jets. In this contribution we review the basic concepts of HEJ, and present some new predictions for observables in dijet-production, and for W-boson production in association with at least 3 jets.

  4. High Energy Description of Processes with Multiple Hard Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jeppe R. [Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Smillie, Jennifer M. [Department of Physics, UCL, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)


    High Energy Jets (HEJ) is a new framework for approximating the all-order perturbative corrections to multi-jet processes, with a focus on the hard, wide-angle QCD emissions, which underpins the perturbative description of hard jets. In this contribution we review the basic concepts of HEJ, and present some new predictions for observables in dijet-production, and for W-boson production in association with at least 3 jets.

  5. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubic, Patrick L. [University of Oklahoma


    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest

  6. Study on Platinum Coating Depth in Focused Ion Beam Diamond Cutting Tool Milling and Methods for Removing Platinum Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Kirl Choi


    Full Text Available In recent years, nanomachining has attracted increasing attention in advanced manufacturing science and technologies as a value-added processes to control material structures, components, devices, and nanoscale systems. To make sub-micro patterns on these products, micro/nanoscale single-crystal diamond cutting tools are essential. Popular non-contact methods for the macro/micro processing of diamond composites are pulsed laser ablation (PLA and electric discharge machining (EDM. However, for manufacturing nanoscale diamond tools, these machining methods are not appropriate. Despite diamond’s extreme physical properties, diamond can be micro/nano machined relatively easily using a focused ion beam (FIB technique. In the FIB milling process, the surface properties of the diamond cutting tool is affected by the amorphous damage layer caused by the FIB gallium ion collision and implantation and these influence the diamond cutting tool edge sharpness and increase the processing procedures. To protect the diamond substrate, a protection layer—platinum (Pt coating is essential in diamond FIB milling. In this study, the depth of Pt coating layer which could decrease process-induced damage during FIB fabrication is investigated, along with methods for removing the Pt coating layer on diamond tools. The optimum Pt coating depth has been confirmed, which is very important for maintaining cutting tool edge sharpness and decreasing processing procedures. The ultra-precision grinding method and etching with aqua regia method have been investigated for removing the Pt coating layer. Experimental results show that when the diamond cutting tool width is bigger than 500 nm, ultra-precision grinding method is appropriate for removing Pt coating layer on diamond tool. However, the ultra-precision grinding method is not recommended for removing the Pt coating layer when the cutting tool width is smaller than 500 nm, because the possibility that the diamond

  7. Study on Platinum Coating Depth in Focused Ion Beam Diamond Cutting Tool Milling and Methods for Removing Platinum Layer. (United States)

    Choi, Woong Kirl; Baek, Seung Yub


    In recent years, nanomachining has attracted increasing attention in advanced manufacturing science and technologies as a value-added processes to control material structures, components, devices, and nanoscale systems. To make sub-micro patterns on these products, micro/nanoscale single-crystal diamond cutting tools are essential. Popular non-contact methods for the macro/micro processing of diamond composites are pulsed laser ablation (PLA) and electric discharge machining (EDM). However, for manufacturing nanoscale diamond tools, these machining methods are not appropriate. Despite diamond's extreme physical properties, diamond can be micro/nano machined relatively easily using a focused ion beam (FIB) technique. In the FIB milling process, the surface properties of the diamond cutting tool is affected by the amorphous damage layer caused by the FIB gallium ion collision and implantation and these influence the diamond cutting tool edge sharpness and increase the processing procedures. To protect the diamond substrate, a protection layer-platinum (Pt) coating is essential in diamond FIB milling. In this study, the depth of Pt coating layer which could decrease process-induced damage during FIB fabrication is investigated, along with methods for removing the Pt coating layer on diamond tools. The optimum Pt coating depth has been confirmed, which is very important for maintaining cutting tool edge sharpness and decreasing processing procedures. The ultra-precision grinding method and etching with aqua regia method have been investigated for removing the Pt coating layer. Experimental results show that when the diamond cutting tool width is bigger than 500 nm, ultra-precision grinding method is appropriate for removing Pt coating layer on diamond tool. However, the ultra-precision grinding method is not recommended for removing the Pt coating layer when the cutting tool width is smaller than 500 nm, because the possibility that the diamond cutting tool is damaged

  8. 6th International Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes of High-Energy Nuclear Collisions

    CERN Document Server


    One of the premier meetings in the field of high-energy nuclear physics, the Hard Probes conference series brings together the experimental and theoretical communities interested in the hard and electromagnetic observables related to nuclear matter at extreme temperatures and densities. Prior to the conference, the University of Cape Town will host a summer school for young physicists in the field. High energy nuclear physics focuses on the science of a trillion degrees. These temperatures were last seen in nature a microsecond after the Big Bang, but mankind recreates them thousands of times a second in particle accelerators such as CERN's Large Hadron Collider and BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. At these temperatures, 100,000 times hotter than the center of the sun, the strong force is dominant, and we hope to learn about the fundamental and non-trivial emergent many-body dynamics of the quarks and gluons that make up 99% of the mass of the visible universe. We anticipate the usual format for the H...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The fundamental questions about QCD which can be directly answered at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) call for large integrated luminosities. The major goal of RHIC-I1 upgrade is to achieve a 10 fold increase in luminosity of Au ions at the top energy of 100 GeV/nucleon. Such a boost in luminosity for RHIC-II is achievable with implementation of high-energy electron cooling. The design of the higher-energy cooler for RHIC-II recently adopted a non-magnetized approach which requires a low temperature electron beam. Such electron beams will be produced with a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Detailed simulations of the electron cooling process and numerical simulations of the electron beam transport including the cooling section were performed. An intensive R&D of various elements of the design is presently underway. Here, we summarize progress in these electron cooling efforts.

  10. High energy particles and quanta in astrophysics (United States)

    Mcdonald, F. B. (Editor); Fichtel, C. E.


    The various subdisciplines of high-energy astrophysics are surveyed in a series of articles which attempt to give an overall view of the subject as a whole by emphasizing the basic physics common to all fields in which high-energy particles and quanta play a role. Successive chapters cover cosmic ray experimental observations, the abundances of nuclei in the cosmic radiation, cosmic electrons, solar modulation, solar particles (observation, relationship to the sun acceleration, interplanetary medium), radio astronomy, galactic X-ray sources, the cosmic X-ray background, and gamma ray astronomy. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  11. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer


    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...... it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss...

  12. High Energy Collisions on Tandem Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers (United States)

    Cotter, Robert J.


    Long before the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), Orbitraps, and any of the other tools that are now used ubiquitously for proteomics and metabolomics, the highest performance mass spectrometers were sector instruments, providing high resolution mass measurements by combining an electrostatic energy analyzer (E) with a high field magnet (B). In its heyday, the four sector mass spectrometer (or EBEB) was the crown jewel, providing the highest performance tandem mass spectrometry using single, high energy collisions to induce fragmentation. During a time in which quadrupole and tandem triple quadrupole instruments were also enjoying increased usage and popularity, there were, nonetheless, some clear advantages for sectors over their low collision energy counterparts. Time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers are high voltage, high vacuum instruments that have much in common with sectors and have inspired the development of tandem instruments exploiting single high energy collisions. In this retrospective, we recount our own journey to produce high performance TOFs and tandem TOFs, describing the basic theory, problems, and the advantages for such instruments. An experiment testing impulse collision theory (ICT) underscores the similarities with sector mass spectrometers where this concept was first developed. Applications provide examples of more extensive fragmentation, side chain cleavages, and charge-remote fragmentation, also characteristic of high energy sector mass spectrometers. Moreover, the so-called curved-field reflectron has enabled the design of instruments that are simpler, collect and focus all of the ions, and may provide the future technology for the clinic, for tissue imaging, and the characterization of microorganisms.

  13. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T; Colgate, S; Li, H


    Turbulence-driven plasma accelerators produced by magnetized accretion disks around black holes are proposed as the mechanism mainly responsible for observed cosmic ray protons with ultra high energies 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} eV. The magnetized disk produces a voltage comparable to these cosmic ray energies. Here we present a Poynting model in which this voltage provides all of the energy to create the jet-like structures observed to be ejected from accretion disks, and this voltage also accelerates ions to high energies at the top of the expanding structure. Since the inductive electric field E = -v x B driving expansion has no component parallel to the magnetic field B, ion acceleration requires plasma wave generation - either a coherent wave accelerator as recently proposed, or instability-driven turbulence. We find that turbulence can tap the full inductive voltage as a quasi-steady accelerator, and even higher energies are produced by transient events on this structure. We find that both MHD modes due to the current and ion diffusion due to kinetic instability caused by the non-Maxwellian ion distribution contribute to acceleration. We apply our results to extragalactic giant radiolobes, whose synchrotron emissions serve to calibrate the model, and we discuss extrapolating to other astrophysical structures. Approximate calculations of the cosmic ray intensity and energy spectrum are in rough agreement with data and serve to motivate more extensive MHD and kinetic simulations of turbulence that could provide more accurate cosmic ray and synchrotron spectra to be compared with observations. A distinctive difference from previous models is that the cosmic ray and synchrotron emissions arise from different parts of the magnetic structure, thus providing a signature for the model.

  14. Revealing the Cell-Material Interface with Nanometer Resolution by Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy. (United States)

    Santoro, Francesca; Zhao, Wenting; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Duan, Liting; Schnitker, Jan; van de Burgt, Yoeri; Lou, Hsin-Ya; Liu, Bofei; Salleo, Alberto; Cui, Lifeng; Cui, Yi; Cui, Bianxiao


    The interface between cells and nonbiological surfaces regulates cell attachment, chronic tissue responses, and ultimately the success of medical implants or biosensors. Clinical and laboratory studies show that topological features of the surface profoundly influence cellular responses; for example, titanium surfaces with nano- and microtopographical structures enhance osteoblast attachment and host-implant integration as compared to a smooth surface. To understand how cells and tissues respond to different topographical features, it is of critical importance to directly visualize the cell-material interface at the relevant nanometer length scale. Here, we present a method for in situ examination of the cell-to-material interface at any desired location, based on focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy imaging to resolve the cell membrane-to-material interface with 10 nm resolution. By examining how cell membranes interact with topographical features such as nanoscale protrusions or invaginations, we discovered that the cell membrane readily deforms inward and wraps around protruding structures, but hardly deforms outward to contour invaginating structures. This asymmetric membrane response (inward vs outward deformation) causes the cleft width between the cell membrane and the nanostructure surface to vary by more than an order of magnitude. Our results suggest that surface topology is a crucial consideration for the development of medical implants or biosensors whose performances are strongly influenced by the cell-to-material interface. We anticipate that the method can be used to explore the direct interaction of cells/tissue with medical devices such as metal implants in the future.

  15. Multidimensional characterisation of biomechanical structures by combining Atomic Force Microscopy and Focused Ion Beam: A study of the rat whisker. (United States)

    Adineh, Vahid Reza; Liu, Boyin; Rajan, Ramesh; Yan, Wenyi; Fu, Jing


    Understanding the heterogeneity of biological structures, particularly at the micro/nano scale can offer insights valuable for multidisciplinary research in tissue engineering and biomimicry designs. Here we propose to combine nanocharacterisation tools, particularly Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for three dimensional mapping of mechanical modulus and chemical signatures. The prototype platform is applied to image and investigate the fundamental mechanics of the rat face whiskers, a high-acuity sensor used to gain detailed information about the world. Grazing angle FIB milling was first applied to expose the interior cross section of the rat whisker sample, followed by a "lift-out" method to retrieve and position the target sample for further analyses. AFM force spectroscopy measurements revealed a non-uniform pattern of elastic modulus across the cross section, with a range from 0.8GPa to 13.5GPa. The highest elastic modulus was found at the outer cuticle region of the whisker, and values gradually decreased towards the interior cortex and medulla regions. Elemental mapping with EDS confirmed that the interior of the rat whisker is dominated by C, O, N, S, Cl and K, with a significant change of elemental distribution close to the exterior cuticle region. Based on these data, a novel comprehensive three dimensional (3D) elastic modulus model was constructed, and stress distributions under realistic conditions were investigated with Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The simulations could well account for the passive whisker deflections, with calculated resonant frequency as well as force-deflection for the whiskers being in good agreement with reported experimental data. Limitations and further applications are discussed for the proposed FIB/AFM approach, which holds good promise as a unique platform to gain insights on various heterogeneous biomaterials and biomechanical systems. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier

  16. Fabricating high-energy quantum dots in ultra-thin LiFePO4 nanosheets using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule-ATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.D.; Bi, Z.Y.; He, W.


    By using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule—adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—we fabricated highenergy quantum dots (HEQDs) with a feature size of less than 10 nm and used them in high-power lithium-ion batteries. We introduced high-energy phosphate bonds into the crystal structure of LiFePO4 n...... coating network structures. This work is instructive for fabrication and design of new types of electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices with extraordinary properties and functions.......By using a multifunctional high-energy biomolecule—adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—we fabricated highenergy quantum dots (HEQDs) with a feature size of less than 10 nm and used them in high-power lithium-ion batteries. We introduced high-energy phosphate bonds into the crystal structure of LiFePO4...... nanowire network structure was coated on the surface of the nanosheet. In LiFePO4 nanoparticles, HEQDs result in more storage sites of Li+ ions and easier transfer kinetics of electrons and lithium ions, where the kinetic transformation path between LiFePO4 and FePO4 is rather different from the path...

  17. Dopant profiling of focused ion beam milled semiconductors using off-axis electron holography; reducing artifacts, extending detection limits and reducing the effects of gallium implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Ailliot, Cyril; Barnes, Jean-Paul


    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is one of the few specimen preparation techniques that can be used to prepare parallel-sided specimens with nm-scale site specificity for examination using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, FIB milling results in th...

  18. Focused ion beam scan routine, dwell time and dose optimization for submicrometre period planar photonic crystal components and stamps in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, W.C.L.; Ay, F.; Hu, Wenbin; Gadgil, V.J.; Kuipers, L.; Pollnau, Markus; de Ridder, R.M.


    Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is receiving increasing attention for nanostructuring in silicon (Si). These structures can for example be used for photonic crystal structures in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) configuration or for moulds which can have various applications in combination with imprint

  19. High-Energy Physics: Exit America?

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, Charles


    Budget cuts and cancellations threaten to end U.S. exploration of the particle frontier. Fermilab's Tevatron, due to shut down around 200, could be the last large particle accelerator in the United States; the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva should ensure European dominance of high-energy physics (3 pages)

  20. Hard scattering in high-energy QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L


    I review the recent results in the field of QCD at high energy presented to this Conference. In particular, I will concentrate on measurements of $\\as$ from studies of event structures and jet rates, jet production in hadronic collisions, and heavy quark production.

  1. Detecting ultra high energy neutrinos with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, M.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Horandel, J.; James, C. W.; McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; ter Veen, S.


    The NuMoon project aims to detect signals of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Cosmic Rays with radio telescopes on Earth using the Lunar Cherenkov technique at low frequencies (similar to 150 MHz). The advantage of using low frequencies is the much larger effective detecting volume, with as trade-off the

  2. The interaction region of high energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I.M.


    The spatial view of the interaction region of colliding high energy protons (in terms of impact parameter) is considered. It is shown that the region of inelastic collisions has a very peculiar shape. It saturates for central collisions at an energy of 7 TeV. We speculate on the further evolution with energy, which is contrasted to the "black disk" picture.

  3. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervera-Lierta, Alba; Latorre, José I.; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca


    We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i) $s$-channel processes

  4. Measurement of ion beam angular distribution at different helium gas pressures in a plasma focus device by large-area polycarbonate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M.; Habibi, M., E-mail:; Ramezani, V. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Energy Engineering and Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The paper presents an experimental study and analysis of full helium ion density angular distributions in a 4-kJ plasma focus device (PFD) at pressures of 10, 15, 25, and 30 mbar using large-area polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs) (15-cm etchable diameter) processed by 50-Hz-HV electrochemical etching (ECE). Helium ion track distributions at different pressures, in particular, at the main axis of the PFD are presented. Maximum ion track density of ~4.4 × 10{sup 4} tracks/cm{sup 2} was obtained in the PCTD placed 6 cm from the anode. The ion distributions for all pressures applied are ring-shaped, which is possibly due to the hollow cylindrical copper anode used. The large-area PCTD processed by ECE proves, at the present state-of-theart, a superior method for direct observation and analysis of ion distributions at a glance with minimum efforts and time. Some observations of the ion density distributions at different pressures are reported and discussed.

  5. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Karen Salomé Caballero


    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray, gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (up to $10^{20}$ eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  6. High energy electron-positron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed


    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e+e- physics has come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way most useful to any high energy physicists, in particular to newcomers in the e+e- field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of

  7. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  8. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  9. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles (United States)

    Salomé Caballero Mora, Karen


    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray (CR), gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (UHECR ∼ 1020 eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  10. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.


    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  11. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park


    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  12. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli


    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  13. High energy bosons do not propagate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkov, M.A., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Lizzi, Fedele, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Departament de Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Institut de Ciéncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Vassilevich, Dmitri, E-mail: [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, S.P. (Brazil)


    We discuss the propagation of bosons (scalars, gauge fields and gravitons) at high energy in the context of the spectral action. Using heat kernel techniques, we find that in the high-momentum limit the quadratic part of the action does not contain positive powers of the derivatives. We interpret this as the fact that the two-point Green functions vanish for nearby points, where the proximity scale is given by the inverse of the cutoff.

  14. New 2-stage ion microprobes and a move to higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legge, G.J.F.; Dymnikov, A.; Moloney, G.; Saint, A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Cohen, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)


    Recent moves in Ion Beam Microanalysis towards the use of a rapidly growing number of very high resolution, low current and single ion techniques has led to the need for high demagnification and greatly improved beam quality. There is also a move to apply Microbeams at higher energies and with heavier ions. This also puts demands on the focusing system and beam control. This paper describes the recent development of 2-stage lens systems to be applied here and overseas, both at very high resolution and at high energies with heavy ions. It looks at new ion beam analysis applications of such ion microprobes. 8 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  15. High Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.


    Emission at X-ray and gamma-ray energies has been detected from millisecond pulsars, both isolated and in binary systems. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, so that high-energy emission from these sources is not unexpected. In fact, several nearby energetic millisecond pulsars that have been detected in X-rays could easily have been detected in gamma-rays by EGRET, but they were not. The reason for this may lie in a high-energy spectrum that is very different in these sources from that of normal pulsars. Both polar cap and outer gap models predict a two-component spectrum, one component peaking in hard X-rays and the other peaking above 1 GeV, with a gap at EGRET peak sensitivity. I will discuss the models for high-energy emission from millisecond pulsars, highlighting the differences between polar cap and outer gap models in spectrum and geometry of the emission.

  16. Current Perspectives in High Energy Astrophysics (United States)

    Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)


    High energy astrophysics is a space-age discipline that has taken a quantum leap forward in the 1990s. The observables are photons and particles that are unable to penetrate the atmosphere and can only be observed from space or very high altitude balloons. The lectures presented as chapters of this book are based on the results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) missions to which the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center made significant hardware contributions. These missions study emissions from very hot plasmas, nuclear processes, and high energy particle interactions in space. Results to be discussed include gamma-ray beaming from active galactic nuclei (AGN), gamma-ray emission from pulsars, radioactive elements in the interstellar medium, X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, and the progress being made to unravel the gamma-ray burst mystery. The recently launched X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and prospects for upcoming Astro-E and Advanced X-ray Astronomy Satellite (AXAF) missions are also discussed.

  17. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics (United States)

    Rutjes, Casper; Sarria, David; Broberg Skeltved, Alexander; Luque, Alejandro; Diniz, Gabriel; Østgaard, Nikolai; Ebert, Ute


    The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  18. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rutjes


    Full Text Available The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron–positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  19. The plasma wake of mesosonic conducting bodies. I - An experimental parametric study of ion focusing by the plasma sheath (United States)

    Stone, N. H.


    The experimental investigation considered is concerned with the deflection of ion streams resulting from the interaction of conducting test bodies with an unmagnetized, mesosonic (supersonic with respect to ions but subsonic with respect to electrons) plasma stream. The investigation is, therefore, limited to plasma-electrostatic interactions. The experimental conditions are similar to those of the spacecraft-ionospheric interaction in that the ionic mass and number density, the electron temperature, and the plasma drift velocity ranges include values appropriate for small satellites or diagnostic probes at 200 to 400 km altitude. The study provides direct observations of deflected ion streams for cylindrical test bodies and gives a detailed description of the effects of the governing, dimensionless parameter ratios obtained from the steady-state, nonmagnetic Maxwell-Vlasov system of equations.

  20. Emittance preservation in plasma-based accelerators with ion motion (United States)

    Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric E.; Leemans, Wim


    In a plasma-accelerator-based linear collider, the density of matched, low-emittance, high-energy particle bunches required for collider applications can be orders of magnitude above the background ion density, leading to ion motion, nonlinear focusing fields, and, hence, to beam emittance growth. By analyzing the response of the background ions to an ultra-high density beam, analytical expressions, valid for nonrelativistic ion motion, are derived for the transverse wakefield and for the final (i.e., after saturation) bunch emittance. Analytical results are validated against numerical modeling. A class of initial beam distributions are derived that are equilibrium solutions, which require head-to-tail bunch shaping, enabling emittance preservation with ion motion. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, of the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  1. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Tsukuba U.


    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower....

  2. Semiconductor Detector Developments for High Energy Space Astronomy


    Meuris, Aline


    The rise of high energy astrophysics and solar physics in the 20th century is linked to the development of space telescopes; since the 1960s they have given access to the X-ray and gamma-ray sky, revealing the most violent phenomena in the Universe. Research and developments in imaging concepts and sensing materials haven't stopped since yet to improve the sensitivity of the X-ray and gamma-ray observatories. The paper proposes an overview of instrument realizations and focuses on the innovat...

  3. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal


    The high optical gain and absorption of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  4. Enhanced Etching, Surface Damage Recovery, and Submicron Patterning of Hybrid Perovskites using a Chemically Gas-Assisted Focused-Ion Beam for Subwavelength Grating Photonic Applications. (United States)

    Alias, Mohd S; Yang, Yang; Ng, Tien K; Dursun, Ibrahim; Shi, Dong; Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Priante, Davide; Bakr, Osman M; Ooi, Boon S


    The high optical gain and absorption of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted attention for photonic device applications. However, owing to the sensitivity of organic moieties to solvents and temperature, device processing is challenging, particularly for patterning. Here, we report the direct patterning of perovskites using chemically gas-assisted focused-ion beam (GAFIB) etching with XeF2 and I2 precursors. We demonstrate etching enhancement in addition to controllability and marginal surface damage compared to focused-ion beam (FIB) etching without precursors. Utilizing the GAFIB etching, we fabricated a uniform and periodic submicron perovskite subwavelength grating (SWG) absorber with broadband absorption and nanoscale precision. Our results demonstrate the use of FIB as a submicron patterning tool and a means of providing surface treatment (after FIB patterning to minimize optical loss) for perovskite photonic nanostructures. The SWG absorber can be patterned on perovskite solar cells to enhance the device efficiency through increasing light trapping and absorption.

  5. Essential oils and metal ions as alternative antimicrobial agents: a focus on tea tree oil and silver. (United States)

    Low, Wan-Li; Kenward, Ken; Britland, Stephen T; Amin, Mohd Cim; Martin, Claire


    The increasing occurrence of hospital-acquired infections and the emerging problems posed by antibiotic-resistant microbial strains have both contributed to the escalating cost of treatment. The presence of infection at the wound site can potentially stall the healing process at the inflammatory stage, leading to the development of a chronic wound. Traditional wound treatment regimes can no longer cope with the complications posed by antibiotic-resistant strains; hence, there is a need to explore the use of alternative antimicrobial agents. Pre-antibiotic compounds, including heavy metal ions and essential oils, have been re-investigated for their potential use as effective antimicrobial agents. Essential oils have potent antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and other beneficial therapeutic properties. Similarly, heavy metal ions have also been used as disinfecting agents because of their broad spectrum activities. Both of these alternative antimicrobials interact with many different intracellular components, thereby resulting in the disruption of vital cell functions and eventually cell death. This review will discuss the application of essential oils and heavy metal ions, particularly tea tree oil and silver ions, as alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of chronic, infected wounds. © 2016 Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Recent Progress in Advanced Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries


    Jiajun Chen


    The development and commercialization of lithium ion batteries is rooted in material discovery. Promising new materials with high energy density are required for achieving the goal toward alternative forms of transportation. Over the past decade, significant progress and effort has been made in developing the new generation of Li-ion battery materials. In the review, I will focus on the recent advance of tin- and silicon-based anode materials. Additionally, new polyoxyanion cathodes, such as ...

  7. XXI and XXII SERC Main School in Theoretical High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sivakumar, M; Surveys in theoretical high energy physics 2 : lecture notes from SERC Schools


    The book presents pedagogical reviews of important topics on high energy physics to the students and researchers in particle physics. The book also discusses topics on the Quark–Gluon plasma, thermal field theory, perturbative quantum chromodynamics, anomalies and cosmology. Students of particle physics need to be well-equipped with basic understanding of many concepts underlying the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. This is particularly true today when experimental results from colliders, such as large hadron collider (LHC) and relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), as well as inferences from cosmological observations, are expected to further expand our understanding of particle physics at high energies. This volume is the second in the Surveys in Theoretical High Energy Physics Series (SThEP). Topics covered in this book are based on lectures delivered at the SERC Schools in Theoretical High Energy Physics at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, and the University of Hyderabad.

  8. 16th Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics

    CERN Document Server


    The Workshop will cover a wide range of spin phenomena at high and intermediate energies such as: recent experimental data on spin physics the nucleon spin structure and GPD's spin physics and QCD spin physics in the Standard Model and beyond T-odd spin effects polarization and heavy ion physics spin in gravity and astrophysics the future spin physics facilities spin physics at NICA polarimeters for high energy polarized beams acceleration and storage of polarized beams the new polarization technology related subjects The Workshop will be held in the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia. The program of the workshop will include plenary and parallel (if necessary) sessions. Plenary sessions will be held in the Conference Hall. Parallel sections will take place in the same building. There will be invited talks (up to 40 min) and original reports (20 min). The invited speakers will present new experimental and theoretical re...

  9. Grid Computing in High Energy Physics (United States)

    Avery, Paul


    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software resources, regardless of location); (4) collaboration (providing tools that allow members full and fair access to all collaboration resources and enable distributed teams to work effectively, irrespective of location); and (5) education, training and outreach (providing resources and mechanisms for training students and for communicating important information to the public). It is believed that computing infrastructures based on Data Grids and optical networks can meet these challenges and can offer data intensive enterprises in high energy physics and elsewhere a comprehensive, scalable framework for collaboration and resource sharing. A number of Data Grid projects have been underway since 1999. Interestingly, the most exciting and far ranging of these projects are led by collaborations of high energy physicists, computer scientists and scientists from other disciplines in support of experiments with massive, near-term data needs. I review progress in this


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona


    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  11. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mount, Richard; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gülzow, Volker; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitri; Diaconu, Cristinel; South, David; Lobodzinski, Bogdan; Olsson, Jan; Haas, Tobias; Wrona, Krzysztof; Szuba, Janusz; Schnell, Gunar; Sasaki, Takashi; Katayama, Nobu; Hernandez, Fabio; Mele, Salvatore; Holzner, Andre; Hemmer, Frederic; Schroeder, Matthias; Barring, Olof; Brun, Rene; Maggi, Marcello; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Van Wezel, Jos; Heiss, Andreas; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yifang; Asner, David; Riley, Daniel; Corney, David; Gordon, John


    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group.

  12. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.


    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  13. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat


    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  14. Reclustering of high energy physics data

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, M


    The coming high energy physics experiments will store Petabytes of data into object databases. Analysis jobs will frequently traverse collections containing millions of stored objects. Clustering is one of the most effective means $9 to enhance the performance of these applications. The paper presents a reclustering algorithm for independent objects contained in multiple possibly overlapping collections on secondary storage. The algorithm decomposes the stored $9 objects into a number of independent chunks and then maps these chunks to a traveling salesman problem. Under a set of realistic assumptions, the number of disk seeks is reduced almost to the theoretical minimum. Experimental results $9 obtained from a prototype are included. (17 refs).

  15. Photomask specifications for high energy physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pindo, M


    Planar technologies used for radiation detector fabrication imply an extensive use of photomasks whose characteristics are critical in determining final detector performance. Compatibly with their manufacturing process, photomasks must satisfy the application-specific requirements dictated both by wafer manufacturers and detector final users. The design and realization of microstrip and pixel detectors, widely used in high energy physics experiments, ask for intensive scientific effort, advanced technology and important economical investments. Photomask specification definition is one of the fundamental steps to optimize detector fabrication processes and fulfill experimental requirements at the most appropriate cost.

  16. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M


    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  17. Photons as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashev, O E; Semikoz, D V; Tkachev, Igor I


    We study spectra of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays assuming primaries are protons and photons, and that their sources are extragalactic. We assume power low for the injection spectra and take into account the influence of cosmic microwave, infrared, optical and radio backgrounds as well as extragalactic magnetic fields on propagation of primaries. Our additional free parameters are the maximum energy of injected particles and the distance to the nearest source. We find a parameter range where the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off is avoided.

  18. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto


    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  19. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.


    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  20. Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.


    This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.