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Sample records for high-energy density primary

  1. High-Power-Density, High-Energy-Density Fluorinated Graphene for Primary Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiming Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Li/CFx is one of the highest-energy-density primary batteries; however, poor rate capability hinders its practical applications in high-power devices. Here we report a preparation of fluorinated graphene (GFx with superior performance through a direct gas fluorination method. We find that the so-called “semi-ionic” C-F bond content in all C-F bonds presents a more critical impact on rate performance of the GFx in comparison with sp2 C content in the GFx, morphology, structure, and specific surface area of the materials. The rate capability remains excellent before the semi-ionic C-F bond proportion in the GFx decreases. Thus, by optimizing semi-ionic C-F content in our GFx, we obtain the optimal x of 0.8, with which the GF0.8 exhibits a very high energy density of 1,073 Wh kg−1 and an excellent power density of 21,460 W kg−1 at a high current density of 10 A g−1. More importantly, our approach opens a new avenue to obtain fluorinated carbon with high energy densities without compromising high power densities.

  2. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  3. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki

    2005-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Lithium Sulfur Primary Battery with Super High Energy Density: Based on the Cauliflower-like Structured C/S Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Hongzhang; Wu, Baoshan; Wang, Meiri; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-10-01

    The lithium-sulfur primary batteries, as seldom reported in the previous literatures, were developed in this work. In order to maximize its practical energy density, a novel cauliflower-like hierarchical porous C/S cathode was designed, for facilitating the lithium-ions transport and sulfur accommodation. This kind of cathode could release about 1300 mAh g-1 (S) capacity at sulfur loading of 6 ~ 14 mg cm-2, and showed excellent shelf stability during a month test at room temperature. As a result, the assembled Li-S soft package battery achieved an energy density of 504 Wh kg-1 (654 Wh L-1), which was the highest value ever reported to the best of our knowledge. This work might arouse the interests on developing primary Li-S batteries, with great potential for practical application.

  5. States of high energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.

    1988-02-01

    The transverse energy, E/sub tau/ spectra for O 16 and S 32 incident for various elements at 200 GeVnucleon are shown. The target and projectile dependencies of the data are discussed. The energy density achieved is estimated. For O 16 on Tungsten the multiplicity spectrum is also presented as well as the pseudorapidity spectra as a function of the transverse energy. The multiplicity cross section dσdN as measured in the backward hemisphere (0.9 < /eta/ < 2.9/ is found to be very similar in shape to the transverse energy distribution dσdE/tau/ reflecting the particular geometry of nucleus nucleus nucleus collisions. The dependence on the atomic mass of the target, A/sub tau/ and projectile A/sub p/ is not what one would expect from naive considerations

  6. High Energy Density Polymer Film Capacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boufelfel, Ali

    2006-01-01

    High-energy-density capacitors that are compact and light-weight are extremely valuable in a number of critical DoD systems that include portable field equipment, pulsed lasers, detection equipment...

  7. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous owing to its low cost, high energy density and, power density. Due to these advantages, LIBs have garnered a lot of attention as the primary energy storage devices in consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Recent advances in the consumer electronics research and, the drive to reduce greenhouse gases have created a demand for a shape conformable, high energy density batteries. This thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of LIBs: (a) shape conformability (b) energy density and provides potential solutions to enhance them. This thesis is divided into two parts viz. (i) achieving foldability in batteries and, (ii) improving its energy density. Conventional LIBs are not shape conformable due to two limitations viz. inelasticity of metallic foils, and delamination of the active materials while bending. In the first part of the thesis (in Chapter 3), this problem is solved by replacing metallic current collector with Carbon Nanotube Macrofilms (CNMs). CNMs are superelastic films comprising of porous interconnected nanotube network. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation, we found that in the presence of an interconnected nanotube network CNMs can be fully folded. This is because the resultant stress due to bending and, the effective bending angle at the interface is reduced due to the network of nanotubes. Hence, unlike an isolated nanotube (which ruptures beyond 120 degrees of bending), a network of nanotubes can be completely folded. Thus, by replacing metallic current collector foils with CNMs, the flexibility limitation of a conventional LIB can be transcended. The second part of this thesis focusses on enhancing the energy density of LIBs. Two strategies adopted to achieve this goal are (a) removing the dead weight of the batteries, and (b) incorporating high energy density electrode materials. By incorporating CNMs, the weight of the batteries was reduced by 5-10 times due to low mass loading of

  8. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  9. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  10. AMODS and High Energy Density Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Y.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the Lab for Quantum Optics (LFQO) in KAERI, which has been devoted to the research on atomic spectroscopy for more than 20 years with precision measurement of atomic parameters such as isotope shift, hyperfine structures, autoionization levels and so on as well as with theoretical analysis of atomic systems by developing relativistic calculation methodologies for laser propagation and population dynamics, electron impact ionization, radiative transitions of high Z materials, etc for the application to isotope separation, the AMODS (Atomic Molecular and Optical Database Systems) which was established in 1997 and has been a member of International Data Center Network of IAEA since then is explained by giving an information on the data sources and internal structure of the compilation of AMODS. Since AMODS was explained in detail during last DCN meeting, just a brief introduction is given this time. Then more specific research themes carried out in LFQO in conjunction with A+M data are discussed, including (1) electron impact ionization processes of W, Mo, Be, C, etc, (2) spectra of highly charged ions of W, Xe, and Si, (3) dielectronic recombination process of Fe ion. Also given are the talk about research activities about the simulations of high energy density experiments such as those performed at (1) GEKKO laser facility (Japan) for X-ray photoionization of low temperature Si plasma, which can explain the unsolved arguments on the X-ray spectra of black holes and/or neutron stars, (2) VULCAN laser facility (UK) for two dimensional compression of cylindrical target and investigation of hot electron transport in the compressed target plasma to understand the fast ignition process of laser fusion, (3) LULI laser facility (France) and TITAN laser facility (USA) for one dimensional compression of aluminum targets with different laser energies, and (4) PALS facility (Czech Republic) for 'Laser Induced Cavity Pressure Acceleration' to

  11. High Energy Density Dielectrics for Pulsed Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Richard L; Bray, Kevin R

    2008-01-01

    This report was developed under a SBIR contract. Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) capacitors exhibit several promising characteristics for high energy density capacitor applications in extreme environments...

  12. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  13. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shozo

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  14. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  15. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  16. The creation of high energy densities with antimatter beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kruk, J.W.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX

    1989-01-01

    The use of antiprotons (and antideuterons) for the study of the behavior of nuclear matter at high energy density is considered. It is shown that high temperatures and high energy densities can be achieved for small volumes. Also investigated is the strangeness production in antimatter annihilation. It is found that the high rate of Lambda production seen in a recent experiment is easily understood. The Lambda and K-short rapidity distributions are also reproduced by the model considered. 11 refs., 6 figs

  17. Research on high energy density plasmas and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Recently, technologies on lasers, accelerators, and pulse power machines have been significantly advanced and input power density covers the intensity range from 10 10 W/cm 2 to higher than 10 20 W/cm 2 . As the results, high pressure gas and solid targets can be heated up to very high temperature to create hot dense plasmas which have never appeared on the earth. The high energy density plasmas opened up new research fields such as inertial confinement fusion, high brightness X-ray radiation sources, interiors of galactic nucleus,supernova, stars and planets, ultra high pressure condensed matter physics, plasma particle accelerator, X-ray laser, and so on. Furthermore, since these fields are intimately connected with various industrial sciences and technologies, the high energy density plasma is now studied in industries, government institutions, and so on. This special issue of the Journal of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research reviews the high energy density plasma science for the comprehensive understanding of such new fields. In May, 1998, the review committee for investigating the present status and the future prospects of high energy density plasma science was established in the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research. We held three committee meetings to discuss present status and critical issues of research items related to high energy density plasmas. This special issue summarizes the understandings of the committee. This special issue consists of four chapters: They are Chapter 1: Physics important in the high energy density plasmas, Chapter 2: Technologies related to the plasma generation; drivers such as lasers, pulse power machines, particle beams and fabrication of various targets, Chapter 3: Plasma diagnostics important in high energy density plasma experiments, Chapter 4: A variety of applications of high energy density plasmas; X-ray radiation, particle acceleration, inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics

  18. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  19. High Energy Density Sciences with High Power Lasers at SACLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-10-01

    One of the interesting topics on high energy density sciences with high power lasers is creation of extremely high pressures in material. The pressures of more than 0.1 TPa are the energy density corresponding to the chemical bonding energy, resulting in expectation of dramatic changes in the chemical reactions. At pressures of more than TPa, most of material would be melted on the shock Hugoniot curve. However, if the temperature is less than 1eV or lower than a melting point at pressures of more than TPa, novel solid states of matter must be created through a pressured phase transition. One of the interesting materials must be carbon. At pressures of more than TPa, the diamond structure changes to BC and cubic at more than 3TPa. To create such novel states of matter, several kinds of isentropic-like compression techniques are being developed with high power lasers. To explore the ``Tera-Pascal Science,'' now we have a new tool which is an x-ray free electron laser as well as high power lasers. The XFEL will clear the details of the HED states and also efficiently create hot dense matter. We have started a new project on high energy density sciences using an XFEL (SACLA) in Japan, which is a HERMES (High Energy density Revolution of Matter in Extreme States) project.

  20. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng; Udell, Kent S.; Bowman, Robert C.; Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J.; Kekelia, Bidzina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH 2 and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH 2 to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH 2 as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV 0.62 Mn 1.5 alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles

  1. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  2. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  3. High energy-density science on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.M.; Cauble, R.; Remington, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility, as well as its French counterpart Le Laser Megajoule, have been designed to confront one of the most difficult and compelling problem in shock physics - the creation of a hot, compassed DT plasma surrounded and confined by cold, nearly degenerate DT fuel. At the same time, these laser facilities will present the shock physics community with unique tools for the study of high energy density matter at states unreachable by any other laboratory technique. Here we describe how these lasers can contribute to investigations of high energy density in the area of material properties and equations of state, extend present laboratory shock techniques such as high-speed jets to new regimes, and allow study of extreme conditions found in astrophysical phenomena.

  4. High energy density fusing using the Compact Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    My remarks are concerned with employing the Compact Torus magnetic field configuration to produce fusion energy. In particular, I would like to consider high energy density regimes where the pressures generated extend well beyond the strength of materials. Under such conditions, where nearby walls are vaporized and pushed aside each shot, the technological constraints are very different from usual magnetic fusion and may admit opportunities for an improved fusion reactor design. 5 refs., 3 figs

  5. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  6. High energy density capacitors fabricated by thin film technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Johnson, G W; Wagner, A V.

    1999-01-01

    Low energy density in conventional capacitors severely limits efforts to miniaturize power electronics and imposes design limitations on electronics in general. We have successfully applied physical vapor deposition technology to greatly increase capacitor energy density. The high dielectric breakdown strength we have achieved in alumina thin films allows high energy density to be achieved with this moderately low dielectric constant material. The small temperature dependence of the dielectric constant, and the high reliability, high resistivity, and low dielectric loss of Al 2 O 3 , make it even more appealing. We have constructed single dielectric layer thin film capacitors and shown that they can be stacked to form multilayered structures with no loss in yield for a given capacitance. Control of film growth morphology is critical for achieving the smooth, high quality interfaces between metal and dielectric necessary for device operation at high electric fields. Most importantly, high rate deposition with extremely low particle generation is essential for achieving high energy storage at a reasonable cost. This has been achieved by reactive magnetron sputtering in which the reaction to form the dielectric oxide has been confined to the deposition surface. By this technique we have achieved a yield of over 50% for 1 cm 2 devices with an energy density of 14 J per cubic centimeter of Al 2 O 3 dielectric material in 1.2 kV, 4 nF devices. By further reducing defect density and increasing the dielectric constant of the material, we will be able to increase capacitance and construct high energy density devices to meet the requirements of applications in power electronics

  7. Atlas Pulsed Power Facility for High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.B.; Ballard, E.O.; Barr, G.W.; Bowman, D.W.; Chochrane, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Elizondo, J.M.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.R.; Hicks, R.D.; Hinckley, W.B.; Hosack, K.W.; Nielsen, K.E.; Parker, J.V.; Parsons, M.O.; Rickets, R.L.; Salazar, H.R.; Sanchez, P.G.; Scudder, D.W.; Shapiro, C.; Thompson, M.C.; Trainor, R.J.; Valdez, G.A.; Vigil, B.N.; Watt, R.G.; Wysock, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. It is intended to be an international user facility, providing opportunities for researchers from national laboratories and academic institutions around the world. Emphasizing institutions around the world. Emphasizing hydrodynamic experiments, Atlas will provide the capability for achieving steady shock pressures exceeding 10-Mbar in a volume of several cubic centimeters. In addition, the kinetic energy associated with solid liner implosion velocities exceeding 12 km/s is sufficient to drive dense, hydrodynamic targets into the ionized regime, permitting the study of complex issues associated with strongly-coupled plasmas. The primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently-removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-micros risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line components has been completed. A complete maintenance module and its associated transmission line (the First Article) are now under construction and testing. The current Atlas schedule calls for construction of the machine to be complete by August, 2000. Acceptance testing is scheduled to begin in November, 2000, leading to initial operations in January, 2001

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Energy Density Photon and Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bingham, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The development of intense laser and particle beams has opened up new opportunities to study high energy density astrophysical processes in the Laboratory. With even higher laser intensities possible in the near future vacuum polarization processes such as photon - photon scattering with or without large magnetic fields may also be experimentally observed. In this talk I will review the status of laboratory experiments using intense beans to investigate extreme astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae explosions, gamma x-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic accelerators etc. Just as intense photon or electron beams can excite relativistic electron plasma waves or wakefields used in plasma acceleration, intense neutrino beams from type II supernovae can also excite wakefields or plasma waves. Other instabilities driven by intense beams relevant to perhaps x-ray bursts is the Weibel instability. Simulation results of extreme processes will also be presented.

  9. Anti-Ferroelectric Ceramics for High Energy Density Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Chauhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing dependence on electrical energy for powering modern equipment and electronics, research is focused on the development of efficient methods for the generation, storage and distribution of electrical power. In this regard, the development of suitable dielectric based solid-state capacitors will play a key role in revolutionizing modern day electronic and electrical devices. Among the popular dielectric materials, anti-ferroelectrics (AFE display evidence of being a strong contender for future ceramic capacitors. AFE materials possess low dielectric loss, low coercive field, low remnant polarization, high energy density, high material efficiency, and fast discharge rates; all of these characteristics makes AFE materials a lucrative research direction. However, despite the evident advantages, there have only been limited attempts to develop this area. This article attempts to provide a focus to this area by presenting a timely review on the topic, on the relevant scientific advancements that have been made with respect to utilization and development of anti-ferroelectric materials for electric energy storage applications. The article begins with a general introduction discussing the need for high energy density capacitors, the present solutions being used to address this problem, and a brief discussion of various advantages of anti-ferroelectric materials for high energy storage applications. This is followed by a general description of anti-ferroelectricity and important anti-ferroelectric materials. The remainder of the paper is divided into two subsections, the first of which presents various physical routes for enhancing the energy storage density while the latter section describes chemical routes for enhanced storage density. This is followed by conclusions and future prospects and challenges which need to be addressed in this particular field.

  10. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, T.; Colby, E.

    2005-01-01

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  11. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance

  12. High energy density propulsion systems and small engine dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study investigates all possible methods of powering small unmanned vehicles, provides reasoning for the propulsion system down select, and covers in detail the design and production of a dynamometer to confirm theoretical energy density calculations for small engines. Initial energy density calculations are based upon manufacturer data, pressure vessel theory, and ideal thermodynamic cycle efficiencies. Engine tests are conducted with a braking type dynamometer for constant load energy density tests, and show true energy densities in excess of 1400 WH/lb of fuel. Findings and Conclusions. Theory predicts lithium polymer, the present unmanned system energy storage device of choice, to have much lower energy densities than other conversion energy sources. Small engines designed for efficiency, instead of maximum power, would provide the most advantageous method for powering small unmanned vehicles because these engines have widely variable power output, loss of mass during flight, and generate rotational power directly. Theoretical predictions for the energy density of small engines has been verified through testing. Tested values up to 1400 WH/lb can be seen under proper operating conditions. The implementation of such a high energy density system will require a significant amount of follow-on design work to enable the engines to tolerate the higher temperatures of lean operation. Suggestions are proposed to enable a reliable, small-engine propulsion system in future work. Performance calculations show that a mature system is capable of month long flight times, and unrefueled circumnavigation of the globe.

  13. High-energy density physics at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, P.; Younger, S.M.

    1993-03-01

    This brochure describes the facilities of the Above Ground Experiments II (AGEX II) and the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs at Los Alamo. Combined, these programs represent, an unparalleled capability to address important issues in high-energy density physics that are critical to the future defense, energy, and research needs of th e United States. The mission of the AGEX II program at Los Alamos is to provide additional experimental opportunities for the nuclear weapons program. For this purpose we have assembled at Los Alamos the broadest array of high-energy density physics facilities of any laboratory in the world. Inertial confinement fusion seeks to achieve thermonuclear burn on a laboratory scale through the implosion of a small quantity of deuterium and tritium fuel to very high Pressure and temperature.The Los Alamos ICF program is focused on target physics. With the largest scientific computing center in the world, We can perform calculations of unprecedented sophistication and precision. We field experiments at facilities worldwide-including our own Trident and Mercury lasers-to confirm our understanding and to provide the necessary data base to proceed toward the historic goal of controlled fusion in the laboratory. In addition to direct programmatic high-energy density physics is a nc scientific endeavor in itself. The ultrahigh magnetic fields produced in our high explosive pulsed-power generators can be used in awide variety of solid state physics and temperature superconductor studies. The structure and dynamics of planetary atmospheres can be simulated through the compression of gas mixtures

  14. Moderate energy ions for high energy density physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives the results of a preliminary exploration of whether moderate energy ions (≅0.3-3 MeV/amu) could be useful as modest-cost drivers for high energy density physics experiments. It is found that if the target thickness is chosen so that the ion beam enters and then leaves the target in the vicinity of the peak of the dE/dX (stopping power) curve, high uniformity of energy deposition may be achievable while also maximizing the amount of energy per beam particle deposited within the target

  15. Electromagnetic-implosion generation of pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.; Broderick, N.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Kloc, D.A.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on the experimental and theoretical investigation of the generation of pulsed high-energy-density plasmas by electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils (i.e., imploding liners or hollow Z-pinches) at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Presents a comparison of experimental data with one-dimensional MHD and two-dimensional calculations. Points out that the study is distinct from other imploding liner efforts in that the approach is to produce a hot, dense plasma from the imploded liner itself, rather than to compress a magnetic-field-performed plasma mixture. The goal is to produce an intense laboratory pulsed X-ray source

  16. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  17. Metal hydrides based high energy density thermal battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak, E-mail: zak.fang@utah.edu [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Zhou, Chengshang; Fan, Peng [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Udell, Kent S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Bowman, Robert C. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Room 412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States); Vajo, John J.; Purewal, Justin J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265 (United States); Kekelia, Bidzina [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, The University of Utah, 50 S. Central Campus Dr., Room 2110, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0114 (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • The principle of the thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides was demonstrated. • The thermal battery used MgH{sub 2} and TiMnV as a working pair. • High energy density can be achieved by the use of MgH{sub 2} to store thermal energy. - Abstract: A concept of thermal battery based on advanced metal hydrides was studied for heating and cooling of cabins in electric vehicles. The system utilized a pair of thermodynamically matched metal hydrides as energy storage media. The pair of hydrides that was identified and developed was: (1) catalyzed MgH{sub 2} as the high temperature hydride material, due to its high energy density and enhanced kinetics; and (2) TiV{sub 0.62}Mn{sub 1.5} alloy as the matching low temperature hydride. Further, a proof-of-concept prototype was built and tested, demonstrating the potential of the system as HVAC for transportation vehicles.

  18. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  19. Plasma Photonic Devices for High Energy Density Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.

    2005-01-01

    High power laser technologies are opening a variety of attractive fields of science and technology using high energy density plasmas such as plasma physics, laboratory astrophysics, material science, nuclear science including medical applications and laser fusion. The critical issues in the applications are attributed to the control of intense light and enormous density of charged particles including efficient generation of the particles such as MeV electrons and protons with a current density of TA/cm2. Now these application possibilities are limited only by the laser technology. These applications have been limited in the control of the high power laser technologies and their optics. However, if we have another device consisted of the 4th material, i.e. plasma, we will obtain a higher energy density condition and explore the application possibilities, which could be called high energy plasma device. One of the most attractive devices has been demonstrated in the fast ignition scheme of the laser fusion, which is cone-guiding of ultra-intense laser light in to high density regions1. This is one of the applications of the plasma device to control the ultra-intense laser light. The other role of the devices consisted of transient plasmas is control of enormous energy-density particles in a fashion analogous to light control with a conventional optical device. A plasma fibre (5?m/1mm), as one example of the devices, has guided and deflected the high-density MeV electrons generated by ultra-intense laser light 2. The electrons have been well collimated with either a lens-like plasma device or a fibre-like plasma, resulting in isochoric heating and creation of ultra-high pressures such as Giga bar with an order of 100J. Plasmas would be uniquely a device to easily control the higher energy density particles like a conventional optical device as well as the ultra-intense laser light, which could be called plasma photonic device. (Author)

  20. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  1. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  2. Pulsed power drivers for ICF and high energy density physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.; Matzen, M.K.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Nanosecond Pulsed Power Science and Technology has its origins in the 1960s and over the past decade has matured into a flexible and robust discipline capable of addressing key physics issues of importance to ICF and high Energy Density Physics. The major leverage provided by pulsed power is its ability to generate and deliver high energy and high power at low cost and high efficiency. A low-cost, high-efficiency driver is important because of the very large capital investment required for multi-megajoule ignition-class systems. High efficiency is of additional importance for a commercially viable inertial fusion energy option. Nanosecond pulsed power has been aggressively and successfully developed at Sandia over the past twenty years. This effort has led to the development of unique multi-purpose facilities supported by highly capable diagnostic, calculational and analytic capabilities. The Sandia Particle-beam Fusion Program has evolved as part of an integrated national ICF Program. It applies the low-cost, high-efficiency leverage provided by nanosecond pulsed power systems to the longer-term goals of the national program, i.e., the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and Inertial Fusion Energy. A separate effort has led to the application of nanosecond pulsed power to the generation of intense, high-energy laboratory x-ray sources for application to x-ray laser and radiation effects science research. Saturn is the most powerful of these sources to date. It generates ∼500 kilojoules of x-rays from a magnetically driven implosion (Z-pinch). This paper describes results of x-ray physics experiments performed on Saturn, plans for a new Z-pinch drive capability for PBFA-II, and a design concept for the proposed ∼15 MJ Jupiter facility. The opportunities for ICF-relevant research using these facilities will also be discussed

  3. Numerical analysis of energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Lu Zhongdao

    2004-01-01

    Energy density and particle density in high energy heavy-ion collisions are calculated with infinite series expansion method and Gauss-Laguerre formulas in numerical integration separately, and the results of these two methods are compared, the higher terms and linear terms in series expansion are also compared. The results show that Gauss-Laguerre formulas is a good method in calculations of high energy heavy-ion collisions. (author)

  4. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  5. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K + beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  6. 5th International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrala, G.A

    2005-01-01

    During the past several years, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Research is underway in many areas, such as compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiation flow, radiative shocks and jets, complex opacities, equations o fstat, and relativistic plasmas. Beyond this current research and the papers it is producing, plans are being made for the application, to astrophysics-relevant research, of the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the 600 kj Ligne d'Intergration Laser (LIL) and the 2 MJ Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux, France; petawatt-range lasers now under construction around the world; and current and future Z pinches. The goal of this conference and these proceedings is to continue focusing and attention on this emerging research area. The conference brought together different scientists interested in this emerging new fi...

  7. Ultrathin Coaxial Fiber Supercapacitors Achieving High Energy and Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Caiwei; Xie, Yingxi; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Tang, Yong; Lu, Longsheng; Lin, Liwei

    2017-11-15

    Fiber-based supercapacitors have attracted significant interests because of their potential applications in wearable electronics. Although much progress has been made in recent years, the energy and power densities, mechanical strength, and flexibility of such devices are still in need of improvement for practical applications. Here, we demonstrate an ultrathin microcoaxial fiber supercapacitor (μCFSC) with high energy and power densities (2.7 mW h/cm 3 and 13 W/cm 3 ), as well as excellent mechanical properties. The prototype with the smallest reported overall diameter (∼13 μm) is fabricated by successive coating of functional layers onto a single micro-carbon-fiber via a scalable process. Combining the simulation results via the electrochemical model, we attribute the high performance to the well-controlled thin coatings that make full use of the electrode materials and minimize the ion transport path between electrodes. Moreover, the μCFSC features high bending flexibility and large tensile strength (more than 1 GPa), which make it promising as a building block for various flexible energy storage applications.

  8. Diagnostic Spectrometers for High Energy Density X-Ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Seely, J. F.; Holland, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    A new generation of advanced laser, accelerator, and plasma confinement devices are emerging that are producing extreme states of light and matter that are unprecedented for laboratory study. Examples of such sources that will produce laboratory x-ray emissions with unprecedented characteristics include megajoule-class and ultrafast, ultraintense petawatt laser-produced plasmas; tabletop high-harmonic-generation x-ray sources; high-brightness zeta-pinch and magnetically confined plasma sources; and coherent x-ray free electron lasers and compact inverse-Compton x-ray sources. Characterizing the spectra, time structure, and intensity of x rays emitted by these and other novel sources is critical to assessing system performance and progress as well as pursuing the new and unpredictable physical interactions of interest to basic and applied high-energy-density (HED) science. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced diagnostic instrumentation and metrology, standard reference data, absolute calibrations and traceability of results.We are actively designing, fabricating, and fielding wavelength-calibrated x-ray spectrometers that have been employed to register spectra from a variety of exotic x-ray sources (electron beam ion trap, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, terawatt pulsed-power-driven accelerator, laser-produced plasmas). These instruments employ a variety of curved-crystal optics, detector technologies, and data acquisition strategies. In anticipation of the trends mentioned above, this paper will focus primarily on optical designs that can accommodate the high background signals produced in HED experiments while also registering their high-energy spectral emissions. In particular, we review the results of recent laboratory testing that explores off-Rowland circle imaging in an effort to reclaim the instrumental resolving power that is increasingly elusive at higher energies when using wavelength

  9. Primary defect production by high energy displacement cascades in molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, Aaron P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Xu, Donghua, E-mail: xudh@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Juslin, Niklas; Capps, Nathan A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS6003, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of primary damage in molybdenum produced by high energy displacement cascades on the femto- to pico-second and Angstrom to nanometer scales. Clustering directly occurred for both interstitials and vacancies in the 1–50 keV cascade energy range explored. Point defect survival efficiency and partitioning probabilities into different sized clusters were quantified. The results will provide an important reference for kinetic models to describe the microstructural evolution in Mo under ion or neutron irradiations over much longer time and length scales.

  10. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  11. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  12. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state

  13. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This Annual Report summarizes research activities carried out in 1988 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation of heavy ion beams and the investigation of hot dense plasmas produced by these beams. Its initial motivation and its long-term goal is the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion by intense heavy ion beams. Two outstanding events deserve to be mentioned explicity, the Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Conference held in Darmstadt and organized by GSI end of June and the first heavy ion beam injected into the new SIS facility in November. The former event attracted more than hundred scientists for three days to the 4th Conference in this field. This symposium showed the impressive progress since the last conference in Washington two years ago. In particular the first beams in MBE-4 at LBL and results of beam plasma interaction experiments at GSI open new directions for future investigations. The ideas for non-Lionvillean injection into storage rings presented by Carlo Rubbia will bring the discussion of driver scenarios into a new stage. The latter event is a milestone for both machine and target experiments. It characterizes the beginning of the commissioning phase for the new SIS/ESR facility which will be ready for experiments at the end of this year. The commissioning of SIS is on schedule and first experiments can start at the beginning of 1990. A status report of the accelerator project is included. Theoretical activities were continued as in previous years, many of them providing guide lines for future experiments, in particular for the radiation transport aspects and for beam-plasma interaction. (orig.)

  14. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  15. High energy density, long life energy storage capacitor dielectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.; Wilson, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of energy storage dielectric systems shows a dramatic improvement in life and joule density, culminating in a 50% to 300% life improvement of polypropylene film-paper-phthalate ester over paper-castor oil depending on service. The physical and electrical drawbacks of castor oil are not present in the new system, allowing the capacitor designer to utilize the superior insulation resistance, dielectric strength, and corona resistance to full advantage. The result is longer life for equal joule density or greater joule density for equal life. Field service proof of the film-Geconol system superiority is based on 5 megajoule in operation and 16 megajoule on order

  16. All-Nitrogen Compounds as High Energy Density Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baum, Kurt; Willer, Rodney L; Bottaro, Jeffrey; Petrie, Mark; Penwell, Paul; Dodge, Allen; Malhotra, Ripu

    2005-01-01

    .... Enhanced dissolving power, density and compatibilities with a wide range of propellant ingredients make ionic liquids a very attractive class of materials for advanced state-of-the-art propulsion systems...

  17. Novel nanostructured materials for high energy density supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.Z.; Zhang, X.G. [Nanjing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Researchers are currently examining methods of improving energy density while not sacrificing the high power density of supercapacitors. In this study, nanostructured materials assembled from nanometer-sized building blocks with mesoporosity were synthesized in order investigate diffusion time, kinetics, and capacitances. Petal-like cobalt hydroxide Co(OH){sub 2} mesocrystals, urchin-like Co(OH){sub 2} and dicobalt tetroxide (Co{sub 2}O{sub 4}) ordered arrays as well as N{sub i}O microspheres were assembled from 0-D nanoparticles, 1-D mesoporous nanowires and nanobelts, and 2-D mesoporous nanopetals. The study showed that all the synthesized nanostructured materials delivered larger energy densities while showing electrochemical stability at high rates.

  18. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  19. Creating high energy density in nuclei with energetic antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of creating a phase change in nuclear matter using energetic antiprotons and antideuterons is examined. It is found that energy densities of the order of 2 GeV/c can be obtained for periods of approx.2 fm/c with the proper experimental selection of events. 10 refs., 7 figs

  20. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes using ordinary kitchen sponges. Two organic electrolytes (1 M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 4NBF 4) in propylene carbonate (PC), 1 M of LiClO 4 in PC) are utilized with the sponge-based electrodes to improve the energy density of the symmetrical supercapacitors. Compared to aqueous electrolyte (1 M of Na 2SO 4 in H 2O), the energy density of supercapacitors tripled in Et 4NBF 4 electrolyte, and further increased by six times in LiClO 4 electrolyte. The long-term cycling performance in different electrolytes was examined and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were also studied. The good electrochemical performance in both aqueous and organic electrolytes indicates that the MnO 2-CNT-sponge is a promising low-cost electrode for energy storage systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Extended MHD Effects in High Energy Density Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The MHD model is the workhorse for computational modeling of HEDP experiments. Plasma models are inheritably limited in scope, but MHD is expected to be a very good model for studying plasmas at the high densities attained in HEDP experiments. There are, however, important ways in which MHD fails to adequately describe the results, most notably due to the omission of the Hall term in the Ohm's law (a form of extended MHD or XMHD). This talk will discuss these failings by directly comparing simulations of MHD and XMHD for particularly relevant cases. The methodology is to simulate HEDP experiments using a Hall-MHD (HMHD) code based on a highly accurate and robust Discontinuous Galerkin method, and by comparison of HMHD to MHD draw conclusions about the impact of the Hall term. We focus on simulating two experimental pulsed power machines under various scenarios. We examine the MagLIF experiment on the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories and liner experiments on the COBRA machine at Cornell. For the MagLIF experiment we find that power flow in the feed leads to low density plasma ablation into the region surrounding the liner. The inflow of this plasma compresses axial magnetic flux onto the liner. In MHD this axial flux tends to resistively decay, whereas in HMHD a force-free current layer sustains the axial flux on the liner leading to a larger ratio of axial to azimuthal flux. During the liner compression the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability leads to helical perturbations due to minimization of field line bending. Simulations of a cylindrical liner using the COBRA machine parameters can under certain conditions exhibit amplification of an axial field due to a force-free low-density current layer separated by some distance from the liner. This results in a configuration in which there is predominately axial field on the liner inside the current layer and azimuthal field outside the layer. We are currently attempting to experimentally verify the simulation

  2. Hybrid graphene electrodes for supercapacitors of high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Tang, Jie; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-10-01

    We describe a process of co-reduction to reduce dispersed graphene oxide (GO) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) simultaneously for preparation of hybrid electrodes for graphene supercapacitors. The SWNTs are in between the inter-layer space of graphene sheets as a spacer to prevent effectively restacking of graphene that often limits seriously the electrochemical performance of graphene supercapacitors. The SWNTs also act as conductive binders to improve the electrical conduction of the electrode. A high specific capacitance of 261 F g-1 for a single electrode and specific energy density of 123 W h kg-1 measured in the two-electrode configuration have been obtained in ionic liquid (EMI-TFSI). For interpretation of color in Fig. 6, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.

  3. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  4. Rationally designed polyimides for high-energy density capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Baldwin, Aaron F; Wang, Chenchen; Offenbach, Ido; Cakmak, Mukerrem; Ramprasad, Rampi; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2014-07-09

    Development of new dielectric materials is of great importance for a wide range of applications for modern electronics and electrical power systems. The state-of-the-art polymer dielectric is a biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film having a maximal energy density of 5 J/cm(3) and a high breakdown field of 700 MV/m, but with a limited dielectric constant (∼2.2) and a reduced breakdown strength above 85 °C. Great effort has been put into exploring other materials to fulfill the demand of continuous miniaturization and improved functionality. In this work, a series of polyimides were investigated as potential polymer materials for this application. Polyimide with high dielectric constants of up to 7.8 that exhibits low dissipation factors (dielectric constant and band gap. Correlations of experimental and theoretical results through judicious variations of polyimide structures allowed for a clear demonstration of the relationship between chemical functionalities and dielectric properties.

  5. Evaluation of high-energy lithium thionyl chloride primary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1980-02-01

    An advanced commercial primary lithium cell (LiSoCl2) was evaluated in order to establish baseline data for improved lithium batteries for aerospace applications. The cell tested had nominal capacity of 6 Ah. Maximum energy density at low rates (less than C/30, where C is the cell capacity in amp-hrs and 30 corresponds to a 30 hr discharge time) was found to be near 300 Wh/kg. An equation which predicts the operating voltage of these cells as a function of current and state of charge is presented. Heat generation rates of these cells were determined as a function of current in a calorimeter. It was found that heat rates could be theoretically predicted with some degree of accuracy at currents less than 1 amp or the C/6 rate. No explosions were observed in the cells during the condition of overdischarge or reversal nor during high rate discharge. It was found, however, that the cells can vent when overdischarge currents are greater than C/30 and when discharge rates are greater than 1.5C.

  6. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ke

    density on a limited footprint area. In chapter 4, Li-ion batteries based on the LiMn2O4-TiP 2O7 couple are manufactured on flexible paper substrates; where the use of light-weight paper substrates significantly increase the gravimetric energy density of this electrode couple as compared to traditional metal current collectors. In chapter 5, a novel nanowire growth mechanism will be explored to grow interdigitated metal oxide nanowire micro battery electrodes. The growth kinetics of this mechanism is systematically studied to understand how to optimize the growth process to produce electrodes with improved electrochemical properties.

  7. Dynamic high energy density plasma environments at the National Ignition Facility for nuclear science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerjan, Ch J.; Bernstein, L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cassata, W. S.; Brune, C. R.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G.; Hagmann, Chr; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Hartouni, E. P.; Henry, E. A.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khater, H. Y.; Kim, Y.; Kritcher, A.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Merrill, F.; Moody, K.; Neumayer, P.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Yeamans, Ch; Velsko, C.; Wiescher, M.; Couder, M.; Zylstra, A.; Schneider, D.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of dynamic high energy density plasmas in the pico- to nano-second time domain at high-energy laser facilities affords unprecedented nuclear science research possibilities. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the primary goal of inertial confinement fusion research has led to the synergistic development of a unique high brightness neutron source, sophisticated nuclear diagnostic instrumentation, and versatile experimental platforms. These novel experimental capabilities provide a new path to investigate nuclear processes and structural effects in the time, mass and energy density domains relevant to astrophysical phenomena in a unique terrestrial environment. Some immediate applications include neutron capture cross-section evaluation, fission fragment production, and ion energy loss measurement in electron-degenerate plasmas. More generally, the NIF conditions provide a singular environment to investigate the interplay of atomic and nuclear processes such as plasma screening effects upon thermonuclear reactivity. Achieving enhanced understanding of many of these effects will also significantly advance fusion energy research and challenge existing theoretical models.

  8. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  9. Advanced Cathode Material For High Energy Density Lithium-Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced cathode materials having high red-ox potential and high specific capacity offer great promise to the development of high energy density lithium-based...

  10. High-energy-density physics foundation of inertial fusion and experimental astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, R Paul

    2018-01-01

    The raw numbers of high-energy-density physics are amazing: shock waves at hundreds of km/s (approaching a million km per hour), temperatures of millions of degrees, and pressures that exceed 100 million atmospheres. This title surveys the production of high-energy-density conditions, the fundamental plasma and hydrodynamic models that can describe them and the problem of scaling from the laboratory to the cosmos. Connections to astrophysics are discussed throughout. The book is intended to support coursework in high-energy-density physics, to meet the needs of new researchers in this field, and also to serve as a useful reference on the fundamentals. Specifically the book has been designed to enable academics in physics, astrophysics, applied physics and engineering departments to provide in a single-course, an introduction to fluid mechanics and radiative transfer, with dramatic applications in the field of high-energy-density systems. This second edition includes pedagogic improvements to the presentation ...

  11. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  12. High energy density additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these...

  13. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community

  14. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-08-01

    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community.

  15. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  16. Frontiers in pulse-power-based high energy density plasma physics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    The papers in this volume of report were presented at the Symposium on Frontiers in Pulse-power-based High Energy Density Physics' held by National Institute for Fusion Science. The topics include the present status of high energy density plasma researches, extreme ultraviolet sources, intense radiation sources, high power ion beams, and R and D of related pulse power technologies. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL Presentation to: IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science...Conference C. J. Keane Director, NIF User Office June 21, 2013 1491978-1-4673-5168-3/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. Frontiers of particle beam and high energy density plasma science using pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on “Frontiers of Particle Beam and High Energy Density Plasma Science using Pulse Power Technology” held in November 20-21, 2009 at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected. The papers reflect the present status and resent progress in the experiment and theoretical works on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  19. TEMPO-based catholyte for high-energy density nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Liu, Tianbiao; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-03

    A TEMPO-based non-aqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 m is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ca. 70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 W h L(-1) . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Density Functional Methods for Shock Physics and High Energy Density Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Molecular dynamics with density functional theory has emerged over the last two decades as a powerful and accurate framework for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties with broad application to dynamic compression, high energy density science, and warm dense matter. These calculations have been extensively validated against shock and ramp wave experiments, are a principal component of high-fidelity equation of state generation, and are having wide-ranging impacts on inertial confinement fusion, planetary science, and shock physics research. In addition to thermodynamic properties, phase boundaries, and the equation of state, one also has access to electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and lower energy optical properties. Importantly, all these properties are obtained within the same theoretical framework and are manifestly consistent. In this talk I will give a brief history and overview of molecular dynamics with density functional theory and its use in calculating a wide variety of thermodynamic and transport properties for materials ranging from ambient to extreme conditions and with comparisons to experimental data. I will also discuss some of the limitations and difficulties, as well as active research areas. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. X-ray spectroscopy for high energy-density X pinch density and temperature measurements (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Chandler, K.M.; Mitchell, M.D.; Hammer, D.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Shlyaptseva, A.S.; Hansen, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    X pinch plasmas produced from fine metal wires can reach near solid densities and temperatures of 1 keV or even more. Plasma conditions change on time scales as short as 5-10 ps as determined using an x-ray streak camera viewing a focusing crystal spectrograph or directly viewing the plasma through multiple filters on a single test. As a result, it is possible to determine plasma conditions from spectra with ∼10 ps time resolution. Experiments and theory are now coming together to give a consistent picture of the dynamics and kinetics of these high energy density plasmas with very high temporal and spatial precision. A set of diagnostic techniques used in experiments for spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolved measurements of X pinch plasmas is described. Results of plasma parameter determination from these measurements are presented. X ray backlighting of one x-pinch by another with ∼30 ps x-ray pulses enables the dynamics and kinetics to be correlated in time

  2. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  3. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  4. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  5. Similarity and self-similarity in high energy density physics: application to laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falize, E.

    2008-10-01

    The spectacular recent development of powerful facilities allows the astrophysical community to explore, in laboratory, astrophysical phenomena where radiation and matter are strongly coupled. The titles of the nine chapters of the thesis are: from high energy density physics to laboratory astrophysics; Lie groups, invariance and self-similarity; scaling laws and similarity properties in High-Energy-Density physics; the Burgan-Feix-Munier transformation; dynamics of polytropic gases; stationary radiating shocks and the POLAR project; structure, dynamics and stability of optically thin fluids; from young star jets to laboratory jets; modelling and experiences for laboratory jets

  6. Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy and high power density in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Zhang, Hongbo; Lu, Songtao; Varanasi, Chakrapani V.; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Supercapacitors with both high energy and high power densities are critical for many practical applications. In this paper, we discuss the design and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on nanocomposite electrodes of MnO2, activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The combined unique properties of each of these components enable highly flexible and mechanically strong films that can serve as electrodes directly without using any current collectors or binders. Using these flexible electrodes and a roll-up approach, asymmetric supercapacitors with 2 V working voltage were successfully fabricated. The fabricated device showed excellent rate capability, with 78% of the original capacitance retained when the scan rate was increased from 2 mV s-1 to 500 mV s-1. Owing to the unique composite structure, these supercapacitors were able to deliver high energy density (24 W h kg-1) under high power density (7.8 kW kg-1) conditions. These features could enable supercapacitor based energy storage systems to be very attractive for a variety of critical applications, such as the power sources in hybrid electric vehicles and the back-up powers for wind and solar energy, where both high energy density and high power density are required.Supercapacitors with both high energy and high power densities are critical for many practical applications. In this paper, we discuss the design and demonstrate the fabrication of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on nanocomposite electrodes of MnO2, activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The combined unique properties of each of these components enable highly flexible and mechanically strong films that can serve as electrodes directly without using any current collectors or binders. Using these flexible electrodes and a roll-up approach, asymmetric supercapacitors with 2 V working voltage were successfully fabricated. The fabricated device showed excellent rate capability, with 78% of

  7. The Atlas pulsed power facility for high energy density physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, R B; Barr, G W; Bowman, D W; Cochrane, J C; Davis, H A; Elizondo, J M; Gribble, R F; Griego, J R; Hicks, R D; Hinckley, W B; Hosack, K W; Nielsen, K E; Parker, J V; Parsons, M O; Rickets, R L; Salazar, H R; Sánchez, P G; Scudder, D W; Shapiro, C; Thompson, M C; Trainor, R J; Valdez, G A; Vigil, B N; Watt, R G; Wysocki, F J; Kirbie, H C

    1999-01-01

    The Atlas facility, now under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), will provide a unique capability for performing high-energy-density experiments in support of weapon-physics and basic-research programs. Here, the authors describe how the primary element of Atlas is a 23-MJ capacitor bank, comprised of 96 separate Marx generators housed in 12 separate oil-filled tanks, surrounding a central target chamber. Each tank will house two, independently- removable maintenance units, with each maintenance unit consisting of four Marx modules. Each Marx module has four capacitors that can each be charged to a maximum of 60 kilovolts. When railgap switches are triggered, the Marx modules erect to a maximum of 240 kV. The parallel discharge of these 96 Marx modules will deliver a 30-MA current pulse with a 4-5-ys risetime to a cylindrical, imploding liner via 24 vertical, tri-plate, oil-insulated transmission lines. An experimental program for testing and certifying all Marx and transmission line compo...

  8. U.S. Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers

  9. Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)

  10. Aqueous supercapacitors of high energy density based on MoO3 nanoplates as anode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Tian, Shu; Li, Lei; Yue, Yunbo; Wu, Yuping; Zhu, Kai

    2011-09-28

    MoO(3) nanoplates were prepared as anode material for aqueous supercapacitors. They can deliver a high energy density of 45 W h kg(-1) at 450 W kg(-1) and even maintain 29 W h kg(-1) at 2 kW kg(-1) in 0.5 M Li(2)SO(4) aqueous electrolyte. These results present a new direction to explore non-carbon anode materials.

  11. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, E.; Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the role for the next-generation ''superlasers'' in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, the authors focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: equations of state, turbulent hydrodynamics, and the transport of radiation. They describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program

  12. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.; Teller, E.

    1995-10-20

    We describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, we focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: Equations of state, hydrodynamic mixing, and the transport of radiation. We will describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  13. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.; Teller, E.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the role for the next-generation ''superlasers'' in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, we focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: Equations of state, hydrodynamic mixing, and the transport of radiation. We will describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program

  14. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E.; Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.

    1995-08-14

    The authors describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, the authors focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: equations of state, turbulent hydrodynamics, and the transport of radiation. They describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  15. Graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrodes for supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Han; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2011-10-21

    We describe a graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite film prepared by a blending process for use as electrodes in high energy density supercapacitors. Specific capacitances of 290.6 F g(-1) and 201.0 F g(-1) have been obtained for a single electrode in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively, using a more practical two-electrode testing system. In the organic electrolyte the energy density reached 62.8 Wh kg(-1) and the power density reached 58.5 kW kg(-1). The addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes raised the energy density by 23% and power density by 31% more than the graphene electrodes. The graphene/CNT electrodes exhibited an ultra-high energy density of 155.6 Wh kg(-1) in ionic liquid at room temperature. In addition, the specific capacitance increased by 29% after 1000 cycles in ionic liquid, indicating their excellent cyclicity. The SWCNTs acted as a conductive additive, spacer, and binder in the graphene/CNT supercapacitors. This work suggests that our graphene/CNT supercapacitors can be comparable to NiMH batteries in performance and are promising for applications in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  16. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E.I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Ignition Facility (NIF, a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF and high-energy-density science (HEDS, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL. A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC, an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE. This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  18. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  19. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-24

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l(-1)). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l(-1) is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  20. Note: A high-energy-density Tesla-type pulse generator with novel insulating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Su, Jiancang; Fan, Xuliang

    2017-09-01

    A 10-GW high-energy-density Tesla-type pulse generator is developed with an improved insulating liquid based on a modified Tesla pulser—TPG700, of which the pulse forming line (PFL) is filled with novel insulating oil instead of transformer oil. Properties of insulating oil determining the stored energy density of the PFL are analyzed, and a criterion for appropriate oil is proposed. Midel 7131 is chosen as an application example. The results of insulating property experiment under tens-of-microsecond pulse charging demonstrate that the insulation capability of Midel 7131 is better than that of KI45X transformer oil. The application test in Tesla pulser TPG700 shows that the output power is increased to 10.5 GW with Midel 7131. The output energy density of TPG700 increases for about 60% with Midel 7131.

  1. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm-3 in a low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.

  2. Biopolymer-nanocarbon composite electrodes for use as high-energy high-power density electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Mehmet; Roberts, Mark; Arcilla-Velez, Margarita; Zhu, Jingyi; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) address our current energy storage and delivery needs by combining the high power, rapid switching, and exceptional cycle life of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Although activated carbon is extensively used as a supercapacitor electrode due to its inexpensive nature, its low specific capacitance (100-120 F/g) fundamentally limits the energy density of SCs. We demonstrate that a nano-carbon based mechanically robust, electrically conducting, free-standing buckypaper electrode modified with an inexpensive biorenewable polymer, viz., lignin increases the electrode's specific capacitance (~ 600-700 F/g) while maintaining rapid discharge rates. In these systems, the carbon nanomaterials provide the high surface area, electrical conductivity and porosity, while the redox polymers provide a mechanism for charge storage through Faradaic charge transfer. The design of redox polymers and their incorporation into nanomaterial electrodes will be discussed with a focus on enabling high power and high energy density electrodes. Research supported by US NSF CMMI Grant 1246800.

  3. Development of large high current density superconducting solenoid magnets for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-05-01

    The development of a unique type of large superconducting solenoid magnet, characterized by very high current density windings and a two-phase helium tubular cooling system is described. The development of the magnet's conceptual design and the construction of two test solenoids are described. The successful test of the superconducting coil and its tubular cooling refrigeration system is presented. The safety, environmental and economic impacts of the test program on future developments in high energy physics are shown. Large solid angle particle detectors for colliding beam physics will analyze both charged and neutral particles. In many cases, these detectors will require neutral particles, such as gamma rays, to pass through the magnet coil with minimum interaction. The magnet coils must be as thin as possible. The use of superconducting windings allows one to minimize radiation thickness, while at the same time maximizing charged particle momentum resolution and saving substantial quantities of electrical energy. The results of the experimental measurements show that large high current density solenoid magnets can be made to operate at high stored energies. The superconducting magnet development described has a positive safety and environmental impact. The use of large high current density thin superconducting solenoids has been proposed in two high energy physics experiments to be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Cornell University as a result of the successful experiments described

  4. High-energy-density physics researches based on pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Kawamura, Tohru; Sasaki, Toru; Kondo, Kotaro; Yano, Yuuri

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas driven by pulse power device are of interest, concerning the researches on high-energy-density (HED) physics. Dense plasmas are produced using pulse power driven exploding discharges in water. Experimental results show that the wire plasma is tamped and stabilized by the surrounding water and it evolves through a strongly coupled plasma state. A shock-wave-heated, high temperature plasma is produced in a compact pulse power device. Experimental results show that strong shock waves can be produced in the device. In particular, at low initial pressure condition, the shock Mach number reaches 250 and this indicates that the shock heated region is dominated by radiation processes. (author)

  5. A high-energy-density redox flow battery based on zinc/polyhalide chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqun; Lai, Qinzhi; Zhang, Jianlu; Zhang, Huamin

    2012-05-01

    Zn and the Art of Battery Development: A zinc/polyhalide redox flow battery employs Br(-) /ClBr(2-) and Zn/Zn(2+) redox couples in its positive and negative half-cells, respectively. The performance of the battery is evaluated by charge-discharge cycling tests and reveals a high energy efficiency of 81%, based on a Coulombic efficiency of 96% and voltage efficiency of 84%. The new battery technology can provide high performance and energy density at an acceptable cost. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Performance of primary repair on colon injuries sustained from low-versus high-energy projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazovic, Ranko; Radojevic, Nemanja; Curovic, Ivana

    2016-04-01

    Among various reasons, colon injuries may be caused by low- or high-energy firearm bullets, with the latter producing a temporary cavitation phenomenon. The available treatment options include primary repair and two-stage management, but recent studies have shown that primary repair can be widely used with a high success rate. This paper investigates the differences in performance of primary repair on these two types of colon injuries. Two groups of patients who sustained colon injuries due to single gunshot wounds, were retrospectively categorized based on the type of bullet. Primary colon repair was performed in all patients selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria (Stone and Fabian's criteria). An almost absolute homogeneity was attained among the groups in terms of age, latent time before surgery, and four trauma indexes. Only one patient from the low-energy firearm projectile group (4%) developed a postsurgical complication versus nine patients (25.8%) from the high-energy group, showing statistically significant difference (p = 0.03). These nine patients experienced the following postsurgical complications: pneumonia, abscess, fistula, suture leakage, and one multiorgan failure with sepsis. Previous studies concluded that one-stage primary repair is the best treatment option for colon injuries. However, terminal ballistics testing determined the projectile's path through the body and revealed that low-energy projectiles caused considerably lesser damage than their high-energy counterparts. Primary colon repair must be performed definitely for low-energy short firearm injuries but very carefully for high-energy injuries. Given these findings, we suggest that the treatment option should be determined based not only on the bullet type alone but also on other clinical findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10 10 cm −2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region

  8. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  9. Unique aqueous Li-ion/sulfur chemistry with high energy density and reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongyin; Suo, Liumin; Borodin, Oleg; Wang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Gao, Tao; Fan, Xiulin; Hou, Singyuk; Ma, Zhaohui; Amine, Khalil; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-06-13

    Leveraging the most recent success in expanding the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes, in this work we create a unique Li-ion/sulfur chemistry of both high energy density and safety. We show that in the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte, lithiation of sulfur experiences phase change from a high-order polysulfide to low-order polysulfides through solid-liquid two-phase reaction pathway, where the liquid polysulfide phase in the sulfide electrode is thermodynamically phase-separated from the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte. The sulfur with solid-liquid two-phase exhibits a reversible capacity of 1,327 mAh/(g of S), along with fast reaction kinetics and negligible polysulfide dissolution. By coupling a sulfur anode with different Li-ion cathode materials, the aqueous Li-ion/sulfur full cell delivers record-high energy densities up to 200 Wh/(kg of total electrode mass) for >1,000 cycles at ∼100% coulombic efficiency. These performances already approach that of commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using a nonaqueous electrolyte, along with intrinsic safety not possessed by the latter. The excellent performance of this aqueous battery chemistry significantly promotes the practical possibility of aqueous LIBs in large-format applications.

  10. Supersonic shear flows in laser driven high-energy-density plasmas created by the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Ditmar, J. R.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Plewa, T.

    2008-11-01

    In high-energy-density (HED) plasmas the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability plays an important role in the evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable interfaces, as well as material interfaces that experience the passage one or multiple oblique shocks. Despite the potentially important role of the KH instability few experiments have been carried out to explore its behavior in the high-energy-density regime. We report on the evolution of a supersonic shear flow that is generated by the release of a high velocity (>100 km/s) aluminum plasma onto a CRF foam (ρ = 0.1 g/cc) surface. In order to seed the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability various two-dimensional sinusoidal perturbations (λ = 100, 200, and 300 μm with peak-to-valley amplitudes of 10, 20, and 30 μm respectively) have been machined into the foam surface. This experiment was performed using the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  11. Particle accelerator physics and technology for high energy density physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Blazevic, A.; Rosmej, O.N.; Spiller, P.; Tahir, N.A.; Weyrich, K. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, GSI-Darmstadt, Plasmaphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dafni, T.; Kuster, M.; Ni, P.; Roth, M.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D. [Darmstadt Univ., Institut fur Kernphysik, Technische Schlobgartenstr. 9 (Germany); Jacoby, J. [Frankfurt Univ., Institut fur Angewandte Physik (Germany); Kain, V.; Schmidt, R.; Zioutas, K. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneve (Switzerland); Zioutas, K. [Patras Univ., Dept. of Physics (Greece); Mintsev, V.; Fortov, V.E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Sharkov, B.Y. [Institut for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-15

    Interaction phenomena of intense ion- and laser radiation with matter have a large range of application in different fields of science, extending from basic research of plasma properties to applications in energy science, especially in inertial fusion. The heavy ion synchrotron at GSI now routinely delivers intense uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Our simulations show that the new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. A natural example of hot dense plasma is provided by our neighbouring star the sun, and allows a deep insight into the physics of fusion, the properties of matter at high energy density, and is moreover an excellent laboratory for astro-particle physics. As such the sun's interior plasma can even be used to probe the existence of novel particles and dark matter candidates. We present an overview on recent results and developments of dense plasma physics addressed with heavy ion and laser beams combined with accelerator- and nuclear physics technology. (authors)

  12. Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao

    2014-05-01

    Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm-2 and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm-2, respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics.

  13. Coaxial wet-spun yarn supercapacitors for high-energy density and safe wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liang; Huang, Tieqi; Zheng, Bingna; Han, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Sun, Haiyan; Gao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Yarn supercapacitors have great potential in future portable and wearable electronics because of their tiny volume, flexibility and weavability. However, low-energy density limits their development in the area of wearable high-energy density devices. How to enhance their energy densities while retaining their high-power densities is a critical challenge for yarn supercapacitor development. Here we propose a coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach to continuously spin polyelectrolyte-wrapped graphene/carbon nanotube core-sheath fibres, which are used directly as safe electrodes to assembly two-ply yarn supercapacitors. The yarn supercapacitors using liquid and solid electrolytes show ultra-high capacitances of 269 and 177 mF cm−2 and energy densities of 5.91 and 3.84 μWh cm−2, respectively. A cloth supercapacitor superior to commercial capacitor is further interwoven from two individual 40-cm-long coaxial fibres. The combination of scalable coaxial wet-spinning technology and excellent performance of yarn supercapacitors paves the way to wearable and safe electronics. PMID:24786366

  14. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  15. High energy density and efficiency achieved in nanocomposite film capacitors via structure modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Shen, Zhong-Hui; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2018-03-01

    Flexible dielectric polymer films with high energy storage density and high charge-discharge efficiency have been considered as promising materials for electrical power applications. Here, we design hierarchical structured nanocomposite films using nonlinear polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-HFP) [P(VDF-HFP)] with inorganic h-boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets by electrospinning and hot-pressing methods. Our results show that the addition of h-BN nanosheets and the design of the hierarchical multilayer structure in the nanocomposites can remarkably enhance the charge-discharge efficiency and energy density. A high charge-discharge efficiency of 78% and an energy density of 21 J/cm3 can be realized in the 12-layered PVDF/h-BN nanocomposite films. Phase-field simulation results reveal that the spatial distribution of the electric field in these hierarchical structured films affects the charge-discharge efficiency and energy density. This work provides a feasible route, i.e., structure modulation, to improve the energy storage performances for nanocomposite films.

  16. Comparison of biomolecule desorption yields for low and high energy primary ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamensky, I.; Hakansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.; McNeal, C.J.; MacFarlane, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion induced desorption yields of molecular ions from samples of cesium iodide, glycylglycine, ergosterol, bleomycin and a trinucleoside diphosphate have been studied using primary beams of 54 MeV 63 Cu 9+ and 3 keV 133 Cs + . Mass analysis was performed with a time-of-flight technique. Each sample was studied with the same spectrometer for both low and high energy primary ions and without opening of the vacuum chamber in between the measurements. The results show that fast heavy ions give larger yields for all samples studied and that the yield ratios for high to low energy desorption increase with the mass of the sample molecule. (orig.)

  17. Characteristics of (Ti,Ta)N thin films prepared by using pulsed high energy density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wenran [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen Guangliang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Li Li [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lv Guohua [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang Xianhui [College of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Niu Erwu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Liu Chizi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Size [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-07-21

    (Ti,Ta)N films were prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) from a coaxial gun in N{sub 2} gas. The coaxial gun is composed of a tantalum inner electrode and a titanium outer one. Material characteristics of the (Ti,Ta)N film were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The microstructure of the film was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The elemental composition and the interface of the film/substrate were analysed using Auger electron spectrometry. Our results suggest that the binary metal nitride film (Ti,Ta)N, can be prepared by PHEDP. It also shows that dense nanocrystalline (Ti,Ta)N film can be achieved.

  18. Matter density distribution in atomic nuclei as illuminated by high energy hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The method is proposed for the intranuclear matter density distribution study by means of high energy strongly interacting probes. The newly recognized process - the passage of hadrons through atomic nuclei - is employed as the physical basis of the operational principle of the method; the passage is accompanied by the nucleon emission from the target nuclei. It seems that the hadronic projectile sees a definite number of nucleons at a definite impact parameter, in passing through the target nucleus, but the number of the protons among the nucleus seen fluctuates according the binomial formula; in average, this number corresponds to the neutron-proton ratio (A-Z0/Z. 21 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  19. The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron as a tool to study high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Brugger, M; Assmann, R; Shutov, A V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov3, V E

    2008-01-01

    An experimental facility named HiRadMat, will be constructed at CERN to study the impact of the 450 GeV c−1 proton beam generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) on solid targets. This is designed to study damage caused to the equipment including absorbers, collimators and others in case of an accidental release of the beam energy. This paper presents two-dimensional numerical simulations of target behavior irradiated by the SPS beam. These numerical simulations have shown that the target will be completely destroyed in such an accident, thereby generating high energy density (HED) matter. This study therefore suggests that this facility may also be used for carrying out dedicated experiments to study HED states in matter.

  20. Infant-mortality testing of high-energy-density capacitors used on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, B.T.; Whitham, K.

    1983-01-01

    Nova is a solid-state large laser for inertial-confinement fusion research. Its flashlamps are driven by a 60-MJ capacitor bank. Part of this bank is being built with high-energy-density capacitors, 52-μF, 22 kV, 12.5 kJ. A total of 2645 of these capacitors have been purchased from two manufacturers. Each capacitor was infant-mortality tested. The first test consisted of a high-potential test, bushing-to-case, since these capacitors have dual bushings. Then the capacitors were discharged 500 times with circuit conditions approximating the capacitors normal flashlamp load. Failure of either of these tests or if the capacitor was leaking was cause for rejection

  1. Infant mortality testing of high energy-density capacitors used on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, B.T.; Whitham, K.

    1983-01-01

    Nova is a solid state large laser for inertial confinement fusion research. Its flashlamps are driven by a 60 MJ capacitor bank. Part of this bank is being built with high energy-density capacitors, 52 μF, 22 KV, 12.5 KJ. A total of 2,645 of these capacitors have been purchased from two manufacturers. Each capacitor was infant mortality tested. The first test consisted of a high-potential test, bushing-to-case, since these capacitors have dual bushings. Then the capacitors were discharged 500 times with circuit conditions approximating the capacitors normal flashlamp load. Failure of either of these tests or if the capacitor was leaking was cause for rejection. The test results were remarkably good. Less than 0.5 percent failed the pulse-discharge test and less than 2.5 percent were rejected overall

  2. Newly discovered failure mode in high energy density, energy storage capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.; Kemp, E.L.

    1978-07-01

    High energy density pulse capacitors, typified by the 10-kV, 170-μF unit, have become widely used in recent years. These units primarily were designed for lower cost and higher energy per unit volume. The life characteristics of these units have never been determined fully, but they have already been shown capable of lives much longer than originally expected. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is now conducting an extended program to determine the long-term capabilities of these capacitors. This program is aimed not only at finding the statistical parameters of the failure distribution but also at determining the physical failure modes characteristic of such units. Recently, a new failure mode was found. This failure mode has prevented test samples of polypropylene-paper-dioctyl phthalate units from actually reaching the true potential life of the insulation. In this report, the new failure mechanism is examined and suggestions are made that could eliminate the failure mode

  3. Asymmetric battery having a semi-solid cathode and high energy density anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Taison; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Ota, Naoki; Wilder, Throop; Duduta, Mihai

    2017-11-28

    Embodiments described herein relate generally to devices, systems and methods of producing high energy density batteries having a semi-solid cathode that is thicker than the anode. An electrochemical cell can include a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector and an ion-permeable membrane disposed between the positive electrode current collector and the negative electrode current collector. The ion-permeable membrane is spaced a first distance from the positive electrode current collector and at least partially defines a positive electroactive zone. The ion-permeable membrane is spaced a second distance from the negative electrode current collector and at least partially defines a negative electroactive zone. The second distance is less than the first distance. A semi-solid cathode that includes a suspension of an active material and a conductive material in a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte is disposed in the positive electroactive zone, and an anode is disposed in the negative electroactive zone.

  4. Sparingly Solvating Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lei; Curtiss, Larry A.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Shao, Yuyan; Gallagher, Kevin

    2016-07-11

    Moving to lighter and less expensive battery chemistries compared to lithium-ion requires the control of energy storage mechanisms based on chemical transformations rather than intercalation. Lithium sulfur (Li/S) has tremendous theoretical specific energy, but contemporary approaches to control this solution-mediated, precipitation-dissolution chemistry requires using large excesses of electrolyte to fully solubilize the polysulfide intermediate. Achieving reversible electrochemistry under lean electrolyte operation is the only path for Li/S to move beyond niche applications to potentially transformational performance. An emerging topic for Li/S research is the use of sparingly solvating electrolytes and the creation of design rules for discovering new electrolyte systems that fundamentally decouple electrolyte volume from reaction mechanism. This perspective presents an outlook for sparingly solvating electrolytes as the key path forward for longer-lived, high-energy density Li/S batteries including an overview of this promising new concept and some strategies for accomplishing it.

  5. Production of high energy density in anti N-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an investigation of anti p- (and to a lesser extent) anti d- nucleus interactions are reported. The technique involves following the classical production and propagation of mesons (π,K + , K 0 , K - , K 0 , K*, eta, ω, phi) and baryons (N,Λ,Σ) in nuclei after antiparticle annihilation. It is found that small regions of the nucleus can be raised to sufficiently high energy densities that some predictions of a quark-gluon phase transition can be tested with the use of energetic antiprotons (5-10 GeV/c). the strangeness signal is examined and compared with the amount of strangeness produced in a recent experiment with 4 GeV/c incident antiprotons. A general expression is given for the total amount of strangeness produced which is invariant under intranuclear strangeness exchange reactions. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Research activities presented in this annual report were carried out in 1987 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation and investigation of hot dense matter. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense heavy ion beams. The new accelerator facility SIS/ESR now under construction at GSI will provide an excellent potential for research in this field. The construction work at the new validity is on schedule. The building construction is near completion and the SIS accelerator will have its first beam at the beginning of next year. First experiments at lower intensity will start in summer 1989 and the full program will run after the cooler and storage ring ESR has got operational. Accordingly, the planning and the preparation of the high energy density experiments at this unique facility was an essential part of the activities last year. In this funding period emphasis was given to the experimental activities at the existing accelerator. In addition to a number of accelerator-oriented and instrumental developments, an experiment on beam-plasma interaction had first exciting results, a significant increase of the stopping power for heavy ions in plasma was measured. Other important activities were the investigation of dielectronic recombination of highly charged ions, spectroscopic investigations aiming at the pumping of short wavelength lasers by heavy ion beams and a crossed beam experiment for the determination of Bi + + Bi + ionization cross sections. As in previous years theoretical work an space-charge dominated beam dynamics as well as on hydrodynamics of dense plasmas, radiation transport and beam plasma interaction was continued, thus providing a basis for the future experiments. (orig.)

  7. High Energy Storage Density and Impedance Response of PLZT2/95/5 Antiferroelectric Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi; Liu, Qiuxiang; Tang, Xingui; Zhang, Tianfu; Jiang, Yanping; Li, Wenhua; Luo, Jie

    2017-02-08

    (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ (PLZT2/95/5) ceramics were successfully prepared via a solid-state reaction route. The dielectric properties were investigated in the temperature region of 26-650 °C. The dielectric diffuse anomaly in the dielectric relaxation was found in the high temperature region of 600-650 °C with increasing the measuring frequency, which was related to the dynamic thermal process of ionized oxygen vacancies generated in the high temperature. Two phase transition points were detected during heating, which were found to coexist from 150 to 200 °C. Electric field induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition behavior of the (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ ceramics was investigated in this work with an emphasis on energy storage properties. A recoverable energy-storage density of 0.83 J/cm³ and efficiency of 70% was obtained in (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ ceramics at 55 kV/cm. Based on these results, (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ ceramics with a large recoverable energy-storage density could be a potential candidate for the applications in high energy-storage density ceramic capacitors.

  8. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  9. Development on the National Ignition Facility of a High Energy Density Opacity Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dodd, Evan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); DeVolder, Barbara Gloria [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johns, Heather Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cardenas, Tana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Archuleta, Thomas Nick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kline, John L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Flippo, Kirk Adler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sherrill, Manolo Edgar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilde, Bernhard Heinz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tregillis, Ian Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Douglas, Melissa Rae [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heeter, R. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Liedahl, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, B. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Iglesias, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schneider, M. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martin, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); London, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ahmed, M. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, N. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Emig, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zika, M. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Opachich, Y. P. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); King, J. A. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Ross, P. W. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Huffman, E. J. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Knight, R. A. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Koch, J. A. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Pond, T. D. [Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), NV (United States); Craxton, R. S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Zhang, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; McKenty, P. W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Garcia, E. M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Bailey, J. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, G. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-02

    X-ray opacity is a crucial factor in all radiation-hydrodynamics calculations, yet it is one of the least validated of the material properties in simulation codes for high-energy-density plasmas. Recent opacity experiments at the Sandia Z-machine have shown up to factors of two discrepancies between theory and experiment for various mid-Z elements (Fe, Cr, Ni). These discrepancies raise doubts regarding the accuracy of the opacity models which are used in ICF and stewardship as well as in astrophysics. Therefore, a new experimental opacity platform has been developed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), not only to verify the Z-machine experimental results, but also to extend the experiments to other temperatures and densities. Within the context of the national opacity strategy, the first NIF experiments were directed towards measuring the opacity of iron at a temperature of ~160 eV and an electron density of ~7xl021 cm-3(Anchor 1). The Z data agree with theory at these conditions, providing a reference point for validation of the NIF platform. Development shots on NIF have demonstrated the ability to create a sufficiently bright point backlighter using an imploding plastic capsule, and also a combined hohlraum, sample and laser drive able to produce iron plasmas at the desired conditions. Spectrometer qualification has been completed, albeit with additional improvements planned, and the first iron absorption spectra have now been obtained.

  10. High Energy Storage Density and Impedance Response of PLZT2/95/5 Antiferroelectric Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available (Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 (PLZT2/95/5 ceramics were successfully prepared via a solid-state reaction route. The dielectric properties were investigated in the temperature region of 26–650 °C. The dielectric diffuse anomaly in the dielectric relaxation was found in the high temperature region of 600–650 °C with increasing the measuring frequency, which was related to the dynamic thermal process of ionized oxygen vacancies generated in the high temperature. Two phase transition points were detected during heating, which were found to coexist from 150 to 200 °C. Electric field induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition behavior of the (Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 ceramics was investigated in this work with an emphasis on energy storage properties. A recoverable energy-storage density of 0.83 J/cm3 and efficiency of 70% was obtained in (Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 ceramics at 55 kV/cm. Based on these results, (Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05O3 ceramics with a large recoverable energy-storage density could be a potential candidate for the applications in high energy-storage density ceramic capacitors.

  11. Hydrate-melt electrolytes for high-energy-density aqueous batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Usui, Kenji; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Ko, Seongjae; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous Li-ion batteries are attracting increasing attention because they are potentially low in cost, safe and environmentally friendly. However, their low energy density (water and the limited selection of suitable negative electrodes, is problematic for their future widespread application. Here, we explore optimized eutectic systems of several organic Li salts and show that a room-temperature hydrate melt of Li salts can be used as a stable aqueous electrolyte in which all water molecules participate in Li+ hydration shells while retaining fluidity. This hydrate-melt electrolyte enables a reversible reaction at a commercial Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with a low reaction potential (1.55 V versus Li+/Li) and a high capacity (175 mAh g-1). The resultant aqueous Li-ion batteries with high energy density (>130 Wh kg-1) and high voltage (˜2.3-3.1 V) represent significant progress towards performance comparable to that of commercial non-aqueous batteries (with energy densities of ˜150-400 Wh kg-1 and voltages of ˜2.4-3.8 V).

  12. Flexible Aqueous Li-Ion Battery with High Energy and Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chongyin; Ji, Xiao; Fan, Xiulin; Gao, Tao; Suo, Liumin; Wang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Chen, Ji; Chen, Long; Han, Fudong; Miao, Ling; Xu, Kang; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-11-01

    A flexible and wearable aqueous symmetrical lithium-ion battery is developed using a single LiVPO 4 F material as both cathode and anode in a "water-in-salt" gel polymer electrolyte. The symmetric lithium-ion chemistry exhibits high energy and power density and long cycle life, due to the formation of a robust solid electrolyte interphase consisting of Li 2 CO 3 -LiF, which enables fast Li-ion transport. Energy densities of 141 Wh kg -1 , power densities of 20 600 W kg -1 , and output voltage of 2.4 V can be delivered during >4000 cycles, which is far superior to reported aqueous energy storage devices at the same power level. Moreover, the full cell shows unprecedented tolerance to mechanical stress such as bending and cutting, where it not only does not catastrophically fail, as most nonaqueous cells would, but also maintains cell performance and continues to operate in ambient environment, a unique feature apparently derived from the high stability of the "water-in-salt" gel polymer electrolyte. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Facile synthesis of polyaniline nanotubes using reactive oxide templates for high energy density pseudocapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable energy density of 84 W h kg(cell) -1 and a power density of 182 kW kg(cell) -1 have been achieved for full-cell pseudocapacitors using conducting polymer nanotubes (polyaniline) as electrode materials and ionic liquid as electrolytes. The polyaniline nanotubes were synthesized by a one-step in situ chemical polymerization process utilizing MnO2 nanotubes as sacrificial templates. The polyaniline-nanotube pseudocapacitors exhibit much better electrochemical performance than the polyaniline-nanofiber pseudocapacitors in both acidic aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes. Importantly, the incorporation of ionic liquid with polyaniline-nanotubes has drastically improved the energy storage capacity of the PAni-nanotube pseudocapacitors by a factor of ∼5 times compared to that of the PAni-nanotube pseudocapacitors in the acidic aqueous electrolyte. Furthermore, even after 10000 cycles, the PAni-nanotube pseudocapacitors in the ionic liquid electrolyte maintain sufficient high energy density and can light LEDs for several minutes, with only 30 s quick charge. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Pulse Power Capability Of High Energy Density Capacitors Based on a New Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Paul; Scholz, Tim; Hudis, Martin; Slenes, Kirk M.

    1999-01-01

    A new dielectric composite consisting of a polymer coated onto a high-density metallized Kraft has been developed for application in high energy density pulse power capacitors. The polymer coating is custom formulated for high dielectric constant and strength with minimum dielectric losses. The composite can be wound and processed using conventional wound film capacitor manufacturing equipment. This new system has the potential to achieve 2 to 3 J/cu cm whole capacitor energy density at voltage levels above 3.0 kV, and can maintain its mechanical properties to temperatures above 150 C. The technical and manufacturing development of the composite material and fabrication into capacitors are summarized in this paper. Energy discharge testing, including capacitance and charge-discharge efficiency at normal and elevated temperatures, as well as DC life testing were performed on capacitors manufactured using this material. TPL (Albuquerque, NM) has developed the material and Aerovox (New Bedford, MA) has used the material to build and test actual capacitors. The results of the testing will focus on pulse power applications specifically those found in electro-magnetic armor and guns, high power microwave sources and defibrillators.

  15. Deposition of thin films and surface modification by pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Pengxun; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    The use of pulsed high energy density plasma is a new low temperature plasma technology for material surface treatment and thin film deposition. The authors present detailed theoretical and experimental studies of the production mechanism and physical properties of the pulsed plasma. The basic physics of the pulsed plasma-material interaction has been investigated. Diagnostic measurements show that the pulsed plasma has a high electron temperature of 10-100 eV, density of 10 14 -10 16 cm -3 , translation velocity of ∼10 -7 cm/s and power density of ∼10 4 W/cm 2 . Its use in material surface treatment combines the effects of laser surface treatment, electron beam treatment, shock wave bombardment, ion implantation, sputtering deposition and chemical vapor deposition. The metastable phase and other kinds of compounds can be produced on low temperature substrates. For thin film deposition, a high deposition ratio and strong film to substrate adhesion can be achieved. The thin film deposition and material surface modification by the pulsed plasma and related physical mechanism have been investigated. Thin film c-BN, Ti(CN), TiN, DLC and AlN materials have been produced successfully on various substrates at room temperature. A wide interface layer exists between film and substrate, resulting in strong adhesion. Metal surface properties can be improved greatly by using this kind of treatment

  16. Agglomeration of amorphous silicon film with high energy density excimer laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Metselaar, Wim; Beenakker, Kees

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, agglomeration phenomena of amorphous Si (α-Si) films due to high energy density excimer laser irradiation are systematically investigated. The agglomeration, which creates holes or breaks the continuous Si film up into spherical beads, is a type of serious damage. Therefore, it determines an upper energy limit for excimer laser crystallization. It is speculated that the agglomeration is caused by the boiling of molten Si. During this process, outbursts of heterogeneously nucleated vapor bubbles are promoted by the poor wetting property of molten silicon on the SiO 2 layer underneath. The onset of the agglomeration is defined by extrapolating the hole density as a function of the energy density of the laser pulse. A SiO 2 capping layer (CL) is introduced on top of the α-Si film to investigate its influence on the agglomeration. It is found that effects of the CL depend on its thickness. The CL with a thickness less than 300 nm can be used to suppress the agglomeration. A thin CL acts as a confining layer and puts a constraint on bubble burst, and hence suppresses the agglomeration

  17. Progress toward Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a High-Energy-Density Plasma on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.; Gillespie, R. S.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Plewa, T.; Dwarkadas, V. V.

    2008-04-01

    In the realm of high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, there exist three primary hydrodynamic instabilities of concern: Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH). Although the RT and the RM instabilities have been readily observed and diagnosed in the laboratory, the KH instability remains relatively unexplored in HED plasmas. Unlike the RT and RM instabilities, the KH instability is driven by a lifting force generated by a strong velocity gradient in a stratified fluid. Understanding the KH instability mechanism in HED plasmas will provide essential insight into oblique shock systems, jets, mass stripping, and detailed RT-spike development. In addition, our KH experiment will help provide the groundwork for future transition to turbulence experiments. We present 2D FLASH simulations and experimental data from our initial attempts to create a pure KH system using the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  18. Sr-doped Lanthanum Nickelate Nanofibers for High Energy Density Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yi; Lin, Baoping; Sun, Ying; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xueqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The electrode made by LNF-0.7 possessed excellent performance (719 F g −1 ) at Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte • LNF-0.7//LNF-0.7 symmetric supercapacitor device were firstly prepared • The maximum energy density of 81.4 Wh·kg −1 are achieved at a power density of 500W·kg −1 • This symmetric supercapacitor also shows an excellent cycling life - Abstract: The series La x Sr 1−x NiO 3−δ (0.3≤x≤1) nanofibers (LNF-x) samples are prepared by using electrospun method. We investigate the structure and the electrochemical properties of LNF-x in detail. As a result, LNF-x nanofibers present a perovskite structure, and the LNF-0.7 sample with high specific surface area display remarkable performance as an electrode material for supercapacitors. The maximum specific capacitance value of 719 F·g −1 at a current density of 2 A·g −1 , which retains 505 F·g −1 at a high current density of 20 A·g −1 , is obtained for LNF-0.7 electrode in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte. Moreover, the LNF-0.7//LNF-0.7 symmetric supercapacitor device using 1 M Na 2 SO 4 aqueous solution is successfully demonstrated. The capacitor device can operate at a cell voltage as high as 2 V, and it exhibits an energy density of 30.5 Wh·kg −1 at a high power density of 10 kW·kg −1 and a high energy density of 81.4 Wh·kg −1 at a low power density of 500 W·kg −1 . More importantly, this symmetric supercapacitor also shows an excellent cycling performance with 90% specific capacitance retention after 2000 charging and discharging cycles. Those results offer a suitable design of electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors

  19. New class of two-dimensional bimetallic nanoplatelets for high energy density and electrochemically stable hybrid supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiting; Ma, Peng; Ulstrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the application of supercapacitors (SCs) in portable electronic devices and vehicles is limited by their low energy density. Developing high-energy density SCs without sacrificing their advantages, such as their long-term stability and high power density, has thus become an increasing...... and a 96.1% retention of the initial capacitance over 5,000 cycles. We exploited the novel 2D nanoplatelets as cathode materials to assemble a hybrid SC for full-cell tests. The resulting SCs operated in a wide potential window of 0 - 1.7 V, exhibited a high energy density over 50 Wh·kg-1, and sustained...

  20. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  1. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  2. Studies on the production of high energy densities in matter by intense heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.

    1989-08-01

    In the framework of the present thesis the interaction of an intense heavy-ion beam with a small, but macroscopical amount of matter is studied. Thereby high energy densities in the target matter are produced. For this experiment it was for the first time possible to heat matter with ion beams from conventional heavy-ion accelerators up to plasma conditions. A KR + -ion beam was first accelerated with the heavy-ion accelerator MAXILAC to 45 keV/u and then focussed by a fine-focusing lens to a closed xenon gas target. The light emitted from the target was space- and time resolved taken up by a spectrometer as well as by a streak and CCD camera. Thereby the radial development of the plasma and the penetration behaviour of the ion beam was observed. The free electron density of the plasma was determined from the Stark broadening of emission lines (n e ≅ 4x10 16 cm -3 ). The temperature could be determined by different methods (shock-wave velocity, degree of ionization, line ratios). The electron temperature amounted in the center of the pipe to kT ≅ 0.75 eV. For the opacity of the target by which the emitted light power is determined under the assumption of the two-dimensional model (equilibrium between emitted and absorbed energy) the value κ p ≅ 7700 cm 2 /g resulted. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. Studies on the production of high energy density in matter with intense heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the framework of the present thesis the interaction of an intense heavy-ion beam with a small, but macroscopic, amount of matter is studied. Thereby high energy densities are produced in the target matter. For this experiment it was for the first time possible to heat matter with ion beams from conventional heavy-ion accelerators up to plasma conditions. A Kr + ion beam was first accelerated with the heavy-ion accelerator MAXILAC to 45 keV/u and then focused by a fine-focusing lens on a closed xenon gas target. The light emitted from the target was space- and time-resolved taken up with a spectrometer as well a streak and CCD camera. Thereby the radial development of the plasma and the penetration behaviour of the ion beam were consecuted. The free-electron density of the plasma was determined from the Stark-broadening of emission lines (n e ≅ 4x10 16 cm -3 ). The electron temperature amounted in the center of the pipelet kT ≅ 0.75 eV. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Thulium heat source for high-endurance and high-energy density power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.; Kammeraad, J.E.; Van Konynenburg, R.; VanSant, J.H.

    1991-05-01

    We are studying the performance characteristics of radioisotope heat source designs for high-endurance and high-energy-density power systems that use thulium-170. Heat sources in the power range of 5--50 kW th coupled with a power conversion efficiency of ∼30%, can easily satisfy current missions for autonomous underwater vehicles. New naval missions will be possible because thulium isotope power systems have a factor of one-to-two hundred higher endurance and energy density than chemical and electrochemical systems. Thulium-170 also has several other attractive features, including the fact that it decays to stable ytterbium-170 with a half-life of four months. For terrestrial applications, refueling on that time scale should be acceptable in view of the advantage of its benign decay. The heat source designs we are studying account for the requirements of isotope production, shielding, and integration with power conversion components. These requirements are driven by environmental and safety considerations. Thulium is present in the form of thin refractory thulia disks that allow power conversion at high peak temperature. We give estimates of power system state points, performance, mass, and volume characteristics. Monte Carlo radiation analysis provides a detailed assessment of shield requirements and heat transfer under normal and distressed conditions is also considered. 11 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  5. High Energy Density and High Temperature Multilayer Capacitor Films for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treufeld, Imre; Song, Michelle; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric; Snyder, Joe; Langhe, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer films (MLFs) with high energy density and high temperature capability (>120 °C) have been developed at Case Western Reserve University. Such films offer a potential solution for electric car DC-link capacitors, where high ripple currents and high temperature tolerance are required. The current state-of-the-art capacitors used in electric cars for converting DC to AC use biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), which can only operate at temperatures up to 85 °C requiring an external cooling system. The polycarbonate (PC)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) MLFs have a higher permittivity compared to that of BOPP (2.3), leading to higher energy density. They have good mechanical stability and reasonably low dielectric losses at 120 °C. Nonetheless, our preliminary dielectric measurements show that the MLFs exhibit appreciable dielectric losses (20%) at 120 °C, which would, despite all the other advantages, make them not suitable for practical applications. Our preliminary data showed that dielectric losses of the MLFs at 120 °C up to 400 MV/m and 1000 Hz originate mostly from impurity ionic conduction. This work is supported by the NSF PFI/BIC Program (IIP-1237708).

  6. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  7. Research Opportunities in High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas on the NDCX-II Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, John; Cohen, Ron; Friedman, Alex; Grote, Dave; Lund, Steven; Sharp, Bill; Bieniosek, Frank; Ni, Pavel; Roy, Prabir; Henestroza, Enrique; Jung, Jin-Young; Kwan, Joe; Lee, Ed; Leitner, Matthaeus; Lidia, Steven; Logan, Grant; Seidl, Peter; Vay, Jean-Luc; Waldron, Will

    2009-01-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions offer a very attractive tool for fundamental research in high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy science. These applications build on the significant recent advances in the generation, compression and focusing of intense heavy ion beams in the presence of a neutralizing background plasma. Such beams can provide uniform volumetric heating of the target during a time-scale shorter than the hydrodynamic response time, thereby enabling a significant suite of experiments that will elucidate the underlying physics of dense, strongly-coupled plasma states, which have been heretofore poorly understood and inadequately diagnosed, particularly in the warm dense matter regime. The innovations, fundamental knowledge, and experimental capabilities developed in this basic research program is also expected to provide new research opportunities to study the physics of directly-driven ion targets, which can dramatically reduce the size of heavy ion beam drivers for inertial fusion energy applications. Experiments examining the behavior of thin target foils heated to the warm dense matter regime began at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 2008, using the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment - I (NDCX-I) facility, and its associated target chamber and diagnostics. The upgrade of this facility, called NDCX-II, will enable an exciting set of scientific experiments that require highly uniform heating of the target, using Li + ions which enter the target with kinetic energy in the range of 3 MeV, slightly above the Bragg peak for energy deposition, and exit with energies slightly below the Bragg peak. This document briefly summarizes the wide range of fundamental scientific experiments that can be carried out on the NDCX-II facility, pertaining to the two charges presented to the 2008 Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee (FESAC) panel on High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas (HEDLP). These charges include: (1) Identify the

  8. Use of a high density lead glass tubing projection chamber in positron emission tomography and in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.; Guerra, A.D.; Habel, R.; Mulera, T.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schwartz, G.

    1985-10-01

    We describe the principle of operation of a high density Projection Chamber, in which the converter/radiator and drift field shaping structures are combined in the form of high density (5 to 6 g/cm 3 ) lead glass tubing. The main applications of this type of detector to Medical Physics (Positron Emission Tomography) and High Energy Physics (Electromagnetic Calorimetry) are discussed

  9. Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I), and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations.

  10. High energy density supercapacitors from lignin derived submicron activated carbon fibers in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sixiao; Zhang, Sanliang; Pan, Ning; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2014-12-01

    Highly porous submicron activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were robustly generated from low sulfonated alkali lignin and fabricated into supercapacitors for capacitive energy storage. The hydrophilic and high specific surface ACFs exhibited large-size nanographites and good electrical conductivity to demonstrate outstanding electrochemical performance. ACFs from KOH activation, in particular, showed very high 344 F g-1 specific capacitance at low 1.8 mg cm-2 mass loading and 10 mV s-1 scan rate in aqueous electrolytes. Even at relatively high scan rate of 50 mV s-1 and mass loading of 10 mg cm-2, a decent specific capacitance of 196 F g-1 and a remarkable areal capacitance of 0.55 F cm-2 was obtained, leading to high energy density of 8.1 Wh kg-1 based on averaged electrodes mass. Furthermore, over 96% capacitance retention rates were achieved after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Such excellent performance demonstrated great potential of lignin derived carbons for electrical energy storage.

  11. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Kain, V; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Temporal, M; Hoffmann, D H H; Fortov, V E

    2005-04-08

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15x10(11) protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3x10(14) and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma=0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mus. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  12. The equation of state package FEOS for high energy density matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faik, Steffen; Tauschwitz, Anna; Iosilevskiy, Igor

    2018-06-01

    Adequate equation of state (EOS) data is of high interest in the growing field of high energy density physics and especially essential for hydrodynamic simulation codes. The semi-analytical method used in the newly developed Frankfurt equation of state (FEOS) package provides an easy and fast access to the EOS of - in principle - arbitrary materials. The code is based on the well known QEOS model (More et al., 1988; Young and Corey, 1995) and is a further development of the MPQeos code (Kemp and Meyer-ter Vehn, 1988; Kemp and Meyer-ter Vehn, 1998) from Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik (MPQ) in Garching Germany. The list of features contains the calculation of homogeneous mixtures of chemical elements and the description of the liquid-vapor two-phase region with or without a Maxwell construction. Full flexibility of the package is assured by its structure: A program library provides the EOS with an interface designed for Fortran or C/C++ codes. Two additional software tools allow for the generation of EOS tables in different file output formats and for the calculation and visualization of isolines and Hugoniot shock adiabats. As an example the EOS of fused silica (SiO2) is calculated and compared to experimental data and other EOS codes.

  13. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements over a wide range of temperatures. The 150-300 eV temperature range is particularly interesting. The opacity models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate theoretical opacities. Testing these opacities requires well-characterized plasmas at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlight must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self-emission. These problems can be overcome with the new generation of high energy density (HED) facilities. For example, recent experiments at Sandia's Z facility [M. K. Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] measured the transmission of a mixed Mg and Fe plasma heated to 156±6 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other HED plasmas. This tutorial reviews experimental methods for testing opacity models, including experiment design, transmission measurement methods, accuracy evaluation, and plasma diagnostics. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments illustrate the techniques.

  14. Parameter scaling toward high-energy density in a quasi-steady flow Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. C.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Claveau, E. L.; Doty, S. A.; Forbes, E. G.; Kim, B.; Ross, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Sheared axial flows are utilized by the ZaP Flow Z-Pinch Experiment to stabilize MHD instabilities. The pinches formed are 50 cm long with radii ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 cm. The plasma is generated in a coaxial acceleration region, similar to a Marshall gun, which provides a steady supply of plasma for approximately 100 us. The power to the plasma is partially decoupled between the acceleration and pinch assembly regions through the use of separate power supplies. Adiabatic scaling of the Bennett relation gives targets for future devices to reach high-energy density conditions or fusion reactors. The applicability of an adiabatic assumption is explored and work is done experimentally to clarify the plasma compression process, which may be more generally polytropic. The device is capable of a much larger parameter space than previous machine iterations, allowing flexibility in the initial conditions of the compression process to preserve stability. This work is supported by DoE FES and NNSA.

  15. Preparation of Ta(C)N films by pulsed high energy density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wenran [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Chen Guangliang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Zhang Yan [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Gu Weichao [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Zhang Guling [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Niu Erwu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Liu Chizi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Yang Size [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China)

    2007-04-07

    The pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) is generated in the working gas due to a high-voltage high-current discharge, within a coaxial gun. In PHEDP surface modification, discharge is applied for preparing the amorphous and nanostructured high-melting materials as thin films deposited on various substrates. In this investigation, Ta(C)N films were deposited using PHEDP on stainless steel. Pure tantalum and graphite were used as the inner and outer electrodes of the PHEDP coaxial gun, respectively. Nitrogen was used as the working gas and also one of the reactants. Preliminary study on the films prepared under different conditions shows that the formation of Ta(C)N is drastically voltage dependent. At lower gun voltage, no Ta(C)N was detected in the films; when the gun voltage reaches or exceeds 3.0 kV, Ta(C)N occurred. The films are composed of densely stacked nanocrystallines with diameter less than 30 nm, and some grains are within 10 nm in diameter.

  16. Using Magnetic Fields to Create and Control High Energy Density Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Mark [Sandia National Laboratory

    2012-05-09

    The recently refurbished Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories is the world’s largest pulsed power driver. Z can efficiently deliver currents as large as 26 Million Amperes to centimeter scale loads. These large currents create large magnetic fields that, in turn, create very large pressures in conducting materials. These very large pressures have been used to create unique conditions for high energy density science experiments for a variety of applications. Recently, we have been exploring the use of very strong magnetic fields to significantly relax the requirements for achieving inertial confinement fusion self heating1. The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept relies on a cylindrically imploding liner, an axial magnetic field, and a laser heated fuel region. We hope to achieve significant fusion yield on the Z facility with this concept. Initial experiments assessing the growth of the Magneto-Rayleigh Taylor instability are promising and recent calculational work has identified an approach to achieving high gain with this concept.

  17. High-energy-density hydrogen-halogen fuel cells for advanced military applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balko, E.N.; McElroy, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that hydrogen-halogen fuel cell systems are particularly suited for an employment as ground power sources for military applications. The large cell potential and reversible characteristics of the H 2 Cl 2 and H 2 Br 2 couples permit high energy storage density and efficient energy conversion. When used as flow batteries, the fluid nature of the reactants in the hydrogen-halogen systems has several advantages over power sources which involve solid phases. Very deep discharge is possible without degradation of subsequent performance, and energy storage capacity is limited only by the external reactant storage volume. Very rapid chemical recharging is possible through replenishment of the reactant supply. A number of H 2 Cl 2 and H 2 Br 2 fuel cell systems have been studied. These systems use the same solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) cell technology originally developed for H2/O2 fuel cells. The results of the investigation are illustrated with the aid of a number of graphs

  18. Megagauss field generation for high-energy-density plasma science experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovang, Dean Curtis; Struve, Kenneth William; Porter, John Larry Jr.

    2008-01-01

    There is a need to generate magnetic fields both above and below 1 megagauss (100 T) with compact generators for laser-plasma experiments in the Beamlet and Petawatt test chambers for focused research on fundamental properties of high energy density magnetic plasmas. Some of the important topics that could be addressed with such a capability are magnetic field diffusion, particle confinement, plasma instabilities, spectroscopic diagnostic development, material properties, flux compression, and alternate confinement schemes, all of which could directly support experiments on Z. This report summarizes a two-month study to develop preliminary designs of magnetic field generators for three design regimes. These are, (1) a design for a relatively low-field (10 to 50 T), compact generator for modest volumes (1 to 10 cm3), (2) a high-field (50 to 200 T) design for smaller volumes (10 to 100 mm3), and (3) an extreme field (greater than 600 T) design that uses flux compression. These designs rely on existing Sandia pulsed-power expertise and equipment, and address issues of magnetic field scaling with capacitor bank design and field inductance, vacuum interface, and trade-offs between inductance and coil designs

  19. Solid ionic: these unusual materials applications in high-energy-density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, D.F.; Farrington, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The idea that ions can diffuse as rapidly in a solid as in an aqueous salt solution may seem strange to many chemists. But a variety of solids with high ionic conductivities are known. Compounds have been discovered that conduct anions (including F - and O 2- ) and cations (including monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations). These substances range from hard, refractory materials, such as sodium β-alumina, through softer compounds, such as silver iodide (AgI) to the very soft polymer electrolytes. They include compounds that are stoichiometric (AgI), nonstoichiometric (sodium β-alumina), or doped (calcia-stabilized zirconia). A variety of names have been applied to these materials: among them, solid electrolytes, superionic conductors, and fast-ion conductors. Fast-ion transport in solids is a lively area of study in solid-state chemistry and physics. High-conductivity solid electrolytes have revolutionized conventional concepts of ionic compounds, and their potential uses range from high-energy-density battery and fuel-cell electrolytes to chemical sensors and from lasers to phosphors. Devices using solid electrolytes are already available commercially-oxygen detectors for automotive pollution-control systems employ solid O 2- electrolytes, and solid-state batteries using solid electrolytes are employed in heart pacemakers

  20. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  1. Tunable porous structure of carbon nanosheets derived from puffed rice for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Jiang, Kun; Tahir, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoge; Idrees, Faryal; Shen, Ming; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-12-01

    The development of green and clean synthetic techniques to overcome energy requirements have motivated the researchers for the utilization of sustainable biomass. Driven by this desire we choose rice as starting materials source. After the explosion effect, the precursor is converted into puffed rice with a honeycomb-like structures composed of thin sheets. These honeycomb-like macrostructures, effectively prevent the cross-linking tendency towards the adjacent nanosheets during activation process. Furthermore, tuneable micro/mesoporous structures with ultrahigh specific surface areas (SBET) are successfully designed by KOH activation. The highest SBET of 3326 m2 g-1 with optimized proportion of small-mesopores is achieved at 850 °C. The rice-derived porous N-doped carbon nanosheets (NCS-850) are used as the active electrode materials for supercapacitors. It exhibites high specific capacitance specifically of 218 F g-1 at 80 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and a high-energy density of 104 Wh kg-1 (53 Wh L-1) in the ionic liquid electrolytes. These are the highest values among the reported biomass-derived carbon materials for the best of our knowledge. The present work demonstrates that the combination of "puffing effect" and common chemical activation can turn natural products such as rice into functional products with prospective applications in high-performance energy storage devices.

  2. The CERN Large Hadron Collider as a tool to study high-energy density matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Gryaznov, V; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will generate two extremely powerful 7 TeV proton beams. Each beam will consist of 2808 bunches with an intensity per bunch of 1.15*10/sup 11/ protons so that the total number of protons in one beam will be about 3*10/sup 14/ and the total energy will be 362 MJ. Each bunch will have a duration of 0.5 ns and two successive bunches will be separated by 25 ns, while the power distribution in the radial direction will be Gaussian with a standard deviation, sigma =0.2 mm. The total duration of the beam will be about 89 mu s. Using a 2D hydrodynamic code, we have carried out numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper target that is irradiated with one of the LHC beams. These calculations show that only the first few hundred proton bunches will deposit a high specific energy of 400 kJ/g that will induce exotic states of high energy density in matter.

  3. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy, but they sure are fun.

  4. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy and they are as saturated with politics as a presidential election, but they sure are fun.

  5. Large high current density superconducting solenoids for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Eberhard, P.H.; Taylor, J.D.

    1976-05-01

    Very often the study of high energy physics in colliding beam storage-rings requires a large magnetic field volume in order to detect and analyze charged particles which are created from the collision of two particle beams. Large superconducting solenoids which are greater than 1 meter in diameter are required for this kind of physics. In many cases, interesting physics can be done outside the magnet coil, and this often requires that the amount of material in the magnet coil be minimized. As a result, these solenoids should have high current density (up to 10 9 A m -2 ) superconducting windings. The methods commonly used to stabilize large superconducting magnets cannot be employed because of this need to minimize the amount of material in the coils. A description is given of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory program for building and testing prototype solenoid magnets which are designed to operate at coil current densities in excess of 10 9 A m -2 with magnetic stored energies which are as high as 1.5 Megajoules per meter of solenoid length. The coils use intrinsically stable multifilament Nb--Ti superconductors. Control of the magnetic field quench is achieved by using a low resistance aluminum bore tube which is inductively coupled to the coil. The inner cryostat is replaced by a tubular cooling system which carries two phase liquid helium. The magnet coil, the cooling tubes, and aluminum bore tube are cast in epoxy to form a single unified magnet and cryogenic system which is about 2 centimeters thick. The results of the magnet coil tests are discussed

  6. Measurements of Ion Stopping around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenje, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades, ion stopping in weakly- to strongly-coupled High-Energy-Density (HED) plasmas has been subject to extensive analytical and numerical studies, but only a limited set of experimental data exists to check the validity of these theories. Most of these experiments also did not probe the detailed characteristics of the Bragg peak (peak ion stopping) where the ion velocity is similar to the average thermal electron velocity. To the best of our knowledge, only one exploratory attempt to do this was conducted by Hicks et al., who were able to describe qualitatively the behavior of the Bragg peak for one plasma condition. The work described in this presentation makes significant advances over previous experimental efforts by quantitatively assessing the characteristics of the ion stopping, ranging from low-velocity stopping, through the Bragg peak, to high-velocity stopping for different HED plasma conditions. This was achieved by measuring the energy loss of DD-tritons, D3He-alphas, DD-protons and D3He-protons, with distinctly different velocities, and the results indicate that the stopping power varies strongly with Te and ne. This effort represents the first experimental test of state-of-art plasma-stopping-power theories around the Bragg peak, which is an important first step in our efforts of getting a fundamental understanding of DT-alpha stopping in HED plasmas, a prerequisite for understanding ignition margins in various implosion designs with varying hot spot areal density at the National Ignition Facility. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  7. Advanced Materials Enabled by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Energy Density Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin

    In order to meet the ever increasing energy needs of society and realize the US Department of Energy (DOE)'s target for energy storage, acquiring a fundamental understanding of the chemical mechanisms in batteries for direct guidance and searching novel advanced materials with high energy density are critical. To realize rechargeable batteries with superior energy density, great cathodes and excellent anodes are required. LiMn2O4 (LMO) has been considered as a simpler surrogate for high energy cathode materials like NMC. Previous studies demonstrated that Al2O3 coatings prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) improved the capacity of LMO cathodes. This improvement was attributed to a reduction in surface area and diminished Mn dissolution. However, here we propose a different mechanism for ALD Al 2O3 on LMO based on in-situ and ex-situ investigations coupled with density functional theory calculations. We discovered that Al2O 3 not only coats the LMO, but also dopes the LMO surface with Al leading to changes in the Mn oxidation state. Different thicknesses of Al2O 3 were deposited on nonstoichiometric LiMn2O4 for electrochemical measurements. The LMO treated with one cycle of ALD Al2O3 (1xAl 2O3 LMO) to produce a sub-monolayer coating yielded a remarkable initial capacity, 16.4% higher than its uncoated LMO counterpart in full cells. The stability of 1xAl2O3 LMO is also much better as a result of stabilized defects with Al species. Furthermore, 4xAl 2O3 LMO demonstrates remarkable capacity retention. Stoichiometric LiMn2O4 was also evaluated with similar improved performance achieved. All superior results, accomplished by great stability and reduced Mn dissolution, is thanks to the synergetic effects of Al-doping and ALD Al2O 3 coating. Turning our attention to the anode, we again utilized aluminum oxide ALD to form conformal films on lithium. We elaborately designed and studied, for the first time, the growth mechanism during Al2O3 ALD on lithium metal in

  8. Final Report. Hydrodynamics by high-energy-density plasma flow and hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves

  9. Contribution to the development of a primary standard for high energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancaux, M.

    1983-12-01

    A tissue equivalent calorimeter, made of Shonka A-150 plastic, has been constructed in order to create a primary standard for high energy neutrons and to establish a calibration procedure for ionization chambers used in neutrontherapy. After a detailed description of the calorimeter and the associated measuring system, the preliminary tests are presented, in particular, the evolution of the response as a function of accumulated dose. The measurements of the total absorbed dose (n + γ) by calorimetry in a neutron beam, in order to determine chambers' calibration factors in terms of absorbed dose to A-150 plastic, have been performed at the Neutrontherapy Unit of the Centre Hospitalier Regional d'Orleans. The uncertainty in the determination of the total absorbed dose to the tissu equivalent material using the new procedure is 3% lower than that obtained with the usual procedure, derived from an exposure calibration [fr

  10. High energy density layered-spinel hybrid cathodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S., E-mail: sbasumajumder@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Dahiya, P.P.; Akhtar, Mainul [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Ray, S.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chang, J.K. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Majumder, S.B. [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Structural integration of layered domains in spinel matrix of the composite particles. • Highest discharge capacity (275 mAh g{sup −1}) in composite with 30.0 mole% Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}. • Reasonably good rate capability of layered-spinel composite cathode. • Capacity fading with cycling is related to cubic to tetragonal structural phase transition. - Abstract: High energy density Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} (layered)–LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (spinel) composite cathodes have been synthesized using auto-combustion route. Rietveld refinements together with the analyses of high resolution transmission electron micrographs confirm the structural integration of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} nano-domains into the LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} matrix of the composite cathodes. The discharge capacity of the composite cathodes are due to the intercalation of Li{sup +} ion in the tetrahedral (8a) and octahedral (16c) sites of the spinel component and also the insertion of Li{sup +} in the freshly prepared MnO{sub 2} lattice, formed after Li{sub 2}O extraction from the Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} domains. The capacity fading of the composite cathodes are explained to be due to the layered to spinel transition of the Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} component and Li{sup +} insertion into the octahedral site of the spinel lattices which trigger cubic to tetragonal phase transition resulting volume expansion which eventually retard the Li{sup +} intercalation with cycling.

  11. Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L., E-mail: lyin@lanl.gov; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a kλ{sub D} range of 0.15 < kλ{sub D} < 0.5, where stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is active (k is the initial electron plasma wave number and λ{sub D} is the Debye length). Using particle-in-cell simulations, the SRS reflectivity is found to scale as ∼ (kλ{sub D}){sup −4} for kλ{sub D} ≳ 0.3 where electron trapping effects dominate SRS saturation; the reflectivity scaling deviates from the above for kλ{sub D} < 0.3 when Langmuir decay instability (LDI) is present. The SRS risk is shown to be highest for kλ{sub D} between 0.2 and 0.3. SRS re-scattering processes are found to be unimportant under conditions relevant to ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Large-scale simulations of the hohlraum plasma show that the SRS wavelength spectrum peaks below 600 nm, consistent with most measured NIF spectra, and that nonlinear trapping in the presence of plasma gradients determines the SRS spectral peak. Collisional effects on SRS, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), LDI, and re-scatter, together with three dimensional effects, are examined. Effects of collisions are found to include de-trapping as well as cross-speckle electron temperature variation from collisional heating, the latter of which reduces gain, introduces a positive frequency shift that counters the trapping-induced negative frequency shift, and affects SRS and SBS saturation. Bowing and breakup of ion-acoustic wavefronts saturate SBS and cause a dramatic, sharp decrease in SBS reflectivity. Mitigation of SRS and SBS in the strongly nonlinear trapping regime is discussed.

  12. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  13. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Dariusz; Chudoba, Tadeusz; Malka, Iwona; Kedzierska, Aleksandra; Lojkowski, Witold; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof Jan; Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska, Małgorzata; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 μmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material extract, and in direct contact. A quantitative analysis was based on the 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. Viability assay as well as on DNA content measurements in the PicoGreen test. Indirect observations were performed at one point in time according to the ISO standard for in vitro cytotoxicity (ie, after 24 hours of cell exposure to the extracts). The direct contact tests were completed at three time points: after 24 hours, on day 7, and on day 14 of a culture in an osteogenic

  14. Applications of Robust, Radiation Hard AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices in Space Exploration and High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K.

    2011-05-04

    This slide show presents: space exploration applications; high energy density physics applications; UV LED and photodiode radiation hardness; UV LED and photodiode space qualification; UV LED AC charge management; and UV LED satellite payload instruments. A UV LED satellite will be launched 2nd half 2012.

  15. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  16. High energy density physics effects predicted in simulations of the CERN HiRadMat beam-target interaction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments have been done at the CERN HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials) facility in which large cylindrical copper targets were irradiated with 440 GeV proton beam generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The primary purpose of these experiments was to confirm the existence of hydrodynamic tunneling of ultra-relativistic protons and their hadronic shower in solid materials, that was predicted by previous numerical simulations. The experimental measurements have shown very good agreement with the simulation results. This provides confidence in our simulations of the interaction of the 7 TeV LHC (Large Hadron Collider) protons and the 50 TeV Future Circular Collider (FCC) protons with solid materials, respectively. This work is important from the machine protection point of view. The numerical simulations have also shown that in the HiRadMat experiments, a significant part of thetarget material is be converted into different phases of High Energy Density (HED) matter, including two-phase solid-liquid mixture, expanded as well as compressed hot liquid phases, two-phase liquid-gas mixture and gaseous state. The HiRadMat facility is therefore a unique ion beam facility worldwide that is currently available for studying the thermophysical properties of HED matter. In the present paper we discuss the numerical simulation results and present a comparison with the experimental measurements.

  17. Series asymmetric supercapacitors based on free-standing inner-connection electrodes for high energy density and high output voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiayou; Liu, Nishuang; Rao, Jiangyu; Ding, Longwei; Al Bahrani, Majid Raissan; Li, Luying; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua

    2014-11-01

    Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on free-standing membranes with high energy density and high output voltage are reported. MnO2 nanowire/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and MoO3 nanobelt/CNT composites are selected as the anode and the cathode materials of the devices, respectively. The ASC has a high volumetric capacitance of 50.2 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a high operation voltage window of 2.0 V. Especially, after a middle layer with an inner-connection structure was inserted between the anode and the cathode, the output voltage of the whole device can achieve 4.0 V. The full cell of series ASCs (SASC) with an inner-connection middle layer has a high energy density of 28.6 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 261.4 mW cm-3, and exhibits excellent cycling performance of 99.6% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. This strategy of designing the hybridized structure for SASCs provides a promising route for next-generation SCs with high energy density and high output voltage.Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on free-standing membranes with high energy density and high output voltage are reported. MnO2 nanowire/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites and MoO3 nanobelt/CNT composites are selected as the anode and the cathode materials of the devices, respectively. The ASC has a high volumetric capacitance of 50.2 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a high operation voltage window of 2.0 V. Especially, after a middle layer with an inner-connection structure was inserted between the anode and the cathode, the output voltage of the whole device can achieve 4.0 V. The full cell of series ASCs (SASC) with an inner-connection middle layer has a high energy density of 28.6 mW h cm-3 at a power density of 261.4 mW cm-3, and exhibits excellent cycling performance of 99.6% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. This strategy of designing the hybridized structure for SASCs provides a promising route for next-generation SCs with high energy density and high

  18. Highly biocompatible, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite synthesized in a solvothermal process driven by high energy density microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolen D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dariusz Smolen1, Tadeusz Chudoba1, Iwona Malka1, Aleksandra Kedzierska1, Witold Lojkowski1, Wojciech Swieszkowski2, Krzysztof Jan Kurzydlowski2, Malgorzata Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska3, Malgorzata Lewandowska-Szumiel31Polish Academy of Science, Institute of High Pressure Physics, Warsaw, Poland; 2Faculty of Materials Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Histology and Embryology, Center of Biostructure Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, PolandAbstract: A microwave, solvothermal synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAp nanopowder was developed. The process was conducted in a microwave radiation field having a high energy density of 5 W/mL and over a time less than 2 minutes. The sample measurements included: powder X-ray diffraction, density, specific surface area, and chemical composition. The morphology and structure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The thermal behavior analysis was conducted using a simultaneous thermal analysis technique coupled with quadruple mass spectrometry. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests of heated samples were performed. A degradation test and a biocompatibility study in vitro using human osteoblast cells were also conducted. The developed method enables the synthesis of pure, fully crystalline hexagonal HAp nanopowder with a specific surface area close to 240 m2/g and a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.57. TEM measurements showed that this method results in particles with an average grain size below 6 nm. A 28-day degradation test conducted according to the ISO standard indicated a 22% loss of initial weight and a calcium ion concentration at 200 µmol/dm3 in the tris(hydroxymethylaminomethane hydrochloride test solution. The cytocompatibility of the obtained material was confirmed in a culture of human bone derived cells, both in an indirect test using the material

  19. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High Energy Density Li-Ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries do not fully meet the energy density, power density and safety requirements specified by NASA for future exploration missions....

  2. Advanced asymmetric supercapacitors based on Ni(OH){sub 2}/graphene and porous graphene electrodes with high energy density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun; Fan, Zhuangjun; Sun, Wei; Wei, Tong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Ning, Guoqing [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Rufan; Wei, Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction, Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao 11, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-06-20

    Hierarchical flowerlike nickel hydroxide decorated on graphene sheets has been prepared by a facile and cost-effective microwave-assisted method. In order to achieve high energy and power densities, a high-voltage asymmetric supercapacitor is successfully fabricated using Ni(OH){sub 2}/graphene and porous graphene as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. Because of their unique structure, both of these materials exhibit excellent electrochemical performances. The optimized asymmetric supercapacitor could be cycled reversibly in the high-voltage region of 0-1.6 V and displays intriguing performances with a maximum specific capacitance of 218.4 F g{sup -1} and high energy density of 77.8 Wh kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, the Ni(OH){sub 2}/graphene//porous graphene supercapacitor device exhibits an excellent long cycle life along with 94.3% specific capacitance retained after 3000 cycles. These fascinating performances can be attributed to the high capacitance and the positive synergistic effects of the two electrodes. The impressive results presented here may pave the way for promising applications in high energy density storage systems. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Korea-China Joint R and D on High Energy Density Sciences using High Power Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Nam, S. M.; Park, S. K.; Rhee, Y. J.; Lim, C. H.

    2009-02-01

    As to the high energy pico-second Peta Watt laser technology for fast ignition, the design of front-end and pre/main amplifier were pursued and the OPCPA technology to increase the aspect ratio by reducing the pre-pulse were developed. Furthermore, the tiled-grating technology to replace a large grating were obtained. As to the fast electron generation and propagation, a solid target was used to generate MeV class electron with TW femto-second laser and a gas cluster was also used to generate MeV class electron with PW femto-second laser at SIOM

  4. High Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Extended Cycle Life, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Conventional lithium-ion batteries demonstrate great potential for energy storage applications but they face some major challenges such as low energy density and...

  5. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 -- 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed...

  6. Nanostructured Electrode Materials Derived from Metal-Organic Framework Xerogels for High-Energy-Density Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Asif; Zou, Ruqiang; Wang, Qingfei; Xia, Wei; Tabassum, Hassina; Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Ruo

    2016-01-27

    This work successfully demonstrates metal-organic framework (MOF) derived strategy to prepare nanoporous carbon (NPC) with or without Fe3O4/Fe nanoparticles by the optimization of calcination temperature as highly active electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASC). The nanostructured Fe3O4/Fe/C hybrid shows high specific capacitance of 600 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and excellent capacitance retention up to 500 F/g at 8 A/g. Furthermore, hierarchically NPC with high surface area also obtained from MOF gels displays excellent electrochemical performance of 272 F/g at 2 mV/s. Considering practical applications, aqueous ASC (aASC) was also assembled, which shows high energy density of 17.496 Wh/kg at the power density of 388.8 W/kg. The high energy density and excellent capacity retention of the developed materials show great promise for the practical utilization of these energy storage devices.

  7. High-energy density nonaqueous all redox flow lithium battery enabled with a polymeric membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Pan, Feng; Zhu, Yun Guang; Huang, Qizhao; Lu, Li; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are considered one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies. However, conventional RFBs suffer from low energy density due to the low solubility of the active materials in electrolyte. On the basis of the redox targeting reactions of battery materials, the redox flow lithium battery (RFLB) demonstrated in this report presents a disruptive approach to drastically enhancing the energy density of flow batteries. With LiFePO4 and TiO2 as the cathodic and anodic Li storage materials, respectively, the tank energy density of RFLB could reach ~500 watt-hours per liter (50% porosity), which is 10 times higher than that of a vanadium redox flow battery. The cell exhibits good electrochemical performance under a prolonged cycling test. Our prototype RFLB full cell paves the way toward the development of a new generation of flow batteries for large-scale energy storage.

  8. Optimal condition of torrefaction for high energy density solid fuel of fast growing tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Na, Byeong-Il; Lee, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, Jae-Won [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byoung-Jun [Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The torrefaction properties of Acacia (Acacia mangium) and Albasia (Paraserianthes falcataria) were investigated by response surface methodology. Torrefaction was performed at 220-280 .deg. C for 20-80 min depending on severity factor. Carbon content in the torrefied biomass increased with severity factor, whereas hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased both biomass. The calorific value of torrefied Acacia ranged from 20.03 to 21.60 MJ/kg, suggesting that the energy contained in the torrefied biomass increased by 5.09 to 13.62%, when compared with that in the untreated biomass. However, the calorific value of Albasia was relatively low, compared to that of torrefied Acacia. The weight loss of Albasia was higher than that of Acacia under a given torrefaction condition. The reaction temperature for torrefaction was an important factor to obtain high energy yield, whereas the effect of time was considerable lower. High temperature and short torrefaction time is required to obtain the highest energy yield from torrefaction using Acacia and Albasia.

  9. A Comparative Density Functional Theory and Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Phases of Nitrogen Including a High Energy Density Material N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Capel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT and Density Functional Tight Binding (DFTB-D study of several phases of nitrogen, including the well-known alpha, beta, and gamma phases as well as recently discovered highly energetic phases: covalently bound cubic gauche (cg nitrogen and molecular (vdW-bound N8 crystals. Among several tested parametrizations of N–N interactions for DFTB, we identify only one that is suitable for modeling of all these phases. This work therefore establishes the applicability of DFTB-D to studies of phases, including highly metastable phases, of nitrogen, which will be of great use for modelling of dynamics of reactions involving these phases, which may not be practical with DFT due to large required space and time scales. We also derive a dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D setup (atom-centered basis parameters and Grimme dispersion parameters tuned for accurate description simultaneously of several nitrogen allotropes including covalently and vdW-bound crystals and including high-energy phases.

  10. High energy and power density asymmetric supercapacitors using electrospun cobalt oxide nanowire anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyadharan, Baiju; Aziz, Radhiyah Abd; Misnon, Izan Izwan; Anil Kumar, Gopinathan M.; Ismail, Jamil; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Jose, Rajan

    2014-12-01

    Electrochemical materials are under rigorous search for building advanced energy storage devices. Herein, supercapacitive properties of highly crystalline and ultrathin cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowires (diameter ∼30-60 nm) synthesized using an aqueous polymeric solution based electrospinning process are reported. These nanowire electrodes show a specific capacitance (CS) of ∼1110 F g-1 in 6 M KOH at a current density of 1 A g-1 with coulombic efficiency ∼100%. Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) (CS ∼175 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 galvanostatic cycling) are fabricated using the Co3O4 as anode and commercial activated carbon (AC) as cathode and compared their performance with symmetric electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) fabricated using AC (CS ∼31 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 galvanostatic cycling). The Co3O4//AC ASCs deliver specific energy densities (ES) of 47.6, 35.4, 20 and 8 Wh kg-1 at specific power densities (PS) 1392, 3500, 7000 and 7400 W kg-1, respectively. The performance of ASCs is much superior to the control EDLCs, which deliver ES of 9.2, 8.9, 8.4 and 6.8 Wh kg-1 at PS 358, 695, 1400 and 3500 W kg-1, respectively. The ASCs show nearly six times higher energy density (∼47.6 Wh kg-1) than EDLC (8.4 Wh kg-1) without compromising its power density (∼1400 W kg-1) at similar galvanostatic cycling conditions (2 A g-1).

  11. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  12. High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepler, Keith [Farasis Energy Inc; Slater, Michael [Farasis Energy Inc

    2018-03-14

    This Li-ion cell technology development project had three objectives: to develop advanced electrode materials and cell components to enable stable high-voltage operation; to design and demonstrate a Li-ion cell using these materials that meets the PHEV40 performance targets; and to design and demonstrate a Li-ion cell using these materials that meets the EV performance targets. The major challenge to creating stable high energy cells with long cycle life is system integration. Although materials that can give high energy cells are known, stabilizing them towards long-term cycling in the presence of other novel cell components is a major challenge. The major technical barriers addressed by this work include low cathode specific energy, poor electrolyte stability during high voltage operation, and insufficient capacity retention during deep discharge for Si-containing anodes. Through the course of this project, Farasis was able to improve capacity retention of NCM materials for 4.4+ V operation, through both surface treatment and bulk-doping approaches. Other material advances include increased rate capability and of HE-NCM materials through novel synthesis approach, doubling the relative capacity at 1C over materials synthesized using standard methods. Silicon active materials proved challenging throughout the project and ultimately were the limiting factor in the energy density vs. cycle life trade off. By avoiding silicon anodes for the lower energy PHEV design, we manufactured cells with intermediate energy density and long cycle life under high voltage operation for PHEV applications. Cells with high energy density for EV applications were manufactured targeting a 300 Wh/kg design and were able to achieve > 200 cycles.

  13. A Pb-TLD spectrometer to measure high energy photons in z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Fenni; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Ye, Fan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chuanfei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed to measure spectra of high energy photons in wire-array z pinches on PTS. • Energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code. • The energy of high energy x-ray on PTS is obtained to be mainly within the region of 100 keV to 1.3 MeV. - Abstract: A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed based on attenuation techniques to measure high energy photons in wire-array z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand (PTS). It is composed of a stack of 18 lead filters interspersed with 19 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). A shield is constructed for the spectrometer and scattered radiation is reduced to less than 5% by the shield. Response functions of the spectrometer are calculated by MCNP5 for 0–2 MeV photons. Based on response functions and 19 dose data measured in experiments, energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code using iterative least square fit. Results show that energy peak locates within 200 keV and 300 keV, and the fluence decreases to background level at energy higher than 1.3 MeV.

  14. A Pb-TLD spectrometer to measure high energy photons in z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Fenni; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Ye, Fan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chuanfei, E-mail: sifenni@163.com

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed to measure spectra of high energy photons in wire-array z pinches on PTS. • Energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code. • The energy of high energy x-ray on PTS is obtained to be mainly within the region of 100 keV to 1.3 MeV. - Abstract: A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed based on attenuation techniques to measure high energy photons in wire-array z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand (PTS). It is composed of a stack of 18 lead filters interspersed with 19 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). A shield is constructed for the spectrometer and scattered radiation is reduced to less than 5% by the shield. Response functions of the spectrometer are calculated by MCNP5 for 0–2 MeV photons. Based on response functions and 19 dose data measured in experiments, energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code using iterative least square fit. Results show that energy peak locates within 200 keV and 300 keV, and the fluence decreases to background level at energy higher than 1.3 MeV.

  15. Binder-free three-dimensional high energy density electrodes for ionic-liquid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Chau; Lawrence, Daniel; Richey, Francis W; Dillard, Caitlin; Elabd, Yossef A; Kalra, Vibha

    2015-09-18

    We demonstrate a facile methodology to fabricate binder-free porous carbon nanofiber electrodes for room temperature ionic-liquid supercapacitors. The device provides an energy density of 80 W h kg(-1) based on the mass of two electrodes while retaining the high rate capability of supercapacitors with near-ideal CV curves at a high scan rate of 200 mV s(-1).

  16. Charge modes of pulsed high energy and high density plasma injection source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.Y.

    1974-01-01

    Detonation (snowplow), deflagration and other modes of discharge can be produced in a single coaxial plasma gun. Conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy together with the entropy production condition of the discharge phenomena are used to identify dense discharge modes. The Rankine-Hugoniot relation for a magnetized plasma is derived. Discussions of how to design a deflagration plasma gun to yield a prescribed plasma kinetic energy and plasma beam density are given

  17. A Quasi-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Capacitor with High Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faxing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zheng; Wu, Xiongwei; Liu, Xiang; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2015-11-18

    A quasi-solid-state sodium-ion capacitor is demonstrated with nanoporous disordered carbon and macroporous graphene as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, using a sodium-ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte. It can operate at a cell voltage as high as 4.2 V with an energy density of record high 168 W h kg(-1). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 3D macroporous graphene frameworks for supercapacitors with high energy and power densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bong Gill; Yang, Minho; Hong, Won Hi; Choi, Jang Wook; Huh, Yun Suk

    2012-05-22

    In order to develop energy storage devices with high power and energy densities, electrodes should hold well-defined pathways for efficient ionic and electronic transport. Herein, we demonstrate high-performance supercapacitors by building a three-dimensional (3D) macroporous structure that consists of chemically modified graphene (CMG). These 3D macroporous electrodes, namely, embossed-CMG (e-CMG) films, were fabricated by using polystyrene colloidal particles as a sacrificial template. Furthermore, for further capacitance boost, a thin layer of MnO(2) was additionally deposited onto e-CMG. The porous graphene structure with a large surface area facilitates fast ionic transport within the electrode while preserving decent electronic conductivity and thus endows MnO(2)/e-CMG composite electrodes with excellent electrochemical properties such as a specific capacitance of 389 F/g at 1 A/g and 97.7% capacitance retention upon a current increase to 35 A/g. Moreover, when the MnO(2)/e-CMG composite electrode was asymmetrically assembled with an e-CMG electrode, the assembled full cell shows remarkable cell performance: energy density of 44 Wh/kg, power density of 25 kW/kg, and excellent cycle life.

  19. Hybrid nanomembranes for high power and high energy density supercapacitors and their yarn application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Ah; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Kim, Seon Jeong; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Wallace, Gordon G; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Lima, Márcio D; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Baughman, Ray H

    2012-01-24

    We report mechanically robust, electrically conductive, free-standing, and transparent hybrid nanomembranes made of densified carbon nanotube sheets that were coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) using vapor phase polymerization and their performance as supercapacitors. The hybrid nanomembranes with thickness of ~66 nm and low areal density of ~15 μg/cm(2)exhibited high mechanical strength and modulus of 135 MPa and 12.6 GPa, respectively. They also had remarkable shape recovery ability in liquid and at the liquid/air interface unlike previous carbon nanotube sheets. The hybrid nanomembrane attached on a current collector had volumetric capacitance of ~40 F/cm(3) at 100 V s(-1) (~40 and ~80 times larger than that of onion-like carbon measured at 100 V s(-1) and activated carbon measured at 20 V s(-1), respectively), and it showed rectangular shapes of cyclic voltammograms up to ~5 V s(-1). High mechanical strength and flexibility of the hybrid nanomembrane enabled twisting it into microsupercapacitor yarns with diameters of ~30 μm. The yarn supercapacitor showed stable cycling performance without a metal current collector, and its capacitance decrease was only ~6% after 5000 cycles. Volumetric energy and power density of the hybrid nanomembrane was ~70 mWh cm(-3) and ~7910 W cm(-3), and the yarn possessed the energy and power density of ~47 mWh cm(-3) and ~538 W cm(-3). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. High yield of low-energy pions from a high-energy primary proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, A.; Capponi, S.; De Castro, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first measurement on the yield of pions with momentum smaller than 220 MeV/c, produced by a 300 GeV/c proton beam. The measurements, performed at the CERN super proton synchrotron using tungsten production targets of different lengths, are discussed referring to the possibility of extending to high-energy laboratories the access to fundamental research involving low-energy pions and muons

  1. SC-CO2-assisted process for a high energy density aerogel supercapacitor: the effect of GO loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Maria; Baldino, Lucia; Scudieri, Carmela; Cardea, Stefano; Ciambelli, Paolo; Reverchon, Ernesto

    2017-05-01

    Energy density, safety, and simple and environmentally friendly preparation methods are very significant aspects in the realization of a compact supercapacitor. Herein we report the use of a supercritical CO2-assisted gel drying process (SC-CO2) for the preparation of porous electrodes containing dispersed graphene in a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) binder membrane to sandwich in a new portable supercapacitor based on graphene oxide (GO). A GO loading of 60 wt.% was found to give the best combination of factors (porosity, wettability, mechanical and electrochemical properties). Cycling voltammetry and charge/discharge studies showed an excellent capacitance behaviour and stability in an ionic liquid electrolyte, suggesting SC-CO2 processing as a promising platform to produce highly bulky and porous films for supercapacitors. The supercapacitor device delivers a very high energy density of 79.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 0.23 KW kg-1 (current density 0.5 A g-1, specific capacitance 36.2 F g-1) while that of steel remains at 50.3 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 2.8 KW kg-1 (current density 6 A g-1, specific capacitance 23.5 F g-1).

  2. High energy density and extreme field physics in the transparent-overdense regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, Kin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bowers, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gautier, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jung, D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniyappan, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shah, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, J. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dromey, B [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Henig, A [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Horlein, R [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Kefer, D. [LUDWIG-MAXIMILLAN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Tajima, T [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIN-UNIV MUNCHEN; Yan, X [QUEENS UNIV BELFAST; Habs, D [LUDWIG-MAXIMILIAN-UNIV MUNCHEN

    2011-01-31

    Conclusions of this report are: (1) high harmonics generated on solid surfaces are a very versatile source of intense coherent XUV radiation; (2) high harmonics can be used to probe and monitor the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with nm-scale foil targets; (3) direct measurement of target density during relativistic interaction; (4) high harmonics generated with PW-scale short-pulse lasers could serve as unique backlighting sources for a wide range experiments; and (5) Trident can be a test bed to develop such experiments and the required instrumentation.

  3. Azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes as high-energy density solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2011-08-10

    Solar thermal fuels, which reversibly store solar energy in molecular bonds, are a tantalizing prospect for clean, renewable, and transportable energy conversion/storage. However, large-scale adoption requires enhanced energy storage capacity and thermal stability. Here we present a novel solar thermal fuel, composed of azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes, with the volumetric energy density of Li-ion batteries. Our work also demonstrates that the inclusion of nanoscale templates is an effective strategy for design of highly cyclable, thermally stable, and energy-dense solar thermal fuels.

  4. Use of imaging plates at near saturation for high energy density particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Ohta, Kazuhide; Habara, Hideaki; Kodama, Ryousuke; Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Yabuuchi, Toshinori; Tampo, Motonobu; Zheng Jian

    2008-01-01

    Since an imaging plate (IP) is sensitive to electron, ion, and x rays, it can be used as a detector for laser plasma experiment using ultraintense laser. Moreover, an IP has the advantageous features such as high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and high spatial resolution. Even though IP itself has a considerable wide dynamic range up to 10 5 , the IP data have appeared often saturated at an IP reading device. We propose a reading technique by inserting optical density filters so that an apparently saturated IP data can be saved.

  5. Polyaniline modified graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors of high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-11-01

    Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are explored as the electrodes for supercapacitors by coating polyaniline (PANI) nano-cones onto the graphene/CNT composite to obtain graphene/CNT-PANI composite electrode. The graphene/CNT-PANI electrode is assembled with a graphene/CNT electrode into an asymmetric pseudocapacitor and a highest energy density of 188 Wh kg-1 and maximum power density of 200 kW kg-1 are achieved. The structure and morphology of the graphene/CNT composite and the PANI nano-cone coatings are characterized by both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the assembled supercapacitors is also discussed and it is attributed to (i) effective utilization of the large surface area of the three-dimensional network structure of graphene-based composite, (ii) the presence of CNT in the composite preventing graphene from re-stacking, and (ii) uniform and vertically aligned PANI coating on graphene offering increased electrical conductivity.

  6. Activated Biomass-derived Graphene-based Carbons for Supercapacitors with High Energy and Power Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, SungHoon; Myung, Yusik; Kim, Bit Na; Kim, In Gyoo; You, In-Kyu; Kim, TaeYoung

    2018-01-30

    Here, we present a facile and low-cost method to produce hierarchically porous graphene-based carbons from a biomass source. Three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based carbons were produced through continuous sequential steps such as the formation and transformation of glucose-based polymers into 3D foam-like structures and their subsequent carbonization to form the corresponding macroporous carbons with thin graphene-based carbon walls of macropores and intersectional carbon skeletons. Physical and chemical activation was then performed on this carbon to create micro- and meso-pores, thereby producing hierarchically porous biomass-derived graphene-based carbons with a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of 3,657 m 2  g -1 . Owing to its exceptionally high surface area, interconnected hierarchical pore networks, and a high degree of graphitization, this carbon exhibited a high specific capacitance of 175 F g -1 in ionic liquid electrolyte. A supercapacitor constructed with this carbon yielded a maximum energy density of 74 Wh kg -1 and a maximum power density of 408 kW kg -1 , based on the total mass of electrodes, which is comparable to those of the state-of-the-art graphene-based carbons. This approach holds promise for the low-cost and readily scalable production of high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  7. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  8. Metal-air batteries with high energy density: Li-air versus Zn-air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Sun, Tai Kim; Cao, Ruiguo; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Kyu Tae; Cho, Jaephil [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Meilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, there have been exciting developments in the field of lithium ion batteries as energy storage devices, resulting in the application of lithium ion batteries in areas ranging from small portable electric devices to large power systems such as hybrid electric vehicles. However, the maximum energy density of current lithium ion batteries having topatactic chemistry is not sufficient to meet the demands of new markets in such areas as electric vehicles. Therefore, new electrochemical systems with higher energy densities are being sought, and metal-air batteries with conversion chemistry are considered a promising candidate. More recently, promising electrochemical performance has driven much research interest in Li-air and Zn-air batteries. This review provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the area of Li-air and Zn-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of the new electrochemical systems. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. The National Ignition Facility: Ushering in a new age for high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E. I.; Boyd, R. N.; Remington, B. A.; Keane, C. J.; Al-Ayat, R.

    2009-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 112, 012003 (2008); https://lasers.llnl.gov/], completed in March 2009, is the highest energy laser ever constructed. The high temperatures and densities achievable at NIF will enable a number of experiments in inertial confinement fusion and stockpile stewardship, as well as access to new regimes in a variety of experiments relevant to x-ray astronomy, laser-plasma interactions, hydrodynamic instabilities, nuclear astrophysics, and planetary science. The experiments will impact research on black holes and other accreting objects, the understanding of stellar evolution and explosions, nuclear reactions in dense plasmas relevant to stellar nucleosynthesis, properties of warm dense matter in planetary interiors, molecular cloud dynamics and star formation, and fusion energy generation.

  10. Hybrid Fluid/Kinetic Modeling Of Magnetized High Energy Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David; Held, Eric; King, Jacob; Stoltz, Peter; Masti, Robert; Srinivasan, Bhuvana

    2017-10-01

    MHD modeling with an equation of state (EOS) of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabily in Z indicates that it is seeded by the electro-thermal instability. Large thermodynamic drives associated with gradients at the interface between the liner and the coronal regions distort distribution functions and likely lead to non-local transport effects in a plasma which varies from weakly to strongly coupled. In this work, we discuss using effective potential theory along with a Chapman-Ensksog-like (CEL) formalism to develop hybrid fluid/kinetic modeling capabilities for these plasmas. Effective potential theory addresses the role of Coulomb collisions on transport across coupling regimes and the CEL approach bridges the gap between full-blow kinetic simulations and the EOS tables, which only depend locally on density and temperature. Quantitative results on the Spitzer problem across coupling coupling regimes will be presented as a first step. DOE Grant No. DE-SC0016525.

  11. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The experimental activities at GSI were concentrated on the progress in beam-plasma interaction experiments of heavy ion with ionized matter, plasma -lens forming devices, intense beam at high temperature experimental area, and charge exchange collisions of ions. The development to higher intensities and phase space densities during 1993 for the SIS and the ESR is recorded. The possibility of studying of funneling of two beams in a two-beam RFQ is studied. Specific results are presented with respect to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The problem of ion stopping in plasma and pumping X-ray lasers with heavy ion beams are discussed. Various contributions deal with dense plasma effects, shocks and opacity. (HP)

  12. On the Feasibility of Very-Low-Density Pure Metal Foams as Bright High-Energy X-ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Jeffrey; Felter, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    We have used the Busquet approximation (M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5(11), 4191 (1993)) to explore calculationally what the possible x-ray conversion efficiencies into the K-band would be from irradiating very-low-density pure metal foams with tens of kilojoules of 1/3-micron laser light. We will discuss the advantages of pure metal foams as bright high-energy x-ray sources, and some results of this calculational study. We will also present our ideas for how to fabricate pure metal foams with densities of a few milligrams per cubic centimeter. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. Dynamic behaviour of interphases and its implication on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangda; Dolocan, Andrei; Oh, Pilgun; Celio, Hugo; Park, Suhyeon; Cho, Jaephil; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Undesired electrode–electrolyte interactions prevent the use of many high-energy-density cathode materials in practical lithium-ion batteries. Efforts to address their limited service life have predominantly focused on the active electrode materials and electrolytes. Here an advanced three-dimensional chemical and imaging analysis on a model material, the nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide, reveals the dynamic behaviour of cathode interphases driven by conductive carbon additives (carbon black) in a common nonaqueous electrolyte. Region-of-interest sensitive secondary-ion mass spectrometry shows that a cathode-electrolyte interphase, initially formed on carbon black with no electrochemical bias applied, readily passivates the cathode particles through mutual exchange of surface species. By tuning the interphase thickness, we demonstrate its robustness in suppressing the deterioration of the electrode/electrolyte interface during high-voltage cell operation. Our results provide insights on the formation and evolution of cathode interphases, facilitating development of in situ surface protection on high-energy-density cathode materials in lithium-based batteries. PMID:28443608

  14. Improved continuum lowering calculations in screened hydrogenic model with l-splitting for high energy density systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Shabbir Naz, G.; Saleem Shahzad, M.; Kouser, R.; Aman-ur-Rehman; Nasim, M. H.

    2018-03-01

    The energy states of the bound electrons in high energy density systems (HEDS) are significantly affected due to the electric field of the neighboring ions. Due to this effect bound electrons require less energy to get themselves free and move into the continuum. This phenomenon of reduction in potential is termed as ionization potential depression (IPD) or the continuum lowering (CL). The foremost parameter to depict this change is the average charge state, therefore accurate modeling for CL is imperative in modeling atomic data for computation of radiative and thermodynamic properties of HEDS. In this paper, we present an improved model of CL in the screened hydrogenic model with l-splitting (SHML) proposed by G. Faussurier and C. Blancard, P. Renaudin [High Energy Density Physics 4 (2008) 114] and its effect on average charge state. We propose the level charge dependent calculation of CL potential energy and inclusion of exchange and correlation energy in SHML. By doing this, we made our model more relevant to HEDS and free from CL empirical parameter to the plasma environment. We have implemented both original and modified model of SHML in our code named OPASH and benchmark our results with experiments and other state-of-the-art simulation codes. We compared our results of average charge state for Carbon, Beryllium, Aluminum, Iron and Germanium against published literature and found a very reasonable agreement between them.

  15. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joao

    2017-10-01

    Powerful laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in the kTesla range. The B-fields are measured by proton-deflectometry and high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes. According to our modeling, the quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface, accounting for the space charge neutralization and the plasma magnetization. The major control parameter is the laser irradiance Iλ2 . The B-fields ns-scale is long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport into solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented enhancement of a factor 5 on the energy-density flux at 60 µm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes and to laboratory astrophysics. We acknowledge funding from French National Agency for Research (ANR), Grant TERRE ANR-2011-BS04-014, and from EUROfusion Consortium, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant 633053.

  16. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. J.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ehret, M.; Arefiev, A. V.; Batani, D.; Beg, F. N.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Florido, R.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Fujioka, S.; Gigosos, M. A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gremillet, L.; Honrubia, J. J.; Kojima, S.; Korneev, Ph.; Law, K. F. F.; Marquès, J.-R.; Morace, A.; Mossé, C.; Peyrusse, O.; Rose, S.; Roth, M.; Sakata, S.; Schaumann, G.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Toncian, T.; Woolsey, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Powerful nanosecond laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in excess of 0.5 kT. The quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface. According to our model, which describes the evolution of the discharge current, the major control parameter is the laser irradiance Ilasλlas2 . The space-time evolution of the B-fields is experimentally characterized by high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes and proton-deflectometry measurements. The magnetic pulses, of ns-scale, are long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport through solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented 5-fold enhancement of the energy-density flux at 60 μm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes, and to laboratory astrophysics.

  17. First-principles equation-of-state table of silicon and its effects on high-energy-density plasma simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Gao, R.; Ding, Y.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.

    2017-04-01

    Using density-functional theory-based molecular-dynamics simulations, we have investigated the equation of state for silicon in a wide range of plasma density and temperature conditions of ρ =0.001 -500 g /c m3 and T =2000 -108K . With these calculations, we have established a first-principles equation-of-state (FPEOS) table of silicon for high-energy-density (HED) plasma simulations. When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS model (Table 3810), we find that the FPEOS-predicted Hugoniot is ˜20% softer; for off-Hugoniot plasma conditions, the pressure and internal energy in FPEOS are lower than those of SESAME EOS for temperatures above T ≈ 1-10 eV (depending on density), while the former becomes higher in the low-T regime. The pressure difference between FPEOS and SESAME 3810 can reach to ˜50%, especially in the warm-dense-matter regime. Implementing the FPEOS table of silicon into our hydrocodes, we have studied its effects on Si-target implosions. When compared with the one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulation using the SESAME 3810 EOS model, the FPEOS simulation showed that (1) the shock speed in silicon is ˜10% slower; (2) the peak density of an in-flight Si shell during implosion is ˜20% higher than the SESAME 3810 simulation; (3) the maximum density reached in the FPEOS simulation is ˜40% higher at the peak compression; and (4) the final areal density and neutron yield are, respectively, ˜30% and ˜70% higher predicted by FPEOS versus the traditional simulation using SESAME 3810. All of these features can be attributed to the larger compressibility of silicon predicted by FPEOS. These results indicate that an accurate EOS table, like the FPEOS presented here, could be essential for the precise design of targets for HED experiments.

  18. Z-pinches as intense x-ray sources for high energy density physics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzen, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Fast z-pinch implosions can convert more than 10% of the stored electrical energy in a pulsed-power accelerator into x rays. These x rays are produced when an imploding cylindrical plasma, driven by the magnetic field pressure associated with very large axial currents, stagnates upon the cylindrical axis of symmetry. On the Saturn pulsed-power accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories, for example, currents of 6 to 8 MA with a risetime of less than 50 ns are driven through cylindrically-symmetric loads, producing implosions velocities as high as 100 cm/μs and x-ray energies as high as 500 kJ. The keV component of the resulting x-ray spectrum has been used for many years 8 a radiation source for material response studies. Alternatively, the x-ray output can be thermalized into a near-Planckian x-ray source by containing it within a large cylindrical radiation case. These large volume, long-lived radiation sources have recently been used for ICF-relevant ablator physics experiments as well as astrophysical opacity and radiation-material interaction experiments. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and cylindrical load symmetry are critical, limiting factors in determining the assembled plasma densities and temperatures, and thus in the x-ray pulse widths that can be produced on these accelerators. In recent experiments on the Saturn accelerator, these implosion nonuniformities have been minimized by using uniform-fill gas puff loads or by using wire arrays with as many a 192 wires. These techniques produced significant improvements in the pinched plasma quality, Zn reproducibility, and x-ray output power. X-ray pulse widths of less than 5 ns and peak powers of 75±10 TW have been achieved with arrays of 120 tungsten wires. These powers represent greater than a factor of three in power amplification over the electrical power of the Saturn n accelerator, and are a record for x-ray powers in the laboratory

  19. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@zjnu.cn; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui, E-mail: gaohuidu@zjnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite with 91 wt% S is prepared. • It shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for Li–S cell. • The PVP coating and conductive graphene minimize polysulfides dissolution. • The flexible coatings with void space accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g{sup −1} and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

  20. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitors with a nickel oxide nanoflake cathode and a 3D reduced graphene oxide anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Feng; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2013-08-01

    Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm-2 (specific capacitance of 50 F g-1) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm-2 and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg-1 (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm-2, with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.

  1. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitors with a nickel oxide nanoflake cathode and a 3D reduced graphene oxide anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Feng; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2013-09-07

    Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm(-2) (specific capacitance of 50 F g(-1)) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg(-1) (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2), with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.

  2. Innovative High Energy Density Storage in Nano Vacuum Tubes (NVTs) designed for Small Leakage Current with Enhanced Coulomb Blockade in Nano Gaps, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's various Space Mission Directorate seek to develop technology to fulfill the technology gap and to enable missions with the unique high energy density charge...

  3. From Swords to Plowshares: The US/Russian Collaboration in High Energy Density Physics Using Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, S.M.; Fowler, C.M.; Lindemuth, I.; Chernyshev, V.K.; Mokhov, V.N.; Pavlovskii, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992, the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the institutes that designed the first nuclear weapons of the Soviet Union and the US, respectively, have been working together in fundamental research related to pulsed power and high energy density science. This collaboration has enabled scientists formerly engaged in weapons activities to redirect their attention to peaceful pursuits of wide benefit to the technical community. More than thirty joint experiments have been performed at Sarov and Los Alamos in areas as diverse as solid state physics in high magnetic fields, fusion plasma formation, isentropic compression of noble gases, and explosively driven-high current generation technology. Expanding on the introductory comments of the conference plenary presentation, this paper traces the origins of this collaboration and briefly reviews the scientific accomplishments. Detailed reports of the scientific accomplishments can be found in other papers in these proceedings and in other publications

  4. Few-layered MnO2/SWCNT hybrid in-plane supercapacitor with high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; Pal, Shreyasi; De, Sukanta

    2018-05-01

    In this present work we have synthesized few layered MnO2 nanosheets by mixed solvent exfoliation process for the application as electrode material of in-plane supercapacitor. The Structure and surface morphology of the as prepared samples are characterized by Raman, Transmission electron microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. The patterns of the hybrids were directly fabricated by (50: 50 wt %) mixture of MnO2 and SWCNT dispersions with the help of a customized mask, and directly transferred onto a flexible PET substrate. Remarkably, the prepared in-plane supercapacitors deliver high energy density of 2.62mWh/cm2. Furthermore, our supercapacitors shows exceptional flexibility and stable performance under bending conditions

  5. Search for ultra high energy primary photons at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colalillo Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in Argentina, provides an unprecedented integrated aperture in the search for primary photons with energy above 1017 eV over a large portion of the southern sky. Such photons can be detected in principle via the air showers they initiate at such energies, using the complement of Auger Observatory detectors. We discuss the results obtained in diffuse and directional searches for primary photons in the EeV energy range.

  6. High energy density physics studies at the facility for antiprotons and ion research: the HEDgeHOB collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N.A.; Stoehlker, T.; Geissel, H.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Fortov, V.E.; Piriz, A.R.; Redmer, R.; Deutsch, C.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, is going to be a unique accelerator facility that will deliver high quality, strongly bunched, well focused, intense beams of heavy ions that will lead to unprecedented specific power deposition in solid matter. This will generate macroscopic samples of High Energy Density (HED) matter with fairly uniform physical conditions. These samples can be used to study the thermophysical and transport properties of HED matter. Extensive theoretical work has been carried out over the past decade to design numerous dedicated experiments to study HED physics at the FAIR, which has provided the basis for the HEDgeHOB (High Energy Density Matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams) scientific proposal. This work is still in progress as the feasibility studies for more experimental schemes are being carried out. Another, very important research area that will benefit tremendously from the FAIR facility, is the production of radioactive beams. A superconducting fragment separator, Super-FRS is being designed for the production and separation of rare radioactive isotopes. Unlike the HED targets, the Super-FRS production target should not be destroyed or damaged by the beam, but should remain intact during the long experimental campaign. However, the high level of specific power deposited in the production target by the high intensity ion beam at FAIR, could cause serious problems to the target survival. These HED issues related to the Super-FRS production target are also discussed in the present paper (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Miscibility gap alloys with inverse microstructures and high thermal conductivity for high energy density thermal storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugo, Heber; Kisi, Erich; Cuskelly, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    New high energy-density thermal storage materials are proposed which use miscibility gap binary alloy systems to operate through the latent heat of fusion of one component dispersed in a thermodynamically stable matrix. Using trial systems Al–Sn and Fe–Cu, we demonstrate the development of the required inverse microstructure (low melting point phase embedded in high melting point matrix) and excellent thermal storage potential. Several other candidate systems are discussed. It is argued that such systems offer enhancement over conventional phase change thermal storage by using high thermal conductivity microstructures (50–400 W/m K); minimum volume of storage systems due to high energy density latent heat of fusion materials (0.2–2.2 MJ/L); and technical utility through adaptability to a great variety of end uses. Low (<300 °C), mid (300–400 °C) and high (600–1400 °C) temperature options exist for applications ranging from space heating and process drying to concentrated solar thermal energy conversion and waste heat recovery. -- Highlights: ► Alloys of immiscible metals are proposed as thermal storage systems. ► High latent heat of fusion per unit volume and tunable temperature are advantageous. ► Thermal storage systems with capacities of 0.2–2.2 MJ/L are identified. ► Heat delivery is via a rigid non-reactive high thermal conductivity matrix. ► The required inverse microstructures were developed for Sn–Al and Cu–Fe systems

  8. Highly conductive electrospun carbon nanofiber/MnO2 coaxial nano-cables for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Mingjia; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Meng, Fanke; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents highly conductive carbon nanofiber/MnO2 coaxial cables in which individual electrospun carbon nanofibers are coated with an ultrathin hierarchical MnO2 layer. In the hierarchical MnO2 structure, an around 4 nm thick sheath surrounds the carbon nanofiber (CNF) in a diameter of 200 nm, and nano-whiskers grow radically outward from the sheath in view of the cross-section of the coaxial cables, giving a high specific surface area of MnO2. The CNFs are synthesized by electrospinning a precursor containing iron acetylacetonate (AAI). The addition of AAI not only enlarges the specific surface area of the CNF but also greatly enhances their electronic conductivity, which leads to a dramatic improvement in the specific capacitance and the rate capability of the CNF/MnO2 electrode. The AAI-CNF/MnO2 electrode shows a specific capacitance of 311 F g-1 for the whole electrode and 900 F g-1 for the MnO2 shell at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1. Good cycling stability, high energy density (80.2 Wh kg-1) and high power density (57.7 kW kg-1) are achieved. This work indicates that high electronic conductivity of the electrode material is crucial to achieving high power and energy density for pseudo-supercapacitors.

  9. Biredox ionic liquids with solid-like redox density in the liquid state for high-energy supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Eléonore; Coustan, Laura; Lannelongue, Pierre; Zigah, Dodzi; Mehdi, Ahmad; Vioux, André; Freunberger, Stefan A; Favier, Frédéric; Fontaine, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Kinetics of electrochemical reactions are several orders of magnitude slower in solids than in liquids as a result of the much lower ion diffusivity. Yet, the solid state maximizes the density of redox species, which is at least two orders of magnitude lower in liquids because of solubility limitations. With regard to electrochemical energy storage devices, this leads to high-energy batteries with limited power and high-power supercapacitors with a well-known energy deficiency. For such devices the ideal system should endow the liquid state with a density of redox species close to the solid state. Here we report an approach based on biredox ionic liquids to achieve bulk-like redox density at liquid-like fast kinetics. The cation and anion of these biredox ionic liquids bear moieties that undergo very fast reversible redox reactions. As a first demonstration of their potential for high-capacity/high-rate charge storage, we used them in redox supercapacitors. These ionic liquids are able to decouple charge storage from an ion-accessible electrode surface, by storing significant charge in the pores of the electrodes, to minimize self-discharge and leakage current as a result of retaining the redox species in the pores, and to raise working voltage due to their wide electrochemical window.

  10. High Energy Density Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bomberger, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The reaction of nitrene equivalents such as organic azides, N-haloamines, N-acyl hydroxylamines N,O-diacyl hydroxylamines, and amides in the presence of lead tetra-acetate or phenyliodine diacetate...

  11. Measurement of the primary and scatter dose in high energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, P M [Catharina Ziekenhuis, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Radiotherapy Dept.; Tiourina, T B; Dries, W

    1995-12-01

    A method is presented to measure the primary and scatter components separately in a water tank using a small cylindrical absorber. Results from this experiment are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The measurement setup consists of a small cylindrical absorber placed on a central axis of the beam a few centimetres above the radiation detector. Both absorber and detector move along the central axis while absorbed dose is registered. As the primary radiation is fully blocked, only scatter component is measured when a cylindrical absorber is used. Measurements in open fields result in the total absorbed dose being the sum of primary and scatter components. The primary dose component can be derived by substraction. Absorbers with different diameters are used. With decreasing dimensions the relative contribution of the dose due to scatter radiation increases. A steep increase is observed when the range of laterally scattered electrons becomes comparable with the radius of the absorber. Two different Monte Carlo simulations have been performed: with and without secondary electron transport. The data obtained for the former case perfectly agrees with the experiment. The situation where the secondary electron is assumed zero (i.e. local energy deposition) simulates the Cunningham model. Our results show that the Cunningham model predicts lower scatter component under the block edge which can be important for these applications.

  12. Transition metal sulfides grown on graphene fibers for wearable asymmetric supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance and high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weihua; Lai, Ting; Lai, Jianwei; Xie, Haoting; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Ye, Jianshan; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-06-01

    Fiber shaped supercapacitors are promising candidates for wearable electronics because they are flexible and light-weight. However, a critical challenge of the widespread application of these energy storage devices is their low cell voltages and low energy densities, resulting in limited run-time of the electronics. Here, we demonstrate a 1.5 V high cell voltage and high volumetric energy density asymmetric fiber supercapacitor in aqueous electrolyte. The lightweight (0.24 g cm-3), highly conductive (39 S cm-1), and mechanically robust (221 MPa) graphene fibers were firstly fabricated and then coated by NiCo2S4 nanoparticles (GF/NiCo2S4) via the solvothermal deposition method. The GF/NiCo2S4 display high volumetric capacitance up to 388 F cm-3 at 2 mV s-1 in a three-electrode cell and 300 F cm-3 at 175.7 mA cm-3 (568 mF cm-2 at 0.5 mA cm-2) in a two-electrode cell. The electrochemical characterizations show 1000% higher capacitance of the GF/NiCo2S4 as compared to that of neat graphene fibers. The fabricated device achieves high energy density up to 12.3 mWh cm-3 with a maximum power density of 1600 mW cm-3, outperforming the thin-film lithium battery. Therefore, these supercapacitors are promising for the next generation flexible and wearable electronic devices.

  13. Recent Progress on Ferroelectric Polymer-Based Nanocomposites for High Energy Density Capacitors: Synthesis, Dielectric Properties, and Future Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prateek; Thakur, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Raju Kumar

    2016-04-13

    Dielectric polymer nanocomposites are rapidly emerging as novel materials for a number of advanced engineering applications. In this Review, we present a comprehensive review of the use of ferroelectric polymers, especially PVDF and PVDF-based copolymers/blends as potential components in dielectric nanocomposite materials for high energy density capacitor applications. Various parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss, breakdown strength, energy density, and flexibility of the polymer nanocomposites have been thoroughly investigated. Fillers with different shapes have been found to cause significant variation in the physical and electrical properties. Generally, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanofillers with large aspect ratios provide enhanced flexibility versus zero-dimensional fillers. Surface modification of nanomaterials as well as polymers adds flavor to the dielectric properties of the resulting nanocomposites. Nowadays, three-phase nanocomposites with either combination of fillers or polymer matrix help in further improving the dielectric properties as compared to two-phase nanocomposites. Recent research has been focused on altering the dielectric properties of different materials while also maintaining their superior flexibility. Flexible polymer nanocomposites are the best candidates for application in various fields. However, certain challenges still present, which can be solved only by extensive research in this field.

  14. Observation and modeling of mixing-layer development in high-energy-density, blast-wave-driven shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, C. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Malamud, G.; Henry de Frahan, M. T.; Johnsen, E.; Shimony, A.; Shvarts, D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we examine the hydrodynamics of high-energy-density (HED) shear flows. Experiments, consisting of two materials of differing density, use the OMEGA-60 laser to drive a blast wave at a pressure of ∼50 Mbar into one of the media, creating a shear flow in the resulting shocked system. The interface between the two materials is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, and a mixing layer of growing width develops due to the shear. To theoretically analyze the instability's behavior, we rely on two sources of information. First, the interface spectrum is well-characterized, which allows us to identify how the shock front and the subsequent shear in the post-shock flow interact with the interface. These observations provide direct evidence that vortex merger dominates the evolution of the interface structure. Second, simulations calibrated to the experiment allow us to estimate the time-dependent evolution of the deposition of vorticity at the interface. The overall result is that we are able to choose a hydrodynamic model for the system, and consequently examine how well the flow in this HED system corresponds to a classical hydrodynamic description

  15. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  16. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, R S

    2015-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 10 10 J/m 3 . The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I 4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  17. Amodal brain activation and functional connectivity in response to high-energy-density food cues in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Hirsch, Joy; Geliebter, Allan

    2014-11-01

    The obesogenic environment is pervasive, yet only some people become obese. The aim was to investigate whether obese individuals show differential neural responses to visual and auditory food cues, independent of cue modality. Obese (BMI 29-41, n = 10) and lean (BMI 20-24, n = 10) females underwent fMRI scanning during presentation of auditory (spoken word) and visual (photograph) cues representing high-energy-density (ED) and low-ED foods. The effect of obesity on whole-brain activation, and on functional connectivity with the midbrain/VTA, was examined. Obese compared with lean women showed greater modality-independent activation of the midbrain/VTA and putamen in response to high-ED (vs. low-ED) cues, as well as relatively greater functional connectivity between the midbrain/VTA and cerebellum (P food cues within the midbrain/VTA and putamen, and altered functional connectivity between the midbrain/VTA and cerebellum, could contribute to excessive food intake in obese individuals. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  18. Super high energy density of Li3V2(PO4)3 as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Amin, Mochammad Karim Al; Susanti, Diah; Triwibowo, Joko

    2018-04-01

    Lithium ion batteries have many advantages such as high energy density, no memory effect, long time cycleability and friendly environment. One type of cathode material that can be developed is Li3V2(PO4)3. In this study has been carried out the synthesis of Li3V2(PO4)3 with a hydrothermal temperature variation of 140, 160 and 180 °C and calcination temperature at 800 °C. SEM images show that the morphology of Li3V2(PO4)3 has irregular flakes with a size between 1-10 µm. CV results show redox reaction occurs in the range between 3 V to 4.8 V with the highest specific discharge capacity of 136 mAh/g for specimen with temperature hydrothermal and calcination are 180 °C and 800 °C. This result demonstrates that Li3V2(PO4)3 has a great potential as cathode material for lithium ion battery.

  19. Enhancing Understanding of Magnetized High Energy Density Plasmas from Solid Liner Implosions Using Fluid Modeling with Kinetic Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masti, Robert; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; King, Jacob; Stoltz, Peter; Hansen, David; Held, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Recent results from experiments and simulations of magnetically driven pulsed power liners have explored the role of early-time electrothermal instability in the evolution of the MRT (magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor) instability. Understanding the development of these instabilities can lead to potential stabilization mechanisms; thereby providing a significant role in the success of fusion concepts such as MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion). For MagLIF the MRT instability is the most detrimental instability toward achieving fusion energy production. Experiments of high-energy density plasmas from wire-array implosions have shown the requirement for more advanced physics modeling than that of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The overall focus of this project is on using a multi-fluid extended-MHD model with kinetic closures for thermal conductivity, resistivity, and viscosity. The extended-MHD model has been updated to include the SESAME equation-of-state tables and numerical benchmarks with this implementation will be presented. Simulations of MRT growth and evolution for MagLIF-relevant parameters will be presented using this extended-MHD model with the SESAME equation-of-state tables. This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science under Grant Number DE-SC0016515.

  20. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  1. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    The maximum electrostatic energy density of a capacitor is a function of the relative permittivity (epsilonr) and the square of the dielectric breakdown strength (Eb). Currently, state-of-the art high temperature (>200 °C), SiC-based power electronics utilize CaZrO3-rich NP0/C0G-type capacitors, which have low relative permittivities of epsilonr ˜ 30-40, high breakdown strengths (> 1.0 MV/cm), and are chosen for their minimal change in energy storage with temperature. However, with operating temperatures exceeding the rated temperatures for such capacitors, there is an opportunity to develop new dielectric ceramics having higher energy densities and volumetric efficiencies at high temperatures (>200 °C) by utilizing higher permittivity dielectrics while maintaining high breakdown strengths via doping. The solid solution behavior of was characterized in order to determine the optimal composition for balancing permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength to obtain high energy densities at elevated temperatures. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed Vegard's law behavior across the solid solution with minimal 2nd phases. To determine a Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 composition that will also minimize electronic or band conduction, the optical properties of the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 solid solution were investigated to identify a composition on the CaTiO3 - rich end of the solid solution with a large band gap. Both ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry were utilized to determine the Ca(TixZr1-x)O3 band gaps and optical properties. The resistivity at 250 °C scaled with the band gap energy across the solid solution. Comparing the current-voltage (I--V) behavior at 250 °C for Ca(Tix-yMnyZr0.2)O3 (CTZ + Mn) where x = 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and y = 0.005, it was found that the Ca(Ti 0.795Mn0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition showed the lowest current density and a decrease in current density of 5 orders of magnitude compared to the un

  2. High energy density of Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C cathode material with high rate cycling performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zong-Lin; Deng, Jian-Qiu; Pan, Jin; Luo, Wen-Bin; Yao, Qing-Rong; Wang, Zhong-Min; Zhou, Huai-Ying; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2017-07-01

    A serials of micro-sized Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3/C composite has been synthesized by sol-gel method, comprised of numerous primary nanocrystals. This structure can efficiently facilitate lithium-ion transport in secondary aggregated individual particles due to the short diffusion distance among primary nanocrystals, along with a high tap density. With the increasing of Na doping content, the structure evolution occurs in Li3-xNaxV2(PO4)3 from a single-phase structure to a two-phase structure. The appearance of rhombohedral phase can provide a larger free volume of the interstitial space, fastening ionic movement to offer an excellent high rate capability. Furthermore, Na doping can stabilize the rhombohedral structure of the V2(PO4)3 framework, leading to the remarkable cycling stability. Among all the composites, Li2.6Na0.4V2(PO4)3/C presents the best electrochemical performance with a high energy density of 478.8 Wh kg-1, delivering high initial discharge capacities of 121.6, 113.8 and 109.7 mAh g-1 at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V, respectively. It also exhibit an excellent high rate cycling performance, with capacity retention of 85.9 %, 81.7 % and 76.5 % after 1000 cycles at the rate of 5 C, 10 C and 20 C in a voltage range of 3.0 - 4.3 V.

  3. Non-universal spectra of ultra-high energy cosmic ray primaries and secondaries in a structured universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigl, Guenter

    2007-01-01

    Analytical calculations of extra-galactic cosmic ray spectra above ∼ 10 17 eV are often performed assuming continuous source distributions, giving rise to spectra that depend little on the propagation mode, be it rectilinear or diffusive. We perform trajectory simulations for proton primaries in the probably more realistic case of discrete sources with a density of ∼ 10 -5 Mpc -3 . We find two considerable non-universal effects that depend on source distributions and magnetic fields: First, the primary extra-galactic cosmic ray flux can become strongly suppressed below a few 10 18 eV due to partial confinement in magnetic fields surrounding sources. Second, the secondary photon to primary cosmic ray flux ratio between ≅ 3 x 10 18 eV and ≅ 10 20 eV decreases with decreasing source density and increasing magnetization. As a consequence, in acceleration scenarios for the origin of highest energy cosmic rays the fraction of secondary photons may be difficult to detect even for experiments such as Pierre Auger. The cosmogenic neutrino flux does not significantly depend on source density and magnetization. (author)

  4. An entropic approach to magnetized nonlocal transport and other kinetic phenomena in high-energy-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del-Sorbo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations in high-energy-density physics and inertial confinement fusion require a detailed description of energy fluxes. The leading mechanism is the electron transport, which can be a nonlocal phenomenon that needs to be described with quasistationary and simplified Fokker-Planck models in large scale hydrodynamic codes. My thesis is dedicated to the development of a new nonlocal transport model based on a fast-moving-particles collision operator and on a first moment Fokker-Planck equation, simplified with an entropic closure relation. Such a closure enables a better description of the electron distribution function in the limit of high anisotropies, where small scale electrostatic instabilities could be excited. This new model, so called M1, is successfully compared with the well known nonlocal electron transport model proposed by Schurtz, Nicolai and Busquet, using different collision operators, and with the reduced Fokker-Planck model, based on a small-anisotropies polynomial closure relation (P1). Several typical configurations of heat transport are considered. We show that the M1 entropic model may operate in two and three dimensions and is able to account for electron transport modifications in external magnetic fields. Moreover, our model enables to compute realistic electron distribution functions, which can be used for kinetic studies, as for the plasma stability in the transport zone. It is demonstrated that the electron energy transport may strongly modify damping of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves, while the simplified nonlocal transport models are not able to describe accurately the modifications of the distribution function and plasma wave damping. The structure of the M1 model allows to naturally take into account self-generated magnetic fields, which play a crucial role in multidimensional simulations. Moreover, magnetic fields could also be used for the focusing of energetic particles in alternative ignition schemes. The M1 model

  5. Hard TiCx/SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using pulsed high energy density plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Z.A.; Rawat, R.S.; Tan, K.S.; Kumar, A.K.; Ahmad, R.; Hussain, T.; Kloc, C.; Chen, Z.; Shen, L.; Zhang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The energetic ions and electron beams are used to synthesize TiC x /SiC/a-C:H films. •As-deposited crystalline and hard nanocomposite TiC x /SiC/a-C:H films are synthesized. •Very high average deposition rates of 68 nm/shot are achieved using dense plasma focus. •The maximum hardness of 22 GPa is achieved at the surface of the film. -- Abstract: Thin films of TiC x /SiC/a-C:H were synthesized on Si substrates using a complex mix of high energy density plasmas and instability accelerated energetic ions of filling gas species, emanated from hot and dense pinched plasma column, in dense plasma focus device. The conventional hollow copper anode of Mather type plasma focus device was replaced by solid titanium anode for synthesis of TiC x /SiC/a-C:H nanocomposite thin films using CH 4 :Ar admixture of (1:9, 3:7 and 5:5) for fixed 20 focus shots as well as with different number of focus shots with fixed CH 4 :Ar admixture ratio 3:7. XRD results showed the formation of crystalline TiC x /SiC phases for thin film synthesized using different number of focus shots with CH 4 :Ar admixture ratio fixed at 3:7. SEM results showed that the synthesized thin films consist of nanoparticle agglomerates and the size of agglomerates depended on the CH 4 :Ar admixture ratio as well as on the number of focus shots. Raman analysis showed the formation of polycrystalline/amorphous Si, SiC and a-C for different CH 4 :Ar ratio as well as for different number of focus shots. The XPS analysis confirmed the formation of TiC x /SiC/a-C:H composite thin film. Nanoindentation results showed that the hardness and elastic modulus values of composite thin films increased with increasing number of focus shots. Maximum values of hardness and elastic modulus at the surface of the composite thin film were found to be about 22 and 305 GPa, respectively for 30 focus shots confirming the successful synthesis of hard composite TiC x /SiC/a-C:H coatings

  6. Nitrogen-doped carbon spheres: A new high-energy-density and long-life pseudo-capacitive electrode material for electrochemical flow capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shujin; Wang, Miao; Xu, Xingtao; Li, Yandong; Li, Yanjiang; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging issues in developing electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) technology is the design and synthesis of active electrode materials with high energy density and long cycle life. However, in practical cases, the energy density and cycle ability obtained currently cannot meet the practical need. In this work, we propose a new active material, nitrogen-doped carbon spheres (NCSs), as flowable electrodes for EFC application. The NCSs were prepared via one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of resorcinol/formaldehyde as carbon precursors and melamine as nitrogen precursor, followed by carbonization in nitrogen flow at various temperatures. The results of EFC experiments demonstrate that NCSs obtained at 800°C exhibit a high energy density of 13.5Whkg -1 and an excellent cycle ability, indicating the superiority of NCSs for EFC application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2015-11-01

    (MHD simulations suggest Z 300 will deliver 4.3 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 18 MJ. Z 800 is 52 m in diameter and stores 130 MJ. This accelerator generates 890 TW at the output of its LTD system, and delivers 65 MA in 113 ns to a MagLIF target. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF liner is 2500 TW. The principal goal of Z 800 is to achieve high-yield thermonuclear fusion; i.e., a yield that exceeds the energy initially stored by the accelerator’s capacitors. 2D MHD simulations suggest Z 800 will deliver 8.0 MJ to the liner, and achieve a yield on the order of 440 MJ. Z 300 and Z 800, or variations of these accelerators, will allow the international high-energy-density-physics community to conduct advanced inertial-confinement-fusion, radiation-physics, material-physics, and laboratory-astrophysics experiments over heretofore-inaccessible parameter regimes.

  8. High-energy Gamma Rays from the Milky Way: Three-dimensional Spatial Models for the Cosmic-Ray and Radiation Field Densities in the Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, T. A.; Moskalenko, I. V. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Jóhannesson, G., E-mail: tporter@stanford.edu [Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2017-09-01

    High-energy γ -rays of interstellar origin are produced by the interaction of cosmic-ray (CR) particles with the diffuse gas and radiation fields in the Galaxy. The main features of this emission are well understood and are reproduced by existing CR propagation models employing 2D galactocentric cylindrically symmetrical geometry. However, the high-quality data from instruments like the Fermi Large Area Telescope reveal significant deviations from the model predictions on few to tens of degrees scales, indicating the need to include the details of the Galactic spiral structure and thus requiring 3D spatial modeling. In this paper, the high-energy interstellar emissions from the Galaxy are calculated using the new release of the GALPROP code employing 3D spatial models for the CR source and interstellar radiation field (ISRF) densities. Three models for the spatial distribution of CR sources are used that are differentiated by their relative proportion of input luminosity attributed to the smooth disk or spiral arms. Two ISRF models are developed based on stellar and dust spatial density distributions taken from the literature that reproduce local near- to far-infrared observations. The interstellar emission models that include arms and bulges for the CR source and ISRF densities provide plausible physical interpretations for features found in the residual maps from high-energy γ -ray data analysis. The 3D models for CR and ISRF densities provide a more realistic basis that can be used for the interpretation of the nonthermal interstellar emissions from the Galaxy.

  9. Simulation of electron density disturbances of the ionospheric D region produced by high-energy particle fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Using the large-scale tim expansion analytical solutions of electron concentration balance equation in D-region of the ionosphere for pulsed and periodic changes in the rate of ion formatin under the effect of fluxes of precipitating high-energy particles are obtained. Possible effect of disturbances of temperature of nutrals is taken into account. On the basis of model representations the space-time structure of emerging ionospheric disturbances is discussed

  10. Bacterial-cellulose-derived carbon nanofiber@MnO₂ and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber electrode materials: an asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy and power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Liang, Hai-Wei; Guan, Qing-Fang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-09-14

    A new kind of high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor is designed with pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose (p-BC)-coated MnO₂ as a positive electrode material and nitrogen-doped p-BC as a negative electrode material via an easy, efficient, large-scale, and green fabrication approach. The optimal asymmetric device possesses an excellent supercapacitive behavior with quite high energy and power density. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 1D Ni-Co oxide and sulfide nanoarray/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and excellent cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Cui, Guanwei; Shi, Xifeng; Wong, C P; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo 2 S 4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo 2 S 4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg -1 and 47.5 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 400 W kg -1 , respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

  12. Two-step hydrothermal synthesis of NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods on nickel foam for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Lin, Jianming; Wu, Jihuai; Huang, Miaoliang; Fan, Leqing; Chen, Hongwei; He, Xin; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Zedong

    2018-03-01

    It is still a huge challenge to obtain a high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors and develop an active electrode material with excellent electrochemical characteristics. Although NiCo2S4 has been considered as one of the promising positive electrode materials for asymmetric supercapacitors, the electrochemical performance of the NiCo2S4-based positive electrodes is still relatively low and cannot meet the demand in the devices. Herein, NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods with a large capacitance are synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal treatment. A high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor operating at 1.6 V is successfully assembled using the NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode in 3 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, which demonstrates a fairly high energy density of 49.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 123 W kg-1, an excellent capacitance of 0.91 F cm-2 (139.42 F g-1) at current density of 1 mA cm-2 as well as a remarkable cycling stability due to the high physical strength, the large specific surface area, and the good conductivity for NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods and the brilliant synergistic effect for NiCo2S4 and Co9S8 electrode materials. The as-prepared NiCo2S4/Co9S8 nanorods open up a new platform as positive electrode material for high-energy-density asymmetric supercapacitors in energy-storage.

  13. Co(OH)2 nanosheet-decorated graphene–CNT composite for supercapacitors of high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2014-01-01

    A composite of graphene and carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and characterized for application as supercapacitor electrodes. By coating the nanostructured active material of Co(OH)2 onto one electrode, the asymmetric supercapacitor has exhibited a high specific capacitance of 310 F g−1, energy density of 172 Wh kg−1 and maximum power density of 198 kW kg−1 in ionic liquid electrolyte EMI-TFSI. PMID:27877633

  14. Co(OH2 nanosheet-decorated graphene–CNT composite for supercapacitors of high energy density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite of graphene and carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and characterized for application as supercapacitor electrodes. By coating the nanostructured active material of Co(OH2 onto one electrode, the asymmetric supercapacitor has exhibited a high specific capacitance of 310 F g−1, energy density of 172 Wh kg−1 and maximum power density of 198 kW kg−1 in ionic liquid electrolyte EMI-TFSI.

  15. Weavable, Conductive Yarn-Based NiCo//Zn Textile Battery with High Energy Density and Rate Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Ip, Wing Shan; Lau, Yuen Ying; Sun, Jinfeng; Zeng, Jie; Yeung, Nga Sze Sea; Ng, Wing Sum; Li, Hongfei; Pei, Zengxia; Xue, Qi; Wang, Yukun; Yu, Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhi, Chunyi

    2017-09-26

    With intrinsic safety and much higher energy densities than supercapacitors, rechargeable nickel/cobalt-zinc-based textile batteries are promising power sources for next generation personalized wearable electronics. However, high-performance wearable nickel/cobalt-zinc-based batteries are rarely reported because there is a lack of industrially weavable and knittable highly conductive yarns. Here, we use scalably produced highly conductive yarns uniformly covered with zinc (as anode) and nickel cobalt hydroxide nanosheets (as cathode) to fabricate rechargeable yarn batteries. They possess a battery level capacity and energy density, as well as a supercapacitor level power density. They deliver high specific capacity of 5 mAh cm -3 and energy densities of 0.12 mWh cm -2 and 8 mWh cm -3 (based on the whole solid battery). They exhibit ultrahigh rate capabilities of 232 C (liquid electrolyte) and 116 C (solid electrolyte), which endows the batteries excellent power densities of 32.8 mW cm -2 and 2.2 W cm -3 (based on the whole solid battery). These are among the highest values reported so far. A wrist band battery is further constructed by using a large conductive cloth woven from the conductive yarns by a commercial weaving machine. It powers various electronic devices successfully, enabling dual functions of wearability and energy storage.

  16. Dietary boron does not affect tooth strength, micro-hardness, and density, but affects tooth mineral composition and alveolar bone mineral density in rabbits fed a high-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Sema S; SiddikMalkoc; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron treatments did not significantly affect compression strength, and micro-hardness of the teeth, although the B content of teeth increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control 1, B50 teeth had decreased phosphorus (P) concentrations. Histological examination revealed that teeth structure (shape and thickness of the enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp) was similar in the B-treated and control rabbits. Micro CT evaluation revealed greater alveolar bone mineral density in B10 and B30 groups than in controls. Alveolar bone density of the B50 group was not different than the controls. Although the B treatments did not affect teeth structure, strength, mineral density and micro-hardness, increasing B intake altered the mineral composition of teeth, and, in moderate amounts, had beneficial effects on surrounding alveolar bone.

  17. Effect of Porosity on the Thick Electrodes for High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries for Stationary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of 250–350 μ m-thick single-sided lithium ion cell graphite anodes and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC cathodes with constant area weight, but varying porosity were prepared. Over this wide thickness range, micron-sized carbon fibers were used to stabilize the electrode structure and to improve electrode kinetics. By choosing the proper porosities for the anode and cathode, kinetic limitations and aging losses during cell cycling could be minimized and energy density improved. The cell (C38%-A48% exhibits the highest energy density, 441 Wh/L at the C/10 rate, upon cycling at elevated temperature and different C-rates. The cell (C38%-A48% showed 9% higher gravimetric energy density at C/10 in comparison to the cell with as-coated electrodes.

  18. Hierarchically porous Ni monolith@branch-structured NiCo2O4 for high energy density supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of NiCo2O4 nanostrucutures ranging from nanowire to nanoplate and branched structures were successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The experimental results show that NiCo2O4 with branched structures possesses the best overall electrochemical performance. The improvement of energy density was explored in terms of hierarchically three-dimensional (3D metal substrates and a high specific area capacitance, and area energy density is obtained with hierarchically porous Ni monolith synthesized through a controlled combustion procedure.

  19. Direct growth of vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as novel negative electrodes for high-energy-density wearable fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiabin; Zhang, Qichong; Sun, Juan; Li, Chaowei; Zhao, Jingxin; Zhou, Zhenyu; He, Bing; Wang, Xiaona; Man, Ping; Li, Qiulong; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Liyan; Li, Mingxing; Yao, Yagang

    2018-04-01

    Significant efforts have been recently devoted to constructing high-performance fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors. However, it is still a paramount challenge to develop high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors for practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. This work reports a simple and efficient method to directly grow vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as advanced negative electrodes with a high specific capacitance of 188 F/cm3 (564 mF/cm2). Taking advantage of their attractive structure, we successfully fabricated a fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum operating voltage of 1.6 V by assembling the vanadium nitride/carbon nanotube fiber negative electrode with the Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt ternary oxides nanowire arrays positive electrode. Due to the excellent synergistic effects between positive and negative electrodes, a remarkable specific capacitance of 50 F/cm3 (150 mF/cm2) and an outstanding energy density of 17.78 mWh/cm3 (53.33 μWh/cm2) for our fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor can be achieved. Furthermore, the as-assembled fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device has excellent mechanical flexibility in that 91% of the capacitance retained after bending 90° for 3000 times. Thus, this work exploits a pathway to construct high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor for next-generation portable and wearable electronics.

  20. Hierarchical Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanosheets on functionalized 3D-RGO films for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liyang; Sui, Yanwei; Qi, Jiqiu; Chang, Yuan; He, Yezeng; Meng, Qingkun; Wei, Fuxiang; Sun, Zhi; Jin, Yunxue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films on nickel foam were fabricated via a facile dip-coating method combined with thermal reduction. Hierarchical Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanosheets with network structure were electrodeposited on the ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films in a simple three-electrode system. The thickness of Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanosheets can be controlled through adjusting the deposition temperature. The as-prepared electrode exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with specific capacitance of 1454.2 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. An asymmetric supercapacitor device was designed with the as-prepared composites as positive electrode material and Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide as negative electrode material. This device could be operated in a working voltage range of 0-1.8 V in 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte, delivering a high energy density of 56.4 W h kg-1 at a power density of 882.5 W kg-1. One supercapacitor can power two LEDs with rated voltage of 1.8-2.0 V. After 10,000 consecutive charge-discharge tests at 10 A g-1, this asymmetric supercapacitor revealed an excellent cycle life with 98.3% specific capacitance retention. These excellent electrochemical performances make it become one of most promising candidates for high energy supercapacitor device.

  1. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge–discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R.; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge–discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m−1, an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge–discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present. PMID:27551101

  2. Development of high energy density supercapacitor through hydrothermal synthesis of RGO/nano-structured cobalt sulphide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Milan; Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuila, Tapas; Lee, Joong Hee

    2015-02-20

    Co9S8/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were prepared on nickel foam substrate through hydrothermal reaction and used directly as supercapacitor electrode. The field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis of the composites showed the formation of Co9S8 nano-rods on the RGO surfaces. The average crystal size of the Co9S8 nano rods grown on the RGO sheets were ∼25-36 nm as calculated from x-ray diffraction analysis. The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) was confirmed by Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The electrical conductivity of the Co9S8/RGO composite was recorded as 1690 S m(-1) at room temperature, which is much higher than that of pure GO further confirming the hydrothermal reduction of GO. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were investigated to check the electrochemical performances of the Co9S8/RGO composites. The Co9S8/RGO composites supported on nickel foam showed very high specific capacitance (Sc)(1349 F g(-1) at a current density of 2.2 A g(-1)), energy density (68.6 W h kg(-1)) and power density (1319 W kg(-1)) in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The retention in Sc of the composite electrode was found to be ∼96% after 1000 charge-discharge cycles.

  3. From Rice Bran to High Energy Density Supercapacitors: A New Route to Control Porous Structure of 3D Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Ma, Xilan; Idrees, Faryal; Xu, Bin; Hao, Xin; Lin, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Controlled micro/mesopores interconnected structures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon with high specific surface areas (SSA) are successfully prepared by carbonization and activation of biomass (raw rice brans) through KOH. The highest SSA of 2475 m2 g-1 with optimized pore volume of 1.21 cm3 g-1 (40% for mesopores) is achieved for KOH/RBC = 4 mass ratio, than others. The as-prepared 3D porous carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors exhibit high specific capacitance specifically at large current densities of 10 A g-1 and 100 A g-1 i.e., 265 F g-1 and 182 F g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, respectively. Moreover, a high power density ca. 1223 W kg-1 (550 W L-1) and energy density 70 W h kg-1 (32 W h L-1) are achieved on the base of active material loading (~10 mg cm2) in the ionic liquid. The findings can open a new avenue to use abundant agricultural by-products as ideal materials with promising applications in high-performance energy-storage devices.

  4. Green synthesis of in situ electrodeposited rGO/MnO2 nanocomposite for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusi; Majid, S. R.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the preparation of in situ electrodeposited rGO/MnO2 nanocomposite as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitor application. The work describes and evaluates the performance of prepared electrode via green and facile electrodeposition technique of in situ rGO/MnO2-glucose carbon nanocomposites. The carbon content in the composite electrode increased after GO and D (+) glucose solution has been added in the deposition electrolyte. This study found that a suitable concentration of D (+) glucose in the deposition electrolyte can slow down the nucleation process of MnO2 particles and lead to uniform and ultrathin nanoflakes structure. The optimize electrode exhibited low transfer resistance and resulted on excellent electrochemical performance in three electrolyte systems viz. Na2SO4, KOH and KOH/K3Fe(CN)6 redox electrolytes. The optimum energy density and power density were 1851 Whkg-1 and 68 kWkg-1 at current density of 20 Ag-1 in mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN)6 electrolyte.

  5. Development of high energy density supercapacitor through hydrothermal synthesis of RGO/nano-structured cobalt sulphide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Milan; Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuila, Tapas; Lee, Joong Hee

    2015-02-01

    Co9S8/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were prepared on nickel foam substrate through hydrothermal reaction and used directly as supercapacitor electrode. The field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis of the composites showed the formation of Co9S8 nano-rods on the RGO surfaces. The average crystal size of the Co9S8 nano rods grown on the RGO sheets were ˜25-36 nm as calculated from x-ray diffraction analysis. The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) was confirmed by Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The electrical conductivity of the Co9S8/RGO composite was recorded as 1690 S m-1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of pure GO further confirming the hydrothermal reduction of GO. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were investigated to check the electrochemical performances of the Co9S8/RGO composites. The Co9S8/RGO composites supported on nickel foam showed very high specific capacitance (Sc)(1349 F g-1 at a current density of 2.2 A g-1), energy density (68.6 W h kg-1) and power density (1319 W kg-1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The retention in Sc of the composite electrode was found to be ˜96% after 1000 charge-discharge cycles.

  6. Development of high energy density supercapacitor through hydrothermal synthesis of RGO/nano-structured cobalt sulphide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Milan; Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kuila, Tapas; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Co 9 S 8 /reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were prepared on nickel foam substrate through hydrothermal reaction and used directly as supercapacitor electrode. The field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis of the composites showed the formation of Co 9 S 8 nano-rods on the RGO surfaces. The average crystal size of the Co 9 S 8 nano rods grown on the RGO sheets were ∼25–36 nm as calculated from x-ray diffraction analysis. The reduction of graphene oxide (GO) was confirmed by Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The electrical conductivity of the Co 9 S 8 /RGO composite was recorded as 1690 S m −1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of pure GO further confirming the hydrothermal reduction of GO. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were investigated to check the electrochemical performances of the Co 9 S 8 /RGO composites. The Co 9 S 8 /RGO composites supported on nickel foam showed very high specific capacitance (Sc)(1349 F g −1 at a current density of 2.2 A g −1 ), energy density (68.6 W h kg −1 ) and power density (1319 W kg −1 ) in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The retention in Sc of the composite electrode was found to be ∼96% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. (paper)

  7. High energy storage density over a broad temperature range in sodium bismuth titanate-based lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibo; Yan, Fei; Lin, Ying; Wang, Tong; Wang, Fen

    2017-08-18

    A series of (1-x)Bi 0.48 La 0.02 Na 0.48 Li 0.02 Ti 0.98 Zr 0.02 O 3 -xNa 0.73 Bi 0.09 NbO 3 ((1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN) (x = 0-0.14) ceramics were designed and fabricated using the conventional solid-state sintering method. The phase structure, microstructure, dielectric, ferroelectric and energy storage properties of the ceramics were systematically investigated. The results indicate that the addition of Na 0.73 Bi 0.09 NbO 3 (NBN) could decrease the remnant polarization (P r ) and improve the temperature stability of dielectric constant obviously. The working temperature range satisfying TCC 150  °C  ≤±15% of this work spans over 400 °C with the compositions of x ≥ 0.06. The maximum energy storage density can be obtained for the sample with x = 0.10 at room temperature, with an energy storage density of 2.04 J/cm 3 at 178 kV/cm. In addition, the (1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN ceramics exhibit excellent energy storage properties over a wide temperature range from room temperature to 90 °C. The values of energy storage density and energy storage efficiency is 0.91 J/cm 3 and 79.51%, respectively, for the 0.90LLBNTZ-0.10NBN ceramic at the condition of 100 kV/cm and 90 °C. It can be concluded that the (1-x)LLBNTZ-xNBN ceramics are promising lead-free candidate materials for energy storage devices over a broad temperature range.

  8. New self-similar radiation-hydrodynamics solutions in the high-energy density, equilibrium diffusion limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Taylor K; McClarren, Ryan G

    2013-01-01

    This work presents semi-analytic solutions to a radiation-hydrodynamics problem of a radiation source driving an initially cold medium. Our solutions are in the equilibrium diffusion limit, include material motion and allow for radiation-dominated situations where the radiation energy is comparable to (or greater than) the material internal energy density. As such, this work is a generalization of the classical Marshak wave problem that assumes no material motion and that the radiation energy is negligible. Including radiation energy density in the model serves to slow down the wave propagation. The solutions provide insight into the impact of radiation energy and material motion, as well as present a novel verification test for radiation transport packages. As a verification test, the solution exercises the radiation–matter coupling terms and their v/c treatment without needing a hydrodynamics solve. An example comparison between the self-similar solution and a numerical code is given. Tables of the self-similar solutions are also provided. (paper)

  9. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for High-Energy Density, Aqueous Zinc-Polyiodide Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jian; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Reed, David; Liu, Jun; McGrail, Pete; Sprenkle, Vincent

    2016-07-13

    The new aqueous zinc-polyiodide redox flow battery (RFB) system with highly soluble active materials as well as ambipolar and bifunctional designs demonstrated significantly enhanced energy density, which shows great potential to reduce RFB cost. However, the poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity of the redox reaction of I3(-)/I(-) couples on graphite felts (GFs) electrode can result in low energy efficiency. Two nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, that have high surface areas when introduced to GF surfaces accelerated the I3(-)/I(-) redox reaction. The flow cell with MOF-modified GFs serving as a positive electrode showed higher energy efficiency than the pristine GFs; increases of about 6.4% and 2.7% occurred at the current density of 30 mA/cm(2) for MIL-125-NH2 and UiO-66-CH3, respectively. Moreover, UiO-66-CH3 is more promising due to its excellent chemical stability in the weakly acidic electrolyte. This letter highlights a way for MOFs to be used in the field of RFBs.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and properties of peroxo-based oxygen-rich compounds for potential use as greener high energy density materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha Horadugoda

    One main aspect of high energy density material (HEDM) design is to obtain greener alternatives for HEDMs that produce toxic byproducts. Primary explosives lead azide, lead styphnate, and mercury fulminate contain heavy metals that cause heavy metal poisoning. Leaching of the widely used tertiary explosive NH4ClO4 into groundwater has resulted in human exposure to ClO4-- ions, which cause disruptions of thyroid related metabolic pathways and even thyroid cancer. Many research efforts to find replacements have gained little success. Thus, there is a need for greener HEDMs. Peroxo-based oxygen-rich compounds are proposed as a potential new class of greener HEDMs due to the evolution of CO2 and/or CO, H2O, and O 2 as the main decomposition products. Currently, triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) are the only well-studied highly energetic peroxides. However, due to their high impact and friction sensitivities, low thermal stabilities, and low detonation velocities they have not found any civil or military HEDM applications. In this dissertation research, we have synthesized and fully characterized four categories of peroxo-based compounds: tert-butyl peroxides, tert-butyl peroxy esters, hydroperoxides, and peroxy acids to perform a systematic study of their sensitivities and the energetic properties for potential use as greener HEDMs. tert-Butyl peroxides were not sensitive to impact, friction, or electrostatic spark. Hence, tert-butyl peroxides can be described as fairly safe peroxo-based compounds to handle. tert-Butyl peroxy esters were all surprisingly energetic (4896--6003 m/s), despite the low oxygen and nitrogen contents. Aromatic tert -butyl peroxy esters were much lower in impact and friction sensitivities with respect to the known peroxo-based explosives. These are among the first low sensitivity peroxo-based compounds that can be categorized as secondary

  11. Polypropylene/Polyaniline Nanofiber/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Enhanced Electrical, Dielectric, and Ferroelectric Properties for a High Energy Density Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghun; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Jun Seop; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-10-14

    This work demonstrates a ternary nanocomposite system, composed of polypropylene (PP), redoped PANI (r-PANI) nanofibers, and reduced graphene oxides (RGOs), for use in a high energy density capacitor. r-PANI nanofibers were fabricated by the combination methods of chemical oxidation polymerization and secondary doping processes, resulting in higher conductivity (σ≈156 S cm(-1)) than that of the primarily doped PANI nanofibers (σ≈16 S cm(-1)). RGO sheets with high electron mobility and thermal stability can enhance the conductivity of r-PANI/RGO (σ≈220 S cm(-1)) and thermal stability of PP matrix. These findings could be extended to combine the advantages of r-PANI nanofibers and RGO sheets for developing an efficient means of preparing PP/r-PANI/RGO nanocomposite. When the r-PANI/RGO cofillers (10 vol %) were added to PP matrix, the resulting PP/r-PANI/RGO nanocomposite exhibited high dielectric constant (ε'≈51.8) with small dielectric loss (ε″≈9.3×10(-3)). Furthermore, the PP/r-PANI/RGO nanocomposite was used for an energy-harvesting device, which demonstrated high energy density (Ue≈12.6 J cm(-3)) and breakdown strength (E≈5.86×10(3) kV cm(-1)).

  12. Lithium and sodium ion capacitors with high energy and power densities based on carbons from recycled olive pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuria, Jon; Redondo, Edurne; Arnaiz, Maria; Mysyk, Roman; Rojo, Teófilo; Goikolea, Eider

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitors (LIC and NIC) entirely based on electrodes designed from recycled olive pit bio-waste derived carbon materials. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. On the other hand, the same hard carbon was chemically activated with KOH to obtain a high specific surface area activated carbon that was further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. Both electrodes were custom-made to be assembled in a hybrid cell to either build a LIC or NIC in the corresponding Li- and Na-based electrolytes. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5 M Et4NBF4/acetonitrile electrolyte was also built. Both LIC and NIC systems demonstrate remarkable energy and power density enhancement over its EDLC counterpart while showing good cycle life. This breakthrough offers the possibility to easily fabricate versatile hybrid ion capacitors, covering a wide variety of applications where different requirements are demanded.

  13. Calibration of a High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer for High-Energy-Density Plasmas on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, B.; Gao, L.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Liedahl, D.; Macphee, A. G.; Thorn, D. B.; Bettencourt, R.; Kauffman, R.; Le, H.; Nelson, D.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution, DIM-based (Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator) x-ray crystal spectrometer has been calibrated for and deployed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to diagnose plasma conditions and mix in ignition capsules near stagnation times. Two conical crystals in the Hall geometry focus rays from the Kr He- α, Ly- α, and He- β complexes onto a streak camera for time-resolved spectra, in order to measure electron density and temperature by observing Stark broadening and relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Signals from these two crystals are correlated with a third crystal that time-integrates the intervening energy range. The spectrometer has been absolutely calibrated using a microfocus x-ray source, an array of CCD and single-photon-counting detectors, and K- and L-absorption edge filters. Measurements of the integrated reflectivity, energy range, and energy resolution for each crystal will be presented. The implications of the calibration on signal levels from NIF implosions and x-ray filter choices will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate ceramics via sol-gel process: novel high-energy-density capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J F; Katiyar, Ram S; Chrisey, Douglas B; Tomozawa, M

    2011-01-01

    Lead-free barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate, [(BaZr 0.2 Ti 0.80 )O 3 ] 1-x -[(Ba 0.70 Ca 0.30 )TiO 3 ] x (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) (BZT-BCT) ceramics with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and moderate electric breakdown field were prepared by the sol-gel synthesis technique. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed tetragonal crystal structure and this was further confirmed by Raman spectra. Well-behaved ferroelectric hysteresis loops and moderate polarizations (spontaneous polarization, P s ∼ 3-6 μC cm -2 ) were obtained in these BZT-BCT ceramics. Frequency-dependent dielectric spectra confirmed that ferroelectric diffuse phase transition (DPT) exists near room temperature. Scanning electron microscope images revealed monolithic grain growth in samples sintered at 1280 deg. C. 1000/ε versus (T) plots revealed ferroelectric DPT behaviour with estimated γ values of ∼1.52, 1.51 and 1.88, respectively, for the studied BZT-BCT compositions. All three compositions showed packing-limited breakdown fields of ∼47-73 kV cm -1 with an energy density of 0.05-0.6 J cm -3 for thick ceramics (>1 mm). Therefore these compositions might be useful in Y5V-type capacitor applications.

  15. Barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate ceramics via sol-gel process: novel high-energy-density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J F; Katiyar, Ram S [SPECLAB, Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (Puerto Rico); Chrisey, Douglas B; Tomozawa, M, E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States)

    2011-10-05

    Lead-free barium zirconate-titanate/barium calcium-titanate, [(BaZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.80})O{sub 3}]{sub 1-x}-[(Ba{sub 0.70}Ca{sub 0.30})TiO{sub 3}]{sub x} (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) (BZT-BCT) ceramics with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss and moderate electric breakdown field were prepared by the sol-gel synthesis technique. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed tetragonal crystal structure and this was further confirmed by Raman spectra. Well-behaved ferroelectric hysteresis loops and moderate polarizations (spontaneous polarization, P{sub s} {approx} 3-6 {mu}C cm{sup -2}) were obtained in these BZT-BCT ceramics. Frequency-dependent dielectric spectra confirmed that ferroelectric diffuse phase transition (DPT) exists near room temperature. Scanning electron microscope images revealed monolithic grain growth in samples sintered at 1280 deg. C. 1000/{epsilon} versus (T) plots revealed ferroelectric DPT behaviour with estimated {gamma} values of {approx}1.52, 1.51 and 1.88, respectively, for the studied BZT-BCT compositions. All three compositions showed packing-limited breakdown fields of {approx}47-73 kV cm{sup -1} with an energy density of 0.05-0.6 J cm{sup -3} for thick ceramics (>1 mm). Therefore these compositions might be useful in Y5V-type capacitor applications.

  16. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Delgass, W. N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ribeiro, F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H2Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H2) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H2 is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H2Bioilprocess for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on

  17. Core-shell N-doped active carbon fiber@graphene composites for aqueous symmetric supercapacitors with high-energy and high-power density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinxing; Bao, Rongrong; Xie, Chao; Zheng, Anran; Wu, Shihua; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Renwei; Zhao, Peng

    2016-06-01

    Graphene wrapped nitrogen-doped active carbon fibers (ACF@GR) of a core-shell structure were successfully prepared by a simple dip-coating method using natural silk as template. Compared to pure silk active carbon, the as-prepared ACF@GR composites exhibit high specific surface area in a range of 1628-2035 m2 g-1, as well as superior energy storage capability, an extremely high single-electrode capacitance of 552.8 F g-1 was achieved at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. The assembled aqueous symmetric supercapacitors are capable of deliver both high energy density and high power density, for instance, 17.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 50.0 W kg-1, and 12.2 Wh kg-1 at 4.7 kW kg-1 with a retention rate of 71.3% for ACF@GR1-based supercapacitor.

  18. Hierarchical Cobalt Hydroxide and B/N Co-Doped Graphene Nanohybrids Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Mahmood, Asif; Wang, Qingfei; Xia, Wei; Liang, Zibin; Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Ruo; Zou, Ruqiang

    2017-02-27

    To cater for the demands of electrochemical energy storage system, the development of cost effective, durable and highly efficient electrode materials is desired. Here, a novel electrode material based on redox active β-Co(OH) 2 and B, N co-doped graphene nanohybrid is presented for electrochemical supercapacitor by employing a facile metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) route through pyrolysis and hydrothermal treatment. The Co(OH) 2 could be firmly stabilized by dual protection of N-doped carbon polyhedron (CP) and B/N co-doped graphene (BCN) nanosheets. Interestingly, the porous carbon and BCN nanosheets greatly improve the charge storage, wettability, and redox activity of electrodes. Thus the hybrid delivers specific capacitance of 1263 F g -1 at a current density of 1A g -1 with 90% capacitance retention over 5000 cycles. Furthermore, the new aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) was also designed by using Co(OH) 2 @CP@BCN nanohybrid and BCN nanosheets as positive and negative electrodes respectively, which leads to high energy density of 20.25 Whkg -1 . This device also exhibits excellent rate capability with energy density of 15.55 Whkg -1 at power density of 9331 Wkg -1 coupled long termed stability up to 6000 cycles.

  19. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    We report here on progress made for the period from December 1, 1992 (the date of submission of our latest progress report) to November 30, 1993 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-92ER40717. The new results from the SMC experiment have generated a buzz of theoretical activity. Our involvement with the D0 experiment and the upgrade has increased substantially during the past two years so that we now have six people heavily committed and making what can only be described as a large and disproportionate impact on D0 physics output. Some of the new developments made here at Rice in Neural Network and Probability Density Estimation techniques for data analysis promise to have applications both in D0 and beyond. We report a load of new results from our high-p t jet photoproduction experiment. In addition we have been working on KTeV, albeit without having adequate funding for this work. Progress on the theoretical front has been nothing short of amazing, as is reported herein. In a grand lecture tour during this sabbatical year, Paul Stevenson has already reported his breakthroughs at ten institutions, including CERN, Oxford, Cambridge, Rutherford Lab, Imperial College, and Durham University. The group at Rice University has had an exceptionally productive year and we are justifiably proud of the progress which is reported here

  20. Generation of intense X-radiation and high-energy-density matter by laser-accelerated electrons; Erzeugung von intensiver Roentgenstrahlung und Materie hoher Energiedichte durch Laserbeschleunigte Elektronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenlein, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Aim of this thesis was to study the processes of the interaction between highly intense short-pulse laser and matter. The focus lied thereby on the generation of intense X-radiation and warm dense matter. The studies performed for this thesis comprehend thereby the influence of laser parameters like energy, pulse length, focus size, and intensity as well as the influence of the target geometry on the interaction and generation of high-energy-density matter. In this thesis for this two selected experiments are presented. First a silver foil was used as target, in order to study the generation of radiation at 21 keV. Both bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-radiation were used in order to characterize the interaction. For the second experiment freely standing titanium wires were used as target. Hereby the focus lied on the characterization of the heated matter.

  1. High energy density matter issues related to future circular collider. Simulations of full beam impact with a solid copper cylindrical target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Wollmann, D. [CERN-AB, Geneva (Switzerland); Shutov, A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Piriz, A.R. [E.T.S.I. Industrials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is subjected to the full impact of one future circular collider (FCC) ultra-relativistic proton beam. The target is facially irradiated so that the beam axis coincides with the cylinder axis. The simulations have been carried out employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a 2D hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. The simulations show that, although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower in solid copper is ∝1.5 m, the full beam may penetrate up to 350 m into the target as a result of hydrodynamic tunnelling. Moreover, simulations also show that a major part of the target is converted into high energy density (HED) matter, including warm dense matter (WDM) and strongly coupled plasma. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Influence of B4C-doping and high-energy ball milling on phase formation and critical current density of (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiani, N. G.; Mumladze, G. A.; Adamia, Z. A.; Kuzanyan, A. S.; Zhghamadze, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the combined effects of B4C-doping and planetary ball milling on the phase evolution, microstructure and transport properties of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy(B4C)x HTS with x = 0 ÷ 0.125 were studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), resistivity and critical current density measurements. Obtained results have shown that B4C additive leads to the strong acceleration of high-Tc phase formation and substantial enhancement in Jc. High-energy ball milling seems to produce a more homogeneous distribution of refined doped particles in the (Bi,Pb)-2223 HTS which results in an improved intergranular flux pinning and better self-field Jc performance.

  3. P3: An installation for high-energy density plasma physics and ultra-high intensity laser–matter interaction at ELI-Beamlines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weber, Stefan A.; Bechet, Sabrina; Borneis, S.; Brabec, Lukáš; Bučka, Martin; Chacon-Golcher, Edwin; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; De Marco, Massimo; Fajstavr, Antonín; Falk, Kateřina; Garcia, E.-R.; Grosz, Jakub; Gu, Yanjun; Hernandez Martin, Juan C.; Holec, M.; Janečka, Pavel; Jantač, Martin; Jirka, Martin; Kadlecová, Hedvika; Khikhlukha, Danila; Klimo, Ondřej; Korn, Georg; Kramer, Daniel; Batheja, Deepak Kumar; Laštovička, Tomáš; Lutoslawski, P.; Morejon, L.; Olšovcová, Veronika; Rajdl, Marek; Renner, Oldřich; Rus, Bedřich; Singh, Sushil K.; Šmíd, Michal; Sokol, Martin; Versaci, Roberto; Vrána, Roman; Vranic, M.; Vyskočil, Jiří; Wolf, Adam; Yu, Q.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2017), s. 149-176 E-ISSN 2468-080X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk LM2015065; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000449 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162; OP VVV - HiFi(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000449 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-energy-density- physics * ultra-high-intensity * warm dense matter * laboratory astrophysics * high repetition rate lasers * plasma optics * inertial confinement fusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics )

  4. Proposal for the Study of Thermophysical Properties of High-Energy-Density Matter Using Current and Future Heavy-Ion Accelerator Facilities at GSI Darmstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N.A.; Spiller, P.; Deutsch, C.; Fortov, V.E.; Gryaznov, V.; Kulish, M.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Mintsev, V.; Nikolaev, D.; Shilkin, N.; Shutov, A.; Ternovoi, V.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Ni, P.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Piriz, A.R.; Temporal, M.

    2005-01-01

    The subject of high-energy-density (HED) states in matter is of considerable importance to numerous branches of basic as well as applied physics. Intense heavy-ion beams are an excellent tool to create large samples of HED matter in the laboratory with fairly uniform physical conditions. Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, is a unique worldwide laboratory that has a heavy-ion synchrotron, SIS18, that delivers intense beams of energetic heavy ions. Construction of a much more powerful synchrotron, SIS100, at the future international facility for antiprotons and ion research (FAIR) at Darmstadt will lead to an increase in beam intensity by 3 orders of magnitude compared to what is currently available. The purpose of this Letter is to investigate with the help of two-dimensional numerical simulations, the potential of the FAIR to carry out research in the field of HED states in matter

  5. Solution Structures of Highly Active Molecular Ir Water-Oxidation Catalysts from Density Functional Theory Combined with High-Energy X-ray Scattering and EXAFS Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke R; Matula, Adam J; Kwon, Gihan; Hong, Jiyun; Sheehan, Stafford W; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Tiede, David M; Chen, Lin X; Batista, Victor S

    2016-05-04

    The solution structures of highly active Ir water-oxidation catalysts are elucidated by combining density functional theory, high-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We find that the catalysts are Ir dimers with mono-μ-O cores and terminal anionic ligands, generated in situ through partial oxidation of a common catalyst precursor. The proposed structures are supported by (1)H and (17)O NMR, EPR, resonance Raman and UV-vis spectra, electrophoresis, etc. Our findings are particularly valuable to understand the mechanism of water oxidation by highly reactive Ir catalysts. Importantly, our DFT-EXAFS-HEXS methodology provides a new in situ technique for characterization of active species in catalytic systems.

  6. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  7. The hybrid nanostructure of MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel for symmetric supercapacitors with high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Li, Liyi; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Jiang, Huaidong; Wong, C. P.; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by calcination. The carbon aerogel exhibits a high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and porous structure, ensuring high electrochemical performance of the hybrid nanostructure when coupled with the porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles. The symmetric supercapacitor using the MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure as the active electrode material exhibits a high energy density of about 84.3 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 600 W kg-1. The voltage window is as high as 1.5 V in neutral aqueous electrolytes. Due to the unique nanostructure of the electrodes, the capacitance retention reaches 86% over 5000 cycles.Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by

  8. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  9. Room-temperature vertically-aligned copper oxide nanoblades synthesized by electrochemical restructuring of copper hydroxide nanorods: An electrode for high energy density hybrid device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuetao; Zhou, Jinyuan; Dou, Wei; Wang, Junya; Mu, Xuemei; Zhang, Yue; Abas, Asim; Su, Qing; Lan, Wei; Xie, Erqing; Zhang, Chuanfang (John)

    2018-04-01

    The fast growing of portable electronics has greatly stimulated the development of energy storage materials, such as transition metal oxides (TMOs). However, TMOs usually involve harsh synthesis conditions, such as high temperature. Here we take advantage of the metastable nature of Cu(OH)2 and grow CuO nanoblades (NBs) on Cu foam under the electric field at room temperature. The electrochemical polarization accelerates the dissolution of Cu(OH)2 nanorods, guides the deposition of the as-dissolved Cu(OH)42- species and eventually leads to the phase transformation of CuO NBs. The unique materials architecture render the vertically-aligned CuO NBs with enhanced electronic and ionic diffusion kinetics, high charge storage (∼779 mC cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), excellent rate capability and long-term cycling performances. Further matching with activated carbon electrode results in high-performance hybrid device, which displays a wide voltage window (1.7 V) in aqueous electrolyte, high energy density (0.17 mWh cm-2) and power density (34 mW cm-2) coupled with long lifetime, surpassing the best CuO based device known. The hybrid device can be randomly connected and power several light-emitting diodes. Importantly, such an electrochemical restructuring approach is cost-effective, environmentally green and universal, and can be extended to synthesize other metastable hydroxides to in-situ grow corresponding oxides.

  10. Modifying mixing and instability growth through the adjustment of initial conditions in a high-energy-density counter-propagating shear experiment on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, E. C.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Counter-propagating shear experiments conducted at the OMEGA Laser Facility have been evaluating the effect of target initial conditions, specifically the characteristics of a tracer foil located at the shear boundary, on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability evolution and experiment transition toward nonlinearity and turbulence in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Experiments are focused on both identifying and uncoupling the dependence of the model initial turbulent length scale in variable-density turbulence models of k-ϵ type on competing physical instability seed lengths as well as developing a path toward fully developed turbulent HED experiments. We present results from a series of experiments controllably and independently varying two initial types of scale lengths in the experiment: the thickness and surface roughness (surface perturbation scale spectrum) of a tracer layer at the shear interface. We show that decreasing the layer thickness and increasing the surface roughness both have the ability to increase the relative mixing in the system, and thus theoretically decrease the time required to begin transitioning to turbulence in the system. We also show that we can connect a change in observed mix width growth due to increased foil surface roughness to an analytically predicted change in model initial turbulent scale lengths

  11. Studies of thermophysical properties of high-energy-density states in matter using intense heavy ion beams at the future Fair accelerator facilities: The HEDgeHOB collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N.A.; Deutsch, C.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Gryaznov, V.; Fortov, V.E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Ni, P.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Piriz, A.R.; Wouchuk, G.

    2006-01-01

    Intense beams of energetic heavy ions are believed to be a very efficient and novel tool to create states of High-Energy-Density (HED) in matter. This paper shows with the help of numerical simulations that the heavy ion beams that will be generated at the future Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) will allow one to use two different experimental schemes to study HED states in matter. The German government has recently approved the construction of FAIR at Darmstadt. First scheme named HIHEX (Heavy Ion Heating and EXpansion), will generate high-pressure, high-entropy states in matter by volumetric isochoric heating. The heated material will then be allowed to expand in an isentropic way. Using this scheme, it will be possible to study important regions of the phase diagram that are either difficult to access or are even unaccessible using traditional methods of shock compression. The second scheme would allow one to achieve low-entropy compression of a sample material like hydrogen or water to produce conditions that are believed to exist in the interiors of the giant planets. This scheme is named LAPLAS after Laboratory Planetary Sciences. (authors)

  12. P3: An installation for high-energy density plasma physics and ultra-high intensity laser–matter interaction at ELI-Beamlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Weber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ELI-Beamlines (ELI-BL, one of the three pillars of the Extreme Light Infrastructure endeavour, will be in a unique position to perform research in high-energy-density-physics (HEDP, plasma physics and ultra-high intensity (UHI (>1022W/cm2 laser–plasma interaction. Recently the need for HED laboratory physics was identified and the P3 (plasma physics platform installation under construction in ELI-BL will be an answer. The ELI-BL 10 PW laser makes possible fundamental research topics from high-field physics to new extreme states of matter such as radiation-dominated ones, high-pressure quantum ones, warm dense matter (WDM and ultra-relativistic plasmas. HEDP is of fundamental importance for research in the field of laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF. Reaching such extreme states of matter now and in the future will depend on the use of plasma optics for amplifying and focusing laser pulses. This article will present the relevant technological infrastructure being built in ELI-BL for HEDP and UHI, and gives a brief overview of some research under way in the field of UHI, laboratory astrophysics, ICF, WDM, and plasma optics.

  13. Simulations of beam-matter interaction experiments at the CERN HiRadMat facility and prospects of high-energy-density physics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Burkart, F; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Wollmann, D; Piriz, A R

    2014-12-01

    In a recent publication [Schmidt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 080701 (2014)], we reported results on beam-target interaction experiments that have been carried out at the CERN HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials) facility using extended solid copper cylindrical targets that were irradiated with a 440-GeV proton beam delivered by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). On the one hand, these experiments confirmed the existence of hydrodynamic tunneling of the protons that leads to substantial increase in the range of the protons and the corresponding hadron shower in the target, a phenomenon predicted by our previous theoretical investigations [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 25, 051003 (2012)]. On the other hand, these experiments demonstrated that the beam heated part of the target is severely damaged and is converted into different phases of high energy density (HED) matter, as suggested by our previous theoretical studies [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. E 79, 046410 (2009)]. The latter confirms that the HiRadMat facility can be used to study HED physics. In the present paper, we give details of the numerical simulations carried out to understand the experimental measurements. These include the evolution of the physical parameters, for example, density, temperature, pressure, and the internal energy in the target, during and after the irradiation. This information is important in order to determine the region of the HED phase diagram that can be accessed in such experiments. These simulations have been done using the energy deposition code fluka and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, big2, iteratively.

  14. Design and fabrication of highly open nickel cobalt sulfide nanosheets on Ni foam for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and long cycle-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Daosong; Fu, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Nickel cobalt sulfides (NiCo-S) are promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors but normally show poor rate capability and unsatisfactory long-term endurance. To overcome these disadvantages, a properly constructed electrode architecture with abundant electron transport channels, excellent electronic conductivity and robust structural stability is required. Herein, considering that in situ transformation can mostly retain the specific structural advantages of the precursors, a two-step strategy is purposefully developed to construct a binder-free electrode composed of interconnected NiCo-S nanosheets on Ni foam (NiCo-S/NF), in which NiCo-S/NF is synthesized via the in situ sulfuration of networked acetate anion-intercalated nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets loaded on Ni foam (A-NiCo-LDH/NF). Noticeably, the optimized Ni1Co1-S/NF exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 2553.9 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, excellent rate capability (1898.1 F g-1 at 50 A g-1) and superior cycling stability (nearly 90% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). Furthermore, the assembled asymmetric supercapacitor based on Ni1Co1-S/NF demonstrates a high energy density of 58.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 796 W kg-1 and impressive long-term durability even after a repeated charge/discharge process as long as 70,000 cycles (∼92% capacitance retention). The attractive properties endow the Ni1Co1-S/NF electrode with significant potential for high-performance energy storage devices.

  15. High-Energy-Density Aqueous Magnesium-Ion Battery Based on a Carbon-Coated FeVO4 Anode and a Mg-OMS-1 Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Cang, Ruibai; Yan, Jun; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-12-01

    Porous FeVO 4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and further modified by coating with carbon to obtain FeVO 4 /C with a hierarchical pore structure. FeVO 4 /C is used as an anodic electrode in aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries. The FeVO 4 /C material not only has improved electrical conductivity as a result of the carbon coating layer, but also has an increased specific surface area as a result of the hierarchical pore structure, which is beneficial for magnesium-ion insertion/deinsertion. Therefore, an aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion full battery is successfully constructed with FeVO 4 /C as the anode, Mg-OMS-1 (OMS=octahedral molecular sieves) as the cathode, and 1.0 mol L -1 MgSO 4 as the electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the Mg-OMS-1//FeVO 4 /C aqueous battery is 58.9 mAh g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 ; this value is obtained by calculating the total mass of two electrodes and the capacity retention rate of this device is 97.7 % after 100 cycles, with almost 100 % coulombic efficiency, which indicates that the system has a good electrochemical reversibility. Additionally, this system can achieve a high energy density of 70.4 Wh kg -1 , which provides powerful evidence that an aqueous magnesium-ion battery is possible. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A Method to Search for Correlations of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic-Ray Masses with the Large-scale Structures in the Local Galaxy Density Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2013-02-01

    One of the main goals of investigations using present and future giant extensive air shower (EAS) arrays is the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). A new approach to the problem is presented, combining the analysis of arrival directions with the statistical test of the paired EAS samples. One of the ideas of the method is to search for possible correlations between UHECR masses and their separate sources; for instance, if there are two sources in different areas of the celestial sphere injecting different nuclei, but the fluxes are comparable so that arrival directions are isotropic, then the aim is to reveal a difference in the mass composition of cosmic-ray fluxes. The method is based on a non-parametric statistical test—the Wilcoxon signed-rank routine—which does not depend on the populations fitting any parameterized distributions. Two particular algorithms are proposed: first, using measurements of the depth of the EAS maximum position in the atmosphere; and second, relying on the age variance of air showers initiated by different primary particles. The formulated method is applied to the Yakutsk array data, in order to demonstrate the possibility of searching for a difference in average mass composition between the two UHECR sets, arriving particularly from the supergalactic plane and a complementary region.

  17. A METHOD TO SEARCH FOR CORRELATIONS OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC-RAY MASSES WITH THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURES IN THE LOCAL GALAXY DENSITY FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main goals of investigations using present and future giant extensive air shower (EAS) arrays is the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). A new approach to the problem is presented, combining the analysis of arrival directions with the statistical test of the paired EAS samples. One of the ideas of the method is to search for possible correlations between UHECR masses and their separate sources; for instance, if there are two sources in different areas of the celestial sphere injecting different nuclei, but the fluxes are comparable so that arrival directions are isotropic, then the aim is to reveal a difference in the mass composition of cosmic-ray fluxes. The method is based on a non-parametric statistical test—the Wilcoxon signed-rank routine—which does not depend on the populations fitting any parameterized distributions. Two particular algorithms are proposed: first, using measurements of the depth of the EAS maximum position in the atmosphere; and second, relying on the age variance of air showers initiated by different primary particles. The formulated method is applied to the Yakutsk array data, in order to demonstrate the possibility of searching for a difference in average mass composition between the two UHECR sets, arriving particularly from the supergalactic plane and a complementary region.

  18. A METHOD TO SEARCH FOR CORRELATIONS OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC-RAY MASSES WITH THE LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURES IN THE LOCAL GALAXY DENSITY FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A. A., E-mail: ivanov@ikfia.ysn.ru [Shafer Institute for Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, Yakutsk 677980 (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    One of the main goals of investigations using present and future giant extensive air shower (EAS) arrays is the mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). A new approach to the problem is presented, combining the analysis of arrival directions with the statistical test of the paired EAS samples. One of the ideas of the method is to search for possible correlations between UHECR masses and their separate sources; for instance, if there are two sources in different areas of the celestial sphere injecting different nuclei, but the fluxes are comparable so that arrival directions are isotropic, then the aim is to reveal a difference in the mass composition of cosmic-ray fluxes. The method is based on a non-parametric statistical test-the Wilcoxon signed-rank routine-which does not depend on the populations fitting any parameterized distributions. Two particular algorithms are proposed: first, using measurements of the depth of the EAS maximum position in the atmosphere; and second, relying on the age variance of air showers initiated by different primary particles. The formulated method is applied to the Yakutsk array data, in order to demonstrate the possibility of searching for a difference in average mass composition between the two UHECR sets, arriving particularly from the supergalactic plane and a complementary region.

  19. All-MXene-Based Integrated Electrode Constructed by Ti3C2 Nanoribbon Framework Host and Nanosheet Interlayer for High-Energy-Density Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanfeng; Zheng, Shuanghao; Qin, Jieqiong; Zhao, Xuejun; Shi, Haodong; Wang, Xiaohui; Chen, Jian; Wu, Zhong-Shuai

    2018-03-27

    High-energy-density lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold promise for next-generation portable electronic devices, but are facing great challenges in rational construction of high-performance flexible electrodes and innovative cell configurations for actual applications. Here we demonstrated an all-MXene-based flexible and integrated sulfur cathode, enabled by three-dimensional alkalized Ti 3 C 2 MXene nanoribbon (a-Ti 3 C 2 MNR) frameworks as a S/polysulfides host (a-Ti 3 C 2 -S) and two-dimensional delaminated Ti 3 C 2 MXene (d-Ti 3 C 2 ) nanosheets as interlayer on a polypropylene (PP) separator, for high-energy and long-cycle Li-S batteries. Notably, an a-Ti 3 C 2 MNR framework with open interconnected macropores and an exposed surface area guarantees high S loading and fast ionic diffusion for prompt lithiation/delithiation kinetics, and the 2D d-Ti 3 C 2 MXene interlayer remarkably prevents the shuttle effect of lithium polysulfides via both chemical absorption and physical blocking. As a result, the integrated a-Ti 3 C 2 -S/d-Ti 3 C 2 /PP electrode was directly used for Li-S batteries, without the requirement of a metal current collector, and exhibited a high reversible capacity of 1062 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C and enhanced capacity of 632 mAh g -1 after 50 cycles at 0.5 C, outperforming the a-Ti 3 C 2 -S/PP electrode (547 mAh g -1 ) and conventional a-Ti 3 C 2 -S on an Al current collector (a-Ti 3 C 2 -S/Al) (597 mAh g -1 ). Furthermore, the all-MXene-based integrated cathode displayed outstanding rate capacity of 288 mAh g -1 at 10 C and long-life cyclability. Therefore, this proposed strategy of constructing an all-MXene-based cathode can be readily extended to assemble a large number of MXene-derived materials, from a group of 60+ MAX phases, for applications such as various batteries and supercapacitors.

  20. A computational procedure for the investigation of whipping effect on ITER High Energy Piping and its application to the ITER divertor primary heat transfer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnuolo, G.A., E-mail: Alessandro.Spagnuolo@kraftanlagen.com [Kraftanlagen Heidelberg Gmbh, Im Breitspiel 7, D-69126 Heidelberg (Germany); Dell’Orco, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Di Maio, P.A. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Mazzei, M. [Kraftanlagen Heidelberg Gmbh, Im Breitspiel 7, D-69126 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • High Energy Piping (HEP) are components containing water or steam with P ≥ 2.0 MPa and/or T ≥ 100 °C. • The whipping effect in HEP may cause dangerous domino effect with relative rupture propagation. • The rapture is envisaged or postulated according to the stress state of piping. • A FEM analysis is performed in order to study the dynamic of whipping effect. • Study of special support to avoid and/or mitigate the whipping effect. - Abstract: The Tokamak Cooling Water System of nuclear facility has the function to remove heat from plasma facing components maintaining coolant temperatures, pressures and flow rates as required and, depending on thermal-hydraulic requirements, its systems are defined as High Energy Piping (HEP) because they contain fluids, such as water or steam, at a pressure greater than or equal to 2.0 MPa and/or at a temperature greater than or equal to 100 °C, or even gas at pressure above the atmospheric one. The French standards contemplate the need to consider the whipping effect on HEP design. This effect happens when, after a double ended guillotine break, the reaction force could create a displacement of the piping which might affect adjacent components. A research campaign has been performed, in cooperation by ITER Organization and University of Palermo, to outline the procedure to check whether whipping effect might occur and assess its potential damage effects so to allow their mitigation. This procedure is based on the guidelines issued by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed procedure has been applied to the analysis of the whipping effect of divertor primary heat transfer system HEP, using a theoretical–computational approach based on the finite element method.

  1. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  2. Exploring nuclear reactions relevant to Stellar and Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis using High-Energy-Density plasmas at OMEGA and the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.

    2017-10-01

    Thermonuclear reaction rates and nuclear processes have been explored traditionally by means of accelerator experiments, which are difficult to execute at conditions relevant to Stellar Nucleosynthesis (SN) and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). High-Energy-Density (HED) plasmas closely mimic astrophysical environments and are an excellent complement to accelerator experiments in exploring SN and BBN-relevant nuclear reactions. To date, our work using HED plasmas at OMEGA and NIF has focused on the complementary 3He+3He, T+3He and T +T reactions. First studies of the T +T reaction indicated the significance of the 5He ground-state resonance in the T +T neutron spectrum. Subsequent T +T experiments showed that the strength of this resonance varies with center-of-mass (c-m) energy in the range of 16-50 keV, a variation that is not fundamentally understood. Studies of the 3He+3He and T+3He reactions have also been conducted at OMEGA at c-m energies of 165 keV and 80 keV, respectively, and the results revealed three things. First, a large cross section for the T+3He- γ branch can be ruled out as an explanation for the anomalously high abundance of 6Li in primordial material. Second, the results contrasted to theoretical modeling indicate that the mirror-symmetry assumption is not enough to capture the differences between T +T and 3He+3He reactions. Third, the elliptical spectrum assumed in the analysis of 3He+3He data obtained in accelerator experiments is incorrect. Preliminary data from recent experiments at the NIF exploring the 3He+3He reaction at c-m energies of 60 keV and 100 keV also indicate that the underlying physics changes with c-m energy. In this talk, we describe these findings and future directions for exploring light-ion reactions at OMEGA and the NIF. The work was supported in part by the US DOE, LLE, and LLNL.

  3. A technique for determining fast and thermal neutron flux densities in intense high-energy (8-30 MeV) photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.W.; Holeman, G.R.; Nath, R.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for measuring fast and thermal neutron fluxes in intense high-energy photon fields has been developed. Samples of phorphorous pentoxide are exposed to a mixed photon-neutron field. The irradiated samples are then dissolved in distilled water and their activation products are counted in a liquid scintillation spectrometer at 95-97% efficiency. The radioactive decay characteristics of the samples are then analyzed to determine fast and thermal neutron fluxes. Sensitivity of this neutron detector to high energy photons has been measured and found to be small. (author)

  4. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  5. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  6. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 94551 (United States); Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  7. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  8. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  9. Performance Degradation of Thermal Parameters during Cycle Ageing of High Energy Density Ni-Mn-Co based Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciu, Tiberiu; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The accelerated demand for electrifying the transportation sector, coupled with the continuous improvement of rechargeable batteries’ characteristics, have made modern high-energy Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries the standard choice for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, Li......-ion batteries’ electrochemical and thermal characteristics are very important topics, putting them at the forefront of the research. Along with the electrical performance of Li-ion battery cells, their thermal behavior needs to be accurately predicted during operation and over the lifespan of the application...... as well, since the thermal management of the battery is crucial for the safety of the EV driver. Moreover, the thermal management system can significantly lower the degradation rate of the battery pack and thus reduce costs. In this paper, the thermal characterization of a commercially available Nickel...

  10. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  11. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  12. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  13. Relations between the matter density and layer thickness radial distributions in spherically symmetric objects: for high energy nuclear physics and astrophysics use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Zawislawski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown how it is possible to transform known data on radial distribution of the matter layer thickness to unknown radial distribution of the matter density inside spherically symmetric objects. Appropriate formulas and testing of them are presented. An application of the method for the radial distribution of the matter density inside a target nucleus is discussed as an example. 2 refs.; 2 figs

  14. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  15. Two-dimensional heterostructures of V2O5 and reduced graphene oxide as electrodes for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.

    2014-08-27

    In this article, we report the synthesis of electrode materials based on two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures of V2O5 nanosheets (V2O5 NS) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitor applications. Specifically, the 2D V2O5 and rGO/V2O5 nanosheet electrodes showed a specific capacitance of 253 F g-1 and 635 F g-1, respectively at a current density of 1 A g-1. The capacitance of the heterostructures is almost 2.5 times higher than the 2D V2O5 nanosheets alone. The corresponding energy density of 39 Wh kg-1 and 79.5 Wh kg-1 were achieved for the two electrodes at a power density of 900 W kg-1 in an asymmetric supercapacitor configuration. The energy and power density using the nanosheet heterostructure are, to our knowledge, higher than any of those that were previously reported for asymmetric supercapacitors using V2O5 electrodes. This journal is

  16. All-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors based on Fe-doped mesoporous Co3O4 and three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide electrodes with high energy and power densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wei, Jun; Chen, Leiyi; Tang, Shaolong; Deng, Mingsen; Du, Youwei

    2017-10-19

    An asymmetric supercapacitor offers opportunities to effectively utilize the full potential of the different potential windows of the two electrodes for a higher operating voltage, resulting in an enhanced specific capacitance and significantly improved energy without sacrificing the power delivery and cycle life. To achieve high energy and power densities, we have synthesized an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor with a wider voltage range using Fe-doped Co 3 O 4 and three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3DrGO) as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. In contrast to undoped Co 3 O 4 , the increased density of states and modified charge spatial separation endow the Fe-doped Co 3 O 4 electrode with greatly improved electrochemical capacitive performance, including high specific capacitance (1997 F g -1 and 1757 F g -1 at current densities of 1 and 20 A g -1 , respectively), excellent rate capability, and superior cycling stability. Remarkably, the optimized all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in a wide range of 0-1.8 V, thus delivering a high energy density (270.3 W h kg -1 ), high power density (9.0 kW kg -1 at 224.2 W h kg -1 ), and excellent cycling stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current density of 10 A g -1 ). The superior capacitive performance suggests that such an all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor shows great potential for developing energy storage systems with high levels of energy and power delivery.

  17. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  18. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  19. Biomass-derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tailored hierarchical porosity and high specific surface area for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junting; Niu, Jin; Liu, Mengyue; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with hierarchical structures attract intense interest for the development of high-performance supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and efficient strategy to synthesize nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tailored porous structure combined with high specific surface area (SSA), which involves a pre-carbonization and a subsequent carbonization combined with KOH activation of silkworm cocoon precursors. Through adjusting the mass ratio of the activator (KOH) to pre-carbonized precursor in the activation process, the hierarchically porous carbon prepared at the mass ratio of 2 (referred to as NHPC-2) possesses a high defect density and a high SSA of 3386 m2 g-1 as well as the relatively high volumetric proportion of mesopores and macropores (45.5%). As a result, the energy density and power density of the symmetric supercapacitor based on NHPC-2 electrode are as high as 34.41 Wh kg-1 and 31.25 kW kg-1 in organic-solvent electrolyte, and are further improved to 112.1 Wh kg-1 and 23.91 kW kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  20. Flexible and freestanding supercapacitor based on nanostructured poly(m-aminophenol)/carbon nanofiber hybrid mats with high energy and power densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Arup; Dey, Baban; Sinha Mahapatra, Susanta; Kim, Doo-Won; Yang, Kap-Seung; Yang, Duck-Joo

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured poly(m-aminophenol) (PmAP) coated freestanding carbon nanofiber (CNF) mats were fabricated through simple in situ rapid-mixing polymerization of m-aminophenol in the presence of a CNF mat for flexible solid-state supercapacitors. The surface compositions, morphology and pore structure of the hybrid mats were characterized by using various techniques, e.g., FTIR, Raman, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, and N2 absorption. The results show that the PmAP nanoparticles were homogeneously deposited on CNF surfaces and formed a thin flexible hybrid mat, which were directly used to made electrodes for electrochemical analysis without using any binders or conductive additives. The electrochemical performances of the hybrid mats were easily tailored by varying the PmAP loading on a hybrid electrode. The PmAP/CNF-10 hybrid electrode with a relatively low PmAP loading (> 42 wt%) showed a high specific capacitance of 325.8 F g-1 and a volumetric capacitance of 273.6 F cm-3 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, together with a specific capacitance retention of 196.2 F g-1 at 20 A g-1. The PmAP/CNF-10 hybrid electrode showed good cycling stability with 88.2% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. A maximum energy density of 45.2 Wh kg-1 and power density of 20.4 kW kg-1 were achieved for the PmAP/CNF-10 hybrid electrode. This facile and cost-effective synthesis of a flexible binder-free PmAP/CNF hybrid mat with excellent capacitive performances encourages its possible commercial exploitation.

  1. Effects of Electrodeposition Mode and Deposition Cycle on the Electrochemical Performance of MnO2-NiO Composite Electrodes for High-Energy-Density Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusi; Majid, S R

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured network-like MnO2-NiO composite electrodes were electrodeposited onto stainless steel substrates via different electrodeposition modes, such as chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300°C for metal oxide conversion. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the crystalline natures and morphologies of the deposited films. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests. The results revealed that the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained composite electrodes depended on the electrodeposition mode. The electrochemical properties of MnO2-NiO composite electrodes prepared using cyclic voltammetry exhibited the highest capacitance values and were most influenced by the deposition cycle number. The optimum specific capacitance was 3509 Fg-1 with energy and power densities of 1322 Wh kg-1 and 110.5 kW kg-1, respectively, at a current density of 20 Ag-1 in a mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN)6 electrolyte.

  2. Effects of Electrodeposition Mode and Deposition Cycle on the Electrochemical Performance of MnO2-NiO Composite Electrodes for High-Energy-Density Supercapacitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusi

    Full Text Available Nanostructured network-like MnO2-NiO composite electrodes were electrodeposited onto stainless steel substrates via different electrodeposition modes, such as chronopotentiometry, chronoamperometry, and cyclic voltammetry, and then subjected to heat treatment at 300°C for metal oxide conversion. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the crystalline natures and morphologies of the deposited films. The electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge tests. The results revealed that the electrochemical performance of the as-obtained composite electrodes depended on the electrodeposition mode. The electrochemical properties of MnO2-NiO composite electrodes prepared using cyclic voltammetry exhibited the highest capacitance values and were most influenced by the deposition cycle number. The optimum specific capacitance was 3509 Fg-1 with energy and power densities of 1322 Wh kg-1 and 110.5 kW kg-1, respectively, at a current density of 20 Ag-1 in a mixed KOH/K3Fe(CN6 electrolyte.

  3. Final Technical Report, DOE Grant DE-FG02-98ER54496, Physics of High-Energy-Density X Pinch Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, David

    2008-01-01

    Abstract for the Final Technical Report, DOE Grant DE-FG02-98ER54496 An X-pinch plasma is produced by driving a high current (100-500 kiloamperes) through two or more fine wires that cross and touch at a point, forming an X in the case of two wires. The wires explode because of the high current, and then the resulting plasma is imploded radially inward by the magnetic field from the current. When the imploding material briefly stagnates at very small radius and high density, an intense burst of x-rays is produced and the plasma disassembles as rapidly as it imploded. When this project began, we could confidently state that at its minimum radius, X pinch plasmas made from such materials as titanium and molybdenum might be as hot as 10,000,000 K and had densities almost as high as the solid wire density, but their X-ray pulse durations were below one billionth of a second. We could also say that the X pinch was useful for point-projection imaging of rapidly changing objects, such as exploding wires, with high resolution, indicative of a very small X-ray source spot size. We can now confidently say that X-pinch plasma temperatures at the moment of the X-ray burst are 10-25 million K in titanium, molybdenum and several other wire X-pinches based upon the spectrum of emitted X-rays in the radiation burst. By the same means, as well as from the penetration of X-rays through the dense plasma, we know that ion densities are close to or higher than one-tenth of the density of the original (solid) wire material in molybdenum and a few other X-pinch plasmas. Furthermore, using the diffraction of X-rays radiated by the X-pinch when it reaches minimum radius, we have determined that the x-ray source size is about 1 thousandth of a millimeter for such wire materials as molybdenum and niobium, while it is 2-10 times larger for tungsten, titanium and aluminum wires. Finally, using a very high speed X-ray imaging 'streak camera,' we have determined that X pinch X-ray pulses can be

  4. Enhanced electric polarization and breakdown strength in the all-organic sandwich-structured poly(vinylidene fluoride-based dielectric film for high energy density capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to develop the dielectric energy storage capacitor for the modern electrical and electronic equipment. Here, the all-organic sandwich-structured composite with superior breakdown strength and delayed saturation polarization is presented. Furthermore, the energy storage characteristics of the composite are enhanced by the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene fiber and the redistribution of local electric field. The dielectric permittivity of composite increases to ∼16, and the discharged energy density is high to ∼8.7 J/cm3 at 360 kV/mm, and the breakdown strength is up to ∼408 kV/mm. The excellent performance of the composite broadens the application in the field of power electronics industry.

  5. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  6. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  7. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  8. Development of a polymer battery with high energy density for mobile and stationary applications. Final report. Entwicklung einer Polymerbatterie hoher Energiedichte fuer mobile und stationaere Anwendungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegele, D.; Bittihn, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this research project, from the many electrically conducting polymers synthesized during the last few years, a selection were to be tested for their suitability as active electrode material. It was necessary to examine various combinations of electrodes and electrolytes for their electrochemical properties for this purpose (polyacetylene, polythiophene, poly (3-methyl) tiophene, polyparaphenylene, phthalocyanine, polypyrol, poly (1.1 to 2 thienyl) ferrocene). Apart from the technical tests, the mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions had to be cleared up as far as possible. For example, it was to be made clear which reactions led to the quite high self-discharge rates of those polymer electrode materials. From these basic investigations, a selection was to be made of technically interesting materials and battery systems. The next step was building laboratory samples, which were intended to make a realistic estimate of the competitiveness of these systmes with the secondary batteries now on the market possible from the energy and power densities achieved. (orig./MM).

  9. Effect of high energy electron beam (10 MeV) on specific heat capacity of low-density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite nano-composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, Z., E-mail: zhr_soltani@yahoo.com [Health Physics and Radiation Dosimetry Research Laboratory, Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, F. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Polymer Group, Golestan University, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beigzadeh, A.M. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, thermal properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose LDPE reinforced with different weight percents of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powder which was synthesized via hydrolysis method are produced. The samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam at doses of 75 to 250 kGy. Specific heat capacity measurement have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) apparatus and the effect of three parameters include of temperature, irradiation dose and the amount of HAP nano particles as additives on the specific heat capacity of PE/HAP have been investigated precisely. The MTDSC results indicate that the specific heat capacity have decreased by addition of nano sized HAP as reinforcement for LDPE. On the other hand, the effect of radiation dose is reduction in the specific heat capacity in all materials including LDPE and its nano composites. The HAP nano particles along with cross-link junctions due to radiation restrain the movement of the polymer chains in the vicinity of each particle and improve the immobility of polymer chains and consequently lead to reduction in specific heat capacity. Also, the obtained results confirm that the radiation effect on the specific heat capacity is more efficient than the reinforcing effect of nano-sized hydroxyapatite.

  10. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report discusses research by Columbia University staff in high energy physics. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: lattice gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; parity doublets; solitons; baryon number violation; black holes; magnetic monopoles; gluon plasma; Chern-Simons theory; and the inflationary universe

  11. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklorsky, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)

  12. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  13. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  14. High energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  15. High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] High Energy Physics Home Division ES&H Personnel Collider Physics Cosmic Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theory & Computing Detector R&D Electronic Design Mechanical Design Neutrino Physics Theoretical Physics Seminars HEP Division Seminar HEP Lunch Seminar HEP

  16. MicroCT study on the enamel mineral density of primary molars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Kalin, K.; van Ruijven, L.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to report on the mineral density of the enamel of primary molars related to the age of the child and to compare the mineral density of sound and carious enamel in those molars. Materials and methods This study included 23 children and 41 extracted primary molars. The

  17. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  18. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  19. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  20. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  1. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  2. Error estimation and parameter dependence of the calculation of the fast ion distribution function, temperature, and density using data from the KF1 high energy neutral particle analyzer on Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlatter, Christian; Testa, Duccio; Cecconello, Marco; Murari, Andrea; Santala, Marko

    2004-01-01

    Joint European Torus high energy neutral particle analyzer measures the flux of fast neutrals originating from the plasma core. From this data, the fast ion distribution function f i fast , temperature T i,perpendicular fast , and density n i fast are derived using knowledge of various plasma parameters and of the cross section for the required atomic processes. In this article, a systematic sensitivity study of the effect of uncertainties in these quantities on the evaluation of the neutral particle analyzer f i fast , T i,perpendicular fast , and n i fast is reported. The dominant parameter affecting n i fast is the impurity confinement time and therefore a reasonable estimate of this quantity is necessary to reduce the uncertainties in n i fast below 50%. On the other hand, T i,perpendicular fast is much less sensitive and can certainly be provided with an accuracy of better than 10%

  3. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics of the evolution of the early universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including studies of the nature of dark matter and the signature of annihilations in the galactic halo, where the resulting γ-ray fluxes are potentially observable, and in stars, where stellar evolution may be affects. We will develop constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon, examining the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in both flat and curved cosmological models, and implications for observations of large-scale galaxy clustering and structure formation theories. We will also study spectral distortions in the microwave background radiation that are produced by exotic particle decays in the very early universe. We expect such astrophysical considerations to provide fruitful insights both into high-energy particle physics and into possible cosmological for the early universe

  4. A Theoretical investigation of a potential high energy density compound 3,6,7,8-tetranitro-3,6,7,8-tetraaza-tricyclo[3.1.1.1(2,4]octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The B3LYP/6-31G (d density functional theory (DFT method was used to study molecular geometry, electronic structure, infrared spectrum (IR and thermodynamic properties. Heat of formation (HOF and calculated density were estimated to evaluate detonation properties using Kamlet-Jacobs equations. Thermal stability of 3,6,7,8-tetranitro-3,6,7,8-tetraaza-tricyclo [3.1.1.1(2,4]octane (TTTO was investigated by calculating bond dissociation energy (BDE at the unrestricted B3LYP/6-31G(d level. Results showed the N-NO2 bond is a trigger bond during the thermolysis initiation process. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics (MM methods belongs to P2(1/C space group, with cell parameters a = 8.239 Å, b = 8.079 Å, c = 16.860 Å, Z = 4 and r = 1.922 g cm-3. Both detonation velocity of 9.79 km s-1 and detonation pressure of 44.22 GPa performed similarly to CL-20. According to the quantitative standards of energetics and stability, TTTO essentially satisfies this requirement as a high energy density compound (HEDC.

  5. 3.0 V High Energy Density Symmetric Sodium-Ion Battery: Na4V2(PO4)3∥Na3V2(PO4)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuhui; Zhu, Zixuan; Li, Qi; Wang, Xuanpeng; Xu, Xiaoming; Meng, Jiashen; Ren, Wenhao; Zhang, Xinhe; Huang, Yunhui; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-03-28

    Symmetric sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are considered as promising candidates for large-scale energy storage owing to the simplified manufacture and wide abundance of sodium resources. However, most symmetric SIBs suffer from suppressed energy density. Here, a superior congeneric Na 4 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 anode is synthesized via electrochemical preintercalation, and a high energy density symmetric SIB (Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as a cathode and Na 4 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as an anode) based on the deepened redox couple of V 4+ /V 2+ is built for the first time. When measured in half cell, both electrodes show stabilized electrochemical performance (over 3000 cycles). The symmetric SIBs exhibit an output voltage of 3.0 V and a cell-level energy density of 138 W h kg -1 . Furthermore, the sodium storage mechanism under the expanded measurement range of 0.01-3.9 V is disclosed through an in situ X-ray diffraction technique.

  6. High energy density redox flow device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  7. Computational Simulation of High Energy Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-30

    the imploding liner. The PFS depends on a lithium barrier foil slowing the advance of deuterium up the coaxial gun to the corner. There the plasma ...the coaxial gun section, and Figure 4 shows the physical state of the plasma just prior to pinch. Figure 5 shows neutron yield reaching 1014 in this...details the channel geometry between the center cylinder and coaxial gas gun . The deuterium injection starts when the pressure of the deuterium gas in

  8. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  9. High Energy Density Capacitors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  10. Spectroscopic investigations of high-energy-density\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Martin; Ferus, Martin; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Kamas, Michal; Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Shestivska, Violetta; Juha, Libor; Skřehot, P.; Laitl, V.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 39 (2016), s. 27317-27325 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S; GA MŠk LG15013; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083 Grant - others:Akademie věd - GA AV ČR(CZ) R200401521 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : HIGH-POWER LASER * INDUCED DIELECTRIC-BREAKDOWN * EARTHS EARLY ATMOSPHERE Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  11. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  12. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  13. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This progress report presents a review of research done over the past five years by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This research has been centered at Fermilab where we have had a continuing involvement with both the Tevatron collider and fixed-target programs. In 1988 we began extensive detector R ampersand D for the SSC through its Major Subsystem Program. Duke has been an active member of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) since its formation. These last five years has also been used to finish the analysis of data from a series of hybrid bubble chamber experiments which formed the core of Duke's research program in the early 1980's

  14. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  15. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Flexible Nanocomposite Films with Dopamine-Coated Giant Dielectric Ceramic Nanopowders, Ba(Fe0.5Ta0.5)O3, for High Energy-Storage Density at Low Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Tian; Wang, Chun; Xiao, Yujia; Jing, Panpan; Cui, Yongfei; Pu, Yongping

    2017-08-30

    Ba(Fe 0.5 Ta 0.5 )O 3 /poly(vinylidene fluoride) (BFT/PVDF) flexible nanocomposite films are fabricated by tape casting using dopamine (DA)-modified BFT nanopowders and PVDF as a matrix polymer. After a surface modification of installing a DA layer with a thickness of 5 nm, the interfacial couple interaction between BFT and PVDF is enhanced, resulting in less hole defects at the interface. Then the dielectric constant (ε'), loss tangent (tan δ), and AC conductivity of nanocomposite films are reduced. Meanwhile, the value of the reduced dielectric constant (Δε') and the strength of interfacial polarization (k) are introduced to illustrate the effect of DA on the dielectric behavior of nanocomposite films. Δε' can be used to calculate the magnitude of interfacial polarization, and the strength of the dielectric constant contributed by the interface can be expressed as k. Most importantly, the energy-storage density and energy-storage efficiency of nanocomposite films with a small BFT@DA filler content of 1 vol % at a low electric field of 150 MV/m are enhanced by about 15% and 120%, respectively, after DA modification. The high energy-storage density of 1.81 J/cm 3 is obtained in the sample. This value is much larger than the reported polymer-based nanocomposite films. In addition, the outstanding cycle and bending stability of the nanocomposite films make it a promising candidate for future flexible portable energy devices.

  16. Hierarchically MnO2-Nanosheet Covered Submicrometer-FeCo2O4-Tube Forest as Binder-Free Electrodes for High Energy Density All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baogang; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-02-01

    The current problem of the still relatively low energy densities of supercapacitors can be effectively addressed by designing electrodes hierarchically on micro- and nanoscale. Herein, we report the synthesis of hierarchically porous, nanosheet covered submicrometer tube forests on Ni foam. Chemical deposition and thermal treatment result in homogeneous forests of 750 nm diameter FeCo2O4 tubes, which after hydrothermal reaction in KMnO4 are wrapped in MnO2-nanosheet-built porous covers. The covers' thickness can be adjusted from 200 to 800 nm by KMnO4 concentration. An optimal thickness (380 nm) with a MnO2 content of 42 wt % doubles the specific capacitance (3.30 F cm(-2) at 1.0 mA cm(-2)) of the bare FeCo2O4-tube forests. A symmetric solid-state supercapacitor made from these binder-free electrodes achieves 2.52 F cm(-2) at 2 mA cm(-2), much higher than reported for capacitors based on similar core-shell nanowire arrays. The large capacitance and high cell voltage of 1.7 V allow high energy and power densities (93.6 Wh kg(-1), 10.1 kW kg(-1)). The device also exhibits superior rate capability (71% capacitance at 20 mA cm(-2)) and remarkable cycling stability with 94% capacitance retention being stable after 1500 cycles.

  17. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    Brief reports are given on the work of several professors. The following areas are included: quantum chromodynamics calculations using numerical lattice gauge theory and a high-speed parallel computer; the ''spin wave'' description of bosonic particles moving on a lattice with same-site exclusion; a high-temperature expansion to 13th order for the O(4)-symmetric φ 4 model on a four-dimensional F 4 lattice; spin waves and lattice bosons; superconductivity of C 60 ; meson-meson interferometry in heavy-ion collisions; baryon number violation in the Standard Model in high-energy collisions; hard thermal loops in QCD; electromagnetic interactions of anyons; the relation between Bose-Einstein and BCS condensations; Euclidean wormholes with topology S 1 x S 2 x R; vacuum decay and symmetry breaking by radiative corrections; inflationary solutions to the cosmological horizon and flatness problems; and magnetically charged black holes

  18. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  19. High energy physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Described are modern views on the particle structure and particle interactions at high energies. According to the latest data recieved, all particles can be classified in three groups: 1) strong interacting hadrons; 2) leptons, having no strong interactions; 3) photon. The particle structure is described in a quark model, and with the use of gluons. The elementary particle theory is based on the quantum field theory. The energy increase of interacting particles enables to check the main theory principles, such as conventions for causality, relativistic invariance and unitarity. Investigations of weak interactions are of great importance. The progress in this field is connected with unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For weak interactions promissing are the experiments with colliding electron-proton rings. The new data, especially at higher energies, will lead to a further refinement of the nature of particles and their interactions

  20. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-09-15

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors.

  1. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb - 1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989

  2. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10 5 Z's by the end of 1989 and 10 6 in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry

  3. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required

  4. Ultra high-energy cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longley, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Soudan 2 surface-underground cosmic ray experiment can simultaneously measure surface shower size, underground muon multiplicity, and underground muon separation for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers. These measurements are sensitive to the primary composition. Analysis for energies from 10 1 to 10 4 TeV favors a light flux consisting of predominantly H and He nuclei

  5. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-09-20

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm(-2). At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm(-2) is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm(-2), and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte.

  6. The validity of the density scaling method in primary electron transport for photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, M.K.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the convolution/superposition method of photon beam dose calculations, inhomogeneities are usually handled by using some form of scaling involving the relative electron densities of the inhomogeneities. In this paper the accuracy of density scaling as applied to primary electrons generated in photon interactions is examined. Monte Carlo calculations are compared with density scaling calculations for air and cork slab inhomogeneities. For individual primary photon kernels as well as for photon interactions restricted to a thin layer, the results can differ significantly, by up to 50%, between the two calculations. However, for realistic photon beams where interactions occur throughout the whole irradiated volume, the discrepancies are much less severe. The discrepancies for the kernel calculation are attributed to the scattering characteristics of the electrons and the consequent oversimplified modeling used in the density scaling method. A technique called the kernel integration technique is developed to analyze the general effects of air and cork inhomogeneities. It is shown that the discrepancies become significant only under rather extreme conditions, such as immediately beyond the surface after a large air gap. In electron beams all the primary electrons originate from the surface of the phantom and the errors caused by simple density scaling can be much more significant. Various aspects relating to the accuracy of density scaling for air and cork slab inhomogeneities are discussed

  7. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  8. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1989-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale--free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry-breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large-scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions, massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study of the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  9. [High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1988-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry--breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large--scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation in galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  10. [High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An intense analysis effort on the data we obtained in a seven month run on E704 last year has produced a flood of new results on polarization effects in particle production at 200 GeV/c. We are fortunate to be able to report in detail on those results. Our other Fermilab experiment, E683 (photoproduction of jets) has been delayed an unbelievable amount of time by Fermilab schedule slippages. It was scheduled and ready for beam two years ago exclamation point As this report is being written, we have been running for two months and are expecting four months of production data taking. In this report we show some of our preliminary results. In addition we are near the end of a six month run on our CERN experiment, NA47 (SMC) which will measure the spin dependent structure functions for the proton and neutron. It is with a sense of relief, mixed with pride, that we report that all the equipment which we constructed for that experiment is currently working as designed. The random coincidence of accelerator schedules has left us slightly dazed, but all experiments are getting done and analyzed in a timely fashion. As members of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration, we have been preparing for the only currently approved experiment at the SSC. Here we report on our scintillating fiber tracker design and simulation activities. In addition we report the results of our investigation of the detector response to heavy Z particles. Since our last report, we have joined the D0 collaboration with the primary aim of contributing to the D0 upgrade over the next few years. It is also important for us to gain experience in collider physics during the period leading up to the SDC turn-on

  11. Extraction of level density and γ strength function from primary γ spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new iterative procedure to extract the level density and the γ strength function from primary γ spectra for energies close up to the neutron binding energy. The procedure is tested on simulated spectra and on data from the 173 Yb( 3 He,α) 172 Yb reaction

  12. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors

  13. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  14. Caging in high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of caging high energy reactions is considered. It is noted that there is no easy and unambiguous way, short of a complete and very tedious product and mechanistic analysis, which is feasible only for very few systems, to determine the contribution made by caging. It is emphasized that some products resulting from the hot reaction with a certain substrate may be formed via caging while others are not. In research on the mechanism of caging the results of Roots work on the reactions of hot 18 F with the CF 3 CH 3 system seem to provide evidence for caging, with 18 F being the caged moiety, thus proceeding via a radical--radical recombination mechanism. Their work with H 2 S additive also seems to indicate that scavenging via hydrogen abstraction from H 2 S to form does not interfere with the radical--radical recombination consistent with Bunkers molecular approach to explain the cage effects. In other research a series of observations resulting from stereochemical and combined stereochemical density variation techniques seem to favor a caged-complex. It is clear that a more conclusive answer can only be reached by more systematic studies, utilizing the whole range of nuclear reactions such as (n,2n), (n,γ) and E.C. processes in mechanistically well defined systems to elucidate the effect of variations in the recoil energies, by carrying out studies in different solvents or host substances to assess the effect of the physical parameters, such as molecule size and intermolecular interactions on the escape probability or caging efficiencies

  15. Introduction to high energy cosmic ray physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Grillo, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    After a few general qualitative considerations about the characteristics of primary cosmic rays arriving at the top of atmosphere, the fundamental concepts on their propagation and acceleration are discussed. The experimental situation, both from direct and indirect experiments, is presented, followed by a discussion on some concepts on hadronic interactions at high energy which are applied in a simplified and analytical model to the production of secondary particles in atmosphere

  16. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas; quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  18. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-15

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'.

  19. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress in the following research in high energy physics: The crystal ball experiment; delco at PEP; proton decay experiment; MACRO detector; mark III detector; SLD detector; CLEO II detector; and the caltech L3 group

  20. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin

    1989-01-01

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'

  1. Problems of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some problems of high energy physics are discussed. The main attention is paid to describibg the standard model. The model comprises quantum chromodynamics and electroweak interaction theory. The problem of CP breaking is considered as well. 8 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2009 physics pp. 3–60. Developments in high energy theory .... and operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), this ma- ...... [2] S Dodelson, Modern cosmology (Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2003).

  3. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas: quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  4. Influence of primary-particle density in the morphology of agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, M D; Espeso, D R; Bonilla, L L

    2014-07-01

    Agglomeration processes occur in many different realms of science, such as colloid and aerosol formation or formation of bacterial colonies. We study the influence of primary-particle density in agglomerate structures using diffusion-controlled Monte Carlo simulations with realistic space scales through different regimes (diffusion-limited aggregation and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation). The equivalence of Monte Carlo time steps to real time scales is given by Hirsch's hydrodynamical theory of Brownian motion. Agglomerate behavior at different time stages of the simulations suggests that three indices (the fractal exponent, the coordination number, and the eccentricity index) characterize agglomerate geometry. Using these indices, we have found that the initial density of primary particles greatly influences the final structure of the agglomerate, as observed in recent experimental works.

  5. Progressive Macula Vessel Density Loss in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Zangwill, Linda M; Akagi, Tadamichi; Saunders, Luke J; Yarmohammadi, Adeleh; Manalastas, Patricia Isabel C; Penteado, Rafaella C; Weinreb, Robert N

    2017-10-01

    To characterize the rate of macula vessel density loss in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), glaucoma-suspect, and healthy eyes. Longitudinal, observational cohort from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. One hundred eyes (32 POAG, 30 glaucoma-suspect, and 38 healthy) followed for at least 1 year with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) imaging on at least 2 visits were included. Vessel density was calculated in the macula superficial layer. The rate of change was compared across diagnostic groups using a multivariate linear mixed-effects model. Baseline macula vessel density was highest in healthy eyes, followed by glaucoma-suspect and POAG eyes (P macula whole en face vessel density was significantly faster in glaucoma eyes (-2.23%/y) than in glaucoma-suspect (0.87%/y, P = .001) or healthy eyes (0.29%/y, P = .004). Conversely, the rate of change in ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness was not significantly different from zero in any diagnostic group, and no significant differences in the rate of GCC change among diagnostic groups were found. With a mean follow-up of less than 14 months, eyes with POAG had significantly faster loss of macula vessel density than either glaucoma-suspect or healthy eyes. Serial OCT-A measurements also detected glaucomatous change in macula vessel density in eyes without evidence of change in GCC thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prospects of High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Johnny S.T.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been observed but their sources and production mechanisms are yet to be understood. We envision a laboratory astrophysics program that will contribute to the understanding of cosmic accelerators with efforts to: (1) test and calibrate UHECR observational techniques, and (2) elucidate the underlying physics of cosmic acceleration through laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Innovative experiments belonging to the first category have already been done at the SLAC FFTB. Results on air fluorescence yields from the FLASH experiment are reviewed. Proposed future accelerator facilities can provided unprecedented high-energy-densities in a regime relevant to cosmic acceleration studies and accessible in a terrestrial environment for the first time. We review recent simulation studies of nonlinear plasma dynamics that could give rise to cosmic acceleration, and discuss prospects for experimental investigation of the underlying mechanisms

  7. Chemistry of high-energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapoetke, Thomas M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (US). Center of Energetic Concepts Development (CECD)

    2011-07-01

    The graduate-level textbook Chemistry of High-Energy Materials provides an introduction to and an overview of primary and secondary (high) explosives as well as propellant charges, rocket propellants and pyrotechnics. After a brief historical overview, the main classes of energetic materials are discussed systematically. Thermodynamic aspects, as far as relevant to energetic materials, are discussed, as well as modern computational approaches to predict performance and sensitivity parameters. The most important performance criteria such as detonation velocity, detonation pressure and heat of explosion, as well as the relevant sensitivity parameters suc as impact and friction sensitivity and electrostatic discharge sensitivity are explored in detail. Modern aspects of chemical synthesis including lead-free primary explosives and high-nitrogen compounds are also included in this book together with a discussion of high-energy materials for future defense needs. The most important goal of this book, based on a lecture course which has now been held at LMU Munich for over 12 years, is to increase knowledge and know-how in the synthesis and safe handling of high-energy materials. Society needs now as much as ever advanced explosives, propellant charges, rocket propellants and pyrotechnics to meet the demands in defense and engineering. This book is first and foremost aimed at advanced students in chemistry, engineering and materials sciences. However, it is also intended to provide a good introduction to the chemistry of energetic materials and chemical defense technology for scientists in the defense industry and government-run defense organizations. (orig.)

  8. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the tradition, the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics are presented under a common header, they are: Department of Particle Theory (Dept 5); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept 11); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept 12); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept 13); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). The research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY) is also presented. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy (UMM). This location, close to the Jagiellonian University (JU), facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the UMM. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of the activities is teaching and training students from the academic community in Cracow. Joint research, teaching and academic training in the high energy physics are carried out within the M. Miesowicz

  9. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  10. [Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March--December of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiments 772 and 789. Finally, we are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group may be found in the narrative accompanying our contract renewal proposal

  11. [Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March through December of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiments 772 and 789. Finally, we are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group may be found in the narrative accompanying our contract renewal proposal

  12. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contact AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March of 1989 to February of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a precision study of the A-dependence of massive muon-pion production and a study of low-multiplicity decay modes of charm. We are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. Finally, a minor effort is being given to analyzing data from Fermilab of particles with lifetime between 10 -12 and 10 -13 seconds. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group can be found in the narrative accompanying our grant renewal proposal. 10 refs

  13. Individual Dosimetry for High Energy Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of individuals on board aircraft increased interest in individual dosimetry in high energy radiation fields. These fields, both in the case of cosmic rays as primary radiation and at high energy particle accelerators are complex, with a large diversity of particle types, their energies, and linear energy transfer (LET). Several already existing individual dosemeters have been tested in such fields. For the component with high LET (mostly neutrons) etched track detectors were tested with and without fissile radiators, nuclear emulsions, bubble detectors for both types available and an albedo dosemeter. Individual dosimetry for the low LET component has been performed with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), photographic film dosemeters and two types of electronic individual dosemeters. It was found that individual dosimetry for the low LET component was satisfactory with the dosemeters tested. As far as the high LET component is concerned, there are problems with both the sensitivity and the energy response. (author)

  14. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  16. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  17. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  18. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  19. Progress in high-energy laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Noriaki; Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kanabe, Tadashi; Okuda, Isao

    2005-01-01

    The technological development of high-energy lasers is one of the key issues in laser fusion research. This paper reviews several technologies on the Nd:glass laser and KrF excimer laser that are being used in the current laser fusion experiments and related plasma experiments. Based on the GEKKO laser technology, a new high-energy Nd: glass laser system, which can deliver energy from 10 kJ (boad-band operation) to 20 kJ (narrow-band operation), is under construction. The key topics in KrF laser development are improved efficiency and repetitive operation, which aim at the development of a laser driven for fusion reactor. Ultra-intense-laser technology is also very important for fast ignition research. The key technology for obtaining the petawatt output with high beam quality is reviewed. Regarding the uniform laser irradiation required for high-density compression, the beam-smoothing methods on the GEKKO XII laser are reviewed. Finally, we discuss the present status of MJ-class lasers throughout the world, and summarize by presenting the feasibility of various applications of the high-energy lasers to a wide range of scientific and technological fields. (author)

  20. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with advanced computing applications in physics, and in particular in high energy physics environments. The main subjects covered are networking; vector and parallel processing; and embedded systems. Also examined are topics such as operating systems, future computer architectures and commercial computer products. The book presents solutions that are foreseen as coping, in the future, with computing problems in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. In the experimental environment the large amounts of data to be processed offer special problems on-line as well as off-line. For on-line data reduction, embedded special purpose computers, which are often used for trigger applications are applied. For off-line processing, parallel computers such as emulator farms and the cosmic cube may be employed. The analysis of these topics is therefore a main feature of this volume

  1. Multiprocessors for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the role, status and progress of multiprocessor projects relevant to high energy physics. A short overview of the large variety of multiprocessors architectures is given, with special emphasis on machines suitable for experimental data reconstruction. A lot of progress has been made in the attempt to make the use of multiprocessors less painful by creating a ''Parallel Programming Environment'' supporting the non-expert user. A high degree of usability has been reached for coarse grain (event level) parallelism. The program development tools available on various systems (subroutine packages, preprocessors and parallelizing compilers) are discussed in some detail. Tools for execution control and debugging are also developing, thus opening the path from dedicated systems for large scale, stable production towards support of a more general job mix. At medium term, multiprocessors will thus cover a growing fraction of the typical high energy physics computing task. (orig.)

  2. Harvard University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The mainly experimental research program in high energy physics at Harvard is summarized in a descriptive fashion according to the following outline: Proton endash antiproton colliding beam program at Fermilab -- CDF (forward/backward electromagnetic calorimeters -- FEM, central muon extension -- CMX, gas calorimetry and electronics development, front-end electronics upgrades, software development, physics analysis, timetable), electron -- positron collisions in the upsilon region -- CLEO (the hardware projects including CLEO II barrel TOF system and silicon drift detector R ampersand D, physics analysis), search for ν μ to ν τ oscillations with the NOMAD experiment at CERN, the solenoidal detector collaboration at the SSC, muon scattering at FNAL -- E665, the L3 experiment, and phenomenological analysis of high-energy bar pp cross sections. 149 refs

  3. A high energy physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional open-quotes Hidden Symmetries close quotes are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover open-quotes New Physicsclose quotes associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given

  4. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.

    1989-01-01

    We review the efforts of the Notre Dame non accelerator high energy physics group. Our major effort has been directed toward the IMB deep underground detector. Since the departure of the Michigan group our responsibilities to the group have grown. We are also very active in pursuing physics with the IMB 3 detector. Currently we are studying proton decay, point neutrino sources and neutrino oscillations with the contained event sample

  5. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs

  6. High Energy Physics in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A thorough survey of the present and possible future activities and resources in high energy physics in the CERN Member States has been carried out by a Working Group of ECFA (European Committee for Future Accelerators) under the Chairmanship of John Mulvey. The aim has been to obtain a view of the present European scene and to see whether it looks well adapted to the effective exploitation of possible future machines in Europe (particular LEP) and the rest of the world

  7. High energy electron positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; Υ Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the Υ; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles

  8. Astrophysics at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, Felix; Bergstroem, Lars; Dermer, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Presents three complementary lectures on very-high-energy astrophysics given by worldwide leaders in the field. Reviews the recent advances in and prospects of gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Prepares readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors. With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA's Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergstroem presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.

  9. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Following our long-time tradition we will present under a common header the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics: Department of Particle Theory (Dept. V); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept XI); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept XII); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept XIII); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). At the end we will list our common activities: lectures and courses as well as seminars. Our research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluation of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY, Hamburg) is also carried out. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy. This location, close to the Jagiellonian University, facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the University of Mining and Metallurgy. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of our activities is teaching and training students from

  10. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  11. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  12. High energy photon emission from wakefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinella, D. M., E-mail: dfarinel@uci.edu; Lau, C. K.; Taimourzadeh, S.; Hwang, Y.; Abazajian, K.; Canac, N.; Taborek, P.; Tajima, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Zhang, X. M., E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Koga, J. K., E-mail: koga.james@qst.go.jp [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Ebisuzaki, T., E-mail: ebisu@riken.jp [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Experimental evidence has accumulated to indicate that wakefield acceleration (WFA) accompanies intense and sometimes coherent emission of radiation such as from betatron radiation. The investigation of this issue has additional impetus nowadays because we are learning (1) there is an additional acceleration process of the ponderomotive acceleration; (2) WFA may become relevant in much higher density regimes; (3) WFA has been proposed as the mechanism for extreme high energy cosmic ray acceleration and gamma ray bursts for active galactic nuclei. These require us to closely examine the radiative mechanisms in WFA anew. We report studies of radiation from wakefield (self-injected betatron) and ponderomotive (laser field) mechanisms in scalings of the frequency and intensity of the driver, as well as the plasma density.

  13. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  14. Experimental microdosimetry in high energy radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Bednar, J.; Vlcek, B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.-F.; Molokanov, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    correspond to the interactions of secondary panicles created by primary radiation are close to the sensitive volume of the equipment. The comparison of both methods was performed in the field on board aircraft and in high energy reference fields. it was found that the microdosimetric distributions observed agreed at least qualitatively, a quantitative agreement of integral dosimetric values was found as well. The measurements in proton beams were performed in several points along the Bragg curve. Actually, we were able to observe the influence of primary beam contamination due to the filtration as well as due to the secondary particle created during the penetration of beams in the phantome. The relevance of such data for the radiotherapy application of high energy protons is evident. It was proved that both method can give relevant and useful information on the microdosimetric distributions in complex beams and fields of high energy panicles. The further development of this approach is in progress in our laboratories. (author)

  15. Baryon number violation in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.R.; Meng, R.

    1990-08-01

    We study the phenomenology of baryon number violation induced by electroweak instantons. We find that if the naive-instanton amplitudes were valid for arbitrarily high energies, the event rate at the SSC would be a few per hour, with a typical event consisting of 3 'primary' antileptons and 7 'primary' antiquark jets, accompanied by ≅ 85 electroweak gauge bosons, having a sharp threshold in the total sub-energy at about 17 TeV. We describe how to establish their electroweak-instanton-induced origin. The naive instanton approximation is known to overestimate the rate for these processes, so this work focusses attention on the need for more accurate calculations, and for a calculational method which is appropriate when the energy of the initial particles is above the sphaleron energy. (orig.)

  16. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  17. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  18. Instrumentation in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation in high energy physics is a wide and advanced domain which cannot be covered in a single lesson. The main basic physics processes for charged and neutral particles are recalled with the definition of a few concepts needed to understand or design a detector. The application of these principles to charged particle measurement devices (momentum), light detection or energy measurement are presented mostly with examples from collider experiments. The particle identification which is often the combination of different techniques in a same experiment is also discussed. Finally in a very short section, a few considerations about electronics/processing with their impact on the detector performance are given

  19. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  20. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  1. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  2. [Density of beta-adrenergic receptors and left ventricular mass in patients with primary essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, J; Zyśko, D; Spring, A

    2000-08-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is one of the more important risk factors for sudden death. There are multiple factors for development of LVH in patients with hypertension. Sympathetic nervous system may play a key role causing afterload increase and neurohumoral mechanisms activation. The aim of the study was to determine beta-adrenergic receptors density and its relations to left ventricular mass in hypertensive subjects. The study was carried out in 63 patients (23 women and 40 men), mean age 43.3 +/- 11.6 yrs with primary hypertension: stage I--42 pts and stage II--21 pts. The control group consisted of 26 healthy persons matched for age and sex. We evaluated the density of beta-adrenergic receptors using 125I-cyanopindolol radioligand labeling method. Left ventricular dimensions were assessed by echocardiography (Hewlett-Packard 77010 CF) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and LVMI was significantly higher in hypertension group 156.7 +/- 12.5 vs. 119.8 +/- 8.8 mmHg, p < 0.0001, 95.9/5.5 vs. 78.8 +/- 6.5 mmHg, p < 0.0001, 126.5 +/- 41.9 vs. 93.1 +/- 19.9 g/m2, p < 0.001 respectively. Beta-adrenergic receptors density was 40.7 +/- 29.9 fmol/ml in the hypertensive vs. 37.2 +/- 17.8 fmol/ml in control group (p = NS). There was no correlation between beta-adrenergic receptors density and LVMI. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between LVMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.44, p < 0.05; r = 0.60, p < 0.01 respectively). 1. Beta-adrenergic receptors density was unchanged in patients with hypertension and did not correlate with LVMI. 2. A high positive correlation between blood pressure values and LVMI, but only in stage II hypertension was revealed.

  3. Duke University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    The research program of the Duke High Energy Physics Group is described in this Progress Report and a separate Proposal containing their plans for 1994. These two documents are supplemented by compilations of selected publications, thesis abstracts, and the curriculum vitae of the eleven Ph.D. physicists who are carrying out this research program. This Progress Report contains a review of the research which has been done over the first half (1992 and 1993 to date) of the current three-year DOE grant, plus some earlier research to establish a broader perspective of the research interests. High energy physics research at Duke has three components. The first, Task A, is based upon experiments carried out at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider. The group is finishing the analysis of data from their first collider experiment (E735), a study of inclusive particle production from bar p p collisions at √ bar s = 1.8 TeV. The second component of the research, Task B, deals primarily with heavy flavor physics. The third part of the research program, Task D, deals with preparation for research at the SSC. The authors have been active in the development of tracking detectors for the SSC since 1989, and are now concentrating on the design and construction of straw tube drift chambers for the solenoid detector

  4. Spinoff from high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This year the CERN Courier is featuring the spinoff and technological benefits arising from research in fundamental physics. After initial illustrations in applied data processing sectors, this article by Hans Hoffman of CERN examines the rationale and underlying objectives of the 'new awareness' of the market value of basic science. He is the Chairman of a new panel on the subject set up recently by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The other members are: Oscar Barbalat of CERN, Hans Christian Dehne of DESY, Sin-ichi Kurakawa of KEK, Gennady Kulipanov of the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk), Anthony Montgomery, formerly of the SSC, A. H. Walenta of Siegen, Germany, and Zhongqiang Yu of IHEP Beijing. High energy physics - the quest to find and understand the structure of matter - is mainly seen as an essential part of human culture. However this basic science increasingly has to jostle for funding attention with other branches of science. Applied sciences aim for a rapid transformation of investment cash into viable market products. In times of economic difficulties this is attractive to funding agencies and governments, and economic usefulness and technological relevance also become criteria for a basic science like high energy physics.

  5. Duke University high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and Χ meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report

  6. High energy proton PIXE [HEPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) have been widespread and detailed in recent years and despite the fact that most data obtained are from low energy 1-3 MeV experiments, the value of higher energy proton work with its emphasis on K X-ray emission has become more marked as time has progressed. The purpose of this review paper is to outline the history of analysis using high energy protons and to compare and contrast the results obtained with those from lower energy analysis using more firmly established analytical techniques. The work described will concentrate exclusively on proton induced processes and will attempt to outline the rationale for selecting an energy, greater than 20 and up to 70 MeV protons for initiating particles. The relative ease and accuracy of the measurements obtained will be addressed. Clearly such X-ray studies should be seen as complementing low energy work in many instances rather than competing directly with them. However, it will be demonstrated that above a Z value of approximately 20, K X-ray analysis using high energy protons is the only way to go in this type of analysis. (author)

  7. Non-critical strings at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Aoki, Kenichiro; Hoker, Eric D'

    1996-01-01

    We consider scattering amplitudes in non-critical string theory of $N$ external states in the limit where the energy of all external states is large compared to the string tension. We argue that the amplitudes are naturally complex analytic in the matter central charge $c$ and we propose to define the amplitudes for arbitrary value of $c$ by analytic continuation. We show that the high energy limit is dominated by a saddle point that can be mapped onto an equilibrium electro-static energy configuration of an assembly of $N$ pointlike (Minkowskian) charges, together with a density of charges arising from the Liouville field. We argue that the Liouville charges accumulate on segments of curves, and produce quadratic branch cuts on the worldsheet. The electro-statics problem is solved for string tree level in terms of hyper-elliptic integrals and is given explicitly for 3- and 4-point functions. We show that the high energy limit should behave in a string-like fashion with exponential dependence on the energy sc...

  8. Influence of high energy electrons on ECRH in LHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogasawara S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The central bulk electron temperature of more than 20 keV is achieved in LHD as a result of increasing the injection power and the lowering the electron density near 2 × 1018 m−3. Such collision-less regime is important from the aspect of the neoclassical transport and also the potential structure formation. The presences of appreciable amount of high energy electrons are indicated from hard X-ray PHA, and the discrepancy between the stored energy and kinetic energy estimated from Thomson scattering. ECE spectrum are also sensitive to the presence of high energy electrons and discussed by solving the radiation transfer equation. The ECRH power absorption to the bulk and the high energy electrons are dramatically affected by the acceleration and the confinement of high energy electrons. The heating mechanisms and the acceleration process of high energy electrons are discussed by comparing the experimental results and the ray tracing calculation under assumed various density and mean energy of high energy electrons.

  9. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  10. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  11. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  12. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  13. Developments in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Roy, Probir

    2009-01-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics background, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the standard model, and proposals - including the radical paradigm of string theory - have been made to go beyond the standard model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors. (author)

  14. Hydrothermal growth of hierarchical Ni3S2 and Co3S4 on a reduced graphene oxide hydrogel@Ni foam: a high-energy-density aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasis; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2015-01-21

    Ni foam@reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hydrogel-Ni3S2 and Ni foam@rGO hydrogel-Co3S4 composites have been successfully synthesized with the aid of a two-step hydrothermal protocol, where the rGO hydrogel is sandwiched between the metal sulfide and Ni foam substrate. Sonochemical deposition of exfoliated rGO on Ni foam with subsequent hydrothermal treatment results in the formation of a rGO-hydrogel-coated Ni foam. Then second-time hydrothermal treatment of the dried Ni@rGO substrate with corresponding metal nitrate and sodium sulfide results in individual uniform growth of porous Ni3S2 nanorods and a Co3S4 self-assembled nanosheet on a Ni@rGO substrate. Both Ni@rGO-Ni3S2 and Ni@rGO-Co3S4 have been electrochemically characterized in a 6 M KOH electrolyte, exhibiting high specific capacitance values of 987.8 and 1369 F/g, respectively, at 1.5 A/g accompanied by the respective outstanding cycle stability of 97.9% and 96.6% at 12 A/g over 3000 charge-discharge cycles. An advanced aqueous asymmetric (AAS) supercapacitor has been fabricated by exploiting the as-prepared Ni@rGO-Co3S4 as a positive electrode and Ni@rGO-Ni3S2 as a negative electrode. The as-fabricated AAS has shown promising energy densities of 55.16 and 24.84 Wh/kg at high power densities of 975 and 13000 W/kg, respectively, along with an excellent cycle stability of 96.2% specific capacitance retention over 3000 charge-discharge cycles at 12 A/g. The enhanced specific capacitance, stupendous cycle stability, elevated energy density, and a power density as an AAS of these electrode materials indicate that it could be a potential candidate in the field of supercapacitors.

  15. Consequences of the low density of the lunar primary crust on its magmatic history (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Here, we provide evidence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Furthermore, at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by impact. The pressure release due to material removal by impact is significant over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these floor-fractured craters are relatively small, i.e. less than 20 to 30 km in radius, this observation suggests that the magma at the origin of the intrusion was already stored within or just below the crust, in deeper intrusions. Thus, a large fraction of the mantle melt might have stored at depth below or within the light primary crust before reaching shallower layers. And hence, magma intrusions must have had a large influence on the thermal and geological evolution of the

  16. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  17. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  18. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors with high-energy density based on nanostructured MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films directly fabricated onto stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Cho, Jun Y.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; Park, Chan; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2015-07-01

    The facile and economical electrochemical and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods have been employed in order to prepare manganese oxide (MnO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) thin films, respectively with the fine optimized nanostructures on highly flexible stainless steel sheet. The symmetric and asymmetric flexible-solid-state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs) of nanostructured (nanosheets for MnO2 and nanoparticles for Fe2O3) electrodes with Na2SO4/Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel as a separator and electrolyte were assembled. MnO2 as positive and negative electrodes were used to fabricate symmetric SC, while the asymmetric SC was assembled by employing MnO2 as positive and Fe2O3 as negative electrode. Furthermore, the electrochemical features of symmetric and asymmetric SCs are systematically investigated. The results verify that the fabricated symmetric and asymmetric FSS-SCs present excellent reversibility (within the voltage window of 0-1 V and 0-2 V, respectively) and good cycling stability (83 and 91%, respectively for 3000 of CV cycles). Additionally, the asymmetric SC shows maximum specific capacitance of 92 Fg-1, about 2-fold of higher energy density (41.8 Wh kg-1) than symmetric SC and excellent mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, the “real-life” demonstration of fabricated SCs to the panel of SUK confirms that asymmetric SC has 2-fold higher energy density compare to symmetric SC.

  19. Low-cost flexible supercapacitors with high-energy density based on nanostructured MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films directly fabricated onto stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gund, Girish S.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Cho, Jun Y.; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; Park, Chan; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2015-01-01

    The facile and economical electrochemical and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods have been employed in order to prepare manganese oxide (MnO2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) thin films, respectively with the fine optimized nanostructures on highly flexible stainless steel sheet. The symmetric and asymmetric flexible-solid-state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs) of nanostructured (nanosheets for MnO2 and nanoparticles for Fe2O3) electrodes with Na2SO4/Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel as a separator and electrolyte were assembled. MnO2 as positive and negative electrodes were used to fabricate symmetric SC, while the asymmetric SC was assembled by employing MnO2 as positive and Fe2O3 as negative electrode. Furthermore, the electrochemical features of symmetric and asymmetric SCs are systematically investigated. The results verify that the fabricated symmetric and asymmetric FSS-SCs present excellent reversibility (within the voltage window of 0–1 V and 0–2 V, respectively) and good cycling stability (83 and 91%, respectively for 3000 of CV cycles). Additionally, the asymmetric SC shows maximum specific capacitance of 92 Fg−1, about 2-fold of higher energy density (41.8 Wh kg−1) than symmetric SC and excellent mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, the “real-life” demonstration of fabricated SCs to the panel of SUK confirms that asymmetric SC has 2-fold higher energy density compare to symmetric SC. PMID:26208144

  20. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fedkiw, Peter [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Khan, Saad [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huang, Alex [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fan, Jiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  1. Soil biological shield exposed to high energy neutrons; Zemlja kao bioloski stit od neutrona visokih energija

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovic, R; Marinkovic, N [Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1993-04-15

    Shielding efficiency of soil biological shield exposed to high energy neutrons was investigated. Dose rate equivalents for neutrons, secondary gamma and gamma radiation were computed on the surface of soil slabs having different thicknesses. Yields of primary and secondary nuclear radiation in the total dose were evaluated. Influence of the incident neutron spectrum, water content and chemical composition of the material on its shielding efficiency was examined. It was found that the soil density and the water content determine the quality of biological shield, the influence of other factors being less important. Comparison of shielding efficiencies for soil with sand, brick and ordinary concrete shields was done.

  2. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  3. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  4. Machine Protection and High Energy Density States in Matter for High Energy Hadron Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco Sancho, Juan; Schmidt, R

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest accelerator in the world. It is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7TeV. The energy stored in each beam is 362MJ, sufficient to melt 500kg of copper. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. Machine protection systems are essential to safely operate the accelerator and handle all possible accidents. This thesis deals with the study of different failure scenarios and its possible consequences. It addresses failure scenarios ranging from low intensity losses on high-Z materials and superconductors to high intensity losses on carbon and copper collimators. Low beam losses are sufficient to quench the superconducting magnets and the stabilized superconducting cables (bus-bars) that connects the main magnets. If this occurs and the energy from the bus-bar is not extracted fast enough it can lead to a situation similar to the accident in 2008 at LHC during pow...

  5. IV. Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this proceedings the results on high energy spin physics are summarized. The theory of spin phenomenon and the experimental results at intermediate energy and at high energy spin physics and new technical developments in polarization experiments are presented

  6. Quantum Sensing for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; et al.

    2018-03-29

    Report of the first workshop to identify approaches and techniques in the domain of quantum sensing that can be utilized by future High Energy Physics applications to further the scientific goals of High Energy Physics.

  7. Lasers and future high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-02-01

    Future high energy colliders, directions for particle physics and relationship to new technology such as lasers are discussed. Experimental approaches to explore New Physics with emphasis on the utility of high energy colliders are also discussed

  8. Feedback control of primary pump using midplane temperature of lower density lock for a PIUS-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Tamaki, Masayoshi

    1993-01-01

    A new automatic pump speed control system, using a measurement of the temperature distribution in the lower density lock, is proposed for the PIUS-type reactor. This control system maintains the fluid temperature at the axial center of the lower density lock at the average of the fluid temperatures below and above the lower density lock in order to prevent the poison water from penetrating into the core during normal operation. In a startup test, the effectiveness of this control system to bring the system quickly to the stable state from a very small initial temperature difference between top and bottom of the lower density lock has been confirmed. The effectiveness of the primary pump trip at the limit speed in the control system to shutdown the core power safely in an accident such as a loss-of-feedwater accident with and without the primary loop isolation has also been proved

  9. OMEGA EP high-energy petawatt laser: progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maywar, D N; Kelly, J H; Waxer, L J; Morse, S F B; Begishev, I A; Bromage, J; Dorrer, C; Edwards, J L; Folnsbee, L; Guardalben, M J; Jacobs, S D; Jungquist, R; Kessler, T J; Kidder, R W; Kruschwitz, B E; Loucks, S J; Marciante, J R; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Okishev, A V

    2008-01-01

    OMEGA EP (extended performance) is a petawatt-class addition to the existing 30-kJ, 60-beam OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester. It will enable high-energy picosecond backlighting of high-energy-density experiments and inertial confinement fusion implosions, the investigation of advanced-ignition experiments such as fast ignition, and the exploration of high-energy-density phenomena. The OMEGA EP short-pulse beams have the flexibility to be directed to either the existing OMEGA target chamber, or the new, auxiliary OMEGA EP target chamber for independent experiments. This paper will detail progress made towards activation, which is on schedule for completion in April 2008

  10. Dynamics of high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    During last several years, a new framework to describe strong interaction physics has emerged, i.e. quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is the simplest field theory which incorporates color-dependent force among quarks. This force is generated by the exchange of colored vector gluons coupled to the quarks in gauge-invariant manner. The theory is closely related to the most successful quantum field theory, QED, and the only but very important difference is the gauge group involved. Although the theory is well defined, precisely what it predicts is not yet clearly known. However, at very high energy or momentum transfer Q, the effective coupling between quarks and gluons decreases toward zero with increasing Q 2 , and the calculation of a process involving high Q 2 is possible by the use of perturbation theory. In this paper, many applications of QCD to the processes involving high momentum transfer are examined. The effective coupling resulting from strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the scale violation in deep inelastic lepton scattering, large mass muon pair production, quark and gluon fragmentation functions, large transverse momentum meson and jet production in hadron-hadron collision, and the search for three-jet events are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  11. Hadron dynamics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storrow, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    The nine lectures give a very brief introduction to hadron dynamics at high energies. They concentrate on basic concepts such as Regge poles, duality and geometrical ideas, and simple applications of these ideas to the problem of understanding data. To some extent two body phenomenology is emphasized at the expense of multiparticle final states and when the latter have been considered they have concentrated on inclusive reactions. One lecture discussed data on 2-2 reactions in order to provide the motivation for Regge pole theory, then two lectures are devoted to basic concepts. Then duality is introduced and shown to provide reasonable restrictions on a pole model. A lecture is then devoted to discussing geometrical ideas i.e. the t-dependence of data is looked at from an s-channel point of view. The section on two-body phenomenology is then concluded by discussing applications of the above ideas to two reactions-pion-nucleon scattering and np charge exchange scattering. The remaining three lectures are devoted to multiparticle reactions. Exclusive reactions are considered briefly and then the remainder of the course is concerned with inclusive reactions. The concepts of scaling and limiting fragmentation are discussed and Mueller's generalised optical theorem introduced and then applied in various kinematic limits. (author)

  12. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  13. Metal azides under pressure: An emerging class of high energy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of ... behaviour of LiN3 and KN3 by means of density functional calculations. ... and 4.08 eV (KN3) and as pressure increases the band gap decreases and show ...

  14. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Based Batteries and Thermal Management for Airborne High Energy Electric Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fellner, Joseph P; Miller, Ryan M; Shanmugasundaram, Venkatrama

    2006-01-01

    ...). Rechargeable lithium-ion polymer batteries, for applications such as remote-control aircraft, are achieving simultaneously high energy density and high power density (>160 Whr/kg at > 1.0 kW/kg...

  15. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  16. High energy physics and grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuansong

    2004-01-01

    The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)

  17. Remarks on High Energy Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We make several remarks on the B-JIMWLK hierarchy. First, we present a simple and instructive derivation of this equation by considering an arbitrary projectile wave function with small number of valence gluons. We also generalize the equation by including corrections which incorporate effects of high density in the projectile wave function. Second, we systematically derive the dipole model approximation to the hierarchy. We show that in the dipole approximation the hierarchy has a simplifyin...

  18. Chemistry of high-energy materials. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapoetke, Thomas M. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Chair of Inorganic Chemistry; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Center of Energetic Concepts Development (CECD)

    2012-07-01

    This graduate-level textbook treats the basic chemistry of high energy materials - primary and secondary explosives, propellants, rocket fuel and pyrotechnics - and provides a review of new research developments. Applications in both military and civil fields are discussed. The book also offers new insights into ''green'' chemistry requirements and strategies for military applications.

  19. Primary stability and self-tapping blades: biomechanical assessment of dental implants in medium-density bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yung-Soo; Lim, Young-Jun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this biomechanical study was to assess the influence of self-tapping blades in terms of primary implant stability between implants with self-tapping blades and implants without self-tapping blades using five different analytic methods, especially in medium-density bone. Two different types of dental implants (4 × 10 mm) were tested: self-tapping and non-self-tapping. The fixture design including thread profiles was exactly the same between the two groups; the only difference was the presence of cutting blades on one half of the apical portion of the implant body. Solid rigid polyurethane blocks with corresponding densities were selected to simulate medium-density bone. Five mechanical assessments (insertion torque, resonance frequency analysis [RFA], reverse torque, pull-out and push in test) were performed for primary stability. Implants without self-tapping blades showed significantly higher values (P0.05). The outcomes of the present study indicate that the implant body design without self-tapping blades has a good primary stability compared with that with self-tapping blades in medium-density bone. Considering the RFA, a distinct layer of cortical bone on marginal bone will yield implant stability quotient values similar to those in medium-bone density when implants have the same diameter. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  1. Development of a CMOS process using high energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolmeijer, A.

    1986-01-01

    The main interest of this thesis is the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) in electronic technology. Problems in developing a CMOS process are mostly related to the isolation well of p-n junctions. It is shown that by using high energy ion implantation, it is possible to reduce lateral dimensions to obtain a rather high packing density. High energy ion implantation is also presented as a means of simplifying CMOS processing, since extended processing steps at elevated temperatures are superfluous. Process development is also simplified. (Auth.)

  2. Theoretical interpretation of high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear collision data are interpreted theoretically. The nuclear equation of state is investigated with particular emphasis on momentum-dependent mean field effects. Subnucleonic degrees of freedom are invoked at high energies and densities, and a short length-scales. A nontopological soliton model for baryons is studied in which effective meson fields are generated from extended quark-antiquark pairs. The major objective of this nuclear theory project is a better understanding of the properties of strongly interacting matter on the nuclear energy scale, as manifested in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

  3. Theoretical interpretation of high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1992-06-01

    Nuclear collisions are interpreted theoretically. The nuclear equation of state is studied in a wide energy range. Subnucleonic degrees of freedom are invoked at high energy densities and at short length-scales. Questions of dynamical collision simulations are investigated. Direct support is provided for experiment in the form of collaborative projects. The major objective of this nuclear theory program is a better understanding of the properties of strongly interacting matter on the nuclear energy scale, as manifested in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

  4. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1984-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicities in hadronic collision have been measured for all energies up to √s = 540 GeV in the center of mass. Similar measurements in e + e - annihilation cover the much smaller range - up to √s = 40 GeV. Data are also available from deep inelastic neutrino scattering up to √s approx. 10 GeV. The experiments measure the mean charged multiplicity , the rapidity density at y = O, and the distributions in prong number. The mean number of photons associated with the events can be used to measure the π 0 and eta 0 multiplicities. Some information is also available on the charged pion, kaon, and nucleon fractions as well as the K 0 and Λ 0 rates and for the higher energy data, the identically equal fraction. We review this data and consider the implications of extrapolations to SSC energies. 13 references

  5. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  6. High energy physics: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.; Bonner, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of data on collision of protons with targets of He, Be, C, Al, Sn, and Pb continued. A jet signal has been clearly observed from all nuclei. A collaboration has been formed for carrying out an experiment studying the photoproduced jets from nuclei and propagation of quarks and gluons through nuclear matter. The production of lambda hyperons was studied using the primary polarized beam at BNL/AGS at 13.3 and 18.5 GeV/c. The effect of the proton beam polarization on the lambda production, A/sub N/ and spin transfer have been measured. A request was approved for additional polarized proton beam at the AGS to continue measurements of the spin transfer to hyperons. Progress is reported on an initial 200 GeV/c polarized beam-polarized target experiment. A collaborative experiment was approved for the saearch for exotic/hybrid mesons. Investigations in quantum field theories, especially quantum chromodynamics, were contined

  7. Harvard University High Energy Physics progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The principal goals of this work are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. The program is based at Harvard's High Energy Physics Laboratory, which has offices, computing facilities, and engineering support, and both electronics and machine shops

  8. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  9. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  10. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  11. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes

  12. Preface to special topic: High-energy density laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried H

    2017-01-01

    Here, in the 1990s, when the large inertial confinement fusion facilities in the United States became accessible for discovery-class research, physicists soon realized that the combination of these energetic drivers with precision plasmas diagnostics would allow the unprecedented experimental study of astrophysical problems.

  13. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report the activities of the GSI Darmstadt (FRG) during 1985 concerning inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams. Short communications and abstracts are presented concerning a Z-pinch experiment, heavy ion pumped lasers and X-ray spectroscopy, the study of ion-ion collisions, a RFQ development and beam transport studies, accelerator theory, targets for SIS/ESR experiments, the rayleigh-Taylor instability, studies on the equation of state for matter under high pressure, as well as the development of computer codes. (HSI)

  14. Ultra High Energy Density Cathodes with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    a) Carbon nanotube paper coated with NCA cathode composite for testing as positive electrode in Li-ion battery (b) Comparison of NCA specific...received and purified CNT electrodes coated with NCA cathode composite. (b) Discharge capacities as a function of rate and cycle for NCA on Al and...thickness increases. The first approach was to cast SOA NCA cathode composites onto CNT current collectors using an adjustable blade coater. The

  15. Multi-Scale Simulation of High Energy Density Ionic Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this AFOSR project was the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of ionic liquid structure, dynamics, and interfacial properties, as well as multi-scale descriptions of these novel liquids (e.g...

  16. Quantum Simulations of Low Temperature High Energy Density Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Voth, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    .... Using classical molecular dynamics simulations to evaluate these equilibrium properties would predict qualitatively incorrect results for low temperature solid hydrogen, because of the highly quantum...

  17. Areal density and spatial resolution of high energy electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiahao; Zhang, Zimin; Cao, Shuchun; Yuan, Ping; Shen, Xiaokang; Cheng, Rui; Zhao, Quantang; Zong, Yang; Liu, Ming; Zhou, Xianming; Li, Zhongping; Zhao, Yongtao; Tang, Chuanxiang; Huang, Wenhui; Du, Yingchao; Gai, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11435015 and 11505251), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2016YFE0104900), and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. 28Y740010 and 113462KYSB20160036).

  18. Cathode Materials for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefèvre G.

    2017-01-01

    Li2MnSiO4 has a large theoretical specific capacity (333 mAh/g through exchange of 2 lithium ions per formula unit. The thermal stability due to strong Si-O bonds makes LiMnSiO a very promising material for future energy storage in space applications. Preparation in inert atmosphere showed beneficial improvements of LMSO’s electrochemical properties. Nano-sizing and carbon coating have been effective ways to improve electronic conductivity and therefore electrochemical performance. Up to 1.66 Li per formula unit can be re-inserted in the 1st cycle. XRD analysis showed complete amorphization of Li2MnSiO4 after the 1st charge at 4.8 V with complete modification of the charge/discharge curves in the next cycles. Increasing the carbon coating ratio limits capacity loss during cycling but did not avoid amorphization. Finally influence of voltage window on structure stability was investigated. Careful choice of upper limit voltage has been showed to stabilize Li2MnSiO4 structure but for now is still limited to low Li+ insertion/extraction from the host material.

  19. The Search for New High-Energy-Density Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of the superhalogen properties in PtCln clusters“, J. Chem. Phys. (in press). Behera, S. and Jena, P.: “Stability and Spectroscopic Properties...Society, Cocoa Beach, FL, February 21-25, 2010 US-Egypt Advanced Studies Institute (ASI) on “Nanomaterials and Nanocatalysis for Energy

  20. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  1. High energy physics and cloud computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Liu Baoxu; Sun Gongxing; Chen Gang

    2011-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been a strong promoter of computing technology, for example WWW (World Wide Web) and the grid computing. In the new era of cloud computing, HEP has still a strong demand, and major international high energy physics laboratories have launched a number of projects to research on cloud computing technologies and applications. It describes the current developments in cloud computing and its applications in high energy physics. Some ongoing projects in the institutes of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, including cloud storage, virtual computing clusters, and BESⅢ elastic cloud, are also described briefly in the paper. (authors)

  2. Effect on bone density of postoperative calcium and vitamin-D supplementation in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, Erik; Westerdahl, Johan; Bergenfelz, Anders

    2009-05-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) is associated with decreased bone density and increased fracture risk. A significant number of pHPT patients have low calcium intake and suffer from vitamin deficiency. Thus, we adopted a policy of postoperative supplements with calcium and vitamin D after parathyroid surgery. In this study, we investigated if this policy enhanced the postoperative increase in bone density. Forty-two consecutive patients (83% female) were studied. The first 21 patients received no supplements, whereas the following 21 patients received 1,000 g calcium and 800 IU hydroxy D: -vitamin daily (Ca-D group) for 1 year postoperatively. The patients were monitored with bone density and biochemistry pre- and at 1 year postoperatively. Preoperatively, the patients without vitamin D supplementation (non-Ca-D group) did neither differ in biochemistry, clinical features, nor in bone density from patients in Ca-D group. Postoperatively, there was a tendency that patients in Ca-D group increased their bone density, at all sites measured, in a greater extent than patients that did not receive calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In conclusion, based on our results, it is difficult to give a recommendation of vitamin D supplementation in routine use following surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. Based on the present data, a calculation of sample size for a future randomized controlled trial is presented.

  3. Thermonuclear model for high energy transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The thermonuclear model for x- and γ-ray bursts is discussed. Different regimes of nuclear burning are reviewed, each appropriate to a given range of (steady state) accretion rate. Accretion rates in the range 10 -14 to 10 -8 Msub solar y -1 all appear capable of producing x-ray transients of various durations and intervals. Modifications introduced by radiatively driven mass loss, the thermal inertia of the envelope, different burning mechanisms, and two-dimensional considerations are discussed as are difficulties encountered when the thermonuclear model is confronted with observations of rapidly recurrent bursts (less than or equal to 10 min), and super-Eddington luminosities and temperatures. Results from a numerical simulation of a combined hydrogen-helium runaway initiated at pycnonuclear density are presented for the first time. The thermonuclear model for γ-ray bursts is also reviewed and updated, particularly with regard to the breakdown of the steady state hypothesis employed in previous work. Solely on the basis of nuclear instability, γ-ray bursts of various types appear possible for a very broad variety of accretion rates (approx. 10 -17 to approx. 10 -11 Msub solar y -1 ) although other considerations may restrict this range. The thermonuclear model appears capable of yielding a great diversity of high energy transient phenomena for various accretion rates, magnetic field configurations, and neutron star envelope histories

  4. Experimental techniques for the detection of the high energy gamma rays of cosmic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Gh.; Angelescu, T.; Radu, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The observation of high energy gamma rays of cosmic origin in the early 90 by Volcano Ranch experiment opened a new direction of study in astrophysics. The very high energy and the very low flux of these gamma rays, posed numerous detection problems which in turn were the object of a very intense research activity. The present article tries to review the detection techniques for the high energy gamma rays of cosmic origin. In the 'Introduction' we summarize the specific problems involved in the detection of this type of radiation. 'Chapter 1' presents the classic technique based on the use of scintillation detectors. 'Chapter 2' includes the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) and the sampling wavefront technique. 'Chapter 3' is dedicated to the detection of the atmospheric nitrogen. 'Chapter 4' describes issues related to the calibration of the detectors, the cross checking of the experimental data, the use of the Monte Carlo simulations and the use of the density observed at a distance of 600 m S(600), in order to estimate the primary energy. The characteristics of some future developments of the above presented techniques are included in the last chapter. (authors)

  5. Average Nuclear Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 56,57FE from Primary (Gamma)-Ray Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavukcu, E.; Becker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Garrett, P.E.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Schiller, A.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.; Younes, W.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental primary γ-ray spectrum vs. excitation-energy bin (P(E x , E γ ) matrix) in a light-ion reaction is obtained for 56,57 Fe isotopes using a subtraction method. By factorizing the P(E x , E γ ) matrix according to the Axel-Brink hypothesis the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function (RSF) in 56,57 Fe are extracted simultaneously. A step structure is observed in the level density for both isotopes, and is interpreted as the breaking of Cooper pairs. The RSFs for 56,57 Fe reveal an anomalous enhancement at low γ-ray energies

  6. Integrated economic and experimental framework for screening of primary recovery technologies for high cell density CHO cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Daria; Stonier, Adam; Pain, David; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2016-07-01

    Increases in mammalian cell culture titres and densities have placed significant demands on primary recovery operation performance. This article presents a methodology which aims to screen rapidly and evaluate primary recovery technologies for their scope for technically feasible and cost-effective operation in the context of high cell density mammalian cell cultures. It was applied to assess the performance of current (centrifugation and depth filtration options) and alternative (tangential flow filtration (TFF)) primary recovery strategies. Cell culture test materials (CCTM) were generated to simulate the most demanding cell culture conditions selected as a screening challenge for the technologies. The performance of these technology options was assessed using lab scale and ultra scale-down (USD) mimics requiring 25-110mL volumes for centrifugation and depth filtration and TFF screening experiments respectively. A centrifugation and depth filtration combination as well as both of the alternative technologies met the performance selection criteria. A detailed process economics evaluation was carried out at three scales of manufacturing (2,000L, 10,000L, 20,000L), where alternative primary recovery options were shown to potentially provide a more cost-effective primary recovery process in the future. This assessment process and the study results can aid technology selection to identify the most effective option for a specific scenario. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Possible Lead Free Nanocomposite Dielectrics for High Energy Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kurpati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand to improve the energy density of dielectric capacitors for satisfying the next generation material systems. One effective approach is to embed high dielectric constant inclusions such as lead zirconia titanate in polymer matrix. However, with the increasing concerns on environmental safety and biocompatibility, the need to expel lead (Pb from modern electronics has been receiving more attention. Using high aspect ratio dielectric inclusions such as nanowires could lead to further enhancement of energy density. Therefore, the present brief review work focuses on the feasibility of development of a lead-free nanowire reinforced polymer matrix capacitor for energy storage application. It is expected that Lead-free sodium Niobate nanowires (NaNbO3 and Boron nitride will be a future candidate to be synthesized using simple hydrothermal method, followed by mixing them with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF/ divinyl tetramethyl disiloxanebis (benzocyclobutene matrix using a solution-casting method for Nanocomposites fabrication. The energy density of NaNbO3 and BN based composites are also be compared with that of lead-containing (PbTiO3/PVDF Nano composites to show the feasibility of replacing lead-containing materials from high-energy density dielectric capacitors. Further, this paper explores the feasibility of these materials for space applications because of high energy storage capacity, more flexibility and high operating temperatures. This paper is very much useful researchers who would like to work on polymer nanocomposites for high energy storage applications.

  8. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K.; Ostapchenko, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author)

  9. CAMAC high energy physics electronics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, I.F.

    1977-01-01

    CAMAC hardware for high energy physics large spectrometers and control systems is reviewed as is the development of CAMAC modules at the High Energy Laboratory, JINR (Dubna). The total number of crates used at the Laboratory is 179. The number of CAMAC modules of 120 different types exceeds 1700. The principles of organization and the structure of developed CAMAC systems are described. (author)

  10. Expectations for ultra-high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Strong interactions at ultra-high energies are discussed with emphasis on the hadrons produced in high energy collisions. Evidence is considered that quantum chromodynamics might be the right theory, and also some estimates are given of quantum chromodynamics asymptotic-freedom phenomena, the work under discussion being very preliminary. 6 references

  11. Controlled cell morphology and liver-specific function of engineered primary hepatocytes by fibroblast layer cell densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Koike, Makiko; Kawahara, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hideko; Murai, Tomomi; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-03-05

    Engineered primary hepatocytes, including co-cultured hepatocyte sheets, are an attractive to basic scientific and clinical researchers because they maintain liver-specific functions, have reconstructed cell polarity, and have high transplantation efficiency. However, co-culture conditions regarding engineered primary hepatocytes were suboptimal in promoting these advantages. Here we report that the hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by the normal human diploid fibroblast (TIG-118 cell) layer cell density. Primary rat hepatocytes were plated onto TIG-118 cells, previously plated 3 days before at 1.04, 5.21, and 26.1×10 3  cells/cm 2 . Hepatocytes plated onto lower TIG-118 cell densities expanded better during the early culture period. The hepatocytes gathered as colonies and only exhibited small adhesion areas because of the pushing force from proliferating TIG-118 cells. The smaller areas of each hepatocyte result in the development of bile canaliculi. The highest density of TIG-118 cells downregulated albumin synthesis activity of hepatocytes. The hepatocytes may have undergone apoptosis associated with high TGF-β1 concentration and necrosis due to a lack of oxygen. These occurrences were supported by apoptotic chromatin condensation and high expression of both proteins HIF-1a and HIF-1b. Three types of engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets comprising different TIG-118 cell densities were harvested after 4 days of hepatocyte culture and showed a complete cell sheet format without any holes. Hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by TIG-118 cell density, which helps to design better engineered hepatocytes for future applications such as in vitro cell-based assays and transplantable hepatocyte tissues. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Obesity onBone Mineral Density in Primary Fibromyalgia Cases - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Yesevi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disease, characterized by tender points in various areas at body and widespread pain musculoskeletal system and unknown etiology, in which metabolic, immunologic and neuroendocrin abnormalities are seen. In this study, 45 female patients were enrolled according to 1990 ACR fibromyalgia criteria. They were divided to 3 groups, with 15 patients; normal, preobese and obese, depending to the body mass index. They were tested for bone mineral density of the lomber spine and femur, using dual energy x-ray absorptionmeter. The depression presence was investigated by Hamilton Depression Scale. The bone mineral density of L1-4 region of fibromyalgic normal body weight patients were normal range and there was no significant statistical difference between others groups. In contrast, femur bone mineral density vaules were found to be statistically significantly osteopenic, as compared with obese groups. There was a negative statistical correlation between depression and lomber area bone mineral density. Whereas in femur it was seen that bone mineral density was protected in preobese and obese fibromyalgia patients. The number of studies on this subject is not sufficient. Also the number of patients determined on current studies are low. Further studies, with langer patient numbers and more detailed protocols are needed. (Osteoporoz Dünyasından 2005; 4: 148-150

  13. Networking for High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harvey B.

    2007-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the status and outlook for the world's research networks and major international links used by the high energy physics and other scientific communities, network technology advances on which our community depends and in which we have an increasingly important role, and the problem of the Digital Divide, which is a primary focus of ICFA's Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC). Wide area networks of sufficient, and rapidly increasing end-to-end capability are vital for every phase of high energy physicists' work. Our bandwidth usage, and the typical capacity of the major national backbones and intercontinental links used by our field have progressed by a factor of more than 1000 over the past decade, and the outlook is for a similar increase over the next decade. This striking exponential growth trend, outstripping the growth rates in other areas of information technology, has continued in the past year, with many of the major national, continental and transoceanic networks supporting research and education progressing from a 10 Gigabits/sec (Gbps) backbone to multiple 10 Gbps links in their core. This is complemented by the use of point-to-point "light paths" to support the most demanding applications, including high energy physics, in a growing list of cases. As we approach the era of LHC physics, the growing need to access and transport Terabyte-scale and later 10 to 100 Terabyte datasets among more than 100 "Tier1" and "Tier2" centers at universities and laboratories spread throughout the world has brought the key role of networks, and the ongoing need for their development, sharply into focus. Bandwidth itself on an increasing scale is not enough. Realizing the scientific wealth of the LHC and our other major scientific programs depends crucially on our ability to use the bandwidth efficiently and reliably, with reliable high rates of data throughput, and effectively, where many parallel large-scale data

  14. Bulk Materials Analysis Using High-Energy Positron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glade, S C; Asoka-Kumar, P; Nieh, T G; Sterne, P A; Wirth, B D; Dauskardt, R H; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Odette, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews some recent materials analysis results using high-energy positron beams at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are combining positron lifetime and orbital electron momentum spectroscopic methods to provide electron number densities and electron momentum distributions around positron annihilation sites. Topics covered include: correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with structural and mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses, compositional studies of embrittling features in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel, pore characterization in Zeolites, and positron annihilation characteristics in alkali halides

  15. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently

  16. High energy physics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  17. Computing in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Lastly, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software

  18. Computing in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-04-01

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Finally, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software.

  19. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  20. High energy physics in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1985-01-01

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range