WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-energy crash circumstances

  1. Understanding fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-28

    This study used medicolegal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to four key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners Court of Victoria's Surveillance Database was searched to identify coronial records with at least one deceased ORU in the state of Victoria, Australia, for 2013-2014. Information relating to the ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. The average rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-10.2), which was more than double the average rate of fatal middle-aged road user crashes (3.6, 95% CI 2.5-4.6). There was a significant relationship between age group and deceased road user type (χ 2 (15, N = 226) = 3.56, p road" (87.0%), on roads that were paved (94.2%), dry (74.2%), and had light traffic volume (38.3%). Road user error was identified by the police and/or coroner for the majority of fatal ORU crashes (57.9%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORU deemed to have "misjudged" (40.9%) or "failed to yield" (37.9%). Road user error was the most significant risk factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the Victorian road system to fully accommodate road user errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, and speed zones, as well as behavioral approaches, are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal older road user crashes in the future.

  2. The effect of helmet use on injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Brent; Pless, I Barry; Goulet, Claude; Platt, Robert; Robitaille, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of helmet use on non-head-neck injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders. We used a matched case-control study over the November 2001 to April 2002 winter season. 3295 of 4667 injured skiers and snowboarders reporting to the ski patrol at 19 areas in Quebec with non-head, non-neck injuries agreed to participate. Cases included those evacuated by ambulance, admitted to hospital, with restriction of normal daily activities (NDAs) >6 days, with non-helmet equipment damage, fast self-reported speed, participating on a more difficult run than usual, and jumping-related injury. Controls were injured participants without severe injuries or high-energy crash circumstances and were matched to cases on ski area, activity, day, age, and sex. Conditional logistic regression was used to relate each outcome to helmet use. There was no evidence that helmet use increased the risk of severe injury or high-energy crash circumstances. The results suggest that helmet use in skiing and snowboarding is not associated with riskier activities that lead to non-head-neck injuries.

  3. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  4. Influences of thermal deformation of cavity mirrors induced by high energy DF laser to beam quality under the simulated real physical circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoyong; Zhang, Shiqiang; He, Minbo; Zhang, Zheng; Guan, Xiaowei

    2017-05-01

    The positive-branch confocal unstable resonator with inhomogeneous gain medium was studied for the normal used high energy DF laser system. The fast changing process of the resonator's eigenmodes was coupled with the slow changing process of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors. Influences of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors to the outcoupled beam quality and transmission loss of high frequency components of high energy laser were computed. The simulations are done through programs compiled by MATLAB and GLAD software and the method of combination of finite elements and Fox-li iteration algorithm was used. Effects of thermal distortion, misaligned of cavity mirrors and inhomogeneous distribution of gain medium were introduced to simulate the real physical circumstances of laser cavity. The wavefront distribution and beam quality (including RMS of wavefront, power in the bucket, Strehl ratio, diffraction limit β, position of the beam spot center, spot size and intensity distribution in far-field ) of the distorted outcoupled beam were studied. The conclusions of the simulation agree with the experimental results. This work would supply references of wavefront correction range to the adaptive optics system of interior alleyway.

  5. Reporting on cyclist crashes in Australian newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Aboss, Ahmad; Montgomery, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    To assess information on cyclist crashes reported in Australian newspapers. The Factiva news archive was searched for articles on cyclist crashes published in major Australian newspapers between 2010 and 2013. Information on the circumstances of cyclist crashes were extracted and coded. A total of 160 cyclist crashes were covered by 198 newspaper articles, with 44% of crashes resulting in cyclist fatalities. Crashes reported by more than one newspaper were more likely to involve public figures or protracted court cases. Individual characteristics of cyclists as well as the location of the crash were reported for more than 80% of crashes. The road user at fault was reported for more than half of crashes. In contrast, information on helmet use, alcohol and cycling lanes was mentioned for only about 10% of crashes. Fewer than one in five articles mentioned prevention strategies including education campaigns, legislative and infrastructure changes. Australian newspapers tend to focus on the most dramatic and more 'newsworthy' aspects of cyclist crashes. Cycling advocates need to work with journalists to improve the quality of this coverage. Better communication between cycling advocates and journalists is likely to have a positive impact on the safety and the uptake of cycling in the community. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Pedestrian Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving pedestrians in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  7. Bicycle Crashes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This data set maps the locations of crashes involving bicyclists in the Chapel Hill Region of North Carolina.The data comes from police-reported bicycle-motor...

  8. Comparison of moped, scooter and motorcycle crash risk and crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ross A; Haworth, Narelle L

    2013-08-01

    The increased popularity of mopeds and motor scooters in Australia and elsewhere in the last decade has contributed substantially to the greater use of powered two-wheelers (PTWs) as a whole. As the exposure of mopeds and scooters has increased, so too has the number of reported crashes involving those PTW types, but there is currently little research comparing the safety of mopeds and, particularly, larger scooters with motorcycles. This study compared the crash risk and crash severity of motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in Queensland, Australia. Comprehensive data cleansing was undertaken to separate motorcycles, mopeds and larger scooters in police-reported crash data covering the five years to 30 June 2008. The crash rates of motorcycles (including larger scooters) and mopeds in terms of registered vehicles were similar over this period, although the moped crash rate showed a stronger downward trend. However, the crash rates in terms of distance travelled were nearly four times higher for mopeds than for motorcycles (including larger scooters). More comprehensive distance travelled data is needed to confirm these findings. The overall severity of moped and scooter crashes was significantly lower than motorcycle crashes but an ordered probit regression model showed that crash severity outcomes related to differences in crash characteristics and circumstances, rather than differences between PTW types per se. Greater motorcycle crash severity was associated with higher (>80km/h) speed zones, horizontal curves, weekend, single vehicle and nighttime crashes. Moped crashes were more severe at night and in speed zones of 90km/h or more. Larger scooter crashes were more severe in 70km/h zones (than 60km/h zones) but not in higher speed zones, and less severe on weekends than on weekdays. The findings can be used to inform potential crash and injury countermeasures tailored to users of different PTW types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, P.

    1975-01-01

    In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60 Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

  10. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  11. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  12. Self-reported circumstances and consequences of driving while

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radun, I.; Radun, J.; Wahde, M.; Watling, C.N.; Kecklund, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Driver surveys are indispensable sources of information when estimating the role of sleepiness in crash causation. The purpose of the study was to (1) identify the prevalence of driving while sleepy among Finnish drivers, (2) determine the circumstances of such instances, and (3) identify risk

  13. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  14. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  15. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  16. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  17. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  18. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  19. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  20. Narrative text analysis to identify technologies to prevent motor vehicle crashes: examples from military vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Yee, Nathan; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Rossen, Lauren; Bachynski, Kathleen E; Baker, Susan P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the leading circumstances of military vehicle crashes to guide prioritization and implementation of crash avoidance and/or warning technologies. A descriptive study using narrative text analysis on 3,944 military vehicle crash narratives. Crash data on drivers, from 2001 to 2006, were assembled from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center. Reviewers collected information on the circumstances of crashes and determined if vehicle technology could have prevented the crash. Nearly 98% of the crashes were nonfatal; 63% occurred in the U.S. and 24% in Iraq. Among crash events where the direction of the impact was recorded, 32% were to the front of the vehicle and 16% involved a vehicle being rear-ended. Rollovers were mentioned in 20% of the narratives. Technology was determined to have the potential to prevent 26% of the crashes, with the forward collision warning system, rear end collision avoidance, emergency brake assistance, and rollover stability control system likely to have the greatest impacts. Some technologies available for civilian vehicles may prevent certain military crash circumstances. The results of this research are significant in light of ongoing global military operations that rely on military vehicles. Improving the preventive technology featured on military vehicles may be an effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of military crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  2. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report discusses research by Columbia University staff in high energy physics. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: lattice gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; parity doublets; solitons; baryon number violation; black holes; magnetic monopoles; gluon plasma; Chern-Simons theory; and the inflationary universe

  3. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklorsky, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)

  4. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  5. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  6. High energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  7. High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] High Energy Physics Home Division ES&H Personnel Collider Physics Cosmic Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theory & Computing Detector R&D Electronic Design Mechanical Design Neutrino Physics Theoretical Physics Seminars HEP Division Seminar HEP Lunch Seminar HEP

  8. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  9. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  10. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  11. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  12. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  13. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  14. Divorce and its circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Kšádová, Kristýna

    2015-01-01

    The main topic of my bachelor thesis is divorce and its circumstances. I have devided it in two parts, such as theoretical and practical parts. In the first theoretical part I describe meaning of marriage, divorce, major reasons of divorces and theirs consequences. In the second practical part I am focusing on particular case of divorce in which I will compare foundations documented in the theoretical part with the reality. The main aim of this work is to realise wheter is there any resemblan...

  15. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  16. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  17. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This progress report presents a review of research done over the past five years by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This research has been centered at Fermilab where we have had a continuing involvement with both the Tevatron collider and fixed-target programs. In 1988 we began extensive detector R ampersand D for the SSC through its Major Subsystem Program. Duke has been an active member of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) since its formation. These last five years has also been used to finish the analysis of data from a series of hybrid bubble chamber experiments which formed the core of Duke's research program in the early 1980's

  18. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  19. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    Brief reports are given on the work of several professors. The following areas are included: quantum chromodynamics calculations using numerical lattice gauge theory and a high-speed parallel computer; the ''spin wave'' description of bosonic particles moving on a lattice with same-site exclusion; a high-temperature expansion to 13th order for the O(4)-symmetric φ 4 model on a four-dimensional F 4 lattice; spin waves and lattice bosons; superconductivity of C 60 ; meson-meson interferometry in heavy-ion collisions; baryon number violation in the Standard Model in high-energy collisions; hard thermal loops in QCD; electromagnetic interactions of anyons; the relation between Bose-Einstein and BCS condensations; Euclidean wormholes with topology S 1 x S 2 x R; vacuum decay and symmetry breaking by radiative corrections; inflationary solutions to the cosmological horizon and flatness problems; and magnetically charged black holes

  20. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  1. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  2. High energy physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Described are modern views on the particle structure and particle interactions at high energies. According to the latest data recieved, all particles can be classified in three groups: 1) strong interacting hadrons; 2) leptons, having no strong interactions; 3) photon. The particle structure is described in a quark model, and with the use of gluons. The elementary particle theory is based on the quantum field theory. The energy increase of interacting particles enables to check the main theory principles, such as conventions for causality, relativistic invariance and unitarity. Investigations of weak interactions are of great importance. The progress in this field is connected with unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For weak interactions promissing are the experiments with colliding electron-proton rings. The new data, especially at higher energies, will lead to a further refinement of the nature of particles and their interactions

  3. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  4. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-09-15

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors.

  5. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb - 1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989

  6. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10 5 Z's by the end of 1989 and 10 6 in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry

  7. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  8. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required

  9. Carcinogenesis. Genetics and circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Okio

    2005-01-01

    Described are the author's study and aspect concerning carcinogenesis and radiation carcinogenesis, where he thinks cancer is not automatic, has a process and takes time. For radiation carcinogenic studies, he has used a model of the rat with genetically determined kidney cancer which is highly radiosensitive. That is, mutation by the so-called 2nd-hit of the causal gene (tumor suppressing gene Tsc2) is studied in the animal where the 1st-hit has been done by retrotransposon insertion, with and without exposure to radiations (X-ray, heavy particle beam and cosmic ray) for elucidating the mutation spectrum of the causal gene, the carcinogenic target, for the ultimate aim to prevent human cancer. He discusses the drama-type molecular mechanisms leading to cancer, gene abnormality and disease crisis, discontinuity in continuity in cancer formation, and importance of the timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy, and concludes the present age is becoming such one as that the nature of cancer even if genetic can be controlled by circumstances like timely and appropriate intervention. (S.I.)

  10. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  11. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  12. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  13. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  14. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  15. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors

  16. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2016. Fields include injury severity,...

  17. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2017. Fields include injury severity,...

  18. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  19. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Subasish Das; Xiaoduan Sun; Fan Wang; Charles Leboeuf

    2015-01-01

    At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the a...

  20. Critical market crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2003-04-01

    This review presents a general theory of financial crashes and of stock market instabilities that his co-workers and the author have developed over the past seven years. We start by discussing the limitation of standard analyses for characterizing how crashes are special. The study of the frequency distribution of drawdowns, or runs of successive losses shows that large financial crashes are “outliers”: they form a class of their own as can be seen from their statistical signatures. If large financial crashes are “outliers”, they are special and thus require a special explanation, a specific model, a theory of their own. In addition, their special properties may perhaps be used for their prediction. The main mechanisms leading to positive feedbacks, i.e., self-reinforcement, such as imitative behavior and herding between investors are reviewed with many references provided to the relevant literature outside the narrow confine of Physics. Positive feedbacks provide the fuel for the development of speculative bubbles, preparing the instability for a major crash. We demonstrate several detailed mathematical models of speculative bubbles and crashes. A first model posits that the crash hazard drives the market price. The crash hazard may sky-rocket at some times due to the collective behavior of “noise traders”, those who act on little information, even if they think they “know”. A second version inverses the logic and posits that prices drive the crash hazard. Prices may skyrocket at some times again due to the speculative or imitative behavior of investors. According the rational expectation model, this entails automatically a corresponding increase of the probability for a crash. We also review two other models including the competition between imitation and contrarian behavior and between value investors and technical analysts. The most important message is the discovery of robust and universal signatures of the approach to crashes. These precursory

  1. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas; quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  3. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-15

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'.

  4. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress in the following research in high energy physics: The crystal ball experiment; delco at PEP; proton decay experiment; MACRO detector; mark III detector; SLD detector; CLEO II detector; and the caltech L3 group

  5. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin

    1989-01-01

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'

  6. Problems of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some problems of high energy physics are discussed. The main attention is paid to describibg the standard model. The model comprises quantum chromodynamics and electroweak interaction theory. The problem of CP breaking is considered as well. 8 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2009 physics pp. 3–60. Developments in high energy theory .... and operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), this ma- ...... [2] S Dodelson, Modern cosmology (Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2003).

  8. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas: quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  9. Crash sequence based risk matrix for motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Thor, Craig P; Chen, Sheng-Yin

    2018-04-05

    Considerable research has been conducted related to motorcycle and other powered-two-wheeler (PTW) crashes; however, it always has been controversial among practitioners concerning with types of crashes should be first targeted and how to prioritize resources for the implementation of mitigating actions. Therefore, there is a need to identify types of motorcycle crashes that constitute the greatest safety risk to riders - most frequent and most severe crashes. This pilot study seeks exhibit the efficacy of a new approach for prioritizing PTW crash causation sequences as they relate to injury severity to better inform the application of mitigating countermeasures. To accomplish this, the present study constructed a crash sequence-based risk matrix to identify most frequent and most severe motorcycle crashes in an attempt to better connect causes and countermeasures of PTW crashes. Although the frequency of each crash sequence can be computed from crash data, a crash severity model is needed to compare the levels of crash severity among different crash sequences, while controlling for other factors that also have effects on crash severity such drivers' age, use of helmet, etc. The construction of risk matrix based on crash sequences involve two tasks: formulation of crash sequence and the estimation of a mixed-effects (ME) model to adjust the levels of severities for each crash sequence to account for other crash contributing factors that would have an effect on the maximum level of crash severity in a crash. Three data elements from the National Automotive Sampling System - General Estimating System (NASS-GES) data were utilized to form a crash sequence: critical event, crash types, and sequence of events. A mixed-effects model was constructed to model the severity levels for each crash sequence while accounting for the effects of those crash contributing factors on crash severity. A total of 8039 crashes involving 8208 motorcycles occurred during 2011 and 2013 were

  10. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  11. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  12. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the tradition, the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics are presented under a common header, they are: Department of Particle Theory (Dept 5); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept 11); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept 12); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept 13); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). The research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY) is also presented. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy (UMM). This location, close to the Jagiellonian University (JU), facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the UMM. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of the activities is teaching and training students from the academic community in Cracow. Joint research, teaching and academic training in the high energy physics are carried out within the M. Miesowicz

  13. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  14. Characteristics of Single Vehicle Crashes with a Teen Driver in South Carolina, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; Bergen, Gwen; Smith, Tracy J; Cook, Larry; Kindelberger, John; West, Bethany

    2017-09-22

    Teens' crash risk is highest in the first years of independent driving. Circumstances surrounding fatal crashes have been widely documented, but less is known about factors related to nonfatal teen driver crashes. This study describes single vehicle nonfatal crashes involving the youngest teen drivers (15-17 years), compares these crashes to single vehicle nonfatal crashes among adult drivers (35-44 years) and examines factors related to nonfatal injury producing crashes for teen drivers. Police crash data linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department data for 2005-2008 from the South Carolina Crash Outcomes Data Evaluation System (CODES) were analyzed. Nonfatal, single vehicle crashes involving passenger vehicles occurring on public roadways for teen (15-17 years) drivers were compared with those for adult (35-44 years) drivers on temporal patterns and crash risk factors per licensed driver and per vehicle miles traveled. Vehicle miles traveled by age group was estimated using data from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Multivariable log-linear regression analysis was conducted for teen driver crashes to determine which characteristics were related to crashes resulting in a minor/moderate injury or serious injury to at least one vehicle occupant. Compared with adult drivers, teen drivers in South Carolina had 2.5 times the single vehicle nonfatal crash rate per licensed driver and 11 times the rate per vehicle mile traveled. Teen drivers were nearly twice as likely to be speeding at the time of the crash compared with adult drivers. Teen driver crashes per licensed driver were highest during the afternoon hours of 3:00-5:59 pm and crashes per mile driven were highest during the nighttime hours of 9:00-11:59 pm. In 66% of the teen driver crashes, the driver was the only occupant. Crashes were twice as likely to result in serious injury when teen passengers were present than when the teen driver was alone. When teen drivers crashed while

  15. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  17. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  18. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  19. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  20. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  1. Investigation of pedestrian crashes on two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Getu Segni; Washington, Simon; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Understanding pedestrian crash causes and contributing factors in developing countries is critically important as they account for about 55% of all traffic crashes. Not surprisingly, considerable attention in the literature has been paid to road traffic crash prediction models and methodologies in developing countries of late. Despite this interest, there are significant challenges confronting safety managers in developing countries. For example, in spite of the prominence of pedestrian crashes occurring on two-way two-lane rural roads, it has proven difficult to develop pedestrian crash prediction models due to a lack of both traffic and pedestrian exposure data. This general lack of available data has further hampered identification of pedestrian crash causes and subsequent estimation of pedestrian safety performance functions. The challenges are similar across developing nations, where little is known about the relationship between pedestrian crashes, traffic flow, and road environment variables on rural two-way roads, and where unique predictor variables may be needed to capture the unique crash risk circumstances. This paper describes pedestrian crash safety performance functions for two-way two-lane rural roads in Ethiopia as a function of traffic flow, pedestrian flows, and road geometry characteristics. In particular, random parameter negative binomial model was used to investigate pedestrian crashes. The models and their interpretations make important contributions to road crash analysis and prevention in developing countries. They also assist in the identification of the contributing factors to pedestrian crashes, with the intent to identify potential design and operational improvements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Phantom crash confirms models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To test computer models of how a nuclear reactor's containment building would fare if an airplane crashed into it, the Muto Institute in Tokyo sponsored a 3.2 million dollar project at Sandia National Laboratory to slam an F-4 Phantom jet into a 500 ton concrete wall. The results showed that the computer calculations were accurate

  4. Advances in Crash Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.

  5. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with advanced computing applications in physics, and in particular in high energy physics environments. The main subjects covered are networking; vector and parallel processing; and embedded systems. Also examined are topics such as operating systems, future computer architectures and commercial computer products. The book presents solutions that are foreseen as coping, in the future, with computing problems in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. In the experimental environment the large amounts of data to be processed offer special problems on-line as well as off-line. For on-line data reduction, embedded special purpose computers, which are often used for trigger applications are applied. For off-line processing, parallel computers such as emulator farms and the cosmic cube may be employed. The analysis of these topics is therefore a main feature of this volume

  6. Multiprocessors for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the role, status and progress of multiprocessor projects relevant to high energy physics. A short overview of the large variety of multiprocessors architectures is given, with special emphasis on machines suitable for experimental data reconstruction. A lot of progress has been made in the attempt to make the use of multiprocessors less painful by creating a ''Parallel Programming Environment'' supporting the non-expert user. A high degree of usability has been reached for coarse grain (event level) parallelism. The program development tools available on various systems (subroutine packages, preprocessors and parallelizing compilers) are discussed in some detail. Tools for execution control and debugging are also developing, thus opening the path from dedicated systems for large scale, stable production towards support of a more general job mix. At medium term, multiprocessors will thus cover a growing fraction of the typical high energy physics computing task. (orig.)

  7. Harvard University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The mainly experimental research program in high energy physics at Harvard is summarized in a descriptive fashion according to the following outline: Proton endash antiproton colliding beam program at Fermilab -- CDF (forward/backward electromagnetic calorimeters -- FEM, central muon extension -- CMX, gas calorimetry and electronics development, front-end electronics upgrades, software development, physics analysis, timetable), electron -- positron collisions in the upsilon region -- CLEO (the hardware projects including CLEO II barrel TOF system and silicon drift detector R ampersand D, physics analysis), search for ν μ to ν τ oscillations with the NOMAD experiment at CERN, the solenoidal detector collaboration at the SSC, muon scattering at FNAL -- E665, the L3 experiment, and phenomenological analysis of high-energy bar pp cross sections. 149 refs

  8. A high energy physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional open-quotes Hidden Symmetries close quotes are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover open-quotes New Physicsclose quotes associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given

  9. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.

    1989-01-01

    We review the efforts of the Notre Dame non accelerator high energy physics group. Our major effort has been directed toward the IMB deep underground detector. Since the departure of the Michigan group our responsibilities to the group have grown. We are also very active in pursuing physics with the IMB 3 detector. Currently we are studying proton decay, point neutrino sources and neutrino oscillations with the contained event sample

  10. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs

  11. High Energy Physics in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A thorough survey of the present and possible future activities and resources in high energy physics in the CERN Member States has been carried out by a Working Group of ECFA (European Committee for Future Accelerators) under the Chairmanship of John Mulvey. The aim has been to obtain a view of the present European scene and to see whether it looks well adapted to the effective exploitation of possible future machines in Europe (particular LEP) and the rest of the world

  12. High energy electron positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; Υ Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the Υ; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles

  13. Astrophysics at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, Felix; Bergstroem, Lars; Dermer, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Presents three complementary lectures on very-high-energy astrophysics given by worldwide leaders in the field. Reviews the recent advances in and prospects of gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Prepares readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors. With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA's Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergstroem presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.

  14. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Following our long-time tradition we will present under a common header the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics: Department of Particle Theory (Dept. V); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept XI); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept XII); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept XIII); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). At the end we will list our common activities: lectures and courses as well as seminars. Our research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluation of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY, Hamburg) is also carried out. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy. This location, close to the Jagiellonian University, facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the University of Mining and Metallurgy. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of our activities is teaching and training students from

  15. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  16. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  17. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  18. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  19. Instrumentation in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation in high energy physics is a wide and advanced domain which cannot be covered in a single lesson. The main basic physics processes for charged and neutral particles are recalled with the definition of a few concepts needed to understand or design a detector. The application of these principles to charged particle measurement devices (momentum), light detection or energy measurement are presented mostly with examples from collider experiments. The particle identification which is often the combination of different techniques in a same experiment is also discussed. Finally in a very short section, a few considerations about electronics/processing with their impact on the detector performance are given

  20. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  1. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  2. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  3. Perbandingan Stock Market Crash 1987 : Dan Stock Market Crash 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Indridewi Atmadjaja, Yovita Vivianty

    1999-01-01

    Stock market crash refers to the condition, which is marked with the large dropping of stock Market price index. Historically, stock market crash has happened three times, namely in 1929, 1987 and 1997. This paper will discuss the causes of 1987's and 1997's stock market Crash and the similarities and the differences between 1987's and 1997's stock market crash. The structure of the paper is as follows. The paper starts with the introduction. The second Section briefly explains the causes of ...

  4. Advances in Crash Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.  Created: 6/29/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 6/29/2009.

  5. Social circumstances and teaching profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beara Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers, as an element of the educational system, are considered to be the most important factor for improving the quality of work in schools. At the same time, schools and teachers, as well as the entire educational system, are functioning in the framework of broader social conditions that may be perceived as favorable and unfavorable for particular aspects of their job and profession. The paper examined teachers' perceptions of the social circumstances in which they work and professionally develop, as well as their temporal satisfaction of their profession and professional development. Temporal satisfaction involves cognitive evaluation of professional area of life through the prism of time (past, present, future. Examined was the interrelationship between these factors, as well as correlations with certain socio-demographic variables: length of employment, age, gender, initial education and type of school in which they are employed. Results indicate that teachers generally perceive social conditions as unfavorable to their professional development, being more satisfied with the past, than with the present and future professional aspects of life. Professional satisfaction was significantly correlated with the perception of social circumstances. Significant differences were established in the temporal satisfaction and perception of social conditions in relation to sex. Teachers in secondary vocational schools are more satisfied with their profession compared to teachers in gymnasiums and primary schools.

  6. Duke University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    The research program of the Duke High Energy Physics Group is described in this Progress Report and a separate Proposal containing their plans for 1994. These two documents are supplemented by compilations of selected publications, thesis abstracts, and the curriculum vitae of the eleven Ph.D. physicists who are carrying out this research program. This Progress Report contains a review of the research which has been done over the first half (1992 and 1993 to date) of the current three-year DOE grant, plus some earlier research to establish a broader perspective of the research interests. High energy physics research at Duke has three components. The first, Task A, is based upon experiments carried out at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider. The group is finishing the analysis of data from their first collider experiment (E735), a study of inclusive particle production from bar p p collisions at √ bar s = 1.8 TeV. The second component of the research, Task B, deals primarily with heavy flavor physics. The third part of the research program, Task D, deals with preparation for research at the SSC. The authors have been active in the development of tracking detectors for the SSC since 1989, and are now concentrating on the design and construction of straw tube drift chambers for the solenoid detector

  7. Spinoff from high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This year the CERN Courier is featuring the spinoff and technological benefits arising from research in fundamental physics. After initial illustrations in applied data processing sectors, this article by Hans Hoffman of CERN examines the rationale and underlying objectives of the 'new awareness' of the market value of basic science. He is the Chairman of a new panel on the subject set up recently by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The other members are: Oscar Barbalat of CERN, Hans Christian Dehne of DESY, Sin-ichi Kurakawa of KEK, Gennady Kulipanov of the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk), Anthony Montgomery, formerly of the SSC, A. H. Walenta of Siegen, Germany, and Zhongqiang Yu of IHEP Beijing. High energy physics - the quest to find and understand the structure of matter - is mainly seen as an essential part of human culture. However this basic science increasingly has to jostle for funding attention with other branches of science. Applied sciences aim for a rapid transformation of investment cash into viable market products. In times of economic difficulties this is attractive to funding agencies and governments, and economic usefulness and technological relevance also become criteria for a basic science like high energy physics.

  8. Duke University high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and Χ meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report

  9. High energy proton PIXE [HEPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) have been widespread and detailed in recent years and despite the fact that most data obtained are from low energy 1-3 MeV experiments, the value of higher energy proton work with its emphasis on K X-ray emission has become more marked as time has progressed. The purpose of this review paper is to outline the history of analysis using high energy protons and to compare and contrast the results obtained with those from lower energy analysis using more firmly established analytical techniques. The work described will concentrate exclusively on proton induced processes and will attempt to outline the rationale for selecting an energy, greater than 20 and up to 70 MeV protons for initiating particles. The relative ease and accuracy of the measurements obtained will be addressed. Clearly such X-ray studies should be seen as complementing low energy work in many instances rather than competing directly with them. However, it will be demonstrated that above a Z value of approximately 20, K X-ray analysis using high energy protons is the only way to go in this type of analysis. (author)

  10. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics of the evolution of the early universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including studies of the nature of dark matter and the signature of annihilations in the galactic halo, where the resulting γ-ray fluxes are potentially observable, and in stars, where stellar evolution may be affects. We will develop constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon, examining the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in both flat and curved cosmological models, and implications for observations of large-scale galaxy clustering and structure formation theories. We will also study spectral distortions in the microwave background radiation that are produced by exotic particle decays in the very early universe. We expect such astrophysical considerations to provide fruitful insights both into high-energy particle physics and into possible cosmological for the early universe

  11. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2010. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  12. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2012. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  13. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2013. Selected crash statistics on passenger vehicles are also presented ...

  14. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2009. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  15. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2011. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  16. Omitted variable bias in crash reduction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Transportation planners and traffic engineers are increasingly turning to crash reduction factors to evaluate changes in road : geometric and design features in order to reduce crashes. Crash reduction factors are typically estimated based on segment...

  17. Modelling of prompt losses of high energy charged particles in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillner, Oe.; Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1990-01-01

    A simple analytical expression for the total prompt loss fraction of high energy charged particles in an axisymmetric Tokamak is derived. The results are compared with predictions obtained from numerical simulations and show good agreement. An application is made to sawtooth induced changes in the losses of fusion generated high energy charged particles. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of sawtooth induced profile changes of the background ion densities and temperature as well as to redistribution of particles which have accumulated during the sawtooth rise but are being lost by redistribution at the sawtooth crash. (au)

  18. Are inflationary predictions sensitive to very high energy physics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.P.; Lemieux, F.; Holman, R.; Cline, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been proposed that the successful inflationary description of density perturbations on cosmological scales is sensitive to the details of physics at extremely high (trans-Planckian) energies. We test this proposal by examining how inflationary predictions depend on higher-energy scales within a simple model where the higher-energy physics is well understood. We find the best of all possible worlds: inflationary predictions are robust against the vast majority of high-energy effects, but can be sensitive to some effects in certain circumstances, in a way which does not violate ordinary notions of decoupling. This implies both that the comparison of inflationary predictions with CMB data is meaningful, and that it is also worth searching for small deviations from the standard results in the hopes of learning about very high energies. (author)

  19. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  20. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  1. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  2. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  3. Developments in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Roy, Probir

    2009-01-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics background, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the standard model, and proposals - including the radical paradigm of string theory - have been made to go beyond the standard model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors. (author)

  4. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  5. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  6. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  7. Mitigating Wind Induced Truck Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-25

    Dangerous weather and high wind in particular, is a common contributing factor in truck crashes. High wind speeds have been documented as a perennial cause of truck crashes in Kansas and other Great Plains states. The possibility of reducing such cra...

  8. IV. Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this proceedings the results on high energy spin physics are summarized. The theory of spin phenomenon and the experimental results at intermediate energy and at high energy spin physics and new technical developments in polarization experiments are presented

  9. Quantum Sensing for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; et al.

    2018-03-29

    Report of the first workshop to identify approaches and techniques in the domain of quantum sensing that can be utilized by future High Energy Physics applications to further the scientific goals of High Energy Physics.

  10. Lasers and future high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-02-01

    Future high energy colliders, directions for particle physics and relationship to new technology such as lasers are discussed. Experimental approaches to explore New Physics with emphasis on the utility of high energy colliders are also discussed

  11. Dynamics of high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    During last several years, a new framework to describe strong interaction physics has emerged, i.e. quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is the simplest field theory which incorporates color-dependent force among quarks. This force is generated by the exchange of colored vector gluons coupled to the quarks in gauge-invariant manner. The theory is closely related to the most successful quantum field theory, QED, and the only but very important difference is the gauge group involved. Although the theory is well defined, precisely what it predicts is not yet clearly known. However, at very high energy or momentum transfer Q, the effective coupling between quarks and gluons decreases toward zero with increasing Q 2 , and the calculation of a process involving high Q 2 is possible by the use of perturbation theory. In this paper, many applications of QCD to the processes involving high momentum transfer are examined. The effective coupling resulting from strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the scale violation in deep inelastic lepton scattering, large mass muon pair production, quark and gluon fragmentation functions, large transverse momentum meson and jet production in hadron-hadron collision, and the search for three-jet events are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  12. Hadron dynamics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storrow, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    The nine lectures give a very brief introduction to hadron dynamics at high energies. They concentrate on basic concepts such as Regge poles, duality and geometrical ideas, and simple applications of these ideas to the problem of understanding data. To some extent two body phenomenology is emphasized at the expense of multiparticle final states and when the latter have been considered they have concentrated on inclusive reactions. One lecture discussed data on 2-2 reactions in order to provide the motivation for Regge pole theory, then two lectures are devoted to basic concepts. Then duality is introduced and shown to provide reasonable restrictions on a pole model. A lecture is then devoted to discussing geometrical ideas i.e. the t-dependence of data is looked at from an s-channel point of view. The section on two-body phenomenology is then concluded by discussing applications of the above ideas to two reactions-pion-nucleon scattering and np charge exchange scattering. The remaining three lectures are devoted to multiparticle reactions. Exclusive reactions are considered briefly and then the remainder of the course is concerned with inclusive reactions. The concepts of scaling and limiting fragmentation are discussed and Mueller's generalised optical theorem introduced and then applied in various kinematic limits. (author)

  13. Braking news: link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    across severity levels were estimated to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity. The sample used for estimation consisted of data for single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System crash database for the period from 2005 to 2009. Results showed the correlation between...... of lower crash severity. These trends suggest that efforts to understand the mechanisms of reactions to different critical events should be made to improve in-vehicle warning systems, promote responsible driving behavior, and design forgiving infrastructures....

  14. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  15. Caging in high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of caging high energy reactions is considered. It is noted that there is no easy and unambiguous way, short of a complete and very tedious product and mechanistic analysis, which is feasible only for very few systems, to determine the contribution made by caging. It is emphasized that some products resulting from the hot reaction with a certain substrate may be formed via caging while others are not. In research on the mechanism of caging the results of Roots work on the reactions of hot 18 F with the CF 3 CH 3 system seem to provide evidence for caging, with 18 F being the caged moiety, thus proceeding via a radical--radical recombination mechanism. Their work with H 2 S additive also seems to indicate that scavenging via hydrogen abstraction from H 2 S to form does not interfere with the radical--radical recombination consistent with Bunkers molecular approach to explain the cage effects. In other research a series of observations resulting from stereochemical and combined stereochemical density variation techniques seem to favor a caged-complex. It is clear that a more conclusive answer can only be reached by more systematic studies, utilizing the whole range of nuclear reactions such as (n,2n), (n,γ) and E.C. processes in mechanistically well defined systems to elucidate the effect of variations in the recoil energies, by carrying out studies in different solvents or host substances to assess the effect of the physical parameters, such as molecule size and intermolecular interactions on the escape probability or caging efficiencies

  16. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1989-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale--free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry-breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large-scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions, massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study of the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  17. [High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1988-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry--breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large--scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation in galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  18. High energy physics and grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuansong

    2004-01-01

    The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)

  19. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  20. Statistical analysis of vehicle crashes in Mississippi based on crash data from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Traffic crash data from 2010 to 2014 were collected by Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) and extracted for the study. Three tasks were conducted in this study: (1) geographic distribution of crashes; (2) descriptive statistics of crash ...

  1. Intelligent geocoding system to locate traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao; Parker, Steven; Liu, Yi; Graettinger, Andrew J; Forde, Susie

    2013-01-01

    State agencies continue to face many challenges associated with new federal crash safety and highway performance monitoring requirements that use data from multiple and disparate systems across different platforms and locations. On a national level, the federal government has a long-term vision for State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to report state route and off-state route crash data in a single network. In general, crashes occurring on state-owned or state maintained highways are a priority at the Federal and State level; therefore, state-route crashes are being geocoded by state DOTs. On the other hand, crashes occurring on off-state highway system do not always get geocoded due to limited resources and techniques. Creating and maintaining a statewide crash geographic information systems (GIS) map with state route and non-state route crashes is a complicated and expensive task. This study introduces an automatic crash mapping process, Crash-Mapping Automation Tool (C-MAT), where an algorithm translates location information from a police report crash record to a geospatial map and creates a pinpoint map for all crashes. The algorithm has approximate 83 percent mapping rate. An important application of this work is the ability to associate the mapped crash records to underlying business data, such as roadway inventory and traffic volumes. The integrated crash map is the foundation for effective and efficient crash analyzes to prevent highway crashes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Relationship of Worldwide Rocket Launch Crashes with Geophysical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Romanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical comparison of launch crashes at different worldwide space ports with geophysical factors has been performed. A comprehensive database has been compiled, which includes 50 years of information from the beginning of the space age in 1957 about launch crashes occurring world-wide. Special attention has been paid to statistics concerning launches at the largest space ports: Plesetsk, Baikonur, Cape Canaveral, and Vandenberg. In search of a possible influence of geophysical factors on launch failures, such parameters as the vehicle type, local time, season, sunspot number, high-energy electron fluxes, and solar proton events have been examined. Also, we have analyzed correlations with the geomagnetic indices as indirect indicators of the space weather condition. Regularities found in this study suggest that further detailed studies of space weather effects on launcher systems, especially in the high-latitude regions, should be performed.

  3. Simulations of Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using the CRASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Matthew; Kuranz, Carolyn; Fein, Jeff; Wan, Willow; Young, Rachel; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations can assist in the design and analysis of laboratory astrophysics experiments. The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) at the University of Michigan developed a code that has been used to design and analyze high-energy-density experiments on OMEGA, NIF, and other large laser facilities. This Eulerian code uses block-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with implicit multigroup radiation transport, electron heat conduction and laser ray tracing. This poster will demonstrate some of the experiments the CRASH code has helped design or analyze including: Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, magnetized flows, jets, and laser-produced plasmas. This work is funded by the following grants: DEFC52-08NA28616, DE-NA0001840, and DE-NA0002032.

  4. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  5. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  6. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  7. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  8. Harvard University High Energy Physics progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The principal goals of this work are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. The program is based at Harvard's High Energy Physics Laboratory, which has offices, computing facilities, and engineering support, and both electronics and machine shops

  9. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  11. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  12. Motorcycle crashes potentially preventable by three crash avoidance technologies on passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2018-07-04

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the motorcycle crash population that would be potential beneficiaries of 3 crash avoidance technologies recently available on passenger vehicles. Two-vehicle crashes between a motorcycle and a passenger vehicle that occurred in the United States during 2011-2015 were classified by type, with consideration of the functionality of 3 classes of passenger vehicle crash avoidance technologies: frontal crash prevention, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection. Results were expressed as the percentage of crashes potentially preventable by each type of technology, based on all known types of 2-vehicle crashes and based on all crashes involving motorcycles. Frontal crash prevention had the largest potential to prevent 2-vehicle motorcycle crashes with passenger vehicles. The 3 technologies in sum had the potential to prevent 10% of fatal 2-vehicle crashes and 23% of police-reported crashes. However, because 2-vehicle crashes with a passenger vehicle represent fewer than half of all motorcycle crashes, these technologies represent a potential to avoid 4% of all fatal motorcycle crashes and 10% of all police-reported motorcycle crashes. Refining the ability of passenger vehicle crash avoidance systems to detect motorcycles represents an opportunity to improve motorcycle safety. Expanding the capabilities of these technologies represents an even greater opportunity. However, even fully realizing these opportunities can affect only a minority of motorcycle crashes and does not change the need for other motorcycle safety countermeasures such as helmets, universal helmet laws, and antilock braking systems.

  13. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  14. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  15. High energy physics and cloud computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Liu Baoxu; Sun Gongxing; Chen Gang

    2011-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been a strong promoter of computing technology, for example WWW (World Wide Web) and the grid computing. In the new era of cloud computing, HEP has still a strong demand, and major international high energy physics laboratories have launched a number of projects to research on cloud computing technologies and applications. It describes the current developments in cloud computing and its applications in high energy physics. Some ongoing projects in the institutes of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, including cloud storage, virtual computing clusters, and BESⅢ elastic cloud, are also described briefly in the paper. (authors)

  16. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K.; Ostapchenko, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author)

  17. CAMAC high energy physics electronics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, I.F.

    1977-01-01

    CAMAC hardware for high energy physics large spectrometers and control systems is reviewed as is the development of CAMAC modules at the High Energy Laboratory, JINR (Dubna). The total number of crates used at the Laboratory is 179. The number of CAMAC modules of 120 different types exceeds 1700. The principles of organization and the structure of developed CAMAC systems are described. (author)

  18. Expectations for ultra-high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Strong interactions at ultra-high energies are discussed with emphasis on the hadrons produced in high energy collisions. Evidence is considered that quantum chromodynamics might be the right theory, and also some estimates are given of quantum chromodynamics asymptotic-freedom phenomena, the work under discussion being very preliminary. 6 references

  19. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki

    2005-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. "Crashing the gates" - selection criteria for television news reporting of traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceunynck, Tim; De Smedt, Julie; Daniels, Stijn; Wouters, Ruud; Baets, Michèle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates which crash characteristics influence the probability that the crash is reported in the television news. To this purpose, all news items from the period 2006-2012 about traffic crashes from the prime time news of two Belgian television channels are linked to the official injury crash database. Logistic regression models are built for the database of all injury crashes and for the subset of fatal crashes to identify crash characteristics that correlate with a lower or higher probability of being reported in the news. A number of significant biases in terms of crash severity, time, place, types of involved road users and victims' personal characteristics are found in the media reporting of crashes. More severe crashes are reported in the media more easily than less severe crashes. Significant fluctuations in media reporting probability through time are found in terms of the year and month in which the crash took place. Crashes during week days are generally less reported in the news. The geographical area (province) in which the crash takes place also has a significant impact on the probability of being reported in the news. Crashes on motorways are significantly more represented in the news. Regarding the age of the involved victims, a clear trend of higher media reporting rates of crashes involving young victims or young fatalities is observed. Crashes involving female fatalities are also more frequently reported in the news. Furthermore, crashes involving a bus have a significantly higher probability of being reported in the news, while crashes involving a motorcycle have a significantly lower probability. Some models also indicate a lower reporting rate of crashes involving a moped, and a higher reporting rate of crashes involving heavy goods vehicles. These biases in media reporting can create skewed perceptions in the general public about the prevalence of traffic crashes and eventually may influence people's behaviour. Copyright © 2015

  1. 24 CFR 51.207 - Special circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Handling Conventional Fuels or Chemicals of an Explosive or Flammable Nature § 51.207 Special circumstances..., require the application of this subpart C with respect to a substance not listed in appendix I to this...

  2. Statewide analysis of bicycle crashes : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An extensive literature review was conducted to locate existing studies in four areas: (1) risk factors that affect the frequency and severity of bicycle crashes; (2) bicycle crash causes, patterns, and contributing factors; (3) network screening met...

  3. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  4. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  5. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  6. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  7. Teen driver crashes : a report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...

  8. 2004 road traffic crashes in Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents an overview of reported road traffic crashes in Queensland during : 2004 in the context of the previous five years based on data contained in the Queensland : Road Crash Information System maintained by the Department of Transpor...

  9. Practical neutron dosimetry at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaslin, J.B.; Thomas, R.H.

    1980-10-01

    Dosimetry at high energy particle accelerators is discussed with emphasis on physical measurements which define the radiation environment and provide an immutable basis for the derivation of any quantities subsequently required for risk evaluation. Results of inter-laboratory dosimetric comparisons are reviewed and it is concluded that a well-supported systematic program is needed which would make possible detailed evaluations and inter-comparisons of instruments and techniques in well characterized high energy radiation fields. High-energy dosimetry is so coupled with radiation transport that it is clear their study should proceed concurrently

  10. High energy physics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  11. Computing in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Lastly, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software

  12. Computing in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Richard P.

    2016-04-01

    I present a very personalized journey through more than three decades of computing for experimental high-energy physics, pointing out the enduring lessons that I learned. This is followed by a vision of how the computing environment will evolve in the coming ten years and the technical challenges that this will bring. I then address the scale and cost of high-energy physics software and examine the many current and future challenges, particularly those of management, funding and software-lifecycle management. Finally, I describe recent developments aimed at improving the overall coherence of high-energy physics software.

  13. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  14. High energy physics in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Month, M.

    1985-01-01

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range

  15. Ultra high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowczyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data on ultra high energy γ-rays are reviewed and a comparison of the properties of photon and proton initiated shower is made. The consequences of the existence of the strong ultra high energy γ-ray sources for other observations is analysed and possible mechanisms for the production of ultra high energy γ-rays in the sources are discussed. It is demonstrated that if the γ-rays are produced via cosmic ray interactions the sources have to produce very high fluxes of cosmic ray particles. In fact it is possible that a small number of such sources can supply the whole Galactic cosmic ray flux

  16. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  17. Biological effects of high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of high-energy radiation are reviewed, with emphasis on the effects of the hadronic component. Proton and helium ion effects are similar to those of the more conventional and sparsely ionizing x- and γ-radiation. Heavy-ions are known to be more biologically effective, but the long term hazard from accumulated damage has yet to be assessed. Some evidence of widely varying but dramatically increased effectiveness of very high-energy (approximately 70 GeV) hadron beams is reviewed. Finally, the importance of the neutron component in many situations around high-energy accelerators is pointed out

  18. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting

  19. Conscientious personality and young drivers’ crash risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method: Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes...

  20. Building concepts against airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, F.O.; Woelfel, H.

    1984-01-01

    In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

  1. High energy hadron spin-flip amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyugin, O.V.

    2016-01-01

    The high-energy part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude is examined in the framework of the new high-energy general structure (HEGS) model of the elastic hadron scattering at high energies. The different forms of the hadron spin-flip amplitude are compared in the impact parameter representation. It is shown that the existing experimental data of the proton-proton and proton-antiproton elastic scattering at high energy in the region of the diffraction minimum and at large momentum transfer give support in the presence of the energy-independent part of the hadron spin-flip amplitude with the momentum dependence proposed in the works by Galynskii-Kuraev. [ru

  2. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking

  3. Organisation of high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluyver, J C

    1981-01-01

    Tabulates details of major accelerator laboratories in western Europe, USA, and USSR, and describes the various organisations concerned with high-energy physics. The Dutch organisation uses the NIKHEF laboratory in Amsterdam and cooperates with CERN. (0 refs).

  4. New informative techniques in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, S.V.; Ukhov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    A number of new informative techniques applied to high energy physics are considered. These are the object-oriented programming, systems integration, UIMS, visualisation, expert systems, neural networks. 100 refs

  5. Multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the important phases in the evolution of our understanding of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions with particular emphasis to intermittent behavior and shoulder structure problem. (orig.)

  6. Multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. Turin (Italy) INFN, Turin (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    We discuss the important phases in the evolution of our understanding of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions with particular emphasis to intermittent behavior and shoulder structure problem. (orig.).

  7. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The μ + μ - collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged

  8. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community

  9. Interferometry of high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    The interferometry is used for determining large space time dimensions of the Quark Gluon Plasma formed in high energy nuclear collisions or in high multiplicity fluctuations in p-barp collisions. (M.C.K.)

  10. High energy neutrinos: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We discuss briefly the potential sources of high energy astrophysical neutrinos and show estimates of the neutrino fluxes that they can produce. A special attention is paid to the connection between the highest energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos.

  11. High Energy Density Polymer Film Capacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boufelfel, Ali

    2006-01-01

    High-energy-density capacitors that are compact and light-weight are extremely valuable in a number of critical DoD systems that include portable field equipment, pulsed lasers, detection equipment...

  12. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  13. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  14. Proceedings of progress in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauchy Hwang, W.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Lee, C.E.; Ernst, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of progress in high energy physics. Topics covered include: Particle Phenomology; Particles and Fields; Physics in 2 and 1 Dimensions; Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Gravitation; Some Perspertives on the Future of Particle Physics

  15. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP)

  16. Scaling violations at ultra-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the features of high energy lepton-hadron scattering, including the observed (Bjorken) scaling behavior. The cross-sections where all hadron final states are summed over, are examined and the general formulas for the differential cross-section are examined. The subjects of scaling, breaking and phenomenological consequences are studied, and a list of what ultra-high energy neutrino physics can teach QCD is given

  17. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  18. From “Crash!” to Crash: Adapting the Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Matek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on J.G. Ballard’s various adaptations of his own material related to the issue of the sexual and sensual nature of an automobile crash, and suggests that adaptation is one of the key methods in art and literature which can be used as a means of contemplating and developing various aesthetic and political ideas. Ballard’s short story “Crash!” was first published in the ICA’s (Institute of Contemporary Arts Eventsheet in February 1969, and later became a chapter of his experimental novel The Atrocity Exhibition (1970. At the same time, Ballard adapts the idea into the “Crashed Cars” exhibition (1970 in London. The short story was then adapted into a short film, Crash!, directed by Harley Cokeliss (1971 and starring Ballard himself, to be finally adapted into the novel Crash (1973. Ballard’s adaptation of his initial ideas across literary forms and media testifies to the importance of adaptation as a process and method of creating art. Thus, rather than suggesting that adaptations merely “breathe life” into the written word, the paper points to the conclusion that the form and content are mutually influential and that, in this case, the novel itself is an adaptation, rather than a hypotext (which it becomes in 1996 to David Cronenberg as he adapts it to film. The complexity of the relationship between the source text and its many adaptations has already contributed to the deconstruction, in Derrida’s terms, of the hierarchy (opposition between the original and the copy. Rather, Ballard’s crossmedial and transmedial adaptations of his own ideas show how, as Ray would suggest, an adaptation cites the source and grafts it into a new context, giving it a new function, both aesthetic and political.

  19. Technostress: Surviving a Database Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobb, Linda S.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of technostress in libraries focuses on a database crash at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Steps taken to restore the data are explained, strategies for handling technological accidents are suggested, the impact on library staff is discussed, and a 10-item annotated bibliography on technostress is provided.…

  20. Crash simulations for interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeze, E.; Slaats, P.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    With the increasing number of compact cars, safety aspects becomes increasingly important for interior designs. The smaller dimensions of these cars do not only decrease the car mass, but also the energy absorption length, resulting in a more severe crash pulse. As a consequence, the inertia loading

  1. 2008 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2008 were down to 980, a 9.6 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 7.5 percent to 74,568 and total crashes dropped 2.5 percent to 316,057. Most : no...

  2. 2009 Michigan traffic crash facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with recent trends, traffic fatalities in 2009 were down to 871, a 11.1 : percent decrease from last year. The total number of persons injured also declined : 4.9 percent to 70,931 and total crashes dropped 7.9 percent to 290,978. Most : n...

  3. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  5. Naturalistic Assessment of Novice Teenage Crash Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female

  6. Road traffic crashes in South Africa: the burden of injury to a regional trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, F; Kent, S; Aldous, C; Oosthuizen, G; Clarke, D

    2013-09-30

    Globally, 90% of road traffic crash (RTC) deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. To document the mortality and morbidity associated with RTCs managed at a busy regional hospital in South Africa and investigate potentially preventable factors associated with RTCs. This was a prospective study of all patients presenting to Edendale Hospital following a RTC over a 10-week period from late 2011 to early 2012. All fatalities recorded at the police mortuary for the same period were included. Medical records were reviewed and all admitted patients were interviewed about the circumstances of the accident. We calculated an injury pyramid to compare our data with European data. A total of 305 patients were seen over the study period, 100 required admission and there were 45 deaths due to RTCs in the area. Of the patients admitted, 41 were pedestrians involved in pedestrian vehicle crashes (PVCs) and 59 motor vehicle occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). The majority (n=58) of crashes involved a private vehicle. Only 17% of MVC patients were wearing a seatbelt and 8 were allegedly under the influence of alcohol. On average, RTC patients spent 19 days in hospital and 62 patients required at least 1 operation. According to our injury pyramid, the number of severe and fatal injuries was higher than in Europe. Our results demonstrate a high incidence of RTCs associated with a high injury score and significant morbidity. Most crashes were associated with a number of high-risk behaviours.

  7. High energy physics advisory panel's subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report's own origins and development

  8. Effect of Accounting for Crash Severity on the Relationship between Mass Reduction and Crash Frequency and Risk per Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Building Technology and Urban Systems Division. Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-20

    Previous analyses have indicated that mass reduction is associated with an increase in crash frequency (crashes per VMT), but a decrease in fatality or casualty risk once a crash has occurred, across all types of light-duty vehicles. These results are counter-intuitive: one would expect that lighter, and perhaps smaller, vehicles have better handling and shorter braking distances, and thus should be able to avoid crashes that heavier vehicles cannot. And one would expect that heavier vehicles would have lower risk once a crash has occurred than lighter vehicles. However, these trends occur under several alternative regression model specifications. This report tests whether these results continue to hold after accounting for crash severity, by excluding crashes that result in relatively minor damage to the vehicle(s) involved in the crash. Excluding non-severe crashes from the initial LBNL Phase 2 and simultaneous two-stage regression models for the most part has little effect on the unexpected relationships observed in the baseline regression models. This finding suggests that other subtle differences in vehicles and/or their drivers, or perhaps biases in the data reported in state crash databases, are causing the unexpected results from the regression models.

  9. High-energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    While high energy collision experiments yield a wealth of complicated patterns, there are a few general and very striking features that stand out. Because of the universality of these features, and because of the dominating influence they have on high energy phenomena, it is the authors opinion that a physical picture of high energy collisions must address itself first of all to these features before going into specific details. In this short talk these general and striking features are stated and a physical picture developed in the last few years to specifically accommodate these features is described. The picture was originally discussed for elastic scattering. But it leads naturally, indeed inevitably as they shall discuss, to conclusions about inelastic processes, resulting in an idea called the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

  10. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e + e - analysis, bar P decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the φ factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K L 0 → π 0 γγ and π 0 ν bar ν, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R ampersand D

  11. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z 0 with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R ampersand D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs

  12. High energy experimental physics: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, J.; Miller, D.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains papers of high energy physics experiments and detector equipment design. Proposals are also given for future experiments. Some of the topics covered in this report are: high energy predictions for /bar char/pp and pp elastic scattering and total cross sections; D0 forward drift chambers; polarized beam facility; analyzing power measurment in inclusive pion production at high transverse momentum; Skyrme model for baryons; string models for color flux tubes; hadronic decays for the /tau/ lepton; and meson form factors in perturbative QCD

  13. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  14. High energy physics computing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview of the computing provision for high energy physics in Japan is presented. Most of the computing power for high energy physics is concentrated in KEK. Here there are two large scale systems: one providing a general computing service including vector processing and the other dedicated to TRISTAN experiments. Each university group has a smaller sized mainframe or VAX system to facilitate both their local computing needs and the remote use of the KEK computers through a network. The large computer system for the TRISTAN experiments is described. An overview of a prospective future large facility is also given. (orig.)

  15. Socioeconomic circumstances of children with disabilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with disabilities are an integral part of Zimbabwean society. However these children face insurmountable challenges that hinder their human and social capital development. The current study used a mixed methodology approach to examine the socioeconomic circumstances of children living with disabilities ...

  16. ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES AND PERSONAL FINANCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Matic; Hrvoje Serdarusic; Maja Vretenar Cobovic

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the impact of changed economic circumstances to manage personal finances. Analyze financial involvement, level of education and the management of personal finances population in Croatia. The paper used the method of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and a survey poll.

  17. Charged current weak interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    1977-01-01

    We review high energy neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions. An overview of the experimental data is given, including a discussion of the experimental status of the y anomaly. Locality tests, μ-e universality and charge symmetry invariance tests are discussed. Charm production is discussed. The experimental status of trimuon events and possible phenomenological models for these events are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. High energy electron multibeam diffraction and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Alain.

    1980-04-01

    The different theories of dynamical scattering of electrons are firstly reviewed with special reference to their basis and the validity of the different approximations. Then after a short description of the different experimental set ups, structural analysis and the investigation of the optical potential by means of high energy electrons will be surveyed

  19. Nuclear emulsion and high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hancheng; Zhang Donghai

    2008-01-01

    The history of the development of nuclear emulsion and its applications in high-energy physics, from the discovery of pion to the discovery of tau neutrino, are briefly reviewed in this paper. A new stage of development of nuclear-emulsion technique is discussed

  20. High energy spin isospin modes in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanfray, G.; Ericson, M.

    1984-01-01

    The high energy response of nuclei to a spin-isospin excitation is investigated. We show the existence of a strong contrast between the spin transverse and spin longitudinal responses. The second one undergoes a shadow effect in the Δ region and displays the occurrence of the pionic branch

  1. Theoretical and experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.; Ruddick, K.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: The Soudan enterprise; study of strange quarks at Fermilab; direct photons at Fermilab; the Brookhaven programs; AMY and CLEO: studies of e + e - annihilations; cosmic ray studies with the DO muon chamber; progress report on HEP computer upgrade; muon triggering and reconstruction at SSC; and, theoretical high energy physics

  2. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1993-02-01

    The NIU high energy physics group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, members of the group participate in the SDC collaboration at the SSC

  3. High energy physics and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measday, D.F.; Thomas, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the named conference. These concern eletromagnetic interactions, weak interactions, strong interactions at intermediate energy, pion reactions, proton reactions, strong interactions at high energy, as well as new facilities and applications. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  4. Intercomparison of high energy neutron personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Akabani, G.; Loesch, R.M.

    1993-03-01

    An intercomparison of high-energy neutron personnel dosimeters was performed to evaluate the uniformity of the response characteristics of typical neutron dosimeters presently in use at US Department of Energy (DOE) accelerator facilities. It was necessary to perform an intercomparison because there are no national or international standards for high-energy neutron dosimetry. The testing that is presently under way for the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is limited to the use of neutron sources that range in energy from about 1 keV to 2 MeV. Therefore, the high-energy neutron dosimeters presently in use at DOE accelerator facilities are not being tested effectively. This intercomparison employed neutrons produced by the 9 Be(p,n) 9 B interaction at the University of Washington cyclotron, using 50-MeV protons. The resulting neutron energy spectrum extended to a maximum of approximately 50-MeV, with a mean energy of about 20-MeV. Intercomparison results for currently used dosimeters, including Nuclear Type A (NTA) film, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo, and track-etch dosimeters (TEDs), indicated a wide variation in response to identical doses of high-energy neutrons. Results of this study will be discussed along with a description of plans for future work

  5. PC database for high energy preprint collections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymaker, R.

    1985-06-01

    We describe a microcomputer database used by the high energy group to keep track of preprints in our collection. It is used as a supplement to the SLAC-SPIRES database to retrieve preprints on hand. This was designed as a low overhead system for a small group

  6. Indiana University High Energy Physics, Task A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabson, B.; Crittenden, R.; Dzierba, A.; Hanson, G.; Martin, H.; Marshall, T.; Mir, R.; Mouthuy, T.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.; Teige, S.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in High Energy Physics under the following experiments: Meson spectroscopy at BNL; dimuon production at FNAL; the DO collider experiment at FNAL; the Mark II experiment at SLC and PEP; the OPAL experiment at CERN; and the superconducting supercollider

  7. High energy electron irradiation of flowable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offermann, B.P.

    1975-01-01

    In order to efficiently irradiate a flowable material with high energy electrons, a hollow body is disposed in a container for the material and the material is caused to flow in the form of a thin layer across a surface of the body from or to the interior of the container while the material flowing across the body surface is irradiated. (U.S.)

  8. Ultra high-energy cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longley, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Soudan 2 surface-underground cosmic ray experiment can simultaneously measure surface shower size, underground muon multiplicity, and underground muon separation for ultra high energy cosmic ray showers. These measurements are sensitive to the primary composition. Analysis for energies from 10 1 to 10 4 TeV favors a light flux consisting of predominantly H and He nuclei

  9. Trends in experimental high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.

    1982-06-01

    Data from a scan of papers in Physical Review Letters and Physical Review are used to demonstrate that American high-energy physicists show a pattern of accelerator and instrumentation usage characteristic of that expected from the logistic-substitution model of Marchetti and of Fischer and Pry

  10. High energy radiation from neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M.

    1985-04-01

    Topics covered include young rapidly spinning pulsars; static gaps in outer magnetospheres; dynamic gaps in pulsar outer magnetospheres; pulse structure of energetic radiation sustained by outer gap pair production; outer gap radiation, Crab pulsar; outer gap radiation, the Vela pulsar; radioemission; and high energy radiation during the accretion spin-up of older neutron stars. 26 refs., 10 figs

  11. Indiana University High Energy Physics, Task A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabson, B.; Crittenden, R.; Dzierba, A.; Hanson, G.; Martin, H.; Marshall, T.; Mir, R.; Mouthuy, T.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.; Teige, S.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in High Energy Physics under the following experiments: Meson spectroscopy at BNL; dimuon production at FNAL; the DO collider experiment at FNAL; the Mark II experiment at SLC and PEP; the OPAL experiment at CERN; and the superconducting supercollider.

  12. Indiana University High Energy Physics, Task A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabson, B.; Crittenden, R.; Dzierba, A.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses research at Indians University on the following high energy physics experiments: A search for mesons with unusual quantum numbers; hadronic states produced in association with high-mass dimuons; FNAL E740 (D0); superconducting super collider; and OPAL experiment at CERN

  13. Pi-nucleon phenomenology at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogitz, S.

    1973-01-01

    A brief introduction to the phenomenology of strong interactions at high energy is presented. This includes discussion of the topics including absorption, finite energy sum rules, and duality. The application of these ideas to two-particle inelastic reactions is examined. (author)

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of High Energy Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-31

    and characterization of new high energy elastomers. IV. References 1. J.C.W. Chien, T. Kohara , C. P. Lillya, T. Sarubbi, B.-H. Su and R. S. Miller, J...Catalyzed Nitromercuration of Diene Polymers, J.C.W. Chien, T. Kohara , C. P. Lillya, T. Sarubbi, B.-H. Su, and R. S. Miller, J. Polm.. Sci. Polym. Chem. Ed

  15. High energy hadron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, J.; Mueller, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical expectations for hadron-nucleus scattering at high energy if the basic hadron-hadron interaction is due to Regge poles and cuts arising in multiperipheral or soft field theory models are described. Experiments at Fermilab may provide a critical test of such models

  16. Experiments on very high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper I describe experimental techniques which could be used to investigate central collision of very high energy heavy ions. For my purposes, the energy range is defined by the number of pions produced, Nsub(π) >> 100, and consequently Nsub(π) >> Nsub(nucleon). In this regime we may expect that new phenomena will appear. (orig.)

  17. Theoretical and experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorowicz, S.; Ruddick, K.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses experimental and theoretical work in High Energy Physics. Some topics discussed are: quantum field theory; supersymmetry; cosmology; superstring model; relic photinos; inflationary universe; dark matter; standard model; supernovae; semileptonic decay; quantum Langevin equation; underground neutrino detection at Soudan; strange quark systems; cosmic ray detection; superconducting super collider detectors; and studies of direct photon production

  18. Prizes reward high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The European Physical Society (EPS) has recognized four individuals and a collaboration for their work on charge-parity (CP) violation, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmology and outreach activities. Heinrich Wahl, formerly of CERN, and the NA31 collaboration share the 2005 High Energy and Particle Physics Prize for their work on CP violation at CERN (½ page)

  19. Astrophysics, cosmology and high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A brief survey is given of some topics in astrophysics and cosmology, with special emphasis on the inter-relation between the properties of the early Universe and recent ideas in high energy physics, and on simple order-of-magnitude arguments showing how the scales and dimensions of cosmic phenomena are related to basic physical constants. (orig.)

  20. Heavy ion fragmentation in high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made on the theoretical aspects of heavy ion collisions at high energies. A comparison with several experimental data obtained in a large variety of experiments is present. An emphasis is given on the basis of Glauber's theory of scattering. (L.C.) [pt

  1. SU(5) at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1982-01-01

    By exhibiting the relationship between the full SU(5) theory in the unitary gauge and the underlying Higgs-Goldstone system in the t'Hooft-Feynman gauge the high energy limits of amplitudes (involving gauge and Higgs bosons) can be calculated easily. As an application tree unitarity bounds on Higgs parameters and masses are discussed. (Author)

  2. Status of (US) High Energy Physics Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, H.E.

    1987-02-01

    The current status of Networking to and between computers used by the High Energy Physics community is discussed. Particular attention is given to developments over the last year and to future prospects. Comparison between the current status and that of two years ago indicates that considerable strides have been made but that much remains to be done to achieve an acceptable level of functionality

  3. UNIX at high energy physics Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Alan

    1994-03-15

    With more and more high energy physics Laboratories ''downsizing'' from large central proprietary mainframe computers towards distributed networks, usually involving UNIX operating systems, the need was expressed at the 1991 Computers in HEP (CHEP) Conference to create a group to consider the implications of this trend and perhaps work towards some common solutions to ease the transition for HEP users worldwide.

  4. Studies in theorectical high energy particles physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Panigrahi, P.; Sukhatme, U.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses the research being done at the University of Illinois in theoretical high energy physics. Some areas discussed are string models, collider physics, symmetries in gauge theories, sigma model, radiative decay of mesons, supersymmetry, superconducting, and hydroproduction of charm

  5. Activities in nuclear and high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    High energy and nuclear physics research concerning bubble chamber investigations, European hybrid system ACCMOR, WA 18, PETRA, PEP, VA 4, SING, LENA, LEP 3 and DELPHI experiments is summarized. Experiments with electron beams, and in pions and muons physics, and radiochemistry are reported on.

  6. Resume: networking in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, J.S.

    1985-11-01

    Networking in High Energy Physics covers communications inside the experiment and internationally. Inside the experiment the need for agreed 'codes of practice' is now accepted. Within Europe it is accepted that a common infrastructure based on the use of the ISO OSI protocols should be used. In the USA a community initiative has been proposed. The background to these approaches is discussed. (author)

  7. Microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics includes particle motion in an electromagnetic field, conformal transformations, conformally invariant theory of gravitation, particle orbits, Friedman models with k = 0, +-1, the history and present status of steady-state cosmology, and the nature of mass. (U.S.)

  8. High-Energy Physics: Exit America?

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Budget cuts and cancellations threaten to end U.S. exploration of the particle frontier. Fermilab's Tevatron, due to shut down around 200, could be the last large particle accelerator in the United States; the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva should ensure European dominance of high-energy physics (3 pages)

  9. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  10. Geometrical scaling in high energy hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.

    1984-06-01

    The concept of geometrical scaling for high energy elastic hadron scattering is analyzed and its basic equations are solved in a consistent way. It is shown that they are applicable to a rather small interval of momentum transfers, e.g. maximally for |t| 2 for pp scattering at the ISR energies. (author)

  11. Illiquidity Contagion and Liquidity Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Cespa; Thierry Foucault

    2014-01-01

    Liquidity providers often learn information about an asset from prices of other assets. We show that this generates a self-reinforcing positive relationship between price informativeness and liquidity. This relationship causes liquidity spillovers and is a source of fragility: a small drop in the liquidity of one asset can, through a feedback loop, result in a very large drop in market liquidity and price informativeness (a liquidity crash). This feedback loop provides a new explanation for c...

  12. Observed and unobserved correlation between crash avoidance manoeuvers and crash severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding drivers’ responses to critical events, analyzing drivers’ abilities to perform corrective manoeuvers, and investigating the correlation between these manoeuvers and crash severity provide the opportunity of increasing the knowledge about how to avoid crash occurrence or at least mit...

  13. Religion and stock price crash risk: Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether religious traditions influence firm-specific crash risk in China. Using a sample of A-share listed firms from 2003 to 2013, we provide evidence that the more intense the religious environment, the lower the stock price crash risk, implying that religion plays an important role in Chinese corporate governance. Further, we find that (1 religion affects stock price crash risk by reducing earnings management and the management perk problem; (2 different religions have different effects, and Taoism, in particular, is unrelated to crash risk; and (3 the effects of religion are more pronounced with higher quality corporate governance and a stronger legal environment. Religion constrains the management agency problem, thus reducing stock price crash risk in China. Our paper enriches the literature on stock price crash risk and religion, and on new economic geography.

  14. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Li, Zongzhi; Liu, Jingxian; Patel, Harshingar

    2016-01-01

    This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016) [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, modera...

  15. Understanding traffic crash under-reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Hels, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aligns to the body of research dedicated to estimating the underreporting of road crash injuries and adds the perspective of understanding individual and crash factors contributing to the decision to report a crash to the police, the hospital, or both. Method: This study foc...... policy measures aimed at increasing the reporting rate by targeting specific road user groups (e.g., males, young road users) or specific situational factors (e.g., slight injuries, arm injuries, leg injuries, weekend)....

  16. Modelling and mitigation of Flash Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, John; Serbera, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The algorithmic trading revolution has had a dramatic effect upon markets. Trading has become faster, and in some ways more efficient, though potentially at the cost higher volatility and increased uncertainty. Stories of predatory trading and flash crashes constitute a new financial reality. Worryingly, highly capitalised stocks may be particularly vulnerable to flash crashes. Amid fears of high-risk technology failures in the global financial system we develop a model for flash crashes....

  17. The circumstances of minor planet discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilcher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances of discoveries of minor planets are presented in tabular form. Complete data are given for planets 2125-4044, together with notes pertaining to these planets. Information in the table includes the permanent number; the official name; for planets 330 and forward, the table includes the provisional designation attached to the discovery apparition and the year, month, the day of discovery, and the discovery place

  18. Meteorological circumstances during the 'Chernobyl-period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivens, R.; Lablans, W.N.; Wessels, H.R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the meteorological circumstances and air flows in Europe from 26th April up to 8th May 1986, which caused the spread of contaminated air originating from Chernobyl is outlined and mapped out. Furthermore a global survey is presented of the precipitation in the Netherlands during the period 2nd May to 10th May based on observations of various observation stations of the Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute (KNMI). 11 figs.; 1 table (H.W.)

  19. AP English language & composition crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Hogue, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    AP English Language & Composition Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP English Language & Composition Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP English Language & Composition course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valua

  20. AP calculus AB & BC crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Rosebush, J

    2012-01-01

    AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our

  1. Large truck and bus crash facts, 2008. 

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This annual edition of Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts contains descriptive statistics about fatal, injury, and : property damage only crashes involving large trucks and buses in 2008. Selected crash statistics on passenger : vehicles are also presen...

  2. A comprehensive engineering analysis of motorcycle crashes in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study was to identify recurring or common road characteristics of motorcycle crashes : in Maryland from 1998 to 2007. Motorcycle crash data was obtained from the National Highway : Traffic Safety Administrations Crash Outcome Data...

  3. 2008 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2008 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  4. 2010 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical Trends and 2010 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity of ...

  5. 2009 South Dakota motor vehicle traffic crash summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Summary is divided into two main sections, Historical : Trends and 2009 Motor Vehicle Traffic Crash Profile. The Historical Trend section : provides information on alcohol involvement in motor vehicle crashes, severity...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  7. [Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March--December of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiments 772 and 789. Finally, we are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group may be found in the narrative accompanying our contract renewal proposal

  8. [Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March through December of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiments 772 and 789. Finally, we are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group may be found in the narrative accompanying our contract renewal proposal

  9. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contact AC02-87ER40368 during the period from March of 1989 to February of 1990. Our group has two primary efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a precision study of the A-dependence of massive muon-pion production and a study of low-multiplicity decay modes of charm. We are also participating in the design of detectors for the SSC. Finally, a minor effort is being given to analyzing data from Fermilab of particles with lifetime between 10 -12 and 10 -13 seconds. A more detailed description of the work of the NIU high energy physics group can be found in the narrative accompanying our grant renewal proposal. 10 refs

  10. Prospects of High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Johnny S.T.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have been observed but their sources and production mechanisms are yet to be understood. We envision a laboratory astrophysics program that will contribute to the understanding of cosmic accelerators with efforts to: (1) test and calibrate UHECR observational techniques, and (2) elucidate the underlying physics of cosmic acceleration through laboratory experiments and computer simulations. Innovative experiments belonging to the first category have already been done at the SLAC FFTB. Results on air fluorescence yields from the FLASH experiment are reviewed. Proposed future accelerator facilities can provided unprecedented high-energy-densities in a regime relevant to cosmic acceleration studies and accessible in a terrestrial environment for the first time. We review recent simulation studies of nonlinear plasma dynamics that could give rise to cosmic acceleration, and discuss prospects for experimental investigation of the underlying mechanisms

  11. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche

  12. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jeppe R; Smillie, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss in detail the arising description of the soft, collinear and hard regions by examples in pure QCD jet-production.

  13. Bell inequalities in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yibing; Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng

    2007-01-01

    We review in this paper the research status on testing the completeness of Quantum mechanics in High Energy Physics, especially on the Bell Inequalities. We briefly introduce the basic idea of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen paradox and the results obtained in photon experiments. In the content of testing the Bell inequalities in high energy physics, the early attempts of using spin correlations in particle decays and later on the mixing of neutral mesons used to form the quasi-spin entangled states are covered. The related experimental results in K 0 and B 0 systems are presented and discussed. We introduce the new scheme, which is based on the non-maximally entangled state and proposed to implement in φ factory, in testing the Local Hidden Variable Theory. And, we also discuss about the possibility of realising it to the tau charm factory. (authors)

  14. Individual Dosimetry for High Energy Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of individuals on board aircraft increased interest in individual dosimetry in high energy radiation fields. These fields, both in the case of cosmic rays as primary radiation and at high energy particle accelerators are complex, with a large diversity of particle types, their energies, and linear energy transfer (LET). Several already existing individual dosemeters have been tested in such fields. For the component with high LET (mostly neutrons) etched track detectors were tested with and without fissile radiators, nuclear emulsions, bubble detectors for both types available and an albedo dosemeter. Individual dosimetry for the low LET component has been performed with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), photographic film dosemeters and two types of electronic individual dosemeters. It was found that individual dosimetry for the low LET component was satisfactory with the dosemeters tested. As far as the high LET component is concerned, there are problems with both the sensitivity and the energy response. (author)

  15. Origin of the universe and high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Z, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this book it is briefly exposed what it is done in the world in relation with the high energy physics. Also, it is presented a brief historical description of the earth evolution, the universe and physics in general. This book counts with eight chapters. The first chapter deals with the relationship of man with science. The second chapter speaks about the origin of universe. The third chapter comments about the stars and galaxies formation. The fourth chapter treats how the scientists and researchers continue to studying the subnuclear world. The fifth chapter deals with subjects and models of nuclear physics. In the sixth chapter it is described the function of the particles accelerator. The seventh chapter comments about the multidisciplinary aspects of the research of elementary particles. Finally, the eighth chapter deals with the advances of high energy physics in the andean region of Latin America. (author)

  16. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-15

    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  17. Report on high energy neutron dosimetry workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvar, K.R.; Gavron, A.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop was called to assess the performance of neutron dosimetry per the responses from ten DOE accelerator facilities to an Office of Energy Research questionnaire regarding implementation of a personnel dosimetry requirement in DRAFT DOE 5480.ACC, ''Safety of Accelerator Facilities''. The goals of the workshop were to assess the state of dosimetry at high energy accelerators and if such dosimetry requires improvement, to reach consensus on how to proceed with such improvements. There were 22 attendees, from DOE Programs and contract facilities, DOE, Office of Energy Research (ER), Office of Environmental Safety and Health (EH), Office of Fusion Energy, and the DOE high energy accelerator facilities. A list of attendees and the meeting agenda are attached. Copies of the presentations are also attached

  18. High energy materials. Propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Jai Prakash

    2010-07-01

    Authored by an insider with over 40 years of high energy materials (HEMs) experience in academia, industry and defence organizations, this handbook and ready reference covers all important HEMs from the 1950s to the present with their respective properties and intended purposes. Written at an attainable level for professionals, engineers and technicians alike, the book provides a comprehensive view of the current status and suggests further directions for research and development. An introductory chapter on the chemical and thermodynamic basics allows the reader to become acquainted with the fundamental features of explosives, before moving on to the important safety aspects in processing, handling, transportation and storage of high energy materials. With its collation of results and formulation strategies hitherto scattered in the literature, this should be on the shelf of every HEM researcher and developer. (orig.)

  19. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  20. High-energy ion implantation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    High-energy ion implantation is an extremely flexible type of surface treatment technique, in that it offers the possibility of treating almost any type of target material or product with ions of almost any chemical species, or combinations of chemical species. In addition, ion implantations can be combined with variations in temperature during or after ion implantation. As a result, the possibility of approaching a wide variety of surface-related materials science problems exists with ion implantation. This paper will outline factors pertinent to application of high-energy ion implantation to surface engineering problems. This factors include fundamental advantages and limitations, economic considerations, present and future equipment, and aspects of materials science

  1. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M.T.

    2015-05-22

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  2. ANTARES: A High Energy Neutrino Undersea Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration, formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological defects, Q-balls, etc.). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented. (author)

  3. 22nd DAE High Energy Physics Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings gather invited and contributed talks presented at the XXII DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics (HEP) Symposium, which was held at the University of Delhi, India, on 12–16 December 2016. The contributions cover a variety of topics in particle physics, astroparticle physics, cosmology and related areas from both experimental and theoretical perspectives, namely (1) Neutrino Physics, (2) Standard Model Physics (including Electroweak, Flavour Physics), (3) Beyond Standard Model Physics, (4) Heavy Ion Physics & QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics), (5) Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, (6) Future Experiments and Detector Development, (7) Formal Theory, and (8) Societal Applications: Medical Physics, Imaging, etc. The DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics Symposium, widely considered to be one of the leading symposiums in the field of Elementary Particle Physics, is held every other year in India and supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India. As man...

  4. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  5. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given

  6. Cosmic physics: the high energy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F W

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies 10 8 times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic γ-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violations of Lorentz invariance as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity. (topical review)

  7. Applications of SSNTD's in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-09-01

    Different applications of the emulsion technique in high energy physics are given. Investigations of heavy ion and proton-nucleus reactions with the conventional emulsion technique are presented together with a short interpretation of recent results. Methods of using nuclear emulsion with embedded targets will be discussed. Emulsion stacks in hybrid systems with electronic tagging suggest a new and interesting application of the emulsion technique. (Auth.)

  8. High-energy accelerators in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Mandrillon, Pierre

    1992-05-04

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to "light ions" ( Carbon, Oxygen, Neon) has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. The rationale for this new radiotherapy, the high energy accelerators and the beam delivery systems are presented in these two lectures.

  9. An experimental high energy physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental high energy physics program is reviewed, including particle detectors. Topics discussed include τ and B physics, gamma-ray astronomy, neutrino oscillations in matter with three flavors applied to solar and supernova neutrinos, effective field theories, a possible fifth force, the dynamics of hadrons and superstrings, mathematics of grand unified theories, chiral symmetry breaking, physics at the Fermilab collider, and development of the TOPAZ detector

  10. Perspectives in high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1983-08-01

    This report gives an overview of some aspects of hadronic physics relevant for the conception of a research facility devoted to the study of high energy nuclear collisions. Several concepts to be studied in nuclear collisions are selected, with emphasis placed on the properties and nature of the quark-gluon plasma, the formation of the plasma state in the central region and its anticipated lifetime, and the observability, through strangeness content of this new form of nuclear matter. (orig.)

  11. High-energy capacitance electrostatic micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, E. G.

    2003-03-01

    The design and parameters of a new electrostatic micromotor with high energy output are described. The motor is created by means of microelectronic technology. Its operation is based on the electromechanic energy conversion during the electrostatic rolling of the metallic films (petals) on the ferroelectric film surface. The mathematical simulation of the main characteristics of the rolling process is carried out. The experimentally measured parameters of the petal step micromotors are shown. The motor operation and its efficiency are investigated.

  12. High energy collisions of nuclei: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, H.H.

    1977-09-01

    Heavy-ion nuclear reactions with projectile energies up to 2.1 GeV/A are reviewed. The concept of ''rapidity'' is elucidated, and the reactions discussed are divided into sections dealing with target fragmentation, projectile fragmentation, and the intermediate region, with emphasis on the production of light nuclei in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Target fragmentation experiments using nuclear emulsion and AgCl visual track detectors are also summarized. 18 figures

  13. Particle physics experiments at high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2011-01-01

    Written by one of the detector developers for the International Linear Collider, this is the first textbook for graduate students dedicated to the complexities and the simplicities of high energy collider detectors. It is intended as a specialized reference for a standard course in particle physics, and as a principal text for a special topics course focused on large collider experiments. Equally useful as a general guide for physicists designing big detectors. (orig.)

  14. UNIX at high energy physics Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, Alan

    1994-01-01

    With more and more high energy physics Laboratories ''downsizing'' from large central proprietary mainframe computers towards distributed networks, usually involving UNIX operating systems, the need was expressed at the 1991 Computers in HEP (CHEP) Conference to create a group to consider the implications of this trend and perhaps work towards some common solutions to ease the transition for HEP users worldwide

  15. High energy excitations in itinerant ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Itinerant magnets, those whose electrons move throughout the crystal, are described by band theory. Single particle excitations offer confirmation of band theory, but their description requires important corrections. The energetics of magnetism in iron and nickel is also described in band theory but requires complex bands. Magnetism above the critical temperature and the location of the critical temperature offer discriminants between the two major models of magnetism at high temperature and can be addressed by high energy excitations

  16. High energy transients: The millisecond domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    The search for high energy transients in the millisecond domain has come to the focus in recent times due to the detection of gravitational wave events and the identification of fast radio bursts as cosmological sources. Here we highlight the sensitivity limitations in the currently operating hard X-ray telescopes and give some details of the search for millisecond events in the AstroSat CZT Imager data.

  17. Quark model and high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyiri, J.; Kobrinsky, M.N.

    1982-06-01

    The aim of the present review is to show that the additive quark model describes well not only the static features of hadrons but also the interaction processes at high energies. Considerations of the hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus interactions and of the hadron production in multiparticle production processes suggest serious arguments in favour of the nucleus-like hadron structure and show the possibility to apply the rules of quark statistics to the description of the secondary particle production. (author)

  18. Introduction to high energy cosmic ray physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistoni, G.; Grillo, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    After a few general qualitative considerations about the characteristics of primary cosmic rays arriving at the top of atmosphere, the fundamental concepts on their propagation and acceleration are discussed. The experimental situation, both from direct and indirect experiments, is presented, followed by a discussion on some concepts on hadronic interactions at high energy which are applied in a simplified and analytical model to the production of secondary particles in atmosphere

  19. High energy irradiation of bacterial membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Rosa, M.A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The interactions of membrane components and two well-defined transport systems in the E. coli ML 308-225 membrane vesicles with 60 Co gamma radiation were investigated. The results presented show that gamma radiation can monitor membrane components and functions of varying radiosensitivities. The possible application of high-energy radiation as a physical probe of membrane structure and functions is indeed promising

  20. Radiation monitoring in high energy research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Mitsuhiro

    1975-01-01

    In High Energy Physics Research Laboratory, construction of high energy proton accelerator is in progress. The accelerator is a cascaded machine comprising Cockcroft type (50 keV), linac (20 MeV), booster synchrotron (500 MeV), and synchrotron (8-12 GeV). Its proton beam intensity is 1x10 13 photons/pulse, and acceleration is carried out at the rate of every 2 minutes. The essential problems of radiation control in high energy accelerators are those of various radiations generated secondarily by proton beam and a number of induced radiations simultaneously originated with such secondary particles. In the Laboratory, controlled areas are divided into color-coded four regions, red, orange, yellow and green, based on each dose-rate. BF 3 counters covered with thick paraffin are used as neutron detectors, and side-window GM tubes, NaI (Tl) scintillators and ionization chambers as γ-detectors. In red region, however, ionization chambers are applied to induced radiation detection, and neutrons are not monitored. NIM standards are adopted for the circuits of all above monitors considering easy maintenance, economy and interchangeability. Notwithstanding the above described systems, these monitors are not sufficient to complete the measurement of whole radiations over wide energy region radiated from the accelerators. Hence separate radiation field measurement is required periodically. An example of the monitoring systems in National Accelerator Laboratory (U.S.) is referred at the last section. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews

  2. The high energy accelerator program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    The author observes that in order to survey the intentions of Japanese high energy physicists and to make a recommendation to the High Energy Committee on future plans for high energy physics in Japan, including accelerators after TRISTAN, international collaboration projects and non-accelerator physics, a subcommittee of fifteen members is formed. The committee recommendation reads: A) For a new energy frontier, 1. Immediate initiation of R/D efforts for an e/sup +/e/sup -/ linear collider of TeV class, constructs a possible home-based facility, 2. Promotes international collaborative experiments using the SSC for the hadron sector, B) As projects of immediate concern: 1. The energy of the TRISTAN main ring increases further makes a possible low energy, high luminosity e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider operation in the TRISTAN complex, 2. The intensity of the 12 GeV PS at KEK increases, 3. Experiments in non-accelerator particle physics are promoted. In this contribution, the current status of the TRISTAN project and some of the R/D program on accelerator technology are reported

  3. Computer simulation of high energy displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology developed for modeling many aspects of high energy displacement cascades with molecular level computer simulations is reviewed. The initial damage state is modeled in the binary collision approximation (using the MARLOWE computer code), and the subsequent disposition of the defects within a cascade is modeled with a Monte Carlo annealing simulation (the ALSOME code). There are few adjustable parameters, and none are set to physically unreasonable values. The basic configurations of the simulated high energy cascades in copper, i.e., the number, size and shape of damage regions, compare well with observations, as do the measured numbers of residual defects and the fractions of freely migrating defects. The success of these simulations is somewhat remarkable, given the relatively simple models of defects and their interactions that are employed. The reason for this success is that the behavior of the defects is very strongly influenced by their initial spatial distributions, which the binary collision approximation adequately models. The MARLOWE/ALSOME system, with input from molecular dynamics and experiments, provides a framework for investigating the influence of high energy cascades on microstructure evolution. (author)

  4. Hadron interactions at high energy in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, E.M.; Ryskin, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Well known the typical hadronic interactions at high energy are soft processes occurring at large distances where the mysterious confinement forces should be essential. Due to this fact, discussing these processes at first sight the authors are to use and really use some models that incorporate their educated guess about the confinement and utilize the QCD degrees of freedom. But really these models use the QCD terminology rather than the explicit form of the QCD interaction. Up to now the multiparticle dynamics had been the dynamics of reggeons with some detailization coming from their hypothesis about confinement. It is the Reggeon Calculus or the reggeon phenomenology that allows them to describe the main properties of exclusive and inclusive reactions at high energy in agreement with experiment. This paper discusses this problem at this Symposium in many details. However, such pure phenomenological understanding cannot satisfy all of us at the moment. The authors would like to understand the multiparticle production and other soft processes at high energy in more microscopic way using directly the form of the QCD Lagrangian

  5. Chemistry of high-energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapoetke, Thomas M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (US). Center of Energetic Concepts Development (CECD)

    2011-07-01

    The graduate-level textbook Chemistry of High-Energy Materials provides an introduction to and an overview of primary and secondary (high) explosives as well as propellant charges, rocket propellants and pyrotechnics. After a brief historical overview, the main classes of energetic materials are discussed systematically. Thermodynamic aspects, as far as relevant to energetic materials, are discussed, as well as modern computational approaches to predict performance and sensitivity parameters. The most important performance criteria such as detonation velocity, detonation pressure and heat of explosion, as well as the relevant sensitivity parameters suc as impact and friction sensitivity and electrostatic discharge sensitivity are explored in detail. Modern aspects of chemical synthesis including lead-free primary explosives and high-nitrogen compounds are also included in this book together with a discussion of high-energy materials for future defense needs. The most important goal of this book, based on a lecture course which has now been held at LMU Munich for over 12 years, is to increase knowledge and know-how in the synthesis and safe handling of high-energy materials. Society needs now as much as ever advanced explosives, propellant charges, rocket propellants and pyrotechnics to meet the demands in defense and engineering. This book is first and foremost aimed at advanced students in chemistry, engineering and materials sciences. However, it is also intended to provide a good introduction to the chemistry of energetic materials and chemical defense technology for scientists in the defense industry and government-run defense organizations. (orig.)

  6. High energy behaviour of nonabelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.

    1979-10-01

    The high energy behavior (in the Regge limit) of nonabelian gauge theories is reviewed. After a general remark concerning the question to what extent the Regge limit can be approached within perturbation theory, we first review the reggeization of elementary particles within nonabelian gauge theories. Then the derivation of a unitary high energy description of a massive (= spontaneously broken) nonabelian gauge model is described, which results in a complete reggeon calculus. There is strong evidence that the zero mass limit of this reggeon calculus exists, thus giving rise to the hope that the Regge behavior in pure Yang-Mills theories (QCD) can be reached in this way. In the final part of these lectures two possible strategies for solving this reggeon calculus (both for the massive and the massless case) are outlined. One of them leads to a geometrical picture in which the distribution of the wee partons obeys a diffusion law. The other one makes contact with reggeon field theory and predicts that QCD in the high energy limit is described by critical reggeon field theory. (orig.)

  7. Progress in high-energy laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Noriaki; Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kanabe, Tadashi; Okuda, Isao

    2005-01-01

    The technological development of high-energy lasers is one of the key issues in laser fusion research. This paper reviews several technologies on the Nd:glass laser and KrF excimer laser that are being used in the current laser fusion experiments and related plasma experiments. Based on the GEKKO laser technology, a new high-energy Nd: glass laser system, which can deliver energy from 10 kJ (boad-band operation) to 20 kJ (narrow-band operation), is under construction. The key topics in KrF laser development are improved efficiency and repetitive operation, which aim at the development of a laser driven for fusion reactor. Ultra-intense-laser technology is also very important for fast ignition research. The key technology for obtaining the petawatt output with high beam quality is reviewed. Regarding the uniform laser irradiation required for high-density compression, the beam-smoothing methods on the GEKKO XII laser are reviewed. Finally, we discuss the present status of MJ-class lasers throughout the world, and summarize by presenting the feasibility of various applications of the high-energy lasers to a wide range of scientific and technological fields. (author)

  8. Rare earth magnets with high energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, S.; Kaneko, Y.

    1998-01-01

    High energy-products exceeding 430 kj/m 3 (54 MGOe) have been realized on anisotropic permanent magnets based on the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase, recently. To produce extremely high-energy-product permanent magnets, special processes have been designed in order to realize the minimum oxygen content, the maximum volume fraction of the hard magnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase, the highest orientation of the easy axis of magnetization, and small and homogeneous crystalline grain sizes in the finished magnets. For the powder metallurgical process, special techniques such as low-oxygen fine powder processing and magnetic alignment using pulsed magnetic fields have been developed. It has been shown that a good control of both homogeneity of distribution of constituent phases and the narrowness of the size distribution in the starting powder have great influences on the magnetic energy products. It is emphasized that the recently developed techniques are applicable in a large-scale production, meaning that extremely high-energy-product magnets are available on commercial basis. (orig.)

  9. A high-energy nuclear database proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.; Vogt, R.; UC Davis, CA

    2006-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from the Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews. (author)

  10. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D A; Vogt, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, they propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews

  11. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  12. Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a

  13. Experimental microdosimetry in high energy radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Bednar, J.; Vlcek, B.; Bottollier-Depois, J.-F.; Molokanov, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    To determine microdosimetric characteristics in the beams and fields of high energy panicles with the goal, also, to compare the classical method of experimental microdosimetry, a tissue equivalent low pressure proportional counter (TEPC) with the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrometer based on a chemically etched polyallyldiglycolcarbonate as a track etched detector (TED). To test the use of TED LET spectrometer in the conditions, where the use or TEPC is not possible (high energy charged particle beams at high dose rates). The results obtained with the TEPC NAUSICAA were used in this work to compare them with other data. This TEPC measures directly the linear energy in the interval between 0.15 and 1500 keV/μm in tissue, the low gas pressure (propan based TE mixture) permits to simulate a tissue element of about 3 μm. It can be used in the fields with instantaneous dose equivalent rates between 1 μSv/hour and 1 mSv/ hour. TED LET spectrometer developed to determine LET spectra between 10 and 700 keV/μm in tissue. Primarily, track-to-bulk etch rate ratios are determined through the track parameters measurements, the spectra of these ratios are convened to LET spectra using the calibration curve established by means of heavy charge panicles. The critical volume of thi spectrometer is supposed to be a few nm. There is no limit of use for the dose rate, the background tracks limit the lowest threshold to about 1 mSv, the overlapping of tracks (the highest one) to 100 mSv. Both experimental microdosimetry methods have been used in on board aircraft radiation fields, in on-Earth high energy radiation reference fields, and in the beams of protons with energies up to 300 MeV (Dubna, Moscow, Loma Linda). First, it should be emphasized, that in all high energy radiation fields studied, we concentrated our analysis on the region, where both methods overlap, i.e. between 10 and 1000 keV/μm in tissue. It should be also stressed, that the events observed in this region

  14. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1984-09-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower.

  15. Predicting motorcycle crash injury severity using weather data and alternative Bayesian multivariate crash frequency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Gill, Gurdiljot Singh; Sakrani, Taha; Dasu, Mohan; Zhou, Jiao

    2017-11-01

    Motorcycle crashes constitute a very high proportion of the overall motor vehicle fatalities in the United States, and many studies have examined the influential factors under various conditions. However, research on the impact of weather conditions on the motorcycle crash severity is not well documented. In this study, we examined the impact of weather conditions on motorcycle crash injuries at four different severity levels using San Francisco motorcycle crash injury data. Five models were developed using Full Bayesian formulation accounting for different correlations commonly seen in crash data and then compared for fitness and performance. Results indicate that the models with serial and severity variations of parameters had superior fit, and the capability of accurate crash prediction. The inferences from the parameter estimates from the five models were: an increase in the air temperature reduced the possibility of a fatal crash but had a reverse impact on crashes of other severity levels; humidity in air was not observed to have a predictable or strong impact on crashes; the occurrence of rainfall decreased the possibility of crashes for all severity levels. Transportation agencies might benefit from the research results to improve road safety by providing motorcyclists with information regarding the risk of certain crash severity levels for special weather conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term results after Ilizarov treatment for severe high-energy injuries of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Lucian; Ullmann, Yehuda; Soudry, Michael; Lerner, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    Clinical aspects, such as the long-term results after circular external fixation and functional rehabilitation after high-energy injuries of the elbow joint, have not received sufficient attention in the literature. Fourteen patients with high-energy elbow injuries were treated in our hospital over the last 15 years with a circular external fixation frame. The mechanism of injury was blast in eight patients, gunshot wounds in two, motor vehicle crash in two, and fall from height in two. Twelve patients had high-energy open periarticular fractures, nine had Gustillo-Anderson 3B fractures, and three had Gustillo-Anderson 3C fractures. Two patients suffered from closed high-energy periarticular elbow injuries. Seven patients had associated peripheral neurologic injuries and three had vascular injuries. Average Ilizarov fixation time was 20 weeks (range, 6-47 weeks). The follow-up period varied from 1.5 years to 11 years. The average arc of elbow flexion was 110.4 degrees and extension was 19.6 degrees. The average arc of forearm rotation was of 63.5 degrees for pronation (range, 5-90 degrees) and 63.2 degrees for supination (range, 5-90 degrees). The average Mayo Elbow Performance Index score was 84 points (range, 60-100) and the average Khalfayan functional score was 83.4 (range, 68.7-100). Long-term follow-up proved that the hinged Ilizarov/hybrid frame represents a useful instrument to provide stabilization of the elbow joint while facilitating early movements and physiotherapy. The main indication is patients who suffered from open high-energy contaminated fractures with extensive soft-tissue damage (e.g., blast, war injuries) and combined bone and ligaments injuries.

  17. Crash-Tech 2001. Conference; Crash-Tech 2001. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Improved active and passive safety of motor vehicles has resulted in a very much improved accident statistics. This conference discussed further optimisations in motor car safety. The harmonisation of test specifications world-wide was gone into, with particular interest in compatibility. Safety specifications resulting from current accident research and new legislation were gone into, and the current state of measuring and technology in crash testing was outlined. [German] Aufgrund der Verbesserungen in der aktiven und passiven Sicherheit von Fahrzeugen weisen die Unfallstatistiken in vielen europaeischen Laendern eine erfreuliche Tendenz auf. Die Tagung wird sich mit den Moeglichkeiten der weiteren Optimierung der Verkehrssicherheit befassen. Die 'Crash-Tech 2001' will sich mit dem Motto 'Sind wir auf dem Weg zum World NCAP?' der Harmonisierung der Testvorschriften unter Einbeziehung der Kompatibilitaet widmen. Dazu werden Anforderungen an die Fahrzeugsicherheit diskutiert, die sich sowohl aus der aktuellen Unfallforschung als auch aus den Vorschriften ergeben. Weiterhin wird der aktuelle Stand der Mess- und Versuchstechnik im Unfallversuch vorgestellt. (orig.)

  18. The acceleration of particles to high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    The common occurrence, and often spectacular consequence, of fast particles in active astrophysical bodies has attracted the attention of physicists for more than four decades. The acceleration mechanisms, whatever they may be, are remarkably efficient, converting a major fraction of the total energy into fast particles. A variety of ideas have arisen, suggesting how and why fast particles are generated in various circumstances. The principal limitation on particle acceleration theories has been the realization that the universe in not filled with a hard vacuum, but rather is pervaded everywhere by tenuous ionized gases quite able to short circuit any large-scale electric fields that occur under ordinary circumstances. A number of the early ideas on the acceleration of cosmic rays have been discarded for this reason. The basic theoretical ideas can be grouped roughly into five parts: 1. hydromagnetic fields; 2. field in reduced conductivity; 3. plasma turbulence; 4. low frequency electromagnetic waves; 5. supernova explosion. Each of these is considered in turn. (Auth.)

  19. A strategic framework for improbable circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennon, Denzil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rare events, known as ‘Black Swans’, have determined the course of history. One of these was the global economic crisis of 2008. Such events highlight fields like strategic management and their shortcomings in helping to prepare organisations. The Strategic Framework for Improbable Circumstances was designed to add to the strategic management process by improving organisational preparation for these rare events. The framework was validated through interviews with experts who showed the need for such a framework, and who confirmed that it is a good first step for organisations to take towards addressing these Black Swan events.

  20. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerators have been devised and built for two reasons: In the first place, by physicists who needed high energy particles in order to have a means to explore the interactions between particles that probe the fundamental elementary forces of nature. And conversely, sometimes accelerator builders produce new machines for higher energy than ever before just because it can be done, and then challenge potential users to make new discoveries with the new means at hand. These two approaches or motivations have gone hand in hand. This lecture traces how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to the gigantic projects of today. So far all the really high-energy machines built and planned in the world--except the SLC--have been ring accelerators and storage rings using the strong-focusing method. But this method has not removed the energy limit, it has only pushed it higher. It would seem unlikely that one can go beyond the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)--but in fact a workshop was held in Sicily in November 1991, concerned with the question of extrapolating to 100 TeV. Other acceleration and beam-forming methods are now being discussed--collective fields, laser acceleration, wake-field accelerators etc., all aimed primarily at making linear colliders possible and more attractive than with present radiofrequency methods. So far it is not entirely clear which of these schemes will dominate particle physics in the future--maybe something that has not been thought of as yet

  1. Grid Computing in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them.Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software resources, regardless of location); (4) collaboration (providing tools that allow members full and fair access to all collaboration resources and enable distributed teams to work effectively, irrespective of location); and (5) education, training and outreach (providing resources and mechanisms for training students and for communicating important information to the public).It is believed that computing infrastructures based on Data Grids and optical networks can meet these challenges and can offer data intensive enterprises in high energy physics and elsewhere a comprehensive, scalable framework for collaboration and resource sharing. A number of Data Grid projects have been underway since 1999. Interestingly, the most exciting and far ranging of these projects are led by collaborations of high energy physicists, computer scientists and scientists from other disciplines in support of experiments with massive, near-term data needs. I review progress in this

  2. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulware, D.

    1988-01-01

    We are carrying out a research program in high energy experimental particle physics. Studies of high energy hadronic interactions and leptoproduction processes continue using several experimental techniques. Progress has been made on the study of multiparticle production processes in nuclei. Ultra-high energy cosmic ray nucleus-nucleus interactions have been investigated by the Japanese American Cosmic Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) using balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors. In the area of particle astrophysics, our studies of cosmic ray nuclear interactions have enabled us to make the world's most accurate determination of the composition of the cosmic rays above 10 13 eV. We have the only detector that can observe interaction vertices and identify particles at energies up to 10--15 eV. Our observations are getting close to placing limits on the acceleration mechanisms postulated for pulsars in which the spin and magnetic moment axes are at different angles. In June, 1989 approval was given by NASA for our participation in the Space Station program. The SCINATT experiment will make use of emulsion chamber detectors, similar to the planned JACEE hybrid balloon flight detectors. These detectors will permit precise determination of secondary particle charges, momenta and rapidities, and the accumulation of data will be at least a factor of 10 to 100 greater than in balloon experiments. Emulsion chamber techniques are also employed in an experiment using accelerator heavy ion beams at CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate particle production processes in central collisions of nuclei in the energy range 15--200A GeV. Our study of hadroproduction in lepton interactions is continuing with approval of another 8 months run for deep inelastic muon scattering experiment E665 at Fermilab

  3. System crash as dynamics of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Xiao, Gaoxi; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Yubo; Wang, Zhen; Kurths, Jürgen; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2016-10-18

    Complex systems, from animal herds to human nations, sometimes crash drastically. Although the growth and evolution of systems have been extensively studied, our understanding of how systems crash is still limited. It remains rather puzzling why some systems, appearing to be doomed to fail, manage to survive for a long time whereas some other systems, which seem to be too big or too strong to fail, crash rapidly. In this contribution, we propose a network-based system dynamics model, where individual actions based on the local information accessible in their respective system structures may lead to the "peculiar" dynamics of system crash mentioned above. Extensive simulations are carried out on synthetic and real-life networks, which further reveal the interesting system evolution leading to the final crash. Applications and possible extensions of the proposed model are discussed.

  4. Advances in crash dynamics for aircraft safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, M.; Marulo, F.; Abrate, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the ability of the fuselage's lower lobe to absorb the energy during a crash landing, where the introduction of the composite materials can improve the crash survivability thanks to the crushing capability of structural parts to limit the effects of deceleration on the occupants. Providing a protective shell around the occupants and minimizing the risks of injuries during and immediately after the crash in the post-crash regime is a safety requirement. This study consists of: (1) numerical and experimental investigations on small components to verify design concepts using high performance composite materials; (2) analyses of full scale crashes of fuselage lower lobes. This paper outlines an approach for demonstrating the crashworthiness characteristics of the airframe performing a drop test at low velocity impact to validate a numerical model obtained by assembling structural components and materials' properties previously obtained by testing coupons and sub-elements.

  5. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures notes on field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP violation, experimental aspects of CP violation in K and B decays, relativistic heavy-ion physics, and the scientific programme of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These core scientific topics are complemented by a lecture about the physics of ski jumping.

  6. [Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract FG02-91ER40641 during the period from March 1991 to December 1991. Our group has three main efforts. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789. Finally, we are also members of the SDC collaboration at the SSC

  7. High-energy proton scattering on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Klovning, A; Schlüpmann, K

    1973-01-01

    High-energy proton scattering on Be, C, Cu and Pb targets is studied using a single-arm spectrometer. The projectile momenta were 19 and 24 GeV/c, the square of the four-momentum transfer varied from t=0.1 to t =4.4 GeV/sup 2/. Momentum distributions of scattered protons are recorded in the high-momentum range. An application of multiple- scattering theory yielded agreement of calculation and experimental results to within a +or-30% uncertainty of the former. (15 refs).

  8. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  9. Channeling and dechanneling at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used as an accelerator extraction element and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but appear remote. The major advantage in using a bent crystal rather than a magnet is the large deflection that can be achieved in a short length. The major disadvantage is the low transmission. A good understanding of dechanneling is important for applications. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  10. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  11. Radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation is described utilizing a detector of such radiation and a mask having regions relatively transparent to such radiation and interspersed among regions relatively opaque to such radiation. A relative motion is imparted between the mask and the detector, the detector providing a time varying signal in response to the incident radiation and in response to the relative motion. The time varying signal provides, with the aid of a decoder, an image of a source of such radiation

  12. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs

  13. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Whipple Observatory High Resolution Camera will be used in a vigorous program of observations to search for new sources of very-high-energy gamma rays. In addition, a search for antimatter using the moon-earth system as an ion spectrometer will be begun. The first phase of GRANITE, the new 37-element 11-m camera, will be concluded with first light scheduled for September, 1991. The two cameras will operate in support of the Gamma Ray Observatory mission in the winter of 1991/2

  14. Studies of high energy phenomena using muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, D.; Kaplan, D.; Green, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the activities of the NIU high energy physics group as supported by DOE contract AC02-87ER40368 during the period from July of 1990 to June of 1991 and from February to March 1992. Our group has three main efforts which will be discussed in this paper. The first is the D0 experiment at the Fermilab proton-antiproton collider, with major emphasis on its muon system. The second is the involvement of a portion of the group in Fermilab Experiment 789 which involved detection of meson decays. Finally, we discuss our work with the SDC collaboration at the SSC

  15. High energy ion implantation for IC processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhoff, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of fundamental research on high energy ion implantation in silicon are presented and discussed. The implantations have been carried out with the 500 kV HVEE ion implantation machine, that was acquired in 1981 by the IC technology and Electronics group at Twente University of Technology. The damage and anneal behaviour of 1 MeV boron implantations to a dose of 10 13 /cm 2 have been investigated as a function of anneal temperature by sheet resistance, Hall and noise measurements. (Auth.)

  16. Photomask specifications for high energy physics detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pindo, M

    2002-01-01

    Planar technologies used for radiation detector fabrication imply an extensive use of photomasks whose characteristics are critical in determining final detector performance. Compatibly with their manufacturing process, photomasks must satisfy the application-specific requirements dictated both by wafer manufacturers and detector final users. The design and realization of microstrip and pixel detectors, widely used in high energy physics experiments, ask for intensive scientific effort, advanced technology and important economical investments. Photomask specification definition is one of the fundamental steps to optimize detector fabrication processes and fulfill experimental requirements at the most appropriate cost.

  17. Siberian Snakes in high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S R; Shatunov, Yu M; Yokoya, K

    2005-01-01

    We review modern techniques to accelerate spin-polarized beams to high energy and to preserve their polarization in storage rings. Crucial to the success of such work is the use of so-called Siberian Snakes. We explain these devices and the reason for their necessity. Closely related to Snakes is the concept of 'spin rotators'. The designs and merits of several types of Snakes and spin rotators are examined. Theoretical work with Snakes and spin rotators, and experimental results from several storage rings, are reviewed, including the so-called Snake resonances. (topical review)

  18. Application of nanotechnologies in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelucci, R.; Corticelli, F.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G.M.; Malferraxi, L.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Rizzoli, R.; Summonte, C.

    2003-01-01

    In the past, the progressive reduction of electronics integration scale has allowed high energy physics experiments to build particle detectors with a high number of sensitive channels and high spatial granularity, down to the micron scale. Nowadays, the increasing effort towards nanoelectronics and progresses in various fields of nanotechnologies, suggests that the time for nanodetectors is not far to come. As an example of possible application of nanotechnologies in HEP, we present results on fabrication of nanochannel matrices in anodic porous alumina as a template for preparing an array of carbon nanotubes, which we believe can be a promising building block in developing particle detectors with high spatial resolution

  19. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  20. Superconductivity in high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmueser, P.

    2002-08-01

    The basics of superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the features which are relevant for the application in magnets and radio frequency cavities for high energy particle accelerators. The special properties of superconducting accelerator magnets are described in detail: design principles, magnetic field calculations, magnetic forces, quench performance, persistent magnetization currents and eddy currents. The design principles and basic properties of superconducting cavities are explained as well as the observed performance limitations and the countermeasures. The ongoing research efforts towards maximum accelerating fields are addressed and the coupling of radio frequency power to the particle beam is treated. (orig.)

  1. Future high energy colliders. Formal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1996-01-01

    This Report includes copies of transparencies and notes from the presentations made at the Symposium on Future High Energy Colliders, October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara California, that was made available by the authors. Editing, reduction and changes to the authors contributions were made only to fulfill the printing and publication requirements. We would like to take this opportunity and thank the speakers for their informative presentations and for providing copies of their transparencies and notes for inclusion in this Report

  2. Radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation utilizing a detector of such radiation and a mask having regions relatively transparent to such radiation interspersed among regions relatively opaque to such radiation is described. A relative motion is imparted between the mask and the detector, the detector providing a time varying signal in response to the incident radiation and in response to the relative motion. The time varying signal provides, with the aid of a decoder, an image of a source of such radiation

  3. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-01

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  4. High energy approximations in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzalesi, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    New theoretical methods in hadron physics based on a high-energy perturbation theory are discussed. The approximated solutions to quantum field theory obtained by this method appear to be sufficiently simple and rich in structure to encourage hadron dynamics studies. Operator eikonal form for field - theoretic Green's functions is derived and discussion is held on how the eikonal perturbation theory is to be renormalized. This method is extended to massive quantum electrodynamics of scalar charged bosons. Possible developments and applications of this theory are given [pt

  5. Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.

    2000-01-27

    This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.

  6. Ionization of atoms by high energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Ioffe, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Photoionization of atoms by high energy photons is considered. It is emphasized that in this frequency region the cross section and other characteristics of the process are strongly effected by electron shell polarization and rearrangement effects, including that due to inner vacancy Auger decay. In the effects of nuclear structure could be important and noticeable, i.e. of virtual or real excitation of the nucleus degrees of freedom and of the Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum. Ionization accompanied by secondary photon emission (Compton ionization) is analyzed in the considered domain of energies

  7. High energy photons production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction are the main source of high energy gamma-rays. An overview of the theoretical approaches is given and compared with experimental results. Theoretical attempts to include the contribution of charged pion exchange currents to photon production, in calculations of proton-nucleus-gamma and nucleus-nucleus-gamma reactions, showed suitable fitting with experimental data

  8. Improvements in high energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, P.; Krieger, A.; Annis, M.

    1984-01-01

    In computerized axial tomography employed with large relatively dense objects such as a solid fuel rocket engine, using high energy x-rays, such as a 15 MeV source, a collimator is employed with an acceptance angle substantially less than 1 0 , in a preferred embodiment 7 minutes of a degree. In a preferred embodiment, the collimator may be located between the object and the detector, although in other embodiments, a pre-collimator may also be used, that is between the x-ray source and the object being illuminated. (author)

  9. High energy cosmic rays: sources and fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, Thomas K.; Tilav, Serap

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the production of a unique energy spectrum of the high energy cosmic rays detected with air showers by shifting the energy estimates of different detectors. After such a spectrum is generated we fit the spectrum with three or four populations of cosmic rays that might be accelerated at different cosmic ray sources. We also present the chemical composition that the fits of the spectrum generates and discuss some new data sets presented this summer at the ICRC in Rio de Janeiro that may require new global fits.

  10. Models of high energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1978-06-01

    The discussion covers nuclear collisions at relativistic energies including classes of high energy nucleus--nucleus collisions, and the kinetics of a central collision; and the asymptotic hadron spectrum including known and unknown hadrons, the relevance of the spectrum and the means of its study, thermodynamics of hadronic matter, examples of hadronic spectra, the temperature, composition of the initial fireball and its expansion, isoergic expansion with no pre-freezeout radiation, isentropic expansion of the fireball, the quasi-dynamical expansion, and finally antinuclei, hypernuclei, and the quark phase. 28 references

  11. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  12. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  13. High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-11-01

    We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)

  14. Hardon cross sections at ultra high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodh, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    A review of results on total hadronic cross sections at ultra high energies obtained from a study of longitudinal development of cosmic ray air showers is given. The experimental observations show that proton-air inelastic cross section increases from 275 mb to over 500 mb as the collision energy in the center of mass increases from 20 GeV to 20 TeV. The proton-air inelastic cross section, obtained from cosmic ray data at √s = 30 TeV, is compared with calculations using various different models for the energy variation of the parameters of the elementary proton-proton interaction. Three conclusions are derived

  15. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  16. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  17. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  18. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  19. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mount, Richard; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gülzow, Volker; Kemp, Yves; Ozerov, Dmitri; Diaconu, Cristinel; South, David; Lobodzinski, Bogdan; Olsson, Jan; Haas, Tobias; Wrona, Krzysztof; Szuba, Janusz; Schnell, Gunar; Sasaki, Takashi; Katayama, Nobu; Hernandez, Fabio; Mele, Salvatore; Holzner, Andre; Hemmer, Frederic; Schroeder, Matthias; Barring, Olof; Brun, Rene; Maggi, Marcello; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Van Wezel, Jos; Heiss, Andreas; Chen, Gang; Wang, Yifang; Asner, David; Riley, Daniel; Corney, David; Gordon, John

    2009-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group.

  20. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-15

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  1. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac endash Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e + e - collisions at CERN; bar p endash p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab

  2. Polarized beams in high energy storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montague, B W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1984-11-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable advance in understanding the spin motion of particles in storage rings and accelerators. The survey presented here outlines the early historical development in this field, describes the basic ideas governing the kinetics of polarized particles in electromagnetic fields and shows how these have evolved into the current description of polarized beam behaviour. Orbital motion of particles influences their spin precession, and depolarization of a beam can result from excitation of spin resonances by orbit errors and oscillations. Electrons and positrons are additionally influenced by the quantized character of synchrotron radiation, which not only provides a polarizing mechanism but also enhances depolarizing effects. Progress in the theoretical formulation of these phenomena has clarified the details of the physical processes and suggested improved methods of compensating spin resonances. Full use of polarized beams for high-energy physics with storage rings requires spin rotators to produce longitudinal polarization in the interaction regions. Variants of these schemes, dubbed Siberian snakes, provide a curious precession topology which can substantially reduce depolarization in the high-energy range. Efficient polarimetry is an essential requirement for implementing polarized beams, whose utility for physics can be enhanced by various methods of spin manipulation.

  3. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  4. Grid computing in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, R.; Kuhn, D.; Kneringer, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The future high energy physics experiments are characterized by an enormous amount of data delivered by the large detectors presently under construction e.g. at the Large Hadron Collider and by a large number of scientists (several thousands) requiring simultaneous access to the resulting experimental data. Since it seems unrealistic to provide the necessary computing and storage resources at one single place, (e.g. CERN), the concept of grid computing i.e. the use of distributed resources, will be chosen. The DataGrid project (under the leadership of CERN) develops, based on the Globus toolkit, the software necessary for computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases in a grid structure. The high energy physics group Innsbruck participates with several resources in the DataGrid test bed. In this presentation our experience as grid users and resource provider is summarized. In cooperation with the local IT-center (ZID) we installed a flexible grid system which uses PCs (at the moment 162) in student's labs during nights, weekends and holidays, which is especially used to compare different systems (local resource managers, other grid software e.g. from the Nordugrid project) and to supply a test bed for the future Austrian Grid (AGrid). (author)

  5. Semiconductor high-energy radiation scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastalsky, A.; Luryi, S.; Spivak, B.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new scintillation-type detector in which high-energy radiation generates electron-hole pairs in a direct-gap semiconductor material that subsequently recombine producing infrared light to be registered by a photo-detector. The key issue is how to make the semiconductor essentially transparent to its own infrared light, so that photons generated deep inside the semiconductor could reach its surface without tangible attenuation. We discuss two ways to accomplish this, one based on doping the semiconductor with shallow impurities of one polarity type, preferably donors, the other by heterostructure bandgap engineering. The proposed semiconductor scintillator combines the best properties of currently existing radiation detectors and can be used for both simple radiation monitoring, like a Geiger counter, and for high-resolution spectrography of the high-energy radiation. An important advantage of the proposed detector is its fast response time, about 1 ns, essentially limited only by the recombination time of minority carriers. Notably, the fast response comes without any degradation in brightness. When the scintillator is implemented in a qualified semiconductor material (such as InP or GaAs), the photo-detector and associated circuits can be epitaxially integrated on the scintillator slab and the structure can be stacked-up to achieve virtually any desired absorption capability

  6. Cyberinfrastructure for high energy physics in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kihyeon; Kim, Hyunwoo; Jeung, Minho

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the hierarchy of cyberinfrastructure which consists of infrastructure (supercomputing and networks), Grid, e-Science, community and physics from bottom layer to top layer. KISTI is the national headquarter of supercomputer, network, Grid and e-Science in Korea. Therefore, KISTI is the best place to for high energy physicists to use cyberinfrastructure. We explain this concept on the CDF and the ALICE experiments. In the meantime, the goal of e-Science is to study high energy physics anytime and anywhere even if we are not on-site of accelerator laboratories. The components are data production, data processing and data analysis. The data production is to take both on-line and off-line shifts remotely. The data processing is to run jobs anytime, anywhere using Grid farms. The data analysis is to work together to publish papers using collaborative environment such as EVO (Enabling Virtual Organization) system. We also present the global community activities of FKPPL (France-Korea Particle Physics Laboratory) and physics as top layer.

  7. Portable high energy gamma ray imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guru, S.V.; Squillante, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    To satisfy the needs of high energy gamma ray imagers for industrial nuclear imaging applications, three high energy gamma cameras are presented. The RMD-Pinhole camera uses a lead pinhole collimator and a segmented BGO detector viewed by a 3 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). This pinhole gamma camera displayed an energy resolution of 25.0% FWHM at the center of the camera at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 6.2 FWHM at 412 keV. The fixed multiple hole collimated camera (FMCC), used a multiple hole collimator and a continuous slab of NaI(Tl) detector viewed by the same PSPMT. The FMCC displayed an energy resolution of 12.4% FWHM at 662 keV at the center of the camera and an angular resolution of 6.0 FWHM at 412 keV. The rotating multiple hole collimated camera (RMCC) used a 180 antisymmetric rotation modulation collimator and CsI(Tl) detectors coupled to PIN silicon photodiodes. The RMCC displayed an energy resolution of 7.1% FWHM at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 4.0 FWHM at 810 keV. The performance of these imagers is discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  8. Tibiofibula Transposition in High-Energy Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Loughenbury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of failed attempts at closed reduction of high-energy tibial fractures with an associated fibula fracture. The first case was a 39-year-old male involved in high-speed motorbike collision, while the second was a 14-year-old male who injured his leg following a fall of three metres. Emergency medical services at the scenes of the accidents reported a 90-degree valgus deformity of the injured limb and both limbs were realigned on scene and stabilized. Adequate alignment of the tibia could not be achieved by manipulation under sedation or anaesthesia. Open reduction and exposure of the fracture sites revealed that the distal fibula fragment was “transposed” and entrapped in the medulla of the proximal tibial fragment. Reduction required simulation of the mechanism of injury in order to disengage the fragments and allow reduction. Tibiofibula transposition is a rare complication of high-energy lower limb fractures which has not previously been reported and may prevent adequate closed reduction. Impaction of the distal fibula within the tibial medulla occurs as the limb is realigned by paramedic staff before transfer to hospital. We recommend that when this complication is identified the patient is transferred to the operating room for open reduction and stabilization of the fracture.

  9. High energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (i) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (ii) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (iii) the e + e - annihilation. The geometrical description of high-energy elastic scattering developed earlier is still in general agreement with experiments at the CERN-S bar ppS energies. A simple one-parameter expression for the blackness of bar pp system has been proposed recently which describes very well all existing data from ISR to S bar ppS energies. The geometrical description has also been extended to include processes of fragmentation and diffraction dissociation and other phenomena. In the past five years, a unified physical picture for multiparticle emission in hadron-hadron and e + e - collisions was developed. It focuses on the idea of the wide range of values for the total angular momentum in hadron-hadron collisions. An extension of this consideration yields a theory for the momentum distribution of the outgoing particles which agrees with bar pp and e + e - collision experiments. The results and conclusions of this theory have been extrapolated to higher energies and yielded many predictions which can be experimentally tested. 37 refs

  10. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  11. High Energy Physics (HEP) benchmark program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasu, Yoshiji; Ichii, Shingo; Yashiro, Shigeo; Hirayama, Hideo; Kokufuda, Akihiro; Suzuki, Eishin.

    1993-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) benchmark programs are indispensable tools to select suitable computer for HEP application system. Industry standard benchmark programs can not be used for this kind of particular selection. The CERN and the SSC benchmark suite are famous HEP benchmark programs for this purpose. The CERN suite includes event reconstruction and event generator programs, while the SSC one includes event generators. In this paper, we found that the results from these two suites are not consistent. And, the result from the industry benchmark does not agree with either of these two. Besides, we describe comparison of benchmark results using EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation program with ones from two HEP benchmark suites. Then, we found that the result from EGS4 in not consistent with the two ones. The industry standard of SPECmark values on various computer systems are not consistent with the EGS4 results either. Because of these inconsistencies, we point out the necessity of a standardization of HEP benchmark suites. Also, EGS4 benchmark suite should be developed for users of applications such as medical science, nuclear power plant, nuclear physics and high energy physics. (author)

  12. Non-critical strings at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Aoki, Kenichiro; Hoker, Eric D'

    1996-01-01

    We consider scattering amplitudes in non-critical string theory of $N$ external states in the limit where the energy of all external states is large compared to the string tension. We argue that the amplitudes are naturally complex analytic in the matter central charge $c$ and we propose to define the amplitudes for arbitrary value of $c$ by analytic continuation. We show that the high energy limit is dominated by a saddle point that can be mapped onto an equilibrium electro-static energy configuration of an assembly of $N$ pointlike (Minkowskian) charges, together with a density of charges arising from the Liouville field. We argue that the Liouville charges accumulate on segments of curves, and produce quadratic branch cuts on the worldsheet. The electro-statics problem is solved for string tree level in terms of hyper-elliptic integrals and is given explicitly for 3- and 4-point functions. We show that the high energy limit should behave in a string-like fashion with exponential dependence on the energy sc...

  13. Prompt High Energy Dipole γ Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, A.; Giaz, A; Bracco, A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the collective properties of a nuclear system is a powerful tool to understand the structure which lies inside the nucleus. A successful technique which has been used in this field is the measurement of the γ-decay of the highly collective Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR). In fact, GDR can be used as a probe for the internal structure of hot nuclei and, in addition, constitutes a clock for the thermalization process. Using the fusion-evaporation reaction, it has been recently possible to study (i) the yield of the high-energy γ-ray emission of the Dynamical Dipole which takes place during the fusion process and (ii) the degree of isospin mixing at high temperature in the decay of 80 Zr. In the first case it is important to stress the fact that the predictions of the theoretical models might differ depending on the type of nuclear equation of state (EOS) and on the N-N in-medium cross-section used in the calculations while, in the second physics case, the data are relative to the heaviest N = Z nucleus which has been possible to populate in the I = 0 channel using fusion-evaporation reaction. Both experiments were performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro using the HECTOR-GARFIELD array. The high-energy γ-rays were measured in coincidence with light charged particles and fusion-evaporation residues. (author)

  14. High energy neutrino astronomy and its telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1995-01-01

    Doing astronomy with photons of energies in excess of a GeV has turned out to be extremely challenging. Efforts are underway to develop instruments that may push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than 10 -14 cm by mapping the sky using high energy neutrinos instead. Neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, will reach outside the galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology. The field is immersed in technology in the domains of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. To mind come the search for neutrino mass, cold dark matter (supersymmetric particles?) and the monopoles of the Standard Model. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building telescopes with effective area in excess of 0.01 km 2 , we show here that the natural scale of a high energy neutrino telescope is 1 km 2 . With several thousand optical modules and a price tag unlikely to exceed 100 million dollars, the scope of a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan

  15. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  16. High energy nuclear collisions: theory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Rainer J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: High Energy Nuclear Collisions are studied at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and, starting next year, also at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to study the formation and properties of quark gluon plasma (QGP). This effort is driven by the prediction that above a certain critical temperature quarks and gluons are deconfined. For the past ten years of running RHIC has performed marvelously. Data from RHIC has answered many initial questions, but it has also provided new, more challenging problems to understand the nature of quark gluon plasma and the dynamics of heavy ion collisions. In this talk I review some of the basic concepts of high energy nuclear collisions and quark gluon plasma formation. We also discuss some of the novel and open questions that we are faced with. We discuss recent predictions on properties of hot quantum chromodynamics, emerging signatures for the color glass condensate, the fascinating idea of local P and CP violation in QCD, as well as ongoing research on hard probes and electromagnetic signatures

  17. GRID computing for experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moloney, G.R.; Martin, L.; Seviour, E.; Taylor, G.N.; Moorhead, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), to be completed at the CERN laboratory in 2006, will generate 11 petabytes of data per year. The processing of this large data stream requires a large, distributed computing infrastructure. A recent innovation in high performance distributed computing, the GRID, has been identified as an important tool in data analysis for the LHC. GRID computing has actual and potential application in many fields which require computationally intensive analysis of large, shared data sets. The Australian experimental High Energy Physics community has formed partnerships with the High Performance Computing community to establish a GRID node at the University of Melbourne. Through Australian membership of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, Australian researchers have an opportunity to be involved in the European DataGRID project. This presentation will include an introduction to the GRID, and it's application to experimental High Energy Physics. We will present the results of our studies, including participation in the first LHC data challenge

  18. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  19. High energy radiation in cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Certain basic recommendations on the use of supervoltage radiation and radioisotope teletherapy in the treatment of malignant growths have been made by an expert study group which met in Vienna in August this y ear. The group, convened jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization, was composed of 20 radiotherapists and radiation physicists from 12 countries. High energy radiation, used in the treatment of malignant tumours, can be either in the form of gamma- or X-rays or in the form of beams of accelerated electrons. The source of radiation is kept at a certain distance from the patient. The study group was agreed on the value of supervoltage radiotherapy, including gamma-ray and high voltage x-ray therapy as well as electron beam therapy. The required gamma radiation can be obtained from large sources of radioactive materials like cobalt 60 or caesium 137, while electron beams are produced by high voltage accelerators. The experts considered the sources in four broad categories: large supervoltage units, intermediate units, small isotope units and units of electron beams or very high energy x-rays. Each group of source was described including its usage. The experts made it clear that while supervoltage radiation should be a part of an organized radiotherapy department, the radiation facilities at any particular establishment should not be of the supervoltage type alone. The high energy facilities could be fruitfully used only when there was a background of general radiotherapy. The group emphasized that supervoltage radiotherapy, in common with other forms of radiotherapy, should be conducted only by adequately trained and qualified personnel, including radiation physicists, and specified the training and qualifications required of such personnel. It was felt that specialized training was one of the main requirements at the present stage and the training programmes of IAEA and WHO should be utilized extensively for this

  20. Statistical learning in high energy and astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2005-06-16

    This thesis studies the performance of statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics where they have become a standard tool in physics analysis. They are used to perform complex classification or regression by intelligent pattern recognition. This kind of artificial intelligence is achieved by the principle ''learning from examples'': The examples describe the relationship between detector events and their classification. The application of statistical learning methods is either motivated by the lack of knowledge about this relationship or by tight time restrictions. In the first case learning from examples is the only possibility since no theory is available which would allow to build an algorithm in the classical way. In the second case a classical algorithm exists but is too slow to cope with the time restrictions. It is therefore replaced by a pattern recognition machine which implements a fast statistical learning method. But even in applications where some kind of classical algorithm had done a good job, statistical learning methods convinced by their remarkable performance. This thesis gives an introduction to statistical learning methods and how they are applied correctly in physics analysis. Their flexibility and high performance will be discussed by showing intriguing results from high energy and astrophysics. These include the development of highly efficient triggers, powerful purification of event samples and exact reconstruction of hidden event parameters. The presented studies also show typical problems in the application of statistical learning methods. They should be only second choice in all cases where an algorithm based on prior knowledge exists. Some examples in physics analyses are found where these methods are not used in the right way leading either to wrong predictions or bad performance. Physicists also often hesitate to profit from these methods because they fear that statistical learning methods cannot

  1. Statistical learning in high energy and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the performance of statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics where they have become a standard tool in physics analysis. They are used to perform complex classification or regression by intelligent pattern recognition. This kind of artificial intelligence is achieved by the principle ''learning from examples'': The examples describe the relationship between detector events and their classification. The application of statistical learning methods is either motivated by the lack of knowledge about this relationship or by tight time restrictions. In the first case learning from examples is the only possibility since no theory is available which would allow to build an algorithm in the classical way. In the second case a classical algorithm exists but is too slow to cope with the time restrictions. It is therefore replaced by a pattern recognition machine which implements a fast statistical learning method. But even in applications where some kind of classical algorithm had done a good job, statistical learning methods convinced by their remarkable performance. This thesis gives an introduction to statistical learning methods and how they are applied correctly in physics analysis. Their flexibility and high performance will be discussed by showing intriguing results from high energy and astrophysics. These include the development of highly efficient triggers, powerful purification of event samples and exact reconstruction of hidden event parameters. The presented studies also show typical problems in the application of statistical learning methods. They should be only second choice in all cases where an algorithm based on prior knowledge exists. Some examples in physics analyses are found where these methods are not used in the right way leading either to wrong predictions or bad performance. Physicists also often hesitate to profit from these methods because they fear that statistical learning methods cannot be controlled in a

  2. Crash data modeling with a generalized estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhirui; Xu, Yueru; Lord, Dominique

    2018-05-11

    The investigation of relationships between traffic crashes and relevant factors is important in traffic safety management. Various methods have been developed for modeling crash data. In real world scenarios, crash data often display the characteristics of over-dispersion. However, on occasions, some crash datasets have exhibited under-dispersion, especially in cases where the data are conditioned upon the mean. The commonly used models (such as the Poisson and the NB regression models) have associated limitations to cope with various degrees of dispersion. In light of this, a generalized event count (GEC) model, which can be generally used to handle over-, equi-, and under-dispersed data, is proposed in this study. This model was first applied to case studies using data from Toronto, characterized by over-dispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized with under-dispersion. The results from the GEC model were compared with those from the Negative binomial and the hyper-Poisson models. The cases studies show that the proposed model provides good performance for crash data characterized with over- and under-dispersion. Moreover, the proposed model simplifies the modeling process and the prediction of crash data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Injury Characteristics of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries Compared With High-Energy Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Christopher H; Cochran, Grant; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared. HE mechanism was defined as motor vehicle crash, motorcycle crash, direct crush, and fall from greater than 4 feet and LE mechanism as athletic activity, ground level twisting, or fall from less than 4 feet. Thirty-two HE and 48 LE cases were identified with 19.3 months of average follow-up. There were no differences in demographics or missed diagnosis frequency (21% HE vs 18% LE). Time to seek care was not significantly different. HE injuries were more likely to have concomitant nonfoot fractures (37% vs 6%), concomitant foot fractures (78% vs 4%), cuboid fractures (31% vs 6%), metatarsal base fractures (84% vs 29%), displaced intra-articular fractures (59% vs 4%), and involvement of all 5 rays (23% vs 6%). LE injuries were more commonly ligamentous (68% vs 16%), with fewer rays involved (2.7 vs 4.1). LE mechanisms were a more common cause of Lisfranc joint injury in this cohort. These mechanisms generally resulted in an isolated, primarily ligamentous injury sparing the lateral column. Both types had high rates of missed injury that could result in delayed treatment. Differences in injury patterns could help direct future research to optimize treatment algorithms. Level III, comparative series.

  4. TPCs in high-energy astronomical polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J K

    2007-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has yet to exploit the unique and important information that polarimetry could provide, largely due to the limited sensitivity of previously available polarimeters. In recent years, numerous efforts have been initiated to develop instruments with the sensitivity required for astronomical polarimetry over the 100 eV to 10 GeV band. Time projection chambers (TPCs), with their high-resolution event imaging capability, are an integral part of some of these efforts. After a brief overview of current astronomical polarimeter development efforts, the role of TPCs will be described in more detail. These include TPCs as photoelectric X-ray polarimeters and TPCs as components of polarizationsensitive Compton and pair-production telescopes

  5. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong; Nachman, Benjamin; Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  6. Sanitation methods using high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levaillant, C.; Gallien, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Short recycling of waste water and the use of liquid or dehydrated sludge as natural manure for agriculture or animal supplement feed is of great economical and ecological interest. It implies strong biological and chemical disinfection. Ionizing radiations produced by radioactive elements or linear accelerators can be used as a complement of conventional methods in the treatment of liquid and solid waste. An experiment conducted with high-energy electron-beam linear accelerators is presented. Degradation of undesirable metabolites in water occurs for a dose of 50 kRad. Undesirable seeds present in sludge are destroyed with a 200 kRad dose. A 300 kRad dose is sufficient for parasitic and bacterial disinfection (DL 90). Destruction of polio virus (DL 90) is obtained for 400 kRad. Higher doses (1000 to 2000 kRad) produce mineralization of toxic organic mercury, reduce some chemical toxic pollutants present in sludge and improve flocculation. (author)

  7. Grid computing in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, P

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software r...

  8. High-energy evolution to three loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Huot, Simon; Herranen, Matti

    2018-02-01

    The Balitsky-Kovchegov equation describes the high-energy growth of gauge theory scattering amplitudes as well as nonlinear saturation effects which stop it. We obtain the three-loop corrections to the equation in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. Our method exploits a recently established equivalence with the physics of soft wide-angle radiation, so-called non-global logarithms, and thus yields at the same time the threeloop evolution equation for non-global logarithms. As a by-product of our analysis, we develop a Lorentz-covariant method to subtract infrared and collinear divergences in crosssection calculations in the planar limit. We compare our result in the linear regime with a recent prediction for the so-called Pomeron trajectory, and compare its collinear limit with predictions from the spectrum of twist-two operators.

  9. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain nucleus-nucleus collisions based on nuclear emulsion experiments. Peripheral and central collisions are described in detail. Assuming the fireball model, the concepts of geometry, kinematics and thermodynamics in this model are discussed. Projectile and target fragmentations are studied. The advantages of using nuclear emulsions as detectors, are mentioned. Proton-nucleus collisions and nucleus-nucleus collisions are compared. Interactions, of projectiles such as Ca, B and C on targets such as Pb, Ag, Br etc. at very high energies (approximately 300 to 1700 Gev) are listed. A comparison of the near multiplicities in these interactions is given. A generalized explanation is given on the processes involved in these interactions. (A.K.)

  10. Database applications in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    High Energy physicists were using computers to process and store their data early in the history of computing. They addressed problems of memory management, job control, job generation, data standards, file conventions, multiple simultaneous usage, tape file handling and data management earlier than, or at the same time as, the manufacturers of computing equipment. The HEP community have their own suites of programs for these functions, and are now turning their attention to the possibility of replacing some of the functional components of their 'homebrew' systems with more widely used software and/or hardware. High on the 'shopping list' for replacement is data management. ECFA Working Group 11 has been working on this problem. This paper reviews the characteristics of existing HEP systems and existing database systems and discusses the way forward. (orig.)

  11. Detecting ultra high energy neutrinos with LOFAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mevius, M.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J.; James, C.W.; McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; Veen, S. ter

    2012-01-01

    The NuMoon project aims to detect signals of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Cosmic Rays with radio telescopes on Earth using the Lunar Cherenkov technique at low frequencies (∼150MHz). The advantage of using low frequencies is the much larger effective detecting volume, with as trade-off the cut-off in sensitivity at lower energies. A first upper limit on the UHE neutrino flux from data of the Westerbork Radio Telescope (WSRT) has been published, while a second experiment, using the new LOFAR telescope, is in preparation. The advantages of LOFAR over WSRT are the larger collecting area, the better pointing accuracy and the use of ring buffers, which allow the implementation of a sophisticated self-trigger algorithm. The expected sensitivity of LOFAR reaches flux limits within the range of some theoretical production models.

  12. High energy gravitational scattering: a numerical study

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The S-matrix in gravitational high energy scattering is computed from the region of large impact parameters b down to the regime where classical gravitational collapse is expected to occur. By solving the equation of an effective action introduced by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano we find that the perturbative expansion around the leading eikonal result diverges at a critical value signalling the onset of a new regime. We then discuss the main features of our explicitly unitary S-matrix down to the Schwarzschild's radius R=2G s^(1/2), where it diverges at a critical value b ~ 2.22 R of the impact parameter. The nature of the singularity is studied with particular attention to the scaling behaviour of various observables at the transition. The numerical approach is validated by reproducing the known exact solution in the axially symmetric case to high accuracy.

  13. High energy hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Fujio

    1983-02-01

    This is a lecture note concerning high energy hadron-nucleus collision. The lecture gives the inelastic total cross section and the Glanber approximate multiple scattering formula at first. The mechanism of nuclear spallation is described in a cylindrical image. The multiplicity, the one particle distribution and the time-space structure of particle production are discussed. Various models are presented. The attenuation of forward particles and the structure of hadrons are discussed for each model. The atomic number (A) dependence of the production of large transverse momentum particles and jet, and the A dependence of charged multiplicity are presented. The backward production of particles and many body correlation are discussed. Lepton pair production and the initial interaction of constituents, collective interaction, multi quark state and phase transition are described. (Kato, T.)

  14. Charm decays and high energy photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The activities during the first nine months of the three-year grant period have concentrated on the development of computer resources both hardware and software as well as the design of a muon detector for Fermilab Experiment E831. An important related activity has been a successful search of funds to complement the resources provided by this grant and permit the involvement of additional personnel as well as a much-better leveraged impact of the funds provided. Grant funds were the main providers of a new computer system which is dedicated to the High Energy Physics group at Mayaguez. This system can be considered a minimum configuration to carry out the simulation and analysis loads of E831. The bulk of the software development has been directed at developing a Monte Carlo simulation for E831 in particular the E831 muon detector

  15. Dipoles for High-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; De Rijk, G; Rossi, L

    2014-01-01

    For the High Energy LHC, a study of a 33 TeV center of mass collider in the LHC tunnel, main dipoles of 20 T operational field are needed. In this paper we first review the conceptual design based on block coil proposed in the Malta workshop, addressing the issues related to coil fabrication and assembly. We then propose successive simplifications of this design, associating a cost estimate of the conductor. We then analyse a block layout for a 15 T magnet. Finally, we consider two layouts based on the D20 and HD2 short models built by LBL. A first analysis of the aspects related to protection of these challenging magnets is given.

  16. Entanglement and decoherence in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of entanglement occurs in very heavy quantum systems of particle physics. We find analogies but also differences to the entangled spin-1/2 or photon systems. In particular we discuss the features of entangled 'strangeness', the K-meson system, where a Bell inequality exists which has a remarkable connection to CP (charge conjugation and parity) and its violation. Stability of entangled quantum states is studied by allowing the system to interact with an environment. We consider possible decoherence of entangled 'beauty', the B-meson system, produced at the particle colliders at very high energies (10 GeV). Finally, we discuss a criterion for detecting entangled/separable states, a generalized Bell inequality and entanglement witness. We illustrate its geometric features by the two-spin example Alice and Bob. (author)

  17. Nonextensive statistical mechanics and high energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsallis Constantino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the celebrated Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics is justified for ergodic-like systems. In contrast, complex systems typically require more powerful theories. We will provide a brief introduction to nonadditive entropies (characterized by indices like q, which, in the q → 1 limit, recovers the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and associated nonextensive statistical mechanics. We then present somerecent applications to systems such as high-energy collisions, black holes and others. In addition to that, we clarify and illustrate the neat distinction that exists between Lévy distributions and q-exponential ones, a point which occasionally causes some confusion in the literature, very particularly in the LHC literature

  18. Baryon number violation in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.R.; Meng, R.

    1990-08-01

    We study the phenomenology of baryon number violation induced by electroweak instantons. We find that if the naive-instanton amplitudes were valid for arbitrarily high energies, the event rate at the SSC would be a few per hour, with a typical event consisting of 3 'primary' antileptons and 7 'primary' antiquark jets, accompanied by ≅ 85 electroweak gauge bosons, having a sharp threshold in the total sub-energy at about 17 TeV. We describe how to establish their electroweak-instanton-induced origin. The naive instanton approximation is known to overestimate the rate for these processes, so this work focusses attention on the need for more accurate calculations, and for a calculational method which is appropriate when the energy of the initial particles is above the sphaleron energy. (orig.)

  19. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, G.D. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous 3 He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail

  20. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  1. Unparticles: Scales and high energy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, Myron; Feng, Jonathan L.; Rajaraman, Arvind; Shirman, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Unparticles from hidden conformal sectors provide qualitatively new possibilities for physics beyond the standard model. In the theoretical framework of minimal models, we clarify the relation between energy scales entering various phenomenological analyses. We show that these relations always counteract the effective field theory intuition that higher dimension operators are more highly suppressed, and that the requirement of a significant conformal window places strong constraints on possible unparticle signals. With these considerations in mind, we examine some of the most robust and sensitive probes and explore novel effects of unparticles on gauge coupling evolution and fermion production at high energy colliders. These constraints are presented both as bounds on four-fermion interaction scales and as constraints on the fundamental parameter space of minimal models

  2. Polarized targets in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cates, G.D. Jr. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Various approaches are discussed for producing polarized nuclear targets for high energy physics experiments. As a unifying theme, examples are drawn from experiments to measure spin dependent structure functions of nucleons in deep inelastic scattering. This single physics goal has, over roughly two decades, been a driving force in advances in target technology. Actual or planned approaches have included solid targets polarized by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), several types of internal targets for use in storage rings, and gaseous {sup 3}He targets polarized by spin-exchange optical pumping. This last approach is the type of target adopted for SLAC E-142, an experiment to measure the spin structure function of the neutron, and is described in detail.

  3. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  4. Weakly supervised classification in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dery, Lucio Mwinmaarong [Physics Department, Stanford University,Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Rubbo, Francesco; Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States)

    2017-05-29

    As machine learning algorithms become increasingly sophisticated to exploit subtle features of the data, they often become more dependent on simulations. This paper presents a new approach called weakly supervised classification in which class proportions are the only input into the machine learning algorithm. Using one of the most challenging binary classification tasks in high energy physics — quark versus gluon tagging — we show that weakly supervised classification can match the performance of fully supervised algorithms. Furthermore, by design, the new algorithm is insensitive to any mis-modeling of discriminating features in the data by the simulation. Weakly supervised classification is a general procedure that can be applied to a wide variety of learning problems to boost performance and robustness when detailed simulations are not reliable or not available.

  5. Review of high energy heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that in high energy heavy ion collisions a physical conditions similar to the early stage of the Universe can be established in the laboratory. New phase of matter expected to be created is called the quark gluon plasma (QGP). Based on the motivation to create the QGP in the laboratory, heavy ion beams have been accelerated at AGS of Brookhaven National Laboratory and also at CERN-SPS. Several interesting features of the data have been reported, among which are: the suppression of J/ψ production in Pb+Pb collisions, the enhancement of low mass lepton pairs, and the collective behavior of hadron production. These features are reviewed under the key words of Deconfinement, Chiral Restoration and Collectivity in the lecture. (author)

  6. High energy photon emission from wakefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinella, D. M., E-mail: dfarinel@uci.edu; Lau, C. K.; Taimourzadeh, S.; Hwang, Y.; Abazajian, K.; Canac, N.; Taborek, P.; Tajima, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Zhang, X. M., E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Koga, J. K., E-mail: koga.james@qst.go.jp [Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Ebisuzaki, T., E-mail: ebisu@riken.jp [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Experimental evidence has accumulated to indicate that wakefield acceleration (WFA) accompanies intense and sometimes coherent emission of radiation such as from betatron radiation. The investigation of this issue has additional impetus nowadays because we are learning (1) there is an additional acceleration process of the ponderomotive acceleration; (2) WFA may become relevant in much higher density regimes; (3) WFA has been proposed as the mechanism for extreme high energy cosmic ray acceleration and gamma ray bursts for active galactic nuclei. These require us to closely examine the radiative mechanisms in WFA anew. We report studies of radiation from wakefield (self-injected betatron) and ponderomotive (laser field) mechanisms in scalings of the frequency and intensity of the driver, as well as the plasma density.

  7. High energy ion microbeams and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhru, H.; Nickles, E.; Haberl, A.; Morris, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years there has been rapid growth for the development of equipment for forming a focussed beam (0.5 - 2μm) with high energy ions. The State University of New York at Albany ion scanning microprobe has been used for several applications especially in the fields of materials and biological studies. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis have been performed on microelectronic circuits with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 μm. Studies on films of superconductors (YBa CuO) will be presented. Applications of microbeams for the biological studies and analytical techniques will be presented. Current and future role of microbeams and their limitations will be discussed. (author)

  8. Networking for high energy physics in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yukio; Abe, Fumio; Hirose, Hitoshi; Goto, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Ryusuke; Yuasa, Fukuko; Banno, Yoshiaki; Yasu, Yoshiji

    1989-01-01

    The computer network for high energy physics in Japan has grown over the last five or six years and is still expanding. Its original purpose was to provide the collaborators in universities access to the computing resources in KEK. Adding to the remote login from terminals, VAXs or Fujitsu computers located in universities have been connected to KEK's computers by DECnet or FNA (Fujitsu's SNA) and have formed the ''Japanese HEPnet''. Since the link between LBL and KEK was established in June 1987, the Japanese HEPnet is combined with the American HEPnet and is an indispensable tool for international collaboration. The current communication media for Japanese HEPnet, leased lines and public X.25, are being replaced by Gakujo-net (Monbusho's inter-university private X.25 network). DECnet, FNA, IP and Ethernet-bridge will run on Gakujo-net for the Japanese HEPnet. (orig.)

  9. Angular correlations and high energy evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We address the question of to what extent JIMWLK evolution is capable of taking into account angular correlations in a high energy hadronic wave function. Our conclusion is that angular (and indeed other) correlations in the wave function cannot be reliably calculated without taking into account Pomeron loops in the evolution. As an example we study numerically the energy evolution of angular correlations between dipole scattering amplitudes in the framework of the large N c approximation to JIMWLK evolution (the 'projectile dipole model'). Target correlations are introduced via averaging over an (isotropic) ensemble of anisotropic initial conditions. We find that correlations disappear very quickly with rapidity even inside the saturation radius. This is in accordance with our physical picture of JIMWLK evolution. The actual correlations inside the saturation radius in the target QCD wave function, on the other hand, should remain sizable at any rapidity.

  10. Photoproduction at high energy and high intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  11. Photodisintegration of the deuteron at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the angular distribution for the γd→+pn reaction were performed at SLAC for photon energies between 0.7 and 1.8 GeV (experiment NE8) and between 1.6 and 4.4. GeV (experiment NE17). The final results for experiment NE8 will be presented, but only preliminary results for NE17 will be discussed. The data at θ cm = 90 degrees appear to follow the constituent counting rules. The angular distribution at high photon energies exhibit large values of the cross section at forward angles. There is evidence that the cross section may also be large at backward angles and high energies

  12. Experimental Facilities at the High Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main theme of the lectures covered the experimental work at hadron colliders, with a clear focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on the roadmap that led finally to the discovery of the Higgs boson. The lectures were not a systematic course on machine and detector technologies, but rather tried to give a physics-motivated overview of many experimental aspects that were all relevant for making the discovery. The actual lectures covered a much broader scope than what is documented here in this write- up. The successful concepts for the experiments at the LHC have benefitted from the experience gained with previous generations of detectors at lower- energy machines. The lectures included also an outlook to the future experimental programme at the LHC, with its machine and experiments upgrades, as well as a short discussion of possible facilities at the high energy frontier beyond LHC.

  13. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Mapelli, Alessandro

    This thesis deals with the development and study of microfluidic scintillation detectors, a technology of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles. Most of the interest for such devices comes from the use of a liquid scintillator, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to increased radiation resistance. A first part of the thesis focuses on the work performed in terms of design and modelling studies of novel prototype devices, hinting to new possibilities and applications. In this framework, the simulations performed to validate selected designs and the main technological choices made in view of their fabrication are addressed. The second part of this thesis deals with the microfabrication of several prototype devices. Two different materials were studied for the manufacturing of microfluidic scintillation detectors, namely the SU-8 photosensitive epoxy and monocrystalline silicon. For what concerns the former, an original fabrication appro...

  14. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e + e - resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs

  15. Production processes at extremely high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Gastmans, R; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2013-01-01

    The production processes are identified that contribute to the rise of the total cross section in proton-proton scattering at extremely high energies, s->~. At such energies, the scattering can be described by a black disk (completely absorptive) with a radius expanding logarithmically with energy surrounded by a gray fringe (partially absorptive). For the leading term of (lns)^2 in the increasing total cross section, the gray fringe is neglected, and geometrical optics is generalized to production processes. It is known that half of the rise in the total cross section is due to elastic scattering. The other half is found to originate from the production of jets with relatively small momenta in the center-of-mass system.

  16. MINAC, portable high energy radiographic inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapides, M.E.; Schonberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    MINAC, a portable, high energy radiographic source (1) was recognized as a desired inspection device for nuclear generation plants during EPRI-sponsored studies of the late 1970s and rapidly transitioned from proof-of-principle (1978-1980) to field-proven hardware (1981-present date). The equipment has completed its second generation of configuration development (SHRINKAC), that has recently been used in the field for detection of pipe cracks. Important auxiliaries for image data processing and real-time, thick section radiography have been demonstrated in both laboratory and field situations. Finally, a 6 MeV accelerator alternate is in bench test. These significant developments have, and are expected to continue to upgrade the utility of radiographic inspection in power plant practice. This paper describes the development and experience with this modular system during the last three years

  17. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Hector [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    2014-10-31

    This year the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) High Energy Physics (HEP) group continued with the ongoing research program outlined in the grant proposal. The program is centered on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The main research focus is on data analysis and on the preparation for the High Luminosity (HL) LHC or experiment detector upgrade. The physics data analysis included Higgs Doublet Search and measurement of the (1) Λ0b branching fraction, (2) B meson mass, and (3) hyperon θ-b lifetime. The detector upgrade included work on the preparations for the Forward Pixel (FPIX) detector Silicon Sensor Testing in a production run at Fermilab. In addition, the group has taken responsibilities on the Software Release through our former research associate Dr. Eric Brownson who acted until last December as a Level Two Offline Manager for the CMS Upgrade. In support of the CMS data analysis activities carried out locally, the UPRM group has built and maintains an excellent Tier3 analysis center in Mayaguez. This allowed us to analyze large data samples and to continue the development of algorithms for the upgrade tracking robustness we started several years ago, and we plan to resume in the near future. This project involves computer simulation of the radiation damage to be suffered at the higher luminosities of the upgraded LHC. This year we continued to serve as a source of outstanding students for the field of high energy physics. Three of our graduate students finished their MS work in May, 2014, Their theses research were on data analysis of heavy quark b-physics. All of them are currently enrolled at Ph.D. physics program across the nation. One of them (Hector Moreno) at New Mexico University (Hector Moreno), one at University of New Hampshire (Sandra Santiesteban) and one at University of

  18. Partons and their applications at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drell, Sidney D.; Yan, Tung-Mow

    2000-01-01

    We discuss Feynman's parton model for deep inelastic weak or electromagnetic processes as an application of the impulse approximation to elementary particle interactions. The special features and conditions permitting this application are elaborated upon in some detail including the dependence of the parton model and the impulse treatment on an appropriate choice of coordinate frames and the role of the very soft or wee partons. Application of the parton model is made to the calculation of the cross section for massive lepton pair production in very high energy hadron-hadron collisions and compared with experiment. The conjectured role of light cone singularities in describing this and the other deep inelastic amplitudes is also discussed. (c) 2000 Academic Press, Inc

  19. High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) Balloon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant supported our work on the High Energy Antimatter Telescope(HEAT) balloon experiment. The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons. Thus far two flights of the HEAT -e+/- configuration have taken place. During the period of this grant major accomplishments included the following: (1) Publication of the first results of the 1994 HEAT-e+/- flight in Physical Review Letters; (2) Successful reflight of the HEAT-e+/- payload from Lynn Lake in August 1995; (3) Repair and refurbishment of the elements of the HEAT payload damaged during the landing following the 1995 flight; and (4) Upgrade of the ground support equipment for future flights of the HEAT payload.

  20. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  1. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fedkiw, Peter [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Khan, Saad [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huang, Alex [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Fan, Jiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  2. Virtual photon interactions in high energy QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieseke, S.

    2001-07-01

    We study the interactions of virtual photons in the high energy limit of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The subject is discussed in terms of two closely linked applications: the calculation of the total cross section for γ * γ * -scattering and the description of DIS in the colour dipole model. We calculate virtual corrections in α s to the process γ * q → (qq)q and the tree level process γ * q → (qqg)q in the high energy limit. From this calculation we obtain one-loop corrections to the effective γ * -reggeon-qq-vertex in the helicity basis of the virtual photon and the qq-pair. The loop integrals for the virtual corrections have been performed and expressed in dimensional regularization in terms of logarithms and dilogarithms. We have convoluted the virtual one-loop matrix elements with tree level matrix elements and expressed the integrals over the phase space of the qq-pair explicitly in terms of a set of standard integrals. The real corrections have been calculated and, in case of the longitudinal polarization, expressed in factorized form. From these calculations, the impact factor of virtual photons will be determined, allowing for a first prediction of the total cross section for γ * γ * -scattering in the next-to-leading-log s approximation. The calculations in this thesis extend the photon wave function picture in the colour dipole model to next-to-leading order. For this purpose, the real corrections with a qqg final state are analyzed in transverse configuration space and interpreted as a first higher Fock component of the photon wave function. In addition, the matrix elements that have been calculated in this thesis are needed for the calculation of jet cross sections. (orig.)

  3. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  4. Braking News: the Link between Crash Severity and Crash Avoidance Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    the ordered-response nature of severity while allowing for changes in effects across severity levels. The data sample for estimation consists of single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the period 2005-2009. Results show the correlation between crash...... severity. These trends suggest that effort should be posed toward understanding the reaction mechanisms to different critical events, improving in-vehicle warning systems, promoting responsible driving behavior, and designing forgiving infrastructures....

  5. Foldable, High Energy Density Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Shravan

    Lithium Ion Batteries (LIBs) have become ubiquitous owing to its low cost, high energy density and, power density. Due to these advantages, LIBs have garnered a lot of attention as the primary energy storage devices in consumer electronics and electric vehicles. Recent advances in the consumer electronics research and, the drive to reduce greenhouse gases have created a demand for a shape conformable, high energy density batteries. This thesis focuses on the aforementioned two aspects of LIBs: (a) shape conformability (b) energy density and provides potential solutions to enhance them. This thesis is divided into two parts viz. (i) achieving foldability in batteries and, (ii) improving its energy density. Conventional LIBs are not shape conformable due to two limitations viz. inelasticity of metallic foils, and delamination of the active materials while bending. In the first part of the thesis (in Chapter 3), this problem is solved by replacing metallic current collector with Carbon Nanotube Macrofilms (CNMs). CNMs are superelastic films comprising of porous interconnected nanotube network. Using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation, we found that in the presence of an interconnected nanotube network CNMs can be fully folded. This is because the resultant stress due to bending and, the effective bending angle at the interface is reduced due to the network of nanotubes. Hence, unlike an isolated nanotube (which ruptures beyond 120 degrees of bending), a network of nanotubes can be completely folded. Thus, by replacing metallic current collector foils with CNMs, the flexibility limitation of a conventional LIB can be transcended. The second part of this thesis focusses on enhancing the energy density of LIBs. Two strategies adopted to achieve this goal are (a) removing the dead weight of the batteries, and (b) incorporating high energy density electrode materials. By incorporating CNMs, the weight of the batteries was reduced by 5-10 times due to low mass loading of

  6. Report of the Subpanel on High Energy Physics Manpower of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A report of a study by a Subpanel which was appointed by the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to examine the production in recent years of new researchers in high energy physics and the rate at which they have moved into short term and permanent positions in the field. The Subpanel made use of the 1973 and 1975 ERDA Census data, statistics collected by others, as well as a number of surveys conducted by the Subpanel itself. Even though many uncertainties and gaps exist in the available data, several important points are presented. (1) New Ph.D. production in high energy physics has decreased in recent years even more rapidly than in physics as a whole. (2) New Ph.D.'s in experimental and theoretical high energy physics have been produced for many years in roughly equal numbers in spite of the fact that employment in the field at all levels shows a ratio of experiment-to-theory approaching two-to-one. (3) A very large fraction of the approximately 1700 Ph.D.'s in high energy physics (employed at 78 universities and 5 national laboratories) hold tenured positions (383 theorists and 640 experimentalists). (4) The age distribution of those in the tenured ranks reveals that the number of retirements will be extremely small during the next decade but will then start to have a significant impact on the opportunities for those who are seeking careers in the field. (5) Promotions to tenure at the universities during the 4 year interval AY72/73-AY76/77 have averaged about 10 per year in experiment and 10 per year in theory

  7. Networking for High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harvey B.

    2007-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the status and outlook for the world's research networks and major international links used by the high energy physics and other scientific communities, network technology advances on which our community depends and in which we have an increasingly important role, and the problem of the Digital Divide, which is a primary focus of ICFA's Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC). Wide area networks of sufficient, and rapidly increasing end-to-end capability are vital for every phase of high energy physicists' work. Our bandwidth usage, and the typical capacity of the major national backbones and intercontinental links used by our field have progressed by a factor of more than 1000 over the past decade, and the outlook is for a similar increase over the next decade. This striking exponential growth trend, outstripping the growth rates in other areas of information technology, has continued in the past year, with many of the major national, continental and transoceanic networks supporting research and education progressing from a 10 Gigabits/sec (Gbps) backbone to multiple 10 Gbps links in their core. This is complemented by the use of point-to-point "light paths" to support the most demanding applications, including high energy physics, in a growing list of cases. As we approach the era of LHC physics, the growing need to access and transport Terabyte-scale and later 10 to 100 Terabyte datasets among more than 100 "Tier1" and "Tier2" centers at universities and laboratories spread throughout the world has brought the key role of networks, and the ongoing need for their development, sharply into focus. Bandwidth itself on an increasing scale is not enough. Realizing the scientific wealth of the LHC and our other major scientific programs depends crucially on our ability to use the bandwidth efficiently and reliably, with reliable high rates of data throughput, and effectively, where many parallel large-scale data

  8. Medicolegal aspects of the Thai Airbus crash near Kathmandu, Nepal: findings of the investigating pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, R; Vanezis, P

    1998-06-01

    A Thai Airbus, carrying 99 passengers and 14 crew members, traveling from Bangkok to Kathmandu, hit a mountain and crashed several minutes before landing. There were no survivors. Recovered human remains, none of which was easily identifiable, varied in size from a small piece of muscle to mutilated bodies. Of the 97 fragments, only 15 were sufficiently intact (albeit, only partially) to be designated as "bodies." Of the fragments and "bodies," only 11 were positively identified. Causes of death, although all traumatic, could not be stated accurately due to the degree of disintegration. Identification of human remains in these circumstances is a major problem for the pathologist.

  9. High Energy Colliders and Hidden Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Asaf Jeff

    This thesis explores two dominant frontiers of theoretical physics, high energy colliders and hidden sectors. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is just starting to reach its maximum operational capabilities. However, already with the current data, large classes of models are being put under significant pressure. It is crucial to understand whether the (thus far) null results are a consequence of a lack of solution to the hierarchy problem around the weak scale or requires expanding the search strategy employed at the LHC. It is the duty of the current generation of physicists to design new searches to ensure that no stone is left unturned. To this end, we study the sensitivity of the LHC to the couplings in the Standard Model top sector. We find it can significantly improve the measurements on ZtRtR coupling by a novel search strategy, making use of an implied unitarity violation in such models. Analogously, we show that other couplings in the top sector can also be measured with the same technique. Furthermore, we critically analyze a set of anomalies in the LHC data and how they may appear from consistent UV completions. We also propose a technique to measure lifetimes of new colored particles with non-trivial spin. While the high energy frontier will continue to take data, it is likely the only collider of its kind for the next couple decades. On the other hand, low-energy experiments have a promising future with many new proposed experiments to probe the existence of particles well below the weak scale but with small couplings to the Standard Model. In this work we survey the different possibilities, focusingon the constraints as well as possible new hidden sector dynamics. In particular, we show that vector portals which couple to an anomalous current, e.g., baryon number, are significantly constrained from flavor changing meson decays and rare Z decays. Furthermore, we present a new mechanism for dark matter freezeout which depletes the dark sector through an

  10. Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Large Truck* Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) is based on a three-year data collection project conducted by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)...

  11. Economic Cost of Crashes in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Idaho Transportation Departments Office of Highway Safety contracted with Cambridge Systematics (CS) for an assessment of the feasibility of calculating the Idaho-specific economic and comprehensive costs associated with vehicle crashes. Resea...

  12. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.

  13. Exploring cycle crash characteristics in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the cycle road crash trend, characteristics and injuries in Malaysia. It analyses the in-depth road crash investigation data collected by the Royal Malaysian Police which was made available to MIROS crash database. Fatality data was utilized due to its consistency. Cycle casualties reflected a continual downward pattern for year 2009 to 2014 in which the number of cycle crash involvement reduced by 49% and fatalities dropped by 42%. Among the prevalent factors of cycle fatalities are >60 age group, federal and state roads and straight road sections, rural and small towns, evening peak hours, and mainly involving cars and motorcycles. It is hoped that all these information would spark interests to improve cycle safety in Malaysia.

  14. Conference summary on new trends in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    2001-01-01

    Concluding remarks on over forty papers contributed to the International Conference on New Trends in High-Energy Physics, Yalta, Crimea, Ukraine, September 22 - 29, 2001 are presented. Also presented are some comments on future prospects in high energy physics

  15. Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    This is the final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0006389, "Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier", describing research accomplishments by the PI in the field of theoretical high energy physics.

  16. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine Benn

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared...... vehicle crashes throughout the follow-up period. This study suggests that syncope should be considered as one of several factors in a broad assessment of fitness to drive....

  17. Multinational Corporations and Stock Price Crash Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony May

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A nascent literature in finance and accounting on tail risk in individual stock returns concludes that bad news hoarding by corporate managers engenders sudden, extreme crashes in a firm’s stock price when the bad news is eventually made public. This literature finds that firm-specific crash risk is higher among firms with more severe asymmetric information and agency problems. A hitherto disjointed literature spanning the fields of international business, finance, and accounting suggests that geographic dispersion in a firm’s operations, and especially dispersion across different countries, gives rise to organizational complexities and greater costs of monitoring that can exacerbate asymmetric information and agency problems. Motivated by the confluence of arguments and findings from these two strands of literature, this paper examines whether stock price crash risk is higher among multinational firms than domestic firms. Using a large sample of U.S. headquartered firms during 1987-2011, we find robust evidence that multinational firms are significantly more likely to crash than domestic firms. Moreover, we show that the difference in crash risk between multinational and domestic firms is most acute among firms with weaker corporate governance mechanisms, including weaker shareholder rights, less independent boards, and less stable institutional ownership. Our analysis indicates that stronger monitoring from each of these three governance mechanisms significantly attenuates the positive relation between crash risk and multinationality. Our findings are robust to the use of alternative measures of crash risk and to controlling for known determinants of crash risk identified in prior studies. Our study offers new insights that should hold value for scholars and market participants interested in understanding the implications of heighted agency problems that multinational firms are likely to encounter and scholars and market participants

  18. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  19. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  20. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S P; Jamieson, D N; Nugent, K W; Prawer, S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e + e - and μ + μ - colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained

  3. High Energy Electron Detectors on Sphinx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Porte, A.; Zucchini, F.; Calamy, H.; Auriel, G.; Coleman, P. L.; Bayol, F.; Lalle, B.; Krishnan, M.; Wilson, K.

    2008-11-01

    Z-pinch plasma radiation sources are used to dose test objects with K-shell (˜1-4keV) x-rays. The implosion physics can produce high energy electrons (> 50keV), which could distort interpretation of the soft x-ray effects. We describe the design and implementation of a diagnostic suite to characterize the electron environment of Al wire and Ar gas puff z-pinches on Sphinx. The design used ITS calculations to model detector response to both soft x-rays and electrons and help set upper bounds to the spurious electron flux. Strategies to discriminate between the known soft x-ray emission and the suspected electron flux will be discussed. H.Calamy et al, ``Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion,'' Phys Plasmas 15, 012701 (2008) J.A.Halbleib et al, ``ITS: the integrated TIGER series of electron/photon transport codes-Version 3.0,'' IEEE Trans on Nuclear Sci, 39, 1025 (1992)

  4. Supersimplicity: a Remarkable High Energy SUSY Property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gounaris, G.J.; Renard, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is known that for any 2-to-2 process in MSSM, only the helicity conserving (HC) amplitudes survive asymptotically. Studying many such processes, at the 1-loop Electroweak (EW) order, it is found that their high energy HC amplitudes are determined by just three forms: a log-squared function of the ratio of two of the (s, t, u) variables, to which a π 2 is added; and two Sudakov-like ln- and ln 2 -terms accompanied by respective mass-dependent constants. Apart from a possible additional residual constant (which is also discussed), these HC amplitudes, may be expressed as linear combinations of the above three forms, with coefficients being rational functions of the (s, t, u) variables. This 1-loop property, called supersimplicity, is of course claimed for the 2-to-2 processes considered; but no violating examples are known at present. For ug → dW, supersimplicity is found to be a very good approximation at LHC energies, provided the SUSY scale is not too high. SM processes are also discussed, and their differences are explored. (authors)

  5. Pattern recognition in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenner, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    In high energy physics experiments tracks of elementary particles are recorded by different types of equipment. Coordinates of points of these tracks have to be measured for the geometrical reconstruction and the further analysis of the observed events. Pattern recognition methods may facilitate the detection of tracks or whole events and the separation of relevant from non-relevant information. They may also serve for the automation of measurement. Generally, all work is done by digital computation. In a bubble chamber tracks appear as strings of vapour bubbles that can be recorded photographically. Two methods of pattern recognition are discussed. The flying spot digitizer encodes the pattern on the photograph into point coordinates in the memory of a computer. The computer carries out the pattern recognition procedure entirely on the basis of the stored information. Cathode ray instruments scan the photograph by means of a computer steered optical device. Data acquisition from the film is performed in a feedback loop of the computation. In electronic experimental equipment tracks are defined by the spacial distribution of hits of counters (wire counters, scintillation counters, spark chambers). Pattern recognition is generally performed in various stages both by on-line and off-line equipment. Problems in the data handling arise both from the great abundance of data and from the time limits imposed on the on-line computation by high measuring rates. The on-line computation is carried out by hardwired logic, small computers, and to an increasing extent by microprocessors. (Auth.)

  6. Using REDUCE in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozin, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This book describes the use of the symbolic manipulation language REDUCE in particle physics. There are several general purpose mathematics packages available to physicists, including Mathematica, Maple, and REDUCE. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but REDUCE has been found to be both powerful and convenient in solving a wide range of problems. This book introduces the reader to REDUCE and demonstrates its utility as a mathematical tool in physics. The first chapter of the book describes the REDUCE system, including some library packages. The following chapters show the use of REDUCE in examples from classical mechanics, hydrodynamics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. The rest of the book systematically presents the Standard Model of particle physics (QED, weak interactions, QCD). A large number of scattering and decay processes are calculated with REDUCE. All example programs from the book can be downloaded via Internet. The emphasis throughout is on learning through worked examples. This will be an essential introduction and reference for high energy and theoretical physicists. (author)

  7. Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter

    1999-01-01

    Bibliographic databases were developed from the traditional library card catalogue in order to enable users to access library documents via various types of bibliographic information, such as title, author, series or conference date. In addition these catalogues sometimes contained some form of indexation by subject, such as the Universal (or Dewey) Decimal Classification used for books. With the introduction of the eprint archives, set up by the High Energy Physics (HEP) Community in the early 90s, huge collections of documents in several fields have been made available on the World Wide Web. These developments however have not yet been followed up from a keywording point of view. We will see in this paper how important it is to attribute keywords to all documents in the area of HEP Grey Literature. As libraries are facing a future with less and less manpower available and more and more documents, we will explore the possibility of being helped by automatic classification software. We will specifically menti...

  8. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering was determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the frame-work of the quark-proton model

  9. Balance Function in High-Energy Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, A.; Shalaby, Asmaa G.

    2015-01-01

    Aspects and implications of the balance functions (BF) in high-energy physics are reviewed. The various calculations and measurements depending on different quantities, for example, system size, collisions centrality, and beam energy, are discussed. First, the different definitions including advantages and even short-comings are highlighted. It is found that BF, which are mainly presented in terms of relative rapidity, and relative azimuthal and invariant relative momentum, are sensitive to the interaction centrality but not to the beam energy and can be used in estimating the hadronization time and the hadron-quark phase transition. Furthermore, the quark chemistry can be determined. The chemical evolution of the new-state-of-matter, the quark-gluon plasma, and its temporal-spatial evolution, femtoscopy of two-particle correlations, are accessible. The production time of positive-negative pair of charges can be determined from the widths of BF. Due to the reduction in the diffusion time, narrowed widths refer to delayed hadronization. It is concluded that BF are powerful tools characterizing hadron-quark phase transition and estimating some essential properties

  10. Spin structure in high energy processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePorcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers as the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z{sup 0}s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer`s guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b {yields} sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  11. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-12-31

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained.

  12. Precision probes of QCD at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioli, Simone; Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2017-07-01

    New physics, that is too heavy to be produced directly, can leave measurable imprints on the tails of kinematic distributions at the LHC. We use energetic QCD processes to perform novel measurements of the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory. We show that the dijet invariant mass spectrum, and the inclusive jet transverse momentum spectrum, are sensitive to a dimension 6 operator that modifies the gluon propagator at high energies. The dominant effect is constructive or destructive interference with SM jet production. We compare differential next-to-leading order predictions from POWHEG to public 7 TeV jet data, including scale, PDF, and experimental uncertainties and their respective correlations. We constrain a New Physics (NP) scale of 3.5 TeV with current data. We project the reach of future 13 and 100 TeV measurements, which we estimate to be sensitive to NP scales of 8 and 60 TeV, respectively. As an application, we apply our bounds to constrain heavy vector octet colorons that couple to the QCD current. We project that effective operators will surpass bump hunts, in terms of coloron mass reach, even for sequential couplings.

  13. High energy physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1982-01-01

    The high energy plans at BNL are centered around the AGS and ISABELLE, or a variant thereof. At present the AGS is maintaining a strong and varied program. This last year a total of 4 x 10 19 protons were delivered on target in a period of approximately 20 weeks. Physics interest is very strong, half of the submitted proposals are rejected (thereby maintaining high quality experiments) and the program is full over the next two years. The future colliding beam facility will utilize the AGS as an injector and will be a dedicated facility. It will have six intersection regions, run > 10 7 sec/year, and explore a new domain of energy and luminosity. Common to all the considered alternatives is a large aperture proton ring. These possible choices involve pp, ep, and heavy ion variants. The long term philosophy is to run the AGS as much as possible, continuously to upgrade it in performance and reliability, and then to phase it down as the new collider begins operation

  14. Hadron production in high energy muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering is determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the framework of the quark-parton model. 29 references

  15. An experimental high energy physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The CLEO detector accumulated, (∼480,000 B-mesons) the world's largest sample of B decays, before being shutdown in May 1988 for the installation of CLEO II. This data sample came from 335 pb -1 accumulated at the Υ(4S). The Cornell Electron Storage Ring set new luminosity records, reaching 3.5 pb -1 in a single day. These data are being intensively analyzed and 21 papers were given at the Baltimore APS meeting. Among the highlights are: confirmation of B 0 bar B 0 mixing; discovery of the charm-strange baryon Ξ c 0 ; limits on b → u decay; and non-observation of B → p bar pπ(π), which was reported by the ARGUS collaboration. The construction of CLEO II is proceeding on schedule. The new 1.5 T superconducting magnet has passed all tests and all of the detector elements have been installed. This includes a 7800 CsI crystals electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The data from the Gamma Ray Astrophysics experiment show a significant signal for high energy gamma ray emission from Cygnus X-3 and also confirm the previously reported anomalous period from Her X-1. Meanwhile, the old 6 mirror telescope has been refitted with 26 high resolution mirrors and improved fast electronics. GRANDE, the next generation detector based on the water Cherenkov technique, has been formally proposed to HEPAP. The detector will search for neutrino emission in the southern hemisphere and gamma radiation in the northern hemisphere

  16. Colloquia on High Energy Physics: IFAE 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barion, L.; Bozzi, C.; Fioravanti, E.; Pagliara, G; Ricci, B.

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 edition of the 'Incontri di Fisica delle Alte Energie' (IFAE2012) was held at the Aula Magna del Rettorato of the Ferrara University from April 11th to 13th. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants, with about 75 presentations and 35 posters covering the most recent advances in High Energy Physics, Astroparticle and Neutrino Physics, Heavy Ions and Detection Techniques. Only plenary sessions were held, giving young researchers the opportunity to present their work to a large audience, either with talks or posters, which were on permanent display during the entire conference. The scientific program was organized in 7 sessions: 1-Standard Model and beyond; 2-QCD; 3-Heavy Flavour; 4-Heavy Ions; 5-Astro particles; 6-Neutrino Physics; 7-New Technologies. Introductory, state-of-the art talks, opened the Conference and each session. More detailed talks followed, stimulating lively discussions and interactions between the speakers and the participants. Three talks and two posters by young researchers (Matteo Biassoni, Roberta Cardinale, Stefano Perazzini, Federica Primavera and Laura Zotti) were selected for their high quality and awarded a prize money. It would not have been possible to held this conference without the support of INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Universita' di Ferrara and the generous contributions of Hamamatsu, Caen, National Instruments and AdvanSiD, whom we gratefully acknowledge.

  17. Spin structure in high energy processes: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePorcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers as the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z 0 s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ( 3 HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer's guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b → sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  18. Topics in calorimetry for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1992-01-01

    These lectures focus on a series of topics now of interest or which have been of interest to designes of calorimeters in the past few years. The examples concentrate on calorimeters from DESY because its focus this year is on e-P physics, and on CDF and SDC because they are best known to the author. Calorimeters are, broadly speaking, devices to measure the total energy of particles. In general, no one device will be optimal for all types of particles. The two broadest classes of calorimeters in high energy physics are the electromagnetic calorimeters used primarily for photons and electrons, and the hadronic calorimeters used for most charged mesons and baryons. Most operate by absorbing and thereby measuring a significant amount of the incoming particles energy directly. Some particles may require special devices for their interactions and observation. Modern calorimeters are characterized by energy and position resolution, and cost and size. Calorimeter cost is often a trade-off between performance desired and money available. The optimum cost will require a careful choice of materials, reduction of the overall size of the detector, elimination of labor intensive construction techniques, and careful consideration of the cost of calibration systems. Since at least some of these requirements which optimize cost and resolution are contradictory, the ideal calorimeter in seldom what one ends up building

  19. Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Smith, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    At our current understanding of elementary particle physics, the fundamental constituents are the photon, quarks, gluons and leptons with a few highly forecasted heavy bosons. Calorimeters are essential for detecting all of these particles. Quarks and gluons fragment into many particles - at high energies, so many particles that one may not want to measure each one separately. This group of both charged and neutral particles can only be measured by calorimeters. The energy of an electron needs to be measured by a calorimeter and muon identification is enhanced by the recognition of a minimum ionizing particle passing through the calorimeter. Sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers - are reviewed. What follows is a very cursory overview of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First, the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then, examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described. 21 references

  20. High-Energy Beam Transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Farrell, J.A.; Liska, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to be installed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) at Richland, Washington. The linear accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power, continuous-duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread either to a lithium target or a beam stop. A periodic quadrupole and bending-magnet system provides the beam transport and focusing on target with small beam aberrations. A special rf cavity distributes the energy in the beam so that the Bragg Peak is distributed within the lithium target. Operation of the rf control system, the Energy Dispersion Cavity (EDC), and the beam transport magnets is tested on the beam stop during accelerator turn-on. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostic techniques and noninterceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports using a cluster system to simplify maintenance and alignment techniques

  1. Thermonuclear model for high energy transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The thermonuclear model for x- and γ-ray bursts is discussed. Different regimes of nuclear burning are reviewed, each appropriate to a given range of (steady state) accretion rate. Accretion rates in the range 10 -14 to 10 -8 Msub solar y -1 all appear capable of producing x-ray transients of various durations and intervals. Modifications introduced by radiatively driven mass loss, the thermal inertia of the envelope, different burning mechanisms, and two-dimensional considerations are discussed as are difficulties encountered when the thermonuclear model is confronted with observations of rapidly recurrent bursts (less than or equal to 10 min), and super-Eddington luminosities and temperatures. Results from a numerical simulation of a combined hydrogen-helium runaway initiated at pycnonuclear density are presented for the first time. The thermonuclear model for γ-ray bursts is also reviewed and updated, particularly with regard to the breakdown of the steady state hypothesis employed in previous work. Solely on the basis of nuclear instability, γ-ray bursts of various types appear possible for a very broad variety of accretion rates (approx. 10 -17 to approx. 10 -11 Msub solar y -1 ) although other considerations may restrict this range. The thermonuclear model appears capable of yielding a great diversity of high energy transient phenomena for various accretion rates, magnetic field configurations, and neutron star envelope histories

  2. Relationship of Near-Crash/Crash Risk to Time Spent on a Cell Phone While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine in a naturalistic driving setting the dose-response relationship between cell phone usage while driving and risk of a crash or near crash. How is the increasing use of cell phones by drivers associated with overall near-crash/crash risk (i.e., during driving times both on and off the phone)? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. A random sample was selected comprised of 4 trips from each month that each driver was in the study, and in-vehicle video was used to classify driver behavior. The proportion of driving time spent using a cell phone was estimated for each 3-month period and correlated with overall crash and near-crash rates for each period. Thus, it was possible to test whether changes in an individual driver's cell phone use over time were associated with changes in overall near-crash/crash risk. Drivers in the study spent 11.7% of their driving time interacting with a cell phone, primarily talking on the phone (6.5%) or simply holding the phone in their hand or lap (3.7%). The risk of a near-crash/crash event was approximately 17% higher when the driver was interacting with a cell phone, due primarily to actions of reaching for/answering/dialing, which nearly triples risk (relative risk = 2.84). However, the amount of driving time spent interacting with a cell phone did not affect a driver's overall near-crash/crash risk. Vehicle speeds within 6 s of the beginning of each call on average were 5-6 mph lower than speeds at other times. Results of this naturalistic driving study are consistent with the observation that increasing cell phone use in the general driving population has not led to increased crash rates. Although cell phone use can be distracting and crashes have occurred during this distraction, overall crash rates appear unaffected by changes in the rate of cell phone use, even for individual drivers. Drivers compensate somewhat for the distraction

  3. 78 FR 50405 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of..., General Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel will... Sciences Directorate (NSF), on long-range planning and priorities in the national high-energy physics...

  4. 76 FR 53119 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... hereby given that the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel will be renewed for a two-year period, beginning...-range planning and priorities in the national High Energy Physics program. Additionally, the renewal of...

  5. The trend of road traffic crashes at urban signalised intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana Nasarrudin, Nurul; Razelan, Intan Suhana Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Road traffic crash is one of the main contributing factors for deaths in the world. Intersection is listed as the second road type which road crashes occurred frequently. Hence, the traffic light was installed to minimise the road crashes at intersection. However, the crashes are still occurring and arising. The objective of this study was to exhibit the trend of road crashes at the signalised intersections. The data of road crashes for the past 6 years were analysed using descriptive analysis. The results showed that the road traffic crashes at three- and four-legged signalised intersection recorded the increasing trend. In conclusion, this finding shows that the road traffic crashes for these types of signalised intersection in Malaysia is rising. It is also one the contributors to the increasing number of crashes in Malaysia. This finding will encourage the local authority to conduct awareness programs on the safety at the signalised intersection.

  6. Crash test rating and likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury in motor vehicle crashes: the new car assessment program side-impact crash test, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  7. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Angel M. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    2015-10-27

    For the period of sixteen years covered by this report (June 1, 1997 - July 31, 2013) the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Puerto Rico’s Mayaguez Campus (UPRM) carried out an extensive research program that included major experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Cornell Electron-positron Collider and CERN. In particular, these were E831 (FOCUS) at Fermilab, CLEOc at Cornell and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The group’s history is one of successful execution and growth. Beginning with one faculty researcher in 1985, it eventually included four faculty researchers, one post-doctoral research associate, two undergraduates and as many as six graduate students at one time working on one of the experiments that discovered the Higgs boson. Some of this expansion was due to the group’s leveraging of funds from the Department of Energy’s core grant to attract funds from National Science Foundation programs not targeted to high energy physics. Besides the group’s research productivity, its other major contribution was the training of a large number of MS students who later went on to successful technical careers in industry as well as academia including many who obtained PhD degrees at US universities. In an attempt to document this history, this final report gives a general description of the Group’s work prior to June 1, 2010, the starting date for the last grant renewal period. Much more detail can, of course, be found in the annual reports submitted up to that date. The work during the last grant period is discussed in detail in a separate section. To summarize the group’s scientific accomplishments, one can point to the results of the experiments. Both FOCUS and CLEOc were designed to carry out precise measurements of processes involving the heavy quarks, charm and bottom. Heavy quarks are particularly interesting because, due to their mass, theoretical calculations

  8. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  9. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Angel M.

    2015-01-01

    For the period of sixteen years covered by this report (June 1, 1997 - July 31, 2013) the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Puerto Rico's Mayaguez Campus (UPRM) carried out an extensive research program that included major experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Cornell Electron-positron Collider and CERN. In particular, these were E831 (FOCUS) at Fermilab, CLEOc at Cornell and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The group's history is one of successful execution and growth. Beginning with one faculty researcher in 1985, it eventually included four faculty researchers, one post-doctoral research associate, two undergraduates and as many as six graduate students at one time working on one of the experiments that discovered the Higgs boson. Some of this expansion was due to the group's leveraging of funds from the Department of Energy's core grant to attract funds from National Science Foundation programs not targeted to high energy physics. Besides the group's research productivity, its other major contribution was the training of a large number of MS students who later went on to successful technical careers in industry as well as academia including many who obtained PhD degrees at US universities. In an attempt to document this history, this final report gives a general description of the Group's work prior to June 1, 2010, the starting date for the last grant renewal period. Much more detail can, of course, be found in the annual reports submitted up to that date. The work during the last grant period is discussed in detail in a separate section. To summarize the group's scientific accomplishments, one can point to the results of the experiments. Both FOCUS and CLEOc were designed to carry out precise measurements of processes involving the heavy quarks, charm and bottom. Heavy quarks are particularly interesting because, due to their mass

  10. Emulsion polymerization with high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy radiation, particularly that of cobalt-60 or caesium-137 gamma-rays, provides in principle an ideal initiator for emulsion polymerization. The high free radical yields from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase combined with the high kinetic chain lengths associated with emulsion polymerization lead to a highly effective utilization of the radiation. There are other important advantages compared with the use of chemical initiators such as potassium persulfate. These are outlined in the chapter, together with some attendant disadvantages. Radiation-induced initiation is temperature independent, and low temperature polymerizations can be conducted with ease. Monomers that mainly terminate their growing chains by chain transfer to monomer give higher molecular weights at lower temperatures. Industrially, vinyl acetate is an important example of such a monomer, and it has been studied using radiation initiation. Both laboratory and pilot plant studies have been carried out and reported. The results are summarized in this chapter. Styrene is the classical example of a material that under a number of conditions closely obeys the so-called ideal Smith-Ewart kinetics. It has been found that under similar conditions but substituting radiation for potassium persulfate as the initiator, ideal kinetics were closely followed. Most of the conventional and some non-standard vinyl and diene monomers have been studied to some extent with radiation-initiated polymerizations in emulsion. To conserve space however, this chapter presents and discusses the results obtained only with styrene and vinyl acetate, both in laboratory and pilot plant investigations. Other monomers and special situations are referenced either directly or to the other available reviews. (orig.)

  11. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. The effort in quantum field theory provides theoretical results to test or replace assumed ingredients of the QCM. By the explicit example of a scalar field theory in 2D we have solved the long-standing problem of how to treat the dynamics of the vacuum in light-front quantization. We now propose to solve the same problem for simple Fermion field theories in 2D such as the Gross-Neveu model. We propose in subsequent years to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We have completed our analysis of the SLAC E101 and E133 experiments on Deuterium to elucidate the degree to which a six-quark cluster contribution is admissable in the Bjorken x > 1 data. We have completed our development of a parameterized thermal liquid drop model for light nuclei. In addition we have completed a set of predictions for the formation of a ''nuclear stratosphere'' in nuclei created by intermediate energy heavy ion interactions. These results motivate a new investigation of the temperature dependence of the ion-ion potential with particular emphasis on the thermal dependence of the barrier height and radius. We have also shown that a consistent treatment of relativistic effects is important for a theoretical description of the elastic magnetic form factor of 17 O. 85 refs

  12. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. We have solved a non-trivial model field theory in the strong coupling regime using a discretized light front quantization (DLFQ) scheme. The method we developed expands upon the method of Pauli and Brodsky by incorporating a dynamical treatment of the vacuum. This is a major result since we have shown directly that the light-cone vacuum is not structureless as has been traditionally claimed by some particle theorists. We have thus succeeded in elucidating the consequences of spontaneous symmetry breaking in light-cone quantization. We now propose to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We will complete our analysis of the SLAC NE3 data to explicate the degree to which they confirm the QCM prediction of ''steps'' in the ratio of nuclear structure functions when Bjorken x exceeds unity. In another effort, we will perform a search for narrow resonances in electron-positron interactions high in the continuum using the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We have completed our development of microscopic effective Hamiltonians for nuclear structure which include the explicit treatment of delta resonances. These effective Hamiltonians were successfully used in constrained mean field calculations evaluating conditions for nuclei to undergo a transition from nucleon matter to delta matter. 73 refs

  13. High-energy symmetries of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jenchi.

    1990-01-01

    The author studies the high-energy symmetry structure of string theory corresponding to the massive excitations of the string. These enlarged gauge symmetries are closely related to the existence of zero-norm states in the string spectrum. He has derived these symmetries in the framework of the Hamiltonian version of the first-quantized generalized σ-model formalism. It is conjectured that these infinite space-time symmetry structures could shed light on the finiteness of string perturbation theory. Two interesting phenomena were discovered for these massive states symmetries. One is the inter-'spin' symmetry for the different 'spin' states at each fixed mass level. Specifically, the four physical propagating states with 'spins' up to six of the second massive level of the closed bosonic string are found to form a large gauge multiplet. This is demonstrated by the existence of gauge transformations induced by the type II zero-norm states at this mass level. It is argued that this is a σ-model three loop result for the second massive level and is a general feature for higher massive levels at each fixed mass. The other one is the decoupling of some degenerate positive-norm states. As an example, he explicitly demonstrates that the 'spin' two and scalar physical propagating fields of the third massive level of the open bosonic string are mere gauge artifacts of the higher 'spin' fields at the same mass level. It is conjectured that this phenomenon comes from the well-known ambiguity in defining the positive-norm states due to the existence of zero-norm states in the same Young representation

  14. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  15. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  16. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; Le Diberder, Francois; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; Bellis, Matt; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; Lucchesi, Donatella; Denisov, Dmitri; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Li, Qizhong; Varnes, Erich; Jonckheere, Alan; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  17. Department of High Energy Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassalski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The main activity of our Department is experimental high energy physics with accelerators. Experiments are carried using large facilities: - at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, - at Celsius Storage Ring in Uppsala and - in DESY laboratory in Hamburg, where several groups of physicists from our Department are members of international collaborations. They are listed below together with the main physics interests: At CERN - Delphi at LEP - tests of the Standard Model, b-quark physics, SUSY search, - NA48 - CP-violation in K 0 decays, rare decays, - SMC - spin dependent nucleon structure function, the Bjorken sum, - NA49 and WA98 - heavy ion physics. At CELSIUS - WASA - threshold production of light mesons, rare meson decays. At DESY - ZEUS - proton and photon structure functions, diffractive production. In most of these experiments our Department also contributed to the instrumentation of detectors and is presently involved in data collection, detector supervision and in data analysis. At the same time the Department is also involved in preparation of new experiments: - CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and ALICE at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, - COMPASS (Compact Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) at the SPS at CERN, - WASA-Promice - an upgrade of the present detector at Celsius, - hyperfragment experiment at JINR, Dubna. The department has small workshop which was recently involved in an upgrade of the WASA detector. In our Department there are also two physicists working on the phenomenology of a quark-gluon plasma and on the low energy hadron-hadron interactions. Physicist from our Department collaborate with the Department of the Experimental Physics of Warsaw University. They are also involved in teaching and in supervision of diploma students. There is a group of 9 PhD students. (author)

  18. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  19. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  20. Development of the High Energy Linac Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Chung, Byung Chul; Jang, Ji Ho; Gao, Changgi; Li, Yingmin; Sun, An; Tang, Yazhe; Zhang, Lipoing; Hwang, Yong Seok

    2008-05-01

    The main purpose of this project is studying the extension plan of the proton engineering frontier project (PEFP) 100-MeV Linac. It includes three categories. One is studying operation plan of the PEFP linac and its extended accelerators, and developing a distribution system of 100-MeV proton beams with a laser striping. Other is designing superconducting RF (SRF) modules and fabricating and testing a copper cavity model. The other is designing a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The operation scheme of the PEFP linac is related to the optimization in the operation of the 100-MeV linac, 200-MeV SRF, and RCS. We studied several operational method to increase the validity of the accelerators. The beam distribution system has two roles. One is supplying proton beams of 100 MeV to the user group. The laser stripping of the negative hydrogen atoms is used in this case. The other beams are directed to the next high energy accelerators. This study contributes to increase the availability of the proton beams. The SRF is one of candidates to extend the PEFP linac system. Since the accelerating gradient of the SRF is much higher than the normal conducting accelerator, a lot of institutes over the world are developing the SRF structure. Main purposes are designing an SRF module, fabricating and testing an copper model which has similar material properties as Nb of the usual SRF cavity material. The RCS is a synchrotron whose injector is the PEFP 100-MeV linac. Main purposes are determining the lattice structure, studying the fast and slow extraction system, simulating beam behavior in the designed synchrotron. The RCS will be used as the spallation neutron source and tools in the basic and applied science including medical application

  1. Each Is in Different Circumstances Anyway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eastwood

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here a realist multilevel situational analysis of maternal depression. We use situational analysis to identify the interaction of mothers with social structures and the possible causal influence of those social structures on her well-being. The analysis moves from an emergent empirical approach toward the more reflexive and abductive approach of situational analysis, thus better informing our abductive reasoning and the generation of theory. Critical realism and symbolic interactionism provide the methodological underpinning for the study. The setting was South Western Sydney, Australia. Interviews of mothers and practitioners were analyzed using open coding to enable maximum emergence. Situational analysis was then undertaken using situational and social worlds/arena maps. Home and neighborhood situational analysis mapping and analysis of relations identified the following concepts: (a expectations and dreams, (b marginalization and being alone, (c loss or absence of power and control, and (d support and nurturing. The neighborhood and macro-arena situational analysis mapping and analysis of relations identified the following concepts: (a social support networks, social cohesion and social capital; (b services planning and delivery and social policy; and (c global economy, business, and media. Emerging was the centrality of being alone and expectations lost as possible triggers of stress and depression within circumstances where media portrays expectations of motherhood that are shattered by reality and social marginalization. We further observe that powerful global economic and political forces are having an impact on the local situations. The challenge for policy and practice is to support families within this adverse regional and global economic context.

  2. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on research conducted in “A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability” (Liu et al., 2016 [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, moderate, and minor injury levels, property damage only (PDO, and unknown. The crash data was further used to rank intersections by equivalent injury crash frequency. The top 200 intersections with the highest number of crash occurrences identified based on crash frequency- and severity-based scenarios are shared in this brief. The provided data would be a valuable source for research in urban traffic safety analysis and could also be utilized to examine the effectiveness of traffic safety improvement planning and programming, intersection design enhancement, incident and emergency management, and law enforcement strategies.

  3. Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes on arterial roads in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimate the average crash costs applicable to a wide range of road-barrier scenarios that involved three types of road barriers (concrete barriers, W-beam guardrails, and high-tension cable barriers) to produce a suitable basis for comparing barrier-oriented design alternatives and road improvements. The intention was to perform the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis allowed by the cross-sectional method and the crash data available in Indiana. To accomplish this objective and to use the available data efficiently, the effects of barrier were estimated on the frequency of barrier-relevant (BR) crashes, the types of harmful events and their occurrence during a BR crash, and the severity of BR crash outcomes. The harmful events component added depth to the analysis by connecting the crash onset with its outcome. Further improvement of the analysis was accomplished by considering the crash outcome severity of all the individuals involved in a crash and not just drivers, utilizing hospital data, and pairing the observations with and without road barriers along same or similar road segments to better control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study confirmed that the total number of BR crashes tended to be higher where medians had installed barriers, mainly due to collisions with barriers and, in some cases, with other vehicles after redirecting vehicles back to traffic. These undesirable effects of barriers were surpassed by the positive results of reducing cross-median crashes, rollover events, and collisions with roadside hazards. The average cost of a crash (unit cost) was reduced by 50% with cable barriers installed in medians wider than 50ft. A similar effect was concluded for concrete barriers and guardrails installed in medians narrower than 50ft. The studied roadside guardrails also reduced the unit cost by 20%-30%. Median cable barriers were found to be the most effective

  4. Department of High Energy Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowska, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:The activities of the Department of High Energy Physics are centered around experiments performed at accelerators in the following laboratories: * At CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland: - DELPHI at LEP e + e - storage ring - the tests of the Standard Model, b-quark physics, gamma-gamma interactions and search for Higgs boson and supersymmetric particles - NA48 - the CP-violation and rare K 0 decays - COMPASS (Compact Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) - studies the gluon polarization in the nucleon - NA49 and WA98 - heavy ion physics, looking for possible effects of the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma state. * At CELSIUS Storage Ring in Uppsala, Sweden: - WASA - a precise study of near threshold resonance production. * At DESY in Hamburg, Germany: - ZEUS - deep inelastic scattering of electrons and protons, proton structure functions, diffractive photon-proton interactions. * Super-Kamiokande and Icarus - neutrino mass and oscillations study. The groups of our Department participated in the construction phase of the experiments, both in hardware and in development of the software used in data analysis. Presently they take part in the data collection, detector performance supervision and data analysis. The Department is also actively involved in the preparation of new experiments: - CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) at the LHC, - LHCb (b-quark production and CP-violation) at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, - ALICE - experiment to study the heavy ion interactions at the LHC, - ICARUS - tests of a liquid argon TPC, in preparation, for neutrino beam (CERN to Gran Sasso), and to be used for cosmic neutrino detection, - study of charge exchange processes in d-p collisions at Nuclotron in Dubna. A mechanical workshop attached to our Department, participated in the construction of the prototypes for the alignment monitoring system for the Outer Tracker detector in the LHCb experiment. Now

  5. Department of High Energy Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowska, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Department of High Energy Physics are centered around experiments performed at accelerators in the following laboratories: - At CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland: - DELPHI at LEP e + e - storage ring - the tests of the Standard Model, b-quark physics, gamma-gamma interactions and search for Higgs boson and supersymmetric particles - NA48 - - the CP-violation and rare K 0 decays - COMPASS (Compact Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) - studies the gluon polarization in the nucleon - NA49 and WA98 - heavy ion physics, looking for possible effects of the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma state. - At CELSIUS Storage Ring in Uppsala, Sweden: - WASA - a precise study of near threshold resonance production. - At DESY in Hamburg, Germany: - ZEUS - deep inelastic scattering of electrons and protons, proton structure functions, diffractive photon-proton interactions. - Super-Kamiokande and Icarus - neutrino mass and oscillation studies. The groups of our Department participated in the construction phase of the experiments, both in hardware and in the development of the software used in data analysis. Presently they take part in data collection, detector performance supervision and data analysis. The Department is also involved in the preparation of new experiments: - CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) at the LHC, - LHCb (b-quark production and CP-violation) at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, - ALICE - experiment to study the heavy ion interactions at the LHC, - ICARUS - tests of a liquid argon TPC, in preparation, for neutrino beam (CERN to Gran Sasso), and to be used for cosmic neutrino detection, - the study of charge exchange processes in d-p collisions at Nuclotron in Dubna. A mechanical workshop attached to our Department participated in the construction of the prototypes for the alignment monitoring system for the Outer Tracker detector in the LHCb experiment. Now a

  6. Department of High Energy Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowska, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Department of High Energy Physics are centered around experiments performed at accelerators in the following laboratories: - At CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland: - DELPHI at LEP e + e - storage ring - the tests of the Standard Model, b-quark physics, gamma-gamma interactions and search for Higgs boson and supersymmetric particles; - NA4B - the CP-violation and rare K 0 decays; - COMPASS (Compact Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) - studies the gluon polarization in the nucleon; - NA49 and WA98 - heavy ion physics, looking for possible effects of the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma state. At CELSIUS Storage Ring in Uppsala, Sweden: - WASA - a precise study of near threshold resonance production. - At RHIC - study of pp elastic scattering. - At DESY in Hamburg, Germany: - ZEUS - deep inelastic scattering of electrons and protons, proton structure functions, diffractive photon-photon interactions. - Super-Kamiokande and K2 K - a study of neutrino oscillations. The groups from our Department participated in the construction phase of the experiments, both in hardware and in development of the software used in data analysis. Presently they take part in the data collection, detector performance supervision and data analysis. The Department is also involved in the preparation of new experiments: - search for optical flashes of cosmic origin: ''π of the sky'' project - search for optical counterparts of γ ray bursts, - CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) at the LHC, - LHCb (b-quark production and CP-violation) at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, - ALICE - experiment to study the heavy ion interactions at the LHC, - ICARUS - tests of a liquid argon TPC, in preparation for neutrino beam (CERN to Gran Sasso), and to be used for cosmic neutrino detection, - study of charge exchange processes in d-p collisions at Nuclotron in Dubna. A mechanical workshop attached to our

  7. Department of High Energy Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassalski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Department of High Energy Physics are centered around experiments performed at accelerators in the following laboratories: 1. At CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland: - DELPHI at LEP e + e - storage ring is concerned mainly with the tests of the Standard Model, b-quark physics, gamma-gamma interactions and search for Higgs boson and supersymmetric particles; - NA48 - studies of the CP-violation in rare K 0 decays; - SMC - Spin Muon Collaboration is investigating the spin dependent nucleon structure functions and the gluon role in the nucleon spin; - NA49 and WA98 deal with heavy ion physics looking for possible effects of the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma state. 2. At CELSIUS Storage Ring in Uppsala, Sweden: - WASA - the production of light mesons near threshold and their rare decays. 3. At DESY in Hamburg, Germany: - ZEUS - deep inelastic scattering of electrons and protons, proton structure functions, diffractive photon-proton interactions. The groups of our Department participated in the construction phase of the experiments, both in hardware and in development of the software used in data analysis. Presently they take part in the data acquisition, detector performance supervision and data analysis. The Department is also actively involved in the preparation of new experiments: - CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (b-quark production and CP-violation) at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, - ALICE - experiment to study the heavy ion interactions at the LHC, - COMPASS (Compact Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) at the SPS at CERN, - WASA-Promice - a new version of the WASA detector at CELSIUS in Uppsala, - relativistic hyperfragment production experiment in Dubna, Russia. A small mechanical workshop is attached to our Department. It is involved in the preparation of the COMPASS experiment and participated in the construction of the WASA - Promice

  8. Department of High Energy Physics: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowska, H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text:The activities of the Department of High Energy Physics are centered around experiments performed at accelerators in the following laboratories: At CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland: - DELPHI at LEP e + e - storage ring is concerned mainly with the tests of the Standard Model, b-quark physics, gamma-gamma interactions and search for Higgs boson and supersymmetric particles; - NA48 - studies of the CP-violation and rare K 0 decays; - SMC - Spin Muon Collaboration is investigating the spin dependent nucleon structure functions and the gluon role in the nucleon spin; - NA49 and WA98 deal with heavy ion physics looking for possible effects of the phase transition in the quark-gluon plasma state. At CELSIUS Storage Ring in Uppsala, Sweden: - WASA - a precise study of near threshold production of light mesons, and their decays. At DESY in Hamburg, Germany: - ZEUS - deep inelastic scattering of electrons and protons, proton structure functions, diffractive photon-proton interactions. The groups of our Department participated in the construction phase of the experiments, both in hardware and in development of the software used in data analysis. Presently they take part in the data collection, detector performance supervision and data analysis. The Department is also actively involved in the preparation of new experiments: - CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) and LHCb (b-quark production and CP-violation) at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN; - ALICE - experiment to study the heavy ion interactions at the LHC; - COMPASS (Compact Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) at the SPS at CERN; - WASA- 4π - commissioning of a new version of the WASA detector at CELSIUS in Uppsala; - study of charge exchange processes in d-p collisions at Nuclotron in Dubna. A small mechanical workshop is attached to our Department. It is involved in the preparation of the COMPASS experiment and participated in the construction of

  9. Fluctuations in high-energy particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronqvist, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    We study fluctuations that are omnipresent in high-energy particle collisions. These fluctuations can be either of either classical or quantum origin and we will study both. Firstly, we consider the type of quantum fluctuations that arise in proton-proton collisions. These are computable perturbatively in quantum field theory and we will focus on a specific class of diagrams in this set-up. Secondly, we will consider the fluctuations that are present in collisions between nuclei that can be heavier than protons. These are the quantum laws of nature that describe the positions of nucleons within a nucleus, but also the hydrodynamic fluctuations of classical, thermal origin that affect the evolution of the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. The fluctuations arising in proton-proton collisions can be computed analytically up to a certain order in perturbative quantum field theory. We will focus on one-loop diagrams of a fixed topology. Loop diagrams give rise to integrals that typically are hard to evaluate. We show how modern mathematical methods can be used to ease their computation. We will study the relations among unitarity cuts of a diagram, the discontinuity across the corresponding branch cut and the coproduct. We show how the original integral corresponding to a given diagram can be reconstructed from the information contained in the coproduct. We expect that these methods can be applied to solve more complicated topologies and help in the computation of new amplitudes in the future. Finally, we study the two types of fluctuations arising in heavy-ion collisions. These are related either to the initial state or the intermediate state of matter produced in such collisions. The initial state fluctuations are experimentally observed to give rise to non-Gaussianities in the final-state spectra. We show how these non-Gaussianities can be explained by the random position and interaction energy of 'sources' in the colliding nuclei. Furthermore, we

  10. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubic, Patrick L. [University of Oklahoma

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest

  11. AMODS and High Energy Density Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Y.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the Lab for Quantum Optics (LFQO) in KAERI, which has been devoted to the research on atomic spectroscopy for more than 20 years with precision measurement of atomic parameters such as isotope shift, hyperfine structures, autoionization levels and so on as well as with theoretical analysis of atomic systems by developing relativistic calculation methodologies for laser propagation and population dynamics, electron impact ionization, radiative transitions of high Z materials, etc for the application to isotope separation, the AMODS (Atomic Molecular and Optical Database Systems) which was established in 1997 and has been a member of International Data Center Network of IAEA since then is explained by giving an information on the data sources and internal structure of the compilation of AMODS. Since AMODS was explained in detail during last DCN meeting, just a brief introduction is given this time. Then more specific research themes carried out in LFQO in conjunction with A+M data are discussed, including (1) electron impact ionization processes of W, Mo, Be, C, etc, (2) spectra of highly charged ions of W, Xe, and Si, (3) dielectronic recombination process of Fe ion. Also given are the talk about research activities about the simulations of high energy density experiments such as those performed at (1) GEKKO laser facility (Japan) for X-ray photoionization of low temperature Si plasma, which can explain the unsolved arguments on the X-ray spectra of black holes and/or neutron stars, (2) VULCAN laser facility (UK) for two dimensional compression of cylindrical target and investigation of hot electron transport in the compressed target plasma to understand the fast ignition process of laser fusion, (3) LULI laser facility (France) and TITAN laser facility (USA) for one dimensional compression of aluminum targets with different laser energies, and (4) PALS facility (Czech Republic) for 'Laser Induced Cavity Pressure Acceleration' to

  12. Cross-country VFR crashes: pilot and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, David; Owen, Douglas

    2002-04-01

    General Aviation (GA) cross-country crashes, particularly those involving weather, continue to be a major source of fatalities, with a fatality rate more than four times greater than for GA crashes in general. There has been much speculation and little solid evidence on the causes of these crashes. We have designed a program of laboratory and database research into the causes of cross-country weather-related crashes including an analysis of air crashes in New Zealand between 1988 and 2000. There were 1308 reported occurrences in this period. We examined in detail 77 crashes where it could be determined that the aircraft was on a cross-country flight. In our first analysis we compared the characteristics of crashes that occurred in response to externally driven failures with crashes where the aircraft continued to be flown at the pilot's discretion up until the point of the crash. Clear differences were found for visibility, altitude, crash severity, and for several pilot characteristics. These differences are highly consistent with those found for previous research on pilot characteristics and crash involvement. In the second analysis we made comparisons between the weather-related and nonweather-related crashes in the discretionary control group and between subcategories of weather-related crashes. These data show that weather-related crashes occur further into the flight and closer to the planned destination than other kinds of cross-country crashes in GA. Pilots involved in these crashes are younger and have more recent flight time than pilots involved in other crashes. Their increased involvement cannot be explained simply by exposure (flight-time) but must be due to other factors.

  13. Calibration processes for high-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Dissertation is devoted to the processes on high energy colliders, namely, to the measurement and evaluation of muon anomalous magnetic moment, the lepton pair production in peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions, γγ and γ-lepton collisions in helicity representation and finally to the derivation of new sum rule for photoproduction processes. The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and muon, a e and a μ , played an important role in the development of particle physics. Until now they have continued to serve as basic quantities for testing the validity of the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and Standard Model, put the strict constraints for the theories beyond the Standard Model and provided important insights into the structure of the fundamental interactions. While the value of anomalous magnetic moment of electron is known very well, in the case of a muon the situation is more complicated. The discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental value varies from 1.02 to 2.96 standard deviation σ. The reason is that the theoretical value consists (unlike the case of electron) from various types of contributions. While QED and weak interaction contributions to a μ seem to be estimated quite reliably, there is critical situation in hadronic contributions, mainly for light-by-light meson pole terms, therefore the third.order (in fine structure constant) hadronic light-by-light contributions to a μ from the pole terms of the scalar σ a 0 and pseudoscalar π 0 , η, η ' mesons in the framework of the linearized extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model has been recalculated. As the QED and Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) share many properties, the solving of the issue of the lepton pair production in peripheral collisions of heavy ions can help to understand very important and unsolved problem of accounting the final state interaction of quarks and gluons in QCD. Unfortunately, even QED is not solving this problem satisfactorily despite the recent high

  14. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Examination of factors associated in motorcycle crashes in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors associated with motorcycle crashes in work zones. This analysis was completed : through the collection and inspection of three types of data: 1) practices used throughout the country on this topic, : 2) crash reports a...

  16. Financial Services Advertising before and after the Crash of 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Stephen E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines institutional changes in advertising before and after the stock market "crash" of 1987 as represented in the "Wall Street Journal." Finds that financial institutions increased the frequency and size of ads after the crash. (RS)

  17. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that lack of sleep is a significant factor in motor vehicle crashes experienced by teenage drivers. This report examines the hypothesis that a later high school start time may reduce crash rates by reducing the interfere...

  18. Linear regression crash prediction models : issues and proposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The paper develops a linear regression model approach that can be applied to : crash data to predict vehicle crashes. The proposed approach involves novice data aggregation : to satisfy linear regression assumptions; namely error structure normality ...

  19. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, S

    2002-01-01

    ...), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S...

  20. Risk factors associated with high potential for serious crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Crashes are random events and low traffic volumes therefore dont always make crash hot-spot : identification possible. This project has used extensive data collection and analysis for a large sample : of Oregons low volume roads to develop a ri...