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Sample records for high-energy carbon beam

  1. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  2. Carbon filament beam profile monitor for high energy proton-antiproton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.R.; Shafer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of the evolution of the transverse profile of the stored beams in high energy proton storage rings such as the p-anti p colliders at CERN and at FNAL is of considerable importance. In the present note, a simple monitor is discussed which will allow almost non-destructive measurement of the profile of each individual proton and antiproton bunch separately. It is based on the flying wire technique first used at CEA and more recently at the CPS. A fine carbon filament is passed quickly through the beam, acting as a target for secondary particle production. The flux of secondary particles is measured by two scintillator telescopes, one for protons and one for antiprotons, having an angular acceptance between 30 and 100 mrad. Measurements of secondary particle production performed at FNAL in this angular range show that a very respectable flux can be expected

  3. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  4. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  5. High energy ion beam induced modifications in diamond and diamond like carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilawar, N.; Sah, S.; Mehta, B.R.; Vankar, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Diamond and DLC films deposited using hot-filament chemical vapour deposition technique at various parameters were irradiated with 50 MeV Si 4+ ions. The resulting microstructural changes were studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. All the samples showed the development of β-SiC and hexagonal carbon phases at the expense of the diamond/DLC phase. The ERD analysis was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration and its distribution in DLC films. The absolute hydrogen concentration in DLC samples is of the order of 10 22 atoms/cm 3 which gets depleted on irradiation. The DLC samples show a clear dependence of hydrogen content on the deposition parameters. (author)

  6. The erosion and erosion products of tungsten and carbon based materials bombarded by high energy pulse electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Zhang Fu; Xu Zengyu; Liu Yong; Yoshida, N.; Noda, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the erosion behaviors and erosion products of tungsten and some carbon based materials, such as graphite, C/C composite and B 4 C/Cu functionally graded material, were investigated by using a pulse electron beam to simulate the vertical displacement events (VDE) process. The authors will focus on the forms and differences of erosion products among these testing materials, and make clear to their erosion mechanisms

  7. Radiation damage and thermal shock response of carbon-fiber-reinforced materials to intense high-energy proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the effects of energetic protons on carbon-fiber composites and compounds under consideration for use as low-Z pion production targets in future high-power accelerators and low-impedance collimating elements for intercepting TeV-level protons at the Large Hadron Collider has been undertaken addressing two key areas, namely, thermal shock absorption and resistance to irradiation damage. Carbon-fiber composites of various fiber weaves have been widely used in aerospace industries due to their unique combination of high temperature stability, low density, and high strength. The performance of carbon-carbon composites and compounds under intense proton beams and long-term irradiation have been studied in a series of experiments and compared with the performance of graphite. The 24-GeV proton beam experiments confirmed the inherent ability of a 3D C/C fiber composite to withstand a thermal shock. A series of irradiation damage campaigns explored the response of different C/C structures as a function of the proton fluence and irradiating environment. Radiolytic oxidation resulting from the interaction of oxygen molecules, the result of beam-induced radiolysis encountered during some of the irradiation campaigns, with carbon atoms during irradiation with the presence of a water coolant emerged as a dominant contributor to the observed structural integrity loss at proton fluences ≥5×10^{20}  p/cm^{2}. The carbon-fiber composites were shown to exhibit significant anisotropy in their dimensional stability driven by the fiber weave and the microstructural behavior of the fiber and carbon matrix accompanied by the presence of manufacturing porosity and defects. Carbon-fiber-reinforced molybdenum-graphite compounds (MoGRCF selected for their impedance properties in the Large Hadron Collider beam collimation exhibited significant decrease in postirradiation load-displacement behavior even after low dose levels (∼5×10^{18}

  8. High-Energy Beam Transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Farrell, J.A.; Liska, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to be installed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) at Richland, Washington. The linear accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power, continuous-duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread either to a lithium target or a beam stop. A periodic quadrupole and bending-magnet system provides the beam transport and focusing on target with small beam aberrations. A special rf cavity distributes the energy in the beam so that the Bragg Peak is distributed within the lithium target. Operation of the rf control system, the Energy Dispersion Cavity (EDC), and the beam transport magnets is tested on the beam stop during accelerator turn-on. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostic techniques and noninterceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports using a cluster system to simplify maintenance and alignment techniques

  9. Polarized beams in high energy storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montague, B W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1984-11-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable advance in understanding the spin motion of particles in storage rings and accelerators. The survey presented here outlines the early historical development in this field, describes the basic ideas governing the kinetics of polarized particles in electromagnetic fields and shows how these have evolved into the current description of polarized beam behaviour. Orbital motion of particles influences their spin precession, and depolarization of a beam can result from excitation of spin resonances by orbit errors and oscillations. Electrons and positrons are additionally influenced by the quantized character of synchrotron radiation, which not only provides a polarizing mechanism but also enhances depolarizing effects. Progress in the theoretical formulation of these phenomena has clarified the details of the physical processes and suggested improved methods of compensating spin resonances. Full use of polarized beams for high-energy physics with storage rings requires spin rotators to produce longitudinal polarization in the interaction regions. Variants of these schemes, dubbed Siberian snakes, provide a curious precession topology which can substantially reduce depolarization in the high-energy range. Efficient polarimetry is an essential requirement for implementing polarized beams, whose utility for physics can be enhanced by various methods of spin manipulation.

  10. Sanitation methods using high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levaillant, C.; Gallien, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Short recycling of waste water and the use of liquid or dehydrated sludge as natural manure for agriculture or animal supplement feed is of great economical and ecological interest. It implies strong biological and chemical disinfection. Ionizing radiations produced by radioactive elements or linear accelerators can be used as a complement of conventional methods in the treatment of liquid and solid waste. An experiment conducted with high-energy electron-beam linear accelerators is presented. Degradation of undesirable metabolites in water occurs for a dose of 50 kRad. Undesirable seeds present in sludge are destroyed with a 200 kRad dose. A 300 kRad dose is sufficient for parasitic and bacterial disinfection (DL 90). Destruction of polio virus (DL 90) is obtained for 400 kRad. Higher doses (1000 to 2000 kRad) produce mineralization of toxic organic mercury, reduce some chemical toxic pollutants present in sludge and improve flocculation. (author)

  11. Super High Energy Colliding Beam Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    This lecture presents a review of cyclic accelerators and their energy limitations. A description is given of the phase stability principle and evolution of the synchrotron, an accelerator without energy limitation. Then the concept of colliding beams emerged to yield doubling of the beam energy as in the Tevatron 2 trillion electron volts (TeV) proton collider at Fermilab and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is now planned as a 14-TeV machine in the 27 kilometer tunnel of the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider at CERN. Then presentation is given of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC), a giant accelerator complex with energy 40-TeV in a tunnel 87 kilometers in circumference under the country surrounding Waxahachie in Texas, U.S.A. These superhigh energy accelerators are intended to smash protons against protons at energy sufficient to reveal the nature of matter and to consolidate the prevailing general theory of elementary particle.

  12. Treatment of basal cell epithelioma with high energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y. (Hyogo-ken Cancer Center, Kobe (Japan)); Kumano, M.; Kumano, K.

    1981-11-01

    Thirty patients with basal cell epithelioma received high energy electron beam therapy. They were irradiated with a dose ranging from 4,800 rad (24 fractions, 35 days) to 12,000 rad (40 fractions, 57 days). Tumors disappeared in all cases. These were no disease-related deaths; in one patient there was recurrence after 2 years. We conclude that radiotherapy with high energy electron beam is very effective in the treatment of basal cell epithelioma.

  13. Laser beams in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Back-scattered ruby laser light from energetic electrons has facilitated a family of bubble chamber experiments in the interactions of highly polarized and quasi-monochromatic photons up to 10 GeV with 4π acceptance at the 100 to 200 event/μb level. Further studies of this sort demand the use of high-repetition-rate track chambers. To exploit the polarization and energetic purity intrinsic to the back-scattered beam one must achieve nearly two orders of magnitude increase in the average input optical power, and preferably also higher quantum energies. Prospects for this technique and its applications given modern laser capabilities and new accelerator developments are discussed

  14. First high energy hydrogen cluster beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.J.; Genre, R.; Hadinger, G.; Martin, J.

    1993-03-01

    The hydrogen cluster accelerator of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPN Lyon) has been upgraded by adding a Variable Energy Post-accelerator of RFQ type (VERFQ). This operation has been performed in the frame of a collaboration between KfK Karlsruhe, IAP Frankfurt and IPN Lyon. The facility has been designed to deliver beams of mass selected Hn + clusters, n chosen between 3 and 49, in the energy range 65-100 keV/u. For the first time, hydrogen clusters have been accelerated at energies as high as 2 MeV. This facility opens new fields for experiments which will greatly benefit from a velocity range never available until now for such exotic projectiles. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig

  15. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  16. Plasma focusing and diagnosis of high energy particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin.

    1990-09-01

    Various novel concepts of focusing and diagnosis of high energy charged particle beams, based on the interaction between the relativistic particle beam and the plasma, are reviewed. This includes overdense thin plasma lenses, and (underdense) adiabatic plasma lens, and two beam size monitor concepts. In addition, we introduce another mechanism for measuring flat beams based on the impulse received by heavy ions in an underdense plasma. Theoretical investigations show promise of focusing and diagnosing beams down to sizes where conventional methods are not possible to provide. 21 refs

  17. Beam Commissioning of the PEP-II High Energy Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienands, U.; Anderson, S.; Assmann, R.; Bharadwaj, V.; Cai, Y.; Clendenin, J.; Corredoura, P.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Emma, P.; Erickson, R.; Fox, J.; Fieguth, T.; Fisher, A.; Heifets, S.; Hill, A.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Johnson, R.; Judkins, J.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.; Lee, M.; Mattison, T.; Minty, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Placidi, M.; Prabhakar, S.; Ross, M.; Smith, S.; Schwarz, H.; Stanek, M.; Teytelman, D.; Traller, R.; Turner, J.; Zimmermann, F.; Barry, W.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Corlett, J.; Decking, W.; Furman, M.; Nishimura, H.; Portmann, G.; Rimmer, R.; Zholents, A.; Zisman, M.; Kozanecki, W.; Hofmann, A.; Zotter, B.; Steier, C.; Bialowons, W.; Lomperski, M.; Lumpkin, A.; Reichel, I.; Safranek, J.; Smith, V.; Tighe, R.; Sullivan, M.; Byrd, J.; Li, D.

    1998-01-01

    The PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER), a 9 GeV electron storage ring, has been in commissioning since spring 1997. Initial beam commissioning activities focused on systems checkout and commissioning and on determining the behavior of the machine systems at high beam currents. This phase culminated with the accumulation of 0.75 A of stored beam-sufficient to achieve design luminosity--in January 1998 after 3.5 months of beam time. Collisions with the 3 GeV positron beam of the Low Energy Ring (LER) were achieved in Summer of 1998. At high beam currents, collective instabilities have been seen. Since then, commissioning activities for the HER have shifted in focus towards characterization of the machine and a rigorous program to understand the machine and the beam dynamics is presently underway

  18. Laboratory Astrophysics Using High Energy Density Photon and Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bingham, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The development of intense laser and particle beams has opened up new opportunities to study high energy density astrophysical processes in the Laboratory. With even higher laser intensities possible in the near future vacuum polarization processes such as photon - photon scattering with or without large magnetic fields may also be experimentally observed. In this talk I will review the status of laboratory experiments using intense beans to investigate extreme astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae explosions, gamma x-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic accelerators etc. Just as intense photon or electron beams can excite relativistic electron plasma waves or wakefields used in plasma acceleration, intense neutrino beams from type II supernovae can also excite wakefields or plasma waves. Other instabilities driven by intense beams relevant to perhaps x-ray bursts is the Weibel instability. Simulation results of extreme processes will also be presented.

  19. Calculated intensity of high-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Back, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    The flux, energy and angular distributions of high-energy neutrons produced by in-flight spallation and fission of a 400 MeV/A 238 U beam and by the break-up of a 400 MeV/A deuteron beam are calculated. In both cases very intense secondary neutron beams are produced, peaking at zero degrees, with a relatively narrow energy spread. Such secondary neutron beams can be produced with the primary beams from the proposed rare isotope accelerator driver linac. The break-up of a 400 kW deuteron beam on a liquid-lithium target can produce a neutron flux of >10 10 neutrons/cm 2 /s at a distance of 10 m from the target

  20. Cryogenic Beam Screens for High-Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Tavian, L; van Weelderen, R

    2013-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key enabling technology for high-energy particle accelerators, thus making them large helium cryogenic systems operating at very low temperature. The circulation of high-intensity particle beams in these machines generates energy deposition in the first wall through different processes. For thermodynamic efficiency, it is advisable to intercept these beam-induced heat loads, which may be large in comparison with cryostat heat in-leaks, at higher temperature than that of the superconducting magnets of the accelerator, by means of beam screens located in the magnet apertures. Beam screens may also be used as part of the ultra-high vacuum system of the accelerator, by sheltering the gas molecules cryopumped on the beam pipe from impinging radiation and thus avoiding pressure runaway. Space being extremely tight in the magnet apertures, cooling of the long, slender beam screens also raises substantial problems in cryogenic heat transfer and fluid flow. We present sizing rule...

  1. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K + beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  2. High-energy pion beams: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of relatively unexplored research areas with high energy pion beams requires new facilities. Presently existing meson factories such as LAMPF, TRIUMF and PSI provide insufficient pion fluxes above the 3,3 resonance region for access to topics such as strangeness production with the (π, K) reaction, baryon resonances, rare meson decays, and nuclear studies with penetrating pion beams. The problems and prospects of useful beams for these studies will be reviewed, both for existing facilities such as the AGS and KEK, and for possible future facilities like KAON and PILAC

  3. Potential ceramics processing applications with high-energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    High-energy, high-current electron beams may offer unique features for processing of ceramics that are not available with any other heat source. These include the capability to instantaneously heat to several centimeters in depth, to preferentially deposit energy in dense, high-z materials, to process at atmospheric pressures in air or other gases, to have large control over heating volume and heating rate, and to have efficient energy conversion. At a recent workshop organized by the authors to explore opportunities for electron beam processing of ceramics, several applications were identified for further development. These were ceramic joining, fabrication of ceramic powders, and surface processing of ceramics. It may be possible to join ceramics by either electron-beam brazing or welding. Brazing with refractory metals might also be feasible. The primary concern for brazing is whether the braze material can wet to the ceramic when rapidly heated by an electron beam. Raw ceramic powders, such as silicon nitride and aluminum nitride, which are difficult to produce by conventional techniques, could possibly be produced by vaporizing metals in a nitrogen atmosphere. Experiments need to be done to verify that the vaporized metal can fully react with the nitrogen. By adjusting beam parameters, high-energy beams can be used to remove surface flaws which are often sites of fracture initiation. They can also be used for surface cleaning. The advantage of electron beams rather than ion beams for this application is that the heat deposition can be graded into the material. The authors will discuss the capabilities of beams from existing machines for these applications and discuss planned experiments

  4. Surface studies with high-energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensgaard, Ivan [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Physics

    1992-07-01

    High-energy ion scattering is an extremely useful technique for surface studies. Three methods for surface composition analysis (Rutherford backscattering, nuclear-reaction analysis and elastic recoil detection) are discussed. Directional effects in ion-beam surface interactions (shadowing and blocking) form the basis for surface structure analysis with high-energy ion beams and these phenomena are addressed in some detail. It is shown how surface relaxation and reconstruction, as well as positions of adsorbed atoms, can be determined by comparison with computer simulations. A special technique called transmission channelling is introduced and shown to be particularly well suited for studies of adsorption positions, even of hydrogen. Recent developments in the field are demonstrated by discussing a large number of important (experimental) applications which also include surface dynamics and melting, as well as epitaxy and interface structure. (author).

  5. The high-energy dual-beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaletta, D.

    1984-07-01

    This proposal presents a new experimental facility at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) to study the effects of irradiation on the first wall and blanket materials of a fusion reactor. A special effort is made to demonstrate the advantages of the Dual Beam Technique (DBT) as a future research tool for materials development within the European Fusion Technology Programme. The Dual-Beam-Technique allows the production both of helium and of damage in thick metal and ceramic specimens by simultaneous irradiation with high energy alpha particles and protons produced by the two KfK cyclotrons. The proposal describes the Dual Beam Technique the planned experimental activities and the design features of the Dual Beam Facility presently under construction. (orig.) [de

  6. Narrow beam dosimetry for high-energy hadrons and electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccioni, M; Ulrici, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose were calculated with the latest version of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA in the case of an anthropomorphic mathematical model exposed to monoenergetic narrow beams of protons, pions and electrons in the energy range 10°— 400 GeV. The target organs considered were right eye, thyroid, thymus, lung and breast. Simple scaling laws to the calculated values are given. The present data and formula should prove useful for dosimetric estimations in case of accidental exposures to high-energy beams.

  7. Laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams using the inverse Cherenkov effect is well suited for applications with large linear colliders. Very high gradient (>0.5 MG/cm) lenses result that can be added sequentially without AG cancellation. These lenses are swell understood, have small geometric aberrations, and offer the possibility of correlating phase and energy aberrations to produce an achromatic final focus

  8. Bulk Materials Analysis Using High-Energy Positron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glade, S C; Asoka-Kumar, P; Nieh, T G; Sterne, P A; Wirth, B D; Dauskardt, R H; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Odette, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews some recent materials analysis results using high-energy positron beams at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We are combining positron lifetime and orbital electron momentum spectroscopic methods to provide electron number densities and electron momentum distributions around positron annihilation sites. Topics covered include: correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with structural and mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses, compositional studies of embrittling features in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel, pore characterization in Zeolites, and positron annihilation characteristics in alkali halides

  9. Preliminary investigations on high energy electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertling, Yves; Hoppe, Dietrich; Hampel, Uwe

    2010-12-15

    In computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional images of the attenuation distribution within a slice are created by scanning radiographic projections of an object with a rotating X-ray source detector compound and subsequent reconstruction of the images from these projection data on a computer. CT can be made very fast by employing a scanned electron beam instead of a mechanically moving X-ray source. Now this principle was extended towards high-energy electron beam tomography with an electrostatic accelerator. Therefore a dedicated experimental campaign was planned and carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk. There we investigated the capabilities of BINP's accelerators as an electron beam generating and scanning unit of a potential high-energy electron beam tomography device. The setup based on a 1 MeV ELV-6 (BINP) electron accelerator and a single detector. Besides tomographic measurements with different phantoms, further experiments were carried out concerning the focal spot size and repeat accuracy of the electron beam as well as the detector's response time and signal to noise ratio. (orig.)

  10. Fast IMRT with narrow high energy scanned photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, Bjoern; Straaring t, Sara Janek; Holmberg, Rickard; Naefstadius, Peder; Brahme, Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Since the first publications on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the early 1980s almost all efforts have been focused on fairly time consuming dynamic or segmental multileaf collimation. With narrow fast scanned photon beams, the flexibility and accuracy in beam shaping increases, not least in combination with fast penumbra trimming multileaf collimators. Previously, experiments have been performed with full range targets, generating a broad bremsstrahlung beam, in combination with multileaf collimators or material compensators. In the present publication, the first measurements with fast narrow high energy (50 MV) scanned photon beams are presented indicating an interesting performance increase even though some of the hardware used were suboptimal. Methods: Inverse therapy planning was used to calculate optimal scanning patterns to generate dose distributions with interesting properties for fast IMRT. To fully utilize the dose distributional advantages with scanned beams, it is necessary to use narrow high energy beams from a thin bremsstrahlung target and a powerful purging magnet capable of deflecting the transmitted electron beam away from the generated photons onto a dedicated electron collector. During the present measurements the scanning system, purging magnet, and electron collimator in the treatment head of the MM50 racetrack accelerator was used with 3-6 mm thick bremsstrahlung targets of beryllium. The dose distributions were measured with diodes in water and with EDR2 film in PMMA. Monte Carlo simulations with geant4 were used to study the influence of the electrons transmitted through the target on the photon pencil beam kernel. Results: The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanned photon beam was 34 mm measured at isocenter, below 9.5 cm of water, 1 m from the 3 mm Be bremsstrahlung target. To generate a homogeneous dose distribution in a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, the authors used a spot matrix of 100 equal intensity

  11. Radiolytic synthesis of carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles using high-energy electron beam: effect of pH control on the PtRu mixing state and the methanol oxidation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Yuji; Kageyama, Satoru; Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro; Nitani, Hiroaki; Ueno, Koji; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2013-01-01

    Electrode catalysts composed of carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles (PtRu/C) for use as a direct methanol fuel cell anode were synthesized by the reduction of precursor ions in an aqueous solution via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam. The effect of pH control in the precursor solution on the PtRu mixing state and the methanol oxidation activity was studied in order to enhance the catalytic activity for methanol oxidation. The PtRu/C structures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. The methanol oxidation activity was evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry. The initial pH of the precursor solution has little influence on the average grain size for the metal particles (approximately 3.5 nm) on the carbon particle supports, but the dispersibility of the metal particles, PtRu mixing state, and methanol oxidation activity differed. The maintenance of a low pH in the precursor solution gave the best dispersibility of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the surface of the carbon particles, whereas, a high pH gave the best PtRu mixing state and the highest oxidation current although a low dispersibility of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the surface of the carbon particles was obtained. The PtRu mixing state strongly correlated with the methanol oxidation current. In addition, a high pH was more effective for PtRu mixing when using an electron beam irradiation reduction method, because the complexation reaction of the chelating agents was improved, which resulted in an enhancement of the catalytic activity for methanol oxidation.

  12. Radiolytic synthesis of carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles using high-energy electron beam: effect of pH control on the PtRu mixing state and the methanol oxidation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yuji, E-mail: okubo@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kageyama, Satoru; Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Nitani, Hiroaki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Materials Structure Science (Japan); Ueno, Koji [Japan Electron Beam Irradiation Service Ltd (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    Electrode catalysts composed of carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles (PtRu/C) for use as a direct methanol fuel cell anode were synthesized by the reduction of precursor ions in an aqueous solution via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam. The effect of pH control in the precursor solution on the PtRu mixing state and the methanol oxidation activity was studied in order to enhance the catalytic activity for methanol oxidation. The PtRu/C structures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure techniques. The methanol oxidation activity was evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry. The initial pH of the precursor solution has little influence on the average grain size for the metal particles (approximately 3.5 nm) on the carbon particle supports, but the dispersibility of the metal particles, PtRu mixing state, and methanol oxidation activity differed. The maintenance of a low pH in the precursor solution gave the best dispersibility of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the surface of the carbon particles, whereas, a high pH gave the best PtRu mixing state and the highest oxidation current although a low dispersibility of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on the surface of the carbon particles was obtained. The PtRu mixing state strongly correlated with the methanol oxidation current. In addition, a high pH was more effective for PtRu mixing when using an electron beam irradiation reduction method, because the complexation reaction of the chelating agents was improved, which resulted in an enhancement of the catalytic activity for methanol oxidation.

  13. Beam loading in high-energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1974-06-01

    The analysis of beam loading in the RF systems of high-energy storage rings (for example, the PEP e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ ring) is complicated by the fact that the time, T/sub b/, between the passage of successive bunches is comparable to the cavity filling time, T/sub b/. In this paper, beam loading expressions are first summarized for the usual case in which T/sub b/ /much lt/ T/sub f/. The theory of phase oscillations in the heavily-beam-loaded case is considered, and the dependence of the synchrotron frequency and damping constant for the oscillations on beam current and cavity tuning is calculated. Expressions for beam loading are then derived which are valid for any value of the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/. It is shown that, for the proposed PEP e/sup /minus//e/sup +/ ring parameters, the klystron power required is increased by about 3% over that calculated using the standard beam loading expressions. Finally, the analysis is extended to take into account the additional losses associated with the excitation of higher-order cavity modes. A rough numerical estimate is made of the loss enhancement to be expected for PEP RF system. It is concluded that this loss enhancement might be substantial unless appropriate measures are taken in the design and tuning of the accelerating structure

  14. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state

  15. High-Energy Electron Beam Application to Air Pollutants Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Manaila, E.; Craciun, G.; Calinescu, I.

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of electron beam (EB) process in pollutants removal is connected to its high efficiency to transfer high amount of energy directly into the matter under treatment. Disadvantage which is mostly related to high investment cost of accelerator may be effectively overcome in future as the result of use accelerator new developments. The potential use of medium to high-energy high power EB accelerators for air pollutants removal is demonstrated in [1]. The lower electrical efficiencies of accelerators with higher energies are partially compensated by the lower electron energy losses in the beam windows. In addition, accelerators with higher electron energies can provide higher beam powers with lower beam currents [1]. The total EB energy losses (backscattering, windows and in the intervening air space) are substantially lower with higher EB incident energy. The useful EB energy is under 50% for 0.5 MeV and about 95% above 3 MeV. In view of these arguments we decided to study the application of high energy EB for air pollutants removal. Two electron beam accelerators are available for our studies: electron linear accelerators ALIN-10 and ALID-7, built in the Electron Accelerator Laboratory, INFLPR, Bucharest, Romania. Both accelerators are of traveling-wave type, operating at a wavelength of 10 cm. They utilize tunable S-band magnetrons, EEV M 5125 type, delivering 2 MW of power in 4 μ pulses. The accelerating structure is a disk-loaded tube operating in the 2 mode. The optimum values of the EB peak current IEB and EB energy EEB to produce maximum output power PEB for a fixed pulse duration EB and repetition frequency fEB are as follows: for ALIN-10: EEB = 6.23 MeV; IEB =75 mA; PEB 164 W (fEB = 100 Hz, EB = 3.5 s) and for ALID-7: EEB 5.5 MeV; IEB = 130 mA; PEB = 670 W (fEB = 250 Hz, EB = 3.75 s). This paper presents a special designed installation, named SDI-1, and several representative results obtained by high energy EB application to SO 2 , NOx and VOCs

  16. A Beam Interlock System for CERN High Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Schmidt, R

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (The European Organisation for Nuclear Research) is one of the largest and most complicated machines envisaged to date. The LHC has been conceived and designed over the course of the last 25 years and represents the cutting edge of accelerator technology with a collision energy of 14TeV, having a stored beam energy over 100 times more powerful than the nearest competitor. Commissioning of the machine is already nderway and operation with beam is intended for Autumn 2007, with 7TeV operation expected in 2008. The LHC is set to answer some of the fundemental questions in theoretical physics, colliding particles with such high energy that the inner workings of the quantum world can be revealed. Colliding particles together at such high energy makes very high demands on machine operation and protection. The specified beam energy requires strong magnetic fields that are made in superconducting dipole magnets, these magnets are kept only around two degrees above absolute zero...

  17. In-beam PET at high-energy photon beams: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.; Enghardt, W.

    2006-04-01

    For radiation therapy with carbon ion beams, either for the stable isotope 12C or for the radioactive one 11C, it has been demonstrated that the β+-activity distribution created or deposited, respectively, within the irradiated volume can be visualized by means of positron emission tomography (PET). The PET images provide valuable information for quality assurance and precision improvement of ion therapy. Dedicated PET scanners have been integrated into treatment sites at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (HIMAC), Japan, and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany, to make PET imaging feasible during therapeutic irradiation (in-beam PET). A similar technique may be worthwhile for radiotherapy with high-energy bremsstrahlung. In addition to monitoring the dose delivery process which in-beam PET has been primarily developed for, it may be expected that radiation response of tissue can be detected by means of in-beam PET. We investigate the applicability of PET for treatment control in the case of using bremsstrahlung spectra produced by 15-50 MeV electrons. Target volume activation due to (γ, n) reactions at energies above 20 MeV yields moderate β+-activity levels, which can be employed for imaging. The radiation from positrons produced by pair production is not presently usable because the detectors are overloaded due to the low duty factor of medical electron linear accelerators. However, the degradation of images caused by positron motion between creation and annihilation seems to be tolerable.

  18. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This Annual Report summarizes research activities carried out in 1988 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation of heavy ion beams and the investigation of hot dense plasmas produced by these beams. Its initial motivation and its long-term goal is the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion by intense heavy ion beams. Two outstanding events deserve to be mentioned explicity, the Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Conference held in Darmstadt and organized by GSI end of June and the first heavy ion beam injected into the new SIS facility in November. The former event attracted more than hundred scientists for three days to the 4th Conference in this field. This symposium showed the impressive progress since the last conference in Washington two years ago. In particular the first beams in MBE-4 at LBL and results of beam plasma interaction experiments at GSI open new directions for future investigations. The ideas for non-Lionvillean injection into storage rings presented by Carlo Rubbia will bring the discussion of driver scenarios into a new stage. The latter event is a milestone for both machine and target experiments. It characterizes the beginning of the commissioning phase for the new SIS/ESR facility which will be ready for experiments at the end of this year. The commissioning of SIS is on schedule and first experiments can start at the beginning of 1990. A status report of the accelerator project is included. Theoretical activities were continued as in previous years, many of them providing guide lines for future experiments, in particular for the radiation transport aspects and for beam-plasma interaction. (orig.)

  19. Improved beam jitter control methods for high energy laser systems

    OpenAIRE

    Frist, Duane C.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The objective of this research was to develop beam jitter control methods for a High Energy Laser (HEL) testbed. The first step was to characterize the new HEL testbed at NPS. This included determination of natural frequencies and component models which were used to create a Matlab/Simulink model of the testbed. Adaptive filters using Filtered-X Least Mean Squares (FX-LMS) and Filtered-X Recursive Least Square (FX-RLS) were then implement...

  20. Overview of the APT high-energy beam transport and beam expanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.; Blind, B.; Gray, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    The APT high energy beam transport (HEBT) and beam expanders convey the 1700-MeV, 100-mA cw proton beam from the linac to the tritium target/blanket assembly, or a tuning beam stop. The HEBT includes extensive beam diagnostics, collimators, and beam jitter correction, to monitor and control the 170-MW beam prior to expansion. A zero-degree beamline conveys the beam to the beam stop, and an achromatic bend conveys the beam to the tritium production target. Nonlinear beam expanders make use of higher-order multipole magnets and dithering dipoles to expand the beam to a uniform-density, 16-cm wide by 160-cm high rectangular profile on the tritium-production target. The overall optics design will be reviewed, and beam simulations will be presented

  1. High-energy electron beams for ceramic joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, Bob N.; Glass, S. J.; Halbleib, J. A.; Helmich, D. R.; Loehman, Ron E.; Clifford, Jerome R.

    1995-03-01

    Joining of structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for high temperature joining. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the ceramic. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 MPa have been measured. This strength is comparable to that reported in the literature for bonding silicon nitride (Si3N4) to molybdenum with copper-silver-titanium braze, but weaker than that reported for Si3N4 - Si3N4 with gold-nickel braze. The bonding mechanism appears to be formation of a thin silicide layer. Beam damage to the Si3N4 was also assessed.

  2. Feasibility of ceramic joining with high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E.; Clifford, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Joining structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for producing joints with high temperature capability. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the adjacent ceramic. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 NTa have been measured for Si 3 N 4 -Mo-Si 3 N 4 . These modest strengths are due to beam non-uniformity and the limited area of bonding. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide reaction layer. Si 3 N 4 -Si 3 N 4 joints with no metal layer were also produced, apparently bonded an yttrium apatite grain boundary phase

  3. Crystals channel high-energy beams in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect particle beams, as suggested by E. Tsyganov in 1976. Experimental demonstrations have been carried out for four decades in various laboratories worldwide. In recent tests, a bent crystal inserted into the LHC beam halo successfully channelled and deflected 6.5 TeV protons into an absorber, with reduced secondary irradiation.    Quasimosaic crystal for the LHC (developed by PNPI). Bent crystal technology was introduced at CERN and further developed for the LHC by the UA9 Collaboration. For about ten years, experts from CERN, INFN (Italy), Imperial College (UK), LAL (France), and PNPI, IHEP and JINR (Russia) have been investigating the advantages of using bent crystals in the collimation systems of high-energy hadron colliders. A bent crystal replacing the primary collimator can deflect the incoming halo deeply inside the secondary collimators, improving their absorption efficiency. “The bent crystals we have just tested at the world-record en...

  4. Producing titanium-niobium alloy by high energy beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P., E-mail: sharkeev@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Golkovski, M. G., E-mail: golkoski@mail.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Akademika Lavrentiev Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Glukhov, I. A., E-mail: gia@ispms.tsc.ru; Eroshenko, A. Yu., E-mail: eroshenko@ispms.tsc.ru; Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Bataev, V. A., E-mail: bataev@vadm.ustu.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The research is involved in producing a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer on titanium substrate by high energy beam method, as well as in examining their structures and mechanical properties. Applying electron-beam cladding it was possible to produce a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer of several millimeters, where the niobium concentration was up to 40% at. and the structure itself could be related to martensite quenching structure. At the same time, a significant microhardness increase of 3200-3400 MPa was observed, which, in its turn, is connected with the formation of martensite structure. Cladding material of Ti-Nb composition could be the source in producing alloys of homogeneous microhardness and desired concentration of alloying niobium element.

  5. High-energy polarized proton beams a modern view

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffstaetter, Georg Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This monograph begins with a review of the basic equations of spin motion in particle accelerators. It then reviews how polarized protons can be accelerated to several tens of GeV using as examples the preaccelerators of HERA, a 6.3 km long cyclic accelerator at DESY / Hamburg. Such techniques have already been used at the AGS of BNL / New York, to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV. But for acceleration to energies of several hundred GeV as in RHIC, TEVATRON, HERA, LHC, or a VLHC, new problems can occur which can lead to a significantly diminished beam polarization. For these high energies, it is necessary to look in more detail at the spin motion, and for that the invariant spin field has proved to be a useful tool. This is already widely used for the description of high-energy electron beams that become polarized by the emission of spin-flip synchrotron radiation. It is shown that this field gives rise to an adiabatic invariant of spin-orbit motion and that it defines the maximum time average polarizat...

  6. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  7. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, W.K.; Hoffman, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay π + → π 0 e + vε is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R(π + → π 0 e + vε) = 0.3999±0.0005 s -1 . The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R(π + → π 0 e + vε) = 0.394 ± 0.015 s -1 . A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required

  8. The quality of high-energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Supplement 17 of the British Journal of Radiology is a survey of central-axis depth doses for radiotherapy machines, patterned largely on BJR Supplement 11 (1972). Inspection of high-energy X-ray depth doses for a 10 x 10 cm field at an SSD of 100 cm disclosed large differences between the two sets of data, especially for qualities above 8 MV, e.g. a depth dose of 80% at 10 cm is rated at about 19 MV according to BJR Supplement 11, and 23 MV according to BJR Supplement 17. It was found that Supplement 17 depth-dose data above 8 MV were erratic, but Supplement 11 data could be represented by an analytical expression, providing a unique means of assigning MV quality. It was also found that dose-weighted average energy of the filtered beam plotted smoothly against depth dose. For dosimetric purposes, it is suggested that this parameter be used as a true measure of beam quality, removing discrepancies introduced by the use of nominal MV for this purpose. (author)

  9. Output calibration in solid water for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reft, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The AAPM Protocol recommends the use of water, polystyrene or acrylic media for measuring the output of high energy photon beams. It provides the appropriate restricted mass stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients for converting the dose to these media to dose to water. A water-equivalent solid has been developed for dosimetric applications. [C. Constantinou, F. Attix, and B. Paliwal, Med. Phys. 9, 436 (1982)]. Calculated values for the restricted mass stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients have been published for this material. [A. Ho and B. Paliwal, Med. Phys. 13, 403 (1986)]. The accuracy of these calculations was investigated by making output measurements, following the Protocol, with a Farmer type chamber in four materials for Co-60, 4, 6, 10, 18, and 24 MV photon beams. The results show that the scaled dose to water for the different media agree to better than 1%, and the analysis supports the methodology of the Protocol for obtaining the dose to water from the different media

  10. Preservation effect of high energy electron beam on kyoho grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiufeng; Chen Zhaoliang; Qiao Yongjin; Wang Haihong; Qiao Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoho grapes were kept in cold storage of-0.5 degree C ∼ 0.5 degree C, RH 85% ∼ 95% after irradiation of 400, 700, 1000, 1500, 2500 Gy and SO 2 treatment, and the antiseptic effect and storage quality were studied. The result showed that high energy electron beam could control the growth of bacteria, mould, yeast, coliform, alleviate the deterioration of grapes during storage. Irradiation below the dose 1000 Gy can decrease the respiration intensity, prevent the decreasing of titratable acid, ascorbic acid content, and keep higher activity of SOD enzyme. The Vc content was 3.79 mg /100 g after 700 Gy irradiation 90 days, the titratable acid and total soluble sugar content were 0.348%, 11.44%, and the activity of SOD was 14.89 U /g, which was higher than the control significantly (P 2 bleaching spot. Integrate the effects on microorganism control and grape quality, treatment of 700 Gy had the best preservation effect in this study. After preserved for 98 d, the good fruit rate of 700 Gy treatment was 93.33% , significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). (authors)

  11. High-energy tritium beams as current drivers in tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Grisham, L.R.

    1983-04-01

    The effect on neutral-beam design and reactor performance of using high-energy (approx. 3-10 MeV) tritium neutral beams to drive steady-state tokamak reactors is considered. The lower current of such beams leads to several advantages over lower-energy neutral beams. The major disadvantage is the reduction of the reactor output caused by the lower current-drive efficiency of the high-energy beams

  12. Beam-beam interaction in high energy linear electron-positron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.

    1985-04-01

    The interaction of high energy electron and positron beams in a linear collider has been investigated using a macroparticle Monte Carlo method based on a Cloud-In-Cells plasma simulation scheme. Density evolutions, luminosities, energy and angular distributions for electrons (positrons) and synchrotron photons are calculated. Beside beams with a symmetric transverse profile also flat beams are considered. A reasonably good agreement to alternative computer calculations as well as to an analytical approximation for the energy spectrum of synchrotron photons has been obtained. (author)

  13. High energy high intensity coherent photon beam for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    What is proposed for the 20 TeV protons hitting a fixed target is to make a tertiary electron beam similar to that which is the basis of the tagged photon beam at Fermilab. Briefly, a zero degree neutral beam is formed by sweeping out the primary proton beam and any secondary charged particles. Then the photons, from the decay of π 0 in the neutral beam, are converted to e + e - pairs in a lead converter and a high quality electron beam is formed. This beam is brought to the target area where it is converted to a photon beam by Bremsstrahlung in a radiator

  14. The creation of high energy densities with antimatter beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kruk, J.W.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX

    1989-01-01

    The use of antiprotons (and antideuterons) for the study of the behavior of nuclear matter at high energy density is considered. It is shown that high temperatures and high energy densities can be achieved for small volumes. Also investigated is the strangeness production in antimatter annihilation. It is found that the high rate of Lambda production seen in a recent experiment is easily understood. The Lambda and K-short rapidity distributions are also reproduced by the model considered. 11 refs., 6 figs

  15. High energy heavy ion beam lithography in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dymnikov, Alexander D.; Zachry, Daniel P.; Eschenazi, Elia V.; Wang, Yongqiang Q.; Greco, Richard R.; Glass, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    As high energy ions travel through a crystalline semiconductor materials they produce damage along the path which results in resistance to some of the wet chemical etching. A series of preliminary experiments have been performed at the Louisiana Accelerator Center (LAC) to examine the feasibility of irradiating high energy (keV-MeV) ions such as protons, xenon and gold through microscale masked structures on crystalline (n-type) Si substrates followed by wet chemical etch with KOH for attaining deep micromachining in Si. The results of these experiments are reported

  16. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  17. Skin damage probabilities using fixation materials in high-energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, J.; Vestergaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    Patient fixation, such as thermoplastic masks, carbon-fibre support plates and polystyrene bead vacuum cradles, is used to reproduce patient positioning in radiotherapy. Consequently low-density materials may be introduced in high-energy photon beams. The aim of the this study was to measure the increase in skin dose when low-density materials are present and calculate the radiobiological consequences in terms of probabilities of early and late skin damage. An experimental thin-windowed plane-parallel ion chamber was used. Skin doses were measured using various overlaying low-density fixation materials. A fixed geometry of a 10 x 10 cm field, a SSD = 100 cm and photon energies of 4, 6 and 10 MV on Varian Clinac 2100C accelerators were used for all measurements. Radiobiological consequences of introducing these materials into the high-energy photon beams were evaluated in terms of early and late damage of the skin based on the measured surface doses and the LQ-model. The experimental ion chamber save results consistent with other studies. A relationship between skin dose and material thickness in mg/cm 2 was established and used to calculate skin doses in scenarios assuming radiotherapy treatment with opposed fields. Conventional radiotherapy may apply mid-point doses up to 60-66 Gy in daily 2-Gy fractions opposed fields. Using thermoplastic fixation and high-energy photons as low as 4 MV do increase the dose to the skin considerably. However, using thermoplastic materials with thickness less than 100 mg/cm 2 skin doses are comparable with those produced by variation in source to skin distance, field size or blocking trays within clinical treatment set-ups. The use of polystyrene cradles and carbon-fibre materials with thickness less than 100 mg/cm 2 should be avoided at 4 MV at doses above 54-60 Gy. (author)

  18. Production of high energy photon beam at TAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkurt, I.; Tekin, H. O.; Demir, N.; Cakirli, R. B.; Akkus, B.; Kupa, I.

    2010-01-01

    When an electron pass through an electric field, the electron loose its part of energy and photon is generated. This process is known as Bremsstrahlung (means 'radiation breaking' in German) and this photon can be used in a variety of different application. The TAC will be first Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) where a IR-FEL and Beamstrahlung photon beam facilities will be established in first stage. The electrons will be accelerated up to 40 MeV by two LINAC and these beam will be used to generate Bremsstrahlung photon. In this study, the main parameters for Bremsstrahlung photon beam facility will be established at TAC will be detailed and fields to be used Bremsstrahlung beam will also be presented.

  19. LET effects of high energy ion beam irradiation on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shu; Kanzaki, Kenichi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Masaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    Thin films of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) were irradiated with 2-20 MeV H{sup +} and He{sup +} ion beams. The beams caused heterogeneous reactions of crosslinking and main chain scission in the films. The relative efficiency of the crosslinking was drastically changed in comparison with that of main chain scission. The anomalous change in the molecular weight distribution was analyzed with increasing irradiation fluence, and the ion beam induced reaction radius; track radius was determined for the radiation sources by the function of molecular weight dispersion. Obtained values were 59{+-}15 A and 14{+-}6 A for 2 MeV He{sup +} and 20 MeV H{sup +} ion beams respectively. (author)

  20. Shutter designed to block high-energy particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnadille, B.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a shutter designed for temporarily closing off an opening formed in the wall of an irradiation room for the passage of a particle beam. A cylindrical metal block can rotate about its axis and occupy two stable positions which are 180 0 from one another. A cylindrical cage closed at its two ends by two circular plates is equipped respectively with eccentric holes for the passage of the particle beam. The block is provided with a longitudinal passage through which there can pass the particle beam and a blind hole or ''pit'' disposed symmetrically to the longitudinal passage and which can block the particle beam according to the positioning of the block by respect with the eccentric holes

  1. Beams at U.S. high energy physics laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    Tables are given of beam characteristics for particle accelerators at Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Characteristics given include energy, momentum, and flux

  2. High energy gain electron beam acceleration by 100TW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Matoba, Toru; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    A laser wakefield acceleration experiment using a 100TW laser is planed at JAERI-Kansai. High quality and short pulse electron beams are necessary to accelerate the electron beam by the laser. Electron beam - laser synchronization is also necessary. A microtron with a photocathode rf-gun was prepared as a high quality electron injector. The quantum efficiency (QE) of the photocathode of 2x10 -5 was obtained. A charge of 100pC from the microtron was measured. The emittance and pulse width of the electron beam was 6π mm-mrad and 10ps, respectively. In order to produce a short pulse electron beam, and to synchronize between the electron beam and the laser pulse, an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) is planned. One of problems of LWFA is the short acceleration length. In order to overcome the problem, a Z-pinch plasma waveguide will be prepared as a laser wakefield acceleration tube for 1 GeV acceleration. (author)

  3. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied sulfuric acid aerosol nucleation in an atmospheric pressure reaction chamber using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear contribution from ion-induced nucleation and consider this to be the first unambiguous observation of the ion......-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions that resemble the Earth's atmosphere. By comparison with ionization using a gamma source we further show that the nature of the ionizing particles is not important for the ion-induced component of the nucleation. This implies that inexpensive...... ionization sources - as opposed to expensive accelerator beams - can be used for investigations of ion-induced nucleation....

  4. Radiation collimator for use with high energy radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malak, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    A collimator is described for use with a beam of radiation, and in particular, for use in controlling the cross-sectional size and shape of the radiation beam and intercepting undesired off-focus radiation in an x-ray apparatus. The collimator is positioned adjacent to the source of radiation and embodies a plurality longitudinally extending leaves pivotally mounted on and between two supports, the leaves move about their pivots to close overlapping relation to define a hollow cone. The cone defines an aperture at its narrow end which can be adjusted in size and shape by rotation of the two supports which are adaptable to being moved one relative to the other, to cause an expansion or contraction of the hollow cone and correspondingly an increase or decrease of the cross-sectional size and/or shape of the radiation beam passing through the aperture

  5. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report the activities of the GSI Darmstadt (FRG) during 1985 concerning inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams. Short communications and abstracts are presented concerning a Z-pinch experiment, heavy ion pumped lasers and X-ray spectroscopy, the study of ion-ion collisions, a RFQ development and beam transport studies, accelerator theory, targets for SIS/ESR experiments, the rayleigh-Taylor instability, studies on the equation of state for matter under high pressure, as well as the development of computer codes. (HSI)

  6. Study of absorbed dose distribution to high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecatti, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    The depth absorbed dose distribution by electron beams was studied. The influence of the beam energy, the energy spread, field size and design characteristics of the accelerator was relieved. Three accelerators with different scattering and collimation systems were studied leading todifferent depth dose distributions. A theoretical model was constructed in order to explain the increase in the depth dose in the build-up region with the increase of the energy. The model utilizes a three-dimensional formalism based on the Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, with the introduction of modifications that takes into account the criation of secondary electrons. (Author) [pt

  7. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  8. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    The effect of ions in aerosol nucleation is a subject where much remains to be discovered. That ions can enhance nucleation has been shown by theory, observations, and experiments. However, the exact mechanism still remains to be determined. One question is if the nature of the ionization affects...... the nucleation. This is an essential question since many experiments have been performed using radioactive sources that ionize differently than the cosmic rays which are responsible for the majority of atmospheric ionization. Here we report on an experimental study of sulphuric acid aerosol nucleation under near...... atmospheric conditions using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear and significant contribution from ion induced nucleation and consider this to be an unambiguous observation of the ion-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions not far...

  9. Magnetic fusion with high energy self-colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F.; Maglich, B.; Fisher, A.

    1992-06-01

    Field-reversed configurations of energetic large orbit ions with neutralizing electrons have been proposed as the basis of a fusion reactor. Vlasov equilibria consisting of a ring or an annulus have been investigated. A stability analysis has been carried out for a long thin layer of energetic ions in a low density background plasma. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from tokamaks that energetic ions slow down and diffuse in accordance with classical theory in the presence of large non-thermal fluctuations and anomalous transport of low energy (10 keV) ions. Provided that major instabilities are under control, it seems likely that the design of a reactor featuring energetic self-colliding ion beams can be based on classical theory. In this case a confinement system that is much better than a tokamak is possible. Several methods are described for creating field reversed configurations with intense neutralized ion beams

  10. Magnetic fusion with high energy self-colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restoker, N.; Wessel, F.; Maglich, B.; Fisher, A.

    1993-01-01

    Field-reversed configurations of energetic large orbit ions with neutralizing electrons have been proposed as the basis of a fusion reactor. Vlasov equilibria consisting of a ring or an annulus have been investigated. A stability analysis has been carried out for a long thin layer of energetic ions in a low density background plasma. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from tokamaks that energetic ions slow down and diffuse in accordance with classical theory in the presence of large non-thermal fluctuations and anomalous transport of low energy (10 keV) ions. Provided that major instabilities are under control, it seems likely that the design of a reactor featuring energetic self-colliding ion beams can be based on classical theory. In this case a confinement system that is much better than a tokamak is possible. Several methods are described for creating field reversed configurations with intense neutralized ion beams

  11. Multibunch beam breakup in high energy linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Ruth, R.D.

    1989-03-01

    The SLAC design for a next-generation linear collider with center-of-mass energy of 0.5 to 1.0 TeV requires that multiple bunches (/approximately/10) be accelerated on each rf fill. At the beam intensity (/approximately/10 10 particles per bunch) and rf frequency (11--17 GHz) required, the beam would be highly unstable transversely. Using computer simulation and analytic models, we have studied several possible methods of controlling the transverse instability: using damped cavities to damp the transverse dipole modes; adjusting the frequency of the dominant transverse mode relative to the rf frequency, so that bunches are placed near zero crossings of the wake; introducing a cell-to-cell spread in the transverse dipole mode frequencies; and introducing a bunch-to-bunch variation in the transverse focusing. The best cure(s) to use depend on the bunch spacing, intensity, and other features of the final design. 8 refs., 3 figs

  12. High energy nuclear beams at Berkeley: present and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of the Bevalac research program continues to be the study of nuclear matter at extreme conditions of temperature and baryon density while still addressing more conventional aspects of nuclear physics. Future plans are for a colliding beam machine in the energy range of 20 GeV/n. The conceptual design and basin requirements for such a relativistic nuclear collider (RNC) are outlined. In addition the central physics themes to be addressed by an RNC are briefly discussed

  13. A high energy photon beam derived from neutral strange particle decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, K.; Ruchti, R.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods for generating photon beams include: tagged beams in which the photons are derived from electron bremsstrahlung in a radiator target; and broad band beams in which the photons are derived from π/sup 0/ decay - the hadronic component (n, K/sub s//sup 0/) accompanying such a beam is usually suppressed by passage of the beam through a low Z (D/sub 2/) filter. Although one can generate high energy photons by these techniques, the major drawback to these beams is that the photon energy spectrum obtained is peaked at very low E/sub γ/. (Recall that the bremsstrahlung spectrum falls as 1/k). With very high energy proton beams (20 TeV/c), one can image other alternatives for photon beam design. The authors consider one such option here

  14. Frontiers of particle beam and high energy density plasma science using pulse power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Katsumi

    2011-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on “Frontiers of Particle Beam and High Energy Density Plasma Science using Pulse Power Technology” held in November 20-21, 2009 at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected. The papers reflect the present status and resent progress in the experiment and theoretical works on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  15. Industrial applications of high energy micro-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhru, H.; Nickles, E.; Haberl, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The University at Albany ion scanning microprobe has been used for industrial applications. Several examples of such applications will be presented. Focused proton and helium ion beams of 1-2 μm dimensions have been used for the analysis. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis have been performed on very large scale integrated circuits, thin film superconductors, small structures of high voltage cables and for several other industrial applications. Several examples of chemical and microstructural analysis will be presented. (orig.)

  16. Medium and high energy electron beam processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki [Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron Beam Processing System (EPS) is a useful and powerful tool for industrial irradiation process. The specification of EPS is decided by consideration to irradiate what material with how thick and wide, how much dose, how to handle, in what atmosphere. In designing an EPS, it is necessary to consider safety measure such as x-ray shielding, ozone control and interlock system. The initial costs to install typical EPS are estimated for acceleration voltages from 500 kV to 5 MV, including following items; those are electron beam machine, x-ray shielding, auxiliary equipment, material handling, survey for installation, ozone exhaust duct, cooling water system, wiring and piping. These prices are reference only because the price should be changed for each case. The price of x-ray shielding should be changed by construction cost. Auxiliary equipment includes window, cooling blower, ozone exhaust blower and SF6 gas handling equipment. In installation work at site, actual workers of 3 - 4 persons for 2 months are necessary. Material handling system is considered only rolls provided in the shielding room as reference. In addition to the initial installation, operators and workers may be required to wear a personal radiation monitor. An x-ray monitor of suitable design should be installed outside the shield room to monitor x-ray level in the working area. (Y. Tanaka)

  17. Superconducting magnet system for the AGS high energy unseparated beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.

    1975-01-01

    A beam line to the Multi-Particle Spectrometer capable of handling 30 GeV/c secondary beams will consist of four large identical superconducting dipoles and a number of room temperature quadrupoles. The total bending angle is 20 0 , 5 0 per magnet, and the room temperature aperture required in the dipoles is 20 cm. The four dipoles will be of the cos theta type and will have an overall length of 2.5 m and nominal maximum field of 4.0 T at 2800 A. The conductor will be a thin, wide metal-impregnated braid. The circular aperture is surrounded by coils which are a six-block approximation to a single-layer cos theta current sheet, and a coaxial cylinder of laminated iron at helium temperature. Each magnet will weigh about 10 tons. The design of the dewar including its heat load is discussed. The system is planned to be operational in Fall 1975. (U.S.)

  18. Nucleation mechanisms in high energy ion beam induced dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Michael; Garmatter, Daniel; Ferhati, Redi; Amirthapandian, Sankarakumar; Bolse, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Solid coatings, when heated above their melting points, often break up by forming small round holes, which then grow, coalesce and finally turn the initially contiguous film into a pattern of isolated droplets. Such dewetting has been intensively studied using thin polymer films on Si. Three different hole nucleation mechanisms were discovered: homogeneous (spontaneous) nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation at defects, and spinodal dewetting by self-amplifying capillary waves. We have recently found that swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of thin oxide films on Si results in similar dewetting patterns, even though the films were kept far below their melting points. Using our new in-situ SEM at the UNILAC accelerator of GSI, we were now able to identify the mechanisms behind this SHI induced dewetting phenomenon. By varying the film thickness and introducing defects at the interface, we can directly address the hole nucleation processes. Besides homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, we also found a process, which very much resembles the spinodal mechanism found for liquid polymers, although in the present case the instable wavy surface is not generated by capillary waves, but by ion beam induced stresses.

  19. On the absorbed dose determination method in high energy electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.; Avadanei, C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed dose determination method in water for electron beams with energies in the range from 1 MeV to 50 MeV is presented herein. The dosimetry equipment for measurements is composed of an UNIDOS.PTW electrometer and different ionization chambers calibrated in air kerma in a Co 60 beam. Starting from the code of practice for high energy electron beams, this paper describes the method adopted by the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in NILPRP - Bucharest

  20. Absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factors for cylindrical chambers in high energy photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, J P; Ross, C K; Shortt, K R; Rogers, D W

    2000-12-01

    Recent working groups of the AAPM [Almond et al., Med. Phys. 26, 1847 (1999)] and the IAEA (Andreo et al., Draft V.7 of "An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water," IAEA, 2000) have described guidelines to base reference dosimetry of high energy photon beams on absorbed dose to water standards. In these protocols use is made of the absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factor, kQ which scales an absorbed-dose calibration factor at the reference quality 60Co to a quality Q, and which is calculated based on state-of-the-art ion chamber theory and data. In this paper we present the measurement and analysis of beam quality conversion factors kQ for cylindrical chambers in high-energy photon beams. At least three chambers of six different types were calibrated against the Canadian primary standard for absorbed dose based on a sealed water calorimeter at 60Co [TPR10(20)=0.572, %dd(10)x=58.4], 10 MV [TPR10(20)=0.682, %dd(10)x=69.6), 20 MV (TPR10(20)=0.758, %dd(10)x= 80.5] and 30 MV [TPR10(20) = 0.794, %dd(10)x= 88.4]. The uncertainty on the calorimetric determination of kQ for a single chamber is typically 0.36% and the overall 1sigma uncertainty on a set of chambers of the same type is typically 0.45%. The maximum deviation between a measured kQ and the TG-51 protocol value is 0.8%. The overall rms deviation between measurement and the TG-51 values, based on 20 chambers at the three energies, is 0.41%. When the effect of a 1 mm PMMA waterproofing sleeve is taken into account in the calculations, the maximum deviation is 1.1% and the overall rms deviation between measurement and calculation 0.48%. When the beam is specified using TPR10(20), and measurements are compared with kQ values calculated using the version of TG-21 with corrected formalism and data, differences are up to 1.6% when no sleeve corrections are taken into account. For the NE2571 and the NE2611A chamber types, for which the most literature data are

  1. Device for the collimation of a high-energy beam, in particular a X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyser, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    The design of apertures made of radiation-absorbing material intended for limiting an aperture for a radiation beam of high energy, in particular an X-ray beam is claimed. The apertures are shaped as trapezoids, are held movably, and are adjustable by means of a control device. (UWI) [de

  2. High energy beam thermal processing of alpha zirconium alloys and the resulting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, G.P.; McDonald, S.G.; Nurminen, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    Alpha zirconium alloy fabrication methods and resultant products exhibiting improved high temperature, high pressure steam corrosion resistance. The process, according to one aspect of this invention, utilizes a high energy beam thermal treatment to provide a layer of beta treated microstructure on an alpha zirconium alloy intermediate product. The treated product is then alpha worked to final size. According to another aspect of the invention, high energy beam thermal treatment is used to produce an alpha annealed microstructure in a Zircaloy alloy intermediate size or final size component. The resultant products are suitable for use in pressurized water and boiling water reactors

  3. High-Energy Beam Transport in the Hanford FMIT Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Potter, R.C.; Liska, D.J.; Giles, P.M.; Wilson, M.T.; Cole, T.R.; Caldwell, C.J. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) for the Hanford Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility's Linear Accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power continuous duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread. Both periodic and nonperiodic systems have been designed to transport and shape the beam as required by the liquid lithium target. An energy spreader system distributes the Bragg Peak within the lithium. A beam spreader and a beam stop have been provided for tune-up purposes. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostics techniques and non-interceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports

  4. The edge transient-current technique (E-TCT) with high energy hadron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorišek, Andrej; Cindro, Vladimir; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandić, Igor [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuž, Marko [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muškinja, Miha; Zavrtanik, Marko [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-09-21

    We propose a novel way to investigate the properties of silicon and CVD diamond detectors for High Energy Physics experiments complementary to the already well-established E-TCT technique using laser beam. In the proposed setup the beam of high energy hadrons (MIPs) is used instead of laser beam. MIPs incident on the detector in the direction parallel to the readout electrode plane and perpendicular to the edge of the detector. Such experiment could prove very useful to study CVD diamond detectors that are almost inaccessible for the E-TCT measurements with laser due to large band-gap as well as to verify and complement the E-TCT measurements of silicon. The method proposed is being tested at CERN in a beam of 120 GeV hadrons using a reference telescope with track resolution at the DUT of few μm. The preliminary results of the measurements are presented.

  5. Multiple Coulomb scattering of high-energy heavy charged particle beams used in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Ludewigt, B.; Phillips, M.; Curtis, S.; Tobias, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors measured lateral displacement and angular distributions of high-energy heavy charged particles emerging from a target at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory BEVALAC with beams used in radiobiology experiments. Multiple Coulomb scattering occurring in the target material generally spreads the beam laterally and increases its divergence. The apparatus consists of four sets of position-sensitive semiconductor detectors located along the beam line. Each providing two position signals and one energy signal. The difference between the two position signals is used to determine the particle position in one dimension. The two position signals are constrained to add up to the energy deposition signal in order to reject multiple-particle traversals. The vector directions for the incident and emerging particles are reconstructed in three dimensions from their measured coordinated positions. Lateral and angular distributions are reported for beams of high-energy neon, iron and uranium ions incident on targets of aluminum, cooper, lead and water

  6. Parameters affecting profile shape of a high energy low current thin ion beam. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Salam, F W; Moustafa, O A; El-Khabeary, H [Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The shape of the profile of a high energy, low current beam of finite length has beam investigated. The beam profile shape depends on the initial beam radius, beam perveance, atomic mass number, charge state of ions, and beam length. These parameters can affect the relation between the initial beam radius and the corresponding final one. An optimum initial beam radius corresponding to minimum final beam at the target has been formulated and the relation between them is deduced taking account of the space charge effect. The minimum beam radius at the target was found to be equal to 2.3 of the optimum initial radius. It is concluded that in order to obtain a small beam radius at a target placed at a finite distance from an ion source, a beam of a low perveance, low atomic mass number and high number of electronic charge is required. This is an important detection for micro machining applications using the oscillating electron ion source which produces nearly paraxial thin beam of low perveance. 12 figs.

  7. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group: Progress report, March 1, 1988--February 28, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses work carried out by the High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group at the University of Maryland. Particular topics discussed are: OPAL experiment at LEP; deep inelastic muon interactions; B physics with the CLEO detector at CESR; further results from JADE; and search for ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle

  8. Numerical simulation of inducing characteristics of high energy electron beam plasma for aerodynamics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongfeng; Jiang, Jian; Han, Xianwei; Tan, Chang; Wei, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.

  9. On the absorbed dose determination method in high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.; Avadanei, C.

    2008-01-01

    The absorbed dose determination method in water, based on standards of air kerma or exposure in high energy photon beams generated by electron with energies in the range of 1 MeV to 50 MeV is presented herein. The method is based on IAEA-398, AAPM TG-51, DIN 6800-2, IAEA-381, IAEA-277 and NACP-80 recommendations. The dosimetry equipment is composed of UNIDOS T 10005 electrometer and different ionization chambers calibrated in air kerma method in a Co 60 beam. Starting from the general formalism showed in IAEA-381, the determination of absorbed dose in water, under reference conditions in high energy photon beams, is given. This method was adopted for the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in NILPRP-Bucharest

  10. Audit of high energy therapy beams in hospital oncology departments by the National Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, V.G.

    1994-02-01

    In 1993 the output of every high energy radiotherapy beam used clinically in New Zealand was measured by National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) staff using independent dosimetry equipment. The purpose of this was to audit the dosimetry that is used by hospital physicists for the basis of patient treatments, and to uncover any errors that may be clinically significant. This report analyses the uncertainties involved in comparing the NRL and hospital measurements, and presents the results of the 1993 audit. The overall uncertainty turns out to be about 1.5%. The results for linear accelerator photon beams are consistent with a purely random variation within this uncertainty. Electron beams show some small errors beyond the expected uncertainty. Gamma beams have the potential to be the most accurately measured, but in practice are less accurately measured than linear accelerator beams. None of the disagreements indicated an error of clinical significance. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Applications of high energy neutralized ion beams to a compact torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostoker, N.; Katzenstein, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams can be produced with ion diodes and Marx generators. The technology exists to produce high energy beams efficiently. A neutralized ion beam has an equal number of co-moving electrons. The resultant beam is electrically neutral, has no net current and can be transported across a magnetic field if the current density is sufficiently large. Preliminary experimental results have been obtained on injecting a neutralized proton beam into a small tokamak. To illuminate the physical processes involved in injection and trapping an experiment has been designed for TEXT. Possible applications to a compact torus include plasma heating, current maintenance and non-equilibrium reactors that do not require ignition. Each application is discussed and comparisons are made with other methods. (author)

  12. Head-On Beam-Beam Interactions in High-Energy Hadron Colliders. GPU-Powered Modelling of Nonlinear Effects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160109; Støvneng, Jon Andreas

    2017-08-15

    The performance of high-energy circular hadron colliders, as the Large Hadron Collider, is limited by beam-beam interactions. The strength of the beam-beam interactions will be higher after the upgrade to the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, and also in the next generation of machines, as the Future Circular Hadron Collider. The strongly nonlinear force between the two opposing beams causes diverging Hamiltonians and drives resonances, which can lead to a reduction of the lifetime of the beams. The nonlinearity makes the effect of the force difficult to study analytically, even at first order. Numerical models are therefore needed to evaluate the overall effect of different configurations of the machines. For this thesis, a new code named CABIN (Cuda-Accelerated Beam-beam Interaction) has been developed to study the limitations caused by the impact of strong beam-beam interactions. In particular, the evolution of the beam emittance and beam intensity has been monitored to study the impact quantitatively...

  13. High-energy beams of radioactive nuclei and their biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpen, E.L.; Chatterjee, A.; Llacer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Several exploratory measurements have been conducted with radioactive beams to test the feasibility of using these beams to measure effective stopping power of heterogeneous media for heavy charged particles. Such measurements will provide direct information on the average electron density and average stopping number of a target with an unknown heterogeneous beam path. This information, once obtained with a suitable radioactive beam, can be used in equations to calculate the energy of any heavy particle of therapeutic choice so that the Bragg peak of the therapeutic beam can be placed on the tumor volume. A beam of high-energy heavy ions was collimated to a diameter of 1.58 cm (PEBA has a good positional accuracy as long as the beam diameter is less than 2 cm), and made to enter target materials (mixed or homogeneous) positioned between the detector banks and centered along the beam axis. Measurements have been made with 11 C and 19 Ne beams, but the short half-life of 19 Ne (19 sec) allows prompt repeated measurements, making that nucleus very interesting for these purposes. Only the results obtained with it are reported

  14. Beam structure and transverse emittance studies of high-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadatmand, K.; Johnson, K.F.; Schneider, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A visual diagnostic technique has been developed to monitor and study ion beam structure shape and size along a transport line. In this technique, a commercially available fluorescent screen is utilized in conjunction with a video camera. This visual representation of the beam structure is digitized and enhanced through use of false-color coding and displayed on a TV monitor for on-line viewing. Digitized information is stored for further off-line processing (e.g., extraction of beam profiles). An optional wire grid placed upstream of the fluor screen adds the capability of transverse emittance (or angular spread) measurement to this technique. This diagnostic allows real-time observation of the beam response to parameter changes (e.g., evolution of the beam structure, shifts in the beam intensity at various spatial locations within the beam perimeter, and shifts in the beam center and position). 3 refs., 5 figs

  15. Immediate remediation of heavy metal (Cr(VI)) contaminated soil by high energy electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guilong; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An immediate remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) was developed. • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation could reduce Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III). • This effect was attributed to electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals. • This remediation method was effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost. - Abstract: This work developed an immediate and high-performance remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The result indicated that, compared with γ-ray irradiation, HEEB irradiation displayed a significant reduction efficiency on Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III) with substantially lower toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the reduction effects of electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals generated in the irradiation process of HEEB. This work could provide a one-step and effective method for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS)

  16. Immediate remediation of heavy metal (Cr(VI)) contaminated soil by high energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • An immediate remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) was developed. • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation could reduce Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III). • This effect was attributed to electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals. • This remediation method was effective, environmentally friendly, and low-cost. - Abstract: This work developed an immediate and high-performance remediation method for Cr(VI) contaminated soil (CCS) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The result indicated that, compared with γ-ray irradiation, HEEB irradiation displayed a significant reduction efficiency on Cr(VI) in CCS to Cr(III) with substantially lower toxicity, which was mainly attributed to the reduction effects of electrons, hydrated electrons, and reductive radicals generated in the irradiation process of HEEB. This work could provide a one-step and effective method for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil (HMCS)

  17. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  18. A Benchmarking Study of High Energy Carbon Ion Induced Neutron Using Several Monte Carlo Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Oh, J. H.; Jung, N. S.; Lee, H. S. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Y. S.; Kwon, D. Y.; Kim, Y. M. [Catholic Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Oranj, L. Mokhtari [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the benchmarking study was done for the representative particle interaction of the heavy ion accelerator, especially carbon-induced reaction. The secondary neutron is an important particle in the shielding analysis to define the source term and penetration ability of radiation fields. The performance of each Monte Carlo codes were verified for selected codes: MCNPX 2.7, PHITS 2.64 and FLUKA 2011.2b.6. For this benchmarking study, the experimental data of Kurosawa et al. in the SINBAD database of NEA was applied. The calculated results of the differential neutron yield produced from several materials irradiated by high energy carbon beam reproduced the experimental data well in small uncertainty. But the MCNPX results showed large discrepancy with experimental data, especially at the forward angle. The calculated results were lower a little than the experimental and it was clear in the cases of lower incident carbon energy, thinner target and forward angle. As expected, the influence of different model was found clearly at forward direction. In the shielding analysis, these characteristics of each Monte Carlo codes should be considered and utilized to determine the safety margin of a shield thickness.

  19. A Benchmarking Study of High Energy Carbon Ion Induced Neutron Using Several Monte Carlo Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Oh, J. H.; Jung, N. S.; Lee, H. S.; Shin, Y. S.; Kwon, D. Y.; Kim, Y. M.; Oranj, L. Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the benchmarking study was done for the representative particle interaction of the heavy ion accelerator, especially carbon-induced reaction. The secondary neutron is an important particle in the shielding analysis to define the source term and penetration ability of radiation fields. The performance of each Monte Carlo codes were verified for selected codes: MCNPX 2.7, PHITS 2.64 and FLUKA 2011.2b.6. For this benchmarking study, the experimental data of Kurosawa et al. in the SINBAD database of NEA was applied. The calculated results of the differential neutron yield produced from several materials irradiated by high energy carbon beam reproduced the experimental data well in small uncertainty. But the MCNPX results showed large discrepancy with experimental data, especially at the forward angle. The calculated results were lower a little than the experimental and it was clear in the cases of lower incident carbon energy, thinner target and forward angle. As expected, the influence of different model was found clearly at forward direction. In the shielding analysis, these characteristics of each Monte Carlo codes should be considered and utilized to determine the safety margin of a shield thickness

  20. Cooling equilibrium and beam loss with internal targets in high energy storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Hasse, R.; Hinterberger, F.; Lehrach, A.; Zenkevich, P.

    2006-01-01

    The beam cooling equilibrium with internal target interaction is analyzed for parameters relevant to the proposed High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). For the proposed experiments with anti-protons high luminosities together with low momentum spreads are required. Rate equations are used to predict the rms equilibrium beam parameters. The cooling and IBS rate coefficients are obtained from simplified models. Energy loss straggling in the target and the associated beam loss are analyzed analytically assuming a thin target. A longitudinal kinetic simulation code is used to study the evolution of the momentum distribution in coasting and bunched beams. Analytic expressions for the target induced momentum tail are found in good agreement with the simulation results

  1. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  2. On beam quality and stopping power ratios for high-energy x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, S.A.; Ceberg, C.P.; Knoeoes, T.; Nilsson, P.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to quantitatively compare two commonly used beam quality indices, TPR(20/10) and %dd(10) x , with respect to their ability to predict stopping power ratios (water to air), s w,air , for high-energy x-rays. In particular, effects due to a varied amount of filtration of the photon beam will be studied. A new method for characterizing beam quality is also presented, where the information we strive to obtain is the moments of the spectral distribution. We will show how the moments enter into a general description of the transmission curve and that it is possible to correlate the moments to s w,air with a unique and simple relationship. Comparisons with TPR(20/10) and %dd(10) x show that the moments are well suited for beam quality specification in terms of choosing the correct s w,air . (author)

  3. On a method for high-energy electron beam production in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested to produce high-energy electron beams in such a way that the ultrarelativistic protons give an amount of their kinetic energy to the electrons of a thin target, placed inside the working volume of the proton synchrotron. The kinematics of the elastic scattering of relativistic protons on electrons at rest is treated. Evaluation of a number of elastically-scattered electrons by 1000 GeV and 3000 GeV proton beams is presented. The method under consideration is of certain practical interest and may appear to be preferable in a definite energy range of protons and electrons

  4. High yield of low-energy pions from a high-energy primary proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, A.; Capponi, S.; De Castro, S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first measurement on the yield of pions with momentum smaller than 220 MeV/c, produced by a 300 GeV/c proton beam. The measurements, performed at the CERN super proton synchrotron using tungsten production targets of different lengths, are discussed referring to the possibility of extending to high-energy laboratories the access to fundamental research involving low-energy pions and muons

  5. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group. Progress report 1978/1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, G.

    1979-12-01

    The High Energy Physics Group at the U. of Maryland engaged in a substantial number of different types of particle physics experiments. The largest and most important experiment is that on e + e - interactions. Three experiments were carried out to search for exotic particles or interactions: a heavy neutral lepton, muonium to antimuonium transitions, axions produced by an intense electron beam. No evidence for any of these phenomena was obtained, and the corresponding limitations on relevant parameters were deduced. 10 figures

  6. Utilization of high energy electron beam in the treatment of drinking and waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Borrely, S.I.; Morita, D.M.

    1991-08-01

    Samples of drinking water and waste water were irradiated using high energy electron beam with doses from 0.37kGy to 100kGy. Preliminary data show the removal of about 100% tri halomethanes (THM) in drinking water (concentration from 2.7 μg/1 to 45μg/1, 90% of the color of the Public Owned Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent and 87% of oil and grease of the cutting fluid waste water. (author)

  7. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Research activities presented in this annual report were carried out in 1987 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation and investigation of hot dense matter. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense heavy ion beams. The new accelerator facility SIS/ESR now under construction at GSI will provide an excellent potential for research in this field. The construction work at the new validity is on schedule. The building construction is near completion and the SIS accelerator will have its first beam at the beginning of next year. First experiments at lower intensity will start in summer 1989 and the full program will run after the cooler and storage ring ESR has got operational. Accordingly, the planning and the preparation of the high energy density experiments at this unique facility was an essential part of the activities last year. In this funding period emphasis was given to the experimental activities at the existing accelerator. In addition to a number of accelerator-oriented and instrumental developments, an experiment on beam-plasma interaction had first exciting results, a significant increase of the stopping power for heavy ions in plasma was measured. Other important activities were the investigation of dielectronic recombination of highly charged ions, spectroscopic investigations aiming at the pumping of short wavelength lasers by heavy ion beams and a crossed beam experiment for the determination of Bi + + Bi + ionization cross sections. As in previous years theoretical work an space-charge dominated beam dynamics as well as on hydrodynamics of dense plasmas, radiation transport and beam plasma interaction was continued, thus providing a basis for the future experiments. (orig.)

  8. High power and high energy electrodes using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Nicolo Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-07

    An electrode useful in an energy storage system, such as a capacitor, includes an electrode that includes at least one to a plurality of layers of compressed carbon nanotube aggregate. Methods of fabrication are provided. The resulting electrode exhibits superior electrical performance in terms of gravimetric and volumetric power density.

  9. Polyazidopyrimidines: High Energy Compounds and Precursors to Carbon Nanotubes (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Chengfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Boatz, Jerry A; Drake, Gregory W; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2006-01-01

    ...). The compound 4,4',6,6'-tetra(azido)azo-1,3,5-triazine (2), has a heat of formation of 2171 (6164 kJ kg -1) (Fig. 1). Recently it was demonstrated that 1 and 2 were good precursors to nano carbon nitride materials...

  10. High-energy, short-pulse, carbon-dioxide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Lasers for fusion application represent a special class of short-pulse generators; not only must they generate extremely short temporal pulses of high quality, but they must do this at ultra-high powers and satisfy other stringent requirements by this application. This paper presents the status of the research and development of carbon-dioxide laser systems at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, vis-a-vis the fusion requirements

  11. Ultra High Energy Density Cathodes with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    a) Carbon nanotube paper coated with NCA cathode composite for testing as positive electrode in Li-ion battery (b) Comparison of NCA specific...received and purified CNT electrodes coated with NCA cathode composite. (b) Discharge capacities as a function of rate and cycle for NCA on Al and...thickness increases. The first approach was to cast SOA NCA cathode composites onto CNT current collectors using an adjustable blade coater. The

  12. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D 90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms. - Highlights: ► The hygienic efficiency of electron beam against slurry was researched. ► The hygienization efficiency depended on the slurry characteristics and microorganism species. ► In most of the cases 7 kGy dose was sufficient for slurry hygienization. ► Dose below 1 kGy allowed for 90% elimination of microorganism population. ► The radiation hygienization is a good alternative for typical slurry treatment methods

  13. Simulation of wire-compensation of long range beam beam interaction in high energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda, U.; )

    2006-01-01

    Full text: We present weak-strong simulation results for the effect of long-range beam-beam (LRBB) interaction in LHC as well as for proposed wire compensation schemes or wire experiments, respectively. In particular, we discuss details of the simulation model, instability indicators, the effectiveness of compensation, the difference between nominal and PACMAN bunches for the LHC, beam experiments, and wire tolerances. The simulations are performed with the new code BBTrack. (author)

  14. Experimental and Monte Carlo studies of fluence corrections for graphite calorimetry in low- and high-energy clinical proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenço, Ana; Thomas, Russell; Bouchard, Hugo; Kacperek, Andrzej; Vondracek, Vladimir; Royle, Gary; Palmans, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine fluence corrections necessary to convert absorbed dose to graphite, measured by graphite calorimetry, to absorbed dose to water. Fluence corrections were obtained from experiments and Monte Carlo simulations in low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Fluence corrections were calculated to account for the difference in fluence between water and graphite at equivalent depths. Measurements were performed with narrow proton beams. Plane-parallel-plate ionization chambers with a large collecting area compared to the beam diameter were used to intercept the whole beam. High- and low-energy proton beams were provided by a scanning and double scattering delivery system, respectively. A mathematical formalism was established to relate fluence corrections derived from Monte Carlo simulations, using the FLUKA code [A. Ferrari et al., “FLUKA: A multi-particle transport code,” in CERN 2005-10, INFN/TC 05/11, SLAC-R-773 (2005) and T. T. Böhlen et al., “The FLUKA Code: Developments and challenges for high energy and medical applications,” Nucl. Data Sheets 120, 211–214 (2014)], to partial fluence corrections measured experimentally. Results: A good agreement was found between the partial fluence corrections derived by Monte Carlo simulations and those determined experimentally. For a high-energy beam of 180 MeV, the fluence corrections from Monte Carlo simulations were found to increase from 0.99 to 1.04 with depth. In the case of a low-energy beam of 60 MeV, the magnitude of fluence corrections was approximately 0.99 at all depths when calculated in the sensitive area of the chamber used in the experiments. Fluence correction calculations were also performed for a larger area and found to increase from 0.99 at the surface to 1.01 at greater depths. Conclusions: Fluence corrections obtained experimentally are partial fluence corrections because they account for differences in the primary and part of the secondary

  15. Experimental and Monte Carlo studies of fluence corrections for graphite calorimetry in low- and high-energy clinical proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Ana, E-mail: am.lourenco@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thomas, Russell; Bouchard, Hugo [Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Kacperek, Andrzej [National Eye Proton Therapy Centre, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral CH63 4JY (United Kingdom); Vondracek, Vladimir [Proton Therapy Center, Budinova 1a, Prague 8 CZ-180 00 (Czech Republic); Royle, Gary [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Palmans, Hugo [Division of Acoustics and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and Medical Physics Group, EBG MedAustron GmbH, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine fluence corrections necessary to convert absorbed dose to graphite, measured by graphite calorimetry, to absorbed dose to water. Fluence corrections were obtained from experiments and Monte Carlo simulations in low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Fluence corrections were calculated to account for the difference in fluence between water and graphite at equivalent depths. Measurements were performed with narrow proton beams. Plane-parallel-plate ionization chambers with a large collecting area compared to the beam diameter were used to intercept the whole beam. High- and low-energy proton beams were provided by a scanning and double scattering delivery system, respectively. A mathematical formalism was established to relate fluence corrections derived from Monte Carlo simulations, using the FLUKA code [A. Ferrari et al., “FLUKA: A multi-particle transport code,” in CERN 2005-10, INFN/TC 05/11, SLAC-R-773 (2005) and T. T. Böhlen et al., “The FLUKA Code: Developments and challenges for high energy and medical applications,” Nucl. Data Sheets 120, 211–214 (2014)], to partial fluence corrections measured experimentally. Results: A good agreement was found between the partial fluence corrections derived by Monte Carlo simulations and those determined experimentally. For a high-energy beam of 180 MeV, the fluence corrections from Monte Carlo simulations were found to increase from 0.99 to 1.04 with depth. In the case of a low-energy beam of 60 MeV, the magnitude of fluence corrections was approximately 0.99 at all depths when calculated in the sensitive area of the chamber used in the experiments. Fluence correction calculations were also performed for a larger area and found to increase from 0.99 at the surface to 1.01 at greater depths. Conclusions: Fluence corrections obtained experimentally are partial fluence corrections because they account for differences in the primary and part of the secondary

  16. Studies on the dose distribution and treatment technique of high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.; Chu, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Some important properties of high energy electron beams from the linear accelerator, LMR-13, installed in the Yonsei Cancer Center were studied. The results of experimental studies on the problems associated with the 8, 10, and 12 MeV electron beam therapy were as followings; The ionization type dosemeters calibrated by 90 Sr standard source were suitable to the measurements of the outputs and the obsorbed doses in accuracy point of view, and dose measurements using ionization chambers were difficult when measuring doses in small field size and the regions of rapid fall off. The electron energies were measured precisely with an energy spectrometer, and the practical electron energy was calculated within 5% error in the maximum range of the high energy electron beam in water. The correcting factors of perturbated dose distributions owing to radiation field, energy, and materials of the treatment cone were checked and described systematically and thus the variation of dose distributions due to the non-homogeneities of tissues and slopping skin surfaces were completely compensated. The electron beams were adequately diffused using the scatterers, and minimized the bremsstrahlung, irradiation field size, and materials of scatterers. Thus, the therapeutic capacity with the limited electron energy could be extended by improving the dose distributions. (author)

  17. Time of Flight based diagnostics for high energy laser driven ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, V.; Milluzzo, G.; Alejo, A.; Amico, A. G.; Booth, N.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Doria, D.; Green, J.; Kar, S.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; McKenna, P.; Padda, H.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Romagnani, L.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Borghesi, M.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays the innovative high power laser-based ion acceleration technique is one of the most interesting challenges in particle acceleration field, showing attractive characteristics for future multidisciplinary applications, including medical ones. Nevertheless, peculiarities of optically accelerated ion beams make mandatory the development of proper transport, selection and diagnostics devices in order to deliver stable and controlled ion beams for multidisciplinary applications. This is the main purpose of the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) beamline that will be realized and installed within 2018 at the ELI-Beamlines research center in the Czech Republic, where laser driven high energy ions, up to 60 MeV/n, will be available for users. In particular, a crucial role will be played by the on-line diagnostics system, recently developed in collaboration with INFN-LNS (Italy), consisting of TOF detectors, placed along the beamline (at different detection distances) to provide online monitoring of key characteristics of delivered beams, such as energy, fluence and ion species. In this contribution an overview on the ELIMAIA available ion diagnostics will be briefly given along with the preliminary results obtained during a test performed with high energy laser-driven proton beams accelerated at the VULCAN PW-laser available at RAL facility (U.K.).

  18. Time of Flight based diagnostics for high energy laser driven ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuderi, V.; Margarone, D.; Schillaci, F.; Milluzzo, G.; Amico, A.G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Romano, F.; Alejo, A.; Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M.; Booth, N.; Green, J.; McKenna, P.; Padda, H.; Romagnani, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays the innovative high power laser-based ion acceleration technique is one of the most interesting challenges in particle acceleration field, showing attractive characteristics for future multidisciplinary applications, including medical ones. Nevertheless, peculiarities of optically accelerated ion beams make mandatory the development of proper transport, selection and diagnostics devices in order to deliver stable and controlled ion beams for multidisciplinary applications. This is the main purpose of the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) beamline that will be realized and installed within 2018 at the ELI-Beamlines research center in the Czech Republic, where laser driven high energy ions, up to 60 MeV/n, will be available for users. In particular, a crucial role will be played by the on-line diagnostics system, recently developed in collaboration with INFN-LNS (Italy), consisting of TOF detectors, placed along the beamline (at different detection distances) to provide online monitoring of key characteristics of delivered beams, such as energy, fluence and ion species. In this contribution an overview on the ELIMAIA available ion diagnostics will be briefly given along with the preliminary results obtained during a test performed with high energy laser-driven proton beams accelerated at the VULCAN PW-laser available at RAL facility (U.K.).

  19. Measurement of residual radioactivity in cooper exposed to high energy heavy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ito, Sachiko; Fukumura, Akifumi

    1999-03-01

    The residual radioactivities produced by high energy heavy ions have been measured using the heavy ion beams of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The spatial distribution of residual radioactivities in 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 10 cm thick copper targets of 10 cm x 10 cm size bombarded by 290 MeV/u, 400 MeV/u-{sup 12}C ion beams and 400 MeV/u-{sup 20}Ne ion beam, respectively, were obtained by measuring the gamma-ray activities of 0.5 mm thick copper foil inserted in the target with a high purity Ge detector after about 1 hour to 6 hours irradiation. (author)

  20. On some methods to produce high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    Some methods of production of high-energy polarized electron beams by means of proton synchrotrons are considered. These methods are based on transfer by protons of a part of their energy to the polarized electrons of a thin target placed inside the working volume of the synchrotron. It is suggested to use as a polarized electron target a magnetized crystalline iron in which proton channeling is realized, polarized atomic beams and the polarized plasma. It is shown that by this method one can produce polarized electron beams with energy approximately 100 GeV, energy spread +- 5 % and intensity approximately 10 7 electron/c, polarization approximately 30% and with intensity approximately 10 4 -10 5 electron/c, polarization approximately 100% [ru

  1. High-energy monoenergetic proton beams from two stage acceleration with a slow laser pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new regime to generate high-energy quasimonoenergetic proton beams in a “slow-pulse” regime, where the laser group velocity v_{g}beams can be generated. It is shown by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation that quasimonoenergetic proton beams with energy up to hundreds of MeV can be generated at laser intensities of 10^{21}  W/cm^{2}.

  2. Physical measurements with a high-energy proton beam using liquid and solid tissue substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.; Kember, N.F.; Huxtable, G.; Whitehead, C.

    1980-01-01

    The measurement of the physical parameters of a high-energy proton beam, using a range of liquid and solid tissue substitutes, is described. The system, the detectors used and the experimental verification of the tissue equivalence of the new tissue substitutes is presented. The measurements with the scattered but uncollimated proton beam in muscle-and brain-equivalent liquids and in water are compared to similar data obtained from the scattered but collimated beam. The effect of lung, fat and bone on the dose distributions in composite phantoms is also investigated and the necessary corrections established. A simulated patient treatment indicated that the Bragg peak can be positioned with an error not exceeding +-0.5 mm. (author)

  3. Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100 G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  4. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B.; Lee, E.P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  5. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  6. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  7. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  8. Regeneration of used activated carbon by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, H.; Hosono, M.; Zhu, G.; Miyata, T.

    1992-01-01

    The adsorbing power of granular activated carbons which adsorbed sodium laurylsulfate were most effectively recovered by irradiation of high energy electron beams in nitrogen stream, and the carbon was hardly lost by irradiation. The regeneration was induced mainly by microscopic heating of adsorption sites. Regeneration was also confirmed by adsorption endotherms. Regeneration cost was tentatively evaluated. (author)

  9. Semiconductor devices as track detectors in high energy colliding beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.

    1980-01-01

    In considering the design of experiments for high energy colliding beam facilities one quickly sees the need for better detectors. The full exploitation of machines like ISABELLE will call for detector capabilities beyond what can be expected from refinements of the conventional approaches to particle detection in high energy physics experiments. Over the past year or so there has been a general realization that semiconductor device technology offers the possibility of position sensing detectors having resolution elements with dimensions of the order of 10 microns or smaller. Such a detector could offer enormous advantages in the design of experiments, and the purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the possibilities and some of the problems

  10. U.S. Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers

  11. Semiconductor devices as track detectors in high energy colliding beam experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlam, T

    1980-01-01

    In considering the design of experiments for high energy colliding beam facilities one quickly sees the need for better detectors. The full exploitation of machines like ISABELLE will call for detector capabilities beyond what can be expected from refinements of the conventional approaches to particle detection in high energy physics experiments. Over the past year or so there has been a general realization that semiconductor device technology offers the possibility of position sensing detectors having resolution elements with dimensions of the order of 10 microns or smaller. Such a detector could offer enormous advantages in the design of experiments, and the purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the possibilities and some of the problems.

  12. Radiolytic preparation of thin Au film directly on resin substrate using high-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yuji, E-mail: okubo@upst.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueno, Koji [Japan Electron Beam Irradiation Service Ltd., 5-3 Ozushima, Izumiohtsu, Osaka 595-0074 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    A novel method for preparing thin Au films directly on resin substrates using an electron beam was developed. The thin Au films were prepared on a resin substrate by the reduction of Au ions in an aqueous solution via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam (4.8 MeV). This reduction method required 7 s of the irradiation time of the electron beam. Furthermore, no reductant or catalyst was needed. As the concentration of Au ions in the precursor solution was increased, the amount of Au deposited on the resin substrate increased, too, and the structure of the prepared Au film changed. As a result, the film color changed as well. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images of the thus-prepared Au film indicated that the Au films were consisted of two layers: a particle layer and a bottom bulk layer. There was strong adhesion between the Au films and the underlying resin substrates. This was confirmed by the tape-peeling test and through ultrasonic cleaning. After both processes, Au remained on the resin substrates, while most of the particle-like moieties were removed. This indicated that the thin Au films prepared via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam adhered strongly to the resin substrates. - Highlights: • A thin gold (Au) film was formed by EBIRM for the first time. • The irradiation time of the electron beam was less than 10 s. • Thin Au films were obtained without reductant or catalyst. • Au films were consisted of two layers: a particle layer and a bottom bulk layer. • There was strong adhesion between the bottom bulk layer and the underlying resin substrates.

  13. Treatment of extra-mammary Paget's disease with high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Syuji; Kumano, Machiko; Tsuboi, Yoshitaka; Gose, Kyuhei.

    1979-01-01

    10 patients with extra-mammary Paget's disease were treated with high energy electron beam. 3 were treated surgically before irradiation. They were irradiated with the dose from, 6,000 rad in 40 fractions in 53 days to 9,900 rad in 66 fractions in 90 days. 3 recurred within 2 years and 1 recurred after 4.8 years and 1 recurred after 5 years. The early recurrence was observed around the irradiated field, while the late recurrence was seen in the irradiated field. A wider area should be irradiated to control this invasive disease. (author)

  14. Lifetimes of relativistic heavy-ion beams in the High Energy Storage Ring of FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelko, V. P.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Stöhlker, Th.; Tolstikhina, I. Yu.

    2018-04-01

    The High Energy Storage Ring, HESR, will be constructed at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR, Darmstadt. For the first time, it will be possible to perform experiments with cooled high-intensity stable and radioactive heavy ions at highly relativistic energies. To design experiments at the HESR, realistic estimations of beam lifetimes are indispensable. Here we report calculated cross sections and lifetimes for typical U88+ , U90+ , U92+ , Sn49+ and Sn50+ ions in the energy range E = 400 MeV/u-5 GeV/u, relevant for the HESR. Interactions with the residual gas and with internal gas-jet targets are also considered.

  15. Hardness enhancement and crosslinking mechanisms in polystyrene irradiated with high energy ion-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rao, G.R.; Mansur, L.K.

    1996-01-01

    Surface hardness values several times larger than steel were produced using high energy ion beams at several hundred keV to MeV. High LET is important for crosslinking. Crosslinking is studied by analyzing hardness variations in response to irradiation parameter such as ion species, energy, and fluence. Effective crosslinking radii at hardness saturation are derived base on experimental data for 350 keV H + and 1 MeV Ar + irradiation of polystyrene. Saturation value for surface hardness is about 20 GPa

  16. Collective Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses for High-energy Density Physics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    The collective focusing concept in which a weak magnetic lens provides strong focusing of an intense ion beam pulse carrying a neutralizing electron background is investigated by making use of advanced particle-in-cell simulations and reduced analytical models. The original analysis by Robertson Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 149 (1982) is extended to the parameter regimes of particular importance for several high-energy density physics applications. The present paper investigates (1) the effects of non-neutral collective focusing in a moderately strong magnetic field; (2) the diamagnetic effects leading to suppression of the applied magnetic field due to the presence of the beam pulse; and (3) the influence of a finite-radius conducting wall surrounding the beam cross-section on beam neutralization. In addition, it is demonstrated that the use of the collective focusing lens can significantly simplify the technical realization of the final focusing of ion beam pulses in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-I (NDCX-I), and the conceptual designs of possible experiments on NDCX-I are investigated by making use of advanced numerical simulations.

  17. Hydrogen microscopy and analysis of DNA repair using focused high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de; Bergmaier, A. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Hauptner, A. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dietzel, S. [Department Biologie II, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Drexler, G.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU Muenchen, Schillerstr. 42, D-80336 Muenchen und Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hable, V. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, LRT 2, Werner Heisenberg Weg 39, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Reichart, P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Kruecken, R. [Physik Department E 12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cremer, T. [Department Biologie II, Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshaderner Str. 2, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried (Germany); Friedl, A.A. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, LMU Muenchen, Schillerstr. 42, D-80336 Muenchen und Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The ion microprobe SNAKE (Supraleitendes Nanoskop fuer Angewandte Kernphysikalische Experimente) at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator achieves beam focussing by a superconducting quadrupole doublet and can make use of a broad range of ions and ion energies, i.e. 4-28 MeV protons or up to 250 MeV gold ions. Due to these ion beams, SNAKE is particularly attractive for ion beam analyses in various fields. Here we describe two main applications of SNAKE. One is the unique possibility to perform three-dimensional hydrogen microscopy by elastic proton-proton scattering utilizing high energy proton beams. The high proton energies allow the analysis of samples with a thickness in the 100 {mu}m range with micrometer resolution and a sensitivity better than 1 ppm. In a second application, SNAKE is used to analyse protein dynamics in cells by irradiating live cells with single focussed ions. Fluorescence from immunostained protein 53BP1 is used as biological track detector after irradiation of HeLa cells. It is used to examine the irradiated region in comparison with the targeted region. Observed patterns of fluorescence foci agree reasonably well with irradiation patterns, indicating an overall targeting accuracy of about 2 {mu}m while the beam spot size is less than 0.5 {mu}m in diameter. This performance shows successful adaptation of SNAKE for biological experiments where cells are targeted on a sub-cellular level by energetic ions.

  18. Imaging high energy photons with PILATUS II at the tagged photon beam at MAX-lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: leev@physics.unimelb.edu.au; Peake, D.J.; Sobott, B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Schroeder, B. [MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Broennimann, Ch. [DECTRIS Ltd., Baden (Switzerland); Henrich, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hansen, K. [MAX-lab, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); O' Keefe, G.J. [Centre for PET, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Taylor, G.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Boland, M.J. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia)

    2009-05-21

    In photonuclear experiments precise location of the photon beam relative to the experimental sample is critical. Previously used techniques such as using photographic film to identify the position, intensity and centroid of the beam is time-consuming and a faster method is required. PILATUS is a single-photon-counting pixel detector developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland. It is a silicon-based, two-dimensional detector with a large dynamic range and zero readout noise. Designed as an X-ray detector, its optimal quantum efficiency is between 3 and 30 keV. This paper reports measurements carried out at the MAX-lab tagged photon facility in Lund, Sweden. The beam endpoint energy of approximately 200 MeV is far above the designed optimal energy detection range of PILATUS, and provides a critical test of the use of PILATUS under high energy conditions. The detector was placed in the photon beam and images were taken both downstream of other experiments, and in close range of a 19 mm collimator. The successful measurements demonstrate the versatility and robustness of the detector and provide an effective way of quickly and accurately monitoring beam position and profile in real time.

  19. Performance of a MICROMEGAS-based TPC in a high-energy neutron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L.; Manning, B.; Bowden, N. S.; Bundgaard, J.; Casperson, R. J.; Cebra, D. A.; Classen, T.; Duke, D. L.; Gearhart, J.; Greife, U.; Hagmann, C.; Heffner, M.; Hensle, D.; Higgins, D.; Isenhower, D.; King, J.; Klay, J. L.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Loveland, W.; Magee, J. A.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Schmitt, K. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, R. S.; Walsh, N.; Watson, S.; Yao, L.; Younes, W.

    2018-02-01

    The MICROMEGAS (MICRO-MEsh GAseous Structure) charge amplification structure has found wide use in many detection applications, especially as a gain stage for the charge readout of Time Projection Chambers (TPCs). Here we report on the behavior of a MICROMEGAS TPC when operated in a high-energy (up to 800 MeV) neutron beam. It is found that neutron-induced reactions can cause discharges in some drift gas mixtures that are stable in the absence of the neutron beam. The discharges result from recoil ions close to the MICROMEGAS that deposit high specific ionization density and have a limited diffusion time. For a binary drift gas, increasing the percentage of the molecular component (quench gas) relative to the noble component and operating at lower pressures generally improves stability.

  20. Inhomogeneities in high energy photon beams used in radiotherapy. Experimental and theoretical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappas, K.

    1986-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the influence of the human body inhomogeneities on the dose distribution for high energy photons beams used in Radiotherapy. It consists in an experimental part and a theoretical analysis leading to original models of calculation. We study essentially, - the beam quality of the machines used and its influence on some basic dosimetric quantities and on the response of an ionization chamber. - The dose perturbation due to off-axis heterogeneous volumes at off-axis points of measurement; a model is suggested to take into account the perturbation of the multiple scatter. The perturbation of the dose in the transition region, between water equivalent medium and heterogeneous medium (air) is also investigated. The last part is devoted to computer applications of the proposed correction methods and to a comparison between the different computerized treatment planning systems which take into account of inhomogeneities [fr

  1. Backscatter dose from metallic materials due to obliquely incident high-energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadrowitz, Roger; Feyerabend, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    If metallic material is exposed to ionizing radiation of sufficient high energy, an increase in dose due to backscatter radiation occurs in front of this material. Our purpose in this study was to quantify these doses at variable distances between scattering materials and the detector at axial beam angles between 0 deg. (zero angle in beams eye view) and 90 deg. . Copper, silver and lead sheets embedded in a phantom of perspex were exposed to 10 MV-bremsstrahlung. The detector we developed is based on the fluorescence property of pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5 benzenetetracarboxylic acid) after exposure to ionizing radiation. Our results show that the additional doses and the corresponding dose distribution in front of the scattering materials depend quantitatively and qualitatively on the beam angle. The backscatter dose increases with varying beam angle from 0 deg. to 90 deg. up to a maximum at 55 deg. for copper and silver. At angles of 0 deg. and 55 deg. the integral backscatter doses over a tissue-equivalent depth of 2 mm are 11.2% and 21.6% for copper and 24% and 28% for silver, respectively. In contrast, in front of lead there are no obvious differences of the measured backscatter doses at angles between 0 deg. and 55 deg. With a further increase of the beam angle from 55 deg. to 90 deg. the backscatter dose decreases steeply for all three materials. In front of copper a markedly lower penetrating depth of the backscattered electrons was found for an angle of 0 deg. compared to 55 deg. This dependence from the beam angle was less pronounced in front of silver and not detectable in front of lead. In conclusion, the dependence of the backscatter dose from the angle between axial beam and scattering material must be considered, as higher scattering doses have to be considered than previously expected. This may have a clinical impact since the surface of metallic implants is usually curved

  2. Backscatter dose from metallic materials due to obliquely incident high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadrowitz, Roger; Feyerabend, Thomas [Medical University of Luebeck, Germany, Department of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck, D-23538 (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    If metallic material is exposed to ionizing radiation of sufficient high energy, an increase in dose due to backscatter radiation occurs in front of this material. Our purpose in this study was to quantify these doses at variable distances between scattering materials and the detector at axial beam angles between 0 deg. (zero angle in beams eye view) and 90 deg. . Copper, silver and lead sheets embedded in a phantom of perspex were exposed to 10 MV-bremsstrahlung. The detector we developed is based on the fluorescence property of pyromellitic acid (1,2,4,5 benzenetetracarboxylic acid) after exposure to ionizing radiation. Our results show that the additional doses and the corresponding dose distribution in front of the scattering materials depend quantitatively and qualitatively on the beam angle. The backscatter dose increases with varying beam angle from 0 deg. to 90 deg. up to a maximum at 55 deg. for copper and silver. At angles of 0 deg. and 55 deg. the integral backscatter doses over a tissue-equivalent depth of 2 mm are 11.2% and 21.6% for copper and 24% and 28% for silver, respectively. In contrast, in front of lead there are no obvious differences of the measured backscatter doses at angles between 0 deg. and 55 deg. With a further increase of the beam angle from 55 deg. to 90 deg. the backscatter dose decreases steeply for all three materials. In front of copper a markedly lower penetrating depth of the backscattered electrons was found for an angle of 0 deg. compared to 55 deg. This dependence from the beam angle was less pronounced in front of silver and not detectable in front of lead. In conclusion, the dependence of the backscatter dose from the angle between axial beam and scattering material must be considered, as higher scattering doses have to be considered than previously expected. This may have a clinical impact since the surface of metallic implants is usually curved.

  3. Radiation processing of polymers with high energy electron beams: novel materials and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.; Sabharwal, Sunil

    2002-01-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation available from electron beam (EB) accelerators has the ability to create extremely reactive species like free radicals or ions at room temperature or even at low temperature in any phase and in a variety of substrates without addition of external additives. This unique advantage of high energy has been utilized in the recent years to produce better quality materials in an environment friendly and cost-effective manner. The availability of high power and reliable EB accelerators has provided new tools to modify the materials and/or processes for a variety of applications. At BARC, a 2 MeV, 20 kW electron beam accelerator has been the nucleus of developing industrial applications of radiation processing in India for last 10 years. The focus has been on developing technologies that are of relevance to Indian socio-economic conditions and also provide economic benefits to the industry. In the areas of polymer processing industry, commercial success has already been achieved while for exploring its applications in the areas of food and agriculture and environment, technology demonstration plants are being set up. The current status of the programme, the new developments and future direction of radiation processing technology shall be presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Scintillation screen materials for beam profile measurements of high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Renuka

    2016-06-22

    For the application as a transverse ion beam diagnostics device, various scintillation screen materials were analysed. The properties of the materials such as light output, image reproduction and radiation stability were investigated with the ion beams extracted from heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18. The ion species (C, Ne, Ar, Ta and U) were chosen to cover the large range of elements in the periodic table. The ions were accelerated to the kinetic energies of 200 MeV/u and 300 MeV/u extracted with 300 ms pulse duration and applied to the screens. The particle intensity of the ion beam was varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 9} particles per pulse. The screens were irradiated with typically 40 beam pulses and the scintillation light was captured using a CCD camera followed by characterization of the beam spot. The radiation hardness of the screens was estimated with high intensity Uranium ion irradiation. In the study, a linear light output for 5 orders of magnitude of particle intensities was observed from sensitive scintillators and ceramic screens such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The highest light output was recorded by CsI:Tl and the lowest one by Herasil. At higher beam intensity saturation of light output was noticed from Y and Mg doped ZrO{sub 2} screens. The light output from the screen depends not only on the particle intensity but also on the ion species used for irradiation. The light yield (i.e. the light intensity normalised to the energy deposition in the material by the ion) is calculated from the experimental data for each ion beam setting. It is shown that the light yield for light ions is about a factor 2 larger than the one of heavy ions. The image widths recorded exhibit a dependence on the screens material and differences up to 50 % were registered. On radiation stability analysis with high particle intensity of Uranium ions of about 6 x 10{sup 8} ppp, a stable performance in light output and image reproduction was documented from Al

  5. Studies on the production of high energy densities in matter by intense heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.

    1989-08-01

    In the framework of the present thesis the interaction of an intense heavy-ion beam with a small, but macroscopical amount of matter is studied. Thereby high energy densities in the target matter are produced. For this experiment it was for the first time possible to heat matter with ion beams from conventional heavy-ion accelerators up to plasma conditions. A KR + -ion beam was first accelerated with the heavy-ion accelerator MAXILAC to 45 keV/u and then focussed by a fine-focusing lens to a closed xenon gas target. The light emitted from the target was space- and time resolved taken up by a spectrometer as well as by a streak and CCD camera. Thereby the radial development of the plasma and the penetration behaviour of the ion beam was observed. The free electron density of the plasma was determined from the Stark broadening of emission lines (n e ≅ 4x10 16 cm -3 ). The temperature could be determined by different methods (shock-wave velocity, degree of ionization, line ratios). The electron temperature amounted in the center of the pipe to kT ≅ 0.75 eV. For the opacity of the target by which the emitted light power is determined under the assumption of the two-dimensional model (equilibrium between emitted and absorbed energy) the value κ p ≅ 7700 cm 2 /g resulted. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. Studies on the production of high energy density in matter with intense heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.

    1989-01-01

    In the framework of the present thesis the interaction of an intense heavy-ion beam with a small, but macroscopic, amount of matter is studied. Thereby high energy densities are produced in the target matter. For this experiment it was for the first time possible to heat matter with ion beams from conventional heavy-ion accelerators up to plasma conditions. A Kr + ion beam was first accelerated with the heavy-ion accelerator MAXILAC to 45 keV/u and then focused by a fine-focusing lens on a closed xenon gas target. The light emitted from the target was space- and time-resolved taken up with a spectrometer as well a streak and CCD camera. Thereby the radial development of the plasma and the penetration behaviour of the ion beam were consecuted. The free-electron density of the plasma was determined from the Stark-broadening of emission lines (n e ≅ 4x10 16 cm -3 ). The electron temperature amounted in the center of the pipelet kT ≅ 0.75 eV. (orig./HSI) [de

  7. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  8. The METAS absorbed dose to water calibration service for high energy photon and electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucki, G.; Muench, W.; Quintel, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Federal Office of Metrology and Accreditation (METAS) provides an absorbed dose to water calibration service for reference dosimeters using 60 Co γ radiation, ten X-ray beam qualities between TPR 20,10 =0.639 and 0.802 and ten electron beam qualities between R 50 =1.75 gcm -2 and 8.54 gcm -2 . A 22 MeV microtron accelerator with a conventional treatment head is used as radiation source for the high energy photon and electron beams. The treatment head produces clinical beams. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy photons is based on a primary standard sealed water calorimeter of the Domen type, that is used to calibrate several METAS transfer standards of type NE2611A and NE2571A in terms of absorbed dose to water in the energy range from 60 Co to TPR 20,10 = 0.802. User reference dosimeters are compared with the transfer standards to give calibration factors in absorbed dose to water with an uncertainty of 1.0% for 60 Co γ radiation and 1.4% for higher energies (coverage factor k=2). The calibration service was launched in 1997. The calibration factors measured by METAS have been compared with those derived from the Code of Practice of the International Atomic Energy Agency using the calculated k Q factors listed in table 14. The comparison showed a maximum difference of 0.8% for the NE25611A and NE 2571A chambers. At 60 Co γ radiation the METAS primary standard of absorbed dose to water was bilaterally compared with the primary standards of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM (Sevres) as well as of the National Research Council NRC (Canada). In either case the standards were in agreement within the comparison uncertainties. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy electron beams is based on a primary standard chemical dosimeter. A monoenergetic electron beam of precisely known particle energy and beam charge is totally absorbed in Fricke solution (ferrous ammonium sulphate) of a given

  9. An on-site dosimetry audit for high-energy electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon de Prez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: External dosimetry audits are powerful quality assurance instruments for radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to implement an electron dosimetry audit based on a contemporary code of practice within the requirements for calibration laboratories performing proficiency tests. This involved the determination of suitable acceptance criteria based on thorough uncertainty analyses. Materials and methods: Subject of the audit was the determination of absorbed dose to water, Dw, and the beam quality specifier, R50,dos. Fifteen electron beams were measured in four institutes according to the Belgian-Dutch code of practice for high-energy electron beams. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2 for the Dw values was 3.6% for a Roos chamber calibrated in 60Co and 3.2% for a Roos chamber cross-calibrated against a Farmer chamber. The expanded uncertainty for the beam quality specifier, R50,dos, was 0.14 cm. The audit acceptance levels were based on the expanded uncertainties for the comparison results and estimated to be 2.4%. Results: The audit was implemented and validated successfully. All Dw audit results were satisfactory with differences in Dw values mostly smaller than 0.5% and always smaller than 1%. Except for one, differences in R50,dos were smaller than 0.2 cm and always smaller than 0.3 cm. Conclusions: An electron dosimetry audit based on absorbed dose to water and present-day requirements for calibration laboratories performing proficiency tests was successfully implemented. It proved international traceability of the participants value with an uncertainty better than 3.6% (k = 2. Keywords: Absorbed dose to water, Audit, Code of practice, Dosimetry, Electron beam, Radiation therapy

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of MOSFET detectors for high-energy photon beams using the PENELOPE code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Amor Duch, Maria; Jornet, Núria; Ginjaume, Mercè; Carrasco, Pablo; Badal, Andreu; Ortega, Xavier; Ribas, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the response of commercially available dosimeters based on metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for radiotherapeutic photon beams using the PENELOPE code. The studied Thomson&Nielsen TN-502-RD MOSFETs have a very small sensitive area of 0.04 mm2 and a thickness of 0.5 µm which is placed on a flat kapton base and covered by a rounded layer of black epoxy resin. The influence of different metallic and Plastic water™ build-up caps, together with the orientation of the detector have been investigated for the specific application of MOSFET detectors for entrance in vivo dosimetry. Additionally, the energy dependence of MOSFET detectors for different high-energy photon beams (with energy >1.25 MeV) has been calculated. Calculations were carried out for simulated 6 MV and 18 MV x-ray beams generated by a Varian Clinac 1800 linear accelerator, a Co-60 photon beam from a Theratron 780 unit, and monoenergetic photon beams ranging from 2 MeV to 10 MeV. The results of the validation of the simulated photon beams show that the average difference between MC results and reference data is negligible, within 0.3%. MC simulated results of the effect of the build-up caps on the MOSFET response are in good agreement with experimental measurements, within the uncertainties. In particular, for the 18 MV photon beam the response of the detectors under a tungsten cap is 48% higher than for a 2 cm Plastic water™ cap and approximately 26% higher when a brass cap is used. This effect is demonstrated to be caused by positron production in the build-up caps of higher atomic number. This work also shows that the MOSFET detectors produce a higher signal when their rounded side is facing the beam (up to 6%) and that there is a significant variation (up to 50%) in the response of the MOSFET for photon energies in the studied energy range. All the results have shown that the PENELOPE code system can

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of MOSFET detectors for high-energy photon beams using the PENELOPE code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Vanessa; Duch, Maria Amor; Jornet, Núria; Ginjaume, Mercè; Carrasco, Pablo; Badal, Andreu; Ortega, Xavier; Ribas, Montserrat

    2007-01-07

    The aim of this work was the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the response of commercially available dosimeters based on metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for radiotherapeutic photon beams using the PENELOPE code. The studied Thomson&Nielsen TN-502-RD MOSFETs have a very small sensitive area of 0.04 mm(2) and a thickness of 0.5 microm which is placed on a flat kapton base and covered by a rounded layer of black epoxy resin. The influence of different metallic and Plastic water build-up caps, together with the orientation of the detector have been investigated for the specific application of MOSFET detectors for entrance in vivo dosimetry. Additionally, the energy dependence of MOSFET detectors for different high-energy photon beams (with energy >1.25 MeV) has been calculated. Calculations were carried out for simulated 6 MV and 18 MV x-ray beams generated by a Varian Clinac 1800 linear accelerator, a Co-60 photon beam from a Theratron 780 unit, and monoenergetic photon beams ranging from 2 MeV to 10 MeV. The results of the validation of the simulated photon beams show that the average difference between MC results and reference data is negligible, within 0.3%. MC simulated results of the effect of the build-up caps on the MOSFET response are in good agreement with experimental measurements, within the uncertainties. In particular, for the 18 MV photon beam the response of the detectors under a tungsten cap is 48% higher than for a 2 cm Plastic water cap and approximately 26% higher when a brass cap is used. This effect is demonstrated to be caused by positron production in the build-up caps of higher atomic number. This work also shows that the MOSFET detectors produce a higher signal when their rounded side is facing the beam (up to 6%) and that there is a significant variation (up to 50%) in the response of the MOSFET for photon energies in the studied energy range. All the results have shown that the PENELOPE code system can successfully

  12. Analytic representation of the backscatter correction factor at the exit of high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappas, K.; Rosenwald, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    In high-energy X-ray beams, the dose calculated near the exit surface under electronic equilibrium conditions is generally over-estimated since it is derived from measurements performed in water with large thickness of backscattering material. The resulting error depends on a number of parameters such as beam energy, field dimension, thickness of overlying and underlying material. The authors have systematically measured for 4 different energies and for different para- meters and for different combinations of the above parameters, the reduction of dose due to backscatter. This correction is expressed as a multiplicative factor, called 'Backscatter Correction Factor' (BCF). This BCF is larger for lower energies, larger field sizes and larger depths. The BCF has been represented by an analytical expression which involves an exponential function of the backscattering thickness and linear relationships with depth field size and beam quality index. Using this expression, the BCF can be calculated within 0.5% for any conditions in the energy range investigated. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Liquid scintillator for 2D dosimetry for high-energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenisch, Falk; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina Marie; Sahoo, Narayan; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam; Gillin, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Complex radiation therapy techniques require dosimetric verification of treatment planning and delivery. The authors investigated a liquid scintillator (LS) system for application for real-time high-energy photon beam dosimetry. The system was comprised of a transparent acrylic tank filled with liquid scintillating material, an opaque outer tank, and a CCD camera. A series of images was acquired when the tank with liquid scintillator was irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam, and the light data measured with the CCD camera were filtered to correct for scattering of the optical light inside the liquid scintillator. Depth-dose and lateral profiles as well as two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions were found to agree with results from the treatment planning system. Further, the corrected light output was found to be linear with dose, dose rate independent, and is robust for single or multiple acquisitions. The short time needed for image acquisition and processing could make this system ideal for fast verification of the beam characteristics of the treatment machine. This new detector system shows a potential usefulness of the LS for 2D QA.

  14. Liquid scintillator for 2D dosimetry for high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenisch, Falk; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina Marie; Sahoo, Narayan; Mohan, Radhe; Beddar, Sam; Gillin, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard., Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Complex radiation therapy techniques require dosimetric verification of treatment planning and delivery. The authors investigated a liquid scintillator (LS) system for application for real-time high-energy photon beam dosimetry. The system was comprised of a transparent acrylic tank filled with liquid scintillating material, an opaque outer tank, and a CCD camera. A series of images was acquired when the tank with liquid scintillator was irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam, and the light data measured with the CCD camera were filtered to correct for scattering of the optical light inside the liquid scintillator. Depth-dose and lateral profiles as well as two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions were found to agree with results from the treatment planning system. Further, the corrected light output was found to be linear with dose, dose rate independent, and is robust for single or multiple acquisitions. The short time needed for image acquisition and processing could make this system ideal for fast verification of the beam characteristics of the treatment machine. This new detector system shows a potential usefulness of the LS for 2D QA.

  15. Comparison of neutron and high-energy X-ray dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-beam radiography techniques utilising various combinations of high-energy X-rays and neutrons are attractive for screening bulk cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Dual-beam radiography is an important enhancement to conventional single-beam X-ray radiography systems in that it provides additional information on the composition of the object being imaged. By comparing the attenuations of transmitted dual high-energy beams, it is possible to build a 2D image, colour coded to indicate material. Only high-energy X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons have the required penetration to screen cargo containers. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection. These developments include dual high-energy X-ray techniques as well as fast neutron and gamma-ray (or X-ray) radiography systems. High-energy X-ray systems have the advantage of generally better penetration than neutron systems, depending on the material being interrogated. However, neutron systems have the advantage of much better sensitivity to material composition compared to dual high-energy X-ray techniques. In particular, fast neutron radiography offers the potential to discriminate between various classes of organic material, unlike dual energy X-ray techniques that realistically only offer the ability to discriminate between organic and metal objects

  16. Disinfection by-products/precursor control using an innovative treatment process -- high energy electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawal, K.; Millington, B.; Slifker, R.A.; Cooper, W.J.; Nickelsen, M.G.; Kurucz, C.N.; Waite, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    When waters containing naturally occurring humic substances, precursors, are chlorinated, reaction (disinfection) by-products (DBPs) that may compromise the chemical water quality of the drinking water are formed. Two options exist for the treatment of THMs and other DBPs, removal of precursor material prior to chlorination, or destruction of the by-products once they are formed. The authors have initiated a study using an innovative process, high energy electron beam irradiation, as an alternative treatment for the destruction of toxic organic compounds. Preliminary studies indicated that the process would also be effective in the removal of precursors. An added advantage of this process is that is would serve as a primary disinfectant, destroying any toxic compounds in the source water and may assist in the removal of algae and cyanobacteria toxins. This paper discusses studies in precursor removal and control of THMs

  17. Contribution to the development of a primary standard for high energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancaux, M.

    1983-12-01

    A tissue equivalent calorimeter, made of Shonka A-150 plastic, has been constructed in order to create a primary standard for high energy neutrons and to establish a calibration procedure for ionization chambers used in neutrontherapy. After a detailed description of the calorimeter and the associated measuring system, the preliminary tests are presented, in particular, the evolution of the response as a function of accumulated dose. The measurements of the total absorbed dose (n + γ) by calorimetry in a neutron beam, in order to determine chambers' calibration factors in terms of absorbed dose to A-150 plastic, have been performed at the Neutrontherapy Unit of the Centre Hospitalier Regional d'Orleans. The uncertainty in the determination of the total absorbed dose to the tissu equivalent material using the new procedure is 3% lower than that obtained with the usual procedure, derived from an exposure calibration [fr

  18. Commercialization of a high energy neutral beam ion source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This final report summarizes the effort and presents the results of a Phase II fabrication effort to build an industrial prototype of the LBL developed high energy neutral beam source. The effort was primarily concentrated on incorporating hard vacuum dielectric seals and a ceramic high voltage accelerator insulator. Several other design changes were incorporated for cost, reliability or life improvements to include: (1) accelerator grid locating dowel pins to aid final alignment, (2) plasma source to accelerator captive fasteners to aid filament replacement during source maintenance, (3) molybdenum cooling tubes on all accelerator grids, (4) additional fasteners in the plasma generator to facilitate hard seals, (5) modified suppressor grid rails and holders to simplify final grid alignment, (6) adjusting screws on exit grid rail holders to simplify final grid alignment, (7) addition of adjusting screws to the grid end pieces to simplify alignment, and (8) addition of accelerator hat shims to allow two different grid positioning locations

  19. Transverse and Longitudinal Beam Collimation in a High-Energy Proton Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan-Lasheras, N

    1998-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), particles from the beam halo might potentially impinge on the vacuum chamber, effecting harmful transitions of the superconducting magnets ("quenches"). This can be prevented by the collimation system which confines the particle losses to special, non superconducting sections of the machine. Due to the high energy and intensity of the LHC, any removal system must attain an unprecedented efficiency. The cleaning system was designed on the basis of purely geometric and optical models which neglect non linear effects and assume perfectly absorbing materials. In a second step, true scattering in matter is considered. A series of machine developments (MD) were carried out in 1996-7 with the principal aim of validating the design assumptions. A collimation system comparable to that of the LHC was employed. The predictions of the numerical model used to compute the LHC collimation system efficiency were compared with the data acquired during the measurement sessions. The experimen...

  20. In Bern high-energy physics shares proton beams with the hospital

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A joint venture bringing together public institutions and private companies is building a new facility on the campus of Inselspital, Bern’s university hospital. The facility will host a cyclotron for the production of radiopharmaceuticals for use in PET as well as in multidisciplinary research laboratories for the development of new products for medical imaging. The Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP) of Bern University, which is deeply involved in the project, will have access to a dedicated beam line and specialized labs.     Construction of the new facility is ongoing at Bern's University Hospital, where the cyclotron will be installed.   The first Bern Cyclotron symposium will take place on 6 and 7 June this year. The event is being organised by LHEP in collaboration with Bern’s Inselspital and will bring together experts – including several from CERN – to promote research activities at the new Bern Cyclotron Laboratory. &ld...

  1. Measurement of water decomposition products after the irradiation with high-energy heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Y.; Yamashita, S.; Muroya, Y.; Lin, M.; Miyazaki, T.; Kudo, H.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    We measured the G-values of water decomposition products produced by high-energy heavy-ion beams. It was found that the evaluated yields are consistent with reported ones. In other words, with the increase of LET, the radical yields decrease, and the molecular yields increase and tend to level off. But the evaluated yields are slightly higher than reported values. So we have started two trials. One is to check the values with experiment again, and the other is to explain the difference between the yields by using the spur diffusion model. In order to explain the values quantitatively, the spur diffusion model has been applied and track structure has been investigated. (author)

  2. Commercialization of a high energy neutral beam ion source. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-21

    This final report summarizes the effort and presents the results of a Phase II fabrication effort to build an industrial prototype of the LBL developed high energy neutral beam source. The effort was primarily concentrated on incorporating hard vacuum dielectric seals and a ceramic high voltage accelerator insulator. Several other design changes were incorporated for cost, reliability or life improvements to include: (1) accelerator grid locating dowel pins to aid final alignment, (2) plasma source to accelerator captive fasteners to aid filament replacement during source maintenance, (3) molybdenum cooling tubes on all accelerator grids, (4) additional fasteners in the plasma generator to facilitate hard seals, (5) modified suppressor grid rails and holders to simplify final grid alignment, (6) adjusting screws on exit grid rail holders to simplify final grid alignment, (7) addition of adjusting screws to the grid end pieces to simplify alignment, and (8) addition of accelerator hat shims to allow two different grid positioning locations.

  3. Measurement of few-electron uranium ions on a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    The high-energy electron beam ion trap, dubbed Super-EBIT, was used to produce, trap, and excite uranium ions as highly charged as fully stripped U 92+ . The production of such highly charged ions was indicated by the x-ray emission observed with high-purity Ge detectors. Moreover, high-resolution Bragg crystal spectromters were used to analyze the x-ray emission, including a detailed measurement of both the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole transitions. Unlike in ion accelerators, where the uranium ions move at relativistic speeds, the ions in this trap are stationary. Thus very precise measurements of the transition energies could be made, and the QED contribution to the transition energies could be measured within less than 1 %. Details of the production of these highly charged ions and their measurement is given

  4. Analytical expression for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung background in high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S; Brahme, A.

    1995-01-01

    Qualification of the bremsstrahlung photon background generated by an electron beam in a phantom is important for accurate high energy electron beam dosimetry in radiation therapy. An analytical expression has been derived for the background of phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane parallel electron beams normally incident on phantoms of any atomic number between 4 and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U). The expression can be used with fairly good accuracy in the energy range between 1 and 50 MeV. The expression is globally based on known scattering power and radiation and collision stopping power data for the phantom material at the mean energy of the incident electrons. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated in the phantom is derived by folding the bremsstrahlung energy fluence with a simple analytical one-dimensional photon energy deposition kernel. The energy loss of the primary electrons and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are taken into account in the analytical formula. The photon energy deposition kernel is used to account for the bremsstrahlung produced at one depth that will contribute to the down stream dose. A simple analytical expression for photon energy deposition kernel is consistent with the classical analytical relation describing the photon depth dose distribution. From the surface to the practical range the photon dose increases almost linearly due to accumulation and buildup of the photon produced at different phantom layers. At depths beyond the practical range a simple exponential function can be use to describe the bremsstrahlung attenuation in the phantom. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated distributions using ITS3 Monte Carlo Code were used. Good agreement is found between the analytical expression and Monte Carlo calculation. Deviations of 5% from Monte Carlo calculated bremmstrahlung background are observed for high atomic number materials. The method can

  5. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  6. Compact disposal of high-energy electron beams using passive or laser-driven plasma decelerating stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Vay, J. -L.; Geddes, C. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey and, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-07-13

    A plasma decelerating stage is investigated as a compact alternative for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). This could benefit the design of laser-driven plasma accelerator (LPA) applications that require transportability and or high-repetition-rate operation regimes. Passive and laser-driven (active) plasma-based beam dumps are studied analytically and with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a 1D geometry. Analytical estimates for the beam energy loss are compared to and extended by the PIC simulations, showing that with the proposed schemes a beam can be efficiently decelerated in a centimeter-scale distance.

  7. Experimental assessment of out-of-field dose components in high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdoaburas, Mohamad M; Mege, Jean-Pierre; Chavaudra, Jean; Bezin, Jérémi Vũ; Veres, Atilla; de Vathaire, Florent; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this work was to experimentally investigate the out-of-field dose in a water phantom, with several high energy electron beams used in external beam radiotherapy (RT). The study was carried out for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV electron beams, on three different linear accelerators, each equipped with a specific applicator. Measurements were performed in a water phantom, at different depths, for different applicator sizes, and off-axis distances up to 70 cm from beam central axis (CAX). Thermoluminescent powder dosimeters (TLD-700) were used. For given cases, TLD measurements were compared to EBT3 films and parallel-plane ionization chamber measurements. Also, out-of-field doses at 10 cm depth, with and without applicator, were evaluated. With the Siemens applicators, a peak dose appears at about 12-15 cm out of the field edge, at 1 cm depth, for all field sizes and energies. For the Siemens Primus, with a 10 × 10 cm(²) applicator, this peak reaches 2.3%, 1%, 0.9% and 1.3% of the maximum central axis dose (Dmax) for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron beams, respectively. For the Siemens Oncor, with a 10 × 10 cm(²) applicator, this peak dose reaches 0.8%, 1%, 1.4%, and 1.6% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 14 MeV, respectively, and these values increase with applicator size. For the Varian 2300C/D, the doses at 12.5 cm out of the field edge are 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.5%, and 1.1% of Dmax for 6, 9, 12, and 18 MeV, respectively, and increase with applicator size. No peak dose is evidenced for the Varian applicator for these energies. In summary, the out-of-field dose from electron beams increases with the beam energy and the applicator size, and decreases with the distance from the beam central axis and the depth in water. It also considerably depends on the applicator types. Our results can be of interest for the dose estimations delivered in healthy tissues outside the treatment field for the RT patient, as well as in studies exploring RT long-term effects.

  8. Design and test of a scintillation dosimeter for dosimetry measurements of high energy radiotherapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontbonne, J.M.

    2002-12-01

    This work describes the design and evaluation of the performances of a scintillation dosimeter developed for the dosimetry of radiation beams used in radiotherapy. The dosimeter consists in a small plastic scintillator producing light which is guided by means of a plastic optical fiber towards photodetectors. In addition to scintillation, high energy ionizing radiations produce Cerenkov light both in the scintillator and the optical fiber. Based on a wavelength analysis, we have developed a deconvolution technique to measure the scintillation light in the presence of Cerenkov light. We stress the advantages that are anticipated from plastic scintillator, in particular concerning tissue or water equivalence (mass stopping power, mass attenuation or mass energy absorption coefficients). We show that detectors based on this material have better characteristics than conventional dosimeters such as ionisation chambers or silicon detectors. The deconvolution technique is exposed, as well as the calibration procedure using an ionisation chamber. We have studied the uncertainty of our dosimeter. The electronics noise, the fiber transmission, the deconvolution technique and the calibration errors give an overall combined experimental uncertainty of about 0,5%. The absolute response of the dosimeter is studied by means of depth dose measurements. We show that absolute uncertainty with photons or electrons beams with energies ranging from 4 MeV to 25 MeV is less than ± 1 %. Last, at variance with other devices, our scintillation dosimeter does not need dose correction with depth. (author)

  9. Comparison of the NPL water calorimeter with other dosimetric techniques for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosser, K.E.; Williams, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    At present, the primary standard of absorbed dose to water at NPL in high energy photon beams is a graphite calorimeter. However the quantity of interest in radiation dosimetry is absorbed dose to water. Therefore, a new absorbed dose to water standard based on water calorimetry is being developed at NPL. The calorimeter operates at 4 deg. C, with temperature control being provided by a combination of liquid and air cooling. The sealed glass inner vessel of the calorimeter has been designed to minimise the effect of non-water materials on the measurement of absorbed dose. Measurements of absorbed dose to water made in 6, 10 and 19 MV photon beams agreed within the measurement uncertainties with those determined using the primary standard graphite calorimeter. Also the absorbed dose to water measured using the water calorimeter agrees with that based on the air kerma standards for 60 Co γ-radiation within the uncertainties. The development of the water calorimeter will lead to a very robust dosimetry system at NPL, where the absorbed dose to water can be determined using three independent techniques. (author)

  10. High energy (MeV) ion-irradiated π-conjugated polyaniline: Transition from insulating state to carbonized conducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.K.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, C.S.; Kim, H.M.; Joo, J.; Beag, Y.W.; Koh, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    High energy (MeV) C 2+ , F 2+ , and Cl 2+ ions were irradiated onto π-conjugated polyaniline emeraldine base (PAN-EB) samples. The energy of an ion beam was controlled to a range of 3-4.5 MeV, with the ion dosage varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . The highest dc conductivity (σ dc ) at room temperature was measured to be ∼60 S/cm for 4.5 MeV Cl 2+ ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples with a dose of 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . We observed the transition of high energy ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples from insulating state to conducting state as a function of ion dosage based on σ dc and its temperature dependence. The characteristic peaks of the Raman spectrum of the PAN-EB samples were reduced, while the D-peak (disordered peak) and the G peak (graphitic peak) appeared as the ion dose increased. From the analysis of the D and G peaks of the Raman spectra of the systems compared to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ion-irradiated graphites, and annealed carbon films, the number of the clusters of hexagon rings with conducting sp 2 -bonded carbons increased with ion dosage. We also observed the increase in the size of the nanocrystalline graphitic domain of the systems with increasing ion dosage. The intensity of normalized electron paramagnelic resonance signal also increased in correlation with ion dose. The results of this study demonstrate that π-conjugated pristine PAN-EB systems changed from insulating state to carbonized conducting state through high energy ion irradiation with high ion dosage

  11. Studies of absorbed dose determinations and spatial dose distributions for high energy proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Takeshi

    1982-01-01

    Absolute dose determinations were made with three types of ionization chamber and a Faraday cup. Methane based tissue equivalent (TE) gas, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air were used as an ionizing gas with flow rate of 10 ml per minute. Measurements were made at the entrance position of unmodulated beams and for a beam of a spread out Bragg peak at a depth of 17.3 mm in water. For both positions, the mean value of dose determined by the ionization chambers was 0.993 +- 0.014 cGy for which the value of TE gas was taken as unity. The agreement between the doses estimated by the ionization chambers and the Faraday cup was within 5%. Total uncertainty estimated in the ionization chamber and the Faraday cup determinations is 6 and 4%, respectively. Common sources of error in calculating the dose from ionization chamber measurements are depend on the factors of ion recombination, W value, and mass stopping power ratio. These factors were studied by both experimentally and theoretically. The observed values for the factors show a good agreement to the predicted one. Proton beam dosimetry intercomparison between Japan and the United States was held. Good agreement was obtained with standard deviation of 1.6%. The value of the TE calorimeter is close to the mean value of all. In the proton spot scanning system, lateral dose distributions at any depth for one spot beam can be simulated by the Gaussian distribution. From the Gaussian distributions and the central axis depth doses for one spot beam, it is easy to calculate isodose distributions in the desired field by superposition of dose distribution for one spot beam. Calculated and observed isodose curves were agreed within 1 mm at any dose levels. (J.P.N.)

  12. Dosimetry of small circular beams of high energy photons for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy: the use of small ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazal, A.; Gaboriauid, G.; Zefkili, S.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Boutaudon, S.; Pontvert, D.

    1999-01-01

    The irradiation of small targets in the brain in a singe fraction (radiosurgery) or with a fractionated approach (stereotactic radiosurgery) with small beams of photons requires specific conditions to measure and to model the dosimetric data needed for treatment planning. In this work we present the method and materials adopted in our institution since 1988 to perform the dosimetry of high energy (6-23) circular photon beams with diameters ranging from 10 to 40 mm at the isocenter of linear accelerators, and its evolution as new dosimetric material became commercially available. in circular ionization chambers of small dimensions. We want to answer the following questions: Which are the minimal basic data needed to model small circular beams of high energy photons? Can we extrapolate or convert data from conventional data of larger beams? Which are the detectors well adapted for these kind of measurements and for which range of beam sizes?

  13. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  15. High-pressure pair distribution function (PDF) measurement using high-energy focused x-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Xinguo, E-mail: xhong@bnl.gov; Weidner, Donald J. [Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Duffy, Thomas S. [Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    In this paper, we report recent development of the high-pressure pair distribution function (HP-PDF) measurement technique using a focused high-energy X-ray beam coupled with a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The focusing optics consist of a sagittally bent Laue monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) mirrors. This combination provides a clean high-energy X-ray beam suitable for HP-PDF research. Demonstration of the HP-PDF technique for nanocrystalline platinum under quasi-hydrostatic condition above 30 GPa is presented.

  16. Influence of high-energy electron irradiation on field emission properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Sandip S. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Koinkar, Pankaj M. [Center for International Cooperation in Engineering Education (CICEE), University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima-Cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Dhole, Sanjay D. [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); More, Mahendra A., E-mail: mam@physics.unipune.ac.i [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Murakami, Ri-ichi, E-mail: murakami@me.tokushima-u.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-Josanjima-Cho, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of very high energy electron beam irradiation on the field emission characteristics of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been investigated. The MWCNTs films deposited on silicon (Si) substrates were irradiated with 6 MeV electron beam at different fluence of 1x10{sup 15}, 2x10{sup 15} and 3x10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated films were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and micro-Raman spectrometer. The SEM analysis clearly revealed a change in surface morphology of the films upon irradiation. The Raman spectra of the irradiated films show structural damage caused by the interaction of high-energy electrons. The field emission studies were carried out in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure of {approx}1x10{sup -8} mbar. The values of the threshold field, required to draw an emission current density of {approx}1 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, are found to be {approx}0.52, 1.9, 1.3 and 0.8 V/{mu}m for untreated, irradiated with fluence of 1x10{sup 15}, 2x10{sup 15} and 3x10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated films exhibit better emission current stability as compared to the untreated film. The improved field emission properties of the irradiated films have been attributed to the structural damage as revealed from the Raman studies.

  17. High energy-intensity atomic oxygen beam source for low earth orbit materials degradation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.B.; Blais, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    A high intensity (10 19 O-atoms/s-sr) high energy (5 eV) source of oxygen atoms has been developed that produces a total fluence of 10 22 O-atoms/cm 2 in less than 100 hours of continuous operation at a distance of 15 cm from the source. The source employs a CW CO 2 laser sustained discharge to form a high temperature (15,000 K) plasma in the throat of a 0.3-mm diameter nozzle using 3--8 atmospheres of rare gas/O 2 mixtures. Visible and infrared photon flux levels of 1 watt/cm 2 have been measured 15 cm downstream of the source while vacuum UV (VUV) fluxes are comparable to that measured in low earth orbit. The reactions of atomic oxygen with kapton, Teflon, silver, and various coatings have been studied. The oxidation of kapton (reaction efficiency = 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/24/ cm /+-/ 50%) has an activation energy of 0.8 Kcal/mole over the temperature range of 25/degree/C to 100/degree/C at a beam energy of 1.5 eV and produces low molecular weight gas phase reaction products (H 2 O, NO, CO 2 ). Teflon reacts with ∼0.1--0.2 efficiency to that of kapton at 25/degree/C and both surfaces show a rug-like texture after exposure to the O-atom beam. Angular scattering distribution measurements of O-atoms show a near cosine distribution from reactive surfaces indicating complete accommodation of the translational energy with the surface while a nonreactive surface (nickel oxide) shows specular-like scattering with 50% accommodation of the translational energy with the surface. A technique for simple on orbit chemical experiments using resistance measurements of coated silver strips is described. 9 figs

  18. Study of the effects of high-energy proton beams on escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is one of the most serious risks to public health care today. However, discouragingly, the development of new antibiotics has progressed little over the last decade. There is an urgent need for alternative approaches to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel methods, which include photothermal therapy based on gold nano-materials and ionizing radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays, have been reported. Studies of the effects of high-energy proton radiation on bacteria have mainly focused on Bacillus species and its spores. The effect of proton beams on Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been limitedly reported. Escherichia coli is an important biological tool to obtain metabolic and genetic information and is a common model microorganism for studying toxicity and antimicrobial activity. In addition, E. coli is a common bacterium in the intestinal tract of mammals. In this research, the morphological and the physiological changes of E. coli after proton irradiation were investigated. Diluted solutions of cells were used for proton beam radiation. LB agar plates were used to count the number of colonies formed. The growth profile of the cells was monitored by using the optical density at 600 nm. The morphology of the irradiated cells was observed with an optical microscope. A microarray analysis was performed to examine the gene expression changes between irradiated samples and control samples without irradiation. E coli cells have observed to be elongated after proton irradiation with doses ranging from 13 to 93 Gy. Twenty-two were up-regulated more than twofold in proton-irradiated samples (93 Gy) compared with unexposed one.

  19. Low Li+ Insertion Barrier Carbon for High Energy Efficient Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Siang Vincent; Huang, Xiaolei; Tan, Teck Leong; Xue, Jun Min

    2018-01-17

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is an attractive energy-storage device (ESD) that promises high energy density at moderate power density. However, the key challenge in its design is the low energy efficient negative electrode, which barred the realization of such research system in fulfilling the current ESD technological inadequacy due to its poor overall energy efficiency. Large voltage hysteresis is the main issue behind high energy density alloying/conversion-type materials, which reduces the electrode energy efficiency. Insertion-type material though averted in most research due to the low capacity remains to be highly favorable in commercial application due to its lower voltage hysteresis. To further reduce voltage hysteresis and increase capacity, amorphous carbon with wider interlayer spacing has been demonstrated in the simulation result to significantly reduce Li + insertion barrier. Hence, by employing such amorphous carbon, together with disordered carbon positive electrode, a high energy efficient LIC with round-trip energy efficiency of 84.3% with a maximum energy density of 133 Wh kg -1 at low power density of 210 W kg -1 can be achieved.

  20. High energy electron beam inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase suspended in different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, A.; Popescu, A.; Butan, C.; Oproiu, C.; Hategan, D.; Morariu, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of 5 MeV electron beam irradiation in the range (0-400 Gy) at 20 degC, 0 degC, -3 degC and -196 degC, as well as the influence of the aqueous suspending medium (ultrapure water and heavy water) on the total enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been studied. Our results showed an exponential decrease on the enzymatic activity of irradiated LDH, at all irradiation temperatures, independently of the direct or indirect action of radiation. The temperature gradient used to lower the temperature of the samples to -196 degC drastically influences the results. Freeze-thawing in two steps down to -196 degC protects LDH to radiation, in the dose range used. The data obtained here inform on the high energy electrons effects on the enzymatic activity loss during irradiation and during thawing, when the subsequent growth of the water crystals influences the three dimensional structure of the enzyme. A 99.98% concentration of D 2 O in the suspending medium of the enzyme decreases the global enzymatic activity, but reduces the rate of radiation inactivation of the enzyme. The rate of radiation inactivation of the enzyme suspended in ultrapure water is reduced when compared to the enzyme suspended in bidistilled water, but compared to the D 2 O suspended enzyme is lightly increased. (author)

  1. Beam-beam effects in high energy e+e- storage rings: resonant amplification of vertical dimensions for flat beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.

    1984-06-01

    In this thesis, we present a phenomenological study of the beam-beam effect in e + e - storage rings. We are in particular interested in the blow-up of the vertical dimension observed in this kind of accelerator. A detailed analysis of the electromagnetic field generated by the very flat bunches stored, and seen by the counter-rotating particles shows that two-dimensional non-linear resonances, which couple vertical and horizontal betatron oscillations, play a very important role. Moreover, the ''weak beam-strong beam'' approximation holds rather well in the case of very flat bunches. Perturbative analysis enables us to predict the effects from the strongest coupling resonance: 20sub(x)-20sub(y) = integer. We find that mainly the tails of the vertical distribution are affected, and we give a criterion concerning the optimal distance to this resonance in the case of a storage ring such as LEP. Finally, the results and in particular the validity of the single resonance approximation are checked through a numerical simulation [fr

  2. Formation of a quasi-hollow beam of high-energy heavy ions using a multicell resonance RF deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, S. A.; Sitnikov, A. L.; Golubev, A. A.; Kulevoy, T. V.

    2012-09-01

    The generation of matter in an extreme state with precisely measurable parameters is of great interest for contemporary physics. One way of obtaining such a state is to irradiate the end of a hollow cylindrical shell at the center of which a test material is kept at a temperature of several Kelvin by an annular beam of high-energy heavy ions. Under the action of the beam, the shell starts explosively expanding both outwards and inwards, compressing the material to an extremely high pressure without subjecting it to direct heating. A method of producing a hollow cylindrical beam of high-energy heavy ions using a resonance rf deflector is described. The deflection of the beam in two transverse directions by means of an rf electric field allows it to rotate about the longitudinal axis and irradiate an annular domain on the end face of the target.

  3. Absorbed dose calibration factors for parallel-plate chambers in high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Duane, S.; Thomas, R.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the performance of parallel-plate chambers in 60 Co and MV photon beams. The aim was to derive calibration factors, investigate chamber-to-chamber variability and provide much-needed information on the use of parallel-plate chambers in high-energy X-ray beams. A set of NE2561/NE2611 reference chambers, calibrated against the primary standard graphite calorimeter is used for the dissemination of absorbed dose to water. The parallel-plate chambers were calibrated by comparison with the NPL reference chambers in a water phantom. Two types of parallel-plate chamber were investigated - the NACP -02 and Roos and measurements were made at 60 C0 and 6 linac photon energies (6-19 MV). Calibration factors were derived together with polarity corrections. The standard uncertainty in the calibration of a chamber in terms of absorbed dose to water is estimated to be ±0.75%. The results of the polarity measurements were somewhat confusing. One would expect the correction to be small and previous measurements in electron beams have indicated that there is little variation between chambers of these types. However, some chambers gave unexpectedly large polarity corrections, up to 0.8%. By contrast the measured polarity correction for a NE2611 chamber was less than 0.13% at all energies. The reason for these large polarity corrections is not clear, but experimental error and linac variations have been ruled out. By combining the calibration data for the different chambers it was possible to obtain experimental k Q factors for the two chamber types. It would appear from the data that the variations between chambers of the same type are random and one can therefore define a generic curve for each chamber type. These are presented in Figure 1, together with equivalent data for two cylindrical chamber types - NE2561/NE2611 and NE2571. As can be seen, there is a clear difference between the curves for the cylindrical chambers and those for the

  4. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Muri, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Dalla Palma, M.; Cervaro, V.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Tollin, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavallin, T.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.

    2014-01-01

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given

  5. A high-energy electron beam ion trap for production of high-charge high-Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.; Elliott, S.R.; Magee, E.W.; Zasadzinski, R.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new high-energy electron beam ion trap, the first laboratory source of low-energy, few-electron, high-Z ions. We describe the device and report measurements of its performance, including the electron beam diameter, current density and energy, and measurements of the ionization balance for several high-Z elements in the trap. This device opens up a wide range of possible experiments in atomic physics, plasma physics, and nuclear physics. (orig.)

  6. Crystalline and amorphous carbon nitride films produced by high-energy shock plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursilll, L.A.; Peng, Julin; Gurarie, V.N.; Orlov, A.V.; Prawer, S.

    1995-01-01

    High-energy shock plasma deposition techniques are used to produce carbon-nitride films containing both crystalline and amorphous components. The structures are examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, parallel-electron-energy loss spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The crystalline phase appears to be face-centered cubic with unit cell parameter approx. a=0.63nm and it may be stabilized by calcium and oxygen at about 1-2 at % levels. The carbon atoms appear to have both trigonal and tetrahedral bonding for the crystalline phase. There is PEELS evidence that a significant fraction of the nitrogen atoms have sp 2 trigonal bonds in the crystalline phase. The amorphous carbon-nitride film component varies from essentially graphite, containing virtually no nitrogen, to amorphous carbon-nitride containing up to 10 at % N, where the fraction of sp 3 bonds is significant. 15 refs., 5 figs

  7. Dosimetry quality audit of high energy photon beams in greek radiotherapy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourdakis, Constantine J.; Boziari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Dosimetry quality audits and intercomparisons in radiotherapy centers is a useful tool in order to enhance the confidence for an accurate therapy and to explore and dissolve discrepancies in dose delivery. This is the first national comprehensive study that has been carried out in Greece. During 2002 - 2006 the Greek Atomic Energy Commission performed a dosimetry quality audit of high energy external photon beams in all (23) Greek radiotherapy centers, where 31 linacs and 13 Co-60 teletherapy units were assessed in terms of their mechanical performance characteristics and relative and absolute dosimetry. Materials and Methods: The quality audit in dosimetry of external photon beams took place by means of on-site visits, where certain parameters of the photon beams were measured, calculated and assessed according to a specific protocol and the IAEA TRS 398 dosimetry code of practice. In each radiotherapy unit (Linac or Co-60), certain functional parameters were measured and the results were compared to tolerance values and limits. Doses in water under reference and non reference conditions were measured and compared to the stated values. Also, the treatment planning systems (TPS) were evaluated with respect to irradiation time calculations. Results: The results of the mechanical tests, dosimetry measurements and TPS evaluation have been presented in this work and discussed in detail. This study showed that Co-60 units had worse performance mechanical characteristics than linacs. 28% of all irradiation units (23% of linacs and 42% of Co-60 units) exceeded the acceptance limit at least in one mechanical parameter. Dosimetry accuracy was much worse in Co60 units than in linacs. 61% of the Co60 units exhibited deviations outside ±3% and 31% outside ±5%. The relevant percentages for the linacs were 24% and 7% respectively. The results were grouped for each hospital and the sources of errors (functional and human) have been investigated and

  8. Dosimetry quality audit of high energy photon beams in greek radiotherapy centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, Constantine J; Boziari, A

    2008-04-01

    Dosimetry quality audits and intercomparisons in radiotherapy centers is a useful tool in order to enhance the confidence for an accurate therapy and to explore and dissolve discrepancies in dose delivery. This is the first national comprehensive study that has been carried out in Greece. During 2002--2006 the Greek Atomic Energy Commission performed a dosimetry quality audit of high energy external photon beams in all (23) Greek radiotherapy centers, where 31 linacs and 13 Co-60 teletherapy units were assessed in terms of their mechanical performance characteristics and relative and absolute dosimetry. The quality audit in dosimetry of external photon beams took place by means of on-site visits, where certain parameters of the photon beams were measured, calculated and assessed according to a specific protocol and the IAEA TRS 398 dosimetry code of practice. In each radiotherapy unit (Linac or Co-60), certain functional parameters were measured and the results were compared to tolerance values and limits. Doses in water under reference and non reference conditions were measured and compared to the stated values. Also, the treatment planning systems (TPS) were evaluated with respect to irradiation time calculations. The results of the mechanical tests, dosimetry measurements and TPS evaluation have been presented in this work and discussed in detail. This study showed that Co-60 units had worse performance mechanical characteristics than linacs. 28% of all irradiation units (23% of linacs and 42% of Co-60 units) exceeded the acceptance limit at least in one mechanical parameter. Dosimetry accuracy was much worse in Co60 units than in linacs. 61% of the Co60 units exhibited deviations outside +/-3% and 31% outside +/-5%. The relevant percentages for the linacs were 24% and 7% respectively. The results were grouped for each hospital and the sources of errors (functional and human) have been investigated and discussed in details. This quality audit proved to be a

  9. CGR MeV program for water and liquid sludges treatment with high-energy electron beams. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, C.L.; Icre, P.; Levaillant, C.; Montiel, A.

    1976-01-01

    Research on the application of high-energy electron beams treatment to water and liquid sludges is described. Topics discussed include limitations of conventional methods of water treatment, dosimetry, biological assays with Pleurodeles waltlii, radioactivity measurement, chemical and bacteriological analysis. (author)

  10. Laser-Driven Very High Energy Electron/Photon Beam Radiation Therapy in Conjunction with a Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Nakajima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new external-beam radiation therapy system using very-high-energy (VHE electron/photon beams generated by a centimeter-scale laser plasma accelerator built in a robotic system. Most types of external-beam radiation therapy are delivered using a machine called a medical linear accelerator driven by radio frequency (RF power amplifiers, producing electron beams with an energy range of 6–20 MeV, in conjunction with modern radiation therapy technologies for effective shaping of three-dimensional dose distributions and spatially accurate dose delivery with imaging verification. However, the limited penetration depth and low quality of the transverse penumbra at such electron beams delivered from the present RF linear accelerators prevent the implementation of advanced modalities in current cancer treatments. These drawbacks can be overcome if the electron energy is increased to above 50 MeV. To overcome the disadvantages of the present RF-based medical accelerators, harnessing recent advancement of laser-driven plasma accelerators capable of producing 1-GeV electron beams in a 1-cm gas cell, we propose a new embodiment of the external-beam radiation therapy robotic system delivering very high-energy electron/photon beams with an energy of 50–250 MeV; it is more compact, less expensive, and has a simpler operation and higher performance in comparison with the current radiation therapy system.

  11. Performance of the KTeV high-energy neutral kaon beam at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocean, V.

    1998-01-01

    The performance of the primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E832 and E799-II is reviewed. The beam was commissioned in the summer of 1996 and initially operated for approximately one year. The report includes results on the primary beam, target station including primary beam dump and muon sweeping system, neutral beam collimation system, and alignment

  12. Monitoring of the tensor polarization of high energy deuteron beams; Monitoring tenzornoj polyarizatsii dejtronnykh puchkov vysokoj ehnergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolin, L S; Litvinenko, A G; Pilipenko, Yu K; Reznikov, S G; Rukoyatkin, P A; Fimushkin, V V

    1998-12-01

    The method of determining the tensor component of high energy polarized deuteron beams, based on measuring of the tensor analyzing power in the deuteron stripping reaction, is discussed. This method is convenient for monitoring during long time runs on the tensor polarized deuteron beams. The method was tested in the 5-days run at the LHE JINR accelerator with the 3 and 9 GeV/c tensor polarized deuterons. The results made it possible to estimate the beam polarization stability in time 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. High energy density physics with intense ion and laser beams. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyrich, K.

    2004-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Laser plasma physics, plasma spectroscopy, beam interaction experiments, atomic and radiation physics, pulsed power applications, beam transport and accelerator research and development, properties of dense plasma, instabilities in beam-plasma interaction, beam transport in dense plasmas, short-pulse laser-matter interaction. (HSI)

  14. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  15. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 μA). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  16. Recent US advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev, E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2007-01-01

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport, and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by >50X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. We are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy

  17. Aloe vera Derived Activated High-Surface-Area Carbon for Flexible and High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, M; Subramani, K; Sudhan, N; Ilayaraja, N; Sathish, M

    2016-12-28

    Materials which possess high specific capacitance in device configuration with low cost are essential for viable application in supercapacitors. Herein, a flexible high-energy supercapacitor device was fabricated using porous activated high-surface-area carbon derived from aloe leaf (Aloe vera) as a precursor. The A. vera derived activated carbon showed mesoporous nature with high specific surface area of ∼1890 m 2 /g. A high specific capacitance of 410 and 306 F/g was achieved in three-electrode and symmetric two-electrode system configurations in aqueous electrolyte, respectively. The fabricated all-solid-state device showed a high specific capacitance of 244 F/g with an energy density of 8.6 Wh/kg. In an ionic liquid electrolyte, the fabricated device showed a high specific capacitance of 126 F/g and a wide potential window up to 3 V, which results in a high energy density of 40 Wh/kg. Furthermore, it was observed that the activation temperature has significant role in the electrochemical performance, as the activated sample at 700 °C showed best activity than the samples activated at 600 and 800 °C. The electron microscopic images (FE-SEM and HR-TEM) confirmed the formation of pores by the chemical activation. A fabricated supercapacitor device in ionic liquid with 3 V could power up a red LED for 30 min upon charging for 20s. Also, it is shown that the operation voltage and capacitance of flexible all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors fabricated using aloe-derived activated carbon could be easily tuned by series and parallel combinations. The performance of fabricated supercapacitor devices using A. vera derived activated carbon in all-solid-state and ionic liquid indicates their viable applications in flexible devices and energy storage.

  18. Graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrodes for supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Han; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2011-10-21

    We describe a graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) composite film prepared by a blending process for use as electrodes in high energy density supercapacitors. Specific capacitances of 290.6 F g(-1) and 201.0 F g(-1) have been obtained for a single electrode in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively, using a more practical two-electrode testing system. In the organic electrolyte the energy density reached 62.8 Wh kg(-1) and the power density reached 58.5 kW kg(-1). The addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes raised the energy density by 23% and power density by 31% more than the graphene electrodes. The graphene/CNT electrodes exhibited an ultra-high energy density of 155.6 Wh kg(-1) in ionic liquid at room temperature. In addition, the specific capacitance increased by 29% after 1000 cycles in ionic liquid, indicating their excellent cyclicity. The SWCNTs acted as a conductive additive, spacer, and binder in the graphene/CNT supercapacitors. This work suggests that our graphene/CNT supercapacitors can be comparable to NiMH batteries in performance and are promising for applications in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  19. The design and performance of the FNAL high-energy polarized-beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D P; Hill, D A; Laghai, M R; Lopiano, D; Ohashi, Y; Shima, T; Spinka, H; Stanek, R W; Underwood, D G; Yokosawa, A [Argonne National Lab. (USA); Lehar, F; Lesquen, A de; Rossum, L van [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires; Carey, D C; Coleman, R N; Cossairt, J D; Read, A L; Schailey, R [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Derevschikov, A A; Matulenko, Yu A; Meschanin, A P; Nurushev, S B; Rzaev, R A; Solovyanov, V L; Vasiliev, A N [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Serpukhov (USSR); Akchurin, N; Onel, Y [Iowa Univ., Iowa City (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Imai, K; Makino, S; Masaike, A; Miyake, K; Nagamine, T; Tamura, N; Yoshida, T [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Takashima, R [Kyoto Univ. of Education, Fushimi (Japan); Takeutchi, F [Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan); Maki, T [University of Occupational and Environmental; FNAL-E581/704 Collaboration

    1990-05-10

    A new polarized-proton and -antiproton beam with 185 GeV/c momentum has been built at Fermilab. The design uses the parity-nonconserving decays of lambda and antilambda hyperons to produce polarized protons and antiprotons, respectively, a beam-transport system that minimizes depolarization effects, and a set of twelve dipole magnets that rotate the beam-particle spin direction. A beam-tagging system determines the momentum and polarization of individual beam particles. This allows a selection of particles in definite intervals of momentum and polarization. Measurements performed by two different polarimeters showed that the beam is polarized and the determination of polarization by beam-particle tagging is verified. A new measurement of the analyzing power of large-x{sub F} {pi}{sup 0} production may lead to another beam polarimeter.

  20. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillin, I.V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bandiera, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders. (orig.)

  1. Real-time control and data-acquisition system for high-energy neutral-beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.; Jacobson, V.

    1981-12-01

    The need for a real-time control system and a data acquisition, processing and archiving system operating in parallel on the same computer became a requirement on General Atomic's Doublet III fusion energy project with the addition of high energy neutral beam injectors. The data acquisition processing and archiving system is driven from external events and is sequenced through each experimental shot utilizing ModComp's intertask message service. This system processes, archives and displays on operator console CRTs all physics diagnostic data related to the neutral beam injectores such as temperature, beam alignment, etc. The real-time control system is data base driven and provides periodic monitoring and control of the numerous dynamic subsystems of the neutral beam injectors such as power supplies, timing, water cooling, etc

  2. A self-calibrating ionisation chamber for the precise intensity calibration of high-energy heavy-ion beam monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, A.

    1996-01-01

    The intensity of a 136 Xe(600 A MeV) beam has been determined by simultaneously measuring the particle rate and the corresponding ionisation current with an ionisation chamber. The ionisation current of this self-calibrating device was compared at higher intensities with the current of a secondary-electron monitor and a calibration of the secondary-electron current was achieved with a precision of 2%. This method can be applied to all high-energy heavy-ion beams. (orig.)

  3. Utilization of the high energy electrons beams generated in accelerator for treatment of drinking water and wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Sampa, M.H. de; Borrely, S.I.; Morita, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of drinking water and wastewater were irradiated using high energy electron beam with doses from 0.37kGy to 100kGy. Preliminary data show the removal of about 100% of trihalomethanes (THM) in drinking water (concentration from 2.7μg/l to 45μg/l, 90% of the color of the Public Owned Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent and 87% of oil and grease of the cutting fluid wastewater. (author)

  4. Four-D propagation code for high-energy laser beams: a user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.R.

    1976-08-05

    This manual describes the use and structure of the June 30, 1976 version of the Four-D propagation code for high energy laser beams. It provides selected sample output from a typical run and from several debug runs. The Four-D code now includes the important noncoplanar scenario feature. Many problems that required excessive computer time can now be meaningfully simulated as steady-state noncoplanar problems with short run times.

  5. Application of ion beams for polymeric carbon based biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evelyn, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Ion beams have been shown to be quite suitable for the modification and analysis of carbon based biomaterials. Glassy polymeric carbon (GPC), made from cured phenolic resins, has a high chemical inertness that makes it useful as a biomaterial in medicine for drug delivery systems and for the manufacture of heart valves and other prosthetic devices. Low and high-energy ion beams have been used, with both partially and fully cured phenolic resins, to enhance biological cell/tissue growth on, and to increase tissue adhesion to GPC surfaces. Samples bombarded with energetic ion beams in the keV to MeV range exhibited increased surface roughness, measured using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Ion beams were also used to perform nuclear reaction analyses of GPC encapsulated drugs for use in internal drug delivery systems. The results from the high energy bombardment were more dramatic and are shown in this paper. The interaction of energetic ions has demonstrated the useful application of ion beams to enhance the properties of carbon-based biomaterials

  6. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Butcher, M; Guinchard, M; Calviani, M; Losito, R; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, V; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, J; O'Dell, J

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and co...

  7. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Zwaska, R.; Atherton, A.; Caretta, O.; Davenne,T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Roberts, S.; Kuksenko, V.; Butcher, M.; Calviani, M.; Guinchard, M.; Losito, R.

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  8. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, t; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, P; O'Dell, J; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, v; Butcher, M; Calviani, M; Guinchard, M; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  9. The design and performance of the FNAL high-energy polarized beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a new polarized-proton and -antiproton beam with 185-GeV/c momentum in the Fermilab MP beam line which is currently operational. The design uses the parity-conserving decay of lambda and antilambda hyperons to produce polarized protons and antiprotons, respectively. A beam-transport system minimizes depolarization effects and uses a set of 12 dipole magnets that rotate the beam-particle spin direction. A beam-tagging system determines the momentum and polarization of individual beam particles, allowing a selection of particles in definite intervals at momentum and polarization. We measured polarization of the beam by using two types of polarimeters, which verified the determination of polarization by a beam-particle tagging system. Two of these processes are the inverse-Primakoff effect and the Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) in elastic proton-proton scattering. Another experiment measured the π 0 production asymmetry of large-x F values; this process may now be used as an on-line beam polarimeter. 9 refs., 9 figs

  10. Time-Dependent Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams through the Atmosphere: II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleck, J

    1976-01-01

    ...; in particular, noncoplanarity should benefit multipulse more than cw beams. The methods of treating nonhorizontal winds hydrodynamically for cw and multipulse steady-state sources are discussed...

  11. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization in ultra-high energy electron (positron) storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Zhe; Bai, Mei; Barber, Desmond P.; Qin, Qing

    2015-04-01

    With the recently emerging global interest in building a next generation of circular electron-positron colliders to study the properties of the Higgs boson, and other important topics in particle physics at ultra-high beam energies, it is also important to pursue the possibility of implementing polarized beams at this energy scale. It is therefore necessary to set up simulation tools to evaluate the beam polarization at these ultra-high beam energies. In this paper, a Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization based on the Polymorphic Tracking Code(PTC) (Schmidt et al., 2002) is described. The simulations are for a model storage ring with parameters similar to those of proposed circular colliders in this energy range, and they are compared with the suggestion (Derbenev et al., 1978) that there are different regimes for the spin dynamics underlying the polarization of a beam in the presence of synchrotron radiation at ultra-high beam energies. In particular, it has been suggested that the so-called ''correlated'' crossing of spin resonances during synchrotron oscillations at current energies, evolves into ''uncorrelated'' crossing of spin resonances at ultra-high energies.

  12. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization in ultra-high energy electron (positron) storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zhe, E-mail: zhe.duan@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Acceleration Physics and Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Bai, Mei [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Barber, Desmond P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Qin, Qing [Key Laboratory of Particle Acceleration Physics and Technology, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2015-09-01

    With the recently emerging global interest in building a next generation of circular electron–positron colliders to study the properties of the Higgs boson, and other important topics in particle physics at ultra-high beam energies, it is also important to pursue the possibility of implementing polarized beams at this energy scale. It is therefore necessary to set up simulation tools to evaluate the beam polarization at these ultra-high beam energies. In this paper, a Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization based on the Polymorphic Tracking Code (PTC) (Schmidt et al., 2002 [1]) is described. The simulations are for a model storage ring with parameters similar to those of proposed circular colliders in this energy range, and they are compared with the suggestion (Derbenev et al., 1979 [2]) that there are different regimes for the spin dynamics underlying the polarization of a beam in the presence of synchrotron radiation at ultra-high beam energies. In particular, it has been suggested that the so-called “correlated” crossing of spin resonances during synchrotron oscillations at current energies evolves into “uncorrelated” crossing of spin resonances at ultra-high energies.

  13. High energy extraction of electron beam pumped KrF lasers at multi atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleikamp, B.M.H.H.; Witteman, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The construction is described of a simple and compact KrF laser with electron beam excitation. The electron beam is generated in a coaxial vacuum diode, driven directly by a ten-stage coaxial Marx generator. A flat MgF2 outcoupler and a suprasil roof prism, protected by an MgF2 window, proved to be

  14. Energy composition of high-energy neutral beams on the COMPASS tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitosinkova Klara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS tokamak is equipped with two identical neutral beam injectors (NBI for additional plasma heating. They provide a beam of deuterium atoms with a power of up to ~(2 × 300 kW. We show that the neutral beam is not monoenergetic but contains several energy components. An accurate knowledge of the neutral beam power in each individual energy component is essential for a detailed description of the beam- -plasma interaction and better understanding of the NBI heating processes in the COMPASS tokamak. This paper describes the determination of individual energy components in the neutral beam from intensities of the Doppler-shifted Dα lines, which are measured by a high-resolution spectrometer viewing the neutral beam-line at the exit of NBI. Furthermore, the divergence of beamlets escaping single aperture of the last accelerating grid is deduced from the width of the Doppler-shifted lines. Recently, one of the NBI systems was modified by the removal of the Faraday copper shield from the ion source. The comparison of the beam composition and the beamlet divergence before and after this modification is also presented.

  15. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The experimental activities at GSI were concentrated on the progress in beam-plasma interaction experiments of heavy ion with ionized matter, plasma -lens forming devices, intense beam at high temperature experimental area, and charge exchange collisions of ions. The development to higher intensities and phase space densities during 1993 for the SIS and the ESR is recorded. The possibility of studying of funneling of two beams in a two-beam RFQ is studied. Specific results are presented with respect to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The problem of ion stopping in plasma and pumping X-ray lasers with heavy ion beams are discussed. Various contributions deal with dense plasma effects, shocks and opacity. (HP)

  16. The Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostic Challenges for LHC Operation at high Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, OR

    2014-01-01

    This contribution will present the role of beam diagnostics in facing the challenges posed by running the LHC close to its design energy of 7TeV. Machine protection will be ever more critical, with the quench level of the magnets significantly reduced, so relying heavily on the beam loss system, abort gap monitor, interlocks on the beam position and fast beam current change system. Non-invasive profile monitoring also becomes more of a challenge, with standard synchrotron light imaging limited by diffraction and rest gas ionization monitoring dominated by space charge effects. There is also a requirement to better understand beam instabilities, of which several were observed during Run I, leading to the need for synchronised bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn information from many distributed instrumentation systems. All of these challenges will be discussed along with the strategies adopted to overcome them.

  17. Output characteristics of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate detector using high-energy heavy-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Seiji; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Miyachi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masanori; Hattori, Maki; Okudaira, Osamu; Shibata, Hiromi; Fujii, Masayuki; Okada, Nagaya; Murakami, Takeshi; Uchihori, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    A radiation detector fabricated using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been studied by irradiating it with a 400 MeV/n xenon (Xe) beam. The beam diameter was controlled to change the irradiation conditions. It was found that the magnitude of the output observed from the PZT detector may be related to the number of Xe ions per unit area per unit time within the limits of the experimental conditions. -- Highlights: • The performance of PZT detector was studied by irradiation of a 400 MeV/n Xe beam. • The beam diameter was controlled to change the irradiation conditions. • By the control, the number of Xe ions per one pulse was changed from ∼500 to ∼1500. • The output of the PZT detector was not always larger with more intense beam. • The energy of Xe ions per unit area per unit time may determine the output

  18. Effects of High-Energy Proton-Beam Irradiation on the Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Kue; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are still many problem for the application due to its unstable magnetism state and too small magnetization values. Here we investigate magnetic properties of ZnO nanorods after high-energy proton-beam irradiation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement on temperature was made to identify intrinsic or extrinsic defects as well as to observe magnetic ordering after irradiation. Understanding the effects of proton beam irradiation on magnetic behavior may help to shed light on the mechanism responsible for the magnetic ordering in this material. We have investigated proton-beam irradiation effects on the magnetic properties of ZnO nanorods. After irradiation a broad ESR line is observed, indicating emergence of ferromagnetic ordering up to room temperature. In M-H curve, stronger coercive field is observed after irradiation.

  19. Formation of hexagonal silicon carbide by high energy ion beam irradiation on Si (1 0 0) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, H; Favre, M; Valderrama, E; Avaria, G; Chuaqui, H; Mitchell, I; Wyndham, E; Saavedra, R; Paulraj, M

    2007-01-01

    We report the investigation of high energy ion beam irradiation on Si (1 0 0) substrates at room temperature using a low energy plasma focus (PF) device operating in methane gas. The unexposed and ion exposed substrates were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photothermal beam deflection, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the results are reported. The interaction of the pulsed PF ion beams, with characteristic energy in the 60-450 keV range, with the Si surface, results in the formation of a surface layer of hexagonal silicon carbide. The SEM and AFM analyses indicate clear step bunching on the silicon carbide surface with an average step height of 50 nm and a terrace width of 800 nm

  20. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group: Progress report, March 1, 1987-February 29, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Progress is reported on the OPAL experiment at LEP, including construction and assembly of the hadron calorimeter and development of OPAL software. Progress on the JADE experiment, which examines e + e - interactions at PETRA, and of the PLUTO collaboration are also discussed. Experiments at Fermilab are reported, including deep inelastic muon scattering at TeV II, the D0 experiment at TeV I, and hadron jet physics. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering and a search for point-sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are reported. Other activities discussed include polarization in electron storage rings, participation in studies for the SSC and LEP 200, neutron-antineutron oscillations, and the work of the electronics support group. High energy physics computer experience is also discussed. 158 refs

  1. High efficiency and high-energy intra-cavity beam shaping laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    We present a technology of intra-cavity laser beam shaping with theory and experiment to obtain a flat-top-like beam with high-pulse energy. A radial birefringent element (RBE) was used in a crossed Porro prism polarization output coupling resonator to modulate the phase delay radially. The reflectively of a polarizer used as an output mirror was variable radially. A flat-top-like beam with 72.5 mJ, 11 ns at 20 Hz was achieved by a side-pumped Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser, and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 17.3%. (paper)

  2. High efficiency and high-energy intra-cavity beam shaping laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-09-01

    We present a technology of intra-cavity laser beam shaping with theory and experiment to obtain a flat-top-like beam with high-pulse energy. A radial birefringent element (RBE) was used in a crossed Porro prism polarization output coupling resonator to modulate the phase delay radially. The reflectively of a polarizer used as an output mirror was variable radially. A flat-top-like beam with 72.5 mJ, 11 ns at 20 Hz was achieved by a side-pumped Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser, and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 17.3%.

  3. Study of dose distribution in high energy photon beam used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafaravavy, R.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Bridier, A.

    2007-01-01

    The dose distribution in a medium traversed by a photon beam depends on beam energy, field size and medium nature. Percent depth dose (PDD), Dose Profile (DP) and Opening Collimator Factor (OCF) curves will be established to study this distribution. So, the PDD curves are composed by tree parts: the build-up region, the maximal dose and the quasi-equilibrium region. The maximum dose depth and the dose in depth increase with increasing photon beam energy but the dose surface decreases. The PDD increases with increasing field size.

  4. Energy composition of high-energy neutral beams on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitošinková, Klára; Stöckel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Weinzettl, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2016), s. 419-423 ISSN 0029-5922. [Summer School of Plasma Diagnostics PhDiaFusion 2015: “Soft X-ray Diagnostics for Fusion Plasma”. Bezmiechowa, 16.06.2015-20.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * neutral beam injection (NBI) * Doppler effect * beam composition * beam composition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016 http://www.ichtj.waw.pl/nukleonikaa/?p=1256

  5. Assessment of beam stability of high energy and low energy Varian medical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayesh, K.; Mohan, R.; Joshi, R.C.; Ganesh, T.; Hegazy, M.; Oubaye, A.J.; AI Idrisi, Maha

    2008-01-01

    An accurate measurement of the dose delivered to the tumor in external beam radiotherapy is one of the primary responsibilities of a medical physicist. In general, such measurements have been based on the application of a dosimetry protocol and quality assurance procedures. Clinically one must be able to assess the beam quality, flatness and symmetry and variation in the output on daily basis. Flatness and symmetry are the main parameters for determining the pattern of a photon and electron beam produced by linear accelerators. The quality assurance in routine clinical practice of radiotherapy and consequently the treatment-outcome depends definitely on the physical parameters of treatment-delivery. Several recommendations from national and international associations are reported to define the limits for the beam parameters. The review of literature and various reports on quality assurance in radiotherapy show that for flatness, symmetry and output constancy the optimal level of deviation should be within ±3%

  6. Experience with high-energy electron beam therapy at the University of Chicago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Lanzl, L.H.; Skaggs, L.S.; Sutton, H.G.; Tokars, R.

    1979-01-01

    Current utilization of the linear accelerator as well as 5-year cumulative experience in radiotherapy is presented. Cutaneous lymphomas and mammary gland carcinomas were the prime experience region; however, cancers at other locations were treated with mixed-beam therapy; employing fast neutrons and photon beams. The technique appears promising for abdominal tumors and deep-seated malignancies. Carcinoma of the pancreas responds favorably to this technique

  7. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Butcher, M. [CERN; Guinchard, M. [CERN; Calviani, M. [CERN; Losito, R. [CERN; Roberts, S. [Culham Lab; Kuksenko, V. [Oxford U.; Atherton, A. [Rutherford; Caretta, O. [Rutherford; Davenne, T. [Rutherford; Densham, C. [Rutherford; Fitton, M. [Rutherford; Loveridge, J. [Rutherford; O' Dell, J. [Rutherford

    2017-02-10

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and compare surface evolution and microstructural response of the test matrix specimens.

  8. A program for monitor unit calculation for high energy photon beams in isocentric condition based on measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesheva-Atanasova, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is: 1) to propose a procedure and a program for monitor unit calculation for radiation therapy with high energy photon beams, based on data measured by author; 2) to compare this data with published one and 3) to evaluate the precision of the monitor unit calculation program. From this study it could be concluded that, we reproduced with a good agreement the published data, except the TPR values for dept up to 5 cm. The measured relative weight of upper and lower jaws - parameter A was dramatically different from the published data, but perfectly described the collimator exchange effect for our treatment machine. No difference was found between the head scatter ratios, measured in a mini phantom and those measured with a proper brass buildup cap. Our monitor unit calculation program was found to be reliable and it can be applied for check up of the patient's plans for irradiation with high energy photon beams and for some fast calculations. Because of the identity in the construction, design and characteristics of the Siemens accelerators, and the agreement with the published data for the same beam qualities, we hope that most of our experimental data and this program can be used after verification in other hospitals

  9. Evaluation of secondary electron filter for removing contaminant electrons from high-energy 6 MV x-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kozo

    1988-01-01

    When using high energy X-rays, the dose increases at the skin surface and build-up region of beam contamination of secondary electrons coming out from the inner surface of the lineac head. At our radiotherapy department, many cases of external otitis from severe skin reactions, particularly resulting from whole brain irradiation of primary and metastatic brain tumors with a 6 MV X-ray lineac, have been encountered. An investigation was made of the physical aspects of a 6 MV X-ray beam using three electron filters, lead lucite, lead glass and lucite to remove secondary electrons. Transparent materials for filters should be preferable for locating the light field. The following results were obtained: 1) For removing secondary electrons, a lead lucite filter was found best. 2) The lead lucite filter proved most effective for removing secondary electrons from the area of treatment. It reduced the dose of irradiation to the skin surface and build-up region, and furthermore improved the depth dose relative to that without filters. 3) From a clinical standpoint, skin reactions such as external otitis remarkably decreased using a lead lucite filter. 4) It thus appears necessary to use a high energy X-ray with newly designed filters to reduce beam contamination of secondary electrons. (author)

  10. Measurement of high energy x-ray beam penumbra with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-01-01

    High energy x-ray beam penumbra are measured using Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT, due to its limited energy dependence and high spatial resolution provide a high level of accuracy for dose assessment in penumbral regions. The spatial resolution of film detector systems is normally limited by the scanning resolution of the densitometer. Penumbral widths (80%/20%) measured at D max were found to be 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4 mm (±0.2 mm) using 5, 10, 20, and 30 cm square field sizes, respectively, for a 6 MV linear accelerator produced x-ray beam. This is compared to 3.2 mm±0.2 mm (Kodak EDR2) and 3.6 mm±0.2 mm (Kodak X-Omat V) at 10 cmx10 cm measured using radiographic film. Using a zero volume extrapolation technique for ionization chamber measurements, the 10 cmx10 cm field penumbra at D max was measured to be 3.1 mm, a close match to Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT results. Penumbral measurements can also be made at other depths, including the surface, as the film does not suffer significantly from dosimetric variations caused by changing x-ray energy spectra. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film provides an adequate measure of penumbral dose for high energy x-ray beams

  11. High energy density supercapacitors from lignin derived submicron activated carbon fibers in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sixiao; Zhang, Sanliang; Pan, Ning; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2014-12-01

    Highly porous submicron activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were robustly generated from low sulfonated alkali lignin and fabricated into supercapacitors for capacitive energy storage. The hydrophilic and high specific surface ACFs exhibited large-size nanographites and good electrical conductivity to demonstrate outstanding electrochemical performance. ACFs from KOH activation, in particular, showed very high 344 F g-1 specific capacitance at low 1.8 mg cm-2 mass loading and 10 mV s-1 scan rate in aqueous electrolytes. Even at relatively high scan rate of 50 mV s-1 and mass loading of 10 mg cm-2, a decent specific capacitance of 196 F g-1 and a remarkable areal capacitance of 0.55 F cm-2 was obtained, leading to high energy density of 8.1 Wh kg-1 based on averaged electrodes mass. Furthermore, over 96% capacitance retention rates were achieved after 5000 charge/discharge cycles. Such excellent performance demonstrated great potential of lignin derived carbons for electrical energy storage.

  12. Tunable porous structure of carbon nanosheets derived from puffed rice for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Jiang, Kun; Tahir, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoge; Idrees, Faryal; Shen, Ming; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-12-01

    The development of green and clean synthetic techniques to overcome energy requirements have motivated the researchers for the utilization of sustainable biomass. Driven by this desire we choose rice as starting materials source. After the explosion effect, the precursor is converted into puffed rice with a honeycomb-like structures composed of thin sheets. These honeycomb-like macrostructures, effectively prevent the cross-linking tendency towards the adjacent nanosheets during activation process. Furthermore, tuneable micro/mesoporous structures with ultrahigh specific surface areas (SBET) are successfully designed by KOH activation. The highest SBET of 3326 m2 g-1 with optimized proportion of small-mesopores is achieved at 850 °C. The rice-derived porous N-doped carbon nanosheets (NCS-850) are used as the active electrode materials for supercapacitors. It exhibites high specific capacitance specifically of 218 F g-1 at 80 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and a high-energy density of 104 Wh kg-1 (53 Wh L-1) in the ionic liquid electrolytes. These are the highest values among the reported biomass-derived carbon materials for the best of our knowledge. The present work demonstrates that the combination of "puffing effect" and common chemical activation can turn natural products such as rice into functional products with prospective applications in high-performance energy storage devices.

  13. Proposal of 99.99%-aluminum/7N01-Aluminum clad beam tube for high energy booster of Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Hajime

    1994-01-01

    Proposal of 99.99% pure aluminum/7N01 aluminum alloy clad beam tube for high energy booster in Superconducting Super Collider is described. This aluminum clad beam tube has many good performances, but a eddy current effect is large in superconducting magnet quench collapse. The quench test result for aluminum clad beam tube is basically no problem against magnet quench collapse. (author)

  14. Hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production in solar flares by high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Brown, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that solar hard X-ray bremsstrahlung is produced by acceleration of stationary electrons by fast-moving protons, rather than vice versa, as commonly assumed, was investigated. It was found that a beam of protons which involves 1836 times fewer particles, each having an energy 1836 times greater than that of the electrons in the equivalent electron beam model, has exactly the same bremsstrahlung yield for a given target, i.e., the mechanism has an energetic efficiency equal to that of conventional bremsstrahlung models. Allowance for the different degrees of target ionization appropriate to the two models (for conventional flare geometries) makes the proton beam model more efficient than the electron beam model, by a factor of order three. The model places less stringent constraints than a conventional electron beam model on the flare energy release mechanism. It is also consistent with observed X-ray burst spectra, intensities, and directivities. The altitude distribution of hard X-rays predicted by the model agrees with observations only if nonvertical injection of the protons is assumed. The model is inconsistent with gamma-ray data in terms of conventional modeling.

  15. Thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO4:Dy+PTFE irradiated with high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Rivera, T.; Calderon, J. A.; Jimenez, Y.; Rodriguez, J.; Oviedo, O.; Azorin, J.

    2011-10-01

    In the present work thermoluminescent response of dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE) under high electron beam irradiations from linear accelerator for clinical applications was investigated. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator Varian, C linac 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained by using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions. Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electron beams irradiations. The thermoluminescent response of the pellets showed and intensity peak centered at around 235 C. Thermoluminescent response of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO 4 :Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. (Author)

  16. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%–20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect. It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle

  17. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  18. Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water and Wastewater Using High-energy Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Behjat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Application of electron beam as a strong oxidation method for disinfection of drinking water and wastewater has been investigated. Drinking water samples were prepared from wells in rock zones in Yazd Province. Wastewater samples were collected from Yazd Wastewater Treatment Plant. Samples were irradiated by 10 MeV electron beam accelerator at Yazd Radiation Processing Center. The irradiation dose range varied from 0.5-5 kGy. Biological parameters and microbial agents such as aerobic mesophiles and coliforms including E. coli count before and after irradiation versus irradiation dose were obtained using MPN method. The data obtained from irradiated water and wastewater were compared with un-irradiated (control samples. The results showed a removal of 90% of all microorganisms at irradiation doses below 5 kGy, suggesting electron beam irradiation as an effective method for disinfection of wastewater.

  19. Application of methodology for calibration of instruments utilized in dosimetry of high energy beams, for radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, Maria P.A.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation qualities recommended by the IEC 1267 standard for the calibration of instruments used in diagnostic radiology measurements were established using a neo-diagnomax X-ray system (125 kV). The RQR radiation qualities are recommended to test ionization chambers used in non attenuated beams, and the RQA radiation qualities in attenuated beams (behind a phantom). To apply the methodology, 6 ionization chambers commonly used in diagnostic radiology were tested. The higher energy dependence (17%) was obtained for an ionization chamber recommended for mammography beams, that is not the case of the X radiation system used in this work. The other ionization chambers presented good performance in terms of energy (maximum of 5%), therefore within the limits of the international recommendations for this kind of instrument. (author)

  20. A Polarized High-Energy Photon Beam for Production of Exotic Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senderovich, Igor [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This work describes design, prototyping and testing of various components of the Jefferson Lab Hall D photon beamline. These include coherent bremsstrahlung radiators to be used in this facility for generating the photon beam, a fine resolution hodoscope for the facility's tagging spectrometer, and a photon beam position sensor for stabilizing the beam on a collimator. The principal instrumentation project was the hodoscope: its design, implementation and beam testing will be thoroughly described. Studies of the coherent bremsstrahlung radiators involved X-ray characterization of diamond crystals to identify the appropriate line of manufactured radiators and the proper techniques for thinning them to the desired specification of the beamline. The photon beam position sensor project involved completion of a designed detector and its beam test. The results of these shorter studies will also be presented. The second part of this work discusses a Monte Carlo study of a possible photo-production and decay channel in the GlueX experiment that will be housed in the Hall D facility. Specifically, the γ p → Xp → b1 π → ω π+1 π-1 channel was studied including its Amplitude Analysis. This exercise attempted to generate a possible physics signal, complete with internal angular momentum states, and be able to reconstruct the signal in the detector and find the proper set of JPC quantum numbers through an amplitude fit. Derivation of the proper set of amplitudes in the helicity basis is described, followed by a discussion of the implementation, generation of the data sets, reconstruction techniques, the amplitude fit and results of this study.

  1. LHC@Home: A Volunteer computing system for Massive Numerical Simulations of Beam Dynamics and High Energy Physics Events

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannozzi, M; Høimyr, N; Jones, PL; Karneyeu, A; Marquina, MA; McIntosh, E; Segal, B; Skands, P; Grey, F; Lombraña González, D; Rivkin, L; Zacharov, I

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the LHC@home system has been revived at CERN. It is a volunteer computing system based on BOINC which boosts the available CPU-power in institutional computer centres with the help of individuals that donate the CPU-time of their PCs. Currently two projects are hosted on the system, namely SixTrack and Test4Theory. The first is aimed at performing beam dynamics simulations, while the latter deals with the simulation of high-energy events. In this paper the details of the global system, as well a discussion of the capabilities of each project will be presented.

  2. GPU-Powered Modelling of Nonlinear Effects due to Head-On Beam-Beam Interactions in High-Energy Hadron Colliders.

    CERN Document Server

    Furuseth, Sondre

    2017-01-01

    The performance of high-energy circular hadron colliders, as the Large Hadron Collider, is limited by beam-beam interactions. The strongly nonlinear force between the two opposing beams causes diverging Hamiltonians and resonances, which can lead to a reduction of the lifetime of the beams. The nonlinearity makes the effect of the force difficult to study analytically, even at first order. Numerical models are therefore needed to evaluate the overall effect of different configurations of the machines. This report discusses results from an implementation of the weak-strong model, studying the effects of head-on beam-beam interactions. The assumptions has been shown to be valid for configurations where the growth and losses of the beam are small. The tracking has been done using an original code which applies graphic cards to reduce the computation time. The bunches in the beams have been modelled cylindrically symmetrical, based on a Gaussian distribution in three dimensions. This choice fits well with bunches...

  3. Study of the ATLAS MDT spectrometer using high energy CERN combined test beam data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adorisio, C.; et al., [Unknown; Barisonzi, M.; Bobbink, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Brouwer, G.; Groenstege, H.; Hart, R.; Konig, A.; Linde, F.; van der Graaf, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Vreeswijk, M.; Werneke, P.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a combined system test was performed in the H8 beam line at the CERN SPS with a setup reproducing the geometry of sectors of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, formed by three stations of Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT). The full ATLAS analysis chain was used to obtain the results presented in this

  4. Compact Undulator for the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source: Design and Beam Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temnykh, A.; Dale, D.; Fontes, E.; Li, Y.; Lyndaker, A.; Revesz, P.; Rice, D.; Woll, A.

    2013-03-01

    We developed, built and beam tested a novel, compact, in-vacuum undulator magnet based on an adjustable phase (AP) scheme. The undulator is 1 m long with a 5mm gap. It has a pure permanent magnet structure with 24.4mm period and 1.1 Tesla maximum peak field. The device consists of two planar magnet arrays mounted on rails inside of a rectangular box-like frame with 156 mm × 146 mm dimensions. The undulator magnet is enclosed in a 273 mm (10.75") diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel with a driver mechanism placed outside. In May 2012 the CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) was installed in Cornell Electron Storage Ring and beam tested. During four weeks of dedicated run we evaluated undulator radiation properties as well as magnetic, mechanical and vacuum properties of the undulator magnet. We also studied the effect of the CCU on storage ring beam. The spectral characteristics and intensity of radiation were found to be in very good agreement with expected. The magnet demonstrated reproducibility of undulator parameter K at 1.4 × 10-4 level. It was also found that the undulator K. parameter change does not affect electron beam orbit and betatron tunes.

  5. Performance Modeling and Optimization of a High Energy CollidingBeam Simulation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Qiang, Ji; Bailey, David H.; Yelick, Kathy

    2006-06-01

    An accurate modeling of the beam-beam interaction is essential to maximizing the luminosity in existing and future colliders. BeamBeam3D was the first parallel code that can be used to study this interaction fully self-consistently on high-performance computing platforms. Various all-to-all personalized communication (AAPC) algorithms dominate its communication patterns, for which we developed a sequence of performance models using a series of micro-benchmarks. We find that for SMP based systems the most important performance constraint is node-adapter contention, while for 3D-Torus topologies good performance models are not possible without considering link contention. The best average model prediction error is very low on SMP based systems with of 3% to 7%. On torus based systems errors of 29% are higher but optimized performance can again be predicted within 8% in some cases. These excellent results across five different systems indicate that this methodology for performance modeling can be applied to a large class of algorithms.

  6. Performance Modeling and Optimization of a High Energy Colliding Beam Simulation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Hongzhang; Strohmaier, Erich; Qiang, Ji; Bailey, David H.; Yelick, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    An accurate modeling of the beam-beam interaction is essential to maximizing the luminosity in existing and future colliders. BeamBeam3D was the first parallel code that can be used to study this interaction fully self-consistently on high-performance computing platforms. Various all-to-all personalized communication (AAPC) algorithms dominate its communication patterns, for which we developed a sequence of performance models using a series of micro-benchmarks. We find that for SMP based systems the most important performance constraint is node-adapter contention, while for 3D-Torus topologies good performance models are not possible without considering link contention. The best average model prediction error is very low on SMP based systems with of 3% to 7%. On torus based systems errors of 29% are higher but optimized performance can again be predicted within 8% in some cases. These excellent results across five different systems indicate that this methodology for performance modeling can be applied to a large class of algorithms

  7. The response of Kodak EDR2 film in high-energy electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Bruce J; Dimitroyannis, Dimitri A

    2003-10-01

    Kodak XV2 film has been a key dosimeter in radiation therapy for many years. The advantages of the recently introduced Kodak EDR2 film for photon beam dosimetry have been the focus of several IMRT verification dosimetry publications. However, no description of this film's response to electron beams exists in the literature. We initiated a study to characterize the response and utility of this film for electron beam dosimetry. We exposed a series of EDR2 films to 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electrons in addition to 6 and 18 MV x rays to develop standard characteristic curves. The linac was first calibrated to ensure that the delivered dose was known accurately. All irradiations were done at dmax in polystyrene for both photons and electrons, all films were from the same batch, and were developed at the same time. We also exposed the EDR2 films in a solid water phantom to produce central axis depth dose curves. These data were compared against percent depth dose curves measured in a water phantom using an IC-10 ion chamber, Kodak XV2 film, and a PTW electron diode. The response of this film was the same for both 6 and 18 MV x rays, but showed an apparent energy-dependent enhancement for electron beams. The response of the film also increased with increasing electron energy. This caused the percent depth dose curves using film to be shifted toward the surface compared to the ion chamber data.

  8. LD-pumped erbium and neodymium lasers with high energy and output beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Vladimir V.; Bezyazychnaya, Tatiana V.; Bogdanovich, Maxim V.; Grigor'ev, Alexandr V.; Lebiadok, Yahor V.; Lepchenkov, Kirill V.; Ryabtsev, Andrew G.; Ryabtsev, Gennadii I.; Shchemelev, Maxim A.

    2013-05-01

    Physical and fabrication peculiarities which provide the high output energy and beam quality for the diode pumped erbium glass and Nd:YAG lasers are considered. Developed design approach allow to make passively Q-switched erbium glass eye-safe portable laser sources with output energy 8 - 12 mJ (output pulse duration is less than 25 ns, pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz) and beam quality M2 less than 1.3. To reach these values the erbium laser pump unit parameters were optimized also. Namely, for the powerful laser diode arrays the optimal near-field fill-factor, output mirror reflectivity and heterostructure properties were determined. Construction of advanced diode and solid-state lasers as well as the optical properties of the active element and the pump unit make possible the lasing within a rather wide temperature interval (e.g. from minus forty till plus sixty Celsius degree) without application of water-based chillers. The transversally pumped Nd:YAG laser output beam uniformity was investigated depending on the active element (AE) pump conditions. In particular, to enhance the pump uniformity within AE volume, a special layer which practically doesn't absorb the pump radiation but effectively scatters the pump and lasing beams, was used. Application of such layer results in amplified spontaneous emission suppression and improvement of the laser output beam uniformity. The carried out investigations allow us to fabricate the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers (1064 nm) with the output energy up to 420 mJ at the pulse repetition rate up to 30 Hz and the output energy up to 100 mJ at the pulse repetition rate of of 100 Hz. Also the laser sources with following characteristics: 35 mJ, 30 Hz (266 nm); 60 mJ, 30 Hz (355 nm); 100 mJ, 30 Hz (532 nm) were manufactured on the base of the developed Nd:YAG quantrons.

  9. High-energy heavy-ion beams as igniters for commercial-scale intertial-fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial-scale inertial-fusion power can be generated by producing a steady succession of thermonuclear microexplosions of small pellet targets whose ignition requires supplying a few magajoules in a few nanoseconds, a goal well beyond the present single-shot capabilities of high-power pulsed laser and electron-beam systems which also lack the needed repetition-rate capability of order one per second. However, existing high-energy accelerator technology with straightforward engineering extrapolations, applied to pulsed beams of heavy ions in low charge states, can meet all requirements. The relevant accelerator capabilities are discussed; three widely differing types of accelerators show promise. Needed developmental work is mostly on lower-energy components and can be conducted at relatively low cost. Some of the work started at several accelerator laboratories on this new approach within the past year are described, and possible goals of an early demonstration construction project are indicated

  10. High energy metal ion implantation using 'Magis', a novel, broad-beam, Marx-generator-based ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    Ion energy of the beam formed by an ion source is proportional to extractor voltage and ion charge state. Increasing the voltage is difficult and costly for extraction voltage over 100 kV. Here we explore the possibility of increasing the charge states of metal ions to facilitate high-energy, broad beam ion implantation at a moderate voltage level. Strategies to enhance the ion charge state include operating in the regimes of high-current vacuum sparks and short pulses. Using a time-of-flight technique we have measured charge states as high as 7+ (73 kA vacuum spark discharge) and 4+ (14 kA short pulse arc discharge), both for copper, with the mean ion charge states about 6.0 and 2.5, respectively. Pulsed discharges can conveniently be driven by a modified Marx generator, allowing operation of ''Magis'' with a single power supply (at ground potential) for both plasma production and ion extraction

  11. High energy electron beams characterization using CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE Phosphors for clinical therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion. 11500 Mexico DF (Mexico); Espinoza, A.; Von, S.M. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de los Servicios de Salud de Nayarit, Enfermeria S/n, Fracc, Fray Junipero Serra, 63169 Tepic Nay (Mexico); Alvarez, R.; Jimenez, Y. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion. 11500 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work high energy electron beam dosimetry from linear accelerator (LINACs) for clinical applications using dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE) was studied. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC) Varian, CLINAC 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions (EEC). Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electrons beams irradiations. The TL response of the pellets showed an intensity peak centered at around 215 Degree-Sign C. TL response of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy to electron beams dosimetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of caSO{sub 4}:Dy to radiation safety in LINACs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TL characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy for electron beams quality control.

  12. Multi-megajoule heating of large tokamaks with high energy heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei-Cas, R.

    1981-07-01

    The fast neutral injection heating and RF heating for tokamak like plasmas are now well established. We consider in this paper the use of high energy (approximately 1 GeV) heavy ions (Xe 132 ) to reach ignition in JET or INTOR like tokamaks. The main advantages of such a method will be outlined. The capture and the confinement of heavy ions have been analysed in a particular case and with the described RF linac it seems possible to inject in the order of 50 MJ in 1 sec with a modest increase of the effective charge Zsub(eff)<1.05 in a JET-like plasma for a particle life time of 1 sec and then the additional radiated power should be maintained at a relatively low level in comparison to the injected power

  13. Feasibility study of radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter postal dose intercomparison for high energy photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Siyong; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Chung, Jin-Beom; Shin, Dong-Oh; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2009-01-01

    A radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter (GRD) system has recently become commercially available. In this study we evaluated whether the GRD would be suitable for external dosimetric audit program in radiotherapy. For this purpose, we introduced a methodology of the absorbed dose determination with the GRD by establishing calibration coefficient and various correction factors (non-linearity dose response, fading, energy dependence and angular dependence). A feasibility test of the GRD postal dose intercomparison was also performed for eight high photon beams by considering four radiotherapy centers in Korea. In the accuracy evaluation of the GRD dosimetry established in this study, we obtained within 1.5% agreements with the ionization chamber dosimetry for the 60 Co beam. It was also observed that, in the feasibility study, all the relative deviations were smaller than 3%. Based on these results, we believe that the new GRD system has considerable potential to be used for a postal dose audit program

  14. Effects of high energy (MeV) ion beam irradiation on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nandlal; Sharma, Anita; Avasthi, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation effects of 50 MeV Li 3+ ion beams in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were studied with respect to their structural and electrical properties by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ac electrical measurement in the frequency range: 50-100 kHz at different temperatures of 30-150 deg. C. It is found that ac resistivity of PET decreases as frequency increases. The temperature dependencies of dielectric loss tangent exhibit a peak (T g ) at 60 deg. C. The capacitance value of irradiated PET is almost temperature independent and ones increases with an increasing of lithium fluence. FTIR spectra show various bands related to C-H, C-O, C-O-C molecular bonds and groups which get modified or break down due to ion beam irradiation

  15. The use of GaSe semiconductor detectors for monitoring high energy muon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, A M; Murri, R; Quirini, A; Rizzo, A; Vasanelli, L

    1976-01-01

    GaSe semiconductor detectors have been successfully tested during one year for monitoring muon beams in the GeV range in the neutrino experiment at CERN. Their performances are comparable with those of commercial Si surface barrier detectors for this particular application. Crystal growth, detector fabrication and characterization are briefly described. Various advantages (cost, ruggedness, resistance to radiation damage, manufacturing simplicity, etc.) are discussed. (8 refs).

  16. Portal imaging improvement with a low energy un flattened beam in high energy medical accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krutman, Y; Faermann, S; Tsechanski, A [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    In this work we present a further improvement of the portal film option, for a Clinac 18 accelerator with a 10 MV therapeutic x-ray beam. This is done by lowering the nominal photon energy to 4 MV, therefore increasing the relative contribution of the low energy portion of the x-ray spectrum. Improvement of the image quality is demonstrated with a portal film scale tray, and with an anthropomorphic phantom, a graphical analysis demonstrates the improvement on image (authors).

  17. Scanned beams of high-energy charged particles and features of their collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zor'ko, K.I.; Kudoyarov, M.F.; Matyukov, A.V.; Mukhin, S.A.; Patrova, M.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The coordinate distributions of the accelerated charged particle flux density that are simultaneously formed by sinusoidal scanning and collimation are analyzed. Under certain formation conditions, the edge portions of these distributions are shown to take a two-humped shape. The experimental data obtained are in good agreement with the calculation. Recommendations are made about practical use of these beams in view of the above effects [ru

  18. Probing WWγ and WWγγ couplings with high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.Y.; Schrempp, F.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of a 500 GeV 'Next Linear e + e - Collider' (NLC) for probing anomalous WWγ and WWγγ couplings in the γ(γ) mode is investigated. The γe - →W - ν and the γγ→W + W - processes are studied. Differential cross sections are given for polarized and unpolarized beams. CP violating couplings are also discussed. (K.A.) 13 refs., 6 figs

  19. Laser-driven high-energy proton beam with homogeneous spatial profile from a nanosphere target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulanov, S.S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Leemans, W.P.; Bulanov, S.V.; Margarone, Daniele; Korn, Georg; Haberer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2015), "061302-1"-"061302-6" ISSN 1098-4402 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ion accelerators * tumor-therapy * proton * beams * plasmas Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2015

  20. High energy Xe{sup +} ion beam induced ripple structures on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan; Winkler, Ingolf [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute for Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Grigorian, Souren; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany). Institute of Physics

    2008-07-01

    Ion beam bombardment on semiconductor surfaces leads to well-defined morphological structures in the nanoscale range. Due to the impact of ions a self-organized wave-like surface structure develops. Ion bombardment causes an amorphization of a surface-adjacent layer of several nanometers and creates a periodical structure on the surface as well as at the amorphous-crystalline interface. We investigate the dependence of the periodicity on the crystallography of (100) silicon bombarded with Xe{sup +} ions, the ion beam incidence and the azimutal angle of the sample surface. So far we found that the ripple wavelength scales with the ion energy in a range of 5 to 70 keV. In order to understand the initiation of the ripple formation we also ask the question which role the initial surface structure plays. Therefore we investigate the formation of ripples on pre-structured and rough surfaces such as wafers with an intentional miscut. Therefore, we not only introduce a certain initial roughness but also vary the orientation of the (100) lattice plane in respect to the surface. We distinguish between ion beam induced surface effects (sputter erosion) and the influence of the crystalline Si lattice (strain) on the ripple formation.

  1. Probing WWγ and WWγγ couplings with high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.Y.; Schrempp, F.

    1991-12-01

    We examine the potential of a future 500 GeV linear e + e - collider for probing anomalous WW γ and WW γγ couplings in the so-called γ(γ)model, corresponding to colliding γe and γγ beams from Compton backscattering of laser light. We consider in detail the 'minimal' set (k γ , λ γ ) of CP conserving anomalous couplings and present first results for the CP violating 'partner' couplings (anti K γ , anti l γ ) as well. The reactions under consideration are γe → Wν, γγ → W + W - and, as a reference, also e + e - → W + W - . We discuss the impact of both circular polarization of laser photons and polarized e(anti e) beams. Photon 'beams' due to classical Bremsstrahlung are also studied for comparison. We analyze in detail, how changes of the assumed machine parameters, cuts and systematic errors affect the sensitivity to the anomalous couplings. (orig.)

  2. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment were used. • HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose. • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) could remove these impurities from the pores. • They could effectively improve pore size distribution and decrease the bulk density. • Catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst was significantly improved. - Abstract: High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite

  3. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chong [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jianfeng [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment were used. • HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose. • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) could remove these impurities from the pores. • They could effectively improve pore size distribution and decrease the bulk density. • Catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst was significantly improved. - Abstract: High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  4. Evaluation of the mechanical and corrosion protection performance of electrodeposited hydroxyapatite on the high energy electron beam treated titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopi, D.; Sherif, El-Sayed M.; Rajeswari, D.; Kavitha, L.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Polaki, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ti–6Al–4V alloy was surface treated by high energy low current DC electron beam. • Successful electrodeposition of HAP was achieved on surface treated Ti–6Al–4V. • The as-formed coating possessed improved surface wettability and adhesion strength. • Maximum corrosion protection performance was exhibited by the as-formed coating. - Abstract: In our present study, the Ti–6Al–4V alloy surface was modified by irradiating with the high energy low current DC electron beam (HELCDEB) using 700 keV DC accelerator. Following this, the HELCDEB treated surface was coated with hydroxyapatite by adopting electrodeposition method. The microstructure and hardness of HELCDEB treated Ti–6A1–4V alloy with and without electrodeposited hydroxyapatite were investigated. Also, the electrochemical corrosion characteristics of the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) was studied by potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedence techniques (EIS) which showed an enhanced corrosion resistance and revealed an improved life time for the hydroxyapatite coating developed on the HELCDEB treated Ti–6A1–4V alloy than the untreated sample

  5. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  6. The role of phantom and treatment head generated bremsstrahlung in high-energy electron beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Brahme, A.

    1996-01-01

    An analytical expression has been derived for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane-parallel monoenergetic electron beams normally incident on material of any atomic number (Be, H 2 O, Al, Cu and U). The expression is suitable for the energy range from 1 to 50 MeV and it is solely based on known scattering power and radiative and collision stopping power data for the material at the incident electron energy. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated by the electrons in the phantom is derived by convolving the bremsstrahlung energy fluence produced in the phantom with a simple analytical energy deposition kernel. The kernel accounts for both electrons and photons set in motion by the bremsstrahlung photons. The energy loss by the primary electrons, the build-up of the electron fluence and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are all taken into account in the analytical formula. The longitudinal energy deposition kernel is derived analytically and it is consistent with both the classical biexponential relation describing the photon depth dose distribution and the exponential attenuation of the primary photons. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated energy deposition distributions using ITS3 code were used. Good agreement was found between the results with the analytical expression and the Monte Carlo calculation. For tissue equivalent materials, the maximum total energy deposition differs by less than 0.2% from Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions. The result can be used to estimate the depth dependence of phantom generated bremsstrahlung in different materials in therapeutic electron beams and the bremsstrahlung production in different electron absorbers such as scattering foils, transmission monitors and photon and electron collimators. By subtracting the phantom generated bremsstrahlung from the total bremsstrahlung background the photon contamination generated in the treatment head can be

  7. Characterization of the phantom material virtual water in high-energy photon and electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, M R; Niven, D

    2006-04-01

    The material Virtual Water has been characterized in photon and electron beams. Range-scaling factors and fluence correction factors were obtained, the latter with an uncertainty of around 0.2%. This level of uncertainty means that it may be possible to perform dosimetry in a solid phantom with an accuracy approaching that of measurements in water. Two formulations of Virtual Water were investigated with nominally the same elemental composition but differing densities. For photon beams neither formulation showed exact water equivalence-the water/Virtual Water dose ratio varied with the depth of measurement with a difference of over 1% at 10 cm depth. However, by using a density (range) scaling factor very good agreement (water and Virtual Water at all depths was obtained. In the case of electron beams a range-scaling factor was also required to match the shapes of the depth dose curves in water and Virtual Water. However, there remained a difference in the measured fluence in the two phantoms after this scaling factor had been applied. For measurements around the peak of the depth-dose curve and the reference depth this difference showed some small energy dependence but was in the range 0.1%-0.4%. Perturbation measurements have indicated that small slabs of material upstream of a detector have a small (<0.1% effect) on the chamber reading but material behind the detector can have a larger effect. This has consequences for the design of experiments and in the comparison of measurements and Monte Carlo-derived values.

  8. Absorbed dose determination in high energy photon beams using new IAEA TRS - 398 Code of Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriyapee, S.; Srimanoroath, S.; Jumpangern, C.

    2002-01-01

    The absorbed dose calibration of 6 and 10 MV X-ray beams from Varian Clinac 1800 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital Bangkok, Thailand were performed using cylindrical chamber 0.6 cc NE2571 Serial No. 1633 with graphite wall and Delrin build up cap and lonex Dosemaster NE 2590 Serial No. 223. The absorbed dose determination followed the IAEA code of practice TRS-277. The new IAEA code of practice TRS-398 have been studied to compare the result with the IAEA TRS-277

  9. On the η and η′ photoproduction beam asymmetry at high energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mathieu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that, in the Regge limit, beam asymmetries in η and η′ photoproduction are sensitive to hidden strangeness components. Under reasonable assumptions about the couplings we estimate the contribution of the ϕ Regge pole, which is expected to be the dominant hidden strangeness contribution. The ratio of the asymmetries in η′ and η production is estimated to be close to unity in the forward region 0<−t/GeV2≤1 at the photon energy Elab=9 GeV, relevant for the upcoming measurements at Jefferson Lab.

  10. High current, high energy proton beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Láska, Leoš; Velyhan, Andriy; Prokůpek, Jan; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-163 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA AV ČR IAA100100715; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-acceleration * proton beam * high ion current * time -of-flight * proton energy distribution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  11. High-energy ion-beam-induced phase separation in SiOx films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldbik, W.M.; Tomozeiu, N.; Hattum, E.D. van; Lof, R.W.; Vredenberg, A.M.; Habraken, F.H.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The modification of the nanostructure of silicon suboxide (SiO x ) films as a result of high-energy heavy-ion irradiation has been studied for the entire range 0.1≤x x films have been obtained by radio-frequency magnetron sputter deposition. For 50 MeV 63 Cu 8+ ions and an angle of incidence of 20 deg. with the plane of the surface, and for x≥0.5, it takes a fluence of about 10 14 /cm 2 to reach a Si-O-Si infrared absorption spectrum, which is supposed to be characteristic for a Si-SiO 2 composite film structure. For smaller x values, it takes a much larger fluence. The interpretation of the IR spectra is corroborated for the surface region by results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results present evidence for a mechanism, in which the phase separation takes place in the thermal spike, initiated by the energy deposited in many overlapping independent ion tracks. Such a process is possible since the suboxides fulfill the conditions for spinodal decomposition

  12. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams Generating High-Energy-Density Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, IV; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. This data has been used as input to a sophisticated two--dimensional hydrodynamic computer code, BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1~m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy de...

  13. Dosimetry study comparing NCS report-2 versus IAEA TRS-398 protocol for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attalaa, E.M.; Khaled, N.E.; Abou Elenein, H.S.; Elsayed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work a dosimetry study is presented in which the results of absorbed dose determined at reference condition according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol and the NCS report-2 are compared. The IAEA TRS-398 protocol for absorbed dose calibration is based on ionization chamber having absorbed dose to water calibration factor N d w, while the NCS-2 dosimetry report for absorbed dose calibration is based on an ionization chamber having air- kerma calibration factor N k . This study shows that the absorbed dose which is calculated with The IAEA TRS-398 formalisms is higher than that calculated with NCS report-2 formalisms within range from 0.4 to 0.9% in cobalt-60 beam as sensed by different ionization chambers, and from 0.2 to 1.1% for different higher energy photon beams of 6, 8 and 18 MV. The chambers used are PTW 30001, 30004, and NE-2571; which have calibration factors N k and N d w traceable to the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures)

  14. High energy electron beam inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase suspended in different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, A.; Oproiu, C.; Popescu, A.; Hategan, D.; Morariu, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of 5 MeV electron beam irradiation at various low temperatures, as well as the influence of the presence or absence of deuterium ions in the suspending medium of the enzyme, on the global enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase have been studied. Frozen lactate dehydrogenase suspensions at 0 degC, -3 degC and -196 degC temperatures have been irradiated with the 5 MeV electron beam of a linear accelerator in the dose range 0-400 Gy. Liquid lactate dehydrogenase suspensions in D 2 O (99.98 %) and ultrapure water (17 ppm) at 0 degC have been irradiated in the dose range 0 -15 Gy. An exponential decrease was found in the enzymatic activity of irradiated lactate dehydrogenase, at all irradiation temperatures. The drastic decrease in the activity for the enzyme irradiated at 0 degC (total inhibition for a final dose of 100 Gy) indicate that at this temperature the indirect effects of radiation (due to the water radicals induced by radiation in the samples) are predominant. At -3 degC irradiation temperature the indirect effects of radiation are smaller but still present (a total decrease in the enzymatic activity for a dose of 250 Gy), while at -196 degC they are orders of magnitude reduced and the decrease in the enzymatic activity is due almost to the direct interaction of electrons with the macromolecules (70 % for a dose of 400 Gy)

  15. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized #betta#-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10 7 s - 1 ) of background-free polarized #betta# rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (δE = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV #betta# rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the #betta#-ray energy up to 700 MeV

  16. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

  17. A new Thomson Spectrometer for high energy laser-driven beams diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirrone, G A P; Tramontana, A; Candiano, G; Cavallaro, S; Cutroneo, M; Cuttone, G; Pisciotta, P; Romano, F; Schillaci, F; Scuderi, V; Torrisi, L; Carpinelli, M; Martinis, C De; Giove, D; Krása, J; Korn, G; Margarone, D; Prokůpek, J; Velyhan, A; Maggiore, M

    2014-01-01

    Thomson Spectrometers (TPs) are widely used for beam diagnostic as they provide simultaneous information on charge over mass ratio, energy and momentum of detected ions. A new TP design has been realized at INFN-LNS within the LILIA (Laser Induced Light Ion Acceleration) and ELIMED (MEDical application at ELI-Beamlines) projects. This paper reports on the construction details of the TP and on its experimental tests performed at PALS laboratory in Prague, with the ASTERIX IV laser system. Reported data are obtained with polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol solid targets, they have been compared with data obtained from other detectors. Consistency among results confirms the correct functioning of the new TP. The main features, characterizing the design, are a wide acceptance of the deflection sector and a tunability of the, partially overlapping, magnetic and electric fields that allow to resolve ions with energy up to about 40 MeV for protons

  18. A new approach to film dosimetry for high-energy photon beams using organic plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, I.J.; Wang, C.-K.C.; Burch, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Successful radiotherapy relies on accurate dose measurement. Traditional dosimeters such as ion chambers, TLDs and diodes have disadvantages such as relatively long measurement time and poor spatial resolution. These drawbacks become more serious problems for dynamic beams (i.e. with the use of dynamic wedges or even the intensity modulation technique). X-ray film, an integrating dosimeter, may not be associated with the above disadvantages and problems. However, there are several major issues regarding use of x-ray film for routine dosimetry, including the over-response of the film to low-energy photons, variations in the dose response curve (nonlinearity), lack of reproducibility due to variation in processing, etc. This paper addresses the first problem. That is, x-ray film over-responds to low-energy photons (energies below 400 keV), and thus generates unacceptably inaccurate dosimetric data compared with ion-chamber data. To overcome the over-response problem of x-ray film in a phantom, a scintillation method has been investigated. In this method, a film is sandwiched by two plastic scintillation screens to enhance the film response to upstream electrons, and therefore minimize the over-response caused by low-energy photons. The sandwiched system was tested with a 4 MV linac beam. The result shows that, depending on the uniformity of the scintillation screens, the depth-dose distribution obtained from the sandwich system can be made to agree well with that obtained from ion chambers. However, the required high degree of uniformity remains a challenge for the scintillation screen manufacturers. (author)

  19. An accurate energy-range relationship for high-energy electron beams in arbitrary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Brahme, A.

    1994-01-01

    A general analytical energy-range relationship has been derived to relate the practical range, R p to the most probable energy, E p , of incident electron beams in the range 1 to 50 MeV and above, for absorbers of any atomic number. In the present study only Monte Carlo data determined with the new ITS.3 code have been employed. The standard deviations of the mean deviation from the Monte Carlo data at any energy are about 0.10, 0.12, 0.04, 0.11, 0.04, 0.03, 0.02 mm for Be, C, H 2 O, Al, Cu, Ag and U, respectively, and the relative standard deviation of the mean is about 0.5% for all materials. The fitting program gives some priority to water-equivalent materials, which explains the low standard deviation for water. A small error in the fall-off slope can give a different value for R p . We describe a new method which reduces the uncertainty in the R p determination, by fitting an odd function to the descending portion of the depth-dose curve in order to accurately determine the tangent at the inflection point, and thereby the practical range. An approximate inverse relation is given expressing the most probable energy of an electron beam as a function of the practical range. The resultant relative standard error of the energy is less than 0.7%, and the maximum energy error ΔE p is less than 0.3 MeV. (author)

  20. MO-H-19A-01: FEATURED PRESENTATION - Treatment Planning Tool for Radiotherapy with Very High-Energy Electron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazalova, M; Qu, B; Palma, B; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Hynning, E; Hardemark, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a tool for treatment planning optimization for fast radiotherapy delivered with very high-energy electron beams (VHEE) and to compare VHEE plans to state-of-the-art plans for challenging pelvis and H'N cases. Methods: Treatment planning for radiotherapy delivered with VHEE scanning pencil beams was performed by integrating EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations with spot scanning optimization run in a research version of RayStation. A Matlab GUI for MC beamlet generation was developed, in which treatment parameters such as the pencil beam size and spacing, energy and number of beams can be selected. Treatment planning study for H'N and pelvis cases was performed and the effect of treatment parameters on the delivered dose distributions was evaluated and compared to the clinical treatment plans. The pelvis case with a 691cm3 PTV was treated with 2-arc 15MV VMAT and the H'N case with four PTVs with total volume of 531cm3 was treated with 4-arc 6MV VMAT. Results: Most studied VHEE plans outperformed VMAT plans. The best pelvis 80MeV VHEE plan with 25 beams resulted in 12% body dose sparing and 8% sparing to the bowel and right femur compared to the VMAT plan. The 100MeV plan was superior to the 150MeV plan. Mixing 100 and 150MeV improved dose sparing to the bladder by 7% compared to either plan. Plans with 16 and 36 beams did not significantly affect the dose distributions compared to 25 beam plans. The best H'N 100MeV VHEE plan decreased mean doses to the brainstem, chiasm, and both globes by 10-42% compared to the VMAT plan. Conclusion: The pelvis and H'N cases suggested that sixteen 100MeV beams might be sufficient specifications of a novel VHEE treatment machine. However, optimum machine parameters will be determined with the presented VHEE treatment-planning tool for a large number of clinical cases. BW Loo and P Maxim received research support from RaySearch Laboratories. E Hynning and B Hardemark are employees of

  1. Test study of boron nitride as a new detector material for dosimetry in high-energy photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D.; Halbur, J.; Lemmer, S.; Delfs, B.; Harder, D.; Looe, H. K.; Poppe, B.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this test study is to check whether boron nitride (BN) might be applied as a detector material in high-energy photon-beam dosimetry. Boron nitride exists in various crystalline forms. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses high mobility of the electrons and holes as well as a high volume resistivity, so that ionizing radiation in the clinical range of the dose rate can be expected to produce a measurable electrical current at low background current. Due to the low atomic numbers of its constituents, its density (2.0 g cm-3) similar to silicon and its commercial availability, h-BN appears as possibly suitable for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Five h-BN plates were contacted to triaxial cables, and the detector current was measured in a solid-state ionization chamber circuit at an applied voltage of 50 V. Basic dosimetric properties such as formation by pre-irradiation, sensitivity, reproducibility, linearity and temporal resolution were measured with 6 MV photon irradiation. Depth dose curves at quadratic field sizes of 10 cm and 40 cm were measured and compared to ionization chamber measurements. After a pre-irradiation with 6 Gy, the devices show a stable current signal at a given dose rate. The current-voltage characteristic up to 400 V shows an increase in the collection efficiency with the voltage. The time-resolved detector current behavior during beam interrupts is comparable to diamond material, and the background current is negligible. The measured percentage depth dose curves at 10 cm  ×  10 cm field size agreed with the results of ionization chamber measurements within  ±2%. This is a first study of boron nitride as a detector material for high-energy photon radiation. By current measurements on solid ionization chambers made from boron nitride chips we could demonstrate that boron nitride is in principle suitable as a detector material for high-energy photon-beam dosimetry.

  2. Optimization of laser parameters to obtain high-energy, high-quality electron beams through laser-plasma acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Sushil Arun; Sarkar, Deepangkar; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Jha, Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of an intense (a 0 =3), short-pulse (L∼λ p ) laser through a homogeneous plasma has been investigated. Using two-dimensional simulations for a 0 =3, the pulse-length and spot-size at three different plasma densities were optimized in order to get a better quality beam in laser wakefield accelerator. The study reveals that with increasing pulse-length the acceleration increases, but after a certain pulse-length (L>0.23λ p ) the emittance blows-up unacceptably. For spot-sizes less than that given by k p0 r s =2√(a 0 ), trapping is poor or nonexistent, and the optimal spot-size is larger. The deviation of the optimal spot-size from this formula increases as the density decreases. The efficacy of these two-dimensional simulations has been validated by running three-dimensional simulations at the highest density. It has been shown that good quality GeV-class beams can be obtained at plasma densities of ∼10 18 cm -3 . The quality of the beam can be substantially improved by selecting only the high-energy peak; in this fashion an energy-spread of better than 1% and a current in tens of kA can be achieved, which are important for applications such as free-electron lasers.

  3. A study on the influence of High-energy Electron Beam Irradiation on Stabilities of IGZO Based TTFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hye Ji; Oh, Hye Ran; Jung, So Hyun; Bae, Byung Seong; Yun, Eui Jung; Ryu, Min Ki; Cho, Kyoung Ik

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Ionizing has been used as an active layer in applications of transparent thin film transistors and the stabilities of TTFTs become the curricula issue. High-performance, stable IGZO-based TTFTsare also required in a high radiation environment, such as X-rays, gamma-rays, electron beams, etc., which suggests that studies on the variations in the electrical properties in a radiation environment are of critical importance for space applications of IGZO-based materials and devices. Hence, in this study we investigated the influence of high-energy electron beam irradiation on optical and gate-bias stabilities of IGZO-based TTFTs. The TTFTs has a top gate structure, which used IGZO and Al 2 O 3 films for the active layer and the gate dielectric, respectively. The W/L of the TTFTs was 10μm/10μm. The TTFTs were treated with Hubbub in air at room temperature at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and a dose for 1 Χ 10 14 electrons/cm 2 . We developed TTFTs with excellent device properties and conclude that the Hubbub can improve the stabilities of IGZO-based TTFTs

  4. Evaluation of eye shields made of tungsten and aluminum in high-energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Randi D.; Gerbi, Bruce J.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To protect the lens and cornea of the eye when treating the eyelid with electrons, we designed a tungsten and aluminum eye shield that protected both the lens and cornea, and also limited the amount of backscatter to the overlying eyelid when using electron beam therapy. Methods and Materials: Custom curved tungsten eye shields, 2 mm and 3 mm thick, were placed on Kodak XV film on 8 cm polystyrene and irradiated to evaluate the transmission through the shields. To simulate the thickness of the eyelid and to hold the micro-TLDs, an aquaplast mold was made to match the curvature of the eye shields. Backscatter was measured by placing the micro-TLDs on the beam entrance side to check the dose to the underside of the eyelid. Measurements were done with no aluminum, 0.5, and 1.0 mm of aluminum on top of the tungsten eye shields. The measurements were repeated with 2- and 3-mm flat pieces of lead to determine both the transmission and the backscatter dose for this material. Results: Tungsten proved to be superior to lead for shielding the underlying structures and for reducing backscatter. At 6 MeV, a 3-mm flat slab of tungsten plus 0.5 mm of aluminum, resulted in .042 Gy under the shield when 1.00 Gy is delivered to d max . At 6 MeV for a 3-mm lead plus 0.5-mm aluminum, .046 Gy was measured beneath the shield, a 9.5% decrease with the tungsten. Backscatter was also decreased from 1.17 to 1.13 Gy, a 4% decrease, when using tungsten plus 0.5 mm of aluminum vs. the same thickness of lead. Measurements using 9 MeV were performed in the same manner. With 3 mm tungsten and 0.5 mm of aluminum, at 3 mm depth the dose was .048 Gy compared to .079 Gy with lead and aluminum (39% decrease). Additionally, the backscatter dose was 3% less using tungsten. Simulating the lens dose 3 mm beyond the shield for the 2-mm and 3-mm custom curved tungsten eye shields plus 0.5 mm of aluminum was .030 and .024 Gy, respectively, using 6 MeV (20% decrease). Using 9-MeV electrons, the dose

  5. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  6. Degradation study of trichloroethylene and perchloric ethylene using high energy electron beam generated in industrial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, B.L.R.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Avolio, R.M.; Somessari, E.S.R.; Vieira, J.M.; Rela, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    The pollution of potable water with chlorinated hydrocarbons, mainly trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloric ethylene (PCE), is seriously increasing the problem of contamination of water, specially in highly industrialized areas. Recent studies show that depuration by ionizing radiation has been considered a possible alternative to the control of water pollution, wherein the process by ionizing radiation converts TCE and PCE into approximately 100% carbon dioxide ions. Water samples containing TCE e PCE were submitted to radiation in the pilot plant installed in the industrial electron accelerator at IPEN from Radiation Dynamics, Dynamitron II, of 1,5 MeV - 25 m A, with doses varying from 2 kGy to 8 kGy, being its parameters analyzed before and after irradiation TCE and PCE concentrations were determined by the gas chromatography method by liquid-liquid extraction using a gas chromatograph, model CG 90, with an electron capture detector. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  7. High-energy-beam welding of type 316LN stainless steel for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewert, T.A.; Gorni, D.; Kohn, G.

    1988-01-01

    Laser and electron beam welds in 25-mm-thick AISI 316LN specimens containing 0.16 wt.$% N were evaluated for fusion reactor applications and their mechanical properties were compared with those of welds generated by lower productivity processes such as shielded-metal-arc and gas-metal-arc welding. Tensile tests were performed on transverse tensile specimens at 4 K. For both welding processes the fractures occurred in the base metal at a strength level near 950 MPa. This indicated that the weld and heat affected zone had a strength similar to that of the base metal. The 4 K weld fracture toughness was only slightly less than that for the base metal and comparable to the best values achieved with conventional welding processes in 316Ln weld metal. The Charpy V-notch absorbed energies averaged near 70 J at 76 K. Metallographic analysis revealed cellular and fully austenitic solidification with little porosity and no evidence of hot cracking

  8. Dose-calculation algorithms in the context of inhomogeneity corrections for high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Niko; Stathakis, Sotirios

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy has witnessed a plethora of innovations and developments in the past 15 years. Since the introduction of computed tomography for treatment planning there has been a steady introduction of new methods to refine treatment delivery. Imaging continues to be an integral part of the planning, but also the delivery, of modern radiotherapy. However, all the efforts of image guided radiotherapy, intensity-modulated planning and delivery, adaptive radiotherapy, and everything else that we pride ourselves in having in the armamentarium can fall short, unless there is an accurate dose-calculation algorithm. The agreement between the calculated and delivered doses is of great significance in radiation therapy since the accuracy of the absorbed dose as prescribed determines the clinical outcome. Dose-calculation algorithms have evolved greatly over the years in an effort to be more inclusive of the effects that govern the true radiation transport through the human body. In this Vision 20/20 paper, we look back to see how it all started and where things are now in terms of dose algorithms for photon beams and the inclusion of tissue heterogeneities. Convolution-superposition algorithms have dominated the treatment planning industry for the past few years. Monte Carlo techniques have an inherent accuracy that is superior to any other algorithm and as such will continue to be the gold standard, along with measurements, and maybe one day will be the algorithm of choice for all particle treatment planning in radiation therapy.

  9. MTBE and priority contaminant treatment with high energy electron beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, William J; Nickelsen, Michael G; Mezyk, Stephen P; Leslie, Greg; Tornatore, Paul M; Hardison, Wayne; Hajali, Paris A

    2002-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and 15 other organic compounds, as well as perchlorate ion, in waters of different quality. The 15 organic compounds consisted of halogenated solvents (chlorination), disinfection by-products, pesticides, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). These studies were conducted using a pilot scale 20 kW mobile electron beam system at Water Factory 21, Orange County, CA where wastewater is treated and re-injected into the ground as a barrier to salt water intrusion. Future applications for this treated water include water reuse. Ground water and treated wastewater, after having gone through a reverse osmosis-polishing step (RO permeate), were used to prepare mixtures of the compounds. Using fundamental radiation chemistry, it was possible to examine the factors effecting removal efficiency of all the compounds as well as MTBE destruction and reaction by-product formation and removal. All of the organic compounds were destroyed in the studies and we also observed the destruction of perchlorate ion in one of the waters.

  10. MTBE and priority contaminant treatment with high energy electron beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Leslie, Greg; Tornatore, Paul M.; Hardison, Wayne; Hajali, Paris A.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and 15 other organic compounds, as well as perchlorate ion, in waters of different quality. The 15 organic compounds consisted of halogenated solvents (chlorination), disinfection by-products, pesticides, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). These studies were conducted using a pilot scale 20 kW mobile electron beam system at Water Factory 21, Orange County, CA where wastewater is treated and re-injected into the ground as a barrier to salt water intrusion. Future applications for this treated water include water reuse. Ground water and treated wastewater, after having gone through a reverse osmosis-polishing step (RO permeate), were used to prepare mixtures of the compounds. Using fundamental radiation chemistry, it was possible to examine the factors effecting removal efficiency of all the compounds as well as MTBE destruction and reaction by-product formation and removal. All of the organic compounds were destroyed in the studies and we also observed the destruction of perchlorate ion in one of the waters

  11. Measurement of the primary and scatter dose in high energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, P M [Catharina Ziekenhuis, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Radiotherapy Dept.; Tiourina, T B; Dries, W

    1995-12-01

    A method is presented to measure the primary and scatter components separately in a water tank using a small cylindrical absorber. Results from this experiment are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The measurement setup consists of a small cylindrical absorber placed on a central axis of the beam a few centimetres above the radiation detector. Both absorber and detector move along the central axis while absorbed dose is registered. As the primary radiation is fully blocked, only scatter component is measured when a cylindrical absorber is used. Measurements in open fields result in the total absorbed dose being the sum of primary and scatter components. The primary dose component can be derived by substraction. Absorbers with different diameters are used. With decreasing dimensions the relative contribution of the dose due to scatter radiation increases. A steep increase is observed when the range of laterally scattered electrons becomes comparable with the radius of the absorber. Two different Monte Carlo simulations have been performed: with and without secondary electron transport. The data obtained for the former case perfectly agrees with the experiment. The situation where the secondary electron is assumed zero (i.e. local energy deposition) simulates the Cunningham model. Our results show that the Cunningham model predicts lower scatter component under the block edge which can be important for these applications.

  12. Design and synthesis of polymer, carbon and composite electrodes for high energy and high power supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila Velez, Margarita Rosa

    ordered structure of the VACNTs showed superior performance compared to randomly oriented CNTs. To increase the energy density, the second approach was taken, by combining pre-synthesized conducting polymers (CPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a facile scalable dispersion filtration method to produce free-standing electrodes. Composites with the three main CPs were prepared, analyzed in various electrolytes, and their performance was comparable with polymer/ CNT films prepared with more complex techniques such as in-situ polymerization and pellet pressing. Then, based on the idea that the quinone molecules present in lignin store charge by undergoing a 2 proton, 2 electron redox reaction, a composite between polypyrrole, a stable conducting polymer, and the prototypical molecule p-benzoquinone was fabricated by electropolymerization of pyrrole in the presence of the redox molecule. A significant increase in capacitance and capacity was obtained with respect to polypyrrole films. Furthermore, an important obstacle in the application of CPs in SCs is the lack of easily reduced (n-dopable) polymers. Poly(aminoanthraquinone) (PAQ) is a conjugated polymer that shows electroactivity in the negative potential range of 0 to -2 V, due to the redox moieties of the polymer. PAQ was electropolymerized on free-standing CNT films and its performance as anode for SCs was studied. The materials and processing techniques described in this dissertation are useful to further develop high power/high energy electrodes for SCs.

  13. Carbon Fiber Damage in Accelerator Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Guerrero, A; Koopman, J; Métral, E

    2009-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in Beam Wire Scanners. Because of their thermomechanical properties they are very resistant to particle beams. Their strength deteriorates with time due to radiation damage and low-cycle thermal fatigue. In case of high intensity beams this process can accelerate and in extreme cases the fiber is damaged during a single scan. In this work a model describing the fiber temperature, thermionic emission and sublimation is discussed. Results are compared with fiber damage test performed on SPS beam in November 2008. In conclusions the limits of Wire Scanner operation on high intensity beams are drawn.

  14. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of 2s l/2 -2p 3/2 electric dipole and 2p 1/2 -2p 3/2 magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U 82+ through U 89+ have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer -39.21 ± 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s 1/2 -2p 3/2 transition energy of lithiumlike U 89+ . A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell

  15. Fabrication and characterization of microcavity lasers in rhodamine B doped SU8 using high energy proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal Rao, S.; Bettiol, A. A.; Vishnubhatla, K. C.; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Narayana Rao, D.; Watt, F.

    2007-03-01

    The authors present their results on the characterization of individual dye-doped microcavity polymer lasers fabricated using a high energy proton beam. The lasers were fabricated in rhodamine B doped SU8 resist with a single exposure step followed by chemical processing. The resulting trapezoidal shaped cavities had dimensions of ˜250×250μm2. Physical characterization of these structures was performed using a scanning electron microscope while the optical characterization was carried out by recording the emission subsequent to pumping the lasers with 532nm, 6 nanosecond pulses. The authors observed intense, narrow emission near 624nm with the best emission linewidth full width at half maximum of ˜9nm and a threshold ˜150μJ/mm2.

  16. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-01

    High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  17. Improving the neutron-to-photon discrimination capability of detectors used for neutron dosimetry in high energy photon beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irazola, L.; Terrón, J.A.; Bedogni, R; Pola, A.; Lorenzoli, M.; Sánchez-Nieto, B.; Gómez, F.; Sánchez-Doblado, F.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest of the medical community to radioinduced second malignancies due to photoneutrons in patients undergoing high-energy radiotherapy, has stimulated in recent years the study of peripheral doses, including the development of some dedicated active detectors. Although these devices are designed to respond to neutrons only, their parasitic photon response is usually not identically zero and anisotropic. The impact of these facts on measurement accuracy can be important, especially in points close to the photon field-edge. A simple method to estimate the photon contribution to detector readings is to cover it with a thermal neutron absorber with reduced secondary photon emission, such as a borated rubber. This technique was applied to the TNRD (Thermal Neutron Rate Detector), recently validated for thermal neutron measurements in high-energy photon radiotherapy. The positive results, together with the accessibility of the method, encourage its application to other detectors and different clinical scenarios. - Highlights: • Neutron-to-photon discrimination of a thermal neutron detector used in radiotherapy. • Photon and anisotropic response study with distance and beam incidence of thermal neutron detector. • Borated rubber for estimating photon contribution in any thermal neutron detector.

  18. Measurements of the Influence of Thermoplastic Mask in High Energy Photon Beams: Gel Dosimeter or Ionizing Chamber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, M. V.; Petchevist, C. D.; de Almeida, A.

    2009-12-01

    The influence of the immobilization mask material on the absorbed dose distribution in patients exposed to radiotherapy treatment with photon beams has been investigated for photons from a 60Co source and a 6 MV Linac. Absorbed dose values have been inferred at different depths and in the build-up region. Dose measurements were obtained using Fricke Xylenol Gel dosimeter and the cylindrical PTW Freiburg TM 31016-0.016 cc ionizing micro chamber; their discrepancies are discussed. The affinities of FXG and PTW ICMicro for measurements with high energy photons and the difference in the effective atomic numbers due to their compositions are most likely the most important factors that contribute to the measured dose in the build-up region. The measured values show that the use of the mask material contributes to increase the absorbed doses near the surface of the tissue. The result also shows that the build-up effect for 60Co is significantly smaller than that for 6 MV photons; however, the variations noted in the final doses of the radiotherapic treatments with photons of high energy do not represent alterations in the total doses received by the patients submitted to the radiotherapy.

  19. Treatment planning for radiotherapy with very high-energy electron beams and comparison of VHEE and VMAT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Qu, Bradley; Palma, Bianey; Jensen, Christopher; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Hårdemark, Björn; Hynning, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a treatment planning workflow for rapid radiotherapy delivered with very high-energy electron (VHEE) scanning pencil beams of 60–120 MeV and to study VHEE plans as a function of VHEE treatment parameters. Additionally, VHEE plans were compared to clinical state-of-the-art volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) photon plans for three cases. Methods: VHEE radiotherapy treatment planning was performed by linking EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations with inverse treatment planning in a research version of RayStation. In order to study the effect of VHEE treatment parameters on VHEE dose distributions, a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) for calculation of VHEE MC pencil beam doses was developed. Through the GUI, pediatric case MC simulations were run for a number of beam energies (60, 80, 100, and 120 MeV), number of beams (13, 17, and 36), pencil beam spot (0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 mm) and grid (2.0, 2.5, and 3.5 mm) sizes, and source-to-axis distance, SAD (40 and 50 cm). VHEE plans for the pediatric case calculated with the different treatment parameters were optimized and compared. Furthermore, 100 MeV VHEE plans for the pediatric case, a lung, and a prostate case were calculated and compared to the clinically delivered VMAT plans. All plans were normalized such that the 100% isodose line covered 95% of the target volume. Results: VHEE beam energy had the largest effect on the quality of dose distributions of the pediatric case. For the same target dose, the mean doses to organs at risk (OARs) decreased by 5%–16% when planned with 100 MeV compared to 60 MeV, but there was no further improvement in the 120 MeV plan. VHEE plans calculated with 36 beams outperformed plans calculated with 13 and 17 beams, but to a more modest degree (<8%). While pencil beam spacing and SAD had a small effect on VHEE dose distributions, 0.1–3 mm pencil beam sizes resulted in identical dose distributions. For the 100 MeV VHEE pediatric

  20. Investigation and optimization of transverse non-linear beam dynamics in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Dominic Markus

    2010-03-10

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is part of the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is planned as a major extension to the present facility of the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The HESR will provide antiprotons in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c for the internal target experiment PANDA. The demanding requirements of PANDA in terms of beam quality and luminosity together with a limited production rate of antiprotons call for a long beam life time and a minimum of beam loss. Therefore, an effective closed orbit correction and a sufficiently large dynamic aperture of the HESR are crucial. With this thesis I present my work on both of these topics. The expected misalignments of beam guiding magnets have been estimated and used to simulate the closed orbit in the HESR. A closed orbit correction scheme has been developed for different ion optical settings of the HESR and numerical simulations have been performed to validate the scheme. The proposed closed orbit correction method which uses the orbit response matrix has been benchmarked at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. A chromaticity correction scheme for the HESR consisting of sextupole magnets has been developed to reduce tune spread and thus to minimize the emittance growth caused by betatron resonances. The chromaticity correction scheme has been optimized through dynamic aperture calculations. The estimated field errors of the HESR dipole and quadrupole magnets have been included in the non-linear beam dynamics studies. Investigations concerning their optimization have been carried out. The ion optical settings of the HESR have been improved using dynamic aperture calculations and the technique of frequency map analysis. The related diffusion coefficient was also used to predict long-term stability based on short-term particle tracking. With a reasonable reduction of the quadrupole magnets field errors and a

  1. Analysis of pixel systematics and space point reconstruction with DEPFET PXD5 matrices using high energy beam test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuen, Lars

    2011-02-15

    To answer the current questions in particle physics vertex-detectors, the innermost sub-detector system of a multipurpose particle detector, with brilliant spatial resolution and at the same time with as little sensor material as possible are mandatory. These requirements are the driving force behind the newest generation of silicon pixel sensors like the DEPFET pixel, which incorporates the first amplification stage in form of a transistor in the fully depleted sensor bulk, allowing for a high spatial resolution even with thinned down sensors. A DEPFET pixel prototype system, build for the future TeV-scale liner collider ILC, was characterized in a high energy beam test at CERN with a spatial resolution and statistics that allowed for the first time in-pixel homogeneity measurements of DEPFET pixels. Yet, in the quest for higher precision the sensor development must be accompanied by progress in position reconstruction algorithms. A study with three novel approaches in position reconstruction was undertaken. The results of the in-pixel beam test and the performance of the new methods with an emphasis on {delta}-electrons will be presented here. (orig.)

  2. Effect of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the transmittance of ZnO thin films on transparent substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Eui-Jung; Jung, Jin-Woo; Han, Young-Hwan; Kim, Min-Wan; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2010-01-01

    We investigated in this study the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation (HEEBI) on the optical transmittance of undoped ZnO films grown on transparent substrates, such as corning glass and polyethersulfone (PES) plastic substrates, with a radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering technique. The ZnO thin films were treated with HEEBI in air at RT with an electron beam energy of 1 MeV and doses of 4.7 x 10 14 - 4.7 x 10 16 electrons/cm 2 . The optical transmittance of the ZnO films was measured using an ultraviolet visible near-infrared spectrophotometer. The detailed estimation process for separating the transmittance of HEEBI-treated ZnO films from the total transmittance of ZnO films on transparent substrates treated with HEEBI is given in this paper. We concluded that HEEBI causes a slight suppression in the optical transmittance of ZnO thin films. We also concluded that HEEBI treatment with a high dose shifted the optical band gap (E g ) toward the lower energy region from 3.29 to 3.28 eV whereas that with a low dose unchanged E g at 3.25 eV. This shift suggested that HEEBI at RT at a high dose acts like an annealing treatment at high temperature.

  3. High energy density physics effects predicted in simulations of the CERN HiRadMat beam-target interaction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments have been done at the CERN HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials) facility in which large cylindrical copper targets were irradiated with 440 GeV proton beam generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The primary purpose of these experiments was to confirm the existence of hydrodynamic tunneling of ultra-relativistic protons and their hadronic shower in solid materials, that was predicted by previous numerical simulations. The experimental measurements have shown very good agreement with the simulation results. This provides confidence in our simulations of the interaction of the 7 TeV LHC (Large Hadron Collider) protons and the 50 TeV Future Circular Collider (FCC) protons with solid materials, respectively. This work is important from the machine protection point of view. The numerical simulations have also shown that in the HiRadMat experiments, a significant part of thetarget material is be converted into different phases of High Energy Density (HED) matter, including two-phase solid-liquid mixture, expanded as well as compressed hot liquid phases, two-phase liquid-gas mixture and gaseous state. The HiRadMat facility is therefore a unique ion beam facility worldwide that is currently available for studying the thermophysical properties of HED matter. In the present paper we discuss the numerical simulation results and present a comparison with the experimental measurements.

  4. Analysis of pixel systematics and space point reconstruction with DEPFET PXD5 matrices using high energy beam test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuen, Lars

    2011-02-01

    To answer the current questions in particle physics vertex-detectors, the innermost sub-detector system of a multipurpose particle detector, with brilliant spatial resolution and at the same time with as little sensor material as possible are mandatory. These requirements are the driving force behind the newest generation of silicon pixel sensors like the DEPFET pixel, which incorporates the first amplification stage in form of a transistor in the fully depleted sensor bulk, allowing for a high spatial resolution even with thinned down sensors. A DEPFET pixel prototype system, build for the future TeV-scale liner collider ILC, was characterized in a high energy beam test at CERN with a spatial resolution and statistics that allowed for the first time in-pixel homogeneity measurements of DEPFET pixels. Yet, in the quest for higher precision the sensor development must be accompanied by progress in position reconstruction algorithms. A study with three novel approaches in position reconstruction was undertaken. The results of the in-pixel beam test and the performance of the new methods with an emphasis on δ-electrons will be presented here. (orig.)

  5. Highly efficient generation of ultraintense high-energy ion beams using laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Raczka, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Euratom Association, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-08-20

    Results of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of fast ion generation in the recently proposed laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) scheme in which a picosecond circularly polarized laser pulse of intensity {approx}10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} irradiates a carbon target placed in a cavity are presented. It is shown that due to circulation of the laser pulse in the cavity, the laser-ions energy conversion efficiency in the LICPA scheme is more than twice as high as that for the conventional (without a cavity) radiation pressure acceleration scheme and a quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beam of the mean ion energy {approx}0.5 GeV and the energy fluence {approx}0.5 GJ/cm{sup 2} is produced with the efficiency {approx}40%. The results of PIC simulations are found to be in fairly good agreement with the predictions of the generalized light-sail model.

  6. Calibration of BAS-TR image plate response to high energy (3-300 MeV) carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Fernandez, J.; Cerchez, M.; Gray, R. J.; Hanton, F.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Neely, D.; Romagnani, L.; Ruiz, J. A.; Sarri, G.; Scullion, C.; Streeter, M.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the calibration of Fuji BAS-TR image plate (IP) response to high energy carbon ions of different charge states by employing an intense laser-driven ion source, which allowed access to carbon energies up to 270 MeV. The calibration method consists of employing a Thomson parabola spectrometer to separate and spectrally resolve different ion species, and a slotted CR-39 solid state detector overlayed onto an image plate for an absolute calibration of the IP signal. An empirical response function was obtained which can be reasonably extrapolated to higher ion energies. The experimental data also show that the IP response is independent of ion charge states.

  7. The relative biological effectiveness of a high energy neutron beam for micronuclei induction in T-lymphocytes of different individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabbert, J.P., E-mail: jps@tlabs.ac.z [NRF iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerated Based Sciences), Somerset West (South Africa); Dept. of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, University of Stellenbosch (South Africa); August, L. [NRF iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerated Based Sciences), Somerset West (South Africa); Vral, A. [Dept. of Basic Medical Sciences, Ghent University (Belgium); Symons, J. [NRF iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerated Based Sciences), Somerset West (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    In assessing the radiation risk of personnel exposed to cosmic radiation fields as it pertains to radiological damage during travel in civilian aircrafts, it is particularly important to know the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for high energy neutrons. It has been the subject of numerous investigations in recent years using different neutron energies and cytogenetic examinations. Variations in the radiosensitivity of white blood cells for different individuals are likely to influence the estimate of the relative biological effectiveness for high energy neutrons. This as such observations have been noted in the response of different cancer cell lines with varying inherent sensitivities. In this work the radiosensitivities of T-lymphocytes of different individuals to the p(66)/Be neutron beam at iThemba LABS were measured using micronuclei formations and compared to that noted following exposure to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The principle objective of this investigation was to establish if a relationship between neutron RBE and variation in biological response to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays for lymphocytes from different individuals could be determined. Peripheral blood samples were collected from four healthy donors and isolated lymphocytes were exposed to different doses of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (1-5 Gy) and p(66)/Be neutrons (0.5-2.5 Gy). One sample per donor was not exposed to radiation and served as a control. Lymphocytes were stimulated using PHA and cultured to induce micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked cells. Micronuclei yields were numerated using fluorescent microscopy. Radiosensitivities and RBE values were calculated from the fitted parameters describing the micronuclei frequency dose response data. Dissimilar dose response curves for different donors were observed reflecting varying inherent sensitivities to both neutron and gamma radiation. A clear reduction in the dose limiting RBE{sub M} is noted for donors with lymphocytes more sensitive to

  8. Very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams in radiation therapy; Treatment plan comparison between VHEE, VMAT, and PPBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Emil; Eriksson, Kjell; Hynning, Elin; Hancock, Steven L; Hiniker, Susan M; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Wong, Tony; Le, Quynh-Thu; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of very high-energy electron beams (VHEE) in comparison to clinically derived treatment plans generated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil beam scanning (PPBS) technology. We developed a custom optimization script that could be applied automatically across modalities to eliminate operator bias during IMRT optimization. Four clinical cases were selected (prostate cancer, lung cancer, pediatric brain tumor, and head and neck cancer (HNC)). The VHEE beams were calculated in the EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo code for 100 and 200 MeV beams. Treatment plans with VHEE, VMAT, and PPBS were optimized in a research version of RayStation using an in-house developed script to minimize operator bias between the different techniques. The in-house developed script generated similar or superior plans to the clinically used plans. In the comparisons between the modalities, the integral dose was lowest for the PPBS-generated plans in all cases. For the prostate case, the 200 MeV VHEE plan showed reduced integral dose and reduced organ at risk (OAR) dose compared to the VMAT plan. For all other cases, both the 100 and the 200 MeV VHEE plans were superior to the VMAT plans, and the VHEE plans showed better conformity and lower spinal cord dose in the pediatric brain case and lower brain stem dose in the HNC case when compared to the PPBS plan. The automated optimization developed in this study generated similar or superior plans as compared to the clinically used plan and represents an unbiased approach to compare treatment plans generated for different modalities. In the present study, we also show that VHEE plans are similar or superior to VMAT plans with reduced mean OAR dose and increased target conformity for a variety of clinical cases, and VHEE plans can even achieve reductions in OAR doses compared to PPBS plans for shallow targets. With increased VHEE energy, better conformity and even higher

  9. Activated Biomass-derived Graphene-based Carbons for Supercapacitors with High Energy and Power Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, SungHoon; Myung, Yusik; Kim, Bit Na; Kim, In Gyoo; You, In-Kyu; Kim, TaeYoung

    2018-01-30

    Here, we present a facile and low-cost method to produce hierarchically porous graphene-based carbons from a biomass source. Three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based carbons were produced through continuous sequential steps such as the formation and transformation of glucose-based polymers into 3D foam-like structures and their subsequent carbonization to form the corresponding macroporous carbons with thin graphene-based carbon walls of macropores and intersectional carbon skeletons. Physical and chemical activation was then performed on this carbon to create micro- and meso-pores, thereby producing hierarchically porous biomass-derived graphene-based carbons with a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of 3,657 m 2  g -1 . Owing to its exceptionally high surface area, interconnected hierarchical pore networks, and a high degree of graphitization, this carbon exhibited a high specific capacitance of 175 F g -1 in ionic liquid electrolyte. A supercapacitor constructed with this carbon yielded a maximum energy density of 74 Wh kg -1 and a maximum power density of 408 kW kg -1 , based on the total mass of electrodes, which is comparable to those of the state-of-the-art graphene-based carbons. This approach holds promise for the low-cost and readily scalable production of high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  10. High-energy electron beam irradiation of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Eui-Jung; Jung, Jin-Woo; Hwang, Jong-Ha; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Jung, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we demonstrated the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation (HEEBI) on the optical and structural properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films grown on transparent corning glass substrates at room temperature (RT) by using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The AZO thin films were treated with HEEBI in air at RT at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and doses of 1 x 10 14 - 1 x 10 16 electrons/cm 2 . The photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the dominant peak at 2.77 eV was a blue emission originating from donor-like defects, oxygen vacancies (V o ), suggesting that the n-type conductivity was preserved in HEEBI-treated films. On the basis of PL, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, we suggest that the density of V o donor defects is decreased due to in-diffusion of oxygen from the ambient into the films after HEEBI treatment at low doses up to 10 15 electrons/cm 2 while the opposite phenomenon can occur with further increase in the dose. We also found from the XRD analysis that the worse crystallinity with a smaller grain size was observed in HEEBI-treated AZO films at a higher dose, corresponding to a higher oxygen fraction in the films. We believe that our results will contribute to developing high-quality AZO-based materials and devices for space applications.

  11. Effect of high-energy electron beam irradiation on the device characteristics of IGZO-based transparent thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hye Ji; Oh, Hye Ran; Bae, Byung Seong; Yun, Eui Jung; Ryu, Min Ki; Cho, Kyoung Ik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation (HEEBI) on the device properties of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO)-based transparent thin film transistors (TTFTs). The developed TTFTs had a top gate structure, which used IGZO and Al 2 O 3 films for the active layer and the gate dielectric, respectively. The developed TTFTs were treated with HEEBI in air at RT at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and a dose of 1 x 10 14 electrons/cm 2 . Without the HEEBI treatment, the devices operated in depletion mode with a threshold voltage (V th ) of -11.25 V, a field-effect mobility (μ FE ) of 8.71 cm 2 /Vs, an on-off ratio (I on/off ) of 1.3 x 10 8 and a sub-threshold slope (SS) of 0.3 V/decade. A huge positive-shifted V th of -1 V, a very high μ FE of 420 cm 2 /Vs, a high I on/off of 6.1 x 10 8 , and a lower SS of 0.25 V/decade were achieved for the HEEBI-treated devices, suggesting that the device characteristics of the developed TTFTs were significantly improved by the HEEBI treatment. The best device characteristics, which include I on/off of 8.1 x 10 8 , SS of 0.25 V/decade, V th of +1 V, μ FE of 8.8 cm 2 /Vs, and operation in the enhancement mode without aging, were obtained for the samples that had been annealed after HEEBI treatment. On the basis of the experimental results, we believe that HEEBI treatment can be crucial to develop IGZO-based TFTs with high performance and long-term reliability.

  12. Estimation of deep, eye lens and skin doses for high energy electron beams for dosimetry and protection purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reena Kumari; Rakesh, R.B.

    2018-01-01

    In the radiological protection especially for individual as well as area monitoring, it is generally considered that beta sources deposit skin and eye lens doses only as they do not have enough energy for depositing doses at 10 mm depth. Also, the skin and eye lens doses differ substantially due to attenuation of beta particles at 0.07 mm (skin) and 3 mm (eye lens) depths and the surface doses are always greater than eye lens doses even for the highest energy beta source used in brachytherapy applications. However, worldwide increase in the use of high energy electron accelerators, new challenges are being posed for radiological protection and the operational quantities defined previously by ICRU are being reviewed. In view of these developments, studies have been performed for different electron beams in the energy range from (4 - 20) MeV generated using a medical linear accelerator. The aim of the study is to measure doses deposited at various depths as defined by ICRU 39 for individual and area monitoring purposes

  13. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008–2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  14. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, J., E-mail: julianna.szabo@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Palfalvi, J.K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  15. Applications of High Energy Ion Beam Techniques in Environmental Science: Investigation Associated with Glass and Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Shutthanandan, V; Zhang, Yanwen

    2006-02-01

    High energy ion beam capabilities including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) have been very effectively used in environmental science to investigate the ion exchange mechanisms in glass waste forms and the effects of irradiation in glass and ceramic waste forms in the past. In this study, RBS and NRA along with SIMNRA simulations were used to monitor the Na depletion and D and 18O uptake in alumina silicate glasses, respectively, after the glass coupons were exposed to aqueous solution. These results show that the formation of a reaction layer and an establishment of a region where diffusion limited ion exchange occur in these glasses during exposure to silica-saturated solutions. Different regions including reaction and diffusion regions were identified on the basis of the depth distributions of these elements. In the case of ceramics, damage accumulation was studied as a function of ion dose at different irradiation temperatures. A sigmoidal dependence of relative disorder on the ion dose was observed. The defect dechanneling factors were calculated for two irradiated regions in SrTiO? using the critical angles determined from the angular yield curves. The dependence of defect dechanneling parameter on the incident energy was investigated and it was observed that the generated defects are mostly interstitial atoms and amorphous clusters. Thermal recovery experiments were performed to study the damage recovery processes up to a maximum temperature of 870 K.

  16. Coherent bremsstrahlung in crystals as a tool for producing high energy photon beams to be used in photoproduction experiments at CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilokon, H; D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati); Bologna, G; Picchi, P [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati); Celani, F; Falcioni, R [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1983-01-01

    We recall the properties of coherent bremsstrahlung of high energy electrons in single crystals and show that a suitably oriented diamond crystal can produce a high energy bremsstrahlung beam whose quasimonochromatic spectral composition may be exploited for increasing the production rate in a photoproduction experiment at hundreds of GeV. A careful analysis of the required angular resolutions is performed. It turns out that the standard deviation of the electron beam angular divergence in one plane should be less than 0.3 mrad, for a beam energy of 150 GeV. The standard deviation in the perpendicular plane is not critical. In this situation the photoproduction rate in a typical case is increased by a factor of about 3 with respect to the conventional bremsstrahlung beam.

  17. Carbon beams, production and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmont M, E.

    1979-01-01

    Installation, test and working conditions of a new negative-ion facility of the Salazar EN tandem are briefly described. Carbon is the material used for the test and the heavy ion stripping phenomenon is reviewed. (author)

  18. Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

  19. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Jianyue [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  20. Use of high energy ball milling to study the role of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes reinforced magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Jianyue; Asif, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (few layer graphene) and carbon nanotubes were used as reinforcement fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy through high energy ball milling, sintering, and hot extrusion techniques. Experimental results revealed that tensile fracture strain of AZ31 magnesium alloy was enhanced by +49.6% with 0.3 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets compared to −8.3% regression for 0.3 wt.% carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of AZ31 magnesium alloy was decreased (−11.2%) with graphene nanoplatelets addition, while increased (+7.7%) with carbon nanotubes addition. Unlike tensile test, compression tests showed different trend. The compression strength of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was +51.2% greater than AZ31 magnesium alloy as compared to +0.6% increase for graphene nanoplatelets. The compressive fracture strain of carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composite was decreased (−14.1%) while no significant change in fracture strain of graphene nanoplatelets-AZ31 composite was observed. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that addition of reinforcement particles weaken the basal textures which affect the composite's yield asymmetry. Microstructure evaluation revealed the absence of intermetallic phase formation between reinforcements and matrix. The carbon reinforcements in AZ31 magnesium alloy dissolve and isolate β phases throughout the matrix. The increased fracture strain and mechanical strength of graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes-AZ31 composites are attributed to large specific surface area of graphene nanoplatelets and stiffer nature of carbon nanotubes respectively. - Highlights: • Powder metallurgy method was used to fabricate magnesium composites. • The AZ31-carbon materials composite were blended using ball milling. • The reinforcement particles weaken the basal texture which affects yield asymmetry of composites. • AZ31-graphene nanoplatelets composite exhibited impressive increase in tensile elongation

  1. SU-E-T-608: Perturbation Corrections for Alanine Dosimeters in Different Phantom Materials in High-Energy Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigts-Rhetz, P von; Czarnecki, D; Anton, M; Zink, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Alanine dosimeters are often used for in-vivo dosimetry purposes in radiation therapy. In a Monte Carlo study the influence of 20 different surrounding/phantom materials for alanine dosimeters was investigated. The investigations were performed in high-energy photon beams, covering the whole range from 60 Co up to 25 MV-X. The aim of the study is the introduction of a perturbation correction k env for alanine dosimeters accounting for the environmental material. Methods: The influence of different surrounding materials on the response of alanine dosimeters was investigated with Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc code. The photon source was adapted with BEAMnrc to a 60 Co unit and an Elekta (E nom =6, 10, 25 MV-X) linear accelerator. Different tissue-equivalent materials ranging from cortical bone to lung were investigated. In addition to available phantom materials, some material compositions were taken and scaled to different electron densities. The depth of the alanine detectors within the different phantom materials corresponds to 5 cm depth in water, i.e. the depth is scaled according to the electron density (n e /n e,w ) of the corresponding phantom material. The dose was scored within the detector volume once for an alanine/paraffin mixture and once for a liquid water voxel. The relative response, the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water, was calculated and compared to the corresponding ratio under reference conditions. Results: For each beam quality the relative response r and the correction factor for the environment kenv was calculated. k env =0.9991+0.0049 *((n e /n e,w )−0.7659) 3 Conclusion: A perturbation correction factor k env accounting for the phantom environment has been introduced. The response of the alanine dosimeter can be considered independent of the surrounding material for relative electron densities (n e /n e,w ) between 1 and 1.4. For denser materials such as bone or much less dense

  2. SU-E-T-267: Development of the Compact Graphite Calorimetry System for the High Energy Photon Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, J. H.; Yi, C. Y. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Graphite calorimeter systems are used for the absolute photon dosimetry. But many electronics are demanded in order to measure the tiny temperature changes. Minimizing the control system is needed to make a portable graphite calorimeter. Methods: A Domen-type graphite calorimetry system is constructing to measure the absorbed dose of the high energy photon beam. The graphite calorimeter divided into three parts, Core, Jacket, and Shield. In order to measure the temperature rising of the core due to the radiation accurately, the temperatures of the jacket and the shield should be controlled properly. A commercial temperature controller (Model 350, Lake Shore Cryogenics) was used to minimize the size of control system for making a portable graphite calorimetry system at the cost of the measurement uncertainty. The PID control of the jacket is conducted by the software (LabView) and Model 350 maintain the temperature of shield. Results: Our design value of the heat deposition power in the core is 0.04 mW for the dose rate of 3 Gy/min where the temperature sensitivity of the graphite is 1.4 mK/Gy. While the residuals of the Steinhart-hart equation fitting for the core thermistor were less than 0.1 mK, the temperature resolution of Model 350 is 1 mK. The temperature of the shield was kept within the 5 mK when the room temperature variation was about 0.5 K. Conclusion: The resolution of Model 350 for the temperature measurement and control is not good enough as the control system for the compact graphite calorimetry system. But The performance of Model 350 is good enough to maintain the temperature of the shield constantly. The Model 350 will be replaced by the AC resistance bridge (Model 372, Lake Shore Cryogenics) for the core temperature measurement and the jacket control.

  3. Arcing and rf signal generation during target irradiation by a high-energy, pulsed neutral particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robiscoe, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    We present a theory describing the dynamics of arc discharges in bulk dielectric materials on board space-based vehicles. Such ''punch-through'' arcs can occur in target satellites irradiated by high-energy (250 MeV), pulsed (100 mA x 10 ms) neutral particle beams. We treat the arc as a capacitively limited avalanche current in the target dielectric material, and we find expressions for the arc duration, charge transport, currents, and discharge energy. These quantities are adjusted to be consistent with known scaling laws for the area of charge depleted by the arc. After a brief account of the statistical distribution of voltages at which the arc starts and stops, we calculate the signal strength and frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation broadcast by the arc. We find that arcs from thick (/similar to/1 cm) targets can generate rf signals detectable up to 1000 km from the target, bu a radio receiver operating at frequency 80 MHz, bandwidth 100 kHz, and detection threshold -105 dBm. These thick-target arc signals are 10 to 20 dB above ambient noise at the receiver, and they provide target hit assessment if the signal spectrum can be sampled at several frequencies in the nominal range 30-200 MHz. Thin-target (/similar to/1 mm) arc signals are much weaker, but when they are detecable in conjunction with thick-target signals, target discrimination is possible by comparing the signal frequency spectra. 24 refs., 12 figs

  4. A high-energy double-crystal fixed exit monochromator for the X17 superconducting wiggler beam line at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Oversluizen, T.; Lenhard, A.; Berman, L.E.; Chapman, L.D.; Stoeber, W.

    1992-01-01

    A high-energy double-crystal x-ray monochromator has been constructed for use on the X-17 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Its design is based on the ''boomerang'' right angle linkage, and features a fixed exit beam, a cooled first crystal, and an energy range of 8--92 keV. The entire mechanism is UHV compatible. The design is described and performance details, obtained in testing at the X17 beam line, are presented

  5. High-energy neutron yields in interactions of carbon ions with 114Sn and 124Sn nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.B.; Gavrilov, B.P.; Kovalenko, S.S.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.

    1984-01-01

    The measurements of the yields of neutrons (energy more than 5 MeV) emitted in the interactions of carbon-12 ions (9 MeV/nucl.) with nuclei of two tin isotopes are conducted. The results obtained prove the effect of nucleon composition of a nucleus on the process of formation of high-energy neutrons. To clarify the concrete interaction mechanism it is necessary to perform systematic research for a number of isotopes differing in the relation of the number of neutrons and protons and binding energies of the last neutron

  6. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  7. Friction and wear of carbon-graphite materials for high-energy brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Caliper type brake simulation experiments were conducted on seven different carbon graphite materials formulations against a steel disk material and against a carbon graphite disk material. The effects of binder level, boron carbide (B4C) additions, SiC additions, graphite fiber additions, and graphite cloth reinforcement on friction and wear behavior were investigated. Reductions in binder level, additions of B4C, and additions of SiC each resulted in increased wear. The wear rate was not affected by the addition of graphite fibers. Transition to severe wear and high friction was observed in the case of graphite-cloth-reinforced carbon sliding against a disk of similar composition. The transition was related to the disruption of a continuous graphite shear film that must form on the sliding surfaces if low wear is to occur.

  8. Friction and wear of carbon-graphite materials for high energy brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Caliper-type brakes simulation experiments were conducted on seven different carbon-graphite material formulations against a steel disk material and against a carbon-graphite disk material. The effects of binder level, boron carbide (B4C) additions, graphite fiber additions, and graphite cloth reinforcement on friction and wear behavior were investigated. Reductions in binder level and additions of B4C each resulted in increased wear. The wear rate was not affected by the addition of graphite fibers. Transition to severe wear and high friction was observed in the case of graphite-cloth-reinforced carbon sliding against a disk of similar composition. This transition was related to the disruption of a continuous graphite shear film that must form on the sliding surfaces if low wear is to occur. The exposure of the fiber structure of the cloth constituent is believed to play a role in the shear film disruption.

  9. High energy photon reference for radiation protection: technical design of the LINAC beam and ionization chambers; and calculation of monoenergetic conversion coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusciac D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the results of the first part of a research project aimed at offering a complete response to dosimeters providers and nuclear physicists’ demands for high-energy (6 – 9 MeV photon beams for radiation protection purposes. Classical facilities allowing the production of high-energy photonic radiation (proton accelerators, nuclear reactors are very rare and need large investment for development and use. A novel solution is proposed, consisting in the use of a medical linear accelerator, allowing a significant decrease of all costs.Using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP5 and PENELOPE codes, a specifically designed electron-photon conversion target allowing for obtaining a high energy photon beam (with an average energy weighted by fluence of about 6 MeV has been built for radiation protection purposes. Due to the specific design of the target, this “realistic” radiation protection high-energy photon beam presents a uniform distribution of air kerma rate at a distance of 1 m, over a 30 × 30 cm2 surface. Two graphite cavity ionizing chambers for ionometric measurements have been built. For one of these chambers, the charge collection volume has been measured allowing for its use as a primary standard. The second ionizing chamber is used as a transfer standard; as such it has been calibrated in a 60Co beam, and in the high energy photon beam for radiation protection.The measurements with these ionizing chambers allowed for an evaluation of the air kerma rate in the LINAC based high-energy photon beam for radiation protection: the values cover a range between 36 mGy/h and 210 mGy/h, compatible with radiation protection purposes.Finally, using Monte Carlo simulations, conversion coefficients from air kerma to dose equivalent quantities have been calculated in the range between 10 keV and 22.4 MeV, for the spectral distribution of the fluence corresponding to the beam produced by the linear accelerator of the LNE-LNHB.

  10. Electrochemical Tuning of High Energy Photon Branches of Double Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Dunsch, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2004), s. 2915-2920 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * Raman spectroscopy * electrochemical properties Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2004

  11. Polyazido Pyrimidines: High Energy Compounds and Precursors to Carbon Nanotubes (PREPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ye, Chengfeng; Gao, Haoxiang; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M; Drake, Gregory W; Boatz, Jerry A

    2006-01-01

    ...). The compound 4,4',6,6'-tetra(azido)azo-1,3,5-triazine (2), has a heat of formation of 2171 (6164 kJ kg -1). Recently it was demonstrated that 1 and 4 were good precursors to nano carbon nitride materials...

  12. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanyi; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Qifeng; Yu, Danmei; Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO4/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO4 electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  13. Interconnected carbon nanosheets derived from hemp for ultrafast supercapacitors with high energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanlei; Xu, Zhanwei; Kohandehghan, Alireza; Li, Zhi; Cui, Kai; Tan, Xuehai; Stephenson, Tyler James; King'ondu, Cecil K; Holt, Chris M B; Olsen, Brian C; Tak, Jin Kwon; Harfield, Don; Anyia, Anthony O; Mitlin, David

    2013-06-25

    We created unique interconnected partially graphitic carbon nanosheets (10-30 nm in thickness) with high specific surface area (up to 2287 m(2) g(-1)), significant volume fraction of mesoporosity (up to 58%), and good electrical conductivity (211-226 S m(-1)) from hemp bast fiber. The nanosheets are ideally suited for low (down to 0 °C) through high (100 °C) temperature ionic-liquid-based supercapacitor applications: At 0 °C and a current density of 10 A g(-1), the electrode maintains a remarkable capacitance of 106 F g(-1). At 20, 60, and 100 °C and an extreme current density of 100 A g(-1), there is excellent capacitance retention (72-92%) with the specific capacitances being 113, 144, and 142 F g(-1), respectively. These characteristics favorably place the materials on a Ragone chart providing among the best power-energy characteristics (on an active mass normalized basis) ever reported for an electrochemical capacitor: At a very high power density of 20 kW kg(-1) and 20, 60, and 100 °C, the energy densities are 19, 34, and 40 Wh kg(-1), respectively. Moreover the assembled supercapacitor device yields a maximum energy density of 12 Wh kg(-1), which is higher than that of commercially available supercapacitors. By taking advantage of the complex multilayered structure of a hemp bast fiber precursor, such exquisite carbons were able to be achieved by simple hydrothermal carbonization combined with activation. This novel precursor-synthesis route presents a great potential for facile large-scale production of high-performance carbons for a variety of diverse applications including energy storage.

  14. High Energy Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere: The Integral Invariants of the Nonlinear Parabolic Equation and the Method of Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The method of moments is used to define and derive expressions for laser beam deflection and beam radius broadening for high-energy propagation through the Earth s atmosphere. These expressions are augmented with the integral invariants of the corresponding nonlinear parabolic equation that describes the electric field of high-energy laser beam to propagation to yield universal equations for the aforementioned quantities; the beam deflection is a linear function of the propagation distance whereas the beam broadening is a quadratic function of distance. The coefficients of these expressions are then derived from a thin screen approximation solution of the nonlinear parabolic equation to give corresponding analytical expressions for a target located outside the Earth s atmospheric layer. These equations, which are graphically presented for a host of propagation scenarios, as well as the thin screen model, are easily amenable to the phase expansions of the wave front for the specification and design of adaptive optics algorithms to correct for the inherent phase aberrations. This work finds application in, for example, the analysis of beamed energy propulsion for space-based vehicles.

  15. Hypofractionated high-energy proton-beam irradiation is an alternative treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachogiannis, Pavlos; Gudjonsson, Olafur; Montelius, Anders; Grusell, Erik; Isacsson, Ulf; Nilsson, Kristina; Blomquist, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Radiation treatment is commonly employed in the treatment of meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hypofractionated high-energy proton therapy as adjuvant or primary treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas. A total of 170 patients who received irradiation with protons for grade I meningiomas between 1994 and 2007 were included in the study. The majority of the tumours were located at the skull base (n = 155). Eighty-four patients were treated post subtotal resection, 42 at tumour relapse and 44 with upfront radiotherapy after diagnosis based on the typical radiological image. Irradiation was given in a hypofractionated fashion (3-8 fractions, usually 5 or 6 Gy) with a mean dose of 21.9 Gy (range, 14-46 Gy). All patients were planned for follow-up with clinical controls and magnetic resonance imaging scans at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after treatment. The median follow-up time was 84 months. Age, gender, tumour location, Simpson resection grade and target volume were assessed as possible prognostic factors for post-irradiation tumour progression and radiation related complications. The actuarial 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates were 93% and 85% respectively. Overall mortality rate was 13.5%, while disease-specific mortality was 1.7% (3/170 patients). Older patients and patients with tumours located in the middle cranial fossa had a lower risk for tumour progression. Radiation-related complications were seen in 16 patients (9.4%), with pituitary insufficiency being the most common. Tumour location in the anterior cranial fossa was the only factor that significantly increased the risk of complications. Hypofractionated proton-beam radiation therapy may be used particularly in the treatment of larger World Health Organisation grade I meningiomas not amenable to total surgical resection. Treatment is associated with high rates of long-term tumour growth control and acceptable risk for

  16. Azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes as high-energy density solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2011-08-10

    Solar thermal fuels, which reversibly store solar energy in molecular bonds, are a tantalizing prospect for clean, renewable, and transportable energy conversion/storage. However, large-scale adoption requires enhanced energy storage capacity and thermal stability. Here we present a novel solar thermal fuel, composed of azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes, with the volumetric energy density of Li-ion batteries. Our work also demonstrates that the inclusion of nanoscale templates is an effective strategy for design of highly cyclable, thermally stable, and energy-dense solar thermal fuels.

  17. Physics of intense light ion beams and production of high energy density in matter. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.J.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents the results obtained in 1994 within the FZK-program on 'Physics of intense ion beams and pulsed plasmas'. It describes the present status of the 6 MW, 2 TW pulsed generator KALIF-HELIA, the production and focussing of high power ion beams and numerical simulations and experiments related to the hydrodynamics of beam matter interaction. (orig.) [de

  18. Backward emitted high-energy neutrons in hard reactions of p and π+ on carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, A.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Heppelmann, S.; Kawabata, T.; Leksanov, A.; Makdisi, Y.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Yoshida, H.; Zhalov, D.

    2002-01-01

    Beams of protons and pions of 5.9 GeV/c were incident on a C target. Neutrons emitted into the backward hemisphere, in the laboratory system, were detected in (triple) coincidence with two emerging particles of tranverse momenta pt>0.6 GeV/c. We determined that for (46.5+/-3.7)% of the proton-induced events and for (40.8+/-4.5)% of the pion-induced events with the two high-pt particles, there is also at least one backward emitted neutron with momentum greater than 0.32 GeV/c. This observation is in sharp contrast to a well- established universal pattern from a large variety of earlier inclusive measurements with hadrons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and antineutrinos where the probability for backward nucleon emission was in the 5 to 10 % range. We present also a measurement of the momentum spectra for the backward going neutrons. The spectra have the same universal shape observed in the inclusive reactions. We speculate that the enhanced backward neutron emission in this semi-inclusive region could be an indication for a strong dependence of the cross section on the squared total center-of-mass energy (s) and for the importance of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations.

  19. A High-Energy Good-Beam-Quality Krypton-Lamp-Pumped Nd:YAG Solid-State Laser with One Pump Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xue-Sheng; WANG Zhi-Yong; YAN Xin; CAO Ying-Hua

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a high-energy good-beam-quality krypton-lamp-pumped pulsed Nd:YAG solid-state laser with one pump cavity.The symmetrical resonator laser is developed and is rated at 80 J with beam parameter product 12mm mrad.The total system electro-optics efficiency of the lamp-pumped YAG laser is as high as 3.3% and the stability of output energy is ±2% with pulse width tunable between 0.1 ms and 10ms.The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and simulation.

  20. Characteristics of background radiation behind one-dimensional radiation shielding of high-energy particle beams; Kharakteristiki fonovogo izlucheniya za odnomernymi radiatsionnymi zashchitami puchkov vysokoehnergeticheskikh chastits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatkov, D V; Kryuchkov, V P

    1994-12-31

    The calculational investigations of component, spatial and energy distributions of background radiation behind radiation shielding of high-energy hadron beams were carried out. The relations between different ingredients of radiation have been obtained. The numerous data of spatial and energy distribution of protons, neutrons, pions and photons in homogeneous and heterogeneous shielding from concrete and iron, presented in the paper, can be used as a reference data. 23 refs., 50 figs.

  1. Development of stereotactic radiosurgery using carbon beams (carbon-knife)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawsamur, Mintra; Matsumura, Akihiko; Souda, Hikaru; Kano, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Masami; Nakano, Takashi; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a stereotactic-radiosurgery (SRS) technique using carbon beams to treat small intracranial lesions; we call this device the carbon knife. A 2D-scanning method is adapted to broaden a pencil beam to an appropriate size for an irradiation field. A Mitsubishi slow extraction using third order resonance through a rf acceleration system stabilized by a feed-forward scanning beam using steering magnets with a 290 MeV/u initial beam energy was used for this purpose. Ridge filters for spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) with widths of 5 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10 mm were designed to include fluence-attenuation effects. The collimator, which defines field shape, was used to reduce the lateral penumbra. The lateral-penumbra width at the SOBP region was less than 2 mm for the carbon knife. The penumbras behaved almost the same when changing the air gap, but on the other hand, increasing the range-shifter thickness mostly broadened the lateral penumbra. The physical-dose rates were approximate 6 Gy s-1 and 4.5 Gy s-1 for the 10  ×  10 mm2 and 5  ×  5 mm2 collimators, respectively.

  2. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai

    2017-02-09

    A newly designed dense SiOx@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite with a high conductivity of 3.5 S cm−1 and tap density of 1.13 g cm−3 was prepared, in which the CNTs were stripped by physical energy crushing and then coated on SiOx nanoparticles. The composite exhibits high capacities of 835 and 687 mAh g−1 at current densities of 100 and 200 mA g−1, which can be finely persevered over 100 cycles. Benefiting from this promising anode, two new full cells of SiOx@CNTs/LiMn2O4 and SiOx@CNTs/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high energy densities of 2273 and 2747 Wh kganode−1 (i. e. 413 and 500 Wh kgcathode−1), respectively, were successfully assembled and can cycle more than 400 cycles. Even with further cycling at the elevated temperature of 45 °C, the cells can still deliver relatively high capacities of 568 and 465 mAh ganode−1, respectively, over 100 cycles. Such desired high-energy lithium-ion batteries with working voltages over 4.0 V can be widely developed for diverse applications (e. g. in handheld devices, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  3. High energy electron radiography system design and simulation study of beam angle-position correlation and aperture effect on the images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Quantang; Cao, S.C.; Liu, M.; Sheng, X.K.; Wang, Y.R.; Zong, Y.; Zhang, X.M.; Jing, Y.; Cheng, R.; Zhao, Y.T.; Zhang, Z.M.; Du, Y.C.; Gai, W.

    2016-01-01

    A beam line dedicated to high-energy electron radiography experimental research with linear achromat and imaging lens systems has been designed. The field of view requirement on the target and the beam angle-position correlation correction can be achieved by fine-tuning the fields of the quadrupoles used in the achromat in combination with already existing six quadrupoles before the achromat. The radiography system is designed by fully considering the space limitation of the laboratory and the beam diagnostics devices. Two kinds of imaging lens system, a quadruplet and an octuplet system are integrated into one beam line with the same object plane and image plane but with different magnification factor. The beam angle-position correlation on the target required by the imaging lens system and the aperture effect on the images are studied with particle tracking simulation. It is shown that the aperture position is also correlated to the beam angle-position on the target. With matched beam on the target, corresponding aperture position and suitable aperture radius, clear pictures can be imaged by both lens systems. The aperture is very important for the imaging. The details of the beam optical requirements, optimized parameters and the simulation results are presented.

  4. Intermediate- and high-energy reactions of uranium with neon and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGaughey, P.L.

    1982-11-01

    Target fragment production from the interactions of 1.0, 3.0, 4.8, and 12 GeV 12 C and 5.0, 8.0, 20, and 42 GeV 20 Ne with uranium has been measured using off-line gamma-ray spectroscopic techniques. The experimental charge and mass yield distributions are generally consistent with the concepts of limiting fragmentation and factorization at energies of 3.0 GeV and above. The total projectile kinetic energy was found to be the relevant scaling parameter for the comparison of reactions induced by projectiles of different sizes. Light fragments with mass number less than 60 were found to violate limiting fragmentation, and had excitation functions that were strongly increasing with projectile energy until 8.0 to 12.0 GeV. With the 1.0 GeV 12 C beam the pattern of mass yields was quite different from that of all the other reactions, with the normal peak in the fission mass region (80 < A < 145), but with much lower yields below mass number 60 and between mass numbers 145 and 210, indicating that these fragments are formed primarily in very energetic reactions in which large excitation energies are transferred to and significant amounts of mass are removed from the target nucleus. Theoretical predictions of the intra-nuclear cascade, nuclear fireball, and nuclear firestreak models are compared with the experimental results. The intra-nuclear cascade and nuclear firestreak models are both able to predict the general shapes of the experimental distributions, with the exception of the yields for the lightest fragments

  5. Comparison of film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of dose delivered with very high-energy electron beams in a polystyrene phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Liu, Michael; Palma, Bianey; Dunning, Michael; McCormick, Doug; Hemsing, Erik; Nelson, Janice; Jobe, Keith; Colby, Eric; Koong, Albert C; Tantawi, Sami; Dolgashev, Valery; Maxim, Peter G; Loo, Billy W

    2015-04-01

    To measure radiation dose in a water-equivalent medium from very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams and make comparisons to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results. Dose in a polystyrene phantom delivered by an experimental VHEE beam line was measured with Gafchromic films for three 50 MeV and two 70 MeV Gaussian beams of 4.0-6.9 mm FWHM and compared to corresponding MC-simulated dose distributions. MC dose in the polystyrene phantom was calculated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes based on the experimental setup. Additionally, the effect of 2% beam energy measurement uncertainty and possible non-zero beam angular spread on MC dose distributions was evaluated. MC simulated percentage depth dose (PDD) curves agreed with measurements within 4% for all beam sizes at both 50 and 70 MeV VHEE beams. Central axis PDD at 8 cm depth ranged from 14% to 19% for the 5.4-6.9 mm 50 MeV beams and it ranged from 14% to 18% for the 4.0-4.5 mm 70 MeV beams. MC simulated relative beam profiles of regularly shaped Gaussian beams evaluated at depths of 0.64 to 7.46 cm agreed with measurements to within 5%. A 2% beam energy uncertainty and 0.286° beam angular spread corresponded to a maximum 3.0% and 3.8% difference in depth dose curves of the 50 and 70 MeV electron beams, respectively. Absolute dose differences between MC simulations and film measurements of regularly shaped Gaussian beams were between 10% and 42%. The authors demonstrate that relative dose distributions for VHEE beams of 50-70 MeV can be measured with Gafchromic films and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations to an accuracy of 5%. The reported absolute dose differences likely caused by imperfect beam steering and subsequent charge loss revealed the importance of accurate VHEE beam control and diagnostics.

  6. Comparison of film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of dose delivered with very high-energy electron beams in a polystyrene phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Liu, Michael; Palma, Bianey; Koong, Albert C.; Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu; Loo, Billy W., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Dunning, Michael; McCormick, Doug; Hemsing, Erik; Nelson, Janice; Jobe, Keith; Colby, Eric; Tantawi, Sami; Dolgashev, Valery [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To measure radiation dose in a water-equivalent medium from very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams and make comparisons to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results. Methods: Dose in a polystyrene phantom delivered by an experimental VHEE beam line was measured with Gafchromic films for three 50 MeV and two 70 MeV Gaussian beams of 4.0–6.9 mm FWHM and compared to corresponding MC-simulated dose distributions. MC dose in the polystyrene phantom was calculated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes based on the experimental setup. Additionally, the effect of 2% beam energy measurement uncertainty and possible non-zero beam angular spread on MC dose distributions was evaluated. Results: MC simulated percentage depth dose (PDD) curves agreed with measurements within 4% for all beam sizes at both 50 and 70 MeV VHEE beams. Central axis PDD at 8 cm depth ranged from 14% to 19% for the 5.4–6.9 mm 50 MeV beams and it ranged from 14% to 18% for the 4.0–4.5 mm 70 MeV beams. MC simulated relative beam profiles of regularly shaped Gaussian beams evaluated at depths of 0.64 to 7.46 cm agreed with measurements to within 5%. A 2% beam energy uncertainty and 0.286° beam angular spread corresponded to a maximum 3.0% and 3.8% difference in depth dose curves of the 50 and 70 MeV electron beams, respectively. Absolute dose differences between MC simulations and film measurements of regularly shaped Gaussian beams were between 10% and 42%. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that relative dose distributions for VHEE beams of 50–70 MeV can be measured with Gafchromic films and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations to an accuracy of 5%. The reported absolute dose differences likely caused by imperfect beam steering and subsequent charge loss revealed the importance of accurate VHEE beam control and diagnostics.

  7. Polyaniline modified graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors of high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Tang, Jie; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-11-01

    Graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites are explored as the electrodes for supercapacitors by coating polyaniline (PANI) nano-cones onto the graphene/CNT composite to obtain graphene/CNT-PANI composite electrode. The graphene/CNT-PANI electrode is assembled with a graphene/CNT electrode into an asymmetric pseudocapacitor and a highest energy density of 188 Wh kg-1 and maximum power density of 200 kW kg-1 are achieved. The structure and morphology of the graphene/CNT composite and the PANI nano-cone coatings are characterized by both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the assembled supercapacitors is also discussed and it is attributed to (i) effective utilization of the large surface area of the three-dimensional network structure of graphene-based composite, (ii) the presence of CNT in the composite preventing graphene from re-stacking, and (ii) uniform and vertically aligned PANI coating on graphene offering increased electrical conductivity.

  8. Highly conductive electrospun carbon nanofiber/MnO2 coaxial nano-cables for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Mingjia; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Meng, Fanke; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents highly conductive carbon nanofiber/MnO2 coaxial cables in which individual electrospun carbon nanofibers are coated with an ultrathin hierarchical MnO2 layer. In the hierarchical MnO2 structure, an around 4 nm thick sheath surrounds the carbon nanofiber (CNF) in a diameter of 200 nm, and nano-whiskers grow radically outward from the sheath in view of the cross-section of the coaxial cables, giving a high specific surface area of MnO2. The CNFs are synthesized by electrospinning a precursor containing iron acetylacetonate (AAI). The addition of AAI not only enlarges the specific surface area of the CNF but also greatly enhances their electronic conductivity, which leads to a dramatic improvement in the specific capacitance and the rate capability of the CNF/MnO2 electrode. The AAI-CNF/MnO2 electrode shows a specific capacitance of 311 F g-1 for the whole electrode and 900 F g-1 for the MnO2 shell at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1. Good cycling stability, high energy density (80.2 Wh kg-1) and high power density (57.7 kW kg-1) are achieved. This work indicates that high electronic conductivity of the electrode material is crucial to achieving high power and energy density for pseudo-supercapacitors.

  9. Channeling implantation of high energy carbon ions in a diamond crystal: Determination of the induced crystal amorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Fazinić, S.; Petrović, S.

    2018-02-01

    This work reports on the induced diamond crystal amorphization by 4 MeV carbon ions implanted in the 〈1 0 0〉 oriented crystal and its determination by application of RBS/C and EBS/C techniques. The spectra from the implanted samples were recorded for 1.2, 1.5, 1.75 and 1.9 MeV protons. For the two latter ones the strong resonance of the nuclear elastic scattering 12C(p,p0)12C at 1.737 MeV was explored. The backscattering channeling spectra were successfully fitted and the ion beam induced crystal amorphization depth profile was determined using a phenomenological approach, which is based on the properly defined Gompertz type dechanneling functions for protons in the 〈1 0 0〉 diamond crystal channels and the introduction of the concept of ion beam amorphization, which is implemented through our newly developed computer code CSIM.

  10. Charge deep-level transient spectroscopy study of high-energy-electron-beam-irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, A.; Nádaždy, V.; Zeman, M.; Swaaiij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of changes in the defect density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) due to high-energy electron irradiation using charged deep-level transient spectroscopy. It was found that defect states near the conduction band were removed, while in other band gap regions the

  11. Influences of thermal deformation of cavity mirrors induced by high energy DF laser to beam quality under the simulated real physical circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoyong; Zhang, Shiqiang; He, Minbo; Zhang, Zheng; Guan, Xiaowei

    2017-05-01

    The positive-branch confocal unstable resonator with inhomogeneous gain medium was studied for the normal used high energy DF laser system. The fast changing process of the resonator's eigenmodes was coupled with the slow changing process of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors. Influences of the thermal deformation of cavity mirrors to the outcoupled beam quality and transmission loss of high frequency components of high energy laser were computed. The simulations are done through programs compiled by MATLAB and GLAD software and the method of combination of finite elements and Fox-li iteration algorithm was used. Effects of thermal distortion, misaligned of cavity mirrors and inhomogeneous distribution of gain medium were introduced to simulate the real physical circumstances of laser cavity. The wavefront distribution and beam quality (including RMS of wavefront, power in the bucket, Strehl ratio, diffraction limit β, position of the beam spot center, spot size and intensity distribution in far-field ) of the distorted outcoupled beam were studied. The conclusions of the simulation agree with the experimental results. This work would supply references of wavefront correction range to the adaptive optics system of interior alleyway.

  12. Investigation of the effects of high-energy proton-beam irradiation on metal-oxide surfaces by using methane adsorption isotherms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Euikwoun; Lee, Junggil; Kim, Jaeyong; Kim, Kyeryung

    2012-01-01

    The creation of possible local defects on metal-oxide surfaces due to irradiation with a high-energy proton beam was investigated by using a series of gas adsorption isotherms for methane (CH 4 ) on a MgO powder surface. After a MgO powder surface having only a (100) surface had been irradiated with a 35-MeV proton beam, the second atomic layer of methane had completely disappeared while two distinct atomic layers were found in a layer-by-layer fashion on the surfaces of unirradiated samples. This subtle modification of the surface is evidenced by a change of the contrasts in the morphologies measured a using a transmission electron microscopy. Combined results obtained from an electron microscopy and methane adsorption isotherms strongly suggest that the high-energy proton-beam irradiation induced a local surface modification by imparting kinetic energy to the sample. The calculation of the 2-dimensional compressibility values, which are responsible for the formation of the atomic layers, confirmed the surface modification after irradiating surface-clean MgO powders with a proton beam.

  13. High energy density matter issues related to future circular collider. Simulations of full beam impact with a solid copper cylindrical target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Wollmann, D. [CERN-AB, Geneva (Switzerland); Shutov, A. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Piriz, A.R. [E.T.S.I. Industrials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is subjected to the full impact of one future circular collider (FCC) ultra-relativistic proton beam. The target is facially irradiated so that the beam axis coincides with the cylinder axis. The simulations have been carried out employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a 2D hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. The simulations show that, although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower in solid copper is ∝1.5 m, the full beam may penetrate up to 350 m into the target as a result of hydrodynamic tunnelling. Moreover, simulations also show that a major part of the target is converted into high energy density (HED) matter, including warm dense matter (WDM) and strongly coupled plasma. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  15. Electron beam processing of carbon fibre reinforced braided composites beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, L.; Zsigmond, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In this paper the possibility of producing a new type carbon fiber reinforced composite is examined by applying braiding, a well-known process of textile technology. The appearance of the new Hungarian carbon fiber with excellent mechanical properties in the market enables the development of newer type carbon fiber reinforced composites in the continuously widening range of engineering applications. Advanced hollow profiles, pipes and other composite products can be manufactured in continuous operation. A new way of composite production of this kind is the manufacturing of reinforcing structure by braiding technology producing a composite with sufficient mechanical properties from this cross directional fabric-like textile structure by impregnation. This manufacturing process can complete the variety of hollow products serving the same purpose as pultrusion or filament winding. This way a profile type framework element with a hollow cross section is manufactured having favorable mechanical properties. Owing to its small mass and high specific strength this product can be applied in dynamically loaded structures e.g. in the automotive industry. For crosslinking of the matrix the method of high-speed electron beam curing has been examined in order to reach continuous operation. The field of use and application of carbon fiber braided structures has a great chance especially in machine engineering and in the automotive industry. The main reason for this is that braiding processes are capable of producing structures having good mechanical properties at a low processing price. The mass of the composite load-bearing structure produced this way is one fifth of the steel product having similar geometry, and its specific mechanical properties are nearly as good as that of the most commonly applied semiproduct and structural component, the welded steel profile

  16. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams: A multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar, Bozidar; Pasler, Marlies; Wegener, Sonja; Hoffman, David; Talamonti, Cinzia; Qian, Jianguo; Mendez, Ignasi; Brojan, Denis; Perrin, Bruce; Kusters, Martijn; Canters, Richard; Pallotta, Stefania; Peterlin, Primoz

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1×1cm 2 to 20×20cm 2 , the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD 20,10 values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4×4cm 2 to 20×20cm 2 . The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (pphoton energies except for 18MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20×20cm 2 field and 10MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6MV to 0.9578 for 18MV and 0.9440 for 6MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Influence of the Integral Quality Monitor transmission detector on high energy photon beams. A multi-centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casar, Bozidar [Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Pasler, Marlies [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center, Singen and Friedrichshafen (Germany); Wegener, Sonja [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; and others

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) transmission detector on photon beam properties was evaluated in a preclinical phase, using data from nine participating centres: (i) the change of beam quality (beam hardening), (ii) the influence on surface dose, and (iii) the attenuation of the IQM detector. For 6 different nominal photon energies (4 standard, 2 FFF) and square field sizes from 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, the effect of IQM on beam quality was assessed from the PDD{sub 20,10} values obtained from the percentage dose depth (PDD) curves, measured with and without IQM in the beam path. The change in surface dose with/without IQM was assessed for all available energies and field sizes from 4 x 4 cm{sup 2} to 20 x 20 cm{sup 2}. The transmission factor was calculated by means of measured absorbed dose at 10 cm depth for all available energies and field sizes. (i) A small (0.11-0.53%) yet statistically significant beam hardening effect was observed, depending on photon beam energy. (ii) The increase in surface dose correlated with field size (p < 0.01) for all photon energies except for 18 MV. The change in surface dose was smaller than 3.3% in all cases except for the 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} field and 10 MV FFF beam, where it reached 8.1%. (iii) For standard beams, transmission of the IQM showed a weak dependence on the field size, and a pronounced dependence on the beam energy (0.9412 for 6 MV to 0.9578 for 18 MV and 0.9440 for 6 MV FFF; 0.9533 for 10 MV FFF). The effects of the IQM detector on photon beam properties were found to be small yet statistically significant. The magnitudes of changes which were found justify treating IQM either as tray factors within the treatment planning system (TPS) for a particular energy or alternatively as modified outputs for specific beam energy of linear accelerators, which eases the introduction of the IQM into clinical practice.

  18. High energy beam impact tests on a LHC tertiary collimator at the CERN high-radiation to materials facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cauchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely operate highly energetic particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. The requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, investigating the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting tertiary collimators (TCTs in the experimental regions is a fundamental issue for machine protection. An experimental test was designed to investigate the robustness and effects of beam accidents on a fully assembled collimator, based on accident scenarios in the LHC. This experiment, carried out at the CERN High-Radiation to Materials (HiRadMat facility, involved 440 GeV proton beam impacts of different intensities on the jaws of a horizontal TCT. This paper presents the experimental setup and the preliminary results obtained, together with some first outcomes from visual inspection and a comparison of such results with numerical simulations.

  19. High energy beam impact tests on a LHC tertiary collimator at the CERN high-radiation to materials facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Marija; Aberle, O.; Assmann, R. W.; Bertarelli, A.; Carra, F.; Cornelis, K.; Dallocchio, A.; Deboy, D.; Lari, L.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Mollicone, P.; Sammut, N.

    2014-02-01

    The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely operate highly energetic particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, investigating the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting tertiary collimators (TCTs) in the experimental regions is a fundamental issue for machine protection. An experimental test was designed to investigate the robustness and effects of beam accidents on a fully assembled collimator, based on accident scenarios in the LHC. This experiment, carried out at the CERN High-Radiation to Materials (HiRadMat) facility, involved 440 GeV proton beam impacts of different intensities on the jaws of a horizontal TCT. This paper presents the experimental setup and the preliminary results obtained, together with some first outcomes from visual inspection and a comparison of such results with numerical simulations.

  20. Use of specific features of electron and positron interactions with monocrystals for the control of high-energy particle beam parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochek, G.L.; Vit'ko, V.I.; Grishaev, I.A.; Kovalenko, G.D.; Kulibaba, V.I.; Morokhovskij, V.L.; Shramenko, B.I.

    1977-01-01

    To study possibilities of using the effect of high energy positron and electron interactions with crystals in practice at the 2 GeV Kharkov lineac the effect of a light particle charge sign on the processes of bremsstrahlung, elastic scattering and revealing ''blocking effect'' in elastic scatterina has been investigated experimentally of 1 GeV electron (positron) beam is directed to a silicon crystal of 185 μkm thickness. Dependence of total bremsstrahlung flow on the angle between the beam direction and crystal axis has shown, that positron bremsstrahlung is minimum (positrons are channelling, but electron bremsstrahlung is maximum, when crystallographic axis direction coincides with particle direction. The process of positron annihilation in flight has been investigated in 300 μkm thick silicon monocrystal. Bremsstrahlung intensity for channeling positrons drops 4.4 times, and intensity of annihilation radiation - 1.6 times as compared to the case, when channeling regime is absent. Experimental data point out the possibility of using monocrystals for control of the parameters of high-energy particle control beams

  1. High-energy accelerators in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Mandrillon, Pierre

    1992-05-04

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to "light ions" ( Carbon, Oxygen, Neon) has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. The rationale for this new radiotherapy, the high energy accelerators and the beam delivery systems are presented in these two lectures.

  2. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurebayashi, Y.; Sakurai, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Doshita, N.; Kikuchi, S.; Tokanai, F.; Horiuchi, K.; Tajima, Y.; Oe, T.; Sato, T.; Gunji, S.; Inui, E.; Kondo, K.; Iwata, N.; Sasaki, N.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kunieda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10 –9 PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×10 13 was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al

  3. Determination of any gas composition using high energy molecular beams. Application to the simultaneous concentration measurement of ten pollutants in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.; Laugier, Lucette; Roustan, J.-C.; Clapier, Robert.

    1975-01-01

    A high energy argon beam collides the gas to be abalyzed in a special box. The ions formed are extracted and collide a target gas (such as argon) filling a collision chamber, some of them are dissociated. The number of these ions is measured by means of an electrostatic analyzer and an electron multiplier as detector. By this way, it is possible to measure the concentrations of ten or more gaseous pollutants in air in a time shorter than a minute. The method was applied to study the effluents of a jet; the concentrations in CO, NO, NO 2 , CO 2 and SO 2 were measured [fr

  4. [Study of the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field on the dose distribution of high energy electron beam using Monte Carlo method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shihu; Xu, Yun; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing; Guo, Chengjun

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to study the characteristics of the dose distribution of high energy electron beam in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field. The simulations carried out the transport processes of the 30 MeV electron beam in the homogeneous water phantom with different magnetic field. It was found that the dose distribution of the 30 MeV electron beam had changed significantly because of the magnetic field. The result showed that the range of the electron beam was decreased obviously and it formed a very high dose peak at the end of the range, and the ratio of maximum dose to the dose of the surface was greatly increased. The results of this study demonstrated that we could change the depth dose distribution of electron beam which is analogous to the heavy ion by modulating the energy of the electron and magnetic field. It means that using magnetic fields in conjunction with electron radiation therapy has great application prospect, but it also has brought new challenges for the research of dose algorithm.

  5. Absolute and relative dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film for high energy electron beams with different doses per pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiandra, Christian; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto; Anglesio, Silvia; Giglioli, Francesca Romana

    2008-01-01

    The authors have evaluated the accuracy, in absolute and relative dose measurements, of the Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film in pulsed high-energy electron beams. Typically, the electron beams used in radiotherapy have a dose-per-pulse value of less than 0.1 mGy/pulse. However, very high dose-per-pulse electron beams are employed in certain linear accelerators dedicated to intraoperatory radiation therapy (IORT). In this study, the absorbed dose measurements with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in both low (less than 0.3 mGy per pulse) and high (30 and 70 mGy per pulse) dose-per-pulse electron beams were compared with ferrous sulfate chemical Fricke dosimetry (operated by the Italian Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory), a method independent of the dose per pulse. A summary of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT in relative and absolute beam output determination is reported. This study demonstrates the independence of Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT absorption as a function of dose per pulse at different dose levels. A good agreement (within 3%) was found with Fricke dosimeters for plane-base IORT applicators. Comparison with a diode detector is presented for relative dose measurements, showing acceptable agreement both in the steep dose falloff zone and in the homogeneous dose region. This work also provides experimental values for recombination correction factor (K sat ) of a Roos (plane parallel) ionization chamber calculated on the basis of theoretical models for charge recombination.

  6. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilan, N.; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  7. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilan, N., E-mail: nicola.pilan@igi.cnr.it; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX—Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF{sub 6} instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  8. An introduction to cross-sections and asymmetries measurable using polarised beams in high-energy e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, P.

    1990-08-01

    The implementation of polarised beams at SLC, and hopefully LEP, is an important development. This will allow access to a range of precision measurements which exploit the parity violating nature of the Z boson. This report gives an introduction to the basic quantities which may be measured with polarised beams. These are the left-right asymmetry (A LR ), forward-backward asymmetries with and without polarisation (A R FB , A L FB , A FB ) and the ''improved'' polarised forward-backward asymmetry (A pol FB ). The final state polarisation measurement is also discussed. (author)

  9. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joao

    2017-10-01

    Powerful laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in the kTesla range. The B-fields are measured by proton-deflectometry and high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes. According to our modeling, the quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface, accounting for the space charge neutralization and the plasma magnetization. The major control parameter is the laser irradiance Iλ2 . The B-fields ns-scale is long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport into solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented enhancement of a factor 5 on the energy-density flux at 60 µm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes and to laboratory astrophysics. We acknowledge funding from French National Agency for Research (ANR), Grant TERRE ANR-2011-BS04-014, and from EUROfusion Consortium, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant 633053.

  10. Laser-driven strong magnetostatic fields with applications to charged beam transport and magnetized high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. J.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ehret, M.; Arefiev, A. V.; Batani, D.; Beg, F. N.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Florido, R.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Fujioka, S.; Gigosos, M. A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gremillet, L.; Honrubia, J. J.; Kojima, S.; Korneev, Ph.; Law, K. F. F.; Marquès, J.-R.; Morace, A.; Mossé, C.; Peyrusse, O.; Rose, S.; Roth, M.; Sakata, S.; Schaumann, G.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Toncian, T.; Woolsey, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    Powerful nanosecond laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in excess of 0.5 kT. The quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface. According to our model, which describes the evolution of the discharge current, the major control parameter is the laser irradiance Ilasλlas2 . The space-time evolution of the B-fields is experimentally characterized by high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes and proton-deflectometry measurements. The magnetic pulses, of ns-scale, are long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport through solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented 5-fold enhancement of the energy-density flux at 60 μm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes, and to laboratory astrophysics.

  11. A comparison of chemical and ionization dosimetry for high-energy x-ray and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durocher, J.J.; Boese, H.; Cormack, D.V.; Holloway, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of ferrous sulfate (Fricke) and ionometric methods for determining the absorbed dose in a phantom irradiated with 4-MV x-rays, 25-MV x-rays, or electron beams having various incident energies between 10 and 32 MeV. Both chemical and ionization instruments were calibrated in a 60 Co beam at a point in water where the absorbed dose had been previously determined. The chemical yield measurements were corrected for spatial variations in dose within the volume of the solution and used to obtain a value of the absorbed dose for each of the x-ray and electron beams. The ratios of G-values required for these determinations were taken from ICRU reports 14 and 21. Ionization instrument readings from three types of commercial ionization chambers were used to obtain alternate values of the absorbed dose for each radiation. C lambda and CE values used in determining these ionization values of dose were also taken from the above ICRU reports. For 4-MV x-rays the values of absorbed dose obtained from chemical measurements agreed to within 0.5% with values obtained from ionization measurements; for 25-MV x-rays the chemical values were about 1% higher than the ionization values; for the electron beams the chemical values were 1%-4% below the ionization values. These discrepancies suggest an inconsistency among the recommended G, C lambda, and CE values similar to that which has been noted by other workers

  12. High-energy coherent terahertz radiation emitted by wide-angle electron beams from a laser-wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Brunetti, Enrico; Jaroszynski, Dino A.

    2018-04-01

    High-charge electron beams produced by laser-wakefield accelerators are potentially novel, scalable sources of high-power terahertz radiation suitable for applications requiring high-intensity fields. When an intense laser pulse propagates in underdense plasma, it can generate femtosecond duration, self-injected picocoulomb electron bunches that accelerate on-axis to energies from 10s of MeV to several GeV, depending on laser intensity and plasma density. The process leading to the formation of the accelerating structure also generates non-injected, sub-picosecond duration, 1–2 MeV nanocoulomb electron beams emitted obliquely into a hollow cone around the laser propagation axis. These wide-angle beams are stable and depend weakly on laser and plasma parameters. Here we perform simulations to characterise the coherent transition radiation emitted by these beams if passed through a thin metal foil, or directly at the plasma–vacuum interface, showing that coherent terahertz radiation with 10s μJ to mJ-level energy can be produced with an optical to terahertz conversion efficiency up to 10‑4–10‑3.

  13. Experimental verification of a commercial Monte Carlo-based dose calculation module for high-energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenzler, Thomas; Fotina, Irina; Stock, Markus; Georg, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    The dosimetric performance of a Monte Carlo algorithm as implemented in a commercial treatment planning system (iPlan, BrainLAB) was investigated. After commissioning and basic beam data tests in homogenous phantoms, a variety of single regular beams and clinical field arrangements were tested in heterogeneous conditions (conformal therapy, arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy including simultaneous integrated boosts). More specifically, a cork phantom containing a concave-shaped target was designed to challenge the Monte Carlo algorithm in more complex treatment cases. All test irradiations were performed on an Elekta linac providing 6, 10 and 18 MV photon beams. Absolute and relative dose measurements were performed with ion chambers and near tissue equivalent radiochromic films which were placed within a transverse plane of the cork phantom. For simple fields, a 1D gamma (γ) procedure with a 2% dose difference and a 2 mm distance to agreement (DTA) was applied to depth dose curves, as well as to inplane and crossplane profiles. The average gamma value was 0.21 for all energies of simple test cases. For depth dose curves in asymmetric beams similar gamma results as for symmetric beams were obtained. Simple regular fields showed excellent absolute dosimetric agreement to measurement values with a dose difference of 0.1% ± 0.9% (1 standard deviation) at the dose prescription point. A more detailed analysis at tissue interfaces revealed dose discrepancies of 2.9% for an 18 MV energy 10 x 10 cm 2 field at the first density interface from tissue to lung equivalent material. Small fields (2 x 2 cm 2 ) have their largest discrepancy in the re-build-up at the second interface (from lung to tissue equivalent material), with a local dose difference of about 9% and a DTA of 1.1 mm for 18 MV. Conformal field arrangements, arc therapy, as well as IMRT beams and simultaneous integrated boosts were in good agreement with absolute dose measurements in the

  14. Studies of lead tungstate crystal matrices in high energy beams for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, G; Baillon, Paul; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Bateman, E; Bell, K W; Benhammou, Ya; Bloch, P; Bomestar, D; Borgia, B; Bourotte, J; Burge, S R; Cameron, W; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Connolly, J; Dafinei, I; Denes, P; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; El-Mamouni, H; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Finger, M H; Flügel, T; Gautheron, F; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, B W; Kirn, T; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebeau, M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Ma, D; Martin, F; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newbold, D; Newman, H; Oukhanov, M; Pacciani, L; Peigneux, J P; Pirro, S; Popov, S; Puljak, I; Purves, C; Renker, D; Rondeaux, F; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Schwenke, J; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Shevchenko, S; Shi, X; Sillou, D; Simohand, D; Singovsky, A V; Soric, I; Smith, B; Stephenson, R; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y

    1997-01-01

    Using matrices of lead tungstate crystals energy resolutions better than 0.6% at 100 GeV have been achieved in the test beam in 1995. It has been demonstrated that a lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter read out by avalanche photodiodes can consistently achieve the excellent energy resolutions necessary to justify its construction in the CMS detector. The performance achieved has been understood in terms of the properties of the crystals and photodetectors.

  15. Study of non-inductive current drive using high energy neutral beam injection on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    The negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) current drive was experimentally studied. The N-NB driven current density was determined over a wide range of electron temperatures by using the motional Stark effect spectroscopy. Theoretical prediction of the NB current drive increasing with beam energy and electron temperature was validated. A record value of NB current drive efficiency 1.55 x 10 19 Am -2 W -1 was achieved simultaneously with high confinement and high beta at at a plasma current of 1.5 MA under a fully non-inductively current driven condition. The experimental validation of NB current drive theory for MHD quiescent plasmas gives greater confidence in predicting the NB current drive in future reactors. However, it was also found that MHD instabilities caused a degradation of NB current drive. A beam-driven instability expelled N-NB fast ions carrying non-inductive current from the central region. The lost N-NB driven current was estimated to be 7% of the total N-NB driven current. For the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), comparisons of the measured neutron yield and fast ion pressure profile with transport code calculations revealed that the loss of fast ions increases with the NTM activity and that fast ions at higher energies suffer larger transport than at lower energies. (author)

  16. A method to restrain the charging effect on an insulating substrate in high energy electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyan, Yu; Shirui, Zhao; Yupeng, Jing; Yunbo, Shi; Baoqin, Chen

    2014-12-01

    Pattern distortions caused by the charging effect should be reduced while using the electron beam lithography process on an insulating substrate. We have developed a novel process by using the SX AR-PC 5000/90.1 solution as a spin-coated conductive layer, to help to fabricate nanoscale patterns of poly-methyl-methacrylate polymer resist on glass for phased array device application. This method can restrain the influence of the charging effect on the insulating substrate effectively. Experimental results show that the novel process can solve the problems of the distortion of resist patterns and electron beam main field stitching error, thus ensuring the accuracy of the stitching and overlay of the electron beam lithography system. The main characteristic of the novel process is that it is compatible to the multi-layer semiconductor process inside a clean room, and is a green process, quite simple, fast, and low cost. It can also provide a broad scope in the device development on insulating the substrate, such as high density biochips, flexible electronics and liquid crystal display screens.

  17. Performance on a CT Scanner. Application for the dose correction in the presence of heterogeneities, experimental study using high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Therese.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the physical analysis of a second generation C T scanner: the A C T A Scanner 0200 FS (PFIZER) used at the 'Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif' and its application in radiotherapy. The first part of the study specifically concerns the physical performance of the C T Scanner, and, the evaluation of the doses, delivered to patients during tomodensitometric examinations. The second part envisages the possibilities of the application of C T scanning in radiotherapy. A particular study is established for the utilization of the physical characteristics, furnished by the C T Scanner, concerning different organs, in dose calculations, in the presence of heterogeneities. An experimental study using high energy photon beams more particularly 25 MV X ray beams produced by a linear accelerator (type Sagittaire) has been realized with materials, simulating different human tissues. Consequently, the validity of different correction methods proposed in the literature has been tested for the soft tissues and bone as for the lungs. Modifications are suggested to allow the use of these methods for the photons of very high energy [fr

  18. An improved energy-range relationship for high-energy electron beams based on multiple accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Andreo, P.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Brahme, A.; Bielajew, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    A theoretically based analytical energy-range relationship has been developed and calibrated against well established experimental and Monte Carlo calculated energy-range data. Only published experimental data with a clear statement of accuracy and method of evaluation have been used. Besides published experimental range data for different uniform media, new accurate experimental data on the practical range of high-energy electron beams in water for the energy range 10-50 MeV from accurately calibrated racetrack microtrons have been used. Largely due to the simultaneous pooling of accurate experimental and Monte Carlo data for different materials, the fit has resulted in an increased accuracy of the resultant energy-range relationship, particularly at high energies. Up to date Monte Carlo data from the latest versions of the codes ITS3 and EGS4 for absorbers of atomic numbers between four and 92 (Be, C, H 2 O, PMMA, Al, Cu, Ag, Pb and U) and incident electron energies between 1 and 100 MeV have been used as a complement where experimental data are sparse or missing. The standard deviation of the experimental data relative to the new relation is slightly larger than that of the Monte Carlo data. This is partly due to the fact that theoretically based stopping and scattering cross-sections are used both to account for the material dependence of the analytical energy-range formula and to calculate ranges with the Monte Carlo programs. For water the deviation from the traditional energy-range relation of ICRU Report 35 is only 0.5% at 20 MeV but as high as - 2.2% at 50 MeV. An improved method for divergence and ionization correction in high-energy electron beams has also been developed to enable use of a wider range of experimental results. (Author)

  19. Fabrication of nanostructured transmissive optical devices on ITO-glass with UV1116 photoresist using high-energy electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Calum; Bartholomew, Richard; Rughoobur, Girish; Gordon, George S. D.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy electron beam lithography for patterning nanostructures on insulating substrates can be challenging. For high resolution, conventional resists require large exposure doses and for reasonable throughput, using typical beam currents leads to charge dissipation problems. Here, we use UV1116 photoresist (Dow Chemical Company), designed for photolithographic technologies, with a relatively low area dose at a standard operating current (80 kV, 40-50 μC cm-2, 1 nAs-1) to pattern over large areas on commercially coated ITO-glass cover slips. The minimum linewidth fabricated was ˜33 nm with 80 nm spacing; for isolated structures, ˜45 nm structural width with 50 nm separation. Due to the low beam dose, and nA current, throughput is high. This work highlights the use of UV1116 photoresist as an alternative to conventional e-beam resists on insulating substrates. To evaluate suitability, we fabricate a range of transmissive optical devices, that could find application for customized wire-grid polarisers and spectral filters for imaging, which operate based on the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanosized geometries, with arrays encompassing areas ˜0.25 cm2.

  20. Implementation of an algorithm for absorbed dose calculation in high energy photon beams at off axis points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, M.F.; Alvarez, G.D.; Sanz, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A semiempirical algorithm for absorbed dose calculation at off-axis points in irregular beams was implemented. It is well known that semiempirical methods are very useful because of their easy implementation and its helpfulness in dose calculation in the clinic. These methods can be used as independent tools for dosimetric calculation in many applications of quality assurance. However, the applicability of such methods has some limitations, even in homogeneous media, specially at off axis points, near beam fringes or outside the beam. Only methods derived from tissue-air-ratio (TAR) or scatter-maximum-ratio (SMR) have been devised for those situations, many years ago. Despite there have been improvements for these manual methods, like the Sc-Sp ones, no attempt has been made to extend their usage at off axis points. In this work, a semiempirical formalism was introduced, based on the works of Venselaar et al. (1999) and Sanz et al. (2004), aimed to the Sc-Sp separation. This new formalism relies on the separation of primary and secondary components of the beam although in a relative way. The data required by the algorithm are reduced to a minimal, allowing for experimental easy. According to modern recommendations, reference measurements in water phantom are performed at 10 cm depth, keeping away electron contamination. Air measurements are done using a mini phantom instead of the old equilibrium caps. Finally, the calculation at off-axis points are done using data measured on the central beam axis; but correcting the results with the introduction of a measured function which depends on the location of the off axis point. The measurements for testing the algorithm were performed in our Siemens MXE linear accelerator. The algorithm was used to determine specific dose profiles for a great number of different beam configurations, and the results were compared with direct measurements to validate the accuracy of the algorithm. Additionally, the results were

  1. Characterization of the phantom material Virtual WaterTM in high-energy photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Niven, D.

    2006-01-01

    The material Virtual Water TM has been characterized in photon and electron beams. Range-scaling factors and fluence correction factors were obtained, the latter with an uncertainty of around 0.2%. This level of uncertainty means that it may be possible to perform dosimetry in a solid phantom with an accuracy approaching that of measurements in water. Two formulations of Virtual Water TM were investigated with nominally the same elemental composition but differing densities. For photon beams neither formulation showed exact water equivalence--the water/Virtual Water TM dose ratio varied with the depth of measurement with a difference of over 1% at 10 cm depth. However, by using a density (range) scaling factor very good agreement ( TM at all depths was obtained. In the case of electron beams a range-scaling factor was also required to match the shapes of the depth dose curves in water and Virtual Wate TM . However, there remained a difference in the measured fluence in the two phantoms after this scaling factor had been applied. For measurements around the peak of the depth-dose curve and the reference depth this difference showed some small energy dependence but was in the range 0.1%-0.4%. Perturbation measurements have indicated that small slabs of material upstream of a detector have a small (<0.1% effect) on the chamber reading but material behind the detector can have a larger effect. This has consequences for the design of experiments and in the comparison of measurements and Monte Carlo-derived values

  2. High energy (MeV) ion beam modifications of sputtered MoS2 coatings on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.S.; Rai, A.K.; Erdemir, A.

    1991-01-01

    The present article reports on the results of our investigations of high-energy (MeV) ion irradiation on the microstructural and tribological properties of dc magnetron sputtered MoS 2 films. Films of thicknesses 500-7500 A were deposited on NaCl, Si and sapphire substrates and subsequently ion irradiated by 2 MeV Ag + ions at a dose of 5x10 15 cm -2 . Scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Rutherford backscattering and X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to study the structural, morphological and compositional changes of the film due to ion irradiation. The friction coefficient and sliding life were determined by pin-on-disc tests. Both as-deposited and ion-irradiated films were found to be amorphous having a stoichiometry of MoS 1.8 . A low friction coefficient in the range 0.03-0.04 was measured for both as-deposited and ion-irradiated films. However, the sliding life of ion-irradiated film was found to increase more than tenfold compared to as-deposited films indicating improved bonding at the interface. (orig.)

  3. Engineering the Pores of Biomass-Derived Carbon: Insights for Achieving Ultrahigh Stability at High Power in High-Energy Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Ranjith; Kaliyappan, Karthikeyan; Ramasamy, Hari Vignesh; Sun, Xueliang; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2017-07-10

    Electrochemical supercapacitors with high energy density are promising devices due to their simple construction and long-term cycling performance. The development of a supercapacitor based on electrical double-layer charge storage with high energy density that can preserve its cyclability at higher power presents an ongoing challenge. Herein, we provide insights to achieve a high energy density at high power with an ultrahigh stability in an electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) system by using carbon from a biomass precursor (cinnamon sticks) in a sodium ion-based organic electrolyte. Herein, we investigated the dependence of EDLC performance on structural, textural, and functional properties of porous carbon engineered by using various activation agents. The results demonstrate that the performance of EDLCs is not only dependent on their textural properties but also on their structural features and surface functionalities, as is evident from the electrochemical studies. The electrochemical results are highly promising and revealed that the porous carbon with poor textural properties has great potential to deliver high capacitance and outstanding stability over 300 000 cycles compared with porous carbon with good textural properties. A very low capacitance degradation of around 0.066 % per 1000 cycles, along with high energy density (≈71 Wh kg -1 ) and high power density, have been achieved. These results offer a new platform for the application of low-surface-area biomass-derived carbons in the design of highly stable high-energy supercapacitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of the High-Energy Electron Beam Irradiation on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of PE/EVA Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi Aghjeh, M. K.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study the effect of electron beam irradiation on the morphology and mechanical properties of PE/EVA blends. The melt compounding of the blends were carried out in an internal mixer. The small amount of the prepared blend samples were rapidly quenched in liquid nitrogen and the remained were compression molded into sheets. Sheets and quenched samples were then irradiated by a 10 MeV electron beam accelerator using different dose levels. The morphological studies for both, sheeted and quenched blends were performed on cryogenically fractured surfaces by using SEM technique. The mechanical properties of the sheeted samples were evaluated according to ASTM D638. The results of mechanical properties showed that, increasing in irradiation dose increases the tensile strength and decreases the elongation at break in all blend compositions. On the other hand, it was found that, for PE/EVA blends the extent of tensile strength increase, and elongation at break decrease, are more appreciable in compare to the neat PE and EVA. These results suggest that, the blend interface is more susceptible for irradiation induced crosslinking. This is because of more affinity of PE and EVA macroradicals to termination with together in compare to own macroradicals.The results of morphological studies showed that, irradiation can stabilize the blend morphology especially in co-continues regions, where the morphology is more unstable due to the heat coarsening

  5. Structural stability of coplanar 1T-2H superlattice MoS2 under high energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmi, S.; Akshaya, M. V.; Satpati, Biswarup; Basu, Palash Kumar; Bhattacharjee, K.

    2018-05-01

    Coplanar heterojunctions composed of van der Waals layered materials with different structural polymorphs have drawn immense interest recently due to low contact resistance and high carrier injection rate owing to low Schottky barrier height. Present research has largely focused on efficient exfoliation of these layered materials and their restacking to achieve better performances. We present here a microwave assisted easy, fast and efficient route to induce high concentration of metallic 1T phase in the original 2H matrix of exfoliated MoS2 layers and thus facilitating the formation of a 1T-2H coplanar superlattice phase. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations reveal formation of highly crystalline 1T-2H hybridized structure with sharp interface and disclose the evidence of surface ripplocations within the same exfoliated layer of MoS2. In this work, the structural stability of 1T-2H superlattice phase during HRTEM measurements under an electron beam of energy 300 keV is reported. This structural stability could be either associated to the change in electronic configuration due to induction of the restacked hybridized phase with 1T- and 2H-regions or to the formation of the surface ripplocations. Surface ripplocations can act as an additional source of scattering centers to the electron beam and also it is possible that a pulse train of propagating ripplocations can sweep out the defects via interaction from specific areas of MoS2 sheets.

  6. A very large Paul trap system for in-line capture of high-energy DC radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezfuli, A.M. Ghalambor; Moore, R.B.; Varfalvy, P.; Schwarz, S.

    2002-01-01

    A very large Paul trap (VLPTRAP) has built to test in-flight collection of DC ion beams. An iterative design process led to a Paul trap that was basically a cylindrical electrode of internal diameter 120 mm with two symmetrically placed coaxial end electrodes that approximated hyperboloids of revolution separated by 106 mm. The trap was operated at up to 20 kV pp at 1 MHz on the ring cylindrical electrode relative to the end electrodes with buffer gas pressures up to 40 mPa. Ions were delivered to the trap from a 60 keV + Cs ion gun and electrostatically decelerated to about 100 eV for entrance. After a cooling time of the order of 1 ms, the ions were extracted by biasing the end electrodes. Beam pulses of less than 1 s could be extracted, at repetition rates down to 1 Hz. An overall bunching efficiency of about 0.4% was obtained, resulting from a collection efficiency of 2% and an extraction efficiency of 20%. The trap could hold up to 10 7 ions at a temperature of 1000 K

  7. Dosimetric characterization of VIPARnd gel by optical analysis to high-energy photon beam used in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Juliana R.; Lima, Renata S.; Lopes, Roseany de V. Vieira; Ceschin, Artemis Marti

    2015-01-01

    Polymer gel dosimetry has been proposed as a possibility for measurements of dose distribution in radiotherapy. This work aims to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of a VIPARnd for 6 MV photon beam used in radiotherapy using optical investigations. The absorbance spectrum of irradiated gel dosimeter was optical evaluated with spectrophotometer techniques and with CMOS camera readout for dose range of 0 to 50 Gy. Data shows that the VIPARnd has a maximum absorbance at 300 to 320 nm depending on the absorbed dose. The CMOS camera readouts were obtained in RGB color, the absorbance measurements suggest a major response of dose for blue matrix verified with data. The dose-response curve for blue component showed interval of linearity from 1 Gy to 20 Gy. (author)

  8. A comparative study of dose distribution of a high-energy electron beam and chromosome aberration frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sho; Kuwabara, Yuji; Horiuch, Junichi; Suzuki, Soji; Hoshina, Masao; Kato, Tsuguhisa

    1986-01-01

    Peripheral blood was exposed to a 14 MeV electron beam in a plastic tube set in a test-tube stand immersed in a water tank. The chromosome aberration frequencies induced by irradiation of about 95% of peak dose at a depth of 31 mm were found to be higher in value than those induced at a depth of 17 mm where the peak dose had been determined physically. Three gray of irradiation given to whole blood in the presence of contrast medium gave rise to a slight enhancement of radiation-induced chromosome aberration frequencies in the lymphocytes exposed at a depth of 17 mm, but a slight decrease at 31 mm. (author)

  9. Frequency tripling of convergent beam employing crystals tiling in large-aperture high-energy laser facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Li, Dazhen; Wang, Bo; Yang, Jing; Yang, Houwen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Wenyong

    2017-11-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, ultraviolet laser damage of the fused silica lens is an important limiting factor for load capability of the laser driver. To solve this problem, a new configuration of frequency tripling is proposed in this paper. The frequency tripling crystal is placed on downstream of the focusing lens, thus sum frequency generation of fundamental frequency light and doubling frequency light occurs in the beam convergence path. The focusing lens is only irradiated by fundamental light and doubling frequency lights. Thus, its damage threshold will increase. LiB3O5 (LBO) crystals are employed as frequency tripling crystals for its larger acceptance angle and higher damage threshold than KDP/DKDP crystals'. With the limitation of acceptance angle and crystal growth size are taken into account, the tiling scheme of LBO crystals is proposed and designed optimally to adopt to the total convergence angle of 36.0 mrad. Theoretical results indicate that 3 LBO crystals titling with different cutting angles in θ direction can meet the phase matching condition. Compared with frequency tripling of parallel beam using one LBO crystal, 83.8% (93.1% with 5 LBO crystals tiling) of the frequency tripling conversion efficiency can be obtained employing this new configuration. The results of a principle experiment also support this scheme. By employing this new design, not only the load capacity of a laser driver will be significantly improved, but also the fused silica lens can be changed to K9 glass lens which has the mature technology and low cost.

  10. Nitrogen-doped carbon spheres: A new high-energy-density and long-life pseudo-capacitive electrode material for electrochemical flow capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shujin; Wang, Miao; Xu, Xingtao; Li, Yandong; Li, Yanjiang; Lu, Ting; Pan, Likun

    2017-04-01

    One of the most challenging issues in developing electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) technology is the design and synthesis of active electrode materials with high energy density and long cycle life. However, in practical cases, the energy density and cycle ability obtained currently cannot meet the practical need. In this work, we propose a new active material, nitrogen-doped carbon spheres (NCSs), as flowable electrodes for EFC application. The NCSs were prepared via one-pot hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of resorcinol/formaldehyde as carbon precursors and melamine as nitrogen precursor, followed by carbonization in nitrogen flow at various temperatures. The results of EFC experiments demonstrate that NCSs obtained at 800°C exhibit a high energy density of 13.5Whkg -1 and an excellent cycle ability, indicating the superiority of NCSs for EFC application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Constructing Dense SiO x @Carbon Nanotubes versus Spinel Cathode for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Hai; Qiu, Jingyi; Zhang, Songtong; Li, Meng; Zhu, Xiayu; Wang, Liming; Ming, Jun

    2017-01-01

    , electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles). The easy extension of the presented synthetic strategy and the configuration of high-energy battery system would be significant in materials synthesis and energy-storage devices.

  12. Calculation of Nuclear Particles Production at High-Energy Photon Beams from a Linac Operating at 6, 10 and 15 MV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Renato; Bettega, Daniela; Calzolari, Paola; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2017-05-01

    Production of photonuclear particles in a tissue-equivalent medium has been calculated for linacs at 6, 10 and 15 MV from Varian TrueBeam. Based on the knowledge of bremsstrahlung fluence spectra and linac photon beam parameters, numerical integration was performed on the cross sections for photoparticle production of the constituent elements of tissue (2H,12C,13C,16O,17O,18O,14N,15N). At 15 MV, at the depth of photon maximum dose, the total absorbed dose due to neutrons, protons, alphas and residual nuclei from photon reactions in tissue (5.5E-05 Gy per Gy of photons) is comparable to that due to neutrons from accelerator head. Results reasonably agree with data reported in the literature using Monte Carlo models simulating linac head components. This work suggests a simple method to estimate the dose contributed by the photon-induced nuclear particles for high-energy photon beams produced by linacs in use, as it might be relevant for late stochastic effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  14. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  15. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  16. Improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of high energy electron beam irradiated HDPE/hydroxyapatite nano-composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M.; Ziaie, F.; Majdabadi, A.; Akhavan, A.; Shafaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this research work, the nano-composites of high density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite samples were manufactured via two methods: In the first method, the granules of high density polyethylene and nano-structure hydroxyapatite were processed in an internal mixer to prepare the nano-composite samples with a different weight percentage of the reinforcement phase. As for the second one, high density polyethylene was prepared in nano-powder form in boiling xylene. During this procedure, the hydroxyapatite nano-powder was added with different weight percentages to the solvent to obtain the nano-composite. In both of the procedures, the used hydroxyapatite nano-powder was synthesized via hydrolysis methods. The samples were irradiated under 10 MeV electron beam in 70-200 kGy of doses. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the samples were investigated and compared. The results demonstrate that the nano-composites which we have prepared using nano-polyethylene, show better mechanical and thermal properties than the composites prepared from normal polyethylene granules, due to the better dispersion of nano-particles in the polymer matrix.

  17. High-energy fusion: A quest for a simple, small and environmentally acceptable colliding-beam fusion power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.

    1978-01-01

    Fusion goals should be lowered for a speedier research and development of a less ambitious but a workable 'low-gain fusion power amplifier', based on proven technologies and concepts. The aim of the Migma Program of Controlled Fusion is a small (10-15 liters) fusion power source based on colliding beams instead of plasma or laser heating. Its scientific and technological 'philosophy' is radically different from that of the governmental fusion programs of the USA and USSR. Migmacell uses radiation-free fuels, ('advanced fuels'), rather than tritium. Economic projections show that such a smaller power cell can be econonomically competitive in spite of its low power gain, because it can be mass produced. Power stations could be made either large or small and the power transmission and distribution pattern in the nation would change. An interspersion of energy resources would result. Minifusion opens the possibility to smaller countries (and medium size institutions of large countries), for participation in fusion research; this resource of research talent is presently excluded from fusion by the high cost of the mainline governmental research (over $ 200 million for one experimental fusion device, as compared to $ 1 million for migmacell). The time-scale for obtaining experimental results is reduced from decades to years. Experimental accomplishments to date and the further research needed, are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. 1D Ni-Co oxide and sulfide nanoarray/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and excellent cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Cui, Guanwei; Shi, Xifeng; Wong, C P; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo 2 S 4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo 2 S 4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo 2 O 4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg -1 and 47.5 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 400 W kg -1 , respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

  19. The use of plane parallel ionization chambers in high energy electron and photon beams. An international code of practice for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Research on plane-parallel ionization chambers since the IAEA code of practice (TRS-277) was published in 1987 has explained our knowledge on perturbation and other correction factors in ionization chamber, and also constructional details of these chambers have been shown to be important. Different countries have published, or are in the process of publishing, dosimetry recommendations which include specific procedures for the use of plan parallel ionization chambers. An international working group was formed under the auspieces of the IAEA, first to review the status and the actual validity of the code of practice and second to develop an international code of practice of the use of plane parallel ionization chambers in high energy electron and photon beams used in radiotherapy. This document fulfills the second taste. 153 refs, 21 figs, 18 tabs

  20. Simulations of beam-matter interaction experiments at the CERN HiRadMat facility and prospects of high-energy-density physics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Burkart, F; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Wollmann, D; Piriz, A R

    2014-12-01

    In a recent publication [Schmidt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 080701 (2014)], we reported results on beam-target interaction experiments that have been carried out at the CERN HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials) facility using extended solid copper cylindrical targets that were irradiated with a 440-GeV proton beam delivered by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). On the one hand, these experiments confirmed the existence of hydrodynamic tunneling of the protons that leads to substantial increase in the range of the protons and the corresponding hadron shower in the target, a phenomenon predicted by our previous theoretical investigations [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 25, 051003 (2012)]. On the other hand, these experiments demonstrated that the beam heated part of the target is severely damaged and is converted into different phases of high energy density (HED) matter, as suggested by our previous theoretical studies [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. E 79, 046410 (2009)]. The latter confirms that the HiRadMat facility can be used to study HED physics. In the present paper, we give details of the numerical simulations carried out to understand the experimental measurements. These include the evolution of the physical parameters, for example, density, temperature, pressure, and the internal energy in the target, during and after the irradiation. This information is important in order to determine the region of the HED phase diagram that can be accessed in such experiments. These simulations have been done using the energy deposition code fluka and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, big2, iteratively.

  1. High energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    We report here on the considerable progress that we made for the year beginning November 1, 1989, for DOE Contract No. AS05-76ERO5096. One of our Fermilab experiments, E704 -- polarization studies with 200 GeV protons, was run from February through August of this year. This experiment has been in the planning, construction, and commissioning stages for over ten years. In this report we detail just what measurements we managed to complete during the run. Our other Fermilab experiment, E683 -- photoproduction of jets, has had parasitic test beam during most of the same period. There was also a one week engineering test run in June. The schedule calls for a three month data run beginning in January, 1991. We also had three test runs for our CERN experiment, NA47 (SMC) -- spin dependent structure functions for the proton and neutron. We are in the midst of major apparatus construction for this experiment. More of our plans for the future are included in the accompanying Renewal Proposal. As in recent years, the format we follow in both the Progress Report and the Renewal Proposal is to have a brief writeup on each individual experiment and to include in the appendices copies of published papers which provide much greater detail. For manuscripts that have been submitted for publication and experimental proposals, we provide only the cover and abstract page. The aim is to concentrate on the physics goals, results and their significance in the main body of the report. For our two Fermilab experiments and the SMC experiment, exhaustive reports of the physics goals have been provided in previous years and are not repeated here

  2. SU-D-19A-06: The Effect of Beam Parameters On Very High-Energy Electron Radiotherapy: A Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, B; Bazalova, M; Qu, B; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Hardemark, B; Hynning, E [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the effect of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beam parameters on the planning of a lung cancer case by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: We simulated VHEE radiotherapy plans using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc-DOSXYZnrc code. We selected a lung cancer case that was treated with 6MV photon VMAT to be planned with VHEE. We studied the effect of beam energy (80 MeV, 100 MeV, and 120 MeV), number of equidistant beams (16 or 32), and beamlets sizes (3 mm, 5 mm or 7 mm) on PTV coverage, sparing of organs at risk (OARs) and dose conformity. Inverse-planning optimization was performed in a research version of RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories AB) using identical objective functions and constraints for all VHEE plans. Results: Similar PTV coverage and dose conformity was achieved by all the VHEE plans. The 100 MeV and 120 MeV VHEE plans were equivalent amongst them and were superior to the 80 MeV plan in terms of OARs sparing. The effect of using 16 or 32 equidistant beams was a mean difference in average dose of 2.4% (0%–7.7%) between the two plans. The use of 3 mm beamlet size systematically reduced the dose to all the OARs. Based on these results we selected the 100MeV-16beams-3mm-beamlet-size plan to compare it against VMAT. The selected VHEE plan was more conformal than VMAT and improved OAR sparing (heart and trachea received 125% and 177% lower dose, respectively) especially in the low-dose region. Conclusion: We determined the VHEE beam parameters that maximized the OAR dose sparing and dose conformity of the actually delivered VMAT plan of a lung cancer case. The selected parameters could be used for the planning of other treatment sites with similar size, shape, and location. For larger targets, a larger beamlet size might be used without significantly increasing the dose. B Palma: None. M Bazalova: None. B Hardemark: Employee, RaySearch Americas. E Hynning: Employee, RaySearch Americas. B Qu: None. B Loo Jr.: Research support, Ray

  3. SU-E-T-274: Radiation Therapy with Very High-Energy Electron (VHEE) Beams in the Presence of Metal Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C; Palma, B; Qu, B; Maxim, P; Loo, B; Bazalova, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Hardemark, B; Hynning, E [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of metal implants on treatment plans for radiation therapy with very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams. Methods: The DOSXYZnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) codes were used to simulate 50–150MeV VHEE beam dose deposition and its effects on steel and titanium (Ti) heterogeneities in a water phantom. Heterogeneities of thicknesses ranging from 0.5cm to 2cm were placed at 10cm depth. MC was also used to calculate electron and photon spectra generated by the VHEE beams' interaction with metal heterogeneities. The original VMAT patient dose calculation was planned in Eclipse. Patient dose calculations with MC-generated beamlets were planned using a Matlab GUI and research version of RayStation. VHEE MC treatment planning was performed on water-only geometry and water with segmented prostheses (steel and Ti) geometries with 100MeV and 150MeV beams. Results: 100MeV PDD 5cm behind steel/Ti heterogeneity was 51% less than in the water-only phantom. For some cases, dose enhancement lateral to the borders of the phantom increased the dose by up to 22% in steel and 18% in Ti heterogeneities. The dose immediately behind steel heterogeneity decreased by an average of 6%, although for 150MeV, the steel heterogeneity created a 23% increase in dose directly behind it. The average dose immediately behind Ti heterogeneities increased 10%. The prostate VHEE plans resulted in mean dose decrease to the bowel (20%), bladder (7%), and the urethra (5%) compared to the 15MV VMAT plan. The average dose to the body with prosthetic implants was 5% higher than to the body without implants. Conclusion: Based on MC simulations, metallic implants introduce dose perturbations to VHEE beams from lateral scatter and backscatter. However, when performing clinical planning on a prostate case, the use of multiple beams and inverse planning still produces VHEE plans that are dosimetrically superior to photon VMAT plans. BW Loo and P Maxim received research support from

  4. SU-E-T-274: Radiation Therapy with Very High-Energy Electron (VHEE) Beams in the Presence of Metal Implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C; Palma, B; Qu, B; Maxim, P; Loo, B; Bazalova, M; Hardemark, B; Hynning, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of metal implants on treatment plans for radiation therapy with very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams. Methods: The DOSXYZnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) codes were used to simulate 50–150MeV VHEE beam dose deposition and its effects on steel and titanium (Ti) heterogeneities in a water phantom. Heterogeneities of thicknesses ranging from 0.5cm to 2cm were placed at 10cm depth. MC was also used to calculate electron and photon spectra generated by the VHEE beams' interaction with metal heterogeneities. The original VMAT patient dose calculation was planned in Eclipse. Patient dose calculations with MC-generated beamlets were planned using a Matlab GUI and research version of RayStation. VHEE MC treatment planning was performed on water-only geometry and water with segmented prostheses (steel and Ti) geometries with 100MeV and 150MeV beams. Results: 100MeV PDD 5cm behind steel/Ti heterogeneity was 51% less than in the water-only phantom. For some cases, dose enhancement lateral to the borders of the phantom increased the dose by up to 22% in steel and 18% in Ti heterogeneities. The dose immediately behind steel heterogeneity decreased by an average of 6%, although for 150MeV, the steel heterogeneity created a 23% increase in dose directly behind it. The average dose immediately behind Ti heterogeneities increased 10%. The prostate VHEE plans resulted in mean dose decrease to the bowel (20%), bladder (7%), and the urethra (5%) compared to the 15MV VMAT plan. The average dose to the body with prosthetic implants was 5% higher than to the body without implants. Conclusion: Based on MC simulations, metallic implants introduce dose perturbations to VHEE beams from lateral scatter and backscatter. However, when performing clinical planning on a prostate case, the use of multiple beams and inverse planning still produces VHEE plans that are dosimetrically superior to photon VMAT plans. BW Loo and P Maxim received research support from

  5. SU-D-19A-06: The Effect of Beam Parameters On Very High-Energy Electron Radiotherapy: A Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, B; Bazalova, M; Qu, B; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Hardemark, B; Hynning, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the effect of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beam parameters on the planning of a lung cancer case by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: We simulated VHEE radiotherapy plans using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc-DOSXYZnrc code. We selected a lung cancer case that was treated with 6MV photon VMAT to be planned with VHEE. We studied the effect of beam energy (80 MeV, 100 MeV, and 120 MeV), number of equidistant beams (16 or 32), and beamlets sizes (3 mm, 5 mm or 7 mm) on PTV coverage, sparing of organs at risk (OARs) and dose conformity. Inverse-planning optimization was performed in a research version of RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories AB) using identical objective functions and constraints for all VHEE plans. Results: Similar PTV coverage and dose conformity was achieved by all the VHEE plans. The 100 MeV and 120 MeV VHEE plans were equivalent amongst them and were superior to the 80 MeV plan in terms of OARs sparing. The effect of using 16 or 32 equidistant beams was a mean difference in average dose of 2.4% (0%–7.7%) between the two plans. The use of 3 mm beamlet size systematically reduced the dose to all the OARs. Based on these results we selected the 100MeV-16beams-3mm-beamlet-size plan to compare it against VMAT. The selected VHEE plan was more conformal than VMAT and improved OAR sparing (heart and trachea received 125% and 177% lower dose, respectively) especially in the low-dose region. Conclusion: We determined the VHEE beam parameters that maximized the OAR dose sparing and dose conformity of the actually delivered VMAT plan of a lung cancer case. The selected parameters could be used for the planning of other treatment sites with similar size, shape, and location. For larger targets, a larger beamlet size might be used without significantly increasing the dose. B Palma: None. M Bazalova: None. B Hardemark: Employee, RaySearch Americas. E Hynning: Employee, RaySearch Americas. B Qu: None. B Loo Jr.: Research support, Ray

  6. Adaptation of penelope Monte Carlo code system to the absorbed dose metrology: characterization of high energy photon beams and calculations of reference dosimeter correction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurier, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)

  7. Studies of thermophysical properties of high-energy-density states in matter using intense heavy ion beams at the future Fair accelerator facilities: The HEDgeHOB collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N.A.; Deutsch, C.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Gryaznov, V.; Fortov, V.E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Ni, P.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Piriz, A.R.; Wouchuk, G.

    2006-01-01

    Intense beams of energetic heavy ions are believed to be a very efficient and novel tool to create states of High-Energy-Density (HED) in matter. This paper shows with the help of numerical simulations that the heavy ion beams that will be generated at the future Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) will allow one to use two different experimental schemes to study HED states in matter. The German government has recently approved the construction of FAIR at Darmstadt. First scheme named HIHEX (Heavy Ion Heating and EXpansion), will generate high-pressure, high-entropy states in matter by volumetric isochoric heating. The heated material will then be allowed to expand in an isentropic way. Using this scheme, it will be possible to study important regions of the phase diagram that are either difficult to access or are even unaccessible using traditional methods of shock compression. The second scheme would allow one to achieve low-entropy compression of a sample material like hydrogen or water to produce conditions that are believed to exist in the interiors of the giant planets. This scheme is named LAPLAS after Laboratory Planetary Sciences. (authors)

  8. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  9. Validation of calculated tissue maximum ratio obtained from measured percentage depth dose (PPD) data for high energy photon beam ( 6 MV and 15 MV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, J.E.

    2014-07-01

    During external beam radiotherapy treatments, high doses are delivered to the cancerous cell. Accuracy and precision of dose delivery are primary requirements for effective and efficiency in treatment. This leads to the consideration of treatment parameters such as percentage depth dose (PDD), tissue air ratio (TAR) and tissue phantom ratio (TPR), which show the dose distribution in the patient. Nevertheless, tissue air ratio (TAR) for treatment time calculation, calls for the need to measure in-air-dose rate. For lower energies, measurement is not a problem but for higher energies, in-air measurement is not attainable due to the large build-up material required for the measurement. Tissue maximum ratio (TMR) is the quantity required to replace tissue air ratio (TAR) for high energy photon beam. It is known that tissue maximum ratio (TMR) is an important dosimetric function in radiotherapy treatment. As the calculation methods used to determine tissue maximum ratio (TMR) from percentage depth dose (PDD) were derived by considering the differences between TMR and PDD such as geometry and field size, where phantom scatter or peak scatter factors are used to correct dosimetric variation due to field size difference. The purpose of this study is to examine the accuracy of calculated tissue maximum ratio (TMR) data with measured TMR values for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beam at Sweden Ghana Medical Centre. With the help of the Blue motorize water phantom and the Omni pro-Accept software, Pdd values from which TMRs are calculated were measured at 100 cm source-to-surface distance (SSD) for various square field sizes from 5x5 cm to 40x40 cm and depth of 1.5 cm to 25 cm for 6 MV and 15 MV x-ray beam. With the same field sizes, depths and energies, the TMR values were measured. The validity of the calculated data was determined by making a comparison with values measured experimentally at some selected field sizes and depths. The results show that; the reference depth of maximum

  10. RC T beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Spagnolo JR

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental data of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites. The tests were composed of eight T beams, b w=15 cm, h=40 cm, flange width 40 cm, flange height 8 cm, and length 300 cm, divided into two series with the same longitudinal steel reinforcement and a reference beam without strengthening in each series. The beams had two types of arrangement of internal steel stirrups. The test variables were the internal and external geometric ratio of the transverse reinforcement and the mechanical ratio of carbon fiber composites stirrups. All the beams were loaded at two points. The strengthened beams were submitted to a preloading and the strengthening was applied to the cracked beam. All the beams were designed in order to guarantee shear failure, and the ultimate load of the strengthened beams was 36% to 54% greater than the reference beams. The Cracking Sliding Model applied to the strengthened beams was evaluated and showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Carbon beam dosimetry using VIP polymer gel and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantemiris, I; Petrokokkinos, L; Angelopoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    VIP polymer gel dosimeter was used for Carbon ion beam dosimetry using a 150 MeV/n beam with 10 Gy plateau dose and a SOBP irradiation scheme with 5 Gy Bragg peak dose. The results show a decrease by 8 mm in the expected from Monte Carlo simulation range in water, suggesting that the dosimeter...

  12. TU-H-BRC-03: Evaluation of Very High-Energy Electron (VHEE) Beams in Comparison to VMAT and PBS Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, E; Loo, B; Maxim, P [Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States); Eriksson, K; Hynning, E [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams in comparison to clinically delivered treatment plans generated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) technology. Methods: Three clinical cases were selected (prostate, lung, and pediatric CNS). The VHEE plans were calculated in the Monte Carlo EGSnrc code and pencil beam doses were calculated using the DOSxyznrc MC code for 100 and 200 MeV beams. Treatment plans with VHEE, VMAT, and PBS were optimized in a research version of RayStation using an in house build script in order to minimize operator bias between the different techniques. Results: For the prostate cancer case, the PBS plan showed lower mean organ at risk (OAR) doses compared to the other modalities. An exception was the femoral heads, due to the lateral beam arrangements. The VMAT plan showed lower mean doses to the rectum and the bladder compared to the 100 MeV VHEE plan. The lung cancer case showed minor differences between the three modalities. However, the PBS plan showed a lower contralateral lung dose. The pediatric CNS case showed a better conformity and lower spinal cord dose for the 100 MeV VHEE plan. For all cases, the 200 MeV VHEE plans were found to be similar to or better than the 100 MeV VHEE plans. Conclusion: The present study showed that VHEE plans are similar or superior to VMAT plans with reduced mean OAR dose and increased target conformity for a variety of clinical cases. With increased VHEE energy, better conformity and even higher reductions in mean OAR doses can be achieved. Funding: DoD, Award#:W81XWH-13-1-0165, Weston Havens Foundation, Bio-X (Stanford University), the Office of the Dean of the Medical School, the Office of the Provost (Stanford University), and the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. BL and PM are founders of TibaRay,Inc. BL and PM have received research grants from Varian and RaySearch Laboratory.

  13. SnSe/carbon nanocomposite synthesized by high energy ball milling as an anode material for sodium-ion and lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhian; Zhao, Xingxing; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was synthesised by high energy ball milling and empolyed as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The nanocomposite anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Highlights: • A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black was fabricated by high energy ball milling. • SnSe and carbon black are homogeneously mixed at the nanoscale level. • The SnSe/C anode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances in both SIBs and LIBs. - Abstract: A homogeneous nanocomposite of SnSe and carbon black, denoted as SnSe/C nanocomposite, was fabricated by high energy ball milling and empolyed as a high performance anode material for both sodium-ion batteries and lithium-ion batteries. The X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations confirmed that SnSe in SnSe/C nanocomposite was homogeneously distributed within carbon black. The nanocomposite anode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances including a high capacity, long cycling behavior and good rate performance in both sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In SIBs, an initial capacitiy of 748.5 mAh g −1 was obtained and was maintained well on cycling (324.9 mAh g −1 at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 in the 200 th cycle) with 72.5% retention of second cycle capacity (447.7 mAh g −1 ). In LIBs, high initial capacities of approximately 1097.6 mAh g −1 was obtained, and this reduced to 633.1 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at 500 mA g −1

  14. Selection of carbon beam therapy: biophysical models of carbon beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsufuji, Naruhiro

    2018-03-01

    Variation in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) within the irradiation field of a carbon beam makes carbon-ion radiotherapy unique and advantageous in delivering the therapeutic dose to a deep-seated tumor, while sparing surrounding normal tissues. However, it is crucial to consider the RBE, not only in designing the dose distribution during treatment planning, but also in analyzing the clinical response retrospectively. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, the RBE model was established based on the response of human salivary gland cells. The response was originally handled with a linear-quadratic model, and later with a microdosimetric kinetic model. Retrospective analysis with a tumor-control probability model of non-small cell cancer treatment revealed a steep dose response in the tumor, and that the RBE of the tumor was adequately estimated using the model. A commonly used normal tissue complication probability model has not yet fully been accountable for the variable RBE of carbon ions; however, analysis of rectum injury after prostate cancer treatment suggested a highly serial-organ structure for the rectum, and a steep dose response similar to that observed for tumors.

  15. Highly ordered and ultra-long carbon nanotube arrays as air cathodes for high-energy-efficiency Li-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruimin; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Dong, Shaoming

    2016-02-01

    Carbonaceous air cathodes with rational architecture are vital for the nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries to achieve large energy density, high energy efficiency and long cycle life. In this work, we report the cathodes made of highly ordered and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown on permeable Ta foil substrates (VACNTs-Ta) via thermal chemical vapour deposition. The VACNTs-Ta, composed of uniform carbon nanotubes with approximately 240 μm in superficial height, has the super large surface area. Meanwhile, the oriented carbon nanotubes provide extremely outstanding passageways for Li ions and oxygen species. Electrochemistry tests of VACNTs-Ta air cathodes show enhancement in discharge capacity and cycle life compared to those made from short-range oriented and disordered carbon nanotubes. By further combining with the LiI redox mediator that is dissolved in the tetraethylene dimethyl glycol based electrolytes, the batteries exhibit more than 200 cycles at the current density of 200 mA g-1 with a cut-off discharge capacity of 1000 mAh g-1, and their energy efficiencies increase from 50% to 82%. The results here demonstrate the importance of cathode construction for high-energy-efficiency and long-life Li-O2 batteries.

  16. Setup and commissioning of a cryogenic system for the production of targets to be used in experiments with high energy lasers and heavy ion beams; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme einer Kryoanlage zur Targeterzeugung fuer Experimente mit Hochenergielasern und Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jurij Alexander

    2010-02-10

    Part of this work was the development of a cryogenic system to produce solid state targets out of nitrogen and rare gases but also hydrogen and deuterium. For target optimization a portable cryogenic test and development chamber has been set up, which can be used offline at different experimental places. Cryogenic targets with different geometries have been produced. Targets with a high aspect ratio having a thickness of only a few micrometers and transverse sizes of millimeters are of special interest for the envisioned investigations. Such targets permit the generation of laser plasmas with a high degree of homogeneity, thus enabling the measurement of the ion energy loss under well defined conditions. Nevertheless, high aspect ratio targets are technologically demanding. Thus, in view of energy loss experiments a simpler geometry has also been considered. Therefore, cryogenic nitrogen targets with cm sizes have been produced and irradiated by the nhelix high energy laser system. The free electron density of the generated plasma has been measured in the range up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The measured electron temperature was about 200 eV. The experimental results have been compared to computer simulations and analyzed. It turned out that simulation and experiment are in good agreement, but the free electron density was too low and inhomogeneous for reliable energy loss experiments. Therefore, further deuterium targets with a high aspect ratio but varying geometries have been produced. These targets have been probed by the UNILAC ion beam and it has been shown that the ion beam can penetrate through them. The targets have also been simultaneously irradiated by the high energy laser systems nhelix and Phelix. The free electron density inside the deuterium plasma has been measured and compared with computer simulations. As in the case of nitrogen plasmas a good agreement has been observed. A new measurement technique has been developed to characterize the target

  17. Simultaneous application of high energy electron and photon beams in the radiotherapy of malignant tumours: problems of clinical irradiation-planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petranyi, J.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the work was to elaborate a new procedure of radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck, fulfilling the following requirements: 1. the dose-maximum should be 1-6 cm below the skin, 2. in the tumour-volume the dose-decrease should not exceed 10%, 3. towards the environment the dose should sharply decrease so that the radiation burden of the healthy tissues should not exceed their tolerance. These criteria were met by the simultaneous application of 5-25 MeV energy electron beam (produced by B5M25 Betatron) and 29 MeV Bremsstrahlung or by the latter plus 60 Co gamma-radiation. In the case of irradiation of inhomogeneous tissues only the combination of the high energy photon radiations was successfull. The alteration of the ratio and/or the energy of the components results in the change of the maximal dose point. The thesis provides irradiation-plans for radiotherapy of unilateral cerebral, oral and sinus maxillaris tumours and cervical, supra- and infraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes. (L.E.)

  18. Experimental study on neutronics in bombardment of thick targets by high energy proton beams for accelerator-driven sub-critical system

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Shi Lun; Shi Yong Qian; Shen Qing Biao; Wan Jun Sheng; Brandt, R; Vater, P; Kulakov, B A; Krivopustov, M I; Sosnin, A N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental study on neutronics in the target region of accelerator-driven sub-critical system is carried out by using the high energy accelerator in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. The experiments with targets U(Pb), Pb and Hg bombarded by 0.533, 1.0, 3.7 and 7.4 GeV proton beams show that the neutron yield ratio of U(Pb) to Hg and Pb to Hg targets is (2.10 +- 0.10) and (1.76 +- 0.33), respectively. Hg target is disadvantageous to U(Pb) and Pb targets to get more neutrons. Neutron yield drops along 20 cm thick targets as the thickness penetrated by protons increases. The lower the energy of protons, the steeper the neutron yield drops. In order to get more uniform field of neutrons in the targets, the energy of protons from accelerators should not be lower than 1 GeV. The spectra of secondary neutrons produced by different energies of protons are similar, but the proportion of neutrons with higher energy gradually increases as the proton energy increases

  19. The distribution of InCl sub x compounds in model polymeric LEDs A combined low and high-energy ion beam analysis study

    CERN Document Server

    Reijme, M A; Simons, D P L; Schok, M; Ijzendoorn, L J V; Brongersma, H H; De Voigt, M J A

    2002-01-01

    A combination of low- and high-energy ion beam analysis techniques was used to determine the distribution of indium chloride compounds in model polymeric light-emitting diodes (p-LEDs). Parts of polymeric LEDs (polydialkoxyphenylenevinylene (OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrates) were exposed to a HCl/Ar flow to simulate the processes occurring during conversion of precursor PPVs and acid treatment of polymers. Samples with variable exposure times as well as pristine samples were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The RBS measurements show that after HCl exposure indium is distributed throughout the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. LEIS and XPS measurements indicate that the indium and chlorine are present at the outermost surface of the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. PIXE measurements in combination with the RBS data demonstrate that th...

  20. Production and characterization of supersonic carbon cluster beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohlfing, E.A.; Cox, D.M.; Kaldor, A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser vaporization of a substrate within the throat of a pulsed nozzle is used to generate a supersonic beam of carbon clusters. The neutral cluster beam is probed downstream by UV laser photoionization with time-of-flight mass analysis of the resulting photoions. Using graphite as the substrate, carbon clusters C/sub n/ for n = 1--190 have been produced having a distinctly bimodal cluster size distribution: (i) Both even and odd clusters for C/sub n/, 1 + /sub n/ signals are interpreted on the basis of cluster formation and stability arguments. Ionizing laser power dependences taken at several different photon energies are used to roughly bracket the carbon cluster ionization potentials, and, at high laser intensity, to observe the onset of multiphoton fragmentation. By treating the graphite rod with KOH, a greatly altered carbon cluster distribution with mixed carbon/potassium clusters of formula K 2 C/sub 2n/ is produced

  1. Structural and compositional characterization of X-cut LiNbO3 crystals implanted with high energy oxygen and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentini, G.G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Sada, C.; Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Mazzoldi, P.; Guzzi, R.

    2005-01-01

    High energy implantation of medium-light elements such as oxygen and carbon was performed in X-cut LiNbO 3 single crystals in order to prepare high quality optical waveguides. The compositional and damage profiles, obtained by exploiting the secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford back-scattering techniques respectively, were correlated to the structural properties measured by the high resolution X-ray diffraction. This study evidences the development of tensile strain induced by the ion implantation that can contribute to the decrease of the ordinary refractive index variation through the photo-elastic effect

  2. Lithium and sodium ion capacitors with high energy and power densities based on carbons from recycled olive pits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajuria, Jon; Redondo, Edurne; Arnaiz, Maria; Mysyk, Roman; Rojo, Teófilo; Goikolea, Eider

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitors (LIC and NIC) entirely based on electrodes designed from recycled olive pit bio-waste derived carbon materials. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. On the other hand, the same hard carbon was chemically activated with KOH to obtain a high specific surface area activated carbon that was further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. Both electrodes were custom-made to be assembled in a hybrid cell to either build a LIC or NIC in the corresponding Li- and Na-based electrolytes. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5 M Et4NBF4/acetonitrile electrolyte was also built. Both LIC and NIC systems demonstrate remarkable energy and power density enhancement over its EDLC counterpart while showing good cycle life. This breakthrough offers the possibility to easily fabricate versatile hybrid ion capacitors, covering a wide variety of applications where different requirements are demanded.

  3. Improvement of carbon fiber surface properties using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, E.S.; Machado, L.D.B.; Giovedi, C.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced advance composites have been used for structural applications, mainly on account of their mechanical properties. The main factor for a good mechanical performance of carbon fiber-reinforced composite is the interfacial interaction between its components, which are carbon fiber and polymeric matrix. The aim of this study is to improve the surface properties of the carbon fiber using ionizing radiation from an electron beam to obtain better adhesion properties in the resultant composite. EB radiation was applied on the carbon fiber itself before preparing test specimens for the mechanical tests. Experimental results showed that EB irradiation improved the tensile strength of carbon fiber samples. The maximum value in tensile strength was reached using doses of about 250 kGy. After breakage, the morphology aspect of the tensile specimens prepared with irradiated and non-irradiated car- bon fibers were evaluated. SEM micrographs showed modifications on the carbon fiber surface. (authors)

  4. SU-E-T-381: Evaluation of Calculated Dose Accuracy for Organs-At-Risk Located at Out-Of-Field in a Commercial Treatment Planning System for High Energy Photon Beams Produced From TrueBeam Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Ding, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dose calculation accuracy for the out-of-field dose is important for predicting the dose to the organs-at-risk when they are located outside primary beams. The investigations on evaluating the calculation accuracy of treatment planning systems (TPS) on out-of-field dose in existing publications have focused on low energy (6MV) photon. This study evaluates out-of-field dose calculation accuracy of AAA algorithm for 15MV high energy photon beams. Methods: We used the EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) codes to evaluate the AAA algorithm in Varian Eclipse TPS (v.11). The incident beams start with validated Varian phase-space sources for a TrueBeam linac equipped with Millennium 120 MLC. Dose comparisons between using AAA and MC for CT based realistic patient treatment plans using VMAT techniques for prostate and lung were performed and uncertainties of organ dose predicted by AAA at out-of-field location were evaluated. Results: The results show that AAA calculations under-estimate doses at the dose level of 1% (or less) of prescribed dose for CT based patient treatment plans using VMAT techniques. In regions where dose is only 1% of prescribed dose, although AAA under-estimates the out-of-field dose by 30% relative to the local dose, it is only about 0.3% of prescribed dose. For example, the uncertainties of calculated organ dose to liver or kidney that is located out-of-field is <0.3% of prescribed dose. Conclusion: For 15MV high energy photon beams, very good agreements (<1%) in calculating dose distributions were obtained between AAA and MC. The uncertainty of out-of-field dose calculations predicted by the AAA algorithm for realistic patient VMAT plans is <0.3% of prescribed dose in regions where the dose relative to the prescribed dose is <1%, although the uncertainties can be much larger relative to local doses. For organs-at-risk located at out-of-field, the error of dose predicted by Eclipse using AAA is negligible. This work was conducted in part using the

  5. Direct growth of vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as novel negative electrodes for high-energy-density wearable fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiabin; Zhang, Qichong; Sun, Juan; Li, Chaowei; Zhao, Jingxin; Zhou, Zhenyu; He, Bing; Wang, Xiaona; Man, Ping; Li, Qiulong; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Liyan; Li, Mingxing; Yao, Yagang

    2018-04-01

    Significant efforts have been recently devoted to constructing high-performance fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors. However, it is still a paramount challenge to develop high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitors for practical applications in portable and wearable electronics. This work reports a simple and efficient method to directly grow vanadium nitride nanosheets on carbon nanotube fibers as advanced negative electrodes with a high specific capacitance of 188 F/cm3 (564 mF/cm2). Taking advantage of their attractive structure, we successfully fabricated a fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum operating voltage of 1.6 V by assembling the vanadium nitride/carbon nanotube fiber negative electrode with the Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt ternary oxides nanowire arrays positive electrode. Due to the excellent synergistic effects between positive and negative electrodes, a remarkable specific capacitance of 50 F/cm3 (150 mF/cm2) and an outstanding energy density of 17.78 mWh/cm3 (53.33 μWh/cm2) for our fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor can be achieved. Furthermore, the as-assembled fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor device has excellent mechanical flexibility in that 91% of the capacitance retained after bending 90° for 3000 times. Thus, this work exploits a pathway to construct high-energy-density fiber-shaped asymmetric supercapacitor for next-generation portable and wearable electronics.

  6. Surface chemistry and catalytic activity of Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradiated with high-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jin [Department of Optometry and Optic Science, Dongshin University, 252 Daeho-Dong, Naju 520-714 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jinjun@dsu.ac.kr; Dhayal, Marshal [Liquid Crystal and Self Assembled Monolayer Section, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. KS Krisnan Marg, New Delhi 120011 (India); Shin, Joong-Hyeok [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dongshin University, 252 Daeho-Dong, Naju 520-714 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Getoff, Nikola [Department of Nutrition, Section Radiation Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-05-30

    The radiation effects induced effects by electron beam (EB) treatment on the catalytic activity of Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were studied for the carbon dioxide reforming of methane with different EB energy and absorbed radiation dose. Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the change in structure and surface states of Ni/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst before and after the EB treatment. Higher energy EB treatment is useful for increasing the proportion of the active sites (such as Ni{sup 0} and NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-phase) on the surface. The increase of Ni/Al-ratio indicates that the Ni dispersion on the surface increased with the EB-treatment, resulting in an increase of the active sites, which leads to improving the catalytic activity. XPS measurement also showed a decrease of the surface carbon with EB dose. The maximum 20% increase in the conversion of CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}-mixture into CO/H{sub 2} gas was observed for the catalyst treated with 2 MeV energy and 600 kGy dose of EB relative to untreated.

  7. Electron beam induced emission from carbon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, S.; Kammash, T.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma use as a lasing medium has many potential advantages over conventional techniques including increased power levels and greater wavelength ranges. The basic concept is to heat and then rapidly cool a plasma forcing inversion through bottleneck creation between the recombination reaction populating a given energy level and the subsequent decay processes. Much effort has been devoted to plasmas heated by lasers and pinch devices. The authors are concerned here with electron beam heated plasmas focusing on the CIV 5g-4f transition occurring at 2530 Angstroms. These studies were initiated to provide theoretical support for experiments being performed at the University of Michigan using the Michigan Electron Long-Pulse Beam Accelerator (MELBA)

  8. The hybrid nanostructure of MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel for symmetric supercapacitors with high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Li, Liyi; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Jiang, Huaidong; Wong, C. P.; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by calcination. The carbon aerogel exhibits a high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and porous structure, ensuring high electrochemical performance of the hybrid nanostructure when coupled with the porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles. The symmetric supercapacitor using the MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure as the active electrode material exhibits a high energy density of about 84.3 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 600 W kg-1. The voltage window is as high as 1.5 V in neutral aqueous electrolytes. Due to the unique nanostructure of the electrodes, the capacitance retention reaches 86% over 5000 cycles.Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by

  9. Ultrafast Melting of Carbon Induced by Intense Proton Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, A.; Guenther, M. M.; Harres, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.; Gregori, G.; Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Kritcher, A. L.; Heathcote, R.; Li, B.; Neely, D.; Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.; Makita, M.; Riley, D.; Mithen, J.; Schaumann, G.; Schollmeier, M.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-produced proton beams have been used to achieve ultrafast volumetric heating of carbon samples at solid density. The isochoric melting of carbon was probed by a scattering of x rays from a secondary laser-produced plasma. From the scattering signal, we have deduced the fraction of the material that was melted by the inhomogeneous heating. The results are compared to different theoretical approaches for the equation of state which suggests modifications from standard models.

  10. Bulk Cutting of Carbon Nanotubes Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Kirk J. (Inventor); Rauwald, Urs (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Schmidt, Howard K. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Gu, Zhenning (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for attaining short carbon nanotubes utilizing electron beam irradiation, for example, of a carbon nanotube sample. The sample may be pretreated, for example by oxonation. The pretreatment may introduce defects to the sidewalls of the nanotubes. The method is shown to produces nanotubes with a distribution of lengths, with the majority of lengths shorter than 100 tun. Further, the median length of the nanotubes is between about 20 nm and about 100 nm.

  11. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required

  12. From Rice Bran to High Energy Density Supercapacitors: A New Route to Control Porous Structure of 3D Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Ma, Xilan; Idrees, Faryal; Xu, Bin; Hao, Xin; Lin, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Controlled micro/mesopores interconnected structures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon with high specific surface areas (SSA) are successfully prepared by carbonization and activation of biomass (raw rice brans) through KOH. The highest SSA of 2475 m2 g-1 with optimized pore volume of 1.21 cm3 g-1 (40% for mesopores) is achieved for KOH/RBC = 4 mass ratio, than others. The as-prepared 3D porous carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors exhibit high specific capacitance specifically at large current densities of 10 A g-1 and 100 A g-1 i.e., 265 F g-1 and 182 F g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, respectively. Moreover, a high power density ca. 1223 W kg-1 (550 W L-1) and energy density 70 W h kg-1 (32 W h L-1) are achieved on the base of active material loading (~10 mg cm2) in the ionic liquid. The findings can open a new avenue to use abundant agricultural by-products as ideal materials with promising applications in high-performance energy-storage devices.

  13. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  14. Fabrication of High Energy Density Tin/Carbon Anode Using Reduction Expansion Synthesis and Aerosol Through Plasma Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    his assistance with the analysis of samples using the TEM, as well as teaching me the safe use of XRD and SEM. Special thanks also go out to Ryan Adams...from the energy and construct a greyscale image for display. Figure 19. Zeiss NEON 40 SEM. Setup of SEM. Left: SEM and movement of stage using...delithiation cycling,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 161, no. 11, pp. 3019– 3024, Jun. 2014. [20] P. L. Walker, Chemistry and Physics of Carbon: A Series of

  15. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  16. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  17. A high energy and power sodium-ion hybrid capacitor based on nitrogen-doped hollow carbon nanowires anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Ye, Chao; Chen, Xinzhi; Wang, Suqing; Wang, Haihui

    2018-04-01

    The sodium ion hybrid capacitor (SHC) has been attracting much attention. However, the SHC's power density is significantly confined to a low level due to the sluggish ion diffusion in the anode. Herein, we propose to use an electrode with a high double layer capacitance as the anode in the SHC instead of insertion anodes. To this aim, nitrogen doped hollow carbon nanowires (N-HCNWs) with a high specific surface area are prepared, and the high capacitive contribution during the sodium ion storage process is confirmed by a series of electrochemical measurements. A new SHC consisting of a N-HCNW anode and a commercial active carbon (AC) cathode is fabricated for the first time. Due to the hybrid charge storage mechanism combining ion insertion and capacitive process, the as-fabricated SHC strikes a balance between the energy density and power density, a energy density of 108 Wh kg-1 and a power density of 9 kW kg-1 can be achieved, which overwhelms the electrochemical performances of most reported AC-based SHCs.

  18. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam; Radiolisis de benceno, tolueno y fenol en solucion acuosa utilizando haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D E

    1999-12-31

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 {mu}A). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  19. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam; Radiolisis de benceno, tolueno y fenol en solucion acuosa utilizando haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D.E

    1998-12-31

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 {mu}A). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  20. SU-E-T-336: Dosimetric Properties of a New Solid Water High Equivalency Phantom for High-Energy Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, F; Ohno, T; Onitsuka, R; Shimohigashi, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric properties in high-energy photon beams for a Solid Water High Equivalency (SWHE, SW557) phantom (Gammex) which was newly developed as water mimicking material. Methods: The mass density of SWHE and SWHE/water electron density ratio are 1.032 g/cm 3 and 1.005 according to the manufacturer information, respectively. SWHE is more water equivalent material in physical characteristics and uniformity than conventional SW457. This study calculated the relative ionization ratio of water and SWHE as a function of depth from the cavity dose in PTW30013 and Exradin A19 Farmer-type ionization chambers using Monte Caro simulations. The simulation was performed with a 10 x 10 cm 2 field at SAD of 100 cm for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photons. The ionization ratio was also measured with the PTW30013 chamber for 6 and 15 MV photons. In addition, the overall perturbation factor of both chambers was calculated for both phantoms. Results: The relative ionization ratio curves for water and SWHE was in good agreement for all photon energies. The ionization ratio of water/SWHE for both chambers was 0.999–1.002, 0.999–1.002, 1.001–1.004, 1.004–1.007, and 1.006–1.010 at depths of over the buildup region for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photons, respectively. The ionization ratio of water/SWHE increased up to 1% with increasing the photon energy. The measured ionization ratio of water/SWHE for 6 and 15 MV photons agreed well with calculated values. The overall perturbation factor for both chambers was 0.983–0.988 and 0.978–0.983 for water and SWHE, respectively, in a range from 4 MV to 18 MV. Conclusion: The depth scaling factor of water/SWHE was equal to unity for all photon energies. The ionization ratio of water/SWHE at a reference depth was equal to unity for 4 and 6 MV and larger up to 0.7% than unity for 18 MV

  1. The first interdisciplinary experiments at the IMP high energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Guo, Na; Liu, Wenjing; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Lina; Li, Qiang [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Li, Huiyun [Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-04-01

    The high energy beam of tens to hundred MeV/u ions possesses mm-to-cm penetration depth in materials and can be easily extracted into air without significant energy loss and beam scattering. Combination of high energy ions and microbeam technology facilitates the microprobe application to many practical studies in large scale samples. The IMP heavy ion microbeam facility has recently been integrated with microscopic positioning and targeting irradiation system. This paper introduced the first interdisciplinary experiments performed at the IMP microbeam facility using the beam of 80.5 MeV/u carbon ions. Bystander effect induction via medium transferring was not found in the micro-irradiation study using HeLa cells. The mouse irradiation experiment demonstrated that carbon irradiation of 10 Gy dose to its tuberomammillary nucleus did not impair the sleep nerve system. The fault injection attack on RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) decryption proved that the commercial field-programmable gate array chip is vulnerable in single event effect to low linear-energy-transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of RSA private key. This work demonstrates the potential of high energy microbeam in its application to biology, biomedical, radiation hardness, and information security studies.

  2. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  3. Peapod-like Li3 VO4 /N-Doped Carbon Nanowires with Pseudocapacitive Properties as Advanced Materials for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Lv, Haifeng; Chen, Shuangqiang; Kopold, Peter; van Aken, Peter A; Wu, Xiaojun; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Lithium ion capacitors are new energy storage devices combining the complementary features of both electric double-layer capacitors and lithium ion batteries. A key limitation to this technology is the kinetic imbalance between the Faradaic insertion electrode and capacitive electrode. Here, we demonstrate that the Li 3 VO 4 with low Li-ion insertion voltage and fast kinetics can be favorably used for lithium ion capacitors. N-doped carbon-encapsulated Li 3 VO 4 nanowires are synthesized through a morphology-inheritance route, displaying a low insertion voltage between 0.2 and 1.0 V, a high reversible capacity of ≈400 mAh g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 , excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling stability. Benefiting from the small nanoparticles, low energy diffusion barrier and highly localized charge-transfer, the Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires exhibit a high-rate pseudocapacitive behavior. A lithium ion capacitor device based on these Li 3 VO 4 /N-doped carbon nanowires delivers a high energy density of 136.4 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 532 W kg -1 , revealing the potential for application in high-performance and long life energy storage devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Bacterial-cellulose-derived carbon nanofiber@MnO₂ and nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber electrode materials: an asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy and power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Feng; Huang, Zhi-Hong; Liang, Hai-Wei; Guan, Qing-Fang; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2013-09-14

    A new kind of high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor is designed with pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose (p-BC)-coated MnO₂ as a positive electrode material and nitrogen-doped p-BC as a negative electrode material via an easy, efficient, large-scale, and green fabrication approach. The optimal asymmetric device possesses an excellent supercapacitive behavior with quite high energy and power density. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. High-energy supercapacitors based on hierarchical porous carbon with an ultrahigh ion-accessible surface area in ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hui; Xu, Fei; Li, Zenghui; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2013-05-01

    A very important yet really challenging issue to address is how to greatly increase the energy density of supercapacitors to approach or even exceed those of batteries without sacrificing the power density. Herein we report the fabrication of a new class of ultrahigh surface area hierarchical porous carbon (UHSA-HPC) based on the pore formation and widening of polystyrene-derived HPC by KOH activation, and highlight its superior ability for energy storage in supercapacitors with ionic liquid (IL) as electrolyte. The UHSA-HPC with a surface area of more than 3000 m2 g-1 shows an extremely high energy density, i.e., 118 W h kg-1 at a power density of 100 W kg-1. This is ascribed to its unique hierarchical nanonetwork structure with a large number of small-sized nanopores for IL storage and an ideal meso-/macroporous network for IL transfer.A very important yet really challenging issue to address is how to greatly increase the energy density of supercapacitors to approach or even exceed those of batteries without sacrificing the power density. Herein we report the fabrication of a new class of ultrahigh surface area hierarchical porous carbon (UHSA-HPC) based on the pore formation and widening of polystyrene-derived HPC by KOH activation, and highlight its superior ability for energy storage in supercapacitors with ionic liquid (IL) as electrolyte. The UHSA-HPC with a surface area of more than 3000 m2 g-1 shows an extremely high energy density, i.e., 118 W h kg-1 at a power density of 100 W kg-1. This is ascribed to its unique hierarchical nanonetwork structure with a large number of small-sized nanopores for IL storage and an ideal meso-/macroporous network for IL transfer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sample preparation, material characterization, electrochemical characterization and specific mass capacitance and energy density. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00738c

  6. Dose Response of Alanine Detectors Irradiated with Carbon Ion Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The dose response of the alanine detector shows a dependence on particle energy and type, when irradiated with ion beams. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response behaviour of the alanine detector in clinical carbon ion beams and compare the results with model predictions......-dose curves deviate from predictions in the peak region, most pronounced at the distal edge of the peak. Conclusions: The used model and its implementation show a good overall agreement for quasi mono energetic measurements. Deviations in depth-dose measurements are mainly attributed to uncertainties...

  7. Beam Tests of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for Mitigation of Electron Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey [Fermilab; Backfish, Michael [Fermilab; Kato, Shigeki [KEK, Tsukuba; Tan, Cheng-Yang [Fermilab; Zwaska, Robert [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Our results evaluate the efficacy of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating for the mitigation of electron in the Fermilab Main Injector. The interior surface of the beampipe conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the change in electron cloud flux over time in the DLC coated beampipe and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. The electron flux is measured by retarding field analyzers placed in a field-free region of the Main Injector. We find the DLC coating reduces the electron cloud signal to roughly 2\\% of that measured in the uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  8. Effect of carbonated beverages, coffee, sports and high energy drinks, and bottled water on the in vitro erosion characteristics of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Michael; Owens, Barry M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, bottled and tap water, on the erosive potential of dental enamel with and without fluoride varnish protection. Beverages used in this study included: Coca Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Gatorade sports drink, Red Bull high-energy drink, Starbucks Frappuccino coffee drink, Dasani water (bottled), and tap water (control). Enamel surfaces were coated with Cavity Shield 5% sodium fluoride treatment varnish. Twenty-eight previously extracted human posterior teeth free of hypocalcification and caries were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and then sectioned transverse from the buccal to lingual surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were polished using 600 to 2000 grit abrasive paper and diamond paste. Test specimens were randomly distributed to seven beverage groups and comprised 4 specimens per group. Two specimens per beverage group were treated with a fluoride varnish while 2 specimens did not receive fluoride coating. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline (prior to fluoride treatment and immersion in the beverage) and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 hours/day). The test beverages were changed daily and the enamel specimens were immersed at 37 degrees C. Surface roughness data was evaluated using multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of pStarBucks coffee, Dasani water, and tap water. Fluoride varnish was not a significant impact factor; however, beverage (type) and exposure time were significant impact variables. Both carbonated and non-carbonated beverages displayed a significant erosive effect on dental enamel; however, fluoride varnish treatments did not demonstrate a significant protective influence on enamel surfaces.

  9. Core-shell N-doped active carbon fiber@graphene composites for aqueous symmetric supercapacitors with high-energy and high-power density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qinxing; Bao, Rongrong; Xie, Chao; Zheng, Anran; Wu, Shihua; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Renwei; Zhao, Peng

    2016-06-01

    Graphene wrapped nitrogen-doped active carbon fibers (ACF@GR) of a core-shell structure were successfully prepared by a simple dip-coating method using natural silk as template. Compared to pure silk active carbon, the as-prepared ACF@GR composites exhibit high specific surface area in a range of 1628-2035 m2 g-1, as well as superior energy storage capability, an extremely high single-electrode capacitance of 552.8 F g-1 was achieved at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. The assembled aqueous symmetric supercapacitors are capable of deliver both high energy density and high power density, for instance, 17.1 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 50.0 W kg-1, and 12.2 Wh kg-1 at 4.7 kW kg-1 with a retention rate of 71.3% for ACF@GR1-based supercapacitor.

  10. Constructing carbon nanotube junctions by Ar ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishaq, Ahmad; Ni Zhichun; Yan Long; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) irradiated by Ar ion beams at elevated temperature were studied. The irradiation-induced defects in CNTs are greatly reduced by elevated temperature. Moreover, the two types of CNT junctions, the crossing junction and the parallel junction, were formed. And the CNT networks may be fabricated by the two types of CNT junctions. The formation process and the corresponding mechanism of CNT networks are discussed.

  11. FEM performance of concrete beams reinforced by carbon fiber bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structures may be vulnerable to harsh environment, reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars have an increasing acceptance than normal steel. The nature of (FRP bar is (non-corrosive which is very beneficial for increased durability as well as the reinforcement of FRP bar has higher strength than steel bar. FRP usage are being specified more and more by public structural engineers and individual companies as main reinforcement and as strengthening of structures. Steel reinforcement as compared to (FRP reinforcement are decreasingly acceptable for structural concrete reinforcement including precast concrete, cast in place concrete, columns, beams and other components. Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (CFRP have a very high modulus of elasticity “high modulus” and very high tensile strength. In aerospace industry, CFRP with high modulus are popular among all FRPs because it has a high strength to weight ratio. In this research, a finite element models will be used to represent beams with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and beams with steel reinforcement. The primary objective of the research is the evaluation of the effect of (CFR on beam reinforcement.

  12. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  13. Effects of high energy electrons on the properties of polyethylene / multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites: Comparison of as-grown and oxygen-functionalised MWCNT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.; Pötschke, P.; Gohs, U.

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modification with high energy electrons (EB) is well established in different applications for many years. It is used for crosslinking, curing, degrading, grafting of polymeric materials and polymerisation of monomers. In contrast to this traditional method, electron induced reactive processing (EIReP) combines the polymer modification with high energy electrons and the melt mixing process. This novel reactive method was used to prepare polymer blends and composites. In this study, both methods were used for the preparation of polyethylene (PE)/ multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites in the presence of a coupling agent. The influence of MWCNT and type of electron treatment on the gel content, the thermal conductivity, rheological, and electrical properties was investigated whereby as-grown and oxidised MWCNT were used. In the presence of a coupling agent and at an absorbed dose of 40 kGy, the gel content increased from 57 % for the pure PE to 74 % or 88 % by the addition of as-grown (Baytubes® C150P) or oxidised MWCNT, respectively. In comparison to the composites containing the as-grown MWCNTs, the use of the oxidised MWCNTs led to higher melt viscosity and higher storage modulus due to higher yield of filler polymer couplings. The melt viscosity increased due to the addition of MWCNT and crosslinking of PE. The thermal conductivity increased to about 150 % and showed no dependence on the kind of MWCNT and the type of electron treatment. In contrast, the lowest value of electrical volume resistivity was found for the non-irradiated samples and after state of the art electron treatment without any influence of the type of MWCNT. In the case of EIReP, the volume resistivity increased by 2 (as-grown MWCNT) or 3 decades (oxidised MWCNT) depending on the process parameters

  14. In Situ High-Level Nitrogen Doping into Carbon Nanospheres and Boosting of Capacitive Charge Storage in Both Anode and Cathode for a High-Energy 4.5 V Full-Carbon Lithium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hao Bin; Wang, Lijie; Gao, Jihui; Li, Hexing; Lu, Yunfeng

    2018-05-02

    To circumvent the imbalances of electrochemical kinetics and capacity between Li + storage anodes and capacitive cathodes for lithium-ion capacitors (LICs), we herein demonstrate an efficient solution by boosting the capacitive charge-storage contributions of carbon electrodes to construct a high-performance LIC. Such a strategy is achieved by the in situ and high-level doping of nitrogen atoms into carbon nanospheres (ANCS), which increases the carbon defects and active sites, inducing more rapidly capacitive charge-storage contributions for both Li + storage anodes and PF 6 - storage cathodes. High-level nitrogen-doping-induced capacitive enhancement is successfully evidenced by the construction of a symmetric supercapacitor using commercial organic electrolytes. Coupling a pre-lithiated ANCS anode with a fresh ANCS cathode enables a full-carbon LIC with a high operating voltage of 4.5 V and high energy and power densities thereof. The assembled LIC device delivers high energy densities of 206.7 and 115.4 Wh kg -1 at power densities of 0.225 and 22.5 kW kg -1 , respectively, as well as an unprecedented high-power cycling stability with only 0.0013% capacitance decay per cycle within 10 000 cycles at a high power output of 9 kW kg -1 .

  15. Mesopore- and Macropore-Dominant Nitrogen-Doped Hierarchically Porous Carbons for High-Energy and Ultrafast Supercapacitors in Non-Aqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rong; Niu, Jin; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Mengyue; Zhang, Zhengping; Dou, Meiling; Huang, Yaqin; Wang, Feng

    2017-12-13

    Non-aqueous electrolytes (e.g., organic and ionic liquid electrolytes) can undergo high working voltage to improve the energy densities of supercapacitors. However, the large ion sizes, high viscosities, and low ionic conductivities of organic and ionic liquid electrolytes tend to cause the low specific capacitances, poor rate, and cycling performance of supercapacitors based on conventional micropore-dominant activated carbon electrodes, limiting their practical applications. Herein, we propose an effective strategy to simultaneously obtain high power and energy densities in non-aqueous electrolytes via using a cattle bone-derived porous carbon as an electrode material. Because of the unique co-activation of KOH and hydroxyapatite (HA) within the cattle bone, nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbon (referred to as NHPC-HA/KOH) is obtained and possesses a mesopore- and macropore-dominant porosity with an ultrahigh specific surface area (2203 m 2 g -1 ) of meso- and macropores. The NHPC-HA/KOH electrodes exhibit superior performance with specific capacitances of 224 and 240 F g -1 at 5 A g -1 in 1.0 M TEABF 4 /AN and neat EMIMBF 4 electrolyte, respectively. The symmetric supercapacitor using NHPC-HA/KOH electrodes can deliver integrated high energy and power properties (48.6 W h kg -1 at 3.13 kW kg -1 in 1.0 M TEABF 4 /AN and 75 W h kg -1 at 3.75 kW kg -1 in neat EMIMBF 4 ), as well as superior cycling performance (over 89% of the initial capacitance after 10 000 cycles at 10 A g -1 ).

  16. In situ investigation of the surface silvering of late Roman coins by combined use of high energy broad-beam and low energy micro-beam X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Garraffo, S. [ITABC, CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    The compositional analysis of archeological metals performed with the X-ray Fluorescence technique (XRF) provides information on the ancient technology. One of the most interesting case-study concerns the techniques used by Romans for silvering the surface of coins. Different metallurgical processes have been suggested in previous studies. Recently the investigation has been addressed to the mercury-silvering and to its possible use in the mass-production of coins minted during the late period (after 294 AD). In the present paper the non-destructive investigation of the silvering process used for manufacturing the Roman nummi - the important typology of coin introduced by Diocletian in his monetary reform - is approached by the combined use of the standard X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the low energy micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (LE-{mu}XRF) portable methods. The research was focused on the systematic determination of the mercury presence in a large number of samples and on its correlation with silver in the surface of the coins. 1041 Roman nummi belonging to the Misurata Treasure were analyzed in situ, at the Leptis Magna Museum (Al Khums, Libya). The treasure, composed of about 108 thousand silvered coins, gives the unique opportunity to study the Roman coinage in a wide interval of time (about 40 years in the period 294-333 AD) and in almost all the imperial mints operating in the Roman world. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Custom-building of a high energy broad-beam and a low energy micro-beam XRF Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In situ analysis of the silvering methods in late Roman nummi with plated surfaces Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The broad-beam XRF was applied for the detection of mercury traces in the coin alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The low energy micro-XRF was used to scan the surface patina of the coins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The correlation between mercury and silver at the coin surface was evidenced.

  17. Theoretical study of the effect of the size of a high-energy proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider on the formation and propagation of shock waves in copper irradiated by 450-GeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazanov, A. I.; Stepakov, A. V.; Vasilyev, Ya. S.; Ferrari, A.

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of 450-GeV protons with copper, which is the material of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider, has been theoretically studied. A theoretical model for the formation and propagation of shock waves has been proposed on the basis of the analysis of the energy released by a proton beam in the electronic subsystem of the material owing to the deceleration of secondary particles appearing in nuclear reactions induced by this beam on the electronic subsystem of the material. The subsequent transfer of the energy from the excited electronic subsystem to the crystal lattice through the electron-phonon interaction has been described within the thermal spike model [I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, Sov. Phys. JETP 4, 173 (1957); I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, At. Energ. 6, 391 (1959); K. Yasui, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 90, 409 (1994)]. The model of the formation of shock waves involves energy exchange processes between excited electronic and ionic subsystems of the irradiated material and is based on the hydrodynamic approximation proposed by Zel'dovich [Ya.B. Zel'dovich and Yu.P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Nauka, Moscow, 1966; Dover, New York, 2002)]. This model makes it possible to obtain the space-time distributions of the main physical characteristics (temperatures of the ionic and electronic subsystems, density, pressure, etc.) in materials irradiated by high-energy proton beams and to analyze the formation and propagation of shock waves in them. The nonlinear differential equations describing the conservation laws of mass, energy, and momentum of electrons and ions in the Euler variables in the case of the propagation of shock waves has been solved with the Godunov scheme [S. K. Godunov, A.V. Zabrodin, M.Ya. Ivanov, A.N. Kraiko, and G.P. Prokopov, Numerical Solution of Multidimensional Problems in Gas Dynamics (Nauka, Moscow, 1976) [in Russian

  18. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  19. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS POTENTIAL AT MUON COLLIDERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, high energy physics possibilities and future colliders are discussed. The μ + μ - collider and experiments with high intensity muon beams as the stepping phase towards building Higher Energy Muon Colliders (HEMC) are briefly reviewed and encouraged

  20. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  1. The use of ion beam analysis in the synthesis of materials. A review of the determination of light elements by high-energy resonant backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the ion synthesis of materials plasma inversion ion processing (PIIP) technology, has been applied in the framework of materials science research. The characteristics of this technique are discussed. PIIP has been complemented and compared with alpha-particle Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) High-energy Backscattering Spectrometry (HEBS) is the third material testing method for comparison. Examples for each technology are presented and discussed. (R.P.)

  2. Establishment of dosimetric references for high energy X-ray beams of very small field sizes (≤ 1 cm2) used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufreneix, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    The French primary standard dosimetry laboratory 'Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel' is in charge of the establishment of dosimetric standards for ionizing radiation beams. Absolute dose measurements are thus available for X-Ray beams used in radiotherapy for field sizes between 10 and 2 cm. Since the miniaturization of absolute dosimeters is not possible for smaller field sizes, a dose area product (DAP) has been suggested as a substitute to the absorbed dose at a point.In order to measure a DAP with dosimeters which sensitive surface is larger than the beam, a graphite calorimeter with a sensitive surface of 3 cm diameter was designed, built and tested. An ionization chamber with the same diameter was realized and tested to transfer the dosimetric references to the end users. Its calibration factor in terms of DAP was determined in circular beams of 2, 1 and 0.75 cm diameter with an uncertainty smaller than 0.7 %. The two-Dimension relative dose distribution was measured thanks to a diamond dosimeter, a PinPoint ionization chamber and gafchromic films, using a specific protocol. Both approaches, respectively based on a PDS and an absorbed dose to water at a point, were in good agreement in the 2 cm beam. Correction factors determined from Monte Carlo simulations and measured dose distributions were needed for this comparison. The calibration factor of the large ionization chamber in the 1 and 0.75 cm diameter beams were in good agreement within the uncertainties but a gap of -2.6 % was found with the one established in the 2 cm diameter beam. As a result, the DAP can be used if the sensitive surface is much larger than the beam section. (author) [fr

  3. Variations of dose distribution in high energy electron beams as a function of geometrical parameters of irradiation. Application to computer calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeret, O.

    1985-04-01

    An algorithm is developed for the purpose of compter treatment planning of electron therapy. The method uses experimental absorbed dose distribution data in the irradiated medium for electron beams in the 8-20 MeV range delivered by the Sagittaire linear accelerator (study of central axis depth dose, beam profiles) in various geometrical conditions. Experimental verification of the computer program showed agreement with 2% between dose measurement and computer calculation [fr

  4. High-energy lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitors composed of hierarchical urchin-like WO3/C anodes and MOF-derived polyhedral hollow carbon cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lei; Cai, Qifa; Li, Qingwei; Gao, Biao; Zhang, Xuming; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2016-09-22

    A lithium-ion hybrid supercapacitor (Li-HSC) comprising a Li-ion battery type anode and an electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) type cathode has attracted much interest because it accomplishes a large energy density without compromising the power density. In this work, hierarchical carbon coated WO 3 (WO 3 /C) with a unique mesoporous structure and metal-organic framework derived nitrogen-doped carbon hollow polyhedra (MOF-NC) are prepared and adopted as the anode and the cathode for Li-HSCs. The hierarchical mesoporous WO 3 /C microspheres assembled by radially oriented WO 3 /C nanorods along the (001) plane enable effective Li + insertion, thus exhibit high capacity, excellent rate performance and a long cycling life due to their high Li + conductivity, electronic conductivity and structural robustness. The WO 3 /C structure shows a reversible specific capacity of 508 mA h g -1 at a 0.1 C rate (1 C = 696 mA h g -1 ) after 160 discharging-charging cycles with excellent rate capability. The MOF-NC achieved the specific capacity of 269.9 F g -1 at a current density of 0.2 A g -1 . At a high current density of 6 A g -1 , 92.4% of the initial capacity could be retained after 2000 discharging-charging cycles, suggesting excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC comprising a WO 3 /C anode and a MOF-NC cathode boasts a large energy density of 159.97 W h kg -1 at a power density of 173.6 W kg -1 and 88.3% of the capacity is retained at a current density of 5 A g -1 after 3000 charging-discharging cycles, which are better than those previously reported for Li-HSCs. The high energy and power densities of the Li-HSCs of WO 3 /C//MOF-NC render large potential in energy storage.

  5. High-Energy-Density Aqueous Magnesium-Ion Battery Based on a Carbon-Coated FeVO4 Anode and a Mg-OMS-1 Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Cang, Ruibai; Yan, Jun; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-12-01

    Porous FeVO 4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and further modified by coating with carbon to obtain FeVO 4 /C with a hierarchical pore structure. FeVO 4 /C is used as an anodic electrode in aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries. The FeVO 4 /C material not only has improved electrical conductivity as a result of the carbon coating layer, but also has an increased specific surface area as a result of the hierarchical pore structure, which is beneficial for magnesium-ion insertion/deinsertion. Therefore, an aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion full battery is successfully constructed with FeVO 4 /C as the anode, Mg-OMS-1 (OMS=octahedral molecular sieves) as the cathode, and 1.0 mol L -1 MgSO 4 as the electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the Mg-OMS-1//FeVO 4 /C aqueous battery is 58.9 mAh g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 ; this value is obtained by calculating the total mass of two electrodes and the capacity retention rate of this device is 97.7 % after 100 cycles, with almost 100 % coulombic efficiency, which indicates that the system has a good electrochemical reversibility. Additionally, this system can achieve a high energy density of 70.4 Wh kg -1 , which provides powerful evidence that an aqueous magnesium-ion battery is possible. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Layer-by-layer assembled polyaniline nanofiber/multiwall carbon nanotube thin film electrodes for high-power and high-energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Md Nasim; Lee, Seung Woo; Cebeci, Fevzi Ç; Schmidt, Daniel J; Shao-Horn, Yang; Hammond, Paula T

    2011-11-22

    Thin film electrodes of polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers and functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are created by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly for microbatteries or -electrochemical capacitors. Highly stable cationic PANi nanofibers, synthesized from the rapid aqueous phase polymerization of aniline, are assembled with carboxylic acid functionalized MWNT into LbL films. The pH-dependent surface charge of PANi nanofibers and MWNTs allows the system to behave like weak polyelectrolytes with controllable LbL film thickness and morphology by varying the number of bilayers. The LbL-PANi/MWNT films consist of a nanoscale interpenetrating network structure with well developed nanopores that yield excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage applications. These LbL-PANi/MWNT films in lithium cell can store high volumetric capacitance (~238 ± 32 F/cm(3)) and high volumetric capacity (~210 mAh/cm(3)). In addition, rate-dependent galvanostatic tests show LbL-PANi/MWNT films can deliver both high power and high energy density (~220 Wh/L(electrode) at ~100 kW/L(electrode)) and could be promising positive electrode materials for thin film microbatteries or electrochemical capacitors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Use of national metrological references of dose absorbed in water and application of the IAEA TRS nr 398 dosimetry protocol to high energy photon beams. BNM-LNHB-LCIE-SFPM working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvenet, B.; Delaunay, F.; Dolo, J.M.; Le Roy, G.; Bridier, A.; Francois, P.; Sabattier, R.

    2003-01-01

    Metrological references of dose absorbed in water for high energy photon beams used in radiotherapy have been elaborated during the past years by national calibration laboratories, and these new references are the basis of recent dosimetry protocols. However, the passage from metrological references of air kerma to dose absorbed in water, as well as the practical application of new calibration opportunities for dosemeters in high energy X ray beams requires a specific attention to maintain the consistency of dose measurement references over the hospital site. In this respect, this guide aims at the application of these metrological references. It proposes recommendations for the application of metrological references in terms of dose absorbed in water on the hospital site with reference to their determination conditions and to the implementation of the new IAEA dosimetry protocol (TRS nr 398). Thus, this guide proposes an overview of metrological references in French calibration laboratories, presents calibration methods (air kerma in a cobalt 60 gamma photon beam, dose absorbed in water) and a comparison with the IAEA TRS 277 dosimetry protocol. It addresses various practical aspects, and discusses uncertainties

  8. Direct determination of k Q factors for cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, A.; Kapsch, R.-P.

    2018-02-01

    For the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, D w, in high-energy electron beams from a clinical accelerator, beam quality dependent correction factors, k Q, are required. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and potentially with lower standard uncertainties than those of the calculated k Q factors, which are tabulated in various dosimetry protocols. However, one of the challenges of water calorimetry in electron beams is the small measurement depths in water, together with the steep dose gradients present especially at lower energies. In this investigation, water calorimetry was implemented in electron beams to determine k Q factors for different types of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers (NE2561, NE2571, FC65-G, TM34001) in 10 cm  ×  10 cm electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV (corresponding beam quality index R 50 ranging from 1.9 cm to 7.5 cm). The measurements were carried out using the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Relative standard uncertainties for the k Q factors between 0.50% for the 20 MeV beam and 0.75% for the 6 MeV beam were achieved. For electron energies above 8 MeV, general agreement was found between the relative electron energy dependencies of the k Q factors measured and those derived from the AAPM TG-51 protocol and recent Monte Carlo-based studies, as well as those from other experimental investigations. However, towards lower energies, discrepancies of up to 2.0% occurred for the k Q factors of the TM34001 and the NE2571 chamber.

  9. Direct determination of k Q factors for cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, A; Kapsch, R-P

    2018-02-06

    For the ionometric determination of the absorbed dose to water, D w , in high-energy electron beams from a clinical accelerator, beam quality dependent correction factors, k Q , are required. By using a water calorimeter, these factors can be determined experimentally and potentially with lower standard uncertainties than those of the calculated k Q factors, which are tabulated in various dosimetry protocols. However, one of the challenges of water calorimetry in electron beams is the small measurement depths in water, together with the steep dose gradients present especially at lower energies. In this investigation, water calorimetry was implemented in electron beams to determine k Q factors for different types of cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers (NE2561, NE2571, FC65-G, TM34001) in 10 cm  ×  10 cm electron beams from 6 MeV to 20 MeV (corresponding beam quality index R 50 ranging from 1.9 cm to 7.5 cm). The measurements were carried out using the linear accelerator facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Relative standard uncertainties for the k Q factors between 0.50% for the 20 MeV beam and 0.75% for the 6 MeV beam were achieved. For electron energies above 8 MeV, general agreement was found between the relative electron energy dependencies of the k Q factors measured and those derived from the AAPM TG-51 protocol and recent Monte Carlo-based studies, as well as those from other experimental investigations. However, towards lower energies, discrepancies of up to 2.0% occurred for the k Q factors of the TM34001 and the NE2571 chamber.

  10. Propagation of high-energy laser beams through the earth's atmosphere II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 21-23, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Peter B. (Editor); Wilson, Leroy E. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to turbulence at the inner scale, modeling turbulent transport in laser beam propagation, variable wind direction effects on thermal blooming correction, realistic wind effects on turbulence and thermal blooming compensation, wide bandwidth spectral measurements of atmospheric tilt turbulence, remote alignment of adaptive optical systems with far-field optimization, focusing infrared laser beams on targets in space without using adaptive optics, and a simplex optimization method for adaptive optics system alignment. Consideration is also given to ground-to-space multiline propagation at 1.3 micron, a path integral approach to thermal blooming, functional reconstruction predictions of uplink whole beam Strehl ratios in the presence of thermal blooming, and stability analysis of semidiscrete schemes for thermal blooming computation.

  11. Development of intense high-energy noble gas ion beams from in-terminal ion injector of tandem accelerator using an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M., E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai Research and Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakanoya, T.; Hanashima, S.; Takeuchi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai Research and Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-10-21

    An ECRIS-based heavy ion injector was constructed in the high-voltage terminal of JAEA-Tokai Tandem Accelerator to develop new beam species of highly charged noble gas ions. This work was associated with a lot of development to operate the ion source on the 20UR Pelletron high voltage terminal in high pressure SF{sub 6} gas environment. Highly charged ions of N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe have been accelerated satisfactorily. Operating data integrated during many years long beam delivery service are summarized.

  12. Estimation of the R134a gas refractive index for use as a Cherenkov radiator, using a high energy charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitonidis, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Gatignon, L.

    2017-11-01

    Gases with relatively high refractive index, n - 1 ≥ 500 ×10-6 at atmospheric pressure, giving a satisfactory photoelectron yield at relatively low pressures (≤ 5 bar) are rare. These gases are often the only practical solution for low momentum particle identification in conventional secondary beam lines. The refractive index of R134a, one of the most common gases available to the physics community, has never been measured or reported. In the present note, the results of a dedicated experiment to estimate the refractive index of R134a, using mixed hadron/electron beams in the range 0.5-10 GeV are presented.

  13. Focused Ion Beam Nanopatterning for Carbon Nanotube Ropes Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera LA FERRARA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Focused Ion Beam (FIB technology has been used to realize electrode patterns for contacting Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs ropes for chemical gas sensor applications. Two types of transducers, based on a single rope and on bundles, have been realized starting from silicon/Si3N4 substrate. Electrical behaviour, at room temperature, in toxic gas environments, has been investigated and compared to evaluate contribution of a single rope based sensor respect to bundles one. For all the devices, upon exposure to NO2 and NH3, the conductance has been found to increase or decrease respectively. Conductance signal is stronger for sensor based on bundles, but it also evident that response time in NO2 is faster for device based on a single rope. FIB technology offers, then, the possibility to contact easily a single sensitive nanowire, as carbon nanotube rope.

  14. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4  MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  15. A broadband beam-steered fiber mm-wave link with high energy-spectral-spatial efficiency for 5G coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Zhao, X.; Jiao, Y.; Deng, X.; Tessema, N.; Raz, O.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing an integrated optical-tunable-delay-line, reversely-modulated single sideband modulation, and Nyquist subcarrier modulation, we demonstrate an 8 Gbps mm-wave beam steered link with a spatial-spectral efficiency of 16 bits/s/Hz.

  16. Generation and focusing of high energy, 35-kA electron beams for pulsed-diode radiographic machines: Theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.; George, M.J.; Hughes, T.P.; Welch, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Cathode ball and anode planar-foil geometries used to generate self-focused beams onto x-ray conversion targets via beam-induced ionization in gas cells have been investigated since the early 1970's by J. C. Martin et al at Aldermaston, U.K. The building of a succession of increasingly higher voltage, pulsed-diode machines tailored for flash x radiography has resulted. Given sufficient dose to penetrate an object, the spot size of the x-ray source generally determines the resolution of a radiograph. Reported are particle-in-cell code simulations applied to beam generation in the A-K gap and the self-focusing onto the target. A Monte Carlo code for neutron, photon, and electron transport converts the beam particles at the target to photons with transport to a film plane used to calculate the spot size. Comparisons are made to experiments using the Ector (3.5--4 MeV) and PIXY (4--8 MeV) pulsed-diode radiographic machines at Los Alamos

  17. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  18. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  19. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  20. Electron beam influence on the carbon contamination of electron irradiated hydroxyapatite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, Stefan G.; Tranca, Denis E.; Stanciu, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon contamination mechanisms of electron-beam-irradiated hydroxyapatite. • Atomic force microscopy phase imaging used to detect carbon contamination. • Carbon contamination dependence on electron energy, irradiation time, beam current. • Simulation of backscattered electrons confirms the experimental results. - Abstract: Electron beam irradiation which is considered a reliable method for tailoring the surface charge of hydroxyapatite is hindered by carbon contamination. Separating the effects of the carbon contamination from those of irradiation-induced trapped charge is important for a wide range of biological applications. In this work we focus on the understanding of the electron-beam-induced carbon contamination with special emphasis on the influence of the electron irradiation parameters on this phenomenon. Phase imaging in atomic force microscopy is used to evaluate the influence of electron energy, beam current and irradiation time on the shape and size of the resulted contamination patterns. Different processes involved in the carbon contamination of hydroxyapatite are discussed

  1. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  2. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the tradition, the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics are presented under a common header, they are: Department of Particle Theory (Dept 5); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept 11); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept 12); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept 13); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). The research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY) is also presented. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy (UMM). This location, close to the Jagiellonian University (JU), facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the UMM. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of the activities is teaching and training students from the academic community in Cracow. Joint research, teaching and academic training in the high energy physics are carried out within the M. Miesowicz

  3. High-energy azimuthally polarized laser beam generation from an actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with c-cut YVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Baofu; Jiao, Zhongxing; He, Guangyuan; Wang, Biao

    2018-05-01

    A high-energy, azimuthally polarized (AP) and actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is demonstrated. The thermal bipolar lensing effect in the Nd:YAG laser rod is used as a polarization discriminator, and a c-cut YVO4 crystal is inserted into the laser cavity to increase the mode-selecting ability of the cavity for AP mode. The laser generated AP pulses with maximum pulse energy as high as 4.2 mJ. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest pulse energy obtained from an actively Q-switched AP laser. The pulse energy remained higher than 1 mJ over a wide range of repetition rates from 5 kHz to 25 kHz.

  4. Harvard University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The mainly experimental research program in high energy physics at Harvard is summarized in a descriptive fashion according to the following outline: Proton endash antiproton colliding beam program at Fermilab -- CDF (forward/backward electromagnetic calorimeters -- FEM, central muon extension -- CMX, gas calorimetry and electronics development, front-end electronics upgrades, software development, physics analysis, timetable), electron -- positron collisions in the upsilon region -- CLEO (the hardware projects including CLEO II barrel TOF system and silicon drift detector R ampersand D, physics analysis), search for ν μ to ν τ oscillations with the NOMAD experiment at CERN, the solenoidal detector collaboration at the SSC, muon scattering at FNAL -- E665, the L3 experiment, and phenomenological analysis of high-energy bar pp cross sections. 149 refs

  5. Improvement of carbon fibre surface properties using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy Segura Pino; Luci Diva Brocardo Machado; Claudia Giovedi

    2006-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced advance composites have been used for structural applications, mainly due to their mechanical properties, and additional features such as high strength-to-weight ratio, stiffness-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance and wear properties. The main factor for a good mechanical performance of carbon fiber-reinforced composite is the interfacial interaction between the components that are fiber and polymeric matrix. The greatest challenge is to improve adhesion between components having elasticity modulus which differ by orders of magnitude and furthermore they are immiscible in each other. Another important factor is the sizing material on the carbon fiber, which protects the carbon fiber filaments and must be compatible with the matrix material in order to improve the adhesion process. The interaction of ionizing radiation from electron beam can induce in the irradiated material the formation of very active centers and free radicals. Further evolution of these active species can significantly modify structure and properties not only in the irradiated polymeric matrix but also on the fiber surface. So that, fiber and matrix play an important role in the production of chemical bonds, which promote better adhesion between both materials improving the composite mechanical performance. The aim of this work was to improve the surface properties of the carbon fiber surface using ionizing radiation from an electron beam in order to obtain improvement of the adhesion properties in the resulted composite. Commercial carbon fiber roving of high tensile strength with 12 000 filaments named 12 k, and sizing material of epoxy resin modified by ester groups was studied. EB irradiation has been carried out at the Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN) facilities using a 1.5 MeV 37.5 kW Dynamitron electron accelerator model JOB-188. Rovings of carbon fibers with 1.78 g cm -3 density and 0.13 mm thickness were irradiated with 0.555 MeV, 6.43 mA and

  6. Properties of TiN coatings deposited by the method of condensation with ion bombardment accompanied by high-energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrezkov, O.I.; Vershok, B.A.; Dormashev, A.B.; Margulev, I.Ya.; Molchanova, S.A.; Andreev, E.S.; Dervuk, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum-sputtering adapted commercial facility based coating of stainless steel with titanium nitride followed two procedures: ion bombardment condensation (IBC) and IBC under simultaneous effect of ion beam (IB). The deposition rate was equal to 0.1 μm min -1 ; the investigated coatings were characterized by 2.5 μm depth. Comparison analysis of features and characteristics of the specimens, as well as, full-scale tests of a coated cutting tool enabled to make conclusions about advantages of application of IB assisted IBC technology in contrast to the reference IBC technology [ru

  7. Features of possible polarized photon beams at high energy and corresponding physics programme or the proton structure function using real photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    In the range of electron energies available at Fermilab, 100 GeV less than or equal to E less than or equal to 500 GeV, coherent Bremsstrahlung in crystals, particularly diamond, gives a huge enhancement to the equivalent photon spectrum at large values of x where x = k/E. The photons in this enhancement are polarized. Requirements on electron beam energy spread, angular divergence and spot size imposed by the use of a diamond as a radiator are discussed. The physics program emphasizes hard processes and tests of QCD using polarization

  8. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  9. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  10. Pulsed 1.55μm all-fiber laser combining high energy, ultranarrow linewidth and optimal spatial beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Flavien; Hernandez, Yves; Kinet, Damien; Giannone, Domenico; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoît

    2008-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the study of a new all-fiber laser source suitable for coherent Doppler LIDAR use in the eyesafe domain. The laser consists on a MOPA configuration where the Master Oscillator is a modulated ultranarrow (< 8 kHz) fiber laser. The optical amplifiers are also all-fibered and make use of a new Large Mode Area (LMA) index pedestal fiber that is very effective in limiting the non-linear effects without quality degradation of the laser beam. The amplified pulses have a maximum energy of 0.15 mJ for a duration of 340 ns at a repetition rate of 15 kHz. The average output power of the laser is 2.5 W, free of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and with a measured M2 = 1.3.

  11. Alanine Radiation Detectors in Therapeutic Carbon Ion Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo

    of the depth dose curves. Solid state detectors, such as diamond detectors, radiochromic films, TLDs and the amino acid alanine are used due to there good spatial resolution. If used in particle beams their response often exhibits a dependence on particle energy and type, so the acquired signal is not always...... proportional to absorbed dose. A model by Hansen and Olsen, based on the Track Structure Theory is available, which can predict the relative efficiency of some detectors, when the particle spectrum is known. For alanine detectors the model was successfully validated by Hansen and Olsen for several ion species...... at energies below 20 MeV/u. We implemented this model in the Monte Carlo code FLUKA. At the GSI heavy ion facility in Darmstadt, Germany, alanine has been irradiated with carbon ions at energies between 88 an 400 MeV/u, which is the energy range used for therapy. The irradiation and the detector response have...

  12. The proliferative response of mouse intestinal crypts during fractionated irradiation of carbon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, M.; Abe, Y.; Mariya, Y.; Ando, K.

    2000-01-01

    Clonogenic assay of jejunal crypt during carbon beam and X-ray irradiations was performed. Fractionation with top-up dose assay revealed carbon beam irradiations caused more damage than X-ray did. To clarify this problem is urgent. (author)

  13. Modification of the bulk properties of the porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffold by irradiation with a cyclotron ion beam with high energy for its application in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jung Hoon; Kim, Do Yeon; Jo, Seong Yeun; Kang, Hyunki; Noh, Insup

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the bulk properties of a prefabricated scaffold for handling and degradation during cell culture may be advantageous to its application in tissue engineering. Modification of the bulk properties of the porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold was performed by irradiation with a high energy cyclotron proton ion beam. The porous PLGA scaffolds were fabricated in advance by the gas-foaming method by employing ammonium bicarbonate particles as porogens. Irradiation with ion beams was performed with 40 MeV for 3, 6 and 9 min on the scaffolds at a distance of 30 cm from the beam exit to the scaffold surface. The bulk area of the ion beam-treated PLGA scaffold apparently demonstrated no color changes when observed with a digital camera. The chemical structures of the untreated samples seemed to be kept well when analyzed by both Fourier transformed infrared but a subtle change was observed in its x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of in vitro tissue culture with smooth muscle cells for up to 4 weeks also demonstrated no significant difference in terms of its handling stability during cell culture and cellular behavior between the untreated PLGA scaffolds and the ion beam-treated ones. However, significant changes were observed in its molecular weight as measured by gel permeation chromatography, indicating a significant reduction of its molecular weights. These results of in vitro tests and GPC measurements indicated that while bulk modification of the scaffold was processed, its handling was stable during in vitro cell culture for up to 4 weeks.

  14. Modification of the bulk properties of the porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) scaffold by irradiation with a cyclotron ion beam with high energy for its application in tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jung Hoon; Kim, Do Yeon; Jo, Seong Yeun; Kang, Hyunki; Noh, Insup, E-mail: insup@snut.ac.k [Department of Chemical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, 172 Gongnung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Understanding the bulk properties of a prefabricated scaffold for handling and degradation during cell culture may be advantageous to its application in tissue engineering. Modification of the bulk properties of the porous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffold was performed by irradiation with a high energy cyclotron proton ion beam. The porous PLGA scaffolds were fabricated in advance by the gas-foaming method by employing ammonium bicarbonate particles as porogens. Irradiation with ion beams was performed with 40 MeV for 3, 6 and 9 min on the scaffolds at a distance of 30 cm from the beam exit to the scaffold surface. The bulk area of the ion beam-treated PLGA scaffold apparently demonstrated no color changes when observed with a digital camera. The chemical structures of the untreated samples seemed to be kept well when analyzed by both Fourier transformed infrared but a subtle change was observed in its x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of in vitro tissue culture with smooth muscle cells for up to 4 weeks also demonstrated no significant difference in terms of its handling stability during cell culture and cellular behavior between the untreated PLGA scaffolds and the ion beam-treated ones. However, significant changes were observed in its molecular weight as measured by gel permeation chromatography, indicating a significant reduction of its molecular weights. These results of in vitro tests and GPC measurements indicated that while bulk modification of the scaffold was processed, its handling was stable during in vitro cell culture for up to 4 weeks.

  15. Biological effects of high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of high-energy radiation are reviewed, with emphasis on the effects of the hadronic component. Proton and helium ion effects are similar to those of the more conventional and sparsely ionizing x- and γ-radiation. Heavy-ions are known to be more biologically effective, but the long term hazard from accumulated damage has yet to be assessed. Some evidence of widely varying but dramatically increased effectiveness of very high-energy (approximately 70 GeV) hadron beams is reviewed. Finally, the importance of the neutron component in many situations around high-energy accelerators is pointed out

  16. Contributions of secondary fragmentation by carbon ion beams in water phantom: Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, C K; Bolst, David; Tran, Linh T.; Guatelli, Susanna; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Kamil, W A

    2017-01-01

    Heavy-particle therapy such as carbon ion therapy is currently very popular because of its superior conformality in terms of dose distribution and higher Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). However, carbon ion beams produce a complex mixed radiation field, which needs to be fully characterised. In this study, the fragmentation of a 290 MeV/u primary carbon ion beam was studied using the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit. When the primary carbon ion beam interacts with water, secondary light charged particles (H, He, Li, Be, B) and fast neutrons are produced, contributing to the dose, especially after the distal edge of the Bragg peak. (paper)

  17. Effect of high energy electron beam (10 MeV) on specific heat capacity of low-density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite nano-composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, Z., E-mail: zhr_soltani@yahoo.com [Health Physics and Radiation Dosimetry Research Laboratory, Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, F. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Polymer Group, Golestan University, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beigzadeh, A.M. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, thermal properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose LDPE reinforced with different weight percents of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powder which was synthesized via hydrolysis method are produced. The samples were irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam at doses of 75 to 250 kGy. Specific heat capacity measurement have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) apparatus and the effect of three parameters include of temperature, irradiation dose and the amount of HAP nano particles as additives on the specific heat capacity of PE/HAP have been investigated precisely. The MTDSC results indicate that the specific heat capacity have decreased by addition of nano sized HAP as reinforcement for LDPE. On the other hand, the effect of radiation dose is reduction in the specific heat capacity in all materials including LDPE and its nano composites. The HAP nano particles along with cross-link junctions due to radiation restrain the movement of the polymer chains in the vicinity of each particle and improve the immobility of polymer chains and consequently lead to reduction in specific heat capacity. Also, the obtained results confirm that the radiation effect on the specific heat capacity is more efficient than the reinforcing effect of nano-sized hydroxyapatite.

  18. High Energy Ion Beam Studies of Ion Exchange in a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutthanadan, Vaithiyalingam; Baer, Donald R.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Adams, Evan M.; Maheswaran, Saravanamuthu; Engelhard, Mark H.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    As part of understanding the processes leading to sodium release and ion exchange, the surface and near surface reaction regions on several specimens of a Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass have been examined after exposures to isotopically labeled aqueous solutions. The majority of the analyses describe here have been carried out using energetic ion beam analysis. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the overall glass composition and to determine the profiles and amounts of Na released from the surface. An important part of the ion exchange process is the uptake and incorporation of hydrogen and oxygen in the glass from the solution. To facilitate this analysis, the glasses were exposed to a solution containing 18O and deuterium and analyzed by accelerator based nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). To confirm some of the RBS depth profile data very near the surface, XPS depth profiles were collected on some samples. Although the Na concentration is decreased in the near surface region, it is not totally removed from the outer surface. In this same region, there is also a significant amount of 18O incorporated demonstrating considerable interaction between the water and the glass. Deeper into the material the amounts of deuterium and 18O are more consistent with water or H3O+ diffusion. These results suggest that there exist an outer reaction layer and an inner diffusion controlled layer in the surface region of the reacted glass

  19. Ionized carbon investigation (spectroscopic terms, radiative lifetimes) using ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchet-Poulizac, M.-C.

    1974-01-01

    The spectra of carbon in all its ionization states were studied by the beam-foil technique, from the far ultraviolet (30A) to 6000A. This excitation process gives the spectra of strongly charged ions with great intensity and favours population of the high levels of these ions. It has led to new identifications, mainly in the CIV, CV, and CVI spectra. The results of radiative lifetime measurements are given for many levels of C II, C III, C IV and C V. The chief cause of error on these measurements is the cascade phenomenon. Various methods of decay curve analysis accounting for these processes were examined and showed that lifetime values of precision better than 10% can be obtained. The transition probabilities were estimated from the lifetime measurements whenever possible. The spectra obtained in the laboratory were compared with those observed in the Wolf-Rayet stars of the carbon sequence. The similarities and dissimilarities which appear yield information on the physical conditions prevailing in the atmosphere of these stars [fr

  20. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr