WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-elevation drill seeding

  1. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    acting on the drill coulters, which generates unwanted vibrations and, consequently, a non-uniform seed placement. Therefore, a proof-of-concept dynamic coulter depth control system for a low-cost seed drill was developed and studied in a field experiment. The performance of the active control system...... depth control system this variability was reduced to±2 mm. The system with the active control system operated more accurately at an operational speed of 12 km h−1 than at 4 km h−1 without the activated control system.......An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistance...

  2. Calibrating the Truax Rough Rider seed drill for restoration plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren St. John; Brent Cornforth; Boyd Simonson; Dan Ogle; Derek Tilley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a step-by-step approach to calibrating the Truax Rough Rider range drill, a relatively new, state-of-the-art rangeland drill. To achieve the desired outcome of a seeding project, an important step following proper weed control and seedbed preparation is the calibration of the seeding equipment to ensure the recommended...

  3. Sensor and control for consistent seed drill coulter depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Nørremark, Michael; Green, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The consistent depth placement of seeds is vital for achieving the optimum yield of agricultural crops. In state-of-the-art seeding machines, the depth of drill coulters will vary with changes in soil resistance. This paper presents the retrofitting of an angle sensor to the pivoting point...... by a sub-millimetre accurate positioning system (iGPS, Nikon Metrology NV, Belgium) mounted on the drill coulter. At a drill coulter depth of 55 mm and controlled by an ordinary fixed spring loaded down force only, the change in soil resistance decreased the mean depth by 23 mm. By dynamically controlling...

  4. Potential external contamination of pneumatic seed drills during sowing of dressed maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzone, Marco; Balsari, Paolo; Marucco, Paolo; Tamagnone, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The use of pneumatic drills in maize cultivation causes dispersion in the atmosphere of some harmful substances normally used for dressing maize seeds. Some of the dust particles may be deposited on the machine's body, becoming dangerous for the environment and for operators. The aim of the present study was to analyse the amount of dust deposited on the frame of drills during maize sowing operations. Tests were performed with different drills and in different operating conditions. Data analysis showed that a significant amount (up to 30%) of the tracer can be deposited on the drill body. When wind was not present, higher quantities of tracer were collected and the forward speed did not influence significantly the tracer deposit on the seed drills. The use of different devices designed to prevent dust dispersion was able to limit up to 95% but was not able to eliminate the external contamination of the drill. The particles present on drills could become a problem for the operator during the filling of the drill. Additionally, the environment can be contaminated if pesticide remains on the drill, generating point-source pollution when the drill is parked outside. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Innovations in precision seed drilling technology: successes or failures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Benninger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the development of various technological alternatives in precision seed drilling, it has become a matter of research whether there are clear criteria for the success or failure of technological innovations. Around the turn to the 20th century, two very different precision seed drill methods were developed almost at the same time. Band seeding made it possible to achieve nearly perfect single grain sowing. For this purpose, individual, equally spaced seeds were embedded into bands of paper or cotton. In the field, these seed tapes were then unreeled from large drums. The pneumatic system proposed in 1897, by contrast, introduced grain singling using a vacuum for the first time. Although band seeding presented a satisfactory technological solution, it was never widely applied. Pneumatic systems, on the other hand, took long to catch on and only started to be successful in the late 1960s. Up to then, these innovative systems had to be considered as failures. Changing the period under review, however, may completely reverse the assessment of whether an innovation is a success or a failure.

  6. Impact of Phosphorus Levels and Seed Rates on Growth and Yield of Late Sown Maize on High Elevation in Swat, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Khan, A. A.; Khattak, I.; Naveed, S.

    2015-01-01

    After nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is required by the plants relatively in large quantity and is the second most important crop nutrient that increases productivity of maize (Zea mays L.). An experiment on effect of different P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ levels and seed rates on growth and yield of late sown maize cv. Baber on high elevation during kharif season, was conducted at Farmer Field School, Swat, Pakistan during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications. Sowing was done one month late (July 15) than the optimum time of sowing. Optimum time of sowing on high elevation in Swat, Pakistan starts from May 15 to June 15. Four levels of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/(0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha/sup -1/) and four seed rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 kg ha/sup -1/) were used. A subplot size of 3m x 4.5m was used. Each subplot was consisted of six rows having 75 cm row-to-row distance with row length of 3 m. Sowing of 40 kg seed ha/sup -1/ treated with 75kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ ha/sup -1/ gave optimum cob length (19 cm), plant height (179.19 cm), 1000 grain weight (192.83 g) and grain yield (2712 kg ha/sup -1/). While maximum grain cob/sup -1/(375 ) was given by 30 kg seed ha/sup -1/ treated with 75 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. On the basis of the above results, among the tested seed rate 40 kg ha/sup -1/ treated with 75 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is recommended for late sowing on high elevation under the agro-ecological conditions of Swat valley. (author)

  7. Engineering solutions applied to pneumatic drills to reduce losses of dust from dressed seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and fipronil for maize (Zea mays L. seed dressing have been claimed to play a role in honey bee (Apis mellifera L. decline, since pneumatic precision drills used for sowing contribute to the dispersion of the abrasion dust produced by dressed seeds. The active ingredients (a.i. can contaminate the environment and can lead to the exposure of operators and bystanders during sowing operations. To achieve a significant reduction of dust drift and to enhance the safety for the operators, CRA-ING studied and developed novel engineering solutions applicable to drills, based on an air-recycling/filtering system. In the first system, the air’s excess is forced outward through suitable filters placed on the modified lid of the seed hopper. It can be easily applied to commercial drills in use. The second system was specifically designed for new drills. It consists of a collector duct that receives the air expelled from the vacuum fan opening, creating constant pressure conditions. Part of the air is recycled into the seed hoppers, as the air in excess is directed outward through a single main filter. A third system, based on the second one, entails the use of an electrostatic filter to improve its efficiency. Moreover, to avoid the operator’s exposure to the dust during the seed loading, we show an integrated solution based on the use of a modified pre-charged plastic container that replace the drill’s hoppers. Preliminary tests ascertained the regular seed distribution with the drills equipped with the prototypes. Then, trials were carried out at fixed point and in field, for detecting the amounts of the drifted a.i., using commercial maize seed dressed with thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, clothianidin and fipronil. The test results show powder and a.i. drift reductions up to a maximum of 94.5% measured at ground level (with fipronil as a.i. as a consequence of the use of the

  8. Integrating Soil Silicon Amendment into Management Programs for Insect Pests of Drill-Seeded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, James M; Way, Michael O; Pearson, Rebecca A; Stout, Michael J

    2017-08-13

    Silicon soil amendment has been shown to enhance plant defenses against insect pests. Rice is a silicon-accumulating graminaceous plant. In the southern United States, the rice water weevil and stem borers are important pests of rice. Current management tactics for these pests rely heavily on the use of insecticides. This study evaluated the effects of silicon amendment when combined with current management tactics for these rice insect pests in the field. Field experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015. Rice was drill-planted in plots subjected to factorial combinations of variety (conventional and hybrid), chlorantraniliprole seed treatment (treated and untreated), and silicon amendment (treated and untreated). Silicon amendment reduced densities of weevil larvae on a single sampling date in 2014, but did not affect densities of whiteheads caused by stem borers. In contrast, insecticidal seed treatment strongly reduced densities of both weevil larvae and whiteheads. Higher densities of weevil larvae were also observed in the hybrid variety in 2014, while higher incidences of whiteheads were observed in the conventional variety in 2014 and 2015. Silicon amendment improved rice yields, as did chlorantraniliprole seed treatment and use of the hybrid variety.

  9. Calibrating your grain drill or seeder can save both seed and money

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agronomic impact of over-seeding or under-seeding a field is complex. Most farmers have worked out a seeding rate with their agronomist. Exceeding that rate may not be productive, especially at $265+ per bag of alfalfa ($500 for switchgrass). Over-seeding costs add up, even across a small number...

  10. Effectiveness of post-fire seeding at the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    In August 2007, the Milepost 17 and Wautoma fires burned a combined total of 77,349 acres (31,302 hectares) of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve (ALE), part of the Hanford Reach National Monument administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Mid-Columbia National Wildlife Refuge. In 2009, the USFWS implemented a series of seeding and herbicide treatments to mitigate potential negative consequences of these fires, including mortality of native vegetation, invasion of Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass), and soil erosion. Treatments included combinations of seeding (drill and aerial), herbicides, and one of six different mixtures of species. Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Wyoming big sagebrush) also was planted by hand in a small area in the southern end of the fire perimeter. Due to differences in plant communities prior to the fire and the multiple treatments applied, treatments were grouped into five treatment associations including mid-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation aerial seedings, low-elevation drill seedings, high-elevation drill seeding, and no seeding treatments. Data collected at the mid-elevation aerial seedings indicate that the seeding did not appear to increase the density of seedlings compared to the non-seeded area in 2010. At the low-elevation aerial seedings, there were significantly more seedlings at seeded areas as compared to non-seeded areas. Low densities of existing perennial plants probably fostered a low-competition environment enabling seeds to germinate and emerge in 2010 during adequate moisture. Low-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant emergence of seeded grasses in 2009 and 2010 and forbs in 2010. This was likely due to adequate precipitation and that the drill seeding assured soil-to-seed contact. At the high-elevation drill seeding, which was implemented in 2009, there were a high number of seedlings in 2010. Transplanting of A. tridentata following the fires resulted in variable

  11. Versatile Strip Seed Drill: A 2-Wheel Tractor-Based Option for Smallholders to Implement Conservation Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Enamul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholders in Asia and Africa require low-cost seed drills for minimal soil disturbance while establishing various crops. A seed drill that can be drawn by the widely-available two-wheel tractor (2WT is an attractive option for mechanization of no-till in small-sized fields. The Versatile Strip Seed Drill (VSSD was designed with the capacity to make up to 40 mm wide and 60 mm deep strips in untilled land along with seed and basal fertilizer application in a single-pass operation, while powered by the 8.95 to 11.93 kW 2WT. An important innovation of the VSSD was to fit the seed box with both fluted roller-type seed meters for delivery of sufficient small-size seeds to achieve adequate plant density per unit row length; and vertical disk-type seed meters for precision and spaced row planting of larger seeds. Both incessant seed dropping by fluted roller seed meters and spaced planting by vertical disk type seed meters provided optimum plant populations that were generally higher than in conventional, full-tillage plots with the same rate of hand broadcasted seed and fertilizers. Time required for crop establishment by VSSD ranged from 0.13 to 0.18 ha·h−1. When the VSSD was attached to the 2WT for crop establishment, the diesel fuel consumption varied from 4.4 to 6.1 L·ha−1, which was lower than for most 2WT-based planters previously used in Bangladesh. In on-farm multi-locations trials, wheat crops established with the VSSD had statistically similar grain yield compared to conventional tillage; however, significantly higher grain yield was obtained from mustard and lentil, by 14% and 19%, respectively. The VSSD is a unique, minimum-soil-disturbance multi-crop planter, and can be a platform on which to build conservation agriculture systems for small farms in Asia and Africa.

  12. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  13. The pre-history of soil science: Jethro Tull, the invention of the seed drill, and the foundations of modern agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Laura B.

    Eighteenth-century British gentleman farmer Jethro Tull (1674-1741) is popularly regarded as the inventor of the seed drill, widely cited by agricultural historians, soil scientists and school history textbooks alike. Whether Tull was in fact the first to experiment with a mechanical seed drill and the horse-drawn cultivators drilling made possible is doubtful, but he did do much to make their acceptance in the long run more widespread. What is less well known is that Tull’s mechanical innovations were accompanied by a theory of plant nutrition-and a social agenda-that were equally important to the adoption of the new machines. Although he came to be celebrated by later generations, Tull’s work attracted fierce critics in his own day and immediately after, not least because he categorically rejected the value of manures in maintaining soil fertility. Instead, he proposed a mechanistic theory of plant nutrition in which the stirring of the soil with the cultivator could substitute for the processes of decomposition thought to be contributed by manures, with less labor and expense. For Tull, the drill was part of an explicit strategy to minimize reliance on an unruly labor force. He also directly challenged the idea that Virgil and other classical authorities could be of any practical use in farm management. In other words, Tull was an anti-georgic improver, and could only be reinserted into the canon of agricultural history through the efforts of later agriculturists to gloss over the objectionable parts of his work. This paper explores how, a century before Liebig, Tull’s Horse-Hoeing Husbandry ( 1731 and later editions) sparked heated debates over a constellation of issues that are still with us today: no-till vs. tillage, net profits vs. gross yields, soil biology vs. soil chemistry, yield per acre vs. yield per unit of labor, rotation costs vs. input costs.

  14. Development and appraisal of economical and sustainable approach for weed management in drill seeded aerobic rice (oryza sativa l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Akbar, N.; Ehsanullah, A.; Ghafoor, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional rice cultivation by puddling and transplanting is a labor intensive activity. Water scarcity is a threat for the sustain ability of transplanted rice. In many areas of Asia, rice transplantation of rice is being replaced by direct seeding as farmers tried to solve the problems of labor cost and water scarcity but weed control is one of the major constraints to direct seeding. So, to control weeds in direct seeded rice present studies were designed. A two years study was conducted to develop sustainable and economical methods for managing weeds in aerobic rice grown by dry direct-seeding at Student's Farm, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the years 2008 and 2009. Experiment was laid out in RCBD with five weed management strategies: hand weeding, hoeing with kasula, inter-row cultivation with tine cultivator, inter-row cultivation with spike hoe and chemical control with Nominee 100 SC along with control (no weeding). Weed dry weight was 300 g m/sup -2/, 257 g m/sup -2/, 225 g m/sup -2/ and 157 g m/sup -2/ less in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. Paddy yield was 221%, 203%, 181% and 105% more in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. (author)

  15. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  16. Casing drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviewed the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling several wells using only casings as the drill stem. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig called the Casing Drilling {sup TM} system. The system could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of coalbed methane (CBM) reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead, along wire line retrieval, can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core which is typically required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or underbalanced wells with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while simultaneously finding gas. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling {sup TM} could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 9 figs.

  17. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  18. Climate change impacts on high-elevation hydroelectricity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh; Guégan, Marion; Uvo, Cintia B.

    2014-03-01

    While only about 30% of California's usable water storage capacity lies at higher elevations, high-elevation (above 300 m) hydropower units generate, on average, 74% of California's in-state hydroelectricity. In general, high-elevation plants have small man-made reservoirs and rely mainly on snowpack. Their low built-in storage capacity is a concern with regard to climate warming. Snowmelt is expected to shift to earlier in the year, and the system may not be able to store sufficient water for release in high-demand periods. Previous studies have explored the climate warming effects on California's high-elevation hydropower by focusing on the supply side (exploring the effects of hydrological changes on generation and revenues) ignoring the warming effects on hydroelectricity demand and pricing. This study extends the previous work by simultaneous consideration of climate change effects on high-elevation hydropower supply and pricing in California. The California's Energy-Based Hydropower Optimization Model (EBHOM 2.0) is applied to evaluate the adaptability of California's high-elevation hydropower system to climate warming, considering the warming effects on hydroelectricity supply and pricing. The model's results relative to energy generation, energy spills, reservoir energy storage, and average shadow prices of energy generation and storage capacity expansion are examined and discussed. These results are compared with previous studies to emphasize the need to consider climate change effects on hydroelectricity demand and pricing when exploring the effects of climate change on hydropower operations.

  19. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-12

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world's high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  20. Air temperature variability in a high-elevation Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, Martin; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Air temperature is a key control of processes affecting snow and glaciers in high-elevation catchments, including melt, snowfall and sublimation. It is therefore a key input variable to models of land-surface-atmosphere interaction. Despite this importance, its spatial variability is poorly

  1. Drilling reorganizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  2. Long-term effects of seeding after wildfire on vegetation in Great Basin shrubland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    1. Invasive annual grasses alter fire regimes in shrubland ecosystems of the western USA, threatening ecosystem function and fragmenting habitats necessary for shrub-obligate species such as greater sage-grouse. Post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments have been administered to stabilize soils, reduce invasive species spread and restore or establish sustainable ecosystems in which native species are well represented. Long-term effectiveness of these treatments has rarely been evaluated. 2. We studied vegetation at 88 sites where aerial or drill seeding was implemented following fires between 1990 and 2003 in Great Basin (USA) shrublands. We examined sites on loamy soils that burned only once since 1970 to eliminate confounding effects of recurrent fire and to assess soils most conducive to establishment of seeded species. We evaluated whether seeding provided greater cover of perennial seeded species than burned–unseeded and unburned–unseeded sites, while also accounting for environmental variation. 3. Post-fire seeding of native perennial grasses generally did not increase cover relative to burned–unseeded areas. Native perennial grass cover did, however, increase after drill seeding when competitive non-natives were not included in mixes. Seeding non-native perennial grasses and the shrub Bassia prostrata resulted in more vegetative cover in aerial and drill seeding, with non-native perennial grass cover increasing with annual precipitation. Seeding native shrubs, particularly Artemisia tridentata, did not increase shrub cover or density in burned areas. Cover of undesirable, non-native annual grasses was lower in drill seeded relative to unseeded areas, but only at higher elevations. 4. Synthesis and applications. Management objectives are more likely to be met in high-elevation or precipitation locations where establishment of perennial grasses occurred. On lower and drier sites, management objectives are unlikely to be met with seeding alone

  3. Cytophotometric differentiation of high elevation spruces: physiological and ecological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlyn, G.P.; Royte, J.L.; Anoruo, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    Red and black spruce and their hybrids can be determined by morphological indices; however, the criteria are somewhat subjective and increasingly difficult to use at higher elevations. Although the chromosome number is identical (2n = 24), red spruce has twice as much nuclear DNA (48 pg) than black spruce (24 pg) and thus the species and their hybrids can also be separated by cytophotometry. This is relevant to spruce decline studies because black spruce is much more resistant to high elevation environmental stresses, both natural and anthropogenic. It also has implications for the effect of climatic changes on the composition of high elevation spruce-fir forests because red spruce can outcompete black spruce under more mesic conditions. Four elevation transects sampling spruce on the east and west sides of Mount Washington (New Hampshire) and Camels Hump (Vermont) and a single transect on the southwest side of Whiteface Mountain (New York) were made to investigate the degree of hybridization and introgression between these two species. A positive correlation was found between increased elevation and increased black spruce genes on Mount Washington and Camels Hump. Pure black spruce was found on Mount Washington from 1356 m to 1582 m. No pure black or red spruce was found on Camels Hump although the proportion of red spruce alleles was significantly greater on Camels Hump. All trees sampled at all elevations on Whiteface Mountain were pure red spruce. Thus the proportion of black spruce alleles in high elevation spruce populations decreases from east to west. This closely parallels the increase in spruce decline which increases from east to west. (author)

  4. Climate Change Altered Disturbance Regimes in High Elevation Pine Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Insects in aggregate are the greatest cause of forest disturbance. Outbreaks of both native and exotic insects can be spectacular events in both their intensity and spatial extent. In the case of native species, forest ecosystems have co-evolved (or at least co-adapted) in ways that incorporate these disturbances into the normal cycle of forest maturation and renewal. The time frame of response to changing climate, however, is much shorter for insects (typically one year) than for their host forests (decades or longer). As a result, outbreaks of forest insects, particularly bark beetles, are occurring at unprecedented levels throughout western North America, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and potentially entire ecosystems. In this talk, I will describe one such ecosystem, the whitebark pine association at high elevations in the north-central Rocky Mountains of the United States. White bark pines are keystone species, which in consort with Clark's nutcracker, build entire ecosystems at high elevations. These ecosystems provide valuable ecological services, including the distribution and abundance of water resources. I will briefly describe the keystone nature of whitebark pine and the historic role of mountain pine beetle disturbance in these ecosystems. The mountain pine beetle is the most important outbreak insect in forests of the western United States. Although capable of spectacular outbreak events, in historic climate regimes, outbreak populations were largely restricted to lower elevation pines; for example, lodgepole and ponderosa pines. The recent series of unusually warm years, however, has allowed this insect to expand its range into high elevation, whitebark pine ecosystems with devastating consequences. The aspects of mountain pine beetle thermal ecology that has allowed it to capitalize so effectively on a warming climate will be discussed. A model that incorporates critical thermal attributes of the mountain pine beetle's life cycle was

  5. Scales of snow depth variability in high elevation rangeland sagebrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, Molly E.; Fassnacht, Steven R.; Meiman, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    In high elevation semi-arid rangelands, sagebrush and other shrubs can affect transport and deposition of wind-blown snow, enabling the formation of snowdrifts. Datasets from three field experiments were used to investigate the scales of spatial variability of snow depth around big mountain sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) at a high elevation plateau rangeland in North Park, Colorado, during the winters of 2002, 2003, and 2008. Data were collected at multiple resolutions (0.05 to 25 m) and extents (2 to 1000 m). Finer scale data were collected specifically for this study to examine the correlation between snow depth, sagebrush microtopography, the ground surface, and the snow surface, as well as the temporal consistency of snow depth patterns. Variograms were used to identify the spatial structure and the Moran's I statistic was used to determine the spatial correlation. Results show some temporal consistency in snow depth at several scales. Plot scale snow depth variability is partly a function of the nature of individual shrubs, as there is some correlation between the spatial structure of snow depth and sagebrush, as well as between the ground and snow depth. The optimal sampling resolution appears to be 25-cm, but over a large area, this would require a multitude of samples, and thus a random stratified approach is recommended with a fine measurement resolution of 5-cm.

  6. Drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiopa, A A; Yegorov, E K

    1981-01-04

    A drilling rig is proposed which contains a tower, lifter in the form of n infinite chain, and mobile rotator with holding device connected to the chain, and pipe holder. In order to accelerate the auxiliary operations to move the drilling string and unloaded rotator, the rotator is equipped with a clamp with means for transverse connection of it to both branches of the chain, while the pipe holders equipped with a clamp with means of connecting it to one of the branches of the chain.

  7. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusayev, A A; Bibikov, K V; Simonenkov, I D; Surkova, K I

    1982-01-01

    Drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, water, water output reducer, pH regulator, viscosity reducer and hydrogen sulfide absorber. In order to improve the absorbing capacity of the drilling mud with pH 8-11 and simultaneously preservation of the technological properties of the mud, it contains as the absorber of hydrogen sulfide pyrite cinders with the following ratio of components, % by mass: clay 5.0-35.0; water output reducer 0.2-2.0; pH regulator 0.05-0.25; viscosity reducer 0.1-1.0; pyrite cinders 0.5-4.0; water--the rest.

  8. Assessment of nitrate export from a high elevation watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.M.; Nodvin, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from forest soils can be detrimental to both the forest ecosystems and stream water quality. Nitrate moving through the soil transports plant nutrients and acidifying agents, hydrogen and aluminum, and can export them to streams. In the high elevation spruce-fir forests in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) nitrate has been found to be leaching from the rooting zone. Streams associated with these ecosystems are poorly buffered. Therefore rapid export of nitrate from the soils to the streams could lead to episodic acidification. The purpose of the Noland Divide watershed study is to assess the levels of nitrate export from the watershed to the streams and the potential impacts of the export to the ecosystem

  9. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babets, M A; Nechayev, N D; Vinogradova, G P

    1982-01-01

    A drilling mud is proposed which contains clay, alkali, water and stabilizer reagent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the viscosity and static shear stress, the stabilizer reagent contained is composted solid general wastes with the following ratio of components (% by weight): clay 10-15, alkali 0.1-0.2; composted solid general wastes 2-5; water--the rest.

  10. Bucket drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  11. Drilling mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorescu, V; Ditulescu, E

    1979-01-30

    A method is proposed for producing stable drilling mortar from drilled rock which makes it possible to stabilize the walls of the borehole and to maintain producing horizons of oil and gas wells in an undisturbed state. The proposed drilling mortar includes 5-12 wt.-% dry modified calcium lignosulfonate in the form of a solution containing about 30% dry matter with the addition of 0.1 wt.-% anti-foaming agent consisting of C/sub 19/-C/sub 20/ alcohol dissolved in a light petroleum product; cream of milk with about 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a quantity sufficient for reducing the pH value of the ions down to 10.5; sodium chloride in amounts from 5 mg to 100 ml (aqueous phase); ordinarily used agents for ensuring the necessary density, viscosity, and filterability. For example, the preparation of the drilling fluid begins with the processing under laboratory conditions of lignosulfonic pulp obtained in the production of yeast fodder with the following characteristics: specific density, 1.15 kgf/dm/sup 3/; water content, 67% (according to the Dean and Stark method); pH 4.0. In the vessel is placed 1000 cm/sup 3/ lignosulfonic pulp containing 33% dry matter, and the pulp is heated to 90-95/sup 0/C by means of a water bath. To the heated pulp 33 cm/sup 3/ formic acid at a 40-% concentration is added by mixing. The specific temperature of the pulp is maintained in the constant mixing process for two hours. Then the cream of milk containing 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ is added to raise the pH to 10.5. The cooled product is calcium lignosulfonate. To produce a stable form of the drilling mortar, 750 g clay and 10 g trass gel are added to a vessel containing 1500 cm/sup 3/ fresh water by means of mixing. The resulting dispersed mass remains at rest for 12 hours for purposes of hydration. Then 2 g of an anti-foaming agent dissolved in 6 cm/sup 3/ benzene is introduced to 1000 cm/sup 3/ modified calcium lignosulfonate produced by the above method.

  12. Desempenho de semeadoras-adubadoras de soja em Latossolo Vermelho muito argiloso com palha intacta de milho Performance of soybean seed drills in Oxisol with intact corn straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo G. Aratani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Como a dificuldade da semeadura da soja sob grande quantidade de palha do milho safrinha intacta, sem a fragmentação ou incorporação dos resíduos, em solos muito argilosos, tem desmotivado a utilização do sistema plantio direto pelos agricultores da região paulista do Médio Paranapanema, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, comparar o desempenho quanto ao embuchamento, bem como avaliar a qualidade da semeadura entre semeadoras-adubadoras original e adaptada, na cultura da soja. O sistema modificado proporcionou menor número de paradas do conjunto trator-semeadora, em função de embuchamento. As freqüências de solo exposto e profundidades de deposição da semente e do sulco em ambas as semeadoras e, ainda, o número de plantas emergidas para a semeadora-adubadora modificada, apresentaram diferença significativa entre as linhas de semeadura. O desempenho das duas semeadoras-adubadoras avaliadas não foi satisfatório quanto à largura de revolvimento do solo e à uniformidade da profundidade de deposição da semente.Soybean sowing under great amount of intact residues of off-season maize, without cutting or incorporation of residues in highly clayey soils has discouraged the farmers to adopt no-tillage (direct planting in Médio Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of an original and a modified no-tillage planter by minimizing the straw accumulation, and to evaluate the sowing quality. The modified planter system provided less number of stops due to straw accumulation. Both planter systems showed that uncover soil frequencies and depths of seeding and furrow presented significant differences between the sowed lines. The modified planter system expressed significant difference for number of emerged plants between the sowed lines. The performance of the both planters was not satisfactory for soil revolving width and uniformity of the depth of seeding.

  13. Drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovskiy, V D; Brintsev, A I; Gusev, V G; Katenev, Ye P; Pokhorenko, I V

    1979-10-25

    A drilling mud is proposed, which contains a dispersion medium, a dispersion phase, for instance, clay, a stabilizer reagent, for instance, carboxymethylcellulose and a weighter. In order to reduce the viscosity and to increase the stability of the mud it contains as the dispersion medium a 75% aqueous solution of the L-7 reagent. To increase the salt resistance of the mud, it additionally contains sodium chloride in a volume of 4.04.5 percent by weight, and to regulate the alkalinity, it additionally contains sodium hydroxide in a volume of 1.1 to 1.3 percent by weight.

  14. A High Elevation Climate Monitoring Network: Strategy and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, K. T.

    2004-12-01

    Populations living at low elevations are critically dependent on processes and resources at higher elevations. Most western U.S. streamflow begins as mountain snowmelt. Observational evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that climate variations in a given geographic domain can and do exhibit different characteristics and temporal behavior at different elevations. Subtleties in the interplay between topography and airflow can significantly affect precipitation patterns. However, there are very few systematic, long-term, in-situ, climate quality, high-altitude observational time series with hourly resolution for the western North American mountains to investigate these issues at the proper scales. Climate at high elevations is severely undersampled, a consequence of the harsh physical environment, and demands on sensors, maintenance, access, communications, time, and budgets. Costs are higher, human presence is limited, AC power is often not available, and there are permitting and aesthetic constraints. The observational strategy should include these main elements: 1) All major mountain ranges should be sampled. 2) Along-axis and cross-axis sampling for major mountain chains. 3) Approximately 5-10 sites per state (1 per 56000 sq km to 1 per 28000 sq km). 4) Highest sites as high as possible within each state, but at both high relative and absolute elevations. 5) Free air exposures at higher sites. 6) Utilize existing measurements and networks, and extend existing records, when possible. 7) AC power to prevent ice/rime when practical. 8) Temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation as main elements, others as feasible. 9) Hourly readings, and real time communication whenever possible. 10) Absence of local artificial influences, site stable for next 5-10 decades. 11) Current and historical measurements accessible via World Wide Web when possible. 12) Hydro measurements (precipitation, snow water content and depth) are not

  15. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  16. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  17. Mapping the depth to ice-cemented ground in the high elevation Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, M.; McKay, C. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D. T.; Jackson, A.; Lacelle, D.; Paulsen, G.; Pollard, W. H.; Zacny, K.

    2011-12-01

    The high elevation Dry Valleys of Antarctica provide a unique location for the study of permafrost distribution and stability. In particular, the extremely arid and cold conditions preclude the presence of liquid water, and the exchange of water between the ice-cemented ground and the atmosphere is through vapour transport (diffusion). In addition, the low atmospheric humidity results in the desiccation of the subsurface, forming a dry permafrost layer (i.e., cryotic soils which are dry and not ice-cemented). Weather data suggests that subsurface ice is unstable under current climatic conditions. Yet we do find ice-cemented ground in these valleys. This contradiction provides insight into energy balance modeling, vapour transport, and additional climate effects which stabilize subsurface ice. To study the driving factors in the stability and distribution of ice-cemented ground, we have extensively mapped the depth to ice-cemented ground in University Valley (1730 m; 77°S 51.8', 160°E 43'), and three neighbouring valleys in the Beacon Valley area. We measured the depth to ice-cemented ground at 15-40 locations per valley by digging soil pits and drilling until ice was reached; for each location 3-5 measurements within a ~1 m2 area were averaged (see figure). This high-resolution mapping of the depth to ice-cemented ground provides new insight on the distribution and stability of subsurface ice, and shows significant variability in the depth to ground ice within each valley. We are combining data from mapping the depth to ice-cemented ground with year-round, in situ measurements of the atmospheric and subsurface conditions, such as temperature, humidity, wind, and light, to model the local stability of ice-cemented ground. We are using this dataset to examine the effects of slopes, shading, and soil properties, as well as the suggested importance of snow recurrence, to better understand diffusion-controlled subsurface ice stability.

  18. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  19. Food habits of introduced rodents in high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F. Russell; Loope, Lloyd L.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Howe, Cameron E.; Anderson, Laurel J.

    2000-01-01

    Mus musculus and Rattus rattus are ubiquitous consumers in the high-elevation shrubland of Haleakala National Park. Food habits of these two rodent species were determined from stomach samples obtained by snaptrapping along transects located at four different elevations during November 1984 and February, May, and August 1985. Mus musculus fed primarily on fruits, grass seeds, and arthropods. Rattus rattus ate various fruits, dicot leaves, and arthropods. Arthropods, many of which are endemic, were taken frequently by Mus musculus throughout the year at the highest elevation where plant food resources were scarce. Araneida, Lepidoptera (primarily larvae), Coleoptera, and Homoptera were the main arthropod taxa taken. These rodents, particularly Mus musculus, exert strong predation pressure on populations of arthropod species, including locally endemic species on upper Haleakala Volcano.

  20. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  1. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    well intervention research and development needs should be communicated to the principal developers and suppliers of new drilling and well intervention technology, including the service companies, research institutes, universities, operators, and other organizations involved in drilling and well intervention technology development; The needs and gaps in the area of drilling and well intervention should be reviewed on an annual basis and communicated to the appropriate government agencies; The government should increase seed funding via the Research Council of Norway for proposals that address the strategic drilling and well intervention needs; Where consistent with business interests, operators should consider increased funding for development of drilling and well intervention technology that meet the strategic needs for Norway; The industry should develop new creative partnering and risk sharing models for development of capital-intensive new drilling and well intervention technology. (Author)

  2. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINGER, JOHN T.; GLOWKA, DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY, BILLY JOE; MANSURE, ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE, MICHAEL R.

    1999-01-01

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  3. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  4. Drilling trends in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on various aspects of well drilling in the 1990s, papers were presented on drilling waste management, well completion and workovers, drilling fluids, drilling rig equipment and design, drilling mechanics, drill stem testing and materials, cementing, business management, health and safety, environmental issues, and directional drilling technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 46 papers from this conference

  5. Avaliação tecnológica de semeadoras e/ou adubadoras: tratamento de dados de ensaios e regularidade de distribuição longitudinal de sementes Seed drill technological evaluation: test data treatments and seed longitudinal distribution uneveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Hiroaki Kurachi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Normas, procedimentos de ensaio e trabalhos de pesquisa apontam a regularidade de distribuição longitudinal de sementes como uma das características operacionais de semeadoras que mais contribuem para a obtenção de um stand adequado de plantas e, conseqüentemente, boa produtividade. Dois parâmetros são utilizados para essa avaliação: o coeficiente de variação (CV das populações de espaçamentos e as porcentagens de ocorrência de espaçamentos aceitáveis ou de sementes "normalmente semeadas". Como tais textos preconizam o emprego de diferentes procedimentos para o cálculo daqueles parâmetros de avaliação, o presente estudo visou aos efeitos dos diferentes tratamentos de dados nos resultados e na sua interpretação. Aplicaram-se tratamentos - DEA, ISO, ABNT e INTA ADAPTADO - às populações de espaçamentos de sementes, resultantes de ensaios de bancada com três tipos de mecanismos desadores (disco horizontal, disco inclinado e disco vertical com dispositivo pneumático. Para dois deles, observaram-se diferenças expressivas entre os resultados da aplicação dos tratamentos, tanto no tocante aos coeficientes de variação (CV quanto às ocorrências de espaçamentos definidos como aceitáveis. Dependendo do tratamento, corre-se o risco, num processo de avaliação de desempenho, de aprovar-se um mecanismo que, como máquina, apresenta resultados satisfatórios, sem, no entanto, atender aos requisitos agronômicos, sua função básica.Standards, test procedures and research works appoint the regularity of seed longitudinal distribution as one of the seed drills operational characteristics that contributes for attainment of an adequate plant stand and good productivity. Coefficient of variation (CV of the spacing population and the percentage of acceptable spacings of seeds "normally sown" are the parameters used for that evaluation. This study was conducted to test different procedures recommended to calculate the

  6. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  7. Plant diversity on high elevation islands – drivers of species richness and endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin D.H. Irl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High elevation islands elicit fascination because of their large array of endemic species and strong environmental gradients. First, I define a high elevation island according to geographic and environmental characteristics. Then, within this high elevation island framework, I address local disturbance effects on plant distribution, drivers of diversity and endemism on the island scale, and global patterns of treeline elevation and climate change. Locally, introduced herbivores have strong negative effects on the summit scrub of my model island La Palma (Canary Islands, while roads have unexpected positive effects on endemics. On the island scale, topography and climate drive diversity and endemism. Hotspots of endemicity are found in summit regions – a general pattern on high elevation islands. The global pattern of treeline elevation behaves quite differently on islands than on the mainland. A thorough literature review and climate projections suggest that climate change will profoundly affect oceanic island floras.

  8. Emission of pesticides during drilling and deposition in adjacent areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimbach, Udo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In seven experiments seeds of maize, oil seed rape and barley, treated with neonicotinoids, were sown using pneumatic drilling equipment with deflectors attached in case of pneumatic suction systems. Directly adjacent to the drilled area of usually about 50 m width were replicated areas with bare soil as well as with crops. During maize (Zea mays drilling flowering oil seed rape (Brassica napus and during drilling of barley (Hordeum vulgare and oil seed rape flowering white mustard (Sinapis alba was adjacent. The amount of residues in the adjacent non crop areas in Petri dishes being distributed on the bare soil declined only slowly from 1 to 20 m distance from the area drilled. Seed batches with more abrasion and higher content of active substances in the dust resulted in higher residues off crop. After drilling of maize in four experiments in Petri dishes in adjacent non crop areas in 1-5 m distance between 0.02 and 0.40 g a.s./ha of neonicotinoids and in the adjacent oil seed rape a total of 0.05–0.80 g a.s./ha were detected. After drilling oil seed rape or barley these values were only 0.02–0.06 g a.s./ha in Petri dishes in non crop areas and 0.03-0.08 g a.s./ha in total in adjacent white mustard. In gauze net samplers installed vertically in 3 m distance in non crop areas up to seven times higher values were detected compared to Petri dishes.

  9. Study for increasing micro-drill reliability by vibrating drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhaojun; Li Wei; Chen Yanhong; Wang Lijiang

    1998-01-01

    A study for increasing micro-drill reliability by vibrating drilling is described. Under the experimental conditions of this study it is observed, from reliability testing and the fitting of a life-distribution function, that the lives of micro-drills under ordinary drilling follow the log-normal distribution and the lives of micro-drills under vibrating drilling follow the Weibull distribution. Calculations for reliability analysis show that vibrating drilling can increase the lives of micro-drills and correspondingly reduce the scatter of drill lives. Therefore, vibrating drilling increases the reliability of micro-drills

  10. The Hans Tausen drill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...

  11. South African drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    According to the president of the South African Drilling Association, the drilling industry is meeting head-on the challenges created by the worldwide recession. The paper is a synopsis of several of the papers presented at the SADA symposium and a look at several mining-related drilling projects in South Africa. These papers include grouting techniques, the use of impregnated bits in hard rock drilling, tunnel boring for mines, surveying improvement methods and the use of explosives to increase groundwater yield

  12. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  13. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E; Gervais, I [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y; Pangarkar, S; Stibbs, B [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  14. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  15. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  16. Illustrating harvest effects on site microclimate in a high-elevation forest stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.B. Fowler; T.D. Anderson

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional contour surfaces were drawn for physiologically active radiation (PAR) and air and soil temperatures from measurements taken at a high-elevation site (1450 m) near the crest of the Cascade Range in central Washington. Measurements in a clearcut were compared with measurements from an adjacent uncut stand. Data for 31 days in July and August 1985...

  17. Host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics suggest high elevation refugia for boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Muths, Erin L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an increasingly common threat to wildlife. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease that has been linked to amphibian declines around the world. Few studies exist that explore amphibian-Bd dynamics at the landscape scale, limiting our ability to identify which factors are associated with variation in population susceptibility and to develop effective in situdisease management. Declines of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are largely attributed to chytridiomycosis but variation exists in local extinction of boreal toads across this metapopulation. Using a large-scale historic dataset, we explored several potential factors influencing disease dynamics in the boreal toad-Bd system: geographic isolation of populations, amphibian community richness, elevational differences, and habitat permanence. We found evidence that boreal toad extinction risk was lowest at high elevations where temperatures may be sub-optimal for Bd growth and where small boreal toad populations may be below the threshold needed for efficient pathogen transmission. In addition, boreal toads were more likely to recolonize high elevation sites after local extinction, again suggesting that high elevations may provide refuge from disease for boreal toads. We illustrate a modeling framework that will be useful to natural resource managers striving to make decisions in amphibian-Bdsystems. Our data suggest that in the southern Rocky Mountains high elevation sites should be prioritized for conservation initiatives like reintroductions.

  18. The altitudinal temperature lapse rates applied to high elevation rockfalls studies in the Western European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigrelli, Guido; Fratianni, Simona; Zampollo, Arianna; Turconi, Laura; Chiarle, Marta

    2018-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important aspects of mountain climates. The relationships between air temperature and rockfalls at high-elevation sites are very important to know, but are also very difficult to study. In relation to this, a reliable method to estimate air temperatures at high-elevation sites is to apply the altitudinal temperature lapse rates (ATLR). The aims of this work are to quantify the values and the variability of the hourly ATLR and to apply this to estimated temperatures at high-elevation sites for rockfalls studies. To calculate ATLR prior the rockfalls, we used data acquired from two automatic weather stations that are located at an elevation above 2500 m. The sensors/instruments of these two stations are reliable because subjected to an accurate control and calibration once for year and the raw data have passed two automatic quality controls. Our study has yielded the following main results: (i) hourly ATLR increases slightly with increasing altitude, (ii) it is possible to estimate temperature at high-elevation sites with a good level of accuracy using ATLR, and (iii) temperature plays an important role on slope failures that occur at high-elevation sites and its importance is much more evident if the values oscillate around 0 °C with an amplitude of ±5 °C during the previous time-period. For these studies, it is not enough to improve the knowledge on air temperature, but it is necessary to develop an integrated knowledge of the thermal conditions of different materials involved in these processes (rock, debris, ice, water). Moreover, this integrated knowledge must be acquired by means of sensors and acquisition chains with known metrological traceability and uncertainty of measurements.

  19. Mechanical Constraints on Flight at High Elevation Decrease Maneuvering Performance of Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Paolo S; Dakin, Roslyn; Read, Tyson J G; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-12-19

    High-elevation habitats offer ecological advantages including reduced competition, predation, and parasitism [1]. However, flying organisms at high elevation also face physiological challenges due to lower air density and oxygen availability [2]. These constraints are expected to affect the flight maneuvers that are required to compete with rivals, capture prey, and evade threats [3-5]. To test how individual maneuvering performance is affected by elevation, we measured the free-flight maneuvers of male Anna's hummingbirds in a large chamber translocated to a high-elevation site and then measured their performance at low elevation. We used a multi-camera tracking system to identify thousands of maneuvers based on body position and orientation [6]. At high elevation, the birds' translational velocities, accelerations, and rotational velocities were reduced, and they used less demanding turns. To determine how mechanical and metabolic constraints independently affect performance, we performed a second experiment to evaluate flight maneuvers in an airtight chamber infused with either normoxic heliox, to lower air density, or nitrogen, to lower oxygen availability. The hypodense treatment caused the birds to reduce their accelerations and rotational velocities, whereas the hypoxic treatment had no significant effect on maneuvering performance. Collectively, these experiments reveal how aerial maneuvering performance changes with elevation, demonstrating that as birds move up in elevation, air density constrains their maneuverability prior to any influence of oxygen availability. Our results support the hypothesis that changes in competitive ability at high elevations are the result of mechanical limits to flight performance [7]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drilling bits for deep drilling and process for their manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, H.; Juergens, R.; Feenstra, R.; Busking, B.E.

    1978-11-30

    The invention concerns a drilling head or a drilling bit for use in deep drilling in underground formations and particularly concerns a drilling bit with a drilling bit body, which has a shank and a hollow space, which is connected with a duct extending through the shank. The drilling bit body has several separate cutting elements for removing material from the floor of a borehole and hydraulic devices for cooling and/or cleaning the cutting elements are provided.

  1. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  2. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  3. Drilling technologies in hydrogeological survey

    OpenAIRE

    Vorlíček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the drilling technologies used in hydrogeology. The main aim of the work is to explore types of drilling technologies used at hydrogeological drilling wells and modern technologies that could potentially be used in the future. The work also summarizes a historical development of drilling techniques, a drilling process procedure, information obtained from boreholes and the most common types of drilling fluids.

  4. Using Satellites to Investigate the Sensitivity of Longwave Downward Radiation to Water Vapor at High Elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Catherine M.; Miller, James R.; Landry, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many studies suggest that high-elevation regions may be among the most sensitive to future climate change. However, in situ observations in these often remote locations are too sparse to determine the feedbacks responsible for enhanced warming rates. One of these feedbacks is associated with the sensitivity of longwave downward radiation (LDR) to changes in water vapor, with the sensitivity being particularly large in many high-elevation regions where the average water vapor is often low. We show that satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) can be used to expand the current ground-based observational database and that the monthly averaged clear-sky satellite estimates of humidity and LDR are in good agreement with the well-instrumented Center for Snow and Avalanche Studies ground-based site in the southwestern Colorado Rocky Mountains. The relationship between MODIS-retrieved precipitable water vapor and surface specific humidity across the contiguous United States was found to be similar to that previously found for the Alps. More important, we show that satellites capture the nonlinear relationship between LDR and water vapor and confirm that LDR is especially sensitive to changes in water vapor at high elevations in several midlatitude mountain ranges. Because the global population depends on adequate fresh water, much of which has its source in high mountains, it is critically important to understand how climate will change there. We demonstrate that satellites can be used to investigate these feedbacks in high-elevation regions where the coverage of surface-based observations is insufficient to do so.

  5. Drought-induced weakening of growth-temperature associations in high-elevation Iberian pines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diego Galvan, J.; Büntgen, Ulf; Ginzler, Ch.; Grudd, H.; Gutierrez, E.; Labuhn, I.; Julio Camarero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 124, JAN (2015), s. 95-106 ISSN 0921-8181 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tree-ring chronologies * regional curve standardization * pinus-uncinata * european alps * spatial variability * summer temperatures * divergence problem * spanish pyrenees * fagus-sylvatica * large-scale * Climate change * Drought * Growth response * High-elevation forest * Pyrenees * Summer temperature Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.548, year: 2015

  6. A vision for drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millheim, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The future of drilling lies in its relationship with the oil and gas industry. This paper examines how the future of drilling is seen from the view point of the exploration manager, the drilling contractor, the drilling engineer and the company president or managing director. The various pressures on the oil and gas industry are examined, such as environmental issues, alternative energy sources, and the price of oil which determines how companies are run. Exploration activity is driven by the price of oil and gas. The development of wells with multiple horizontal wells or multiple horizontal wells with tributaries will reduce the cost of exploration. Companies will rely less and less on reservoir simulation and more on cheap well-bores, multi-lateral well-bores and will exploit oil that could not be exploited before. The cost of exploratory drilling will need to be kept down so that in the future the industry will get better at economically finding fields at the 10 million to 20 million barrel range that would not have been possible before. The future is expected to see drilling contractors tunnelling, making sewerage lines and drilling 10,000 foot wells with purpose built rigs. Franchising will become a feature of the industry as will the use of databases to answer key technical questions. Offshore platforms will be built to be moveable and disposable. The industry is capable of solving problems, meeting challenges and making ideas work, providing much hope for the future. 10 figs., 1 photo.

  7. Drilling cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Drilling assumes greater importance in present day uranium exploration which emphasizes to explore more areas on the basis of conceptual model than merely on surface anomalies. But drilling is as costly as it is important and consumes a major share (50% to 60%) of the exploration budget. As such the cost of drilling has great bearing on the exploration strategy as well as on the overall cost of the project. Therefore, understanding the cost analysis is very much important when planning or intensifying an exploration programme. This not only helps in controlling the current operations but also in planning the budgetary provisions for future operations. Also, if the work is entrusted to a private party, knowledge of in-house cost analysis helps in fixing the rates of drilling in different formations and areas to be drilled. Under this topic, various factors that contribute to the cost of drilling per meter as well as ways to minimize the drilling cost for better economic evaluation of mineral deposits are discussed. (author)

  8. Drilling for scientific purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1987-09-01

    Drilling for scientific purpose is a process of conducting geophysical exploration at deep underground and drilling for collecting crust samples directly. This is because earth science has advanced to get a good understanding about the top of the crust and has shifted its main interest to the lower layer of the crust in land regions. The on-land drilling plan in Japan has just started, and the planned drilling spots are areas around the Minami River, Hidaka Mts., kinds of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granite in outside zone, the extension of Japan Sea, Ogasawara Is., Minami-Tori Is., and active volcanos. The paper also outlines the present situation of on-land drilling in the world, focusing on the SG-3rd super-deep well SG-3 on the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Satori SG-1st well SG-1 in Azerbaidzhan S.S.R, V.S.S.R, Sweden's wells, Cyprus' wells, Bayearn well Plan in West Germany, and Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program in the U.S. At its end, the paper explains the present situation and the future theme of the Japanese drilling technique and points out the necessity of developing equipment, and techniques. (14 figs, 5 tabs, 26 refs)

  9. Drought-induced weakening of growth-temperature associations in high-elevation Iberian pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Galván, J.; Büntgen, Ulf; Ginzler, Christian; Grudd, Håkan; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Labuhn, Inga; Julio Camarero, J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth/climate relationship of theoretically temperature-controlled high-elevation forests has been demonstrated to weaken over recent decades. This is likely due to new tree growth limiting factors, such as an increasing drought risk for ecosystem functioning and productivity across the Mediterranean Basin. In addition, declining tree growth sensitivity to spring temperature may emerge in response to increasing drought stress. Here, we evaluate these ideas by assessing the growth/climate sensitivity of 1500 tree-ring width (TRW) and 102 maximum density (MXD) measurement series from 711 and 74 Pinus uncinata trees, respectively, sampled at 28 high-elevation forest sites across the Pyrenees and two relict populations of the Iberian System. Different dendroclimatological standardization and split period approaches were used to assess the high- to low-frequency behavior of 20th century tree growth in response to temperature means, precipitation totals and drought indices. Long-term variations in TRW track summer temperatures until about 1970 but diverge afterwards, whereas MXD captures the recent temperature increase in the low-frequency domain fairly well. On the other hand summer drought has increasingly driven TRW along the 20th century. Our results suggest fading temperature sensitivity of Iberian high-elevation P. uncinata forest growth, and reveal the importance of summer drought that is becoming the emergent limiting factor of tree ring width formation in many parts of the Mediterranean Basin.

  10. Drilling and well technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Invasive pathogen threatens bird-pine mutualism: Implications for sustaining a high-elevation ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Carl E. Fiedler; Diana F. Tomback

    2009-01-01

    Human-caused disruptions to seed-dispersal mutualisms increase the extinction risk for both plant and animal species. Large-seeded plants can be particularly vulnerable due to highly specialized dispersal systems and no compensatory regeneration mechanisms. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone subalpine species, obligately depends upon the Clark's...

  12. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  13. Drilling rig mast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, E.S.; Barashkov, V.A.; Lebedev, A.I.; Panin, N.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-01-07

    A drilling rig mast is proposed that contains a portal with a carrier shaft hinged to it and struts with stays. In order to decrease the time expended in the assembly and dessembly of the drilling rig, the portal is constructed from mobile and immobile parts that are connected together by a ball pivot; the immobile section of the portal has a T-shaped recess for directing the mobile section.

  14. (Heckel) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UTILISATEUR

    Garcinia kola seeds to six different hormonal pre-germination treatments. This consisted of ... Thus, seed dormancy in this case is not a coat- imposed .... development of the cultivation of the species. The cause .... Hormonal regulation of seed ...

  15. Strategies, tools, and challenges for sustaining and restoring high elevation five-needle white pine forests in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    Many ecologically important, five-needle white pine forests that historically dominated the high elevation landscapes of western North America are now being heavily impacted by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus spp.) outbreaks, the exotic disease white pine blister rust (WPBR), and altered high elevation fire regimes. Management intervention using specially designed...

  16. Well drilling by rotary percussive drill above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, G.

    1987-01-01

    Originally, the Well Drilling Section of Cogema used only the diamond core drilling technique. The appearance of independent rotation for compressed air rock drills has led to the use and to the development of this drilling system, as a drill core is not indispensable, when the material of the search is radioactive. During the last few years, hydraulic drills have replaced the compressed air drills and have resulted in a very marked improvement: - of the penetration rates; - of the depth achieved. The Well Drilling Section of Cogema has to drill about 400 km per year with rock drills above ground and holds also the record for depth achieved with this technique, i.e. 400 m in granite. In France, the costs of these types of drilling are for the same depth of the order of one-quarter of the core drilling and half of the drilling with a down-the-hole drill. Cogema has greatly developed the types of well logging which now permits the extension of this type of drilling to the search for other materials than uranium [fr

  17. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  18. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  19. Tissue contaminants and associated transcriptional response in trout liver from high elevation lakes of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.W.; Aluru, N.; Black, R.W.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consistent cold temperatures and large amount of precipitation in the Olympic and Cascade ranges of Washington State are thought to enhance atmospheric deposition of contaminants. However, little is known about contaminant levels in organisms residing in these remote high elevation lakes. We measured total mercury and 28 organochlorine compounds in trout collected from 14 remote lakes in the Olympic, Mt. Rainer, and North Cascades National Parks. Mercury was detected in trout from all lakes sampled (15 to 262 ??g/kg ww), while two organochlorines, total polychlorinated biphenyls (tPCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), were also detected in these fish tissues (<25 ??g/kg ww). In sediments, organochlorine levels were below detection, while median total and methyl mercury were 30.4 and 0.34 ??g/ kg dry weight (ww), respectively. Using fish from two lakes, representing different contaminant loading levels (Wilcox lake: high; Skymo lake: low), we examined transcriptional response in the liver using a custom-made low-density targeted rainbow trout cDNA microarray. We detected significant differences in liver transcriptional response, including significant changes in metabolic, endocrine, and immune-related genes, in fish collected from Wilcox Lake compared to Skymo Lake. Overall, our results suggest that local urban areas contribute to the observed contaminant patterns in these high elevation lakes, while the transcriptional changes point to a biological response associated with exposure to these contaminants in fish. Specifically, the gene expression pattern leads us to hypothesize a role for mercury in disrupting the metabolic and reproductive pathways in fish from high elevation lakes in western Washington. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  20. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  1. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  2. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  3. Source limitation of carbon gas emissions in high-elevation mountain streams and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Stanley, Emily H.; Clow, David W.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle through transport, storage, and direct emissions of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. Despite predictions of high physical gas exchange rates due to turbulent flows and ubiquitous supersaturation of CO2—and perhaps also CH4—patterns of gas emissions are essentially undocumented for high mountain ecosystems. Much like other headwater networks around the globe, we found that high-elevation streams in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA, were supersaturated with CO2 during the growing season and were net sources to the atmosphere. CO2concentrations in lakes, on the other hand, tended to be less than atmospheric equilibrium during the open water season. CO2 and CH4 emissions from the aquatic conduit were relatively small compared to many parts of the globe. Irrespective of the physical template for high gas exchange (high k), we found evidence of CO2 source limitation to mountain streams during the growing season, which limits overall CO2emissions. Our results suggest a reduced importance of aquatic ecosystems for carbon cycling in high-elevation landscapes having limited soil development and high CO2 consumption via mineral weathering.

  4. The Dengue Virus Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti at High Elevation in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Hayden, Mary H.; Welsh-Rodriguez, Carlos; Ochoa-Martinez, Carolina; Tapia-Santos, Berenice; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Uejio, Christopher K.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Monache, Luca Delle; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Eisen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    México has cities (e.g., México City and Puebla City) located at elevations > 2,000 m and above the elevation ceiling below which local climates allow the dengue virus mosquito vector Aedes aegypti to proliferate. Climate warming could raise this ceiling and place high-elevation cities at risk for dengue virus transmission. To assess the elevation ceiling for Ae. aegypti and determine the potential for using weather/climate parameters to predict mosquito abundance, we surveyed 12 communities along an elevation/climate gradient from Veracruz City (sea level) to Puebla City (∼2,100 m). Ae. aegypti was commonly encountered up to 1,700 m and present but rare from 1,700 to 2,130 m. This finding extends the known elevation range in México by > 300 m. Mosquito abundance was correlated with weather parameters, including temperature indices. Potential larval development sites were abundant in Puebla City and other high-elevation communities, suggesting that Ae. aegypti could proliferate should the climate become warmer. PMID:22987656

  5. High frequency and large deposition of acid fog on high elevation forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Manabu; Matsumura, Ko; Okochi, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We have collected and analyzed fogwater on the mountainside of Mt. Oyama (1252 m) in the Tanzawa Mountains of Japan and observed the fog event frequency from the base of the mountain with a video camera. The fog event frequency increased with elevation and was observed to be present 46% of the year at the summit. The water deposition via throughfall increased with elevation because of the increase in fogwater interception and was about twice that via rain at the summit, where the air pollutant deposition via throughfall was several times that via rainwater. The dry deposition and the deposition via fogwater were dominant factors in the total ion deposition at high elevation sites. In a fog event, nitric acid, the major acid component on the mountain, is formed during the transport of the air mass from the base of the mountain along the mountainside, where gases including nitric acid deposit and are scavenged by fogwater. Therefore, high acidity caused by nitric acid and relatively low ion strength are observed in the fogwater at high elevation sites.

  6. Mars Drilling Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  7. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  8. Rotary core drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-11-30

    The design of a rotary core drill is described. Primary consideration is given to the following component parts of the drill: the inner and outer tube, the core bit, an adapter, and the core lifter. The adapter has the form of a downward-converging sleeve and is mounted to the lower end of the inner tube. The lifter, extending from the adapter, is split along each side so that it can be held open to permit movement of a core. It is possible to grip a core by allowing the lifter to assume a closed position.

  9. Drilling comparison in "warm ice" and drill design comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, L.; Motoyama, H.; Wilhelms, F.

    2007-01-01

    For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice-water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been...... achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of 'warm ice' under high pressure. After excellent progress...... at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few...

  10. Depths to Ice-cemented Soils in High-elevation Quartermain Mountains, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is comprised of four surveyed valleys focusing on the depth to ground ice in the high-elevation Quartermain Mountains in the Beacon Valley area:...

  11. Invasive pathogen threatens bird-pine mutualism: implications for sustaining a high-elevation ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Shawn T; Fiedler, Carl E; Tomback, Diana F

    2009-04-01

    Human-caused disruptions to seed-dispersal mutualisms increase the extinction risk for both plant and animal species. Large-seeded plants can be particularly vulnerable due to highly specialized dispersal systems and no compensatory regeneration mechanisms. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone subalpine species, obligately depends upon the Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) for dispersal of its large, wingless seeds. Clark's Nutcracker, a facultative mutualist with whitebark pine, is sensitive to rates of energy gain, and emigrates from subalpine forests during periods of cone shortages. The invasive fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola, which causes white pine blister rust, reduces whitebark pine cone production by killing cone-bearing branches and trees. Mortality from blister rust reaches 90% or higher in some whitebark pine forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, and the rust now occurs nearly rangewide in whitebark pine. Our objectives were to identify the minimum level of cone production necessary to elicit seed dispersal by nutcrackers and to determine how cone production is influenced by forest structure and health. We quantified forest conditions and ecological interactions between nutcrackers and whitebark pine in three Rocky Mountain ecosystems that differ in levels of rust infection and mortality. Both the frequency of nutcracker occurrence and probability of seed dispersal were strongly related to annual whitebark pine cone production, which had a positive linear association with live whitebark pine basal area, and negative linear association with whitebark pine tree mortality and rust infection. From our data, we estimated that a threshold level of approximately 1000 cones/ha is needed for a high likelihood of seed dispersal by nutcrackers (probability > or = 0.7), and that this level of cone production can be met by forests with live whitebark pine basal area > 5.0 m2/ha. The risk of mutualism disruption is greatest in northern

  12. Modelling Periglacial Processes on Low-Relief High-Elevation Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, D.L.

    history in many regions of the world. The glacial buzzsaw concept suggests that intense glacial erosion focused at the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) leads to a concentration in surface area close to the ELA. However, even in predominantly glacial landscapes, such as the Scandinavian Mountains, the high...... as a function of mean annual air temperature and sediment thickness. This allows us to incorporate periglacial processes into a long-term landscape evolution model where surface elevation, sediment thickness, and climate evolve over time. With this model we are able to explore the slow feedbacks between...... evolution model can be used for obtaining more insight into the conditions needed for formation of low-relief surfaces at high elevation. Anderson, R. S. Modeling the tor-dotted crests, bedrock edges, and parabolic profiles of high alpine surfaces of the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Geomorphology, 46, 35...

  13. Exploration of High elevation liana colonies on Mt. Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WS Hoover

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty–five individual lianas were distributed on 2 East facing ridges on the second highest mountain on Java, Mt. Slamet (3418 m., Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty one colonies were observed on small flat areas on ridges. The liana species observed include: Embelia pergamacea, Toddalia asiatica, Elaeagnus latifolia, Schefflera lucida, Vaccinium laurifolium and Lonicera javanica. Diameter of each liana was measured and liana density/flat area calculated. Floristic collecting was under- taken within the elevational gradient of liana distribution. Data suggest an ecotone transition from lower to upper mon- tane forest is observed between 2200 and 2300 m, though forest types are difficult to determine due to disturbance caused by fire at the upper elevations. Observing lianas at these unusuall high elevations with near pluvial rainfall, con- tradict established scientific theory concerning global distribution and abundance of lianas.  

  14. Drill Sergeant Candidate Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    leadership styles of NCOs entering Drill Sergeant School (DSS). ARI also developed and administered a prototype DS Assessment Battery to assess...preferred leadership styles . DSS training increases both the degree to which the DSC feels obligated to and identifies with the Army. DSS training...4 TABLE 3. PREFERRED LEADERSHIP STYLES DEFINITIONS .............................................6 TABLE 4. DSC CHANGE IN

  15. Measurement Space Drill Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-30

    II) H-47 Block II (I) *H-47 Block II (II) AVN FVL Att (I) * AVN FVL Att (II) TRAC- MTRY F2025B Logistic Flow MS Drill Support FY15 Research...does not have to use other AVN /ground assets to cover the area, freeing these assets to perform other missions and potentially enhancing the

  16. Plastic responses to elevated temperature in low and high elevation populations of three grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-01-01

    Local persistence of plant species in the face of climate change is largely mediated by genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In species with a wide altitudinal range, population responses to global warming are likely to differ at contrasting elevations. In controlled climate chambers, we investigated the responses of low and high elevation populations (1200 and 1800 m a.s.l.) of three nutrient-poor grassland species, Trifolium montanum, Ranunculus bulbosus, and Briza media, to ambient and elevated temperature. We measured growth-related, reproductive and phenological traits, evaluated differences in trait plasticity and examined whether trait values or plasticities were positively related to approximate fitness and thus under selection. Elevated temperature induced plastic responses in several growth-related traits of all three species. Although flowering phenology was advanced in T. montanum and R. bulbosus, number of flowers and reproductive allocation were not increased under elevated temperature. Plasticity differed between low and high elevation populations only in leaf traits of T. montanum and B. media. Some growth-related and phenological traits were under selection. Moreover, plasticities were not correlated with approximate fitness indicating selectively neutral plastic responses to elevated temperature. The observed plasticity in growth-related and phenological traits, albeit variable among species, suggests that plasticity is an important mechanism in mediating plant responses to elevated temperature. However, the capacity of species to respond to climate change through phenotypic plasticity is limited suggesting that the species additionally need evolutionary adaptation to adjust to climate change. The observed selection on several growth-related and phenological traits indicates that the study species have the potential for future evolution in the context of a warming climate.

  17. TRMM-3B43 Bias Correction over the High Elevations of the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H.; Nordin, K. M.; Lakshmi, V.; Knight, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation can be quantified using a rain gauge network, or a remotely sensed precipitation product. Ultimately, the choice of dataset depends on the particular application, the catchment size, climate and the time period of study. In a region with a long record and a dense rain gauge network, the elevation-modified ground-based precipitation product, PRISM, has been found to work well. However, in poorly gauged regions the use of remotely sensed precipitation products is an absolute necessity. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has provided valuable precipitation datasets for hydrometeorological studies over the past two decades (1998-2015). One concern regarding the usage of TRMM data is the accuracy of the precipitation estimates, when compared to those obtained using PRISM. The reason for this concern is that TRMM and PRISM do not always agree and, typically, TRMM underestimates PRISM over the mountainous regions of the United States. In this study, we develop a correction function to improve the accuracy of the TRMM monthly product (TRMM-3B43) by estimating and removing the bias in the satellite data using the ground-based precipitation product, PRISM. We observe a strong relationship between the bias and land surface elevation; TRMM-3B43 tends to underestimate the PRISM product at altitudes greater than 1500 m above mean sea level (m.amsl) in the contiguous United States. A relationship is developed between TRMM-PRISM bias and elevation. The correction function is used to adjust the TRMM monthly precipitation using PRISM and elevation data. The model is calibrated using 25% of the available time period and the remaining 75% of the time period is used for validation. The corrected TRMM-3B43 product is verified for the high elevations over the contiguous United States and two local regions in the mountainous areas of the western United States. The results show a significant improvement in the accuracy of the TRMM product in the high elevations of

  18. Seasonal Patterns of Dry Deposition at a High-Elevation Site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Kaley M.; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W.; Campbell, Cari M.; Lipson, David A.

    2017-10-01

    In the Colorado Rocky Mountains, high-elevation barren soils are deficient in carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) and enriched in nitrogen (N). The seasonal variability of dry deposition and its contributions to alpine elemental budgets is critical to understanding how dry deposition influences biogeochemical cycling in high-elevation environments. In this 2 year study, we evaluated dry and wet deposition inputs to the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (NWT LTER) site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The total organic C flux in wet + dry (including soluble and particulate C) deposition was >30 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and represents a substantial input for this C-limited environment. Our side-by-side comparison of dry deposition collectors with and without marble insert indicated that the insert improved retention of dry deposition by 28%. Annual average dry deposition fluxes of water-soluble organic carbon (4.25 kg C ha-1 yr-1) and other water-soluble constituents, including ammonium (0.16 kg NH4+ha-1 yr-1), nitrate (1.99 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1), phosphate (0.08 kg PO43- ha-1 yr-1), and sulfate (1.20 kg SO42- ha-1 yr-1), were comparable to those in wet deposition, with highest values measured in the summer. Backward trajectory analyses implicate air masses passing through the arid west and Four Corners, USA, as dominant source areas for dry deposition, especially in spring months. Synchronous temporal patterns of deposition observed at the NWT LTER site and a distant Rocky Mountain National Park Clean Air Status and Trends Network site indicate that seasonal dry deposition patterns are regional phenomena with important implications for the larger Rocky Mountain region.

  19. Reproductive success and habitat characteristics of Golden-winged Warblers in high-elevation pasturelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Aldinger, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is one of the most rapidly declining vertebrate species in the Appalachian Mountains. It is the subject of extensive range-wide research and conservation action. However, little is known about this species' breeding ecology in high-elevation pasturelands, a breeding habitat with conservation potential considering the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service's Working Lands for Wildlife program targeting private lands in the Appalachian Mountains. We located 100 nests of Golden-winged Warblers in pastures in and around the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia during 2008–2012. Daily nest survival rate (mean ± SE  =  0.962 ± 0.006), clutch size (4.5 ± 0.1), and number of young fledged per nest attempt (2.0 ± 0.2) and successful nest (4.0 ± 0.1) fell within the range of values reported in other parts of the species' range and were not significantly affected by year or the presence/absence of cattle grazing. Classification tree analysis revealed that nests were in denser vegetation (≥52%) and closer to forest edges (the male's territory. Successful nests had significantly more woody cover (≥9%) within 1 m than failed nests. Our results suggest that cattle grazing at 1.2–2.4 ha of forage/animal unit with periodic mowing can create and maintain these characteristics without interfering with the nesting of Golden-winged Warblers. High-elevation pasturelands may provide a refuge for remaining populations of Golden-winged Warblers in this region.

  20. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  1. Ozone concentrations at a selected high-elevation forest site downwind Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    Torres-Jardón, R.*, Rosas-Pérez, I., Granada-Macías, L. M., Ruiz-Suárez, L. G. Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM, México D. F. México * rtorres@unam.mx For many years, the vegetation of forest species such as Abies religiosa in natural parks located in the southwest mountains of Mexico City has attracted much attention since these parks have been experiencing a severe decline of unclear etiology. The high ozone levels in the area and the observed naked eye macroscopic, histological and cytological injuries on these species, strongly suggest an important contribution of tropospheric ozone to this deterioration process. Apart of historical short monitoring campaigns for measuring ozone levels in these mountains, it is known just a little is known about the present exposure levels at which the local vegetation is exposed. A continuous ozone analyzer has been in operation since 2011 at a high-elevation forest site (Parque Nacional Miguel Hidalgo, PNMH; 3110 m above mean sea level) located downwind of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in order to characterize the local ozone diel amplitude and its seasonal trend, as well as the influence of MCMA on the local O3 concentrations. Hourly average ozone data in PNMH shows that in general, the diel of ozone concentrations in the forest site has a statistical significant correlation with the pattern of ozone levels observed in several monitoring sites (smog receptor sites) within the MCMA, although the high elevation O3 levels are relatively lower than those in the urban area (around 2200 m above mean sea level). It is possible that a part of the oxidants in the air masses are removed by sink deposition processes during the air mass transport across the hills. The diel amplitude of ozone concentrations is small in the cold season, increasing as the seasons advance to June. As in the city, the highest ozone concentrations occur in April or May and the lowest levels during the rainy season, which extends from

  2. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  3. Offset drilling obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  4. Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    erythema. We present a case of adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis and splenomegaly. The patient's myocarditis rapidly resolved, and he did not develop coronary artery aneurysms. In addition to splenomegaly, this case of adult Kawasaki's disease is remarkable because the patient had highly elevated serum ferritin levels of 944-1303 ng/mL; (normalfever for> or =5 days with conjunctival suffusion, cervical adenopathy, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis and otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Cultivar and Maternal Environment on Seed Quality in Vicia sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Chen, Lijun; Wu, Yanpei; Zhang, Rui; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Hu, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    Production of high quality seeds is of fundamental importance for successful crop production. However, knowledge of the effects of increased temperature resulting from global warming on seed quality of alpine species is limited. We investigated the effect of maternal environment on seed quality of three cultivars of the leguminous forage species Vicia sativa, giving particular attention to temperature. Plants of each cultivar were grown at 1700 and 3000 m a.s.l., and mass, germination, electrical conductivity (EC) of leakage and longevity were determined for mature seeds. Seeds of all three cultivars produced at the low elevation had a significantly lower mass and longevity but higher EC of leachate than those produced at the high elevation, suggesting that increased temperatures decreased seed quality. However, seed viability did not differ between elevations. The effects of maternal environment on seed germination strongly depended on cultivar and germination temperature. At 10 and 15°C, seeds of “Lanjian 3” produced at high elevation germinated to higher percentages and rates than those produced at low elevation, but the opposite trend was observed at 20°C. However, for seeds of “Lanjian 1” and “Lanjian 2,” no significant effect of elevation was observed in germination percentage. Our results indicate that the best environment for the production of high quality seeds (e.g., high seed mass, low EC, high seed longevity) of V. sativa is one in which temperatures are relatively low during seed development. PMID:28861096

  6. Clinical analysis of modified trabeculectomy in glaucoma surgery with high elevated intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cang-Xia Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of modified trabeculectomy in treating glaucoma surgery with high elevated intraocular pressure retrospectively and evaluate the effect of modified trabeculectomy.METHODS:One hundred acute angle-closure glaucoma patients(100 eyeswith persistent high intraocular pressure were divided into treatment group(45 eyesand control group(55 eyes. Patients in treatment group was treated with by trabeculectomy, while those in control group received modified trabeculectomy. The modified measures include stellate ganglion block preoperative, topical anesthesia and local anesthesia with 20g/L lidocaine cotton-piece, to make scleral flap with sclerotome, to release aqueous humor outflow slowly after paracentesis of anterior chamber, and using mydriatic and cycloplegic during and after surgery.RESULTS: The incidence of operation complicationin control group was lower than that in treatment group. The differences were statistically significant(Pt=9.1535, Pt=39.8010, Pt=11.3219, PCONCLUSION: The modified trabeculectomy applied in the treatment of glaucoma with persistent high intraocular pressure can not only save the visual function of connection part to a certain extent, but also reduce the incidence of serious complications. It can obtain better intraocular pressure, shorten the average hospitalization days, decrease the expenses and increase patients satisfaction.

  7. Machine site preparation improves seedling performance on a high-elevation site in southwest Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, D.H.; Baker-Katz, K.; Tesch, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings planted on areas receiving one of four site-preparation treatments (scarify, scarify/till, soil removal, and soil removal/till) and on unprepared control areas were compared for 5 yr at a high-elevation, nutrient-poor site in the western Siskiyou Mountains of southwest Oregon. Fifth-year survival of seedlings was at least 85% among machine-prepared plots, compared to 42% on control plots. Cover of competing vegetation remained less than 25% during the period for all machine treatments. In contrast, vegetation cover on control plots was 30% at the time of planting and increased to nearly 75% after 5 yr. Competing vegetation clearly impeded seedling performance. The effects of unusually droughty conditions at the time of planting in 1982 were examined further by interplanting additional seedlings in the soil-removal treatment in 1985. The interplanting was followed by more normal spring precipitation, and seedlings grew better over 5 yr than those planted in 1982. The slow recovery of competing vegetation and generally poor seedling growth on all treatments during both planting years are attributed to low soil fertility

  8. High-Elevation Sierra Nevada Conifers Reveal Increasing Reliance on Snow Water with Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, K. S.; Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Shamir, E.; Graham, R.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada Mountains accounts for around one third of California's water supply. Melting snow can provide water into dry summer months characteristic of the region's Mediterranean climate. As climate changes, understanding patterns of snowpack, snowmelt, and biological response are critical in this region of agricultural, recreational, and ecological value. Tree rings can act as proxy records to inform scientists and resource managers of past climate variability where instrumental data is unavailable. Here we investigate relationships between tree rings of high-elevation, snow-adapted conifer trees (Tsuga mertensiana, Abies magnifica) and April 1st snow-water equivalent (SWE) in the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The 1st principal component of 29 highly correlated regional SWE time series was modeled using multiple linear regression of four tree-ring chronologies including two lagged chronologies. Split-period verification analysis of this model revealed poor predictive skill in the early half (1929 - 1966) of the calibration period (1929 - 2003). Further analysis revealed a significant (p time. Snow water is becoming a more limiting resource to tree growth as average temperatures rise and the hydrologic regime shifts. These results highlight the need for resource managers and policy makers to consider that biological response to climate is not static.

  9. Input of trace substances to coniferous forests by fog interception at high elevations of Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.; Pahl, S.

    1993-10-01

    The deposition of trace substances to a coniferous forest has been estimated by means of a one-dimensional cloud droplet deposition model. For a period of 21 months the liquid water content has been measured and 89 samples of cloud water from the weather station Feldberg have been analysed for chemical composition. These data and meteorological routine observations have been used as input parameters for the deposition model. Deposition calculations to a 40 years old coniferous forest for the period 1982-1991 showed that the cloud water deposition amounts to 33% of the precipitation amount on the average and varies between 23 and 43% in single years. The highest cloud water deposition rates occur during fall and winter. The trace substance concentration in cloud water has been found to be higher than in precipitation, by a factor between 6 and 12, depending on the type of ions. Typically seasonal variations of normalized ion concentrations could be shown to exist as well as dependencies on wind direction. Air mass transport from the industries of the Stuttgart area resulted in higher trace substance concentrations in cloud water. The deposition of trace substances via fog interception during the summer months is as high and in the winter months higher than that by wet deposition. The forests at high elevations of Black Forest are charged appreciably by fog interception. (orig.). 31 figs., 5 tabs., 39 refs [de

  10. New drilling optimization technologies make drilling more efficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.C.-K. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). Sperry Division

    2004-07-01

    Several new technologies have been adopted by the upstream petroleum industry in the past two decades in order to optimize drilling operations and improve drilling efficiency. Since financial returns from an oil and gas investment strongly depend on drilling costs, it is important to reduce non-productive time due to stuck pipes, lost circulation, hole cleaning and well bore stability problems. The most notable new technologies are the use of computer-based instrumentation and data acquisition systems, integrated rig site systems and networks, and Measurement-While-Drilling and Logging-While-Drilling (MWD/LWD) systems. Drilling optimization should include solutions for drillstring integrity, hydraulics management and wellbore integrity. New drilling optimization methods emphasize information management and real-time decision making. A recent study for drilling in shallow water in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates that trouble time accounts for 25 per cent of rig time. This translates to about $1.5 MM U.S. per well. A reduction in trouble time could result in significant cost savings for the industry. This paper presents a case study on vibration prevention to demonstrate how the drilling industry has benefited from new technologies. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  12. Glacial erosion of high-elevation low-relief summits on passive continental margins constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    We present a new, extensive in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al dataset from high-elevation low-relief summits along Sognefjorden in Norway. Contrary to previous studies of high-elevation low-relief summits in cold regions, we find only limited cosmogenic nuclide inheritance in bedrock surfaces......, indicating that warm-based ice eroded the summits during the last glacial period. From the isotope concentrations we model denudation histories using a recently developed Monte Carlo Markov Chain inversion model (Knudsen et al, 2015). The model relies on the benthic d18O curve (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005...

  13. Drill string gas data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.

    1998-05-12

    Data and supporting documentation were compiled and analyzed for 26 cases of gas grab samples taken during waste-tank core sampling activities between September 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997. These cases were tested against specific criteria to reduce uncertainties associated with in-tank sampling location and conditions. Of the 26 possible cases, 16 qualified as drill-string grab samples most likely to represent recently released waste gases. The data from these 16 ``confirmed`` cases were adjusted to remove non-waste gas contributions from core-sampling activities (argon or nitrogen purge), the atmospheric background, and laboratory sampler preparation (helium). The procedure for subtracting atmospheric, laboratory, and argon purge gases was unambiguous. No reliable method for determining the exact amount of nitrogen purge gas was established. Thus, the final set of ``Adjusted`` drill string gas data for the 6 nitrogen-purged cases had a greater degree of uncertainty than the final results for the 10 argon-purged cases. Including the appropriate amounts of uncertainty, this final set of data was added to the set of high-quality results from the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), and good agreement was found for the N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mole fractions sampled from common tanks. These results indicate that under favorable sampling conditions, Drill-String (DS) grab samples can provide reasonably accurate information about the dominant species of released gas. One conclusion from this set of total gas data is that the distribution of the H{sub 2} mole fractions is bimodal in shape, with an upper bound of 78%.

  14. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  15. Highly elevated atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds in the Uintah Basin, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, D; Thompson, C R; Evans, J; Boylan, P; Hueber, J; Park, J-H

    2014-05-06

    Oil and natural gas production in the Western United States has grown rapidly in recent years, and with this industrial expansion, growing environmental concerns have arisen regarding impacts on water supplies and air quality. Recent studies have revealed highly enhanced atmospheric levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from primary emissions in regions of heavy oil and gas development and associated rapid photochemical production of ozone during winter. Here, we present surface and vertical profile observations of VOC from the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies conducted in January-February of 2012 and 2013. These measurements identify highly elevated levels of atmospheric alkane hydrocarbons with enhanced rates of C2-C5 nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mean mole fractions during temperature inversion events in 2013 at 200-300 times above the regional and seasonal background. Elevated atmospheric NMHC mole fractions coincided with build-up of ambient 1-h ozone to levels exceeding 150 ppbv (parts per billion by volume). The total annual mass flux of C2-C7 VOC was estimated at 194 ± 56 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), equivalent to the annual VOC emissions of a fleet of ∼100 million automobiles. Total annual fugitive emission of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene, considered air toxics, were estimated at 1.6 ± 0.4 × 10(6) and 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10(6) kg yr(-1), respectively. These observations reveal a strong causal link between oil and gas emissions, accumulation of air toxics, and significant production of ozone in the atmospheric surface layer.

  16. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  17. The Effects of Timing of Grazing on Plant and Arthropod Communities in High-Elevation Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy C.; Burkle, Laura A.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Cutting, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle grazing affected plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands of southwest Montana to better evaluate its use as a tool for multi-trophic level management. We manipulated timing of grazing, with one grazing treatment beginning in mid-June and the other in mid-July, in two experiments conducted in different grassland habitat types (i.e., wet meadow and upland) in 2011 and 2012. In the upland grassland experiment, we found that both early and late grazing treatments reduced forb biomass, whereas graminoid biomass was only reduced with late grazing. Grazing earlier in the growing season versus later did not result in greater recovery of graminoid or forb biomass as expected. In addition, the density of the most ubiquitous grassland arthropod order (Hemiptera) was reduced by both grazing treatments in upland grasslands. A comparison of end-of-season plant responses to grazing in upland versus wet meadow grasslands revealed that grazing reduced graminoid biomass in the wet meadow and forb biomass in the upland, irrespective of timing of grazing. Both grazing treatments also reduced end-of-season total arthropod and Hemiptera densities and Hemiptera biomass in both grassland habitat types. Our results indicate that both early and late season herbivory affect many plant and arthropod characteristics in a similar manner, but grazing earlier may negatively impact species of conservation concern requiring forage earlier in the growing season. PMID:25338008

  18. Transpacific Transport of Dust to North American High-Elevation Sites: Integrated Dataset and Model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassianov, E.; Pekour, M. S.; Flynn, C. J.; Berg, L. K.; Beranek, J.; Zelenyuk, A.; Zhao, C.; Leung, L. R.; Ma, P. L.; Riihimaki, L.; Fast, J. D.; Barnard, J.; Hallar, G. G.; McCubbin, I.; Eloranta, E. W.; McComiskey, A. C.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of dust on the regional and global climate requires detailed information on particle size distributions and their changes with distance from the source. Awareness is now growing about the tendency of the dust coarse mode with moderate ( 3.5 µm) volume median diameter (VMD) to be rather insensitive to complex removal processes associated with long-range transport of dust from the main sources. Our study, with a focus on the transpacific transport of dust, demonstrates that the impact of coarse mode aerosol (VMD 3µm) is well defined at the high-elevation mountain-top Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL, about 3.2 km MSL) and nearby Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) during March 2011. Significant amounts of coarse mode aerosol are also found at the nearest Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site. Outputs from the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) show that the major dust event is likely associated with transpacific transport of Asian and African plumes. Satellite data, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) aerosol optical depth (AOD) and plume height from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar data provide the observational support of the WRF-Chem simulations. Our study complements previous findings by indicating that the quasi-static nature of the coarse mode appears to be a reasonable approximation for Asian and African dust despite expected frequent orographic precipitation over mountainous regions in the western United States.

  19. Does seasonal snowpacks enhance or decrease mercury contamination of high elevation ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.; Fain, X.; Obrist, D.; Helmig, D.; Barth, C.; Jacques, H.; Chowanski, K.; Boyle, D.; William, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant globally dispersed in the environment. Natural and anthropogenic sources emit Hg to the atmosphere, either as gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg0) or as divalent mercury species. Due to the long lifetime of GEM mercury contamination is not limited to industrialized sites, but also a concern in remote areas such as high elevation mountain environments. During winter and spring 2009, we investigated the fate of atmospheric mercury deposited to mountain ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada (Sagehen station, California, USA) and the Rocky Mountains (Niwot Ridge station, Colorado, USA). At Sagehen, we monitored mercury in snow (surface snow sampling and snow pits), wet deposition, and stream water during the snow-dominated season. Comparison of Hg stream discharge to snow Hg wet deposition showed that only a small fraction of Hg wet deposition reached stream in the melt water. Furthermore, Hg concentration in soil transects (25 different locations) showed no correlations to wet deposition Hg loads due to pronounced altitudinal precipitation gradient suggesting that Hg deposited to the snowpack was not transferred to ecosystems. At Niwot Ridge, further characterization of the chemical transformation involving mercury species within snowpacks was achieved by 3-months of continuous monitoring of GEM and ozone concentrations in the snow air at eight depths from the soil-snow interface to the top of the up to 2 meter deep snowpack. Divalent mercury concentrations were monitored as well (surface snow sampling and snow pits). GEM levels in snow air exhibited strong diurnal pattern indicative of both oxidation and reduction processes. Low levels of divalent mercury concentrations in snow pack suggest that large fractions of Hg originally deposited as wet deposition was reemitted back to the atmosphere after reduction. Hence, these results suggest that the presence of a seasonal snowpack may decrease effective wet deposition of mercury and

  20. Challenges in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry for Archaeological Mapping at High Elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. A.; Wernke, S.

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), especially multi-rotor vehicles, are becoming ubiquitous and their appeal for generating photogrammetry-based maps has grown. The options are many and costs have plummeted in last five years; however, many challenges persist with their deployment. We mapped the archaeological site Maw­chu Llacta, a settlement in the southern highlands of Peru (Figure 1). Mawchu Llacta is a planned colonial town built over a major Inka-era center in the high-elevation grasslands at ~4,000m asl. The "general resettlement of Indians" was a massive forced resettlement program, for which very little local-level documentation exists. Mawachu Llacta's excellently preserved architecture includes >500 buildings and hundreds of walls spread across ~13h posed significant mapping challenges. Many environmental factors impact UAV deployment. The air pressure at 4,100 m asl is dramatically lower than at sea level. The dry season diurnal temperature differentials can vary from 7°C to 22°C daily. High and hot conditions frequently occur from late morning to early afternoon. Reaching Mawchu Llacta requires hiking 4km with 400m of vertical gain over steep and rocky terrain. There is also no on-site power or secure storage. Thus, the UAV must be packable. FAA regulations govern US UAV deployments, but regulations were less stringent in Peru. However, ITAR exemptions and Peruvian customs requirements were required. The Peruvian government has established an importation and approval process that entails leaving the UAV at customs, while obtaining the necessary government approvals, both of which can be problematic. We have deployed the Aurora Flight Sciences Skate fixed wing ßUAV, an in-house fixed wing UAV based on the Skywalker X-5 flying wing, and a tethered 9 m3 capacity latex meteorological weather balloon. Development of an autonomous blimp/balloon has been ruled-out. A 3DR Solo is being assessed for excavation mapping.

  1. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114

  2. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Gese

    Full Text Available Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep, radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13% for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m. Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced

  3. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

    2013-01-01

    Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote

  4. Drilling string lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhobalov, A B; Galiopa, A A; Ponomarev, G V; Ushakov, A M

    1981-04-28

    A drilling string lifter is suggested which includes a rotating tower installed on a fixed base, hydraulic cylinder and pipe-clamping assembly connected through a chain gear to the drive motor. In order to simplify the design of the hydraulic lifter, the drive motor is installed on a fixed base so that the axis of the outlet shaft of the drive motor coincides with the axis of rotation of the tower. In addition, the axis of rotation of the tower is made in the form of a tubular element, and the outlet shaft of the drive motor is ranged between the tubular element.

  5. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  6. Some like it high! Phylogenetic diversity of high-elevation cyanobacterial community from biological soil crusts of Western Himalaya.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, K.; Hauer, T.; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2016), s. 113-123 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil crusts * cyanobacterial diversity * Western Himalayas * high-elevation * desert * phosphorus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  7. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  8. Mediating water temperature increases due to livestock and global change in high elevation meadow streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastien Nussle; Kathleen R. Matthews; Stephanie M. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout...

  9. Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Milbau, Ann; Albihn, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key di...

  10. Mountain birdwatch: developing a coordinated monitoring program for high-elevation birds in the Atlantic northern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Lloyd; Julie Hart; J. Dan Lambert

    2010-01-01

    Birds occupying high-elevation forests in the northeast are perceived to be at risk from a variety of external forces, most notably the potential loss and alteration of habitat associated with global climate change and the increased deployment of wind-energy facilities. However, the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), a standardized national monitoring scheme widely used to...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which hinder...

  13. Control procedure for well drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdon, J C

    1988-09-09

    A control procedure of rotary drilling operations is proposed. It uses the Drill off test. The drill-off test permits to determine the rock drill speed variation as a function of the wright applied on the top of the pipe. We can deduce from that a rock drill wear parameter. The method permits to prevent a rupture and its grave economic consequences.

  14. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes, without...

  15. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested

  16. Design and Exploitation Problems of Drill String in Directional Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarz Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Drill string design for directional drilling requires accounting for a number of factors. First, types and expected values of loads should be determined. Then, elements of the drill string should be so selected as to enable realization of the plan at specified loads. Some of additional factors, e. g. purchase, exploitation cost, geological conditions in the bore-hole, washing of the bore-hole, stability, trajectory, rig parameters, accuracy of gauges, pumps parameters remain in conflict. Drill pipes are made of rolled pipes, upset and welded with tool joints to 9,5 m long; the shorter ones can be made of hot forged rods. Exploitation requirements, being a result of practical experience supported by theoretical and laboratory analyses should be a part of syllabuses of technical staff educational programs. Apart from designing the string, it is also vital to lower the risk of a drilling failure. The significance of these aspects seems to be unquestionable.

  17. A new drilling method-Earthworm-like vibration drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ni, Hongjian; Wang, Ruihe

    2018-01-01

    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed "earthworm-like drilling" is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a "soft-string" model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling.

  18. Case drilling - an innovative approach to reducing drilling costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Tessari, R. M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Warren, T. [Tesco Drilling Technology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Casing drilling is introduced as a new drilling technique that uses standard oil field casing to simultaneously drill and case the well. The technology includes both rig and downhole equipment, customized to function effectively as an integrated drilling system. This paper describes the testing program designed to identify and overcome technical challenges. Although not fully optimized, it appears that the system is functional. Test results indicate the need for improvements in the pump down cement float equipment and the tools and procedures for drilling up the cement plugs. The pump down latch and retrieval system also needs to be further developed and tested for high angle directional applications. Cost savings in the range of 10 to 15 per cent are expected for trouble-free wells. By eliminating the cost of unscheduled events encountered in troublesome wells, cost savings may reach as high as 30 per cent. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  20. Refractory black carbon at the Whistler Peak High Elevation Research Site - Measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Sarah J.; Xu, Jun-Wei; Schroder, Jason C.; Wang, Qiaoqiao; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Hayden, Katherine; Leaitch, W. Richard; Macdonald, AnneMarie; von Salzen, Knut; Martin, Randall V.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2018-05-01

    Measurements of black carbon at remote and high altitude locations provide an important constraint for models. Here we present six months of refractory black carbon (rBC) data collected in July-August of 2009, June-July of 2010, and April-May of 2012 using a single particle soot photometer (SP2) at the remote Whistler High Elevation Research Site in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia (50.06°N, 122.96°W, 2182 m a.m.s.l). In order to reduce regional boundary layer influences, only measurements collected during the night (2000-0800 PST) were considered. Times impacted by local biomass burning were removed from the data set, as were periods of in-cloud sampling. Back trajectories and back trajectory cluster analysis were used to classify the sampled air masses as Southern Pacific, Northern Pacific, Western Pacific/Asian, or Northern Canadian in origin. The largest rBC mass median diameter (182 nm) was seen for air masses in the Southern Pacific cluster, and the smallest (156 nm) was seen for air masses in the Western Pacific/Asian cluster. Considering all the clusters, the median mass concentration of rBC was 25.0 ± 7.6 ng/m3-STP. The Northern Pacific, Southern Pacific, Western Pacific/Asian, and Northern Canada clusters had median mass concentrations of 25.0 ± 7.6, 21.3 ± 6.9, 25.0 ± 7.9, and 40.6 ± 12.9 ng/m3-STP, respectively. We compared these measurements with simulations from the global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. The default GEOS-Chem simulations overestimated the median rBC mass concentrations for the different clusters by a factor of 1.2-2.2. The largest difference was observed for the Northern Pacific cluster (factor of 2.2) and the smallest difference was observed for the Northern Canada cluster (factor of 1.2). A sensitivity simulation that excluded Vancouver emissions still overestimated the median rBC mass concentrations for the different clusters by a factor of 1.1-2.0. After implementation of a revised wet scavenging scheme, the

  1. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid

  2. A bioclimatic characterization of high elevation habitats in the Alborz mountains of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Jalil; Körner, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The Alborz mountains in N-Iran at 36° N rise from the Caspian Sea to 5671 m a.s.l., with warm-temperate, winter-deciduous forests in the lower montane belt in northern slopes, and vast treeless terrain at higher elevation. A lack of rainfall (ca. 550 mm at high elevations) cannot explain the absence of trees. Hence, it is an open question, which parts of these mountains belong to the alpine belt. Here we use bioclimatic data to estimate the position of the potential climatic treeline, and thus, define bioclimatologically, what is alpine and what is not. We employed the same miniature data loggers and protocol that had been applied in a Europe-wide assessment of alpine climates and a global survey of treeline temperatures. The data suggest a potential treeline position at ca. 3300 m a.s.l., that is ca. 900 m above the upper edge of the current oak forest, or 450 m above its highest outposts. The alpine terrain above the climatic treeline position shows a temperature regime comparable to sites in the European Alps. At the upper limit of angiosperm life, at 4850 m a.s.l., the growing season lasted 63 days with a seasonal mean root zone temperature of 4.5 °C. We conclude that (1) the absence of trees below 2850 m a.s.l. is clearly due to millennia of land use. The absence of trees between 2850 and 3300 m a.s.l. is either due to the absence of suitable tree taxa, or the only potential regional taxon for those elevations, Juniperus excelsa , had been eradicated by land use as well. (2) These continental mountains provide thermal life conditions in the alpine belt similar to other temperate mountains. (3) Topography and snow melt regimes play a significant role for the structure of the alpine vegetation mosaics.

  3. Functional role of long-lived flowers in preventing pollen limitation in a high elevation outcrossing species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Mary T K; Pacheco, Diego Andrés; Dudley, Leah S

    2017-11-01

    Low pollinator visitation in harsh environments may lead to pollen limitation which can threaten population persistence. Consequently, avoidance of pollen limitation is expected in outcrossing species subjected to habitually low pollinator service. The elevational decline in visitation rates on many high mountains provides an outstanding opportunity for addressing this question. According to a recent meta-analysis, levels of pollen limitation in alpine and lowland species do not differ. If parallel trends are manifested among populations of alpine species with wide elevational ranges, how do their uppermost populations contend with lower visitation? We investigated visitation rates and pollen limitation in high Andean Rhodolirium montanum . We test the hypothesis that lower visitation rates at high elevations are compensated for by the possession of long-lived flowers. Visitation rates decreased markedly over elevation as temperature decreased. Pollen limitation was absent at the low elevation site but did occur at the high elevation site. While initiation of stigmatic pollen deposition at high elevations was not delayed, rates of pollen arrival were lower, and cessation of pollination, as reflected by realized flower longevity, occurred later in the flower lifespan. Comparison of the elevational visitation decline and levels of pollen limitation indicates that flower longevity partially compensates for the lower visitation rates at high elevation. The functional role of flower longevity, however, was strongly masked by qualitative pollen limitation arising from higher abortion levels attributable to transference of genetically low-quality pollen in large clones. Stronger clonal growth at high elevations could counterbalance the negative fitness consequences of residual pollen limitation due to low visitation rates and/or difficult establishment under colder conditions. Visitation rates on the lower part of the elevational range greatly exceeded community rates

  4. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  5. seed flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... and with a nice taste, used for cooking or as lamp oil. The fatty acid ... Pra seeds were obtained from a local market in Nakhon Si Thammarat. Page 2. Table 1. Proximate composition of pra seed flour. Constituent. Percentage ...

  6. Reinforcement and Drill by Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest

    1984-01-01

    Points out why drill work has a role in the language arts classroom, explores the possibilities of using a microcomputer to give children drill work, and discusses the characteristics of a good software program, along with faults found in many software programs. (FL)

  7. High cost for drilling ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooghiemstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    Prices for the rent of a drilling ship are very high. Per day the rent is 1% of the price for building such a ship, and those prices have risen as well. Still, it is attractive for oil companies to rent a drilling ship [nl

  8. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  9. Ultrasonic rotary-hammer drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Kassab, Steve (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism for drilling or coring by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill includes a hammering section with a set of preload weights mounted atop a hammering actuator and an axial passage through the hammering section. In addition, a rotary section includes a motor coupled to a drive shaft that traverses the axial passage through the hammering section. A drill bit is coupled to the drive shaft for drilling by a combination of sonic hammering and rotation. The drill bit includes a fluted shaft leading to a distal crown cutter with teeth. The bit penetrates sampled media by repeated hammering action. In addition, the bit is rotated. As it rotates the fluted bit carries powdered cuttings helically upward along the side of the bit to the surface.

  10. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  11. Drilling waste makes concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosfjord, A.

    1993-01-01

    The article deals with a method of drilling waste reclamation by utilizing the converted oil-containing cuttings from the North Sea in the concrete production in Norway. The oil content is to be removed in an incineration process by heating the cuttings to about 800 o C. The output capacity from the exhaust gas water cooling system is 7500 kW/hour, and is to be used in different industrial heating processes. The remaining content of pollutants in the cleaned exhaust gas outlet corresponds to the required limits with the exception of SO 2 and HCl. In addition, an exhaust gas washing plant is to be installed in the near future designed for the further reduction of pollutants by 90%. The converted raw materials are used as a supplement for lessening the demand of sand and cement in the production of concrete-made pipes. 1 fig

  12. Hospital preparation and drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.C.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss how effective management of radiation accidents requires a large amount of preparation and thought. In addition, training of the staff is absolutely essential. This is best accomplished through annual drills, but also may be accomplished through the use of videotapes. The critical points to be remembered in the handling of such accidents and in writing the procedures is that treatment of non-radiation-related injuries and medical stabilization are paramount. The second point is that it is important to be able to distinguish between a patient who has been irradiated from an external radiation source and one who is contaminated with radioactive materials. The handling of these two types of accidents is entirely different and this distinction needs to be made early. All of the items outlined in this chapter concern the care of the severely injured and radioactively contaminated

  13. Drillings at Veitsivaara in Hyrynsalmi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-04-01

    According to Governmen's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Veitsivaara, Hyrynsalmi the investigation program was started in April 1987. During years 1987-1988 a deep borehole (1002 m) and 4 and 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisso's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. About 75 m deep hole was percussion drilled near the borehole KR1. The spreading of the flushing water in the upper part of bedrock and the quality off the ground of the groundwater were studied by taking watersamples from the hole. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition

  14. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  15. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  16. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  17. Seed drill instrumentation for spatial coulter depth measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    coulter depth varied up to ±5 mm between the blocks. In addition, significant depth variations between the individual coulters were found. The mean depths varied between −14.2 and −25.9 mm for the eleven coulters. The mean shallowest coulter depth (−14.2 mm) was measured for the coulter running...... in the wheel track of the tractor. The power spectral densities (distribution) of the coulter depth oscillation frequencies showed that the majority of oscillations occurred below 0.5 Hz without any natural vibration frequency. The study concluded that the instrumentation concept was functional for on...

  18. Rates and causes of accidents for general aviation aircraft operating in a mountainous and high elevation terrain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Marisa; Stolzer, Alan; Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-10-01

    Flying over mountainous and/or high elevation terrain is challenging due to rapidly changeable visibility, gusty/rotor winds and downdrafts and the necessity of terrain avoidance. Herein, general aviation accident rates and mishap cause/factors were determined (2001-2014) for a geographical region characterized by such terrain. Accidents in single piston engine-powered aircraft for states west of the US continental divide characterized by mountainous terrain and/or high elevation (MEHET) were identified from the NTSB database. MEHET-related-mishaps were defined as satisfying any one, or more, criteria (controlled flight into terrain/obstacles (CFIT), downdrafts, mountain obscuration, wind-shear, gusting winds, whiteout, instrument meteorological conditions; density altitude, dust-devil) cited as factors/causal in the NTSB report. Statistics employed Poisson distribution and contingency tables. Although the MEHET-related accident rate declined (pairplanes and flying under IFR to assure terrain clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drillings at Kivetty in Konginkangas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-05-01

    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Kivetty, Konginkangas the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1019 m) and 4 about 500 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 30 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 65 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  20. Drillings at Syyry in Sievi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkkanen, H.; Oehberg, A.

    1990-10-01

    According to Government's decision in principle Teollisuuden Voima Oy is obliged to make bedrock investigations for the final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plant in Olkiluoto. Areas in Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Konginkangas and Olkiluoto were selected for the preliminary site investigations to be carried out during years 1987-1992. In Syyry, Sievi the investigation program was started in spring 1988. During years 1988-1989 a deep borehole (1022 m) and 4 about 500-700 m deep additional boreholes were core drilled in the area. The structure of the holes makes it possible to carry out many investigations in the holes. Various parameters were measured from the flushing water during the drilling. Corelogging included collecting detailed data of fractures and determining the weathering degree and petrographical properties. Rock mechanical properties, uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from core samples. The flushing water needed in the drillings was pumped from 100 m deep borehole wells drilled with down-the-hole method in the vicinity of the borehole. The water was labeled with 2 tracers before use. 35 vertical holes were core drilled down to the depth of 10-20 m in bedrock with a light drilling unit. Drilling was carried out in order to determine the thickness of the overburden, to investigate the geophysical anomaly sources and to support geological mapping in areas covered with overburden. Groundwater hydraulics is one of the main subjects during the preliminary site investigation phase. For that reason 7 multilevel piezometers were installed on the site to monitore hydraulic head in 3 levels in the uppermost part of bedrock. The work consisted of borehole drillings to the depth of 100 m, geophysical borehole loggings and installation of piezometers. In addition about 85 shotholes were drilled for VSP-, tubewave and seismic measurements

  1. A new drilling method—Earthworm-like vibration drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Ruihe

    2018-01-01

    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed “earthworm-like drilling” is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a “soft-string” model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling. PMID:29641615

  2. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I

    1979-07-28

    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  3. Declines in low-elevation subalpine tree populations outpace growth in high-elevation populations with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Veblen, Thomas T; Smith, Jeremy M.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution shifts in response to climate change require that recruitment increase beyond current range boundaries. For trees with long life spans, the importance of climate-sensitive seedling establishment to the pace of range shifts has not been demonstrated quantitatively.Using spatially explicit, stochastic population models combined with data from long-term forest surveys, we explored whether the climate-sensitivity of recruitment observed in climate manipulation experiments was sufficient to alter populations and elevation ranges of two widely distributed, high-elevation North American conifers.Empirically observed, warming-driven declines in recruitment led to rapid modelled population declines at the low-elevation, ‘warm edge’ of subalpine forest and slow emergence of populations beyond the high-elevation, ‘cool edge’. Because population declines in the forest occurred much faster than population emergence in the alpine, we observed range contraction for both species. For Engelmann spruce, this contraction was permanent over the modelled time horizon, even in the presence of increased moisture. For limber pine, lower sensitivity to warming may facilitate persistence at low elevations – especially in the presence of increased moisture – and rapid establishment above tree line, and, ultimately, expansion into the alpine.Synthesis. Assuming 21st century warming and no additional moisture, population dynamics in high-elevation forests led to transient range contractions for limber pine and potentially permanent range contractions for Engelmann spruce. Thus, limitations to seedling recruitment with warming can constrain the pace of subalpine tree range shifts.

  4. Response of lake chemistry to changes in atmospheric deposition and climate in three high-elevation wilderness areas of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Clow, David W.; Campbell, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in precipitation chemistry and hydrologic and climatic data were examined as drivers of long-term changes in the chemical composition of high-elevation lakes in three wilderness areas in Colorado during 1985-2008. Sulfate concentrations in precipitation decreased at a rate of -0.15 to -0.55 μeq/l/year at 10 high-elevation National Atmospheric Deposition Program stations in the state during 1987-2008 reflecting regional reductions in SO2 emissions. In lakes where sulfate is primarily derived from atmospheric inputs, sulfate concentrations also decreased although the rates generally were less, ranging from -0.12 to -0.27 μeq/l/year. The similarity in timing and sulfur isotopic data support the hypothesis that decreases in atmospheric deposition are driving the response of high-elevation lakes in some areas of the state. By contrast, in lakes where sulfate is derived primarily from watershed weathering sources, sulfate concentrations showed sharp increases during 1985-2008. Analysis of long-term climate records indicates that annual air temperatures have increased between 0.45 and 0.93°C per decade throughout most mountainous areas of Colorado, suggesting climate as a factor. Isotopic data reveal that sulfate in these lakes is largely derived from pyrite, which may indicate climate warming is preferentially affecting the rate of pyrite weathering.

  5. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet radiation-B on maize in arid regions of middle-high elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Wang Lianxi; Li Fusheng

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The experiment aimed to explore the influence of enhanced ultraviolet radiation-B on maize in arid regions of middle-high elevation for correct assessing the influence of enhanced ultraviolet radiation-B on maize and providing scientific reference to make proper countermeasures.[Method] The location test in field and lift lamp of UV-B were used to observe the changes of maize height , leaf area and number of green leaves under influences of different UV-B radiation. [Result]In arid regions of middle-high elevation, enhanced ultraviolet radiation-B could dwarf maize plant, decrease leaf area, decline number of green leaves and yield. The reason of decreasing leaf area was that enhanced ultraviolet radiation-B shortened leaf length and leaf width while the reason of declining yield was that yield components were all negatively influenced and with the increase of ultraviolet radiation-B, the yield declined dramatically.[Conclusion]The result of this experiment would be good for maize production in arid regions of middle-high elevation

  6. Seeding method influences warm-season grass abundance and distribution but not local diversity in grassland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkonis, Kathryn A.; Wilsey, Brian J.; Moloney, Kirk A.; Drobney, Pauline; Larson, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the arrangement of seedlings in newly restored communities may influence future species diversity and composition. We test the prediction that smaller distances between neighboring seeds in drill seeded grassland plantings would result in lower species diversity, greater weed abundance, and larger conspecific patch sizes than otherwise similar broadcast seeded plantings. A diverse grassland seed mix was either drill seeded, which places seeds in equally spaced rows, or broadcast seeded, which spreads seeds across the ground surface, into 24 plots in each of three sites in 2005. In summer 2007, we measured species abundance in a 1 m2 quadrat in each plot and mapped common species within the quadrat by recording the most abundant species in each of 64 cells. Quadrat-scale diversity and weed abundance were similar between drilled and broadcast plots, suggesting that processes that limited establishment and controlled invasion were not affected by such fine-scale seed distribution. However, native warm-season (C4) grasses were more abundant and occurred in less compact patches in drilled plots. This difference in C4 grass abundance and distribution may result from increased germination or vegetative propagation of C4 grasses in drilled plots. Our findings suggest that local plant density may control fine-scale heterogeneity and species composition in restored grasslands, processes that need to be further investigated to determine whether seed distributions can be manipulated to increase diversity in restored grasslands.

  7. A drilling rig tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, A.A.; Barashkov, V.A.; Bulgakov, E.S.; Kuldoshin, I.P.; Lebedev, A.I.; Papin, N.M.; Rebrik, B.M.; Sirotkin, N.V.

    1981-05-23

    Presentation is made of a drilling rig tower, comprising a gantry, a support shaft with a bracing strut and drawings out, and turn buckles. In order to increase the reliability of the tower in operation, to decrease the over all dimensions in a transport position, and to decrease the amount of time taken to transfer the tower from an operational position into a transportable one, and vice versa, the tower is equipped with a rotary frame made in the form of a triangular prism, whose lateral edges are connected by hinges: the first one with the lower part of the support shaft, the second with the gantry, and the third one to the upper part of the support shaft by means of the drawings out. The large boundary of the rotary frame is connected by a hinge to the support shaft by means of a bracing strut, which is equipped with a slide block connected to it by a hinge, and the rotary frame has a guide for the slide block reinforced to it on the large boundary. Besides this, the lateral edge of the rotary frame is connected to the gantry by means of turn buckles.

  8. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  9. Computed tomography of drill cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.

    1985-08-01

    A preliminary computed tomography evaluation of drill cores of granite and sandstone has generated geologically significant data. Density variations as small as 4 percent and fractures as narrow as 0.1 mm were easily detected

  10. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  11. Synthesis of engineering designs of drilling facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porozhsky, K.

    2018-03-01

    The article sets forth key principles of engineering of drilling equipment based on successive analysis of the goals of the production method, technologies of its implementation and conditions of mineral mining using a new approach to systematization of drilling methods. Potential advancement in the technologies and equipment of drilling is illustrated in terms of oil-well drilling.

  12. Device for storing drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolasinski, A; Wedrychowicz, J

    1981-02-16

    The patented device contains a profiled arch 14 (see figure) installed in the upper part of the drilling rig 15. On base 16 of the drilling unit, there is bin 1 which is installed on frame 2 to which it is hinge connected with the help of pin 3. On the other side, the bin rests on rollers 4 which are attached to lever 5 of lifting mechanism 6. Bin 1 is a series of parallel-arranged guides rigidly connected by transverse beams. Frame 2 contains the collapsible support 10. During operation of the device, the hydraulic lifter 6 with the help of frame 5 and rollers 4 lifts bin 1 with drilling pipes installed on it, giving it an angle of 4/sup 0/ in relation to the plane of frame 2. The collapsible support 10 is installed in a vertical position and holds bin 1. This position of bin 1 is the most suitable for movement of the vertically installed drilling pipes on the guides. The distinguishing feature of the patented device is the possibility of convenient arrangement of the drilling pipes on the guides of bin 1. Because of this, the time spent on lifting and lowering the drill apparatus is considerably reduced.

  13. Drilling a better pair : new technologies in SAGD directional drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, C.; Richter, D. [Statoil Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Person, J.; Tilley, J.; Bittar, M. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Leismer Demonstration Project (LDP) is the first of 8 proposed major steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects for Statoil's Kai Kos Dehseh (KKD) asset in the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen resources are expected to produce approximately 2.2 billion barrels of oil over approximately 35 years with a peak production of 220,000 bbl/day. To date, 23 well pairs have been drilled on 4 drilling pads. The precise placement of well pairs is among the most important factors in a successful SAGD drilling program. The producer well must be placed in relation to the reservoir boundaries. It must also be accurately twinned with the injector well. A strong focus on technological innovation is needed in order to deliver on these high expectations in unconsolidated formations, such as the McMurray oil sands. Lateral SAGD pairs are often drilled with conventional steerable mud motors and logging-while-drilling (LWD) resistivity measurements, but this combination imposes certain limitations in terms of wellbore quality and placement. Several industry firsts were successfully implemented at the Statoil LDP, including a combination of the newest and most cutting-edge directional, measurement, and LWD technology. The keystone of these industry firsts was the use of a soft formation modified, point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS), used on 20 horizontal wells. The RRS was combined with an ultra deep azimuthal resistivity sensor to provide precise geosteering along the bottom bed boundary in the producer wells, resulting in improved reservoir capture and reservoir characterization. This paper described the new drilling system and its impact on the progressive future of directional drilling in SAGD. 8 refs., 1 tab., 22 figs.

  14. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E [Durham, CT; Perry, Carl A [Middletown, CT; Wassell, Mark E [Kingwood, TX; Barbely, Jason R [Middletown, CT; Burgess, Daniel E [Middletown, CT; Cobern, Martin E [Cheshire, CT

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  15. Impact of seeding rate, seeding date, rate and method of phosphorus application in faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor in the absence of moisture stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1998-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the semi-arid region in north of Jordan, to study the effect of seeding dates (14 January, 28 January and 12 February, seeding rates (50, 75 and 100 plants per metre, phosphorus levels (0, 17.5, 35.0 and 52.5 kg P per ha and two methods of P placement (banding and broadcast. Seeding rate, seeding date, and rate of phosphorus had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and the yield determinates. Method of phosphorus application had only a significant effect on seed yield and seed weight per plant. In general high yields were obtained by early seeding (14 January, high seeding rate (100-plant per square metre, and P application (52.5 kg P per ha drilled with the seed after cultivation (banded.

  16. Diagnostic System of Drill Condition in Laminated Chipboard Drilling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiderski Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an on-line automatic system for recognition of the drill condition in a laminated chipboard drilling process. Two states of the drill are considered: the sharp enough (still able to drill holes acceptable for processing quality and worn out (excessive drill wear, not satisfactory from the quality point of view of the process. The automatic system requires defining the diagnostic features, which are used as the input attributes to the classifier. The features have been generated from 5 registered signals: feed force, cutting torque, noise, vibration and acoustic emission. The statistical parameters defined on the basis of the auto regression model of these signals have been used as the diagnostic features. The sequential step-wise feature selection is applied for choosing the most discriminative set of features. The final step of recognition is done by support vector machine classifier working in leave one out mode. The results of numerical experiments have confirmed good quality of the proposed diagnostic system.

  17. Paleolimnological records of nitrogen deposition in shallow, high-elevation lakes of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Otu, Megan K.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Baron, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic sources has been altering ecosystem function in lakes of the Rocky Mountains, other regions of western North America, and the Arctic over recent decades. The response of biota in shallow lakes to atmospheric deposition of Nr, however, has not been considered. Benthic algae are dominant in shallow, high-elevation lakes and are less sensitive to nutrient inputs than planktonic algae. Because the benthos is typically more nutrient rich than the water column, shallow lakes are not expected to show evidence of anthropogenic Nr. In this study, we assessed sedimentary evidence for regional Nr deposition, sediment chronology, and the nature of algal community response in five shallow, high-elevation lakes in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE). Over 140 diatom taxa were identified from the sediments, with a relatively high species richness of taxa characteristic of oligotrophic conditions. The diatom assemblages were dominated by benthic taxa, especially motile taxa. The GRTE lakes demonstrate assemblage-wide shifts in diatoms, including 1) synchronous and significant assemblage changes centered on ~1960 AD; 2) pre-1960 assemblages differed significantly from post-1960 assemblages; 3) pre-1960 diatom assemblages fluctuated randomly, whereas post- 1960 assemblages showed directional change; 4) changes in δ15N signatures were correlated with diatom community composition. These results demonstrate recent changes in shallow high18 elevation lakes that are most correlated with anthropogenic Nr. It is also possible, however, that the combined effect of Nr deposition and warming is accelerating species shifts in benthic diatoms. While uncertainties remain about the potential synergy of Nr deposition and warming, this study adds shallow lakes to the growing list of impacted high-elevation localities in western North America.

  18. Dispersal limitation does not control high elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada of California were used to test the hypothesis that alien plant species invading high elevations around the world are typically climate generalists capable of growing across a wide elevational range. The Sierra Nevada has been heavily impacted for more than a century and a half, first by heavy grazing up into high elevation meadows, followed by major logging, and finally, by impacts associated with recreational use. The comparative elevational patterns of distribution and growth form were compared for native and alien plant species in the four families (Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) that contribute the majority of naturalized aliens in the study area. The distribution of realized climatic niche breadth, as measured by elevational range of occurrence, was virtually identical for alien and native species, with both groups showing a roughly Gaussian distribution peaking with species whose range covers a span of 1500–1999 m. In contrast to alien species, which only rarely occurred at higher elevations, native species showed a distribution of upper elevation limits peaking at 3000–3499 m, an elevation that corresponds to the zone of upper montane and subalpine forests. Consistent with a hypothesis of abiotic limitations, only a few alien species have been ecologically successful invaders at subalpine and alpine elevations above 2500 m. The low diversity of aliens able to become established in these habitats is unlikely due to dispersal limitations, given the long history of heavy grazing pressure at high elevations across this region. Instead, this low diversity is hypothesized to be a function of life history traits and multiple abiotic stresses that include extremes of cold air and soil temperature, heavy snowfall, short growing seasons, and low resource availability. These findings have significant implications for resource managers.

  19. Western Canada drilling cycle optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The oil and gas industry in western Canada operates in annual and seasonal cycles with peak activity periods that require a large skilled labour force for short periods of time. This study examines why seismic and drilling activity is greatest during the first quarter of the year instead of being distributed evenly over the year. The objective of the study was to provide recommendations that would help optimize the industry cycle. The study includes an analysis of historical trends that validate the industry first quarter peaking activity. It also includes interviews with 36 industry representatives and provides insight and validation of trends. The final phase of the report includes recommendations that both industry and governments may wish to implement. The study includes financial, operational and environmental considerations. It was shown that natural gas directed drilling activity is strongly correlated with changes in natural gas prices. In the case of oil drilling activity, peak activity responds to oil prices from the prior quarter. In general, drilling and seismic costs are higher in the winter months because of increased demand for equipment and services. In addition winter drilling operations require a diesel fired boiler to generate steam. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 52 figs

  20. Disentangling ecological, allometric and evolutionary determinants of the relationship between seed mass and elevation: insights from multiple analyses of 1355 angiosperm species on the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wei; Guo, Shuqing; Chen, Xuelin; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Bu, Haiyan; Du, Guozhen; Cui, Xianliang; Li, Wenjin; Liu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Variation in abiotic conditions along altitudinal gradients may sort plant species from regional species pools according to their seed mass. With increasing elevation, seed mass is expected to be either larger for its advantage during seedling establishment in stressful high-elevation environments

  1. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  2. Review of casing while drilling technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional drilling methods have been plagued with huge operational and financial challenges, such as cost of purchasing, inspecting, handling, transporting the drill equipment and most importantly, tripping in-and-out of the drill string whenever the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA needs a replacement, needs of wiper trip or when total depth is reached. The tripping in-and-out of the drill string not only contributes to Non Productive Time (NPT but also leads to well control difficulties including wellbore instability and lost circulation. All this has led Oil and Gas industry, as well as any other engineering industry, to seek for new ways and methods in order to reduce these problems. Thanks to the advances in technical solutions and constant improvements of conventional drilling methods, a new drilling method - casing while drilling has been developed. Casing Drilling encompasses the process of simultaneously drilling and casing a well, using the active casing and thus optimizes the production. This paper presents a review of casing while drilling method (CwD and its practical usage in drilling wells. The comparison of conventional drilling method and casing while drilling is also presented. The CwD method achieves significantly better results than conventional drilling method.

  3. Responses of high-elevation herbaceous plant assemblages to low glacial CO₂ concentrations revealed by fossil marmot (Marmota) teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Bryan S; Ward, Joy K; Polito, Michael J; Emslie, Steven D

    2014-08-01

    Atmospheric CO2 cycles of the Quaternary likely imposed major constraints on the physiology and growth of C3 plants worldwide. However, the measured record of this remains both geographically and taxonomically sparse. We present the first reconstruction of physiological responses in a late Quaternary high-elevation herbaceous plant community from the Southern Rocky Mountains, USA. We used a novel proxy-fossilized tooth enamel of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris)-which we developed using detailed isotopic analysis of modern individuals. Calculated C isotopic discrimination (Δ) of alpine plants was nearly 2 ‰ lower prior to the Last Glacial Maximum than at present, a response almost identical to that of nonherbaceous taxa from lower elevations. However, initial shifts in Δ aligned most closely with the onset of the late Pleistocene bipolar temperature "seesaw" rather than CO2 increase, indicating unique limitations on glacial-age high-elevation plants may have existed due to both low temperatures and low CO2. Further development of system-specific faunal proxies can help to clarify this and other plant- and ecosystem-level responses to past environmental change.

  4. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  5. Drilling history of core hole DB-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1980-09-01

    This core hole was drilled to obtain hydrologic and chemical data on the permeable zones of the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum Formations. These data were obtained by testing the zones that were penetrated during drilling. This testing-as-drilled method reduced the potential problems of interflow and water contamination. This report summarizes the drilling and coring operations; geologic logging, hydrologic testing, and geophysical logging activities; and cementing operations of DB-15 during drilling. The successful completion of DB-15 demonstrated that hydrologic testing can be conducted during core drilling operations. More reliable head measurements and uncontaminated representative water samples from isolated permeable zones, which have not been exposed to potential open borehole cross-flow and head equilibration problems, were benefits derived from the testing-as-drilled method. Disadvantages of the technique were a longer time to complete the borehole caused by time required for testing and increased drilling costs due to rig standby time during testing. Extension of the testing-as-drilled method to the drilling of future core holes is recommended. An evaluation should be made of the required hydrologic data and expected borehole stratigraphy before and during drilling to allow uninterrupted drilling in zones of low permeability that can be tested after drilling is complete

  6. Meteorological conditions associated to high sublimation amounts in semiarid high-elevation Andes decrease the performance of empirical melt models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Empirical melt (EM) models are often preferred to surface energy balance (SEB) models to calculate melt amounts of snow and ice in hydrological modelling of high-elevation catchments. The most common reasons to support this decision are that, in comparison to SEB models, EM models require lower levels of meteorological data, complexity and computational costs. However, EM models assume that melt can be characterized by means of a few index variables only, and their results strongly depend on the transferability in space and time of the calibrated empirical parameters. In addition, they are intrinsically limited in accounting for specific process components, the complexity of which cannot be easily reconciled with the empirical nature of the model. As an example of an EM model, in this study we use the Enhanced Temperature Index (ETI) model, which calculates melt amounts using air temperature and the shortwave radiation balance as index variables. We evaluate the performance of the ETI model on dry high-elevation sites where sublimation amounts - that are not explicitly accounted for the EM model - represent a relevant percentage of total ablation (1.1 to 8.7%). We analyse a data set of four Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), which were collected during the ablation season 2013-14, at elevations between 3466 and 4775 m asl, on the glaciers El Tapado, San Francisco, Bello and El Yeso, which are located in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. We complement our analysis using data from past studies in Juncal Norte Glacier (Chile) and Haut Glacier d'Arolla (Switzerland), during the ablation seasons 2008-09 and 2006, respectively. We use the results of a SEB model, applied to each study site, along the entire season, to calibrate the ETI model. The ETI model was not designed to calculate sublimation amounts, however, results show that their ability is low also to simulate melt amounts at sites where sublimation represents larger percentages of total ablation. In fact, we

  7. Additive to clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytenko, V.S.; Nekrasova, V.B.; Nikitinskiy, E.L.; Ponomarev, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the lubricating and strengthening properties of clay drilling muds. This goal is achieved because the lubricating and strengthening additive used is waste from the pulp and paper industry at the stage of reprocessing crude sulfate soap into phytosterol.

  8. Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.

  9. Development of controlled drilling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Miyakawa, Kimio; Suzuki, Koichi; Sunaga, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, the soft sedimentary rock of the Neogene tertiary is being focused as a host rock for the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal. Especially, the soft sedimentary rock at the offshore, region is thought to be one of the best candidates, since there is no driving force of the underground water. The measurement and logging in the bore hole in order to check the hydro-geological and geomechanical conditions of the host rock is a very important way to examine the potentially of the disposal candidates. The CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has been conducting the project about the controlled drilling technology and the measurement and logging technologies in its borehole. In 2000, as the beginning year of the project, we made the conceptual design of the drilling and measuring systems, and made key tools concerning each technology on an experimental basis. We have been developing sub tools constructing drilling and measuring systems since 2000, and applying these systems to the Horonobe site recent 5 years. We will briefly report the outline of the system and the results of drilling and measurement that were carried out at the Horonobe site. (author)

  10. Hydraulics calculation in drilling simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyugin, Aleksey A.; Kazunin, Dmitry V.

    2018-05-01

    The modeling of drilling hydraulics in the simulator system is discussed. This model is based on the previously developed quasi-steady model of an incompressible fluid flow. The model simulates the operation of all parts of the hydraulic drilling system. Based on the principles of creating a common hydraulic model, a set of new elements for well hydraulics was developed. It includes elements that correspond to the in-drillstring and annular space. There are elements controlling the inflow from the reservoir into the well and simulating the lift of gas along the annulus. New elements of the hydrosystem take into account the changing geometry of the well, loss in the bit, characteristics of the fluids including viscoplasticity. There is an opportunity specify the complications, the main one of which is gas, oil and water inflow. Correct work of models in cases of complications makes it possible to work out various methods for their elimination. The coefficients of the model are adjusted on the basis of incomplete experimental data provided by operators of drilling platforms. At the end of the article the results of modeling the elimination of gas inflow by a continuous method are presented. The values displayed in the simulator (drill pipe pressure, annulus pressure, input and output flow rates) are in good agreement with the experimental data. This exercise took one hour, which is less than the time on a real rig with the same configuration of equipment and well.

  11. DM Considerations for Deep Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    An outline of the current situation regarding the DM plans for the Deep Drilling surveys and an invitation to the community to provide feedback on what they would like to see included in the data processing and visualization of these surveys.

  12. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face

  13. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, H.D.; Schroeder, R.L.; Williams, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  14. Economic environmental management of drilling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, H.J.; Akers, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents significant environmental and regulatory initiatives developed by Exxon's New Orleans Drilling Organization. Specifically, the paper will cover drilling waste minimization techniques and disposal options, recycling of drilling waste streams, and environmentally managed drilling location design considerations. The implementation of some of these initiatives at Exxon's Chalkley field land locations have resulted in a fifty percent reduction in drilling location waste management costs. Some of these same initiatives have been successfully applied to Exxon's barge drilling locations. For operations at the environmentally sensitive Mobile Bay, Exxon contracted with a local company and assisted in the development of an economically and environmentally superior drilling waste disposal and treatment system. In summary, it is possible for drilling operators to pro-actively manage escalating environmental and regulatory challenges through the implementation of economic and practical initiatives

  15. Catamaran type semisubmersible platform for offshore drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, G; Chevallier, J; Hampton, G

    1988-06-10

    A semi-submersible oil rig which allows the vertical storage of drilling tubes and drill pipes is presented. The structure which links the floaters to the bridge consists of hollow columns forming caissons and containing means for storing tubes.

  16. Heat accumulation during sequential cortical bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Andrew C; Tai, Bruce L; Belmont, Barry; Irwin, Todd A; Shih, Albert; Holmes, James R

    2016-03-01

    Significant research exists regarding heat production during single-hole bone drilling. No published data exist regarding repetitive sequential drilling. This study elucidates the phenomenon of heat accumulation for sequential drilling with both Kirschner wires (K wires) and standard two-flute twist drills. It was hypothesized that cumulative heat would result in a higher temperature with each subsequent drill pass. Nine holes in a 3 × 3 array were drilled sequentially on moistened cadaveric tibia bone kept at body temperature (about 37 °C). Four thermocouples were placed at the center of four adjacent holes and 2 mm below the surface. A battery-driven hand drill guided by a servo-controlled motion system was used. Six samples were drilled with each tool (2.0 mm K wire and 2.0 and 2.5 mm standard drills). K wire drilling increased temperature from 5 °C at the first hole to 20 °C at holes 6 through 9. A similar trend was found in standard drills with less significant increments. The maximum temperatures of both tools increased from drill sizes was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). In conclusion, heat accumulated during sequential drilling, with size difference being insignificant. K wire produced more heat than its twist-drill counterparts. This study has demonstrated the heat accumulation phenomenon and its significant effect on temperature. Maximizing the drilling field and reducing the number of drill passes may decrease bone injury. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  18. Comparison of the sensitivity of surface downward longwave radiation to changes in water vapor at two high elevation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yonghua; Naud, Catherine M; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Landry, Christopher C; Miller, James R

    2014-01-01

    Among the potential reasons for enhanced warming rates in many high elevation regions is the nonlinear relationship between surface downward longwave radiation (DLR) and specific humidity (q). In this study we use ground-based observations at two neighboring high elevation sites in Southwestern Colorado that have different local topography and are 1.3 km apart horizontally and 348 m vertically. We examine the spatial consistency of the sensitivities (partial derivatives) of DLR with respect to changes in q, and the sensitivities are obtained from the Jacobian matrix of a neural network analysis. Although the relationship between DLR and q is the same at both sites, the sensitivities are higher when q is smaller, which occurs more frequently at the higher elevation site. There is a distinct hourly distribution in the sensitivities at both sites especially for high sensitivity cases, although the range is greater at the lower elevation site. The hourly distribution of the sensitivities relates to that of q. Under clear skies during daytime, q is similar between the two sites, however under cloudy skies or at night, it is not. This means that the DLR–q sensitivities are similar at the two sites during daytime but not at night, and care must be exercised when using data from one site to infer the impact of water vapor feedbacks at another site, particularly at night. Our analysis suggests that care should be exercised when using the lapse rate adjustment to infill high frequency data in a complex topographical region, particularly when one of the stations is subject to cold air pooling as found here. (letter)

  19. Comparison of the Sensitivity of Surface Downward Longwave Radiation to Changes in Water Vapor at Two High Elevation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Naud, Catherine M.; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Landry, Christopher C.; Miller, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Among the potential reasons for enhanced warming rates in many high elevation regions is the nonlinear relationship between surface downward longwave radiation (DLR) and specific humidity (q). In this study we use ground-based observations at two neighboring high elevation sites in Southwestern Colorado that have different local topography and are 1.3 kilometers apart horizontally and 348 meters vertically. We examine the spatial consistency of the sensitivities (partial derivatives) of DLR with respect to changes in q, and the sensitivities are obtained from the Jacobian matrix of a neural network analysis. Although the relationship between DLR and q is the same at both sites, the sensitivities are higher when q is smaller, which occurs more frequently at the higher elevation site. There is a distinct hourly distribution in the sensitivities at both sites especially for high sensitivity cases, although the range is greater at the lower elevation site. The hourly distribution of the sensitivities relates to that of q. Under clear skies during daytime, q is similar between the two sites, however under cloudy skies or at night, it is not. This means that the DLR-q sensitivities are similar at the two sites during daytime but not at night, and care must be exercised when using data from one site to infer the impact of water vapor feedbacks at another site, particularly at night. Our analysis suggests that care should be exercised when using the lapse rate adjustment to infill high frequency data in a complex topographical region, particularly when one of the stations is subject to cold air pooling as found here.

  20. Effects of a Short Drilling Implant Protocol on Osteotomy Site Temperature and Drill Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihali, Sorin G; Canjau, Silvana; Cernescu, Anghel; Bortun, Cristina M; Wang, Hom-Lay; Bratu, Emanuel

    2018-02-01

    To establish a protocol for reducing the drilling sequence during implant site preparation based on temperature and insertion torque. The traditional conventional drilling sequence (used several drills with 0.6-mm increment each time) was compared with the proposed short drilling protocol (only used 2 drills: initial and final drill). One hundred drilling osteotomies were performed in bovine and porcine bones. Sets of 2 osteotomy sites were created in 5 bone densities using 2 types of drilling protocols. Thermographic pictures were captured throughout all drilling procedures and analyzed using ThermaCAM Researcher Professional 2.10. Torque values were determined during drilling by measuring electrical input and drill speed. There were statistically significant differences in bone temperature between the conventional and short drilling protocols during implant site preparation (analysis of variance P = 0.0008). However, there were no significant differences between the 2 types of drilling protocols for both implant diameters. Implant site preparation time was significantly reduced when using the short drilling protocol compared with the conventional drilling protocol (P drilling protocol proposed herein may represent a safe approach for implant site preparation.

  1. Surgical drill system and surgical drill bit to be used therein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margallo Balbas, E.; Wieringa, P.A.; French, P.J.; Lee, R.A.; Breedveld, P.

    2007-01-01

    Surgical drill system comprising a mechanical drill bit and means for imaging the vicinity of the drill bit tip, said means comprising: at least one optical fiber having a distal end and a proximal end, said distal end being located adjacent said drill bit tip, an optical processing unit, said

  2. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300 feet...

  3. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71... drilling. In accordance with an approved exploration plan or development and production plan, a lease may be maintained in force by directional wells drilled under the leased area from surface locations on...

  4. Drilling of bone: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rupesh Kumar; Panda, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone fracture treatment usually involves restoring of the fractured parts to their initial position and immobilizing them until the healing takes place. Drilling of bone is common to produce hole for screw insertion to fix the fractured parts for immobilization. Orthopaedic drilling during surgical process causes increase in the bone temperature and forces which can cause osteonecrosis reducing the stability and strength of the fixation. Methods A comprehensive review of all the relevant investigations carried on bone drilling is conducted. The experimental method used, results obtained and the conclusions made by the various researchers are described and compared. Result Review suggests that the further improvement in the area of bone drilling is possible. The systematic review identified several consequential factors (drilling parameters and drill specifications) affecting bone drilling on which there no general agreement among investigators or are not adequately evaluated. These factors are highlighted and use of more advanced methods of drilling is accentuated. The use of more precise experimental set up which resembles the actual situation and the development of automated bone drilling system to minimize human error is addressed. Conclusion In this review, an attempt has been made to systematically organize the research investigations conducted on bone drilling. Methods of treatment of bone fracture, studies on the determination of the threshold for thermal osteonecrosis, studies on the parameters influencing bone drilling and methods of the temperature measurement used are reviewed and the future work for the further improvement of bone drilling process is highlighted. PMID:26403771

  5. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deposit. (2) Inclinational surveys shall be obtained on all vertical wells at intervals not exceeding 1... to that leaseholder. (f) Fixed drilling platforms. Applications for installation of fixed drilling... removed or have been otherwise immobilized are classified as fixed bottom founded drilling platforms. (g...

  6. Development of vertical drilling apparatus (Terra-Drill); Entwicklung eines Vertikal-Bohrgeraets (Terra-Drill) - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenne, D.

    2009-05-15

    This well-illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the development of a vertical drilling apparatus named Terra-Drill. The various stages of the development of the apparatus, which is based on earlier designs, is discussed. New norms issued in Germany for the size of boreholes for buried vertical heat-exchangers and the appropriate linings to be used are discussed. The new Terra Drill 4407 V drilling apparatus and its testing are discussed. The drill is quoted as being particularly suitable for cramped locations. Technical details are presented and a comprehensive collection of photographs is included. Various preliminary reports and development documentation are included.

  7. Study on drilling induced delamination of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite using carbide drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor

    2018-04-01

    In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  8. A drilling mud for drilling wells in collapsing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochkarev, G P; Anderson, B A; Minkhayrov, K A; Sharipov, A U

    1982-01-01

    In a known drilling mud for drilling wells in collapsing rocks, which contains clay, sodium silicate and polyacrylamide (PAA), in order to increase its specific electrical resistance and to increase the strengthening properties, a silicoorganic liquid is additionally introduced into its composition with the following component ratio (percent): clay, 5 to 7; sodium silicate, 5 to 7; polyacrylamide, 0.3 to 0.5; silicoorganic liquid, GKZh-94, 0.5 to 1.5 and water, the remainder. The GKZh-94 is a chemical compound based on alkylphenylchlorsilanes and substituted ethers of orthosilicic acid, used for waterproofing fabrics and soils. The addition of GKZh-94 provides the required values of the specific electric resistance of the mud and does not distort the gas logging indications. The proposed mud has low water production (4 to 6 cubic centimeters), optimal viscosity (25 to 31 seconds) and high structural and mechanical properties. Its strengthening properties are substantially above those of the known mud.

  9. Automatic real time drilling support on Ekofisk utilizing eDrilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetveit, Rolv; Bjorkevoll, Knut S.; Halsey, George W.; Kluge, Roald; Molde, Dag Ove; Odegard, Sven Inge [SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway); Herbert, Mike [HITEC Products Drilling, Stavanger (Norway); ConocoPhillips Norge, Stavanger (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    eDrilling is a new and innovative system for real time drilling simulation, 3D visualization and control from a remote drilling expert centre. The concept uses all available real time drilling data (surface and downhole) in combination with real time modelling to monitor and optimize the drilling process. This information is used to visualize the wellbore in 3D in real time. eDrilling has been implemented in an Onshore Drilling Center in Norway. The system is composed of the following elements, some of which are unique and ground-breaking: an advanced and fast Integrated Drilling Simulator which is capable to model the different drilling sub-processes dynamically, and also the interaction between these sub-processes in real time; automatic quality check and corrections of drilling data; making them suitable for processing by computer models; real time supervision methodology for the drilling process using time based drilling data as well as drilling models / the integrated drilling simulator; methodology for diagnosis of the drilling state and conditions. This is obtained from comparing model predictions with measured data. Advisory technology for more optimal drilling. A Virtual Wellbore, with advanced visualization of the downhole process. Dat low and computer infrastructure. e-Drilling has been implemented in an Onshore Drilling Center on Ekofisk in Norway. The system is being used on drilling operations, and experiences from its use are presented. The supervision and diagnosis functionalities have been useful in particular, as the system has given early warnings on ECD and friction related problems. This paper will present the eDrilling system as well as experiences from its use. (author)

  10. Advanced control strategies for a drill rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.; Hiller, M.; Fink, B.

    1996-01-01

    The construction of tunnels is usually undertaken using a combination of blasting and drilling to achieve rock excavation. Easy handling and high accuracy, and thus greater efficiency, in drilling rigs is an essential ingredient of successful competition in the market place. This article describes a cartesian control concept used for a twin boom drill rig. This simplifies the handling of a drilling boom, reduces the duration of a working cycle and increases security. A remote control system has been added to the drill rig to support the operator working in complicated environments. (UK)

  11. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  12. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  13. Electric drill-string telemetry

    CERN Document Server

    Carcione, J M

    2003-01-01

    We design a numerical algorithm for simulation of low-frequency electric-signal transmission through a drill string. This is represented by a transmission line with varying geometrical and electromagnetic properties versus depth, depending on the characteristics of the drill-string/formation system. These properties are implicitly modeled by the series impedance and the shunt admittance of the transmission line. The differential equations are parabolic, since at low frequencies the wave field is diffusive. We use an explicit scheme for the solution of parabolic problems, based on a Chebyshev expansion of the evolution operator and the Fourier pseudospectral method to compute the spatial derivatives. The results are verified by comparison to analytical solutions obtained for the initial-value problem with a voltage source.

  14. Innovative techniques cut costs in wetlands drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to drilling oil and gas wells in sensitive wetlands areas contributed to a savings of over $1.2 million on a three-well, $3 million drilling project in south Louisiana. ARCO Oil and Gas Co. drilled a three-well project in the Bayou Sale field with a truck-mounted workover rig and a modified solids-control system. This smaller equipment eliminated the need to build a large location in the marsh. Traditional drilling techniques require a large drillsite to accommodate all the equipment of a modern drilling complex. However, recently imposed environmental regulations substantially limit, and in some cases prohibit, the use of these conventional techniques for drilling wells in wetlands areas. Based on the potentially huge economic and operational impact on the drilling industry because of these stricter regulations, alternatives to these traditional practices are essential

  15. Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Takeyoshi; Yoshii, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Kohzo

    2007-01-01

    Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility

  16. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  17. Drilling Performance of Rock Drill by High-Pressure Water Jet under Different Configuration Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rock drilling progress, the resistant force results in tools failure and the low drilling efficiency; thus, it is necessary to reduce the tools failure and enhance the drilling efficiency. In this paper, different configuration modes of drilling performance assisted with water jet are explored based on the mechanism and experiment analysis of rock drilling assisted with water jet. Moreover, the rotary sealing device with high pressure is designed to achieve the axial and rotation movement simultaneously as well as good sealing effect under high-pressure water jet. The results indicate that the NDB and NFB have better effects on drilling performance compared with that of NSB. Moreover, the high-pressure water jet is helpful not only to reduce the drill rod deflection, but also to reduce the probability of drill rod bending and improve the drill rod service life.

  18. Slant rigs offer big payoffs in shallow drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Edwards, B.

    1992-01-01

    Slant hole drilling technology can result in considerable savings over conventionally drilled deviated holes because mud motors and deviation control with measurement while drilling tools are usually unnecessary. The benefits of using slant hole rigs for development drilling improve after the bit walk tendencies and the correct bottom hole assemblies have been determined for a particular area. This article discusses three recent drilling operations that successfully used slant drilling technology on land-based projects: drilling for heavy oil in Alberta, drilling for gas in Alberta, and drilling a river crossing for a gas pipeline in British Columbia. These examples demonstrate the flexibility of slant drilling technology

  19. Role of high-elevation groundwater flows in the hydrogeology of the Cimino volcano (central Italy) and possibilities to capture drinking water in a geogenically contaminated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, V.; Armiento, G.; Baiocchi, A.; Mazzuoli, M.; Nardi, E.; Piacentini, S. M.; Proposito, M.; Spaziani, F.

    2018-01-01

    Origin, yield and quality of the groundwater flows at high elevation in the Cimino volcano (central Italy) were examined. In this area, groundwater is geogenically contaminated by arsenic and fluoride, yet supplies drinking water for approximately 170,000 inhabitants. The origin of the high-elevation groundwater flows is strictly related to vertical and horizontal variability of the rock types (lava flows, lava domes and ignimbrite) in an area of limited size. In some cases, groundwater circuits are related to perched aquifers above noncontinuous aquitards; in other cases, they are due to flows in the highly fractured dome carapace, limited at the bottom by a low-permeability dome core. The high-elevation groundwater outflow represents about 30% of the total recharge of Cimino's hydrogeological system, which has been estimated at 9.8 L/s/km2. Bicarbonate alkaline-earth, cold, neutral waters with low salinity, and notably with low arsenic and fluoride content, distinguish the high-elevation groundwaters from those of the basal aquifer. Given the quantity and quality of these resources, approaches in the capture and management of groundwater in this hydrogeological environment should be reconsidered. Appropriate tapping methods such as horizontal drains, could more efficiently capture the high-elevation groundwater resources, as opposed to the waters currently pumped from the basal aquifer which often require dearsenification treatments.

  20. Role of high-elevation groundwater flows in the hydrogeology of the Cimino volcano (central Italy) and possibilities to capture drinking water in a geogenically contaminated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, V.; Armiento, G.; Baiocchi, A.; Mazzuoli, M.; Nardi, E.; Piacentini, S. M.; Proposito, M.; Spaziani, F.

    2018-06-01

    Origin, yield and quality of the groundwater flows at high elevation in the Cimino volcano (central Italy) were examined. In this area, groundwater is geogenically contaminated by arsenic and fluoride, yet supplies drinking water for approximately 170,000 inhabitants. The origin of the high-elevation groundwater flows is strictly related to vertical and horizontal variability of the rock types (lava flows, lava domes and ignimbrite) in an area of limited size. In some cases, groundwater circuits are related to perched aquifers above noncontinuous aquitards; in other cases, they are due to flows in the highly fractured dome carapace, limited at the bottom by a low-permeability dome core. The high-elevation groundwater outflow represents about 30% of the total recharge of Cimino's hydrogeological system, which has been estimated at 9.8 L/s/km2. Bicarbonate alkaline-earth, cold, neutral waters with low salinity, and notably with low arsenic and fluoride content, distinguish the high-elevation groundwaters from those of the basal aquifer. Given the quantity and quality of these resources, approaches in the capture and management of groundwater in this hydrogeological environment should be reconsidered. Appropriate tapping methods such as horizontal drains, could more efficiently capture the high-elevation groundwater resources, as opposed to the waters currently pumped from the basal aquifer which often require dearsenification treatments.

  1. Evaluation of automatic cloud removal method for high elevation areas in Landsat 8 OLI images to improve environmental indexes computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, César I.; Teodoro, Ana; Tierra, Alfonso

    2017-10-01

    Thin clouds in the optical remote sensing data are frequent and in most of the cases don't allow to have a pure surface data in order to calculate some indexes as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). This paper aims to evaluate the Automatic Cloud Removal Method (ACRM) algorithm over a high elevation city like Quito (Ecuador), with an altitude of 2800 meters above sea level, where the clouds are presented all the year. The ACRM is an algorithm that considers a linear regression between each Landsat 8 OLI band and the Cirrus band using the slope obtained with the linear regression established. This algorithm was employed without any reference image or mask to try to remove the clouds. The results of the application of the ACRM algorithm over Quito didn't show a good performance. Therefore, was considered improving this algorithm using a different slope value data (ACMR Improved). After, the NDVI computation was compared with a reference NDVI MODIS data (MOD13Q1). The ACMR Improved algorithm had a successful result when compared with the original ACRM algorithm. In the future, this Improved ACRM algorithm needs to be tested in different regions of the world with different conditions to evaluate if the algorithm works successfully for all conditions.

  2. CFPL installs products pipeline with directional drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Central Florida Pipeline Company (CFPL), a subsidiary of GATX Terminals Corp., Tampa, FL, has used directional drilling under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk and Osceola Counties in constructing its new pipeline from Tampa to Orlando. Primary reason for using directional drilling is to protect the environment by minimizing water turbidity while the 16-inch diameter, 109-mile refined petroleum products pipeline is being installed. Total cost of the project is pegged at $68.5 million. Directional drilling enabled the pipe to be placed about 20 feet below the bottom of: The Alafia River in Riverview with 999 feet drilled; Port Sutton Channel near the Port of Tampa with 2,756 feet drilled; Reedy Creek Swamp at the intersection of Interstate 4 and Highway 192 which had 1,111 feet drilled; Wetland number-sign 70 southwest of Lake Wales with 1,575 feet drilled; Peace River south of Bartow had 2,470 feet drilled; Bonnet Creek west of Kissimmee had 693 feet drilled. Shingle Creek near the borders of Osceola and Orange Counties with 1,700 feet drilled. This paper reviews the design plans for construction and the emergency response plans should a rupture occur in the line

  3. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  4. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, O [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  5. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  6. Deep drilling KLX 02. Drilling and documentation of a 1700 m deep borehole at Laxemar, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, O.

    1994-08-01

    In this report the preparation and execution of the deep core drilling KLX 02 is described. The hole was drilled with the wireline methods, NQ dimension (diameter 76 mm), to a final depth of 1700.5 m. Prior to core drilling a diameter 215 mm pilot hole was pre drilled to 200 m with controlled hammer drilling (DTH). In this hole casing and air-lift equipment was installed with the aim to support the circulation of drilling fluid. During core drilling there was a measurement of major drilling parameters and drilling fluid in and out of hole. As a fluid tracer uranine was used. Each 300 m of core drilling air-lift pump tests were performed. After completion a flow-meter log was run to finalize the project phase. It can be concluded that both the pre drilling and core drilling methods used proved to be successful. No severe technical problem occurred. However, potential risks have been pointed at in the report. The air-lift system functioned only partly and has to be modified for further use. Also the technique for monitoring of drilling parameters needs improvement as does the method for air-lift pump tests with packer. The organisation model for planning and realization functioned satisfactory and can be recommended for similar future projects. 9 refs, numerous tabs and figs

  7. Trends in the Drilling Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Czekaj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum Industry is trying to achieve sustainable development goals. Each year new solutions are implemented to minimize the environmental impact of drilling operations. The paper presents trends in the drilling waste management caused by introducing the sustainable development into the petroleum industry. Old solutions such as the drilling waste disposal at the waste dump or dumping ground are not acceptable from the environmental point of view. The paper presents an analysis of new solutions as the sustainable solutions. The most important problem is the chemical pollution in cuttings and the waste drilling mud. The industrial solutions as well as the laboratory research on the pollution removing from drilling wastes are analysed. The most promising method seems to be the recycling and design for the environment of drilling mud.

  8. PDVSA INTEVEP Technologies in oil well drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, C.; Rafael, A.; Davila, Manuel A.

    1998-01-01

    The orimulsion, the generation of catalytic technologies and the development of HDH (process which transform heavy crudes in light crudes), are examples of some of the well known technologies developed by PDVSA INTEVEP. But the drilling oil wells technologies developed by the same entreprise, even though are very important, are less known all around the world. This document describes some products developed through those technologies: THIXOGAS T M which is an antimigratory aditive; INTEFLOW T M which is a fluid for drilling, complementation and rehabilitation of oil drills; INTERCAB T M which is an aditive for fluids in drilling; orimatita which is a denser for drilling fluids; CARBOLIG T M which is an aditive for drilling fluids; and many other products and technologies in development, impacted considerably the venezuelan economy by preserving the environment and saving quite an important amount of money in 1997 (Bs. 3.000 M M)

  9. Relationships among chilling hours, photoperiod, calendar date, cold hardiness, seed source, and storage of Douglas-fir seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase; Nabil Khadduri; Euan Mason; Kas Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) seedlings from three nurseries in the Pacific Northwest United States were lifted on five dates from mid-October through mid-December 2006. Each nursery provided seedlings from a low- and a high-elevation seed lot. Photoperiod and accumulated chilling hours (calculated using two methods) were evaluated...

  10. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  11. Replacement team of mining drilling rigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hamodi, Hussan; Lundberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a practical model to calculate the optimal replacement time (ORT) of drilling rigs used in underground mining. As a case study, cost data for drilling rig were collected over four years from a Swedish mine. The cost data include acquisition, operating, maintenance and downtime costs when using a redundant rig. A discount rate is used to determine the value of these costs over time. The study develops an optimisation model to identify the ORT of a mining drilling rig which ...

  12. Test plan for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this testing is to determine if ignition occurs while core drilling in a flammable gas environment. Drilling parameters are chosen so as to provide bounding conditions for the core sampling environment. If ignition does not occur under the conditions set forth in this test, then a satisfactory level of confidence will be obtained which would allow field operations under the normal drilling conditions

  13. Avoiding pollution in scientific ocean drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Scientific ocean drilling has been carried out in the world's oceans since the nineteen sixties. From 1968-83 the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), managed by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California under a contract with the US National Science Foundation, employed the drilling vessel Glomar Challenger for this purpose. In January 1985 the Ocean Drilling Program (GDP), operated by Texas A and M University, began operations with the drillship JOIDES Resolution which continue to this day. The principal funding agency remains the US National Science Foundation, but since its inception GDP has been an international program and currently receives financial support from 21 countries. The ODP operates globally and, as with DSDP before it, drills without a riser or blowout preventer in a wide range of geological environments. Water depths at GDP drill sites have ranged from 38 m to 5969 m, but are typically within the range 1000-5000 m. Depths of penetration at GDP drill sites, while generally less than 1000 m, have ranged up to 2111 m below the sea floor. The drilling fluid is seawater, although occasional slugs of mud are circulated to clean or condition the hole. Thus drilling is carried out without well control, i.e. without the ability to control pressures within the well. Because of the absence of well control, it is vital to ensure that the drillship does not drill into an accumulation of oil or gas. Drilling into a charged reservoir and causing oil or gas to escape into the marine environment is recognised as the main pollution hazard in scientific ocean drilling

  14. Retrospective Analysis of Wood Anatomical Traits Reveals a Recent Extension in Tree Cambial Activity in Two High-Elevation Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, Marco; Castagneri, Daniele; Prendin, Angela L; Petit, Giai; von Arx, Georg

    2017-01-01

    The study of xylogenesis or wood formation is a powerful, yet labor intensive monitoring approach to investigate intra-annual tree growth responses to environmental factors. However, it seldom covers more than a few growing seasons, so is in contrast to the much longer lifespan of woody plants and the time scale of many environmental processes. Here we applied a novel retrospective approach to test the long-term (1926-2012) consistency in the timing of onset and ending of cambial activity, and in the maximum cambial cell division rate in two conifer species, European larch and Norway spruce at high-elevation in the Alps. We correlated daily temperature with time series of cell number and lumen area partitioned into intra-annual sectors. For both species, we found a good correspondence (1-10 days offset) between the periods when anatomical traits had significant correlations with temperature in recent decades (1969-2012) and available xylogenesis data (1996-2005), previously collected at the same site. Yet, results for the 1926-1968 period indicate a later onset and earlier ending of the cambial activity by 6-30 days. Conversely, the peak in the correlation between annual cell number and temperature, which should correspond to the peak in secondary growth rate, was quite stable over time, with just a minor advance of 4-5 days in the recent decades. Our analyses on time series of wood anatomical traits proved useful to infer on past long-term changes in xylogenetic phases. Combined with intensive continuous monitoring, our approach will improve the understanding of tree responses to climate variability in both the short- and long-term context.

  15. Retrospective Analysis of Wood Anatomical Traits Reveals a Recent Extension in Tree Cambial Activity in Two High-Elevation Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carrer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of xylogenesis or wood formation is a powerful, yet labor intensive monitoring approach to investigate intra-annual tree growth responses to environmental factors. However, it seldom covers more than a few growing seasons, so is in contrast to the much longer lifespan of woody plants and the time scale of many environmental processes. Here we applied a novel retrospective approach to test the long-term (1926–2012 consistency in the timing of onset and ending of cambial activity, and in the maximum cambial cell division rate in two conifer species, European larch and Norway spruce at high-elevation in the Alps. We correlated daily temperature with time series of cell number and lumen area partitioned into intra-annual sectors. For both species, we found a good correspondence (1–10 days offset between the periods when anatomical traits had significant correlations with temperature in recent decades (1969–2012 and available xylogenesis data (1996–2005, previously collected at the same site. Yet, results for the 1926–1968 period indicate a later onset and earlier ending of the cambial activity by 6–30 days. Conversely, the peak in the correlation between annual cell number and temperature, which should correspond to the peak in secondary growth rate, was quite stable over time, with just a minor advance of 4–5 days in the recent decades. Our analyses on time series of wood anatomical traits proved useful to infer on past long-term changes in xylogenetic phases. Combined with intensive continuous monitoring, our approach will improve the understanding of tree responses to climate variability in both the short- and long-term context.

  16. Impact of ecological diversity on genetic and phytochemical variation injuniperus excelsa from high elevation zones of quetta valley, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, S.; Barozai, M.Y.K.; Ahmed, A.; Tareen, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    Juniperusexcelsa (Cupressaceae) is an evergreen tree and the second most diverse group of the conifers distributed abundantly in high elevation zones of Balochistan. Genetic and phytochemical variations in three naturally occurring populations of J.excelsa were analysed. Genetic variability was assessed by different molecular markers (RAPD, ISSR and URP) with an objective to use genetic diversity as a key to conserve the taxon which is also known as living fossil as dominated in Mesozoic era. Genetic diversity was assessed by polymorphic bands to generate a dendrogram based on UPGMA. Using tested markers, 116 bands were amplified out of which 67 bands were polymorphic with an average value of 8.37 (57%) bands per primer. Based on data, a cluster dendrogram was prepared that exhibited the mean genetic similarity matrix as 0.57 and two major clusters diverge at 0.49. The genetic similarity coefficient among all accessions ranged from 0.35 to 0.90. In phytochemical analysis, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated and compared among all accessions. Ecological characteristics of the study sites were measured to check their impact on genetic and chemical variation. Soil properties were analyzed for Principal Component Analysis. Chemical variation of J. excelsa of three sites revealed by dissimilarity matrix exhibiting genetic distance based on TPC and Flavonoids. Cluster analysis represent two major groups. Mean concentration of TPC and flavonoids were 56+-9.15 and 150+-27.9 mg/g respectively. PCA of soil considered three factors had Eigen values >1 and explain cumulatively 4.60 %, 26.02% and 10.36 % of the variance. First factor was positively correlated with second and fifth, but negatively correlated with other factors. In conclusion, molecular marker profiling together with phytochemical variation of total phenolic and flavonoid content in all accessions of Juniperusexcelsa and impact of ecological diversity on Genetic and chemical variation can be used

  17. Combined use of isotopic and hydrometric data to conceptualize ecohydrological processes in a high-elevation tropical ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Giovanny M; Celleri, Rolando; Lazo, Patricio X; Vache, Kellie B; Perakis, Steven; Crespo, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Few high-elevation tropical catchments worldwide are gauged and even fewer are studied using combined hydrometric and isotopic data. Consequently, we lack information needed to understand processes governing rainfall-runoff dynamics and to predict their influence on downstream ecosystem functioning. To address this need, we present a combination of hydrometric and water stable isotopic observations in the wet Andean páramo ecosystem of the Zhurucay Ecohydrological Observatory (7.53 km2). The catchment is located in the Andes of south Ecuador between 3400 and 3900 m a.s.l. Water samples for stable isotopic analysis were collected during 2 years (May 2011 – May 2013), while rainfall and runoff measurements were continuously recorded since late 2010. The isotopic data reveal that Andosol soils predominantly situated on hillslopes drain laterally to Histosols (Andean páramo wetlands) mainly located at the valley bottom. Histosols, in turn, feed water to creeks and small rivers throughout the year, establishing hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and the drainage network. Runoff is primarily comprised of pre-event water stored in the Histosols, which is replenished by rainfall that infiltrates through the Andosols. Contributions from the mineral horizon and the top of the fractured bedrock are small and only seem to influence discharge in small catchments during low flow generation (non-exceedance flows hydrological process and 2) (Histosols) wetlands are the major source of stream runoff. Our study highlights that detailed isotopic characterization during short time periods provides valuable information about ecohydrological processes in regions where very few basins are gauged.

  18. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Matthews, Kathleen R.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two “resting” meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita). In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey), leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw), which have been in a “resting” state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change. PMID:26565706

  19. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  20. Effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, P.R.; Duke, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on drilling fluids, also called drilling muds, which are essential to drilling processes in the exploration and production of oil and gas from the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These fluids are usually discharged from drilling platforms into surrounding waters of the OCS and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In a program carried out by the EPA Environmental research Laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Florida, diverse marine species as well as microbiotic and macrobiotic communities were studied. Drilling fluids were toxic to marine organisms in certain concentrations and exposure regimes. Furthermore, the fluids adversely affected the benthos physically by burying them or by altering the substrates. Toxicity of the drilling-fluid components, used drilling fluids from active Gulf of Mexico sites, and laboratory-prepared drilling fluids varied considerably. for example 96-h LC 50 s were from 25 μ liter -1 to > 1500 μl liter -1 for clams, larval lobsters, mysids, and grass shrimp. In most instances, mortality was significantly (α = 0.05) correlated with the diesel-oil content of the fluids collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Data and model simulations suggest a rapid dilution of drilling fluids released into OCS waters, resulting in concentrations below the acute-effect concentration for the water column organisms tested

  1. Numerical Modeling of Foam Drilling Hydraulics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Baris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of foam as a drilling fluid was developed to meet a special set of conditions under which other common drilling fluids had failed. Foam drilling is defined as the process of making boreholes by utilizing foam as the circulating fluid. When compared with conventional drilling, underbalanced or foam drilling has several advantages. These advantages include: avoidance of lost circulation problems, minimizing damage to pay zones, higher penetration rates and bit life. Foams are usually characterized by the quality, the ratio of the volume of gas, and the total foam volume. Obtaining dependable pressure profiles for aerated (gasified fluids and foam is more difficult than for single phase fluids, since in the former ones the drilling mud contains a gas phase that is entrained within the fluid system. The primary goal of this study is to expand the knowledge-base of the hydrodynamic phenomena that occur in a foam drilling operation. In order to gain a better understanding of foam drilling operations, a hydrodynamic model is developed and run at different operating conditions. For this purpose, the flow of foam through the drilling system is modeled by invoking the basic principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The model was designed to allow gas and liquid flow at desired volumetric flow rates through the drillstring and annulus. Parametric studies are conducted in order to identify the most influential variables in the hydrodynamic modeling of foam flow.

  2. Slow drilling speeds for single-drill implant bed preparation. Experimental in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Ruiz, R A; Velasco Ortega, E; Romanos, G E; Gerhke, S; Newen, I; Calvo-Guirado, J L

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the real-time bone temperature changes during the preparation of the implant bed with a single-drill protocol with different drill designs and different slow drilling speeds in artificial type IV bone. For this experimental in vitro study, 600 implant bed preparations were performed in 10 bovine bone disks using three test slow drilling speeds (50/150/300 rpm) and a control drilling speed (1200 rpm). The temperature at crestal and apical areas and time variations produced during drilling with three different drill designs with similar diameter and length but different geometry were recorded with real-life thermographic analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way analysis of variance. Multiple comparisons of temperatures and time with the different drill designs and speeds were performed with the Tukey's test. T Max values for the control drilling speed with all the drill designs (D1 + 1200; D2 + 1200; D3 + 1200) were higher compared to those for the controls for 11 ± 1.32 °C (p drilling at 50 rpm resulted in the lowest temperature increment (22.11 ± 0.8 °C) compared to the other slow drilling speeds of 150 (24.752 ± 1.1 °C) and 300 rpm (25.977 ± 1.2 °C) (p drilling speeds compared to that for the control drilling speed. Slow drilling speeds required significantly more time to finish the preparation of the implant bed shown as follows: 50 rpm > 150 rpm > 300 rpm > control (p drill protocol with slow drilling speeds (50, 150, and 300 rpm) without irrigation in type IV bone increases the temperature at the coronal and apical levels but is below the critical threshold of 47 °C. The drill design in single-drill protocols using slow speeds (50, 150, and 300 rpm) does not have an influence on the thermal variations. The time to accomplish the implant bed preparation with a single-drill protocol in type IV bone is influenced by the drilling speed and not by the drill design. As the speed decreases, then

  3. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of approximately minus8 m (minus27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of approximately1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of ∼ -21 m (-70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned

  4. Evaluation of Technical and Yield Parameters of Wheat Seeding Methods with Different Seeding Rates in south Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Habibi Asl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during two years (2007-2009 in Shawoor Agricultural Research Station on a silty-clay soil. Experiment conducted in split plots in a Randomized Complete Blocks Design in three replications. Main plots were planting methods including centrifugal broadcaster (P1, centrifugal broadcaster + furrower (P2, seed drill (P3, seed drill + furrower (P4, three lines bed drilling (P5 and four lines bed drilling (P6. Subplots were included seed rates of 120, 160, 200 and 240 kg.ha-1. The results showed that P2 method with 14.91 litter.ha-1 and P3 method with 5.02 litter.ha-1 had the highest and lowest fuel consumption respectively. P3 method with 1.462 h.ha-1 and P5 method with 0.620 h.ha-1 required maximum and minimum total operation time respectively. P2 method with 0.684 ha.h-1 had minimum field capacity. Field capacity of P5 and P6 with averagely 1.67 ha.h-1 was maximum. Field capacity of all drilling methods (P3, P4, P5 and P6 was significantly more than that of broadcasting methods (P1 and P2. The highest seed spacing uniformity (87.2% was belonged to P6 method and the lowest value (54.7% was for P1 method. By using drilling methods of P3 and P5 (or P6 instead of P1 method total cost was reduced 41% and 29% respectively. The results of variance analysis of data showed that the difference between planting methods in case of wheat grain yield and yield components was not significant. However, the seed rate had significant effect on some yield components. Suggestion for cropping of wheat Chamran variety in silty-clay soil in Khuzestan province, used P5, P6 and P3 methods are recommended respectively with seed rate of 120 - 160 kg.ha-1.

  5. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills. ...

  6. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole

  7. Drilling technology advances on four fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-01-01

    Trends and advances in drilling technology are discussed. Four different major trends have been identified. One of these is proprietary case drilling which is said to allow operators to simultaneously drill, case, and evaluate oil and gas wells. In proprietary case drilling, the well is drilled with standard oil field casing which remains in the hole all the time, eliminating the need for tripping. Drill bits and other downhole tools are lowered via wireline inside the casing and latched to the last joint of casing. Wells are drilled either by rotating the casing or by using a downhole mud motor for steering, using conventional directional tools. This technology was introduced by Tesco and is marketed in 25 countries along with a full range of drilling products and services. Super single rigs are an other trend which, owing to their versatility, combined with relatively small environmental footprint have become the rig of choice in a growing number of drilling programs. Super single rigs use 45-ft. joints of drill pipe, more versatile top drives and they have an automated pipe handling system. Super singles can be used on both vertical and slant wells and offer advantages of lower costs, higher efficiencies and greater drilling depths. Given their low environmental impact hydraulic capability, super singles also find application where zero disturbance rules are in effect, as for example, in some parts of southern Alberta. Directional drilling and MWD are most associated with SAGD projects but they also have been used and made significant difference in other spheres of oil recovery as well. The fact is that about 35 percent of wells drilled today are drilled with some form of directional drilling; this will stimulate the growth of ever more advanced MWD technology. Northern rigs are in a class of their own in that here the emphasis is on keeping the crew warm, as opposed to lots of gadgets. The most immediately-visible heat-conserving modification is the 60-ft wind

  8. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  9. Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle , Jack J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

  10. Forest change in high-elevation forests of Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina: re-census and analysis of data collected over 40 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Lusk; Matt Mutel; Elaine S. Walker; Foster. Levy

    2010-01-01

    The Black Mountain range of western North Carolina supports some of the most extensive but threatened high-elevation forests in the southern Appalachians. Of particular note, the insect pathogen, balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratzeburg), has been present on Mt. Mitchell for more than 50 years. In anticipation of potential changes in forest...

  11. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  12. Potential Influence of Climate Change on the Acid-Sensitivity of High-Elevation Lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Strang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models predict increased temperature and precipitation in the Georgia Basin, British Colmbia; however, little is known about the impacts on high-elevation regions. In the current study, fifty-four high-elevation lakes (754–2005 m a.s.l. were studied to investigate the potential influence of climate change on surface water acid-sensitivity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the concentration of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and associated metals was significantly influenced by climate parameters. Furthermore, these components differed significantly between biogeoclimatic zones. Modelled soil base cation weathering for a subset of the study lakes (n=11 was predicted to increase by 9% per 1°C increase in temperature. Changes in temperature and precipitation may potentially decrease the pH of surface waters owing to changes in anthropogenic deposition and organic acid production. In contrast, increased soil base cation weathering may increase the critical load (of acidity of high-elevation lakes. Ultimately, the determining factor will be whether enhanced base cation weathering is sufficient to buffer changes in natural and anthropogenic acidity. Mountain and high-elevation regions are considered early warning systems to climate change; as such, future monitoring is imperative to assess the potential ramifications of climate change on the hydrochemistry and acid-sensitivity of these surface waters.

  13. Threatened plant resources: distribution and ecosystem services in the world's high elevation park of the karakoram ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedayi, A.; Xu, M.; Hussain, F.; Sadia, S.; Bano, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate diversity, distribution, status, ecosystem services and threats to the plant resources in the study area based on field survey and ethno ecological knowledge for effective conservation and sustainable ecosystem services. The present study was conducted in the world's high elevation Khunjerab National Park (KNP) of the Karakoram ranges in Pakistan bordering China. Tremendous ecosystem services are obtained from the park and considered the most important habitat for many plant biodiversity and wildlife species. Field surveys were conducted to collect plants in transect along the road side of seven valleys ranging from 3160m to 4934m altitudinal variation. The names and traditional uses were recorded from the local people of the area by semi structured questionnaires and direct interviews. The data was analyzed by excel spreadsheets, direct matrix ranking, and pair comparison tests. Asteraceae was the dominant family with 15% species followed by Chenopodiaceae 10%, Poaceae 8%, Papilionaceae and Rocaceae 7% each, Brasicaceae 6%. Plant resources contribute direct and indirect ecosystem services such as food, medicine, fuel, timber, thatching, water purification, mineral and soil retention, and most importantly as sink of global carbon stock especially in the high altitude peatlands. Herbs were the dominant species in the area with 89%. Fodder is the most common usage for plants, followed by medicine. Plants with percentages 27% and 39% found to be highly palatable and palatable respectively. Competition for food between wildlife and livestock was high recorded for 60% plants. Plants used to cure various diseases including stomachache, asthma, cancer and tuberculosis etc. Plant resources in KNP are unique and vary with climate and altitude. This floral wealth is under tremendous threats of global climate change and anthropogenic activities like overgrazing, increasing population, and a rapidly declining traditional knowledge for

  14. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Polesello, Stefano; Sacchi, Elisa

    2014-07-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 ma.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH4(+) and Ca(2+), whereas the main anion was HCO3(-), which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). Data analysis suggested that Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO3(-) were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH4(+) was derived from gaseous NH3 scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from -1.9 to -23.2‰ in δ(18)O, and from -0.8 to -174‰ in δ(2)H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha(-1) y(-1)) was considerably lower than the levels that were measured in other high-altitude environments. Nevertheless, the NO3(-) concentrations in the surface waters

  15. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Polesello, Stefano; Sacchi, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 m a.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH 4 + and Ca 2+ , whereas the main anion was HCO 3 − , which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO 3 − , SO 4 2− and Cl − . Data analysis suggested that Na + , Cl − and K + were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and HCO 3 − were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO 3 − and SO 4 2− concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH 4 + was derived from gaseous NH 3 scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from − 1.9 to − 23.2‰ in δ 18 O, and from − 0.8 to − 174‰ in δ 2 H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha −1 y −1 ) was considerably lower than the levels that were measured in other high-altitude environments. Nevertheless, the NO 3

  16. Climate signal in d13C of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high-elevation alpine larch trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelmann, Dana; Greule, Markus; Treydte, Kerstin; Keppler, Frank; Esper, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Tree-rings of high alpine larch trees (Larix decidua) were investigated by a recently established method that measures d13C values of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (Greule et al. 2009). The resulting d13C time series were tested for their potential as a climate proxy. For this 37 larch trees were sampled at the tree line near Simplon Village (Southern Switzerland). They were analysed for their tree-ring width (TRW) and from five individuals d13C of the wood lignin methoxyl groups (d13Cmethoxyl) were measured at annual resolution from 1971-2009 and at pentadal resolution from 1747-2009. The d13Cmethoxyl chronologies were corrected for the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 concentration and its decreasing d13C value. Further, the physiological response of the trees to these atmospheric changes was corrected using the flexible correction factor approach of Treydte et al. (2009), which minimise the residuals with the target climate data. This approach results in the highest so far reported correction factors of 0.032 - 0.036‰/ppmv CO2, which are explained by a low water-use efficiency of deciduous larch. The climate response of the new d13Cmethoxyl proxy shows a significant correlation of 0.75 for the annually and 0.87 for the pentadally resolved data with June to August temperatures. TRW shows also significant correlations with June to August temperatures, but they are lower than the correlations observed for the d13Cmethoxyl chronologies. These results indicate the potential of d13Cmethoxyl chronologies as a summer temperature proxy from high-elevation alpine trees with an even stronger signal than reported from earlier published tree-ring width and maximum latewood density temperature reconstructions. References: Greule, M., Mosandl, A., Hamilton, J.T.G., Keppler, F., 2009. A simple rapid method to precisely determine 13C/12C ratios of plant methoxyl groups. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 23(11): 1710-1714. Treydte, K.S., Frank, D.C., Saurer, M

  17. Economic effectiveness of direct drill in maize production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuža Desanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the concept of sustainable agriculture, raising environmental awareness of farmers and the preservation of natural resources, the implementation of the so-called conservation tillage began during the 1960s in the USA. It involves the application of a reduced or completely eliminated (no-till, zero tillage, direct drill sowing tillage, which prevents soil erosion, improves soil quality and biodiversity, also significantly reducing gas emissions by implementing a set of technical solutions. The application of this concept requires the existence of appropriate machinery that enables the use of direct seeding on land where plant residues of previous crops are present in the amount of minimum 30%. In addition to significant environmental impacts, this concept provides positive economic effects: for the whole society by eliminating the cost caused by soil degradation, but also for individual agricultural producers through the elimination of a significant number of complex machining operations and savings in diesel fuel and working hours of machines and employees. A comparative analysis of the economic effectiveness of maize production in terms of conventional tillage and no-till on a farm in Novi Sad showed that the application of direct drill allows skipping 4 to 5 machining operations, leading to a saving of 59 litres of diesel fuel per hectare of cultivated area while retaining the same average yield per ha, which resulted in increased profits by 4,246 RSD ha-1 compared to conventional tillage.

  18. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be inspected...

  19. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  20. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Drilling Fluids Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sedaghatzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Designing drilling fluids for drilling in deep gas reservoirs and geothermal wells is a major challenge. Cooling drilling fluids and preparing stable mud with high thermal conductivity are of great concern. Drilling nanofluids, i.e. a low fraction of carbon nanotube (CNT well dispersed in mud, may enhance the mixture thermal conductivity compared to the base fluids. Thus, they are potentially useful for advanced designing high temperature and high pressure (HTHP drilling fluids. In the present study, the impacts of CNT volume fraction, ball milling time, functionalization, temperature, and dispersion quality (by means of scanning electron microscopy, SEM on the thermal and rheological properties of water-based mud are experimentally investigated. The thermal conductivities of the nano-based drilling fluid are measured with a transient hot wire method. The experimental results show that the thermal conductivity of the water-based drilling fluid is enhanced by 23.2% in the presence of 1 vol% functionalized CNT at room temperature; it increases by 31.8% by raising the mud temperature to 50 °C. Furthermore, significant improvements are seen in the rheological properties—such as yield point, filtration properties, and annular viscosity—of the CNTmodified drilling fluid compared to the base mud, which pushes forward their future development.

  2. Basic Land Drills for Swimming Stroke Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Teaching swimming strokes can be a challenging task in physical education. The purpose of the article is to introduce 12 on land drills that can be utilized to facilitate the learning of swimming strokes, including elementary back stroke, sidestroke, front crawl, back stroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. Each drill consists of four components…

  3. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.

    1994-09-01

    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  4. Supplemental and highly-elevated tocopherol doses differentially regulate allergic inflammation: reversibility of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol's effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCary, Christine A.; Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Cook-Mills, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that supplemental doses of the α- and γ-tocopherol isoforms of vitamin E decrease and increase, respectively, allergic lung inflammation. We have now assessed whether these effects of tocopherols are reversible. For these studies, mice were treated with antigen and supplemental tocopherols in a first phase of treatment followed by a 4 week clearance phase and then the mice received a second phase of antigen and tocopherol treatments. The pro-inflammatory effects of supplemental levels of γ-tocopherol in phase 1 were only partially reversed by supplemental α-tocopherol in phase 2 but were completely reversed by raising α-tocopherol levels 10-fold in phase 2. When γ-tocopherol levels were increased 10-fold (highly-elevated tocopherol) so that the lung tissue γ-tocopherol levels were equal to the lung tissue levels of supplemental α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol reduced leukocyte numbers in the lung lavage fluid. In contrast to the lung lavage fluid, highly-elevated levels of γ-tocopherol increased inflammation in the lung tissue. These regulatory effects of highly-elevated tocopherols on tissue inflammation and lung lavage fluid were reversible in a second phase of antigen challenge without tocopherols. In summary, the pro-inflammatory effects of supplemental γ-tocopherol on lung inflammation were partially reversed by supplemental levels of α-tocopherol but were completely reversed by highly-elevated-levels of α-tocopherol. Also, highly-elevated levels of γ-tocopherol were inhibitory and reversible in lung lavage but, importantly, were pro-inflammatory in lung tissue sections. These results have implications for future studies with tocopherols and provide a new context in which to review vitamin E studies in the literature. PMID:21317387

  5. Westinghouse GOCO conduct of casualty drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, C.P.

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to provide Westinghouse Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Facilities with information that can be used to implement or improve drill programs. Elements of this guide are highly recommended for use when implementing a new drill program or when assessing an existing program. Casualty drills focus on response to abnormal conditions presenting a hazard to personnel, environment, or equipment; they are distinct from Emergency Response Exercises in which the training emphasis is on site, field office, and emergency management team interaction. The DOE documents which require team training and conducting drills in nuclear facilities and should be used as guidance in non-nuclear facilities are: DOE 5480.19 (Chapter 1 of Attachment I) and DOE 5480.20 (Chapter 1, paragraphs 7 a. and d. of continuing training). Casualty drills should be an integral part of the qualification and training program at every DOE facility

  6. Lifting device for drilling rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzivilovich, L L; Laptev, A G; Lipkovich, V A

    1982-01-01

    A lifter is proposed for drilling rods including a spacer stand with rotating bracket, boom with by-pass rollers, spacing and lifting hydrocylinders with rods and flexible tie mechanism. In order to improve labor productivity by improving maneuverability and to increase the maintenance zone, the lifter is equipped with a hydrocylinder of advance and a cross piece which is installed with the possibility of forward and rotational movement on the stand, and in which by means of the hydrocylinder of advance a boom is attached. Within the indicated boom there is a branch of the flexible tie mechanism with end attached with the possibility of regulation over the length on a rotating bracket, while the rod of the lifting hydrocylinder is connected to the cross piece.

  7. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  8. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque

    OpenAIRE

    Zhonghua Li; Liyuan Zhu; Wanlei Yin; Yanfang Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the a...

  9. Sensitivity studies of the common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays) to different soil types from the crude oil drilling site at Kutchalli, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoliefo, G.O. [Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria); Isikhuemhen, O.S. [Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Design, NC Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ohimain, E.I. [Rohi Biotechnologies Ltd., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2006-02-15

    Background, aims and scope. The economic growth that Nigeria has enjoyed as a result of oil revenue has its drawback through exposure of people in the oil producing areas to environmental contamination, due largely to the increase in the movement of oil. Activities associated with oil well drilling on agricultural lands have led to serious economic losses on the communities affected. The local people in most of these communities are peasants who do not know how to react to drilling wastes or polluted fields where they have their crops. A case under study is the Kutchalli oil drilling area. Methods. Waste pit soil from drilling waste dumps in Kutchalli oil drilling area was tested whole and in combinations with 'clean' soil for their abilities to support plant growth and development in common bean (Vigna unguiculata) and maize (Zea mays). Seed germination, plant height, leaf area, biomass accumulation, respiratory activity as well as soil chemical analysis were used to access the ability of waste pit soil to support plant growth and development in the test plants. Results, discussion and conclusions. Waste pit soil completely inhibited the germination of bean and maize seeds. Waste pit soil in combinations with different proportions of Kutchalli soil gave growth (germination, height of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, etc.) values that were inferior to the control soil (Kutchalli) and the independent control soil (Monguno). Seeds planted in the test soil combinations containing waste pit soil showed significantly low respiratory activity. Waste pit soil seems to be toxic to plant growth and development. Drilling mud in combination with native Kutchalli soil significantly enhanced plant growth and development. Recommendations and outlook. The seed germination, growth and development inhibition by waste pit soil suggests its toxicity. We want to suggest the need for strict control and monitoring of waste pit soil in oil drilling sites. (orig.)

  10. Potential of biogas production to reduce firewood consumption in remote high-elevation Himalayan communities in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote communities in the Nepalese mountains above 2500 m a.s.l. belong to the most precarious in the world. Inhabitants struggle for the minimum in terms of safe drinking water, food and sanitation. Reliable, affordable and clean energy for cooking, room heating and warm water for personal hygiene is often lacking and dependency on firewood very high. The remoteness and unlikeliness of electric grid connection in the coming decades make a diversified energy supply from renewable local resources crucial. Small-scale anaerobic digestion (AD of organic substrates has been used for long in rural areas of developing countries to produce biogas as energy source and recover residue as organic fertilizer. AD is challenging at high elevations due to year around lower ambient temperatures and lower annual biomass production per area compared to lowlands. Nevertheless, examples of operational household AD exist even above 3000 m a.s.l. in the Andes. Here we compare firewood consumption with biogas potential from organic substrates in a community with 39 households at 3150 m a.s.l. in Jumla District, Nepal. In five households with varying numbers of members and animals kept, mean firewood use and its energy content per capita (cap and day (d were 2.1 kg or ca. 25 MJ in spring and 2.3 kg or ca. 28 MJ in winter. Easily available substrates include cow, sheep and horse dung from overnight shelters and human excrements from pit latrines, amounting on average to 1.7 kg wet weight (kgww cap−1 d−1 in spring and 2.2 kgww cap−1 d−1 in winter. Adjusted to normal conditions (Nm3 at 0 °C, 1013.15 hPa, these substrates yielded on average 0.08 Nm3 cap−1 d−1 biogas in spring and 0.12 Nm3 cap−1 d−1 in winter (35–60% methane content in biochemical methane potential (BMPs tests at 36 °C. This could provide up to 60% of basic cooking needs on average and up to 75% in a “typical” household in terms of members

  11. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, Raffaella, E-mail: balestrini@irsa.cnr.it [Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), Via del Mulino 19, Brugherio, MB (Italy); Polesello, Stefano [Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), Via del Mulino 19, Brugherio, MB (Italy); Sacchi, Elisa [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and IGG-CNR, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 m a.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, whereas the main anion was HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Cl{sup −}. Data analysis suggested that Na{sup +}, Cl{sup −} and K{sup +} were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH{sub 4}{sup +} was derived from gaseous NH{sub 3} scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from − 1.9 to − 23.2‰ in δ{sup 18}O, and from − 0.8 to − 174‰ in δ{sup 2}H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha{sup −1} y{sup −1

  12. Sediment mobility and bedload transport rates in a high-elevation glacier-fed stream (Saldur river, Eastern Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnese, A.; Mao, L.; Comiti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of bedload transport in high-gradient streams is necessary to evaluate and mitigate flood hazards and to understand morphological processes taking place in the whole river network. Bedload transport in steep channels is particularly difficult to predict due to the complex and varying types of flow resistance, the very coarse and heterogeneous sediments, and the activity and connections of sediment sources at the basin scale. Yet, bedload measurements in these environments are still relatively scarce, and long-term monitoring programs are highly valuable to explore spatial and temporal variability of bedload processes. Even fewer are investigations conducted in high-elevation glaciarized basins, despite their relevance in many regions worldwide. The poster will present bedload transport measurements in a newly established (spring 2011) monitoring station in the Saldur basin (Eastern Italian Alps), which presents a 3.3 km2 glacier in its upper part. At 2100 m a.s.l. (20 km2 drainage area), a pressure transducer measures flow stage and bedload transport is monitored continuously by means of a hydrophone (a cylindrical steel pipe with microphones registering particle collisions) and by 4 fixed antennas for tracing clasts equipped with PITs (Passive Integrated Transponders). At the same location bedload samples are collected by using both a "Bunte" bedload trap and a "Helley-Smith" sampler at 5 positions along a 5 m wide cross-section. Bedload was measured from June to August 2011 during daily discharge fluctuations due to snow- and ice- melt flows. Samples were taken at a large range of discharges (1.1 to 4.6 m3 s-1) and bedload rates (0.01 to 700 g s-1 m-1). As expected, samples taken using the two samplers are not directly comparable even if taken virtually at the same time and at the same location across the section. Results indicate that the grain size of the transported material increases with the shear stress acting on the channel bed and with the

  13. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  14. Seeds and Synergies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    'Seeds and Synergies presents inspiring evidence of change in practice and policy ... Seeds of inspiration: breathing new life into the formal agricultural research .... and Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation and Agricultural Commodity ...

  15. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  16. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  17. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  18. Dewatering cuts drilling mud and disposal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.; Pharis, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on rig site dewatering of drilling fluids with recycling of processed water that can help an operator to comply with environmental rules by reducing volumes of waste and reducing long term liabilities. It can also reduce disposal costs and provide a cleaner drill site overall. Rig site dewatering is the process of injecting coagulants or flocculating chemicals into the mud entering a large clarifying centrifuge. This coagulates the fine, drilled particles allowing them to be separated from the fluid which can then be handled separately. Most of the environmental concerns during the 1980s involved hazardous materials and toxic wastes. Drilling fluids, many of which are chemically benign, have escaped many of the difficult-to-comply-with rules and regulations. During the 1990s, however, operators may be required to submit a written plan for liquid waste reduction for even nonhazardous materials. Many states and local agencies may institute total bans on oil field wastes. Drilling rigs typically produce about 1 bbl of liquid waste for every 1 ft of hole drilled. Thus, a typical drilling operation can produce a large quantity of waste

  19. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  20. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  1. Hydraulic lifter for an underwater drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garan' ko, Yu L

    1981-01-15

    A hydraulic lifter is suggested for an underwater drilling rig. It includes a base, hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes connected to the clamp holder and hydraulic distributor. In order to simplify the design of the device, the base is made with a hollow chamber connected to the rod cavities and through the hydraulic distributor to the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes. The hydraulic distributor is connected to the hydrosphere through the supply valve with control in time or by remote control. The base is equipped with reverse valves whose outlets are on the support surface of the base.

  2. Hydraulic lifter of a drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovskiy, L S; Demin, A V; Shadchinov, L M

    1979-01-08

    The invention refers to drilling equipment, in particular, devices for lowering and lifting operations during drilling. A hydraulic lifter of the drilling unit is suggested which contains a hydraulic cylinder, pressure line and hollow plunger whose cavities are hydraulically connected. In order to improve the reliability of the hydraulic lifter by balancing the forces of compression in the plunger of the hydraulic cylinder, a closed vessel is installed inside the plunger and rigidly connected to its ends. Its cavity is hydraulically connected to the pressure line.

  3. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  4. Clay-free drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmadeyev, R G; Panov, V B; Simonenkov, O I

    1982-01-01

    A clay-free drilling mud is proposed which contains humate-containing substance, alkali electrolyte, gel-former, inhibitor and water. In order to reduce viscosity of the static shear stress and water output under conditions of polyvalent aggression, it additionally contains organic stabilizer with the following ratio of components, % by mass: humate-containing substance 4.0-8.0; alkali electrolyte 0.2-1.5; gel-former 1.0-3.0; organic stabilizer 0.1-1.0; inhibitor 1.0-40.0; water--the rest. The solution is also distinguished by the fact that the gel-former used is magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate, or calcium chloride or aluminum sulfate, or iron chloride (III) or iron sulfate (II) or waste of chlorides of titanium production with average chemical composition, % by mass: Ti 1.5-7.0; Fe 5.0-15.0; Al 1.5-10.0; Na 5.0-16.0; Mg 0.5-3.0; Cl 30.0-60.0; Ca 0.2-2.0; Cr 0.2-2.0; Cu 0.2-1.5.

  5. Alteration in the IRDP drill hole compared with other drill holes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmannsdóttir, Hrefna

    1982-08-01

    The overall alteration pattern in the drill hole at Reydarfjördur is very similar to alteration patterns observed in Icelandic geothermal areas and in low-grade metamorphosed basalts in deep crustal sections elsewhere in Iceland. However more detail is obtained by the study of the IRDP drill core than by study of drill cuttings sampled in previous drill holes in Iceland. A comparatively high fossil thermal gradient is obtained at Reydarfjördur by a combination of mineral stability data and the observed occurence of secondary minerals. This high gradient is consistent with the measured dike dilation at the drill site and the location of the drill site adjacent to a central volcano.

  6. The Swedish Deep Drilling Program - an emerging scientific drilling program and new infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Scientific drilling projects imply numerous aspects that are difficult to handle for individual research groups. Therefore, about three years ago a joint effort was launched in the Swedish geoscientific community to establish a national program for scientific drilling, the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). Soon afterwards, several working groups established drilling proposals with Nordic and, also, international participation. With this serious interest in scientific drilling SDDP was able to successfully promote the Swedish membership in ICDP which commenced in 2008. Two SDDP projects achieved workshop grants from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2009. In the same year the Swedish Research Council decided to support an application for a truck-mounted drill rig - a big success for the SDDP working group. Scientific Drilling infrastructure: SDDP envisages a mobile platform that is capable of core drilling to at least 2500 m depth. The procurement will be made during 2010 and first operations are planned for 2011. This drill rig is primarily intended for use in the SDDP drilling projects, but will be rented out to other scientific drilling projects or even commercial enterprises in the remaining time to cover maintenance and future upgrade costs. SDDP's drill rig will be unique in Europe and complementary to the deep drilling InnovaRig of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Until now, drilling to 2000 - 3000 m implied the use of a full-sized drill rig like the InnovaRig or the mobilization of a core drill rig from another continent. This gap will now be filled by Sweden's upcoming scientific drilling infrastructure. Drilling projects and proposals: Presently, SDDP serves six projects: "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC; ICDP workshop spring 2010), the "Postglacial Fault Drilling Project" (PFDP; ICDP workshop autumn 2010), a "Deep Rock Laboratory" (DRL), "Palaeoproterozoic Mineralized Volcanic

  7. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongtao; Meng, Yingfeng; Li, Gao; Wei, Na; Liu, Jiajie; Ma, Xiao; Duan, Mubai; Gu, Siman; Zhu, Kuanliang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental dat...

  8. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing

  9. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) pressure test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirud, Aase P.

    2003-07-01

    Statoil and Halliburton have completed a successful test of a new ground-breaking formation evaluation technology on the Norwegian shelf. An LWD formation tester, the GeoTapTM sensor, was used to quantify formation pressure during drilling operations. The inaugural job was completed by Halliburton's Sperry-Sun product service line onboard the Bideford Dolphin at the Borg Field while drilling a horizontal production well in the Vigdis Extension development. The GeoTap tool, part of Sperry-Sun's StellarTM MWD/LWT suite, was run in combination with a complete logging-while-drilling sensor package and the Geo-Pilot rotary steerable drilling system. Repeat formation pressures were taken and successfully transmitted to surface. This is the first time this type of technology has been successfully applied on the Norwegian shelf.

  10. Drilling and logging in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews drilling and logging practices in exploration of uranium ores and summarizes the papers presented in the panel meeting. Recommendations for further research and development are given

  11. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  12. An elevator for locked drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R.S.; Abbasov, E.M.; Ismailov, A.A.; Mamedov, Yu.S.; Safarov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed, which includes a body with a door. To reduce the probability of gas shows in a well with high speed lowering and lifting of the column of locked drilling pipes through providing the possibility of feeding a drilling mud in this case into the mine, the elevator is equipped with a pneumatic cylinder with a two way hollow rod, on one face of which a sealing element is mounted for sealing the drilling pipe and on the other, an adapter for feeding the drilling mud. The rod is linked with the sleeve of the pneumatic cylinder, which is rigidly linked with the body with the capability of axial movement without rotation.

  13. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  14. Ocean Drilling Program: Web Site Access Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    web site ODP/TAMU Science Operator Home Ocean Drilling Program Web Site Access Statistics* Overview See statistics for JOIDES members. See statistics for Janus database. 1997 October November December

  15. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional

  16. Stratigraphy in Apollo 16 drill section 60002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, G. E.; Morrison, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Contacts in drill stem 60002 which indicate layers at least several centimeters thick and with one firm age of about 2.5 x 10 to the 7th yr are observed on the basis of characteristic patterns of track density variation with depth from the contact. The patterns can be observed primarily because the drill stem has a large immature component (path II soils).

  17. A reagent for processing drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, G.A.; Khon-Pak, A.T.; Khon, A.V.; Normatov, L.N.; Telegin, B.V.

    1983-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for processing drilling muds. It contains an acrylic polymer and potassium permanganate. The reagent is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the quality of the drilling muds by increasing their salt resistance, the reagent contains hydrolized nitron fiber as the acrylic polymer with the following component relationship (in percent by weight): potassium permanganate, 0.015 to 0.065 and hydrolyzed nitron fiber, the remainder.

  18. The Newberry Deep Drilling Project (NDDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Schultz, A.; Sorle, C.; Asanuma, H.; Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Jaupart, C. P.; Moran, S. C.; de Natale, G.

    2017-12-01

    We present the arguments to drill a deep well to the ductile/brittle transition zone (T>400°C) at Newberry Volcano, central Oregon state, U.S.A. The main research goals are related to heat and mass transfer in the crust from the point of view of natural hazards and geothermal energy: enhanced geothermal system (EGS supercritical and beyond-brittle), volcanic hazards, mechanisms of magmatic intrusions, geomechanics close to a magmatic system, calibration of geophysical imaging techniques and drilling in a high temperature environment. Drilling at Newberry will bring additional information to a very promising field of research initiated by ICDP in the Deep Drilling project in Iceland with IDDP-1 on Krafla in 2009, followed by IDDP-2 on the Reykjanes ridge in 2016, and the future Japan Beyond-Brittle project and Krafla Magma Testbed. Newberry Volcano contains one of the largest geothermal heat reservoirs in the western United States, extensively studied for the last 40 years. All the knowledge and experience collected make this an excellent choice for drilling a well that will reach high temperatures at relatively shallow depths (< 5000 m). The large conductive thermal anomaly (320°C at 3000 m depth), has already been well-characterized by extensive drilling and geophysical surveys. This will extend current knowledge from the existing 3000 m deep boreholes at the sites into and through the brittle-ductile transition approaching regions of partial melt like lateral dykes. The important scientific questions that will form the basis of a full drilling proposal, have been addressed during an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop held in Bend, Oregon in September 2017. They will be presented and discussed as well as the strategic plan to address them.

  19. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  20. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  1. Toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessie, K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Since the early to mid 1990s, many companies have composted invert (diesel) drilling muds with wood chips/bark chips in the green (forestry) zone as a method of drilling mud treatment. This presentation addressed the toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips and provided some background on composted invert drilling mud (CIDM). EBA Engineering monitored 22 third-party sites in 2002, some of which were biopiles, and others land treatment areas (LTAs). Active treatment started between 1995 and 1999 and some LTAs were seeded with varying degrees of success. Composted materials had hydrocarbon odour and staining and were very moist. Materials exceeded Alberta Environment guidelines for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and sometimes barium. Most sites were within areas that had forestry production/wildlife as end land use. Receptors included plants, soil invertebrates by soil contact, and wildlife by ingestion. Stakeholder meetings were held for their input and an ecotoxicity study was developed. Material tested, tests and species used as well as results of the ecotoxicity study were presented. A comparison of results to other EBA composting studies was also given. It was concluded that CIDM affects the reproduction of earthworms and springtails, and plant growth; wood/barks chips themselves can be ecotoxic; and, other compost studies with finely ground sawdust and no bark chips had less ecotoxicity. tabs., figs.

  2. 30 CFR 56.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 56.7013 Section 56.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes large enough to...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7013 - Covering or guarding drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covering or guarding drill holes. 57.7013 Section 57.7013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7013 Covering or guarding drill holes. Drill holes...

  4. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District Manager may...

  5. Thermal numerical assessment of jawbone drilling factor during implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Pirjamali Neisiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Optimization drilling parameters in order to temperature decrease during creation of hole in the bone is an interested issue. The aim of this study was to achieve optimum values of drilling parameters based on the creation of minimum temperature during jawbone drilling. Materials and Methods: In this study two models of mandible and maxilla was created and teeth 2, 5 and 8 from maxilla and teeth 25, 28 and 31 from mandible were removed. The drilling operation was performed under different conditions on jawbone models using finite element analysis and the maximum temperatures were measured in adjacent of holes. Results: Drill bit head angle of 70 degrees was created the lowest maximum temperature during drilling operation. The lowest maximum temperatures were observed in the drill bit rotational speed, drill bit feed rate and the force exerted on the drill bit equal to 200 rpm, 120 mm/min and 60 N, respectively. The use of irrigation can decrease the maximum bone temperature about 7ºC. The maximum temperature differences in various regions of mandible and maxilla were approximately about 1ºC. Conclusion: Sharpness of drill bit head angle, reduction of drill bit rotational speed, increasing drill bit feed rate and exerted force on drill bit and also the use of irrigation played effective roles in temperature decrease during jawbone drilling. Drilling site did not have important effect on the temperature changes during jawbone drilling.

  6. 21 CFR 872.4130 - Intraoral dental drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental drill. 872.4130 Section 872.4130...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4130 Intraoral dental drill. (a) Identification. An intraoral dental drill is a rotary device intended to be attached to a dental handpiece to drill holes in...

  7. Aerated drilling cutting transport analysis in geothermal well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhyudin, Aris; Setiawan, Deni; Dwi Marjuan, Oscar

    2017-12-01

    Aeratad drilling widely used for geothermal drilling especially when drilled into predicted production zone. Aerated drilling give better performance on preventing lost circulation problem, improving rate of penetration, and avoiding drilling fluid invasion to productive zone. While well is drilled, cutting is produced and should be carried to surface by drilling fluid. Hole problem, especially pipe sticking will occur while the cutting is not lifted properly to surface. The problem will effect on drilling schedule; non-productive time finally result more cost to be spent. Geothermal formation has different characteristic comparing oil and gas formation. Geothermal mainly has igneous rock while oil and gas mostly sedimentary rock. In same depth, formation pressure in geothermal well commonly lower than oil and gas well while formation temperature geothermal well is higher. While aerated drilling is applied in geothermal well, Igneous rock density has higher density than sedimentary rock and aerated drilling fluid is lighter than water based mud hence minimum velocity requirement to transport cutting is larger than in oil/gas well drilling. Temperature and pressure also has impact on drilling fluid (aerated) density. High temperature in geothermal well decrease drilling fluid density hence the effect of pressure and temperature also considered. In this paper, Aerated drilling cutting transport performance on geothermal well will be analysed due to different rock and drilling fluid density. Additionally, temperature and pressure effect on drilling fluid density also presented to merge.

  8. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  9. Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrand, Christopher J. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Skeem, Marcus R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Crockett, Ron B. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Hall, David R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-04-29

    The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.

  10. Drilling Automation Tests At A Lunar/Mars Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B.; Cannon, H.; Hanagud, S.; Lee, P.; Paulsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. The limited mass, energy and manpower in planetary drilling situations makes application of terrestrial drilling techniques problematic. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project is developing drilling automation and robotics for projected use in missions to the Moon and Mars in the 2011-15 period. This has been tested recently, drilling in permafrost at a lunar/martian analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada).

  11. Supervisory control of drilling of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Motoyoshi

    Composite materials have attractive features, such as high ratios of strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight. However, they are easily damaged when they are machined. A typical damage is delamination, which can occur when fiber reinforced composite laminates are drilled. The objective of this research is to study the drilling processes of carbon fiber reinforced laminates, and to develop and test a supervisory control strategy for their delamination-free drilling. Characterization of thrust force and torque is achieved through constant feedrate drilling experiments. The average values of thrust force and torque during the full engagement of the drill are utilized to obtain the Shaw's equations' parameters. The thrust force profile just before exit is given special attention. The Hocheng-Dharan equations, which give conservative values of delamination at the entrance and at the exit, are modified to express the influence of one lamina thickness explicitly. They are utilized not only for the characterization of thrust force but also for the determination of the thrust force reference for force control. In the design of the controllers of thrust force and torque, both thrust force and torque are assumed to be proportional to FPHR (Feed Per Half Revolution). A discrete-time dynamic model is established for the case when the time interval for a half revolution of the drill is divided by the sampling time, and the model is extended to the case of general spindle speeds. PI controllers are designed for the dynamic models of thrust force and torque. Root-locus techniques are used in the analysis. The phases of the drilling process are introduced and the control strategy at each phase is explained. The supervisory controller chooses not only the best control strategy for each phase, but also the reference value and the controller gain that are suitable at each drill position. Drilling experiments are conducted to show the usefulness of the concepts introduced in this

  12. Drilling and blasting parameters in sublevel caving in Sheregesh mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremenko, AA; Filippov, VN; Konurin, AI; Khmelinin, AP; Baryshnikov, DV; Khristolyubov, EA

    2018-03-01

    The factors that influence geomechanical state of rock mass in Sheregesh Mine are determined. The authors discuss a variant of geotechnology with fan drilling. The drill-hole patterns and drilling-and-blasting parameters are presented. The revealed causes of low-quality fragmentation of rocks include the presence of closed and open fractures at different distances from drill-hole mouths, both in case of rings and fans, as well as the blocking of drill-holes with rocks.

  13. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T c suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown

  14. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  15. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  16. Drill-string design for directional wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R; Corbett, K T [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA)

    1983-01-01

    This paper is concerned with predicting the tension and torsion loads on drill strings in directional wells and with adjusting the string design or well plan to provide adequate strength. Drill-string drag is the incremental force that is required to move the pipe up or down in the hole; torque is the moment required to rotate the pipe. Drag forces are usually given relative to the string weight measured with the string roating but not reciprocating. Measured from the roating string weight, the pick-up drag is usually slightly greater than the slack-off drag. The magnitudes of torque and drag are related in any particular well; high drag forced and exessive torque loads normally occur together. There are a number of phenomena wich contribute to torque and drag. Included are tight hole conditions, sloughing hole, keyseats, differential sticking, cuttings build up due to poor hole cleaning and sliding wellbore friction. With the exception of sliding friction, these causes are associated with problem conditions in the wellbore. Conversely, in wells with good hole conditions, the primary source of torque and drag is sliding friction. This paper is only concerned with the torque and drag caused by sliding friction. The cabability to predict frictional loads on drill pipe has two main benefits. First, more complete knowledge of drill-string loading allows use of improved drill-string design techniques. Drill-string components can be chosen using a systematic approach considering the force involved. Second, deep, highly-deviated wells can be planned to minimize torque and drag. Use of torque and drag as a criteria to select the most appropriate well path will help ensure successful drilling operations to total depth. 1 fig., 2 tabs. (Author).

  17. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  18. Differing opinions about natural gas drilling in two adjacent counties with different levels of drilling activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriesky, J.; Goldstein, B.D.; Zell, K.; Beach, S.

    2013-01-01

    The pace of development of shale gas plays varies greatly among US states and globally. Through analysis of telephone survey responses, we explore support for natural gas drilling in residents of Washington County (WC), PA (n=502) vs. residents of Allegheny County (AC), PA (n=799). WC has had intense Marcellus Shale (MS) drilling activity, in comparison to adjacent AC, which has had little drilling activity. WC residents are marginally more supportive of MS drilling than are AC residents (p=0.0768). Residents of WC are more likely to perceive MS as an economic opportunity than are AC residents (p=0.0015); to be in a family that has signed a MS lease (p<0.0001); to follow the MS issue closely (p=0.0003); to get MS information from neighbors, friends, and relatives (p<0.0001); and are marginally less likely to perceive MS as an environmental threat (p=0.1090). WC leaseholders are significantly more supportive of MS drilling than WC non-leaseholders and AC non-leaseholders (p=0.0024). Mediation analyses show that county-based differences in support of MS drilling are due to WC residents seeing more of an economic opportunity in the MS and their greater likelihood of having a family-held lease. - Highlights: • Telephone survey analysis of sources of support for Marcellus Shale drilling. • Perceived positive economic impact of drilling drives support among respondents. • Mineral rights leaseholders are significantly more supportive than non-leaseholders

  19. Influence of Drilling Parameters on Torque during Drilling of GFRP Composites Using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, N. S.; Kulkarni, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer based composites have marked their valuable presence in the area of aerospace, defense and automotive industry. Components made of composite, are assembled to main structure by fastener, which require accurate, precise high quality holes to be drilled. Drilling the hole in composite with accuracy require control over various processes parameters viz., speed, feed, drill bit size and thickens of specimen. TRIAC VMC machining center is used to drill the hole and to relate the cutting and machining parameters on the torque. MINITAB 14 software is used to analyze the collected data. As a function of cutting and specimen parameters this method could be useful for predicting torque parameters. The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of drilling parameters to get low torque value. Results show that thickness of specimen and drill bit size are significant parameters influencing the torque and spindle speed and feed rate have least influence and overlaid plot indicates a feasible and low region of torque is observed for medium to large sized drill bits for the range of spindle speed selected. Response surface contour plots indicate the sensitivity of the drill size and specimen thickness to the torque.

  20. Influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development in drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Jia, Z. Y.; Wang, F. J.; Fu, R.; Guo, H. B.; Cheng, D.; Zhang, B. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Drilling is inevitable for CFRP components’ assembling process in the aviation industry. The exit damage frequently occurs and affects the load carrying capacity of components. Consequently, it is of great urgency to enhance drilling exit quality on CFRP components. The article aims to guide the reasonable choice of drill helical direction and effectively reduce exit damage. Exit observation experiments are carried out with left-hand helical, right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill drilling T800S CFRP laminates separately. The development rules of exit damage and delamination factor curves are obtained. Combined with loading conditions and fracture modes of push-out burrs, and thrust force curves, the influence of drill helical direction on exit damage development is derived. It is found that the main fracture modes for left-hand helical, right-hand helical, and straight one-shot drill are mode I, extrusive fracture, mode III respectively. Among them, mode III has the least effect on exit damage development. Meanwhile, the changing rate of thrust force is relative slow for right-hand helical and straight one-shot drill in the thrust force increasing phase of stage II, which is disadvantaged for exit damage development. Therefore, straight one-shot drill’s exit quality is the best.

  1. To drill or not to drill? An econometric analysis of US public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Deep; Rahman, Mohammad Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Offshore drilling in the United States (US) has been the subject of public and political discourse due to multiple reasons which include economic impact, energy security, and environmental hazard. Consequently, several polls have been conducted over time to gauge public attitude towards offshore drilling. Nevertheless, the economic literature on this issue is sparse. This paper contributes to the literature and analyzes support for offshore drilling based on demographic, economic, social, belief, and shock (e.g. spill) factors. The data is taken from ten nationwide surveys conducted before, during and after the British Petroleum (BP) oil spill and analyzed within the framework of discrete choice model. The results from an ordinal probit model demonstrate that age, annual household income, affiliation to Republican Party, and residence in oil-rich states positively affect the probability of strong support and reduce the probability of strong opposition for offshore drilling. In contrast, the female gender, higher education, association to Democratic Party, and environmental concern affect opinion in opposite direction. Marginal effects show that belief about environmental consequences of drilling has the highest impact on opinion. Binary probit model also yields a similar result and suggests that BP oil disaster resulted in a transient decrease in support for offshore drilling. - Highlights: •US public opinion on offshore drilling is analyzed based on ten national polls. •Ordinal and binary probit models are utilized to identify the underlying factors that shape public opinion. •Belief about environmental cost of drilling and educational attainment have the highest negative impact on opinion. •Age, income, affiliation to Republican party and oil-rich states positively affect support for drilling. •BP oil spill resulted in a transient decrease in support for offshore drilling.

  2. Drilling Information System (DIS and Core Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Conze

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Drilling Information System is a modular structure of databases, tailored user applications as well as web services and instruments including appropriate interfaces to DIS. This tool set has been developed for geoscientific drilling projects but is applicable to other distributed scientific operations. The main focuses are the data acquisition on drill sites (ExpeditionDIS, and the curation of sample material e.g., in core repositories (CurationDIS. Due to the heterogeneity of scientific drilling projects, a project-specific DIS is arranged and adjusted from a collection of existing templates and modules according to the user requirements during a one week training course. The collected data are provided to the Science Team of the drilling project by secured Web services, and stored in long-term archives hosted at GFZ. At the end the data sets and sample material are documented in an Operational Report (e.g., Lorenz et al., 2015 and published with assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier and IGSN (International Geo Sample Number; for physical samples by GFZ Data Services.

  3. Changing the fundamentals[Drill technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R. von

    2003-02-01

    Evolution of the science of drilling oil and gas wells has evolved in fits and starts. From drilling with cables to rotary tables to top drives, from straight holes to horizontal, it has been a process interrupted occasionally by flashes of revolutionary brilliance. In this article the author looks at the state of just a few of the technologies that define or threaten to change how drillers go about their business. In the early days of deepwater exploration drillers responded more to technical challenges than financial ones, primarily with immense semisubmersibles and drillships, together with all he necessary ancillary items. The goal of getting deeper faster is not a new one, better performance bits, muds, LWD and MWD, together with numerous other developments all emerged as a result of the desire to shorten the time between spud and TD. But whereas saving a day or two drilling onshore or nearshore is desirable, it has never before been possible to realize the kind of substantial financial benefits from relatively small time savings. Research and development into these type of savings with the design and improvement of different types drill bits and casing drilling is described.

  4. MDS system increases drilling safety and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, J.; Turner, L. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

    1989-09-01

    There's a great deal of data recorded during drilling operations on rigs these days, but it is seldom well utilized. The operator's company person relies upon mud loggers for collecting and recording most information. The methods used to process and display this information are often inadequate for those who need it the most the driller and toolpusher. Drilling contractor personnel usually have only rudimentary displays of drilling parameters, and practically no serious method of analysis except for daily paper reports. These are cumbersome to use and provide only incomplete data, after the fact. The MDS system, presented in this article, is a new information and alarm network, which rectifies this situation by bringing to the rig, for the first time, the latest in sensor and computer technologies. This system acquires key drilling data on the rig floor, pump room, and return line, and displays it in a clear graphical format to both the driller and the toolpusher in real time. It also provides the toolpusher with a workstation for easy access to the same information for evaluation and planning of the drilling program.

  5. New method speeds drilling, attracts takeover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimble, S.

    2000-06-12

    Plains Energy Services Ltd is currently building a prototype drilling rig known as the Cisco 2000. It is expected to extend the limit of coiled tubing applications into deeper formations and in so doing challenge conventional drilling methods to match its performance in terms of speed and pricing. An indication of the seriousness of this challenge is the uninvited takeover bid by Precision Drilling Corporation, the largest Canadian oilfield contractor. The Cisco 2000 is said to have a pulling capacity of 120,000 lbs in bench tests, twice as much as existing rigs, and is capable of drilling to 7,200 feet using a 3.5 inch coil. Plain Energy's existing units are capable of penetrating only about 4,900 feet. The new technology involves a modified injector design which will resemble a conveyor belt with the gripper blocks located on top. This allows the tubing to be gripped from all four sides which accounts for the increased pulling power. The advantage of coiled tube drilling lies in the speed with which the operation can be completed and the corresponding cost reductions which result from the reduced rental cost of support equipment. Plains Energy urged its shareholders to reject the takeover offer in its present form, but is said to be open to better offers.

  6. Progress in reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flemming, D; Candler, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text:Over the past several years, great progress has been made in understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of offshore drilling wastes. Our understanding of sea floor impacts has been helped along by new environmental assessment tools such us computer modeling of sea floor deposition of drilling discharges, sediment profile imaging, and in situ sediment toxicity bioassays. To further reduce environmental impacts, new pollution prevention technologies have been developed that can shrink the environmental footprint of offshore drilling. These technologies reduce the total amount of drilling wastes discharged and include cuttings dryers and centrifuges that can reduce the drilling fluid content of drill cuttings to below 10 percent. In conclusion, the oil and gas industry is adopting more environmentally compatible drilling fluids, new environmental assessment tools and pollution prevention technologies that dramatically reduce the amount of drilling wastes discharged. Together, all of these elements have the potential to reduce environmental impacts of offshore drilling

  7. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  8. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  9. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States); Aaron, Dick [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States); Macpherson, John [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100

  10. Efficiency of alfalfa seed processing with different seed purity

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, Dragoslav; Stanisavljević, Rade; Terzić, Dragan; Milenković, Jasmina; Radivojević, Gordana; Koprivica, Ranko; Štrbanović, Ratibor

    2015-01-01

    The work was carried out analysis of the impact of the initial purity of raw alfalfa seed on the resulting amount of processed seed in the processing. Alfalfa is very important perennial forage legume which is used for fodder and seed production. Alfalfa seed is possible to achieve high yields and very good financial effects. To obtain the seed material with good characteristics complex machines for cleaning and sorting seeds are used. In the processing center of the Institute for forage crop...

  11. Downhole drilling hammer. Marteau de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techy, M.

    1987-07-28

    This invention concerns a drilling hammer of the downhole type, comprising a tubular body fed by compressed air, a drilling cutter and a hammer piston set into movement inside an interior cylinder by a compressed air distribution mechanism alternately above and below the piston. The hammer includes a gas-oil injection device in the chamber above the piston and a mechanism for initiating the injection during the rising of the piston; the additional compression provokes the combustion of the gas-oil-air mixture, which hurls the piston towards the cutter. This type of apparatus permits an important reduction in costs of materials and of operation, and permits at the same time an increase in drilling power and a reduction in energy consumption. 8 figs.

  12. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  13. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  14. Paper (essay on seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Mladen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on detailed studies of the past of the agrarian thought of the world (evolution of agro-innovation, and within it, the relationship of man and seed, the author has selected key data for Table 1. In addition, more or less known folk sayings, proverbs, curses and allegories in which the seed is the key word have been collected. Then, religious books, folk art and literature works (sayings of prominent individuals and experts and observations of the author himself have been studied. According to the collected opus, it can be concluded that the vast importance of seed meaningfully entwined into all spheres of folk life and cultural heritage. Seed is directly tied to the following eight key (revolutionary milestones in the food and economic life of mankind: 1. the first and for the longest time, the seed used to be the main food of the people and the first food reserve; 2. Neolithic Revolution was simply caused by the sowing of seeds; 3. for the sake of sowing man began to develop more complex processing techniques; 4. everywhere and forever, especially since the late 15th century, the seed has been a carrier of (rescuing plants between Europe and the New World, that is, between continents; 5. seed was the first product that has been chemically treated since the mid-18th century; 6. standard operation procedures and quality are promoted on seed by which it became the first product to have prescribed (compulsory methods, but it also became a good whose quality has to be tested before sale; 7. hybrid seed is a 'perpetrator' of the green revolution in the mid-20th century and at last there is disputable seed of genetically modified organisms that are spreading with certain reactions. The author proposes that the United Nations Standard International Trade Classification includes a special section (division which would classify the seed for sowing, while beyond this Classification terms such as seed, plant seed should be replaced with non-seed

  15. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental evaluation of training accelerators for surgical drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Florian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In some specific maxillo-facial surgeries, like the Epker, the cortical part of the lower maxilla must be drilled with minimum penetration into the spongy bone to avoid the trigeminal nerve. The result of the surgery is highly dependent on the quality of the drill. Drilling must therefore be mastered by students before acting as surgeon. The study compares the efficiency of two punctual drilling training programs developed on a virtual reality platform with non medical participants. The results show better benefit of training on relevant haptic aspects of the task before introducing multimodal drilling over repeated multimodal simulated drilling exercises.

  17. Rapid Development of Drilling Technology and Market of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guanqing; Ni Rongfu

    1994-01-01

    @@ China's developing drilling market Now, CNPC is the owner of more than 1 000 rigs of large and medium size, including imported electric-drive rigs with 6 000 to 9 000 m drilling capacity, imported mechanical drive rigs with 5 000 to 6 000 m drilling capacity, imported mobile rigs with 1 500 to 3 000 m drilling capacity and a lot of home-made mechanical rigs with 2 000,3 200, 4 500 and 6 000m drilling capacity, which can meet the requirement of the domestic and foreign drilling market.

  18. Drilling supervision procedure for the Exploratory Shaft Facility: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Drilling supervision will be undertaken in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) for boreholes drilled primarily for the purpose of hydrologic testing, downhole mechanical/thermal testing, sampling for laboratory testing, and for the placement of instrumentation. The primary purpose of this procedure is documentation of drilling activities prescribed by other procedures. Supervision of drilling includes designation of positions of authority, lines of communication, and methodology of supervising, monitoring, and documenting drilling and associated activities. The rationale for the specific applications of core drilling is provided by the test procedures for each activity. 2 figs

  19. Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change: new challenges for ecology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Albihn, Ann; Alexander, Jake; Burgess, Treena; Daehler, Curt; Essl, Franz; Evengard, Birgitta; Greenwood, Greg; Haider, Sylvia; Lenoir, Jonathan; McDougall, K.; Milbau, Ann; Muths, Erin L.; Nunez, Martin; Pellissier, Lois; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rew, Lisa; Robertson, Mark; Sanders, Nathan; Kueffer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key discussions of the workshop ‘Biosecurity in Mountains and Northern Ecosystems: Current Status and Future Challenges’ (Flen, Sweden, 1–3 June 2015). The aims of the workshop were to (1) increase awareness about the growing importance of species expansion—both non-native and native—at high elevation and high latitude with climate change, (2) review existing knowledge about invasion risks in these areas, and (3) encourage more research on how species will move and interact in cold environments, the consequences for biodiversity, and animal and human health and wellbeing. The diversity of potential and actual invaders reported at the workshop and the likely interactions between them create major challenges for managers of cold environments. However, since these cold environments have experienced fewer invasions when compared with many warmer, more populated environments, prevention has a real chance of success, especially if it is coupled with prioritisation schemes for targeting invaders likely to have greatest impact. Communication and co-operation between cold environment regions will facilitate rapid response, and maximise the use of limited research and management resources.

  20. Geothermal wells: a forecast of drilling activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.L.; Mansure, A.J.; Miewald, J.N.

    1981-07-01

    Numbers and problems for geothermal wells expected to be drilled in the United States between 1981 and 2000 AD are forecasted. The 3800 wells forecasted for major electric power projects (totaling 6 GWe of capacity) are categorized by type (production, etc.), and by location (The Geysers, etc.). 6000 wells are forecasted for direct heat projects (totaling 0.02 Quads per year). Equations are developed for forecasting the number of wells, and data is presented. Drilling and completion problems in The Geysers, The Imperial Valley, Roosevelt Hot Springs, the Valles Caldera, northern Nevada, Klamath Falls, Reno, Alaska, and Pagosa Springs are discussed. Likely areas for near term direct heat projects are identified.

  1. Validating Acquisition IS Integration Readiness with Drills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    To companies, mergers and acquisitions are important strategic tools, yet they often fail to deliver their expected value. Studies have shown the integration of information systems is a significant roadblock to the realisation of acquisition benefits, and for an IT department to be ready......), to understand how an IT department can use them to validate their integration plans. The paper presents a case study of two drills used to validate an IT department’s readiness to carry out acquisition IS integration, and suggests seven acquisition IS integration drill characteristics others could utilise when...

  2. Reagent for treating clay drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, P V; Leshchinskiy, P A; Shnaper, B I; Zinchuk, I F; Zlobin, V P

    1982-01-01

    A reagent is proposed for treating clay drilling muds. It contains lignite, caustic soda and modifying agent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to reduce the cost of the reagent with simultaneous decrease in the viscosity and static shear stress of the drilling mud, it additionally contains iron sulfate, and the modifying agent contained is wastes of carbonic acid production with the following ratio of components (parts by weight): lignite 10.0-15.0, caustic soda 2.0-3.0, wastes of carbonic acid production 0.5-0.75; iron sulfate 1.0-2.0.

  3. Effects of implant drilling parameters for pilot and twist drills on temperature rise in bone analog and alveolar bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Ciou, Ji-Sih; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the effects of different drilling parameters of pilot drills and twist drills on the temperature rise of alveolar bones during dental implant procedures. The drilling parameters studied here include the feed rate and rotation speed of the drill. The bone temperature distribution was analyzed through experiments and numerical simulations of the drilling process. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic dynamic finite element model (DFEM) was proposed to investigate the effects of drilling parameters on the bone temperature rise. In addition, the FE model is validated with drilling experiments on artificial human bones and porcine alveolar bones. The results indicate that 3D DFEM can effectively simulate the bone temperature rise during the drilling process. During the drilling process with pilot drills or twist drills, the maximum bone temperature occurred in the region of the cancellous bones close to the cortical bones. The feed rate was one of the important factors affecting the time when the maximum bone temperature occurred. Our results also demonstrate that the elevation of bone temperature was reduced as the feed rate increased and the drill speed decreased, which also effectively reduced the risk region of osteonecrosis. These findings can serve as a reference for dentists in choosing drilling parameters for dental implant surgeries. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Artificial Seeds and their Applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    currently working on ... heterozygosity of seed, minute seed size, presence of reduced ... Advantages of Artificial or Synthetic Seeds over Somatic Embryos for Propagation .... hour gives optimum bead hardness and rigidity for the produc-.

  5. The effect of drilling parameters for surface roughness in drilling of AA7075 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Nafiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA7075 aluminum alloy has been very popular significantly interest in the production of structural components in automotive and aviation applications due to its high strength, low density, good plasticity and better machinability comparable to many metals. Particularly, final products must have uniformly high quality to ensure essential safety standards in the aircraft industry. The optimization of hole quality which can variable according to tool geometry and drilling parameters is important in spite of high machinability rate of AA7075 alloy. In this study, the effects of drilling parameters on average surface roughness (Ra has been investigated in drilling of AA7075 with tungsten carbide drills. Machining experiments were performed with three different drill point angles and three different levels of cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed. The effects of drilling parameters on thrust force has been determined with ANOVA in %95 confidence level. Feed rate was determined as the most important factor on Ra according to ANOVA results. Moreover, it was shown that increasing feed rate leads to increase of Ra while increasing drill point angle leads to decrease of Ra. The optimum surface roughness was obtained with point angle of 130°, cutting speed of 40 m/min and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, thereby the validity of optimization was confirmed with Taguchi method.

  6. Optimum fluid design for drilling and cementing a well drilled with coil tubing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swendsen, O.; Saasen, A.; Vassoy, B. [Statoil (Norway); Skogen, E.; Mackin, F.; Normann, S. H.

    1998-12-31

    The strategy, design and drilling fluid and cementing operations in the first two wells drilled with coil tubing technology in the Gullfaks field in the Tampen Spur Area of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea are discussed. The drilling fluid use was a solids-free potassium formate/polymer brine-based fluid with a density of 1,50-1.56 g/cc, with flow properties characterized by very low fluid loss due to high extensional viscosity, a low viscosity at all shear rates, and a low degree of shear-thinning. The low viscous drilling fluid is considered to have been the major contributing factor in achieving excellent hole cleaning, no differential sticking, successful setting of cement kick-off plugs, problem-free running of the liner, and excellent zonal isolation when cementing the liner. These experiences led the authors to conclude that it is possible to formulate a brine-based solids-free drilling fluid with low viscosity and fluid loss properties for most formation pressure regimes, and that such a drilling fluid is well suited to drilling highly deviated slim hole wells where hole cleaning and differential sticking present special challenges. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  8. Saving Seed Microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Gabriele; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Plant seeds are home to diverse microbial communities whose composition is determined by plant genotype, environment, and management practices. Plant domestication is now recognized as an important driver of plant-associated microbial diversity. To what extent and how domestication affects seed

  9. Seed origin and warming constrain lodgepole pine recruitment, slowing the pace of population range shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlisk, Erin; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew; Veblen, Thomas T.; Smith, Jeremy M.; Moyes, Andrew B.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how climate warming will affect the demographic rates of different ecotypes is critical to predicting shifts in species distributions. Here we present results from a common garden, climate change experiment in which we measured seedling recruitment of lodgepole pine, a widespread North American conifer that is also planted globally. Seeds from a low-elevation provenance had greater recruitment to their third year (by 323%) than seeds from a high-elevation provenance across sites within and above its native elevation range and across climate manipulations. Heating reduced (by 49%) recruitment to the third year of both low- and high-elevation seed sources across the elevation gradient, while watering alleviated some of the negative effects of heating (108% increase in watered plots). Demographic models based on recruitment data from the climate manipulations and long-term observations of adult populations revealed that heating could effectively halt modeled upslope range expansion except when combined with watering. Simulating fire and rapid post-fire forest recovery at lower elevations accelerated lodgepole pine expansion into the alpine, but did not alter final abundance rankings among climate scenarios. Regardless of climate scenario, greater recruitment of low-elevation seeds compensated for longer dispersal distances to treeline, assuming colonization was allowed to proceed over multiple centuries. Our results show that ecotypes from lower elevations within a species’ range could enhance recruitment and facilitate upslope range shifts with climate change.

  10. Accuracy of linear drilling in temporal bone using drill press system for minimally invasive cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Neal P; Balachandran, Ramya; Labadie, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    A minimally invasive approach for cochlear implantation involves drilling a narrow linear path through the temporal bone from the skull surface directly to the cochlea for insertion of the electrode array without the need for an invasive mastoidectomy. Potential drill positioning errors must be accounted for to predict the effectiveness and safety of the procedure. The drilling accuracy of a system used for this procedure was evaluated in bone surrogate material under a range of clinically relevant parameters. Additional experiments were performed to isolate the error at various points along the path to better understand why deflections occur. An experimental setup to precisely position the drill press over a target was used. Custom bone surrogate test blocks were manufactured to resemble the mastoid region of the temporal bone. The drilling error was measured by creating divots in plastic sheets before and after drilling and using a microscope to localize the divots. The drilling error was within the tolerance needed to avoid vital structures and ensure accurate placement of the electrode; however, some parameter sets yielded errors that may impact the effectiveness of the procedure when combined with other error sources. The error increases when the lateral stage of the path terminates in an air cell and when the guide bushings are positioned further from the skull surface. At contact points due to air cells along the trajectory, higher errors were found for impact angles of [Formula: see text] and higher as well as longer cantilevered drill lengths. The results of these experiments can be used to define more accurate and safe drill trajectories for this minimally invasive surgical procedure.

  11. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  12. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  13. Controlled drilling technology for HLW management. Directional drilling and mechanics/stress measurements in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Shin, Koichi; Okada, Tetsuji; Obuchi, Yasuyoshi; Sunaga, Takayuki; Hase, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been conducting the project on controlled drilling and the logging/measurement technologies in its boreholes. Especially borehole pressure meter and bore hole stress measurement apparatus which can apply to the controlled drilling system was developed. The bore hole was drilled to the 1000 m long in order to intersect the Omagari fault located at Horonobe town in Hokkaido and its core recovery was 99.8% as of FY. 2011. Using borehole logging/measurement/survey, the geological, hydrological, geo-mechanical, geophysical and geochemical data were collected and the Omagari fault was characterized. (author)

  14. Biological Evaluation of Implant Drill Made from Zirconium Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yosuke; Eguchi, Kaori; Akiba, Nami; Uoshima, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    Zirconia is a good candidate material in the dental field. In this study, we evaluated biological responses against a zirconia drill using a bone cavity healing model. Zirconia drills, stainless steel drills, and the drilled bone surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after cavity preparation. For the bone cavity healing model, the upper first and second molars of Wistar rats were extracted. After 4 weeks, cavities were prepared with zirconia drills on the left side. As a control, a stainless steel drill was used on the right side. At 3, 7, and 14 days after surgery, micro-CT images were taken. Samples were prepared for histological staining. SEM images revealed that zirconia drills maintained sharpness even after 30 drilling procedures. The bone surface was smoother with the zirconia drill. Micro-CT images showed faster and earlier bone healing in the zirconia drill cavity. On H-E staining, at 7 days, the zirconia drill defect had a smaller blank lacunae area. At 14 days, the zirconia drill defect was filled with newly formed bone. The zirconia drill induces less damage during cavity preparation and is advantageous for bone healing. (197 words). © 2016 The Authors Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cortical bone drilling: An experimental and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khurshid; Bahadur, Issam M; Ahmed, Naseer

    2014-12-16

    Bone drilling is a common surgical procedure in orthopedics, dental and neurosurgeries. In conventional bone drilling process, the surgeon exerts a considerable amount of pressure to penetrate the drill into the bone tissue. Controlled penetration of drill in the bone is necessary for safe and efficient drilling. Development of a validated Finite Element (FE) model of cortical bone drilling. Drilling experiments were conducted on bovine cortical bone. The FE model of the bone drilling was based on mechanical properties obtained from literature data and additionally conducted microindentation tests on the cortical bone. The magnitude of stress in bone was found to decrease exponentially away from the lips of the drill in simulations. Feed rate was found to be the main influential factor affecting the force and torque in the numerical simulations and experiments. The drilling thrust force and torque were found to be unaffected by the drilling speed in numerical simulations. Simulated forces and torques were compared with experimental results for similar drilling conditions and were found in good agreement.CONCLUSIONS: FE schemes may be successfully applied to model complex kinematics of bone drilling process.

  16. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  17. Formation evaluation using measurements recorded while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coope, D.F.; Hendricks, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    Two of the measurements recorded while drilling (MWD), gamma ray and resistivity, are traditionally formation evaluation measurements. However, their primary user thus far has been the drilling engineer. The authors believe that MWD will have increasing importance in formation evaluation, and that a good understanding of MWD resistivity and gamma ray logs will be needed by the log analyst. MWD gamma ray and resistivity logs are similar to their wireline counterparts, but there are significant differences. The differences stem from different invasion (or lack of invasion) development for MWD as opposed to open hole wireline; drill collar influence on both the resistivity and gamma ray (GR) measurements - this influence is both positive and negative; and logging speed (drilling rate for MWD) is much slower for MWD and can vary erratically. The MWD logs presented in this paper demonstrate the value of using MWD logs. Emphasis is placed on both the qualitative and quantitative techniques available to the log analyst to help him get maximum benefit from the MWD logs

  18. An Improved Triangular Element With Drilling Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Grønne, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    by rotations in the corner nodes. Compared to Allman's plane element which was the first succesfull implementation of drilling rotations the proposed element has extra displacements in the mid-side nodes parallel to the element sides. The performance should therefore be better and closer to the LST...

  19. Simulation of friction stir drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayabaskar, P.; Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss

    2018-05-01

    The project is the study of the thermal drilling process. The process is a hole forming process in the sheet metals using the heat generated by means of friction. The main advantage of the process over the conventional drilling process is that the holes formed using this process does not need any backing arrangements such as weld nuts, rivet nuts etc. Because the extruded bush itself acts as a supporting structure for the fasteners. This eliminates the need for the access to the backside of the work material for fastening operations. The major factors contributing the thermal drilling operation are the spindle speed and the thrust force required for forming a hole. The process of finding out the suitable thrust force and the speed for drilling a particular material with particular thickness is a tedious process. The process can be simplified by forming a mathematical model by combining the empirical formulae from the literature. These formulae were derived in the literature from the experimental trials by following certain assumptions. In this paper a suitable mathematical model is formed by replicating the experiments and tried to be validated by the results from numerical analysis. The numerical analysis of the model is done using the ANSYS software.

  20. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping and... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to sections...

  1. 75 FR 8113 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-474 and 731-TA-1176 (Preliminary)] Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2010. FOR...

  2. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  3. Putting a damper on drilling's bad vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, S [Sedco forex, Montrouge (France); Malone, D [Anadrill, Sugar Land, TX (United States); Sheppard, M [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1994-01-01

    Harmful drilling vibrations are costing the industry dearly. Three main vibration types (axial, torsional and transverse) are explained and its causes discussed. Technology exists to eliminate most vibrations, but requires more systematic deployment than is usual. Hardware that eliminates vibrations is reviewed, including downhole shock measurement, torque feedback shock guards and antiwhirl bits. 9 figs., 11 refs.

  4. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  5. Red Dragon drill missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Stoker, Carol R.; Gonzales, Andrew; McKay, Christopher P.; Davila, Alfonso; Glass, Brian J.; Lemke, Larry L.; Paulsen, Gale; Willson, David; Zacny, Kris

    2017-12-01

    We present the concept of using a variant of a Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) Dragon space capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander (dubbed ;Red Dragon;) for scientific and human precursor missions. SpaceX initially designed the Dragon capsule for flight near Earth, and Dragon has successfully flown many times to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and successfully returned the Dragon spacecraft to Earth. Here we present capsule hardware modifications that are required to enable flight to Mars and operations on the martian surface. We discuss the use of the Dragon system to support NASA Discovery class missions to Mars and focus in particular on Dragon's applications for drilling missions. We find that a Red Dragon platform is well suited for missions capable of drilling deeper on Mars (at least 2 m) than has been accomplished to date due to its ability to land in a powered controlled mode, accommodate a long drill string, and provide payload space for sample processing and analysis. We show that a Red Dragon drill lander could conduct surface missions at three possible targets including the ice-cemented ground at the Phoenix landing site (68 °N), the subsurface ice discovered near the Viking 2 (49 °N) site by fresh impact craters, and the dark sedimentary subsurface material at the Curiosity site (4.5 °S).

  6. Aerobic Degradation of Drill Muds by Axenic and Mixed Bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    significant difference in the degradation of the drilling muds by the isolates (p > 0.05). ... the potentials of some indigenous bacteria to biodegrade drilling muds used in ... transported to the laboratory aseptically for evaluation, in labeled plastic.

  7. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buranský Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  8. Casing drilling - first experience in Brazil; Casing drilling - primeira experiencia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao Carlos Ribeiro; Medeiros, Fernando; Lucena, Humberto; Medeiros, Joao Carlos Martins de; Costa, Vicente Abel Soares Rosa da; Silva, Paulo Roberto Correa da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Renato J.M. [Tesco, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the 'Casing Drilling' technology and its first experience in Brazil. This new process of casing while drilling was first developed to reduce costs. This system integrates the drilling process and casing running in one operation, promoting a more efficient well construction system, reducing trip time and costs of drill pipes and their transportation. Besides, this methodology intends to eliminate hole problems related to trouble zones with abnormal pressure with loss circulation, to overcome zones with wellbore instabilities, and to facilitate well control. Two companies have been identified using this technology: Tesco and Weatherford. However, there are differences between the techniques used by these companies, which are described in this paper. In the first experience in Brazil, it was decided to field test the technology developed by Tesco. This paper describes the preparation, the operation and the results of this first test. (author)

  9. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  10. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  11. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  12. Oil drilling gets more dangerous; Oljeboring blir farligere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgesen, Ole K.

    2010-07-01

    The government calls for accelerating the development of new drilling technologies. Incredible value may be lost if drilling is not made safer. But when public funding will be awarded, one of the world's major drilling facilities is far behind in the queue. Statoil has placed a big part of their research to the drilling rig Ullrig and the results from this has resulted in significant value creation for Norway and the oil and gas industry. (AG)

  13. Systems and Methods for Gravity-Independent Gripping and Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Frost, Matthew A. (Inventor); Thatte, Nitish (Inventor); King, Jonathan P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for gravity independent gripping and drilling are described. The gripping device can also comprise a drill or sampling devices for drilling and/or sampling in microgravity environments, or on vertical or inverted surfaces in environments where gravity is present. A robotic system can be connected with the gripping and drilling devices via an ankle interface adapted to distribute the forces realized from the robotic system.

  14. Novel annular flow electromagnetic measurement system for drilling engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, L.; Wei, G. H.; Wang, Q.; Hu, Z.; Li, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Downhole micro-flux control drilling technology can effectively solve drilling accidents, such as kick and loss in narrow density window drilling scenarios. Using a downhole annular flow measurement system to obtain real-time information of downhole annular flow is the core and foundation of downhole micro-flux control drilling technology. The research work of electromagnetic flowmeters in recent years creates a challenge for downhole annular flow measurement. This paper proposes a new method...

  15. EIA completes corrections to drilling estimates series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapmann, W.; Shambaugh, P.

    1998-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of US oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status. They are assessed directly for trends, as well as in combination with other measures to assess the productivity and profitability of upstream industry operations. They are major reference points for federal and state policymakers. EIA does not itself collect drilling activity data. Instead, it relies on an external source for data on oil, bas, and dry well completions. These data are provided to EIA monthly on an as reported basis. During a recent effort to enhance EIA's well completion data system, the detection of unusual patterns in the well completion data as received led to an expanded examination of these data. Substantial discrepancies between the data as received by EIA and correct record counts since 1987 were identified. For total wells by year, the errors ranged up to more than 2,300 wells, 11% of the 1995 total, and the impact of these errors extended backward in time to at least the early 1980s. When the magnitude and extent of the as reported well completion data problem were confirmed, EIA suspended its publication and distribution of updated drilling data. EIA staff proceeded to acquire replacement files with the as reported records and then revise the statistical portion of its drilling data system to reflect the new information. The replacement files unfortunately also included erroneous data based on the improper allocation of wells between exploration and development. EIA has now resolved the two data problems and generated revised time series estimates for well completions and footage drilled. The paper describes the problems in the data, differences between the series, and maintaining future data quality

  16. Experimental Analysis of Temperature Differences During Implant Site Preparation: Continuous Drilling Technique Versus Intermittent Drilling Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Adolfo; Sivolella, Stefano; Stocco, Elena; Favero, Vittorio; Stellini, Edoardo

    2018-02-01

    Implant site preparation through drilling procedures may cause bone thermonecrosis. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, using a thermal probe, overheating at implant sites during osteotomies through 2 different drilling methods (continuous drilling technique versus intermittent drilling technique) using irrigation at different temperatures. Five implant sites 13 mm in length were performed on 16 blocks (fresh bovine ribs), for a total of 80 implant sites. The PT-100 thermal probe was positioned 5 mm from each site. Two physiological refrigerant solutions were used: one at 23.7°C and one at 6.0°C. Four experimental groups were considered: group A (continuous drilling with physiological solution at 23.7°C), group B (intermittent drilling with physiological solution at 23.7°C), group C (continuous drilling with physiological solution at 6.0°C), and group D (intermittent drilling with physiological solution at 6.0°C). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test (2-tailed) was used to compare groups. While there was no difference between group A and group B (W = 86; P = .45), statistically significant differences were observed between experimental groups A and C (W = 0; P =.0001), B and D (W = 45; P =.0005), and C and D (W = 41; P = .003). Implant site preparation did not affect the overheating of the bone. Statistically significant differences were found with the refrigerant solutions. Using both irrigating solutions, bone temperature did not exceed 47°C.

  17. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  18. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1011 - Drill holes; guarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill holes; guarding. 77.1011 Section 77.1011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1011 Drill holes; guarding. Drill holes large enough to constitute a hazard shall be covered...

  20. Drilling hazards inventory: The key to safer -and cheaper- wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoetz, G.; Jaarsma, B.; Kortekaas, M.

    2013-01-01

    Safety and cost control are critical success factors in the realm of drilling. Actual well costs frequently exceed planned costs due to unexpected drilling incidents related to potentially avoidable geohazards. It is estimated that - in the Netherlands on average - around 20% of drilling time is

  1. 18 CFR 430.11 - Advance notice of exploratory drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exploratory drilling. 430.11 Section 430.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... exploratory drilling. The Commission encourages consultation with any project sponsor who is considering... project and prior to initiation of exploratory drilling. (a) Any person, firm corporation or other entity...

  2. 25 CFR 226.9 - Rental and drilling obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental and drilling obligations. 226.9 Section 226.9... RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.9 Rental and drilling... in the lease terms, or 12 months from the date the Superintendent consents to drilling on any...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1902 - Drilling and mucking operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling and mucking operations. 77.1902... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1902 Drilling and mucking operations. Diesel-powered equipment used in the drilling, mucking, or other excavation of any slope or shaft shall be permissible, and such...

  4. Results from Testing of Two Rotary Percussive Drilling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaum, Kristopher; Brown, Kyle; Cady, Ian; von der Heydt, Max; Klein, Kerry; Kulczycki, Eric; Okon, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The developmental test program for the MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) rotary percussive drill examined the e ect of various drill input parameters on the drill pene- tration rate. Some of the input parameters tested were drill angle with respect to gravity and percussive impact energy. The suite of rocks tested ranged from a high strength basalt to soft Kaolinite clay. We developed a hole start routine to reduce high sideloads from bit walk. The ongoing development test program for the IMSAH (Integrated Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling) rotary percussive corer uses many of the same rocks as the MSL suite. An additional performance parameter is core integrity. The MSL development test drill and the IMSAH test drill use similar hardware to provide rotation and percussion. However, the MSL test drill uses external stabilizers, while the IMSAH test drill does not have external stabilization. In addition the IMSAH drill is a core drill, while the MSL drill uses a solid powdering bit. Results from the testing of these two related drilling systems is examined.

  5. ResonantSonic drilling. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The technology of ResonantSonic drilling is described. This technique has been demonstrated and deployed as an innovative tool to access the subsurface for installation of monitoring and/or remediation wells and for collection of subsurface materials for environmental restoration applications. The technology uses no drilling fluids, is safe and can be used to drill slant holes

  6. 46 CFR 111.105-33 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 111.105-33 Section 111... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-33 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) Applicability. This section applies to each mobile offshore drilling unit. (b) Definitions. As used in this...

  7. 46 CFR 15.520 - Mobile offshore drilling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile offshore drilling units. 15.520 Section 15.520... REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; Inspected Vessels § 15.520 Mobile offshore drilling units. (a) The requirements in this section for mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) supplement other requirements in this...

  8. Stabilization/solidification of synthetic Nigerian drill cuttings | Opete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization/solidification of synthetic Nigerian drill cuttings. SEO Opete, IA Mangibo, ET Iyagba. Abstract. In the Nigerian oil and gas industry, large quantities of oily and synthetic drill cuttings are produced annually. These drill cuttings are heterogeneous wastes which comprises of hydrocarbons, heavy metals and ...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56.7050 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for...

  10. 21 CFR 882.4370 - Pneumatic cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pneumatic cranial drill motor. 882.4370 Section 882.4370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... drill motor. (a) Identification. A pneumatic cranial drill motor is a pneumatically operated power...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4360 - Electric cranial drill motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric cranial drill motor. 882.4360 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4360 Electric cranial drill motor. (a) Identification. An electric cranial drill motor is an electrically operated power source used...

  12. A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Yi

    2008-08-21

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line between drilling area and dielectric fluid droplet on the electrode tip. Accordingly, image processing techniques are employed to extract a tool electrode image, and the centroid, eigenvector, and principle axis of the tool electrode are determined. The developed detection line algorithm (DLA) is then used to detect the baseline, ND-line, and DD-line along the direction of the principle axis. Finally, the tool electrode length and drilling depth of the workpiece are estimated via detected baseline, ND-line, and DD-line. Experimental results show good accuracy and efficiency in estimation of the tool electrode length and drilling depth under different conditions. Hence, this research may provide a reference for industrial application in EDM drilling measurement.

  13. Scientific Drilling with the Sea Floor Drill Rig MeBo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Wefer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2007 the sea floor drill rig MeBo (short for “Meeresboden-Bohrgerät”, ‘sea floor drill rig’ in German returned from a 17-day scientific cruise with the new German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Four sites between 350 m and 1700 m water depth were sampled at the continental slope off Morocco by push coring and rotary drilling. Up to 41.5-m-long sediment cores were recovered from Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene marls. MeBo bridges the gapbetween conventional sampling methods from standard multipurpose research vessels (gravity corer, piston corer, dredges and drill ships. Most bigger research vessels will be able to support deployment of the MeBo. Since the drill system can be easily transported within 20-ft containers, worldwide operation from vessels of opportunity is possible. With the MeBo a new system is available for marine geosciences that allows the recovery of high quality samples from soft sediments and hard rock from the deep sea withoutrelying on the services of expensive drilling vessels.

  14. Drilled shaft resistance based on diameter, torque and crowd (drilling resistance vs. rock strength) phase II [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, drilled shafts have demonstrated increasing popularity over driven : precast piles. Drilled shafts can accommodate a wider range of sizes, and noise and vibration : during construction are significantly reduced. On the other h...

  15. Ecology, distribution, and predictive occurrence modeling of Palmers chipmunk (Tamias palmeri): a high-elevation small mammal endemic to the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Chris E.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Riddle, Brett R.; Mantooth, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    Although montane sky islands surrounded by desert scrub and shrub steppe comprise a large part of the biological diversity of the Basin and Range Province of southwestern North America, comprehensive ecological and population demographic studies for high-elevation small mammals within these areas are rare. Here, we examine the ecology and population parameters of the Palmer’s chipmunk (Tamias palmeri) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, and present a predictive GIS-based distribution and probability of occurrence model at both home range and geographic spatial scales. Logistic regression analyses and Akaike Information Criterion model selection found variables of forest type, slope, and distance to water sources as predictive of chipmunk occurrence at the geographic scale. At the home range scale, increasing population density, decreasing overstory canopy cover, and decreasing understory canopy cover contributed to increased survival rates.

  16. Warm season precipitation signal in δ2 H values of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high elevation larch trees in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Anhäuser, Tobias; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested stable hydrogen isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups (δ 2 H methoxyl values) as a palaeoclimate proxy in dendrochronology. This is a quite new method in the field of dendrochronology and the sample preparation is much simpler than the methods used before to measure δ 2 H values from wood. We measured δ 2 H methoxyl values in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from Simplon Valley (southern Switzerland). Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their δ 2 H methoxyl values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). The δ 2 H methoxyl values were measured as CH 3 I released upon treatment of the dried wood samples with hydroiodic acid. 10-90 μL from the head-space were injected into the gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/HTC-IRMS) system. Testing the climate response of the δ 2 H methoxyl values, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation. The pentadally resolved δ 2 H methoxyl series do not show any significant correlation to climate parameters. Increased precipitation during June and July, which are on average warm and relatively dry months, results in higher δ 2 H values of the xylem water and, therefore, higher δ 2 H values in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that δ 2 H methoxyl values of high elevation larch trees might serve as a summer precipitation proxy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Sandia's Geothermal Advanced Drill Rig Instrumentation Assists Critical Oil and Gas Drilling Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, George E.; Whitlow, Gary

    1999-01-01

    On November 23, 1998, an 18,000-foot-deep wild-cat natural gas well being drilled near Bakersfield, CA blew out and caught fire. All attempts to kill this well failed, and the well continues to flow under limited control, producing large volumes of natural gas, salt water, and some oil. The oil and some of the water is being separated and trucked off site, and the remaining gas and water is being burned at the well head. A relief well is being drilled approximately one-quarter mile away in an attempt to intercept the first well. If the relief well is successful, it will be used to cement in and kill the first well. Epoch Wellsite Services, Inc., the mud-logging company for the initial well and the relief well, requested Sandia's rolling float meter (RFM) for these critical drilling operations. The RFM is being used to measure the mud outflow rate and detect kicks while drilling the relief well, which will undoubtedly encounter reservoir conditions similar to those responsible for the blow out. Based on its prior experience with the RFM, Epoch believes that it is the only instrument capable of providing the level of accuracy and response to mudflow needed to quickly detect kicks and minimize the risk of a blowout on this second critical well. In response to the urgent request from industry, Sandia and Epoch technicians installed the RFM on the relief well return line, and completed its initial calibration. The data from the RFM is displayed in real-time for the driller, the companyman, and the toolpusher via Epochs RIGWATCH Drilling Instmmentation System. The RFM has already detected several small kicks while drilling toward the annulus of the blown out well. A conventional paddle meter is located downstream of the RFM to provide redundancy and the opportunity to compare the two meters in an actual drilling operation, The relief well is nearing 14,000 feet deep, targeting an intercept of the first well near 17,600 feet. The relief well is expected to be completed in

  18. Prosopis Africana SEEDS (OKPEYE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Prosopis africana, okpeye seeds, thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity, .... 2.3 Determination of Thermal Properties of Prosopis. Africana .... and the guard ring was filled with fiber glass at both the.

  19. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  20. Managing Geothermal Exploratory Drilling Risks Drilling Geothermal Exploration and Delineation Wells with Small-Footprint Highly Portable Diamond Core Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, J.; Listi, R.; Combs, J.; Welch, V.; Reilly, S.

    2012-12-01

    Small hydraulic core rigs are highly portable (truck or scow-mounted), and have recently been used for geothermal exploration in areas such as Nevada, California, the Caribbean Islands, Central and South America and elsewhere. Drilling with slim diameter core rod below 7,000' is common, with continuous core recovery providing native-state geological information to aid in identifying the resource characteristics and boundaries; this is a highly cost-effective process. Benefits associated with this innovative exploration and delineation technology includes the following: Low initial Capital Equipment Cost and consumables costs Small Footprint, reducing location and road construction, and cleanup costs Supporting drill rod (10'/3meter) and tools are relatively low weight and easily shipped Speed of Mobilization and rig up Reduced requirements for support equipment (cranes, backhoes, personnel, etc) Small mud systems and cementing requirements Continuous, simplified coring capability Depth ratings comparable to that of large rotary rigs (up to ~10,000'+) Remote/small-location accessible (flown into remote areas or shipped in overseas containers) Can be scow or truck-mounted This technical presentation's primary goal is to share the technology of utilizing small, highly portable hydraulic coring rigs to provide exploratory drilling (and in some cases, production drilling) for geothermal projects. Significant cost and operational benefits are possible for the Geothermal Operator, especially for those who are pursuing projects in remote locations or countries, or in areas that are either inaccessible or in which a small footprint is required. John D. Tuttle Sinclair Well Products jtuttle@sinclairwp.com

  1. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  2. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Peter; Wilson, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m 3 . The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m 3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m 3 . Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m 3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at

  3. Seeds of impurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pavoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ai Weiwei’s art installation Kui Hua Zi [Sunflower Seeds] took place between 2010 and 2011 in the gigantic Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern Gallery, in London. It consisted of 100 millions hand-crafted porcelain seeds made in Jingdezhen, China.1 An uneven surface to dive into, a haptic space of undulating vision, rustling steps, unusual horizontality, a meaningless quicksand where the separation between artwork and spectator is engulfed, the immunity of distant contemplation denied.

  4. Semisubmersible rigs attractive for tender-assisted drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, P. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-19

    Tender-assisted drilling (TAD) involves the use of tender support vessel (TSV) during the drilling phase of platform development to provide drilling utilities to the platform-mounted drilling package. The TSV provides facilities such as mud mixing, storage, pumping, bulk storage, hotel accommodations, and power. Thus, the platform topsides and jacket weight and size can be smaller and less expensive. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of TAD, then describes the TAD vessel, semisubmersible, platform cost savings, accommodations, drilling and workovers, and field experience.

  5. Helicopter-supported drilling operation in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.R.; Juneau, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on drilling cost per foot of Chevron's helilift drilling operation in the remote Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, reduced from 1360 to 267 S/ft (4462 to 876$/m) during the period from 1985 to 1989. The operation provides many challenges, as it is thousands of miles from major oil-field supply centers. This requires advanced will-planning and logistical management of drilling materials so that they arrive at the drilling rig in a timely manner. The wells are also drilled into structurally complex geology without the aid of seismic data which can lead to unexpected results

  6. Diamond-set drill bits: savings achieved at Cominak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artru, P.; Bibert, F.X.; Croisat, G.

    1988-01-01

    Rotary instead of percussion adoption of drilling in the underground Akouta mine (Niger) has been the cause of important savings in blasting and bolting operations. Other savings affect capital expenditures and indirect savings are coming from better working conditions. For blast holes drilling and bolting, spare parts expenditures are 2.4 times lower with rotary drilling. Drilling rods are cheaper and last longer with rotary drilling. A rotary equipped Jumbos fleet is cheaper to maintain and is 18% more available, due to less mechanical and other breakdowns. Total savings for the mine owner and operator Cominak reach more than a billion of CFA francs [fr

  7. Deep-Time drilling in the Australian Archean: the Agouron Institute geobiological drilling project. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Agouron Institute has sponsored deep-time drilling across the South African Archean-Proterozoic boundary, investigating the rise of oxygen over an onshore-offshore environmental transect. It is now supporting a drilling program in the Australian Archean of the Pilbara Craton, addressing a similar theme but with the added goal of resolving controversy over the age and origin of hydrocarbon biomarker molecules in ancient kerogenous shales. As these have been claimed to provide evidence for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis long before the rise of atmospheric oxygen to persistently high levels during the ~2.3 Ga “Great Oxidation Event”, their syngenesis with their host shales is thus of critical importance for the interpretation of Earth’s early oxygenation history. During the first drilling season, 3 holes were drilled using techniques and equipment to minimize organic geochemical contamination (new drill-string components cleaned before drilling potentially biomarker-bearing rocks, pre-contamination of drilling fluid with a synthetic organic compound of similar geochemical characteristics to biomarkers, sterile cutting and storage of samples immediately upon retrieval from the core-barrel). The initial hole was a blank control for organic geochemistry, drilled into rocks too metamorphosed to retain biomarker molecules. These rocks, cherts, carbonates and pelites of the 3.52 Ga Coucal Formation, Coonterunah Group, have been metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies at temperatures near 500°C and so should have had any ancient soluble hydrocarbons destroyed. However, because they contain both carbonate and organic carbon, these rocks can instead provide isotopic information about the earliest evolution of biological metabolism as they possess residues of both the reactant and product sides of the carbon-fixation reaction. The second hole sampled an on-shore section of carbonates and kerogenous shales in the ~2.65 Ga Carawine Dolomite and Lewin Shale

  8. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  9. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  10. Percussive drilling application of translational motion permanent magnet machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shujun

    2012-07-01

    It is clear that percussive drills are very promising since they can increase the rate of penetration in hard rock formations. Any small improvements on the percussive drills can make a big contribution to lowering the drilling costs since drilling a well for the oil and gas industry is very costly. This thesis presents a percussive drilling system mainly driven by a tubular reciprocating translational motion permanent magnet synchronous motor (RTPMSM), which efficiently converts electric energy to kinetic energy for crushing the hard rock since there is no mechanical media. The thesis starts from state-of-the-art of percussive drilling techniques, reciprocating translational motion motors, and self-sensing control of electric motors and its implementation issues. The following chapters present modeling the hard rock, modeling the drill, the design issues of the drill, the RTPMSM and its control. A single-phase RTPMSM prototype is tested for the hard rock drilling. The presented variable voltage variable frequency control is also validated on it. The space vector control and self-sensing control are also explored on a three-phase RTPMSM prototype. The results show that the percussive drill can be implemented to the hard rock drilling applications. A detailed summarisation of contributions and future work is presented at the end of the thesis.(Author)

  11. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the analysis, a new device for testing drill pipe torque is developed and a series of experiments is performed under different conditions; the results show that drill pipe torque linearly increases with the increase of coal stress and coal strength; the faster the drilling speed, the larger the drill pipe torque, and vice versa. When monitoring rock burst by drill pipe torque method, the index of rock burst is regarded as a function in which coal stress index and coal strength index are principal variables. The results are important for the forecast of rock burst in coal mine.

  12. Emplacement hole drill evaluation and specification study. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of a conceptual design program are presented for mine floor drilling in preparation for radioactive waste disposal. Two classes of drills can be used to drill emplacement holes in salt. Both are sufficiently rugged and reliable. Raise borers have a higher capital cost and require more modifications, but are more flexible in other applications and require less labor. The life cycle cost for the raise borers and for the auger rigs are about the same, while the life cycle costs of bucket drills are much higher. As long as the hole is 36 inches in diameter or less and 40 feet deep or less in salt, then the auger rig is recommended because of the lower capital cost and lower operating cost. This recommended system represents what is thought to be the best combination of available drill components assembled into a drill rig which will provide at least adequate performance. Furthermore, this drill system can be procured from at least three manufacturers. If the facility criteria change significantly, however, then the drill rig recommendations will have to be reassessed on the merits of the changes. The drill rig manufacturers can be quite flexible in combining components provided the buyer is willing to accept components with which the manufacturer has had experience. If this condition can be met, then most drill rig manufacturers will include the associated design cost as part of the drill cost. If special components are required, however, then the number of manufacturers willing to participate in a procurement may be severely reduced

  13. Method of making imbalanced compensated drill bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.F.; Warren, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for making a drill bit of the type having a bearing zone on a side portion of a bit body and a cutting zone with cutters mounted on the bit body. It comprises: mounting a preselected number of cutters within the cutting zone on the bit body; generating a model of the geometry of the bit body and cutters mounted thereon; calculating the imbalance force which would occur in the bit body under defined drilling parameters; using the imbalance force and model to calculate the position of at least one additional cutter which when mounted within the cutting zone on the bit body in the calculated position would create a net imbalance force directed towards the bearing zone; and mounting an additional cutter within the cutting zone on the bit body in the position so calculated

  14. Drilling mud and cement slurry rheology manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    This book is not primarily concerned with theory. Its basic approach is practical. It has attempted to present a logical treatment which will be easy to apply in practice. As a result, certain computing methods were omitted, and precision sometimes has to be sacrificed to simplicity. However, no apology is made for the use of such approximations; in fact, any attempt at rigor would be doomed to failure, in view of the many inherent factors which do not lend themselves to quantitative treatment. Chapter 1: deals with fundamental concepts. Chapter 2: refers to the general principles involved in determining rheological parameters of drilling fluids and cement slurries. Chapter 3: relates to practical methods for using the results obtained in the first two Chapters, in units employed on the worksite. It is primarily intended for technicians called upon to make ''hydraulic'' computations during drilling. Chapter 4: contains several examples.

  15. Ocean Drilling: Forty Years of International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah K.; Exon, Neville; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2010-10-01

    International cooperation is an essential component of modern scientific research and societal advancement [see Ismail-Zadeh and Beer, 2009], and scientific ocean drilling represents one of Earth science's longest-running and most successful international collaborations. The strength of this collaboration and its continued success result from the realization that scientific ocean drilling provides a unique and powerful tool to study the critical processes of both short-term change and the long-term evolution of Earth systems. A record of Earth's changing tectonics, climate, ocean circulation, and biota is preserved in marine sedimentary deposits and the underlying basement rocks. And because the ocean floor is the natural site for accumulation and preservation of geological materials, it may preserve a continuous record of these processes.

  16. Casing and liners for drilling and completion

    CERN Document Server

    Byrom, Ted G

    2007-01-01

    The Gulf Drilling Series is a joint project between Gulf Publishing Company and the International Association of Drilling Contractors. The first text in this Series presents casing design and mechanics in a concise, two-part format. The first part focuses on basic casing design and instructs engineers and engineering students how to design a safe casing string. The second part covers more advanced material and special problems in casing design in a user-friendly format. Learn how to select sizes and setting depths to achieve well objectives, determine casing loads for design purposes, design casing properties to meet burst, collapse and tensile strength requirements and conduct casing running operations safely and successfully.

  17. KVANE - a Kvanefjeld drill core database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund Clausen, F.

    1980-01-01

    A database KVANE containing all drill core information from the drilling programme carried out in 1958, 1962, 1969 and 1977 at the uranium deposit in Kvanefjeld, Southwest Greenland has been made. The applicaTion software ''Statistical Analysis System (SAS)'' was used as the programming tool. It is shown how this software, usually used for other purposes, satisfy a demand of easy storing of larger data amounts. The paper describes how KVANE was made and organized and how data can be picked out of the database. A short introduction to the SAS system is also given. The database has been implemented at the Northern European University Computing Center (NEUCC) at the Technical University of Denmark. (author)

  18. Perturbation of seafloor bacterial community structure by drilling waste discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tan T; Cochrane, Sabine K J; Landfald, Bjarne

    2018-04-01

    Offshore drilling operations result in the generation of drill cuttings and localized smothering of the benthic habitats. This study explores bacterial community changes in the in the upper layers of the seafloor resulting from an exploratory drilling operation at 1400m water depth on the Barents Sea continental slope. Significant restructurings of the sediment microbiota were restricted to the sampling sites notably affected by the drilling waste discharge, i.e. at 30m and 50m distances from the drilling location, and to the upper 2cm of the seafloor. Three bacterial groups, the orders Clostridiales and Desulfuromonadales and the class Mollicutes, were almost exclusively confined to the upper two centimeters at 30m distance, thereby corroborating an observed increase in anaerobicity inflicted by the drilling waste deposition. The potential of these phylogenetic groups as microbial bioindicators of the spatial extent and persistence of drilling waste discharge should be further explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-riser system improves drilling at Auger prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Marsh, G.L.; Ritter, P.B.; Mendel, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a two-rise system (TRS) for drilling deepwater development wells which eliminates some of the limitations of conventional subsea technology and allows flexibility in well programs. Shell Offshore Inc.'s deep exploratory wells in Garden Banks 426 and 471 have encountered drilling problems that were attributed to limitations in casing sizes imposed by conventional subsea drilling systems. These problems are not uncommon in exploratory deepwater, deep well drilling in the Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir depths of up to 19,500 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 7-in. production casing requirements led to potentially troublesome and expensive well plans. Because of the constraints placed on the development drilling program by completion requirements and directional drilling, a two-riser system was designed and fabricated. Solving such significant drilling problems has reduced overall development costs

  20. GRAIN-SCALE FAILURE IN THERMAL SPALLATION DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, S C; Lomov, I; Roberts, J J

    2012-01-19

    Geothermal power promises clean, renewable, reliable and potentially widely-available energy, but is limited by high initial capital costs. New drilling technologies are required to make geothermal power financially competitive with other energy sources. One potential solution is offered by Thermal Spallation Drilling (TSD) - a novel drilling technique in which small particles (spalls) are released from the rock surface by rapid heating. While TSD has the potential to improve drilling rates of brittle granitic rocks, the coupled thermomechanical processes involved in TSD are poorly described, making system control and optimization difficult for this drilling technology. In this paper, we discuss results from a new modeling effort investigating thermal spallation drilling. In particular, we describe an explicit model that simulates the grain-scale mechanics of thermal spallation and use this model to examine existing theories concerning spalling mechanisms. We will report how borehole conditions influence spall production, and discuss implications for macro-scale models of drilling systems.

  1. A novel drill design for photoacoustic guided surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Joshua; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.

    2018-02-01

    Fluoroscopy is currently the standard approach for image guidance of surgical drilling procedures. In addition to the harmful radiation dose to the patient and surgeon, fluoroscopy fails to visualize critical structures such as blood vessels and nerves within the drill path. Photoacoustic imaging is a well-suited imaging method to visualize these structures and it does not require harmful ionizing radiation. However, there is currently no clinical system available to deliver light to occluded drill bit tips. To address this challenge, a prototype drill was designed, built, and tested using an internal light delivery system that allows laser energy to be transferred from a stationary laser source to the tip of a spinning drill bit. Photoacoustic images were successfully obtained with the drill bit submerged in water and with the drill tip inserted into a thoracic vertebra from a human cadaver.

  2. Automatic identification of otologic drilling faults: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peng; Feng, Guodong; Cao, Tianyang; Gao, Zhiqiang; Li, Xisheng

    2009-09-01

    A preliminary study was carried out to identify parameters to characterize drilling faults when using an otologic drill under various operating conditions. An otologic drill was modified by the addition of four sensors. Under consistent conditions, the drill was used to simulate three important types of drilling faults and the captured data were analysed to extract characteristic signals. A multisensor information fusion system was designed to fuse the signals and automatically identify the faults. When identifying drilling faults, there was a high degree of repeatability and regularity, with an average recognition rate of >70%. This study shows that the variables measured change in a fashion that allows the identification of particular drilling faults, and that it is feasible to use these data to provide rapid feedback for a control system. Further experiments are being undertaken to implement such a system.

  3. Drilling history core hole DC-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    Core hole DC-4 was completed at a depth of 3998 feet in December, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Sicsson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the cable tool and core drilling activities, and geological core logging for DC-4. Core hole DC-4 is located on the Hanford Site about 3 miles east of the Yakima Barricade and approximately 103 feet southwest of rotary hole DC-5, which was completed to 3990 feet in February, 1978. Hanford Site coordinates reported for hole DC-4 are north 49,385.62 feet and west 85,207.63 feet, and Washington State coordinates are north 454,468.73 feet and east 2,209,990.87 feet. No elevation survey is available for hole DC-4, but it is approximately 745 feet above mean sea level based upon the survey of hole DC-5, which has a reported elevation of 745.16 feet on the top of the 3-inch flange. The purpose of core hole DC-4 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing, cross-hole seismic shear, and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-5. Hole DC-4 was drilled through the overburden into basalt bedrock by cable tool methods (0-623 feet) and continuously cored through the final interval (623 to 3998 feet).Core recovery was 95.8 percent of the total footage cored

  4. FIXTURING DEVICE FOR DRILLING A STRAIGHT SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSAC, Florin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a fixturing device used for machining by drilling a straight shaft. The shaft was manufactured on EMCO CONCEPT TURN 55 CNC. The blank used was a bar with circular cross-section. The orientation and fixing scheme of the part and the orientation elements for fixturing device are presented as they were drawn in Autodesk Inventor and AutoCAD software.

  5. Handbook of Best Practices for Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, John Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This Handbook is a description of the complex process that comprises drilling a geothermal well. The focus of the detailed Chapters covering various aspects of the process (casing design, cementing, logging and instrumentation, etc) is on techniques and hardware that have proven successful in geothermal reservoirs around the world. The Handbook will eventually be linked to the GIA web site, with the hope and expectation that it can be continually updated as new methods are demonstrated or proven.

  6. Recommended well drilling and testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.; Wilson, C.

    1978-07-01

    A well drilling and testing program is recommended by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to identify the hydrology of deep basalts in the Pasco Basin. The ultimate objective of this program is to assist in determining the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Reservation. The recommended program has been staged for maximum effectiveness. In the first stage, six wells have been identified for drilling and testing which, when coupled with existing wells, will provide sufficient data for a preliminary overview of basin hydrology and a preliminary determination of the hydrologic suitability of the deep basalt for a repository site. The rate at which the first stage wells are drilled and tested will depend upon the date at which a preliminary determination of site suitability is required. It was assumed that a preliminary determination of suitability would be required in 1980, in which case all six first stage wells would be drilled in FY 1979. If the results of the first stage analysis are favorable for repository siting, tentative repository sites can be identified and a second stage hydrology program can be implemented to provide the necessary details of the flow system. To accomplish this stage, a number of deep wells would be required at locations both inside and outside the basin, with specific sites to be identified as the work progresses to obtain maximum utility of existing data. A program is recommended for testing in each new well and for completion of testing in each existing well. Recommended tests include borehole geophysics, pressure and permeability testing, geochemical sampling, tracer testing, hydrofracturing and borehole fracture logging. The entire data collection program is oriented toward providing the information required to establish and verify an accurate numerical model of the Pasco Basin

  7. Slim hole drilling and testing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh K.; Goranson, Colin

    2017-12-01

    The financial and geologic advantages of drilling slim holes instead of large production wells in the early stages of geothermal reservoir assessment has been understood for many years. However, the practice has not been fully embraced by geothermal developers. We believe that the reason for this is that there is a poor understanding of testing and reservoir analysis that can be conducted in slim holes. In addition to reservoir engineering information, coring through the cap rock and into the reservoir provides important data for designing subsequent production well drilling and completion. Core drilling requires significantly less mud volume than conventional rotary drilling, and it is typically not necessary to cure lost circulation zones (LCZ). LCZs should be tested by either production or injection methods as they are encountered. The testing methodologies are similar to those conducted on large-diameter wells; although produced and/or injected fluid volumes are much less. Pressure, temperature and spinner (PTS) surveys in slim holes under static conditions can used to characterize temperature and pressure distribution in the geothermal reservoir. In many cases it is possible to discharge slim holes and obtain fluid samples to delineate the geochemical properties of the reservoir fluid. Also in the latter case, drawdown and buildup data obtained using a downhole pressure tool can be employed to determine formation transmissivity and well properties. Even if it proves difficult to discharge a slim hole, an injection test can be performed to obtain formation transmissivity. Given the discharge (or injection) data from a slimhole, discharge properties of a large-diameter well can be inferred using wellbore modeling. Finally, slim hole data (pressure, temperature, transmissivity, fluid properties) together with reservoir simulation can help predict the ability of the geothermal reservoir to sustain power production.

  8. New Proposed Drilling at Surtsey Volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Marie D.

    2014-12-01

    Surtsey, an isolated oceanic island and a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is a uniquely well-documented natural laboratory for investigating processes of rift zone volcanism, hydrothermal alteration of basaltic tephra, and biological colonization and succession in surface and subsurface pyroclastic deposits. Deposits from Surtsey's eruptions from 1963 to 1967 were first explored via a 181-meter hole drilled in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey and Icelandic Museum of Natural History.

  9. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored

  10. Deepwater drilling; Jakten paa de store dyp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Recent technological development has made it possible to drill for oil and gas at the impressive depth of 3000 metres. An increasing part of the world's oil and gas discoveries are made in deep or ultra deep waters. Ultra deep waters are those exceeding 1500 metres. Since drilling at more than 500 metres started at the end of the 1970s, 32 discoveries of about 500 million barrels of extractable oil or gas have been made. These finds amount to almost 60 thousand millions barrels of oil equivalents. Most of the effort has been made in the coasts between Brazil, West Africa and the Gulf of Mexico. Deepwater projects have been a field of priority for Norwegian oil companies in their search for international commissions. It is frequently time-consuming, expensive and technologically challenging to drill at great depths. The article describes the Atlantis concept, which may reduce the complexities and costs of deepwater activities. This involves making an artificial sea bottom, which in the form of an air-filled buoy is anchored at a depth of 200 - 300 metres. Production wells or exploration wells and risers are extended from the real bottom to the artificial one.

  11. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  12. DYNAMIC MODELLING OF VIBRATIONS ASSISTED DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu LADONNE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of multi-materials staking configurations for aeronautical structures is increasing, with the evolution of composite and metallic materials. For drilling the fastening holes, the processes of Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD expand rapidly, as it permits to improve reliability of drilling operations on multilayer structures. Among these processes of VAD, the solution with forced vibrations added to conventional feed to create a discontinuous cutting is the more developed in industry. The back and forth movement allows to improve the evacuation of chips by breaking it. This technology introduces two new operating parameters, the frequency and the amplitude of the oscillation. To optimize the process, the choice of those parameters requires first to model precisely the operation cutting and dynamics. In this paper, a kinematic modelling of the process is firstly proposed. The limits of the model are analysed through comparison between simulations and measurements. The proposed model is used to develop a cutting force model that allows foreseeing the operating conditions which ensure good chips breaking and tool life improvement.

  13. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  14. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  15. Comparison of Technical and Economical Effect of Different Planters using Varied Seed Rates on Canola Yield in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the most important agricultural crops is rape seed oil as its special features can play an important role in the agricultural region. Due to the presence of more than 40% oil and 25% protein in the grain can play an important role in the supply of edible oil. After determining of various factors such as uniformity of planting depth, evenness between shrub, plant height and grain yield concluded that Nordsten drill along the seeding density of 75 cm for mechanized planting is acceptable yield. Afzali nia et al. (1999 in one study aimed to assess the performance of common grain drills in Iran in Zarghan area in Fars Province showed that differences between treatments in terms of seed distribution uniformity factor, plant population per unit area and yield product is not significant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and select the most suitable types of canola planter and variable seed rate planting density and aims to increase the canola cultivated area by the highest yield. Materials and Methods Moghan Plain, located in the north areas of Ardebil province, is considered as an important areas of canola planting in Iran. This study was performed in the agricultural research center of Ardabil Province (Moghan (39°39´N; 48°88´E; 78 m a.s.l. in Northwest of Iran. To evaluate different planters with varied seed rates on canola yield. The experimental design was carried out in a randomized complete block design with strip splits (varied seed rates 6, 8 and10 kg per hectare and different drills consist of B1: Barzagar Hamadani drill (conventional method B2: Amazon drill pals teeth harrow, B3: Gaspardo drill pals teeth harrow and B4: Agromaster drill and four replications. To investigatethe different treatments in the experiment, various parameters such as percent germination, seeding uniformity of width and depth intervals, plant establishment, effective field capacity, fuel consumption rate andgrain yield were measured

  16. Polyethylene glycol drilling fluid for drilling in marine gas hydrates-bearing sediments: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, G.; Liu, T.; Ning, F.; Tu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Yu, Y.; Kuang, L. [China University of Geosciences, Faculty of Engineering, Wuhan (China)

    2011-07-01

    Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% LV-PAC, 0.5% NaOH and 1% PVP K-90 performs well in shale swelling and gas hydrate inhibition. It also shows satisfactory rheological properties and lubrication at temperature ranges from -8 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C. The PVP K-90, a kinetic hydrate inhibitor, can effectively inhibit gas hydrate aggregations at a dose of 1 wt%. This finding demonstrates that a drilling fluid with a high addition of NaCl and a low addition of PVP K-90 is suitable for drilling in natural marine gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. (authors)

  17. Polyethylene Glycol Drilling Fluid for Drilling in Marine Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sediments: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na2CO3, 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% LV-PAC, 0.5% NaOH and 1% PVP K-90 performs well in shale swelling and gas hydrate inhibition. It also shows satisfactory rheological properties and lubrication at temperature ranges from −8 °C to 15 °C. The PVP K-90, a kinetic hydrate inhibitor, can effectively inhibit gas hydrate aggregations at a dose of 1 wt%. This finding demonstrates that a drilling fluid with a high addition of NaCl and a low addition of PVP K-90 is suitable for drilling in natural marine gas-hydrate-bearing sediments.

  18. The importance of using certified seed

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Sandra; Mladenov Velimir; Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Certified seed is produced from the seed of known genetic origin and genetic purity with controlled and tested production, processed and declared in accordance with the Law on Seeds. Production of certified seed is carried out under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection, by seed producers formally listed in the Seed Register. Seed is processed in registered seed processing centres and quality is tested in laboratories accredited for seed testing. The orga...

  19. ATUCHA I NPP - Emergency drill practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanda, Alejandro; Rosales, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Atucha I NPP performs an Emergency Drill Practice once a year. Its main goals are: -) Fulfill the requirements of the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) regarding Atucha I NPP's Operating License; -) Fulfill the commitment with the community regarding the safe and reliable operation Atucha I NPP; -) Verify the response of the Civil Organizations, Security Forces, and Armed Forces, as well as the correct application of the Emergency Plan; -) Perform the 'General Alarm Drill' periodic control; -) Perform a re-training of the members of the Security Advisor Internal Committee (CIAS) on the Internal and External Aspects of the Emergency Plan and on the related procedures; -) Test the Emergency Communications System. New goals are added every year, considering the Drill's scope. This drill comprises two different kinds of practices: Internal practices (practices in the station, with our personnel) and external practices (practices outside the station with governmental organizations). Internal practices comprise: -) Internal and external communications practices; -) Acoustic alarms; -) Personnel gathering in the Meeting Points; -) Safety of selected Meeting Points; -) Personnel count, selective evacuation; -) Iodide Potassium pills distribution; -) CICE (Internal Group for Emergency Control) Coordination. External practices comprise: -) Nuclear Regulatory Authority; -) Argentine Navy, Comando Area Naval Fluvial, Base Naval Zarate; -) Lima firemen; -) Zarate firemen; -) Municipal Civil Defense (Zarate and Lima); -) National Guard, Escuadron Atucha; -) Zarate Regional Hospital; -) Lima Police Department; -) Zarate Police Department; -) Argentine Coast Guard, Zarate; -) Local radios: Radio FM Libre, FM El Sitio; -) First Aid clinic. The following activities are performed together with the aforementioned organizations: -) Formation of an 'Operative committee'; -) Evacuation of citizens in a 3 km radio; -) Control of every access to Lima; -) Control of

  20. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  1. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S.

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  3. Tesco's Bob Tessari: launching a drilling revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 'Casing Drilling' technology, patented by Tesco, which allows operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells, is described. The system is claimed to substantially reduce the amount of lost circulation, loss of well control and bore hole instability problems that have been documented to account for about 25 per cent of total rig time on a well, and at least $4 billion (or 10 per cent of the $40 billion annual global drilling tab) spent on 'unscheduled events' associated with tripping drill pipe. With the Casing Drilling process, wells are drilled using standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe. The host of downhole problems associated with tripping in and out of the hole are avoided, as the casing pipe is never removed. Instead, drill bits and other downhole tools are tripped through the casing with wireline at a rate of about 500 ft per minute, drastically reducing tripping time. Tesco also developed the portable top drive, the manufacture and rental of which constitutes a large part of the company's business, besides helping technologically to make Casing Drilling possible. Much of the company's success is attributed to the tenacity and zest for innovative approaches of the company's CEO, Bob Tessari, who is largely responsible for the company finding itself at the centre of a drilling technology revolution.

  4. Casing drilling TM : a viable technology for coal bed methane?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Muqeem, M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper highlighted the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling more than 30 wells using only casings as the drill stem, suggesting that such technology could be advantageous for Coal Bed Methane (CBM) exploration and development. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig that is ideal to meet the great demand for CBM development in Canada. The Casing Drilling TM system, when used in conjunction with the drilling rig, could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of CBM reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead and wire line retrieval can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or coal beds under balanced with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while finding gas at the same time. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling TM could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Preliminary Research on Possibilities of Drilling Process Robotization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawel, Stefaniak; Jacek, Wodecki; Jakubiak, Janusz; Zimroz, Radoslaw

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, drilling & blasting is crucial technique for deposit excavation using in hard rock mining. Unfortunately, such approach requires qualified staff to perform, and consequently there is a serious risk related to rock mechanics when using explosives. Negative influence of explosives usage on safety issues of underground mine is a main cause of mining demands related to elimination of people from production area. Other aspects worth taking into consideration are drilling precision according to drilling pattern, blasting effectiveness, improvement of drilling tool reliability etc. In the literature different drilling support solutions are well-known in terms of positioning support systems, anti-jamming systems or cavity detection systems. For many years, teleoperation of drilling process is also developed. Unfortunately, available technologies have so far not fully met the industries expectation in hard rock. Mine of the future is expected to incorporate robotic system instead of current approaches. In this paper we present preliminary research related to robotization of drilling process and possibilities of its application in underground mine condition. A test rig has been proposed. To simulate drilling process several key assumptions have been accepted. As a result, algorithms for automation of drilling process have been proposed and tested on the test rig. Experiences gathered so far underline that there is a need for further developing robotic system for drilling process.

  6. Drilling Automation Demonstrations in Subsurface Exploration for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian; Cannon, H.; Lee, P.; Hanagud, S.; Davis, K.

    2006-01-01

    This project proposes to study subsurface permafrost microbial habitats at a relevant Arctic Mars-analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada) while developing and maturing the subsurface drilling and drilling automation technologies that will be required by post-2010 missions. It builds on earlier drilling technology projects to add permafrost and ice-drilling capabilities to 5m with a lightweight drill that will be automatically monitored and controlled in-situ. Frozen cores obtained with this drill under sterilized protocols will be used in testing three hypotheses pertaining to near-surface physical geology and ground H2O ice distribution, viewed as a habitat for microbial life in subsurface ice and ice-consolidated sediments. Automation technologies employed will demonstrate hands-off diagnostics and drill control, using novel vibrational dynamical analysis methods and model-based reasoning to monitor and identify drilling fault states before and during faults. Three field deployments, to a Mars-analog site with frozen impact crater fallback breccia, will support science goals, provide a rigorous test of drilling automation and lightweight permafrost drilling, and leverage past experience with the field site s particular logistics.

  7. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under... seeds. (b) Seed consigned to a seed cleaning or processing establishment, for cleaning or processing for... pertaining to such seed show that it is “Seed for processing,” or, if the seed is in containers and in...

  8. In the zone - first rotary steerable liner-while-drilling system; Drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Statoil recently successfully tested the world's first rotary steerable liner-while-drilling system from its Brage platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. This innovative technology - with applications in new and mature fields - was jointly developed by Statoil and Baker Hughes Incorporated. The concept of a rotary steerable system that gives operators the ability to accurately drill and log three-dimensional well profiles with a liner attached directly to the drillstring is entirely new. The system is designed to withstand high circulation rates and high torque loads while providing liner connect and disconnect capabilities. (Author)

  9. Pressured drilling riser design for drilling in ultra deep water with surface bop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Morrison, D.; Efthymiou, M.; Lo, K.H. [Shell Global Solutions, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Magne, E.; Leach, C. [Shell Internationale Exploration and Production (Netherlands)

    2002-12-01

    In conventional drilling with a semi-submersible rig valuable rig time is used to run and retrieve the BOP and its accessories on the seabed, and this time increases with water depth. Furthermore, use of the conventional sub-sea BOP requires a large-diameter riser, which requires substantial rig storage and deck load capacity prior to installation. It also requires high riser-tensioning capacity or additional buoyancy. Thus as the water depth increases, it leads to a need for heavy duty 4. and 5. generation rigs with escalation in costs. The high cost of deep-water drill rigs is leading to the development of Surface BOP technology. In this development, the BOP is placed above sea level and the riser is simply a continuation of the casing (typical diameter 13-3/8''). This eliminates the need for a heavy 21'' riser and for running the BOP to the sea bed and retrieving it. Moreover, the reduced tension requirement for the smaller riser extends the water depth capability of 3. generation drilling semi-submersibles, enabling them to drill in deeper waters. A critical success factor for this development is the ability to design the riser/casing to withstand high internal pressures due to well kicks, in addition to environmental loads, and to restrict vessel offsets within certain limits so as not to overload the riser under the prevailing weather conditions. This paper addresses the design considerations of a pressured drilling riser that can be used with a surface BOP in deep-water. Key design issues that are sensitive to ultra-deep-water applications are discussed. The technical aspects of using (disposable) standard casing with threaded connector for the drilling riser are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the connector fatigue-testing program to quantify the stress concentration factor for fatigue design. Emerging composite material offers some alternatives to the steel riser when drilling in ultra-deep water Design issues related to the

  10. Ice drilling for blasting boreholes in deep seismic surveys (JARE-43 by steam type drilling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Watanabe

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A seismic exploration was accomplished in the austral summer of 2001-2002 by the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 along a profile oblique to that held by JARE-41 on the Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica. We used a steam type drilling system to obtain seven blasting boreholes. We spent 7 to 8 hours to make an enough depth of the hole for one shot point. The holes were 35 to 40 cm in diameter and 23.5 to 28.7 m in depth. The average drilling speed was 3.25 m/hr.

  11. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6-4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ian M.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, R. Scott; Johnson, Kirk R.; Mahan, Shannon; Ager, Thomas A.; Baker, Richard G.; Blaauw, Maarten; Bright, Jordon; Brown, Peter M.; Bryant, Bruce; Calamari, Zachary T.; Carrara, Paul E.; Michael D., Cherney; Demboski, John R.; Elias, Scott A.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Gray, Harrison J.; Haskett, Danielle R.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Kline, Douglas; Leonard, Eric M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Lucking, Carol; McDonald, H. Gregory; Miller, Dane M.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Nash, Stephen E.; Newton, Cody; Paces, James B.; Petrie, Lesley; Plummer, Mitchell A.; Porinchu, David F.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Scott, Eric; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Skipp, Gary L.; Strickland, Laura E.; Stucky, Richard K.; Thompson, Robert S.; Wilson, Jim

    2014-01-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~ 140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.

  12. Cold adaptive traits revealed by comparative genomic analysis of the eurypsychrophile Rhodococcus sp. JG3 isolated from high elevation McMurdo Dry Valley permafrost, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Zolotarov, Yevgen; de Bethencourt, Luis; Ronholm, Jennifer; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Stromvik, Martina; Greer, Charles W; Bakermans, Corien; Whyte, Lyle

    2016-02-01

    The permafrost soils of the high elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys are the most cold, desiccating and oligotrophic on Earth. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is one of very few bacterial isolates from Antarctic Dry Valley permafrost, and displays subzero growth down to -5°C. To understand how Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is able to survive extreme permafrost conditions and be metabolically active at subzero temperatures, we sequenced its genome and compared it to the genomes of 14 mesophilic rhodococci. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possessed a higher copy number of genes for general stress response, UV protection and protection from cold shock, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. We characterized genome wide molecular adaptations to cold, and identified genes that had amino acid compositions favourable for increased flexibility and functionality at low temperatures. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possesses multiple complimentary strategies which may enable its survival in some of the harshest permafrost on Earth. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Winter precipitation effect in a mid-latitude temperature-limited environment: the case of common juniper at high elevation in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzari, Elena; Pividori, Mario; Carrer, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) is by far the most widespread conifer in the world. However, tree-ring research dealing with this species is still scarce, mainly due to the difficulty in crossdating associated with the irregular stem shape with strip-bark growth form in older individuals and the high number of missing and wedging rings. Given that many different species of the same genus have been successfully used in tree-ring investigations and proved to be reliable climate proxies, this study aims to (i) test the possibility to successfully apply dendrochronological techniques on common juniper growing above the treeline and (ii) verify the climate sensitivity of the species with special regard to winter precipitation, a climatic factor that generally does not affect tree-ring growth in all Alpine high-elevation tree species. Almost 90 samples have been collected in three sites in the central and eastern Alps, all between 2100 and 2400 m in elevation. Despite cross-dating difficulties, we were able to build a reliable chronology for each site, each spanning over 200 years. Climate-growth relationships computed over the last century highlight that juniper growth is mainly controlled by the amount of winter precipitation. The high variability of the climate-growth associations among sites, corresponds well to the low spatial dependence of this meteorological factor. Fairly long chronologies and the presence of a significant precipitation signal open up the possibility to reconstruct past winter precipitation. (letter)

  14. Removal of highly elevated nitrate from drinking water by pH-heterogenized heterotrophic denitrification facilitated with ferrous sulfide-based autotrophic denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Chi, Guangyu; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2011-11-01

    The performance of acetic acid-supported pH-heterogenized heterotrophic denitrification (HD) facilitated with ferrous sulfide-based autotrophic denitrification (AD) was investigated in upflow activated carbon-packed column reactors for reliable removal of highly elevated nitrate (42 mg NO(3)-Nl(-1)) in drinking water. The use of acetic acid as substrate provided sufficient internal carbon dioxide to completely eliminate the need of external pH adjustment for HD, but simultaneously created vertically heterogenized pH varying from 4.8 to 7.8 in the HD reactor. After 5-week acclimation, the HD reactor developed a moderate nitrate removal capacity with about one third of nitrate removal occurring in the acidic zone (pH 4.8-6.2). To increase the treatment reliability, acetic acid-supported HD was operated under 10% carbon limitation to remove >85% of nitrate, and ferrous sulfide-based AD was supplementally operated to remove residual nitrate and formed nitrite without excess of soluble organic carbon, nitrite or sulfate in the final effluent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in whole-tree water relations during ontogeny of Pinus flexilis and Pinus ponderosa in a high-elevation meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dylan G; Kolb, Thomas E; DeWald, Laura E

    2002-07-01

    We measured sap flux in Pinus ponderosa Laws. and Pinus flexilis James trees in a high-elevation meadow in northern Arizona that has been invaded by conifers over the last 150 years. Sap flux and environmental data were collected from July 1 to September 1, 2000, and used to estimate leaf specific transpiration rate (El), canopy conductance (Gc) and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kh). Leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA/SA) increased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, but decreased with increasing tree size in P. ponderosa. Both Gc and Kh decreased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, and showed no clear trends with tree size in P. ponderosa. For both species, Gc was lower in the summer dry season than in the summer rainy season, but El did not change between wet and dry summer seasons. Midday water potential (Psi(mid)) did not change across seasons for either species, whereas predawn water potential (Psi(pre)) tracked variation in soil water content across seasons. Pinus flexilis showed greater stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and maintained higher Psi(mid) than P. ponderosa. Both species showed greater sensitivity to VPD at high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; > 2500 micromol m-2 s-1) than at low PAR (Pinus species, and was influenced by changes in LA/SA. Whole-tree water use and El were similar between wet and dry summer seasons, possibly because of tight stomatal control over water loss. 2002 Heron Publishing--Victoria, Canada

  16. 2004 annual progress report: Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area: Establishment of a long-term research site in a high-elevation sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kate; Lange, Bob; Calton, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Rawlins Field Office (RFO), began a cooperative effort to reestablish the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area (Stratton) as a research location, with the goal of making it a site for long-term research on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecology. No other long-term research sites in high-elevation sagebrush habitat currently exist, and the Stratton area, with its 30+ year history of research and baseline data, was a logical location to restart investigations aimed at answering pertinent and timely questions about sagebrush ecology and sagebrush-obligate species. During the first year of the study, USGS scientists conducted an in-depth literature search to locate publications from research conducted at Stratton. We contacted previous researchers to acquire literature and unpublished reports of work conducted at Stratton. Collated papers and published manuscripts were presented in an annotated bibliography (Burgess and Schoenecker, 2004).

  17. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record of MIS 6–4 from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian M. Miller; Mitchell A. Plummer; Various Others

    2014-10-01

    In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5

  18. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  19. Improving Soil Seed Bank Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Steven C; Flessner, Michael L

    2018-05-08

    Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds. Difficulties quantifying the weed seed bank, understanding seed bank phenology, and linking seed banks to emerged weed communities challenge existing soil seed bank management practices. Improved seed bank quantification methods could include DNA profiling of the soil seed bank, mark and recapture, or 3D LIDAR mapping. Successful and sustainable soil seed bank management must constrain functionally diverse and changing weed communities. Harvest weed seed controls represent a step forward, but over-reliance on this singular technique could make it short-lived. Researchers must explore tools inspired by other pest management disciplines, such as gene drives or habitat modification for predatory organisms. Future weed seed bank management will combine multiple complementary practices that enhance diverse agroecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed. I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differe...

  1. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depaoli, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes

  2. In-process and post-process measurements of drill wear for control of the drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tien-I.; Liu, George; Gao, Zhiyu

    2011-12-01

    Optical inspection was used in this research for the post-process measurements of drill wear. A precision toolmakers" microscope was used. Indirect index, cutting force, is used for in-process drill wear measurements. Using in-process measurements to estimate the drill wear for control purpose can decrease the operation cost and enhance the product quality and safety. The challenge is to correlate the in-process cutting force measurements with the post-process optical inspection of drill wear. To find the most important feature, the energy principle was used in this research. It is necessary to select only the cutting force feature which shows the highest sensitivity to drill wear. The best feature selected is the peak of torque in the drilling process. Neuro-fuzzy systems were used for correlation purposes. The Adaptive-Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) can construct fuzzy rules with membership functions to generate an input-output pair. A 1x6 ANFIS architecture with product of sigmoid membership functions can in-process measure the drill wear with an error as low as 0.15%. This is extremely important for control of the drilling process. Furthermore, the measurement of drill wear was performed under different drilling conditions. This shows that ANFIS has the capability of generalization.

  3. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  4. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  5. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  6. Cone and seed yields in white spruce seed production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Pitcher

    1966-01-01

    The source of seed is an important consideration in the reforestation program on the National Forests in the North Central Region. Thirty-five seed production areas have been set up in the Region, along the lines proposed by the North Central Forest Experiment Station, to provide control of seed source. Red pine, white pine, shortleaf and loblolly pine, and white...

  7. Tragacanth gum: an effective oil well drilling fluid additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahto, V.; Sharma, V. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-02-15

    The low penetration rate, excessive torque and drag, poor hole cleaning and formation damage are major impediments in drilling oil and gas well. These have a major impact on drilling efficiency and well economics. Keeping these in mind, an attempt was made to design a water based drilling fluid system using Indian bentonite clays and tragacanth gum. The effect of tragacanth gum on rheological behavior of three different Indian bentonite water suspensions was studied and a drilling fluid system was developed. The filtrates of these drilling fluids were subjected to formation damage study on the field core using Ruska Liquid Permeameter. The laboratory investigation furnishes that tragacanth gum acts as a good viscosifier and fluid loss control agent. The drilling fluid filtrate also has less effect on formation damage. (author)

  8. Automatic identification of otological drilling faults: an intelligent recognition algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tianyang; Li, Xisheng; Gao, Zhiqiang; Feng, Guodong; Shen, Peng

    2010-06-01

    This article presents an intelligent recognition algorithm that can recognize milling states of the otological drill by fusing multi-sensor information. An otological drill was modified by the addition of sensors. The algorithm was designed according to features of the milling process and is composed of a characteristic curve, an adaptive filter and a rule base. The characteristic curve can weaken the impact of the unstable normal milling process and reserve the features of drilling faults. The adaptive filter is capable of suppressing interference in the characteristic curve by fusing multi-sensor information. The rule base can identify drilling faults through the filtering result data. The experiments were repeated on fresh porcine scapulas, including normal milling and two drilling faults. The algorithm has high rates of identification. This study shows that the intelligent recognition algorithm can identify drilling faults under interference conditions. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Accounting for the temperature conditions during deep prospecting hole drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherban, A N; Cheniak, V P; Zolotarenko, U P

    1977-01-01

    A methodology is described for calculating and controlling the temperature in inclined holes in order to establish a non-steady-state heat exchange between the medium circulating in the hole, and the construction components and rock. In order to verify the proposed methodology, the temperature of the drilling fluid is measured directly during the drilling process using a specially-designed automatic device which is lowered into the hole with the drilling string and turned on automatically at a given depth. This device makes it possible to record the drilling fluid temperature on magnetic tape, and convert the sensor signals arriving from the drilling string and the annular space. A comparison of calculation and experimental data confirmed the sufficiently high accuracy of the methods for predicting the thermal conditions in drilling deep prospecting holes.

  10. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  11. Uniaxial Compressive Strengths of Rocks Drilled at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. H.; Carey, E. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Abbey, W. J.; Kinnett, R.; Watkins, J. A.; Schemel, M.; Lashore, M. O.; Chasek, M. D.; Green, W.; Beegle, L. W.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the physical properties of geological materials is important for understanding geologic history. Yet there has never been an instrument with the purpose of measuring mechanical properties of rocks sent to another planet. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover employs the Powder Acquisition Drill System (PADS), which provides direct mechanical interaction with Martian outcrops. While the objective of the drill system is not to make scientific measurements, the drill's performance is directly influenced by the mechanical properties of the rocks it drills into. We have developed a methodology that uses the drill to indicate the uniaxial compressive strengths of rocks through comparison with performance of an identically assembled drill system in terrestrial samples of comparable sedimentary class. During this investigation, we utilize engineering data collected on Mars to calculate the percussive energy needed to maintain a prescribed rate of penetration and correlate that to rock strength.

  12. Drilling-and-blasting method of demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyn Denis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the experience and gives the examples of dismantling and demolition of the construction structures of the buildings and facilities using the drilling-and-blasting method. The drilling-and-blasting method is widely used in construction and reconstruction. The demolition means may be classified according to impact on a material of structures to be demolished and to forces application, where, by virtue of an impact energy type, we choose the blasting method. This method is used during the complete demolition or fragmentation of concrete, reinforced concrete, masonry structures, of old buildings and facilities demolition to their base or in the intended direction. Blasting method may be used as well during the steel and reinforced concrete structures demolition to the smaller easy-to-move parts. Reviewed are the organizational-process activities, which are performed during the various structures dismantling. Given are the areas of application for the various methods of structures demolition. Given is the example of demolition of “Sevemaya” boiler house brick chimney at the territory of Murmansk DSK using the blast in confined spaces of the operating company. Subject of research: methods of construction structures demolition in alarm situations and acts of God. Objects: determination of the most efficient demolition methods in the present conditions of construction operations development. Materials and methods: the developed activities on the construction structures dismantling are given. Results: the most efficient methods and ways of construction structures demolition are defined. Conclusions: it is required for improvement of methods and ways of the structures drilling-and-blasting demolition.

  13. Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaev B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.

  14. New technology for preparing drilling solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proselkov, Y M; Minenkov, V M

    1981-01-01

    It is indicated that it is possible to provide the necessary indices of structural-mechanical properties of solution with additional dispersion of clay particles in water at the initial stage of preparation of solutions. In the process of dispersion the indices of rheological properties of the solution vary: static SNS and dynamic of shear stress, plastic viscosity. With consideration of the aforementioned a new technology has been developed for preparing solutions from powdery materials. To carry out the technological process we use serial blocks BPR-70 with ejector hydromixer, drilling or centrifuge pump, standard capacity of circulation system, and hydraulic dispersing agent. The technology for preparing the solution is as follow (see figure). Water is poured into tank 4 in an amount equal to half the volume of the prepared portion of solution. In hydraulic disperser 6 packing is installed with a diameter in accordance with the productivity of the drilling pump 5. After this aeration is switched on for 5-7 minutes in the silo 1 of BPR with excess air pressure of 0.2-0.3 kg/cm/sup 2/. Then the drilling pump is switched on and water is pumped through in the following order: tank 4, hydraulic disperser 6, ejector hydromixer 3, tank 4. Pressure at the pump discharge should be 120-150 kg/cm/sup 2/, and the vacuum in the chamber of the electronic hydromixer is at least 0.2 kg/cm/sup 2/. With the aid of a regulating fan 2 we must create a vacuum in the chamber of the hydromixer amounting to 0.08-0.12 kg/cm/sup 2/, and as a consequence of this the fan can regulate the rate and evenness of clay powder feed.

  15. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... The role of 20E in plant physiology including seed germination is not studied. ..... GA3, ABA and CKs on lettuce Lactuca sativa seed germination are ..... Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals and humans: an update. J.

  16. Sound Coiled-Tubing Drilling Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas; Deskins, Greg (Maurer Technology Inc.); Ward, Stephen L. (Advantage Energy Services Ltd); Hightower, Mel

    2001-09-30

    This Coiled-Tubing Drilling (CTD) Sound Practices Manual provides tools needed by CTD engineers and supervisors to plan, design and perform safe, successful CTD operations. As emphasized throughout, both careful planning and attention to detail are mandatory for success. A bibliography of many useful CTD references is presented in Chapter 6. This manual is organized according to three processes: 1) Pre-Job Planning Process, 2) Operations Execution Process, and 3) Post-Job Review Process. Each is discussed in a logical and sequential format.

  17. Drilling of gas and condensed gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geranin, M P; Chao, P L; Lomonosov, V V

    1981-01-01

    Cementing of boreholes drilled into underground gas fields and the requirements imposed on the grouting mortar are reviewed. Results are set forth from a study of the insulation capacity of cementing mortar used to increase the quality of reinforcements of boreholes at PKhG. Data are presented on the properties of different grouting mortars for boreholes at PKhG, including those that may be used at low temperatures. Information is also provided on the use of light mortar containing a CaCl/sub 2/ additive, grouting mortar with furfuryl alcohol added, and expanding grouting mortars.

  18. Mist characterization in drilling 1018 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ian

    Minimum quantity lubrication replaces the traditional method of flood cooling with small amounts of high-efficient lubrication. Limited studies have been performed to determine the characteristics of mist produced during MQL. This study investigated the mist concentration levels produced while drilling 1018 steel using a vegetable based lubricant. ANOVA was performed to determine whether speed and feed rates or their interactions have a significant effect on mist concentration levels and particle diameter. It was observed that the concentration levels obtained under all four speed and feed rate combinations studied exceeded the current OSHA and NIOSH standards.

  19. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  20. Study on the ocean drilling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Han, Hyun Chul; Chin, Jae Wha; Lee, Sung Rok; Park, Kwan Soon; Lee, Young Joo; Park, Young Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Geoscience research trend of the world nations is focusing on the study of climate changes and preventing people from the natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic activities. For this study, it is necessary for scientists to interpret ancient climate changes preserved in ocean sediments, and to observe plate motions. Thus, geological and geophysical studies should be proceeded for the core samples recovered from the deep sea sediments and basement. It is essential to join the ODP(Ocean Drilling Program) that drills ocean basins and crusts using the drilling vessel with the ability of deploying almost 9 km of drilling string. The first year (1995) was focused on the analyzing the appropriateness Korea to join the ODP. The second year (1996) has been stressed on being an ODP member country based on results of the first year study, and planning the future activities as a member. The scope of study is joining the ODP as a Canada-Australia Consortium member and to set up the Korean ODP organization and future activities. The results and suggestions are as follows. 1) Necessities of Korea joining the ODP: If Korea becomes a member of the ODP, the benefits could be obtained based on the activities of other ODP members through academic, social and economic sectors. 2) Korean membership of ODP: Korea becomes a member of the Australia-Canada Consortium for ODP. AGSO (Austrian Geological Survey Organization), GSC (Geological Survey of Canada), and KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials) on behalf of their own countries will each pay a share of the full member financial contribution to the ODP. AGSO and GSC will pay one third of the full member financial contribution, and KIGAM will pay one twelfth. 3) Korean ODP structure and future activities: To enhance the efficiency of initial activities after joining the ODP, it has been decided to have a relatively simple organization. The primary governing arm of the Korean ODP organizations is the Korean ODP

  1. Diamond drilling for nuclear waste QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, Martin.

    1990-01-01

    Specialised diamond core drilling equipment could soon have a role to play in the safe disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW). Equipment to core and extract samples for quality checking from cement-filled steel waste drums by techniques compatible with eventual remote-handling operations in a 'hot-cell' is being developed. All coring tests carried out to date have been on simulant waste: 200 litre drums containing mixtures of Ordinary Portland Cement, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Pulverised Fuel Ash. No radioactive materials have yet been used for the coring trials. The coring equipment and the diamond coring bits are described. (author)

  2. Working underwater: deepwater drilling support by ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-01-01

    Experience with the drill ships Discoverer Seven Seas and Penrod 78 explains some of the problems associated with the use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) for underwater operations. Support services are a bigger problem than depth. The author describes developments, such as the new guidewire methods, side launch A-frame davit, and top hat stabilizing frame. All parts of the ROV system must be of heavy duty design, and operative skill is of paramount importance. The major requirements for deep water ROVs are reliability, fail-safe redundancy, cage deployment, compact size, adequate power, and capacity for heavy intervention work. 8 figures.

  3. Construction substantiation of the combined packer wheel of the seed drill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Юрійович Артеменко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It was determined that the main factors affecting the packing process are the construction of the working body and physical - mechanical properties of the soil. The destruction process of soil particles in the interaction with the wheel was investigated. It was established that the maximum impact on a soil particle occurs when it remains stationary and fixed. An improved construction of the combined packer wheel was proposed

  4. Drilling and testing specifications for the McGee well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The McGee Well is a part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project's subsurface site selection and characterization activities. Information from the McGee Well support site hydrologic characterization and repository design. These test specifications include details for the drilling and testing of the McGee. It includes the predicted stratigraphy, the drilling requirements, description of tests to be conducted, intervals selected for hydrologic testing, and a schedule of the drilling and testing activities. 19 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    OpenAIRE

    J. Shervais; J. Evans; V. Toy; J. Kirkpatrick; A. Clarke; J. Eichelberger

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park C...

  6. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  7. Surveillance procedure for the rotary drilling operations of a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, B; Deshais, R

    1988-06-17

    A surveillance procedure for the rotary drilling operations of a well is proposed. When the drilling pipe is drawn out of the well, or put into the well, pipe elements are taken away or added. At each moment the height of the trepan in the well is measured, together with the traction force of the lifting engine. The device permits to avoid the important damage that can be caused by an error on the drilling pipe's length.

  8. Drilling fluid technologies : what goes in must come out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polczer, S.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of drilling wastes contaminated with invert drilling muds was discussed. The tight emulsion properties which make invert drilling muds useful are the same properties that make their disposal so difficult. Potential long-term liability associated with inverts is another reason for reluctance to use these products. Inverts are toxic and highly mobile in the environment, and must therefore be handled with care. Often the costs associated with their disposal are greater than their potential benefits. Petro-Canada Lubricants has formulated a new, non-diesel based product called Drill Mud Oil HT40N which completely eliminates toxic aromatic molecules. It is composed of 98 per cent plus of cyclic and branched isoparaffins with an average carbon number of C16. The level of polynuclear aromatics is reduced to parts per billion levels. Drill Mud Oil HT40N was being used at Hibernia until an even newer product, IPAR3 synthetic drill mud oil, was developed exclusively for offshore use. Drill Mud Oil HT40N is less prone to flash fires, is odourless and is more likely to be used in places such as the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Drill Mud Oil HT40N works almost exactly the same as a diesel-based drill mud oil but has many advantages in terms of safety and ease of disposal, particularly in landfarming operations. Drill Mud Oil HT40N does not irritate the skin or release toxic fumes. The cost of Drill Mud Oil HT40N is higher than conventional diesel-based drilling muds. 2 figs

  9. Extended Reach Drilling on the example of Reelwell Drilling Method: Influence examination of different drill pipes on drilling performance on Idun field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf by PGNiG Norway AS.

    OpenAIRE

    Krol, Dariusz Pawel

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Horizontal or extended reach drilling is incredibly fast growing technology. Although in some areas of the world ERD is still novelty, most of oil companies have been using the technology reliably and successfully for dozens of years. And those companies want to improve well-worn solutions to obtain better performance, thereby reducing costs. One of the main aspects that affects drilling performance and efficiency is adequate choice of drill pipe...

  10. Surveillance procedure for the rotary drilling operations of a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, B.; Deshais, R.

    1988-06-17

    A surveillance procedure for the rotary drilling operations of a well is proposed. When the drilling pipe is drawn out of the well, or put into the well, pipe elements are taken away or added. At each moment the height of the trepan in the well is measured, together with the traction force of the lifting engine. The device permits to avoid the important damage that can be caused by an error on the drilling pipe's length.

  11. Acoustic Emission Measurements for Tool Wear Evaluation in Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Martín P.; Migliori, Julio; Ruzzante, José E.; D'Attellis, Carlos E.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, the tool condition in a drilling process of SAE 1040 steel samples was studied by means of acoustic emission. The studied drill bits were modified with artificial and real failures, such as different degrees of wear in the cutting edge and in the outer corner. Some correlation between mean power of the acoustic emission parameters and the drill bit wear condition was found.

  12. Multi-sensor measurement system for robotic drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Frommknecht, Andreas; Kühnle, Jens; Pidan, Sergej; Effenberger, Ira

    2015-01-01

    A multi-sensor measurement system for robotic drilling is presented. The system enables a robot to measure its 6D pose with respect to the work piece and to establish a reference coordinate system for drilling. The robot approaches the drill point and performs an orthogonal alignment with the work piece. Although the measurement systems are readily capable of achieving high position accuracy and low deviation to perpendicularity, experiments show that inaccuracies in the robot's 6D-pose and e...

  13. Optimization of Drilling Resistance Measurement (DRM) user-controlled variables

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor, Dumitrescu; Pesce, Giovanni; Ball, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Drilling Resistance Measurement (DRM) is recognised as an important on-site micro-invasive procedure for assessment of construction materials. This paper presents a detailed investigation of user-controlled variables and their influence on drilling resistance. The study proves that the ratio of penetration rate/rotational speed (PR/RPM) is proportional to drilling resistance. Data from Bath stone and an artificial reference stone demonstrates how different materials can be compared using thei...

  14. Seed research for improved technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bino,R.J.; Jalink,H.; Oluoch,M.O.; Groot,S.P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The production of high-quality seed is the basis for a durable a profitable agriculture. After production, seed is processed, conditioned, stored, shipped and germinated. For quality assurance, seed quality has to be controlled at all steps of the production chain. Seed functioning is accompanied by programmed transitions from cell proliferation to quiescence upon maturation and from quiescence to reinitiation of cellular metabolism upon imbibition. Despite the obvious importance of these con...

  15. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  16. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  17. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... lupin samples indicated that lupins can be used as a raw material for various food ... lupin seeds can be utilized for milk and meat imitation products. ... estimated by multiplying the percentage of crude protein, crude fat and ...

  18. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  19. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  20. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...