WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-efficiency thin-film-coated semiconductor

  1. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  2. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  3. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  4. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds.

  5. Thin-Film Coated Plastic Wrap for Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the antimicrobial property and food package capability of polymethylpentene (PMP substrate with silicon oxdie (SiOx and organic silicon (SiCxHy stacked layers deposited by an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition system were investigated. The experimental results show that the stacked pair number of SiOx/SiCxHy on PMP is limited to three pairs, beyond which the films will crack and cause package failure. The three-pair SiOx/SiCxHy on PMP shows a low water vapor transmission rate of 0.57 g/m2/day and a high water contact angle of 102°. Three-pair thin-film coated PMP demonstrates no microbe adhesion and exhibits antibacterial properties within 24 h. Food shelf life testing performed at 28 °C and 80% humidity reports that the three-pair thin-film coated PMP can enhance the food shelf-life to 120 h. The results indicate that the silicon-based thin film may be a promising material for antibacterial food packaging applications to extend the shelf-life of food products.

  6. Deposition and characterization of aluminum magnesium boride thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yun

    Boron-rich borides are a special group of materials possessing complex structures typically comprised of B12 icosahedra. All of the boron-rich borides sharing this common structural unit exhibit a variety of exceptional physical and electrical properties. In this work, a new ternary boride compound AlMgB14, which has been extensively studied in bulk form due to its novel mechanical properties, was fabricated into thin film coatings by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology. The effect of processing conditions (laser operating modes, vacuum level, substrate temperature, and postannealing, etc.) on the composition, microstructure evolution, chemical bonding, and surface morphology of AlMgB14 thin film coatings has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry; the mechanical, electrical, and optical properties of AlMgB14 thin films have been characterized by nanoindentation, four-point probe, van der Pauw Hall measurement, activation energy measurement, and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. Experimental results show that AlMgB14 films deposited in the temperature range of 300 K - 873 K are amorphous. Depositions under a low vacuum level (5 x 10-5 Torr) can introduce a significant amount of C and O impurities into AlMgB14 films and lead to a complex oxide glass structure. Orthorhombic AlMgB14 phase cannot be obtained by subsequent high temperature annealing. By contrast, the orthorhombic AlMgB 14 crystal structure can be attained via high temperature-annealing of AlMgB14 films deposited under a high vacuum level (boride films, high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14 films also possess a low n-type electrical resistivity, which is a consequence of high carrier concentration and moderate carrier mobility. The operative electrical transport mechanism and doping behavior for high vacuum level-as deposited AlMgB14

  7. Thin Film Coatings for Suppressing Electron Multipacting in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P; Chiggiato, P; Neupert, H; Shaposhnikova, E N; Taborelli, M; Vollenberg, W; Yin Vallgren, C

    2011-01-01

    Thin film coatings are an effective way for suppressing electron multipacting in particle accelerators. For bakeable beam pipes, the TiZrV Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) developed at CERN can provide a Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) of 1.1 after activation at 180oC (24h). The coating process was implemented in large scale to coat the long straight sections and the experimental beam pipes for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). For non bakeable beam pipes, as those of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), CERN started a campaign to develop a coating having a low SEY without need of in situ heating. Magnetron sputtered carbon thin films have shown SEY of 1 with marginal deterioration when exposed in air for months. This material is now being tested in both laboratory and accelerator environment. At CERN’s SPS, tests with electron cloud monitors attached to carbon coated chambers show no degradation of the coating after two years of operation interleaved with a total of 3 months of air exposure during shutdown periods...

  8. Reduction of metallosis in hip implant using thin film coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshshyam, R.; Chockalingam, K.; Gayathri, V.; Prakash, T.

    2018-04-01

    Hip implant finds its emerging attraction due to it continuous demand over the years. The hip implants (femoral head) and acetabulum cup) mainly fabricated by metals such as stainless steel, cobalt chrome and titanium alloys, other than that ceramics and polyethylene have been used. The metal-on-metal hip implant was found to be best implant material for most of the surgeons due to its high surface finish, low wear rate and low chance of dislocation from its position after implanting. Where in metal based hip implant shows less wear rate of 0.01mm3/year. Metal-on-metal implant finds its advantage over other materials both in its mechanical and physical stability against human load. In M-O-M Cobalt- chromium alloys induce metal allergy. The metal allergy (particulate debris) that is generated by wear, fretting, fragmentation and which is unavoidable when a prosthesis is implanted, can induce an inflammatory reaction in some circumstances. The objectives of this research to evaluate thin film coating with Nano particle additives to reduce the wear leads to regarding metal ion release. Experimental results reveals that thin film Sol-Gel coating with 4wt. % of specimen reduced the cobalt and chromium ion release and reduces the wear rate. Wear rate reduced by 98% for 4wt. % graphene in 20N and 95% for 4wt. % graphene in 10N.

  9. Dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper B.; Christensen, Erik N.

    2017-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also numerica......We numerically demonstrate dispersion tailoring of a silicon strip waveguide employing Titania-Alumina thin-film coating using a finite-difference mode solver. The proposed structure exhibits spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous dispersion within the telecom wavelength range. We also...

  10. Experimentally validated dispersion tailoring in a silicon strip waveguide with alumina thin-film coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Shi, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a silicon strip waveguide structure with alumina thin-film coating in-between the core and the cladding for group-velocity dispersion tailoring. By carefully designing the core dimension and the coating thickness, a spectrally-flattened near-zero anomalous group-velocity dispersion...

  11. Thin film coatings which inhibit spin relaxation of polarized potassium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.; Holt, R.J.; Boyer, D.; Green, M.C.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Young, L.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype of a polarized deuterium target which employs the spin exchange method is being developed. The mixing cell for mixing deuterium atoms and potassium vapor requires a surface that will reflect these atoms without being destroyed by the corrosive potassium. Thin film coating methods and a technique for coating pyrex are described. Results of spin relaxation measurements are given

  12. Characterisation of organic thin film coatings on automobile steel sheets by photothermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Fluegge, W. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Gibkes, J. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). AG FestKoerperSpektroskopie

    2006-07-01

    In the nineties, the first generation of organic thin film coatings for corrosion protection of zinc-coated thin sheet steel have been introduced. The coating typically consists of a suspension of small zinc particles, embedded in a polymer matrix. In the scope of quality control, the characterisation of the resulting layer structure is of great interest, comprising not only a constant layer thickness and a local homogeneity of the coating, but also the depth distribution of the particles within the layer. Especially the latter parameter does have a direct influence on the spot weldability of the steel sheets. The present work shows, how photothermal methods like modulated infrared radiometry and photoacoustics can be used for a successful depth profiling of the thin film coatings. The sample surface is periodically heated using an intensitymodulated laser beam, and a thermal wave is induced in the layer system. By variation of the modulation frequency of the laser beam, the thermal diffusion length and, as a consequence, the penetration depth of the thermal wave can be adjusted. By a suitable evaluation of the amplitude and phase lag signals as a function of the modulation frequency, accurate depth profiling has been realized which can be used for a very reliable prediction of the welding properties of the product. In the first investigations, artificial samples with well defined extreme distributions of the particles have been analyzed, and in a second step, an evaluation strategy has been developed for real production samples. (orig.)

  13. The Effects of Curcuma Longa on the Functionality of Pigmentation for Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsi, N.; Rus, A. Z. M.; Tan, N. A. M. S.

    2017-08-01

    This project presents the effects of turmeric (Curcuma Longa) on the functionality of pigmentation was carried out to improve the sustainability, environment impact and reduction of potential cost saving without sacrificing the performance of thin film coating. The Curcuma Longa pigment was extracted by grating the turmeric into small particles at different percentages which is 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of Curcuma Longa pigment with 3, 6 and 9 layers of coating. The different percentages of Curcuma Longa pigment was formulated and synthesized with polyols by crosslinking agent of glycerol and calcium carbonate into temperature at 140 °C for 2 hours. The results of water droplet test (ASTM D5964) showed the water contact angle was achieved the optimum superhydrophobic characteristic up to 60% of Curcuma Longa at 153°. The formulation of 60% Curcuma Longa was revealed the optimum adhesion resistance test with no flaking and detachment when the coating applied at 9 layers in the classification grading of adhesion test at 5B. It is indicated that the adhesion resistance of thin film coating on metal substrate was obviously increased as the layer of coating as well as the Curcuma Longa pigment percentage up to 60% at 9 layers. This project also highlighted the potential of Curcuma Longa pigment to produce quality in the natural pigmentation as a replacement synthetic pigment which is long-term health hazards.

  14. An investigation of material properties and tribological performance of magnetron sputtered thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal

    This dissertation is divided into two categories based upon lubrication functionality and its application. The categories are: Dry film lubrication and Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings. Thin film coatings examined in this work were deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering and RF-DC coupled magnetron sputtering systems. In Dry/Solid film lubrication, the mechanical, structural and tribological properties of two Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) based coatings are examined and evaluated. Among the two coatings, one coating is doped with Ti (Ti-MoS2) and the other is a combination of metal, lubricant and oxide (Sb2O3/Au - MoS2). These coatings are known to provide low friction in vacuum environments. The goal of this work was to evaluate friction and wear performance of MoS2 doped coatings in unidirectional and reciprocating sliding contact under different environmental conditions. Sliding contact results showed friction and wear dependence on temperature and humidity. The formation and removal of transfer films and the recrystallization and reorientation of basal layers on the steel counterface was observed as the mechanism for low friction. Structural analysis revealed a relationship between the microstructural properties and tribological performance. It was also observed that the addition of dopants (Ti, Au, Sb 2O3) improved the mechanical properties as compared to pure MoS2 coatings. Further, the rolling contact performance of the coatings was measured on a five ball on rod tribometer and a Thrust bearing tribometer under vacuum and air environments. The rolling contact experiments indicated that life of the rolling components depend on the amount of material present between the contacts. Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings investigates the possibilities to improve the performance and durability of tribological components when oils and thin films are synergistically coupled. In this work, the ability of a Diamond Like Carbon

  15. Analysis of polymer surfaces and thin-film coatings with Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAnally, Gerard David

    2001-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the analysis and characterisation of polymer surfaces. The Raman and SERS spectra from a PET film are presented. The SERS spectra from the related polyester PBT and from the monomer DMT are identical to PET, showing that only the aromatic signals are enhanced. Evidence from other compounds is presented to show that loss of the carbonyl stretch (1725 cm -1 ) from the spectra is due to a chemical interaction between the silver and surface carbonyl groups. The interaction of other polymer functional groups with silver is discussed. A comparison of Raman and SERS spectra collected from three faces of a single crystal shows the SERS spectra are depolarised. AFM images of the silver films used to obtain SERS are presented. They consist of regular islands of silver, fused together to form a complete film. The stability and reproducibility and of these surfaces is assessed. Band assignments for the SERS spectrum of PET are presented. A new band in the spectrum (1131 cm -1 ) is assigned to a complex vibration using a density functional calculation. Depth profiling through a polymer film on to the silver layer showed the SERS signals arise from the silver surface only. The profiles show the effects of refraction on the beam, and the adverse affect on the depth resolution. Silver films were used to obtain SERS spectra from a 40 nm thin-film coating on PET, without interference from the PET layer. The use of an azo dye probe as a marker to detect the coating is described. Finally, a novel method for the synthesis of a SERS-active vinyl-benzotriazole monomer is reported. The monomer was incorporated into a thin-film coating and the SERS spectrum obtained from the polymer. (author)

  16. Ion assisted deposition of refractory oxide thin film coatings for improved optical and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, N.K.; Thakur, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Das, N.C.

    1999-03-01

    Ion assisted deposition technique (IAD) has emerged as a powerful tool to control the optical and structural properties of thin film coatings. Keeping in view the complexity of the interaction of ions with the films being deposited, sophisticated ion sources have been developed that cater to the need of modern optical coatings with stringent spectral and environmental specifications. In the present work, the results of ion assisted deposition (IAD) of two commonly used refractory oxides, namely TiO 2 and ZrO 2 , using cold cathode ion source (CC-102R) are presented. Through successive feedback and calibration techniques, various ion beams as well as deposition parameters have been optimized to achieve the best optical and structural film properties in the prevalent deposition geometry of the coating system. It has been possible to eliminate the unwanted optical and structural inhomogeneities from these films using and optimized set of process parameters. Interference modulated spectrophotometric and phase modulated ellipsometric techniques have been very successfully utilized to analyze the optical and structural parameters of the films. Several precision multilayer coatings have been developed and are being used for laser and spectroscopic applications. (author)

  17. Note: Automatic layer-by-layer spraying system for functional thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongmin; Lee, Sangmin; Park, Yong Tae

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have constructed an automatic spray machine for producing polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing various functional materials on wide substrates via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The proposed machine exhibits advantages in terms of automation, process speed, and versatility. Furthermore, it has several features that allow a fully automated spraying operation, such as various two-dimensional spraying paths, control of the flow rate and operating speed, air-assist fan-shaped twin-fluid nozzles, and an optical display. The robot uniformly sprays aqueous mixtures containing complementary (e.g., oppositely charged, capable of hydrogen bonding, or capable of covalent bonding) species onto a large-area substrate. Between each deposition of opposite species, samples are spray-rinsed with deionized water and blow-dried with air. The spraying, rinsing, and drying areas and times are adjustable by a computer program. Twenty-bilayer flame-retardant thin films were prepared in order to compare the performance of the spray-assisted LbL assembly with a sample produced by conventional dipping. The spray-coated film exhibited a reduction of afterglow time in vertical flame tests, indicating that the spray-LbL technique is a simple method to produce functional thin film coatings.

  18. High efficiency semimetal/semiconductor nanocomposite thermoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zide, J. M. O.; Bahk, J.-H.; Zeng, G.; Bowers, J. E.; Singh, R.; Zebarjadi, M.; Bian, Z. X.; Shakouri, A.; Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C.; Feser, J. P.; Xu, D.; Singer, S. L.; Majumdar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare-earth impurities in III-V semiconductors are known to self-assemble into semimetallic nanoparticles which have been shown to reduce lattice thermal conductivity without harming electronic properties. Here, we show that adjusting the band alignment between ErAs and In 0.53 Ga 0.47-X Al X As allows energy-dependent scattering of carriers that can be used to increase thermoelectric power factor. Films of various Al concentrations were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and thermoelectric properties were characterized. We observe concurrent increases in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient with increasing temperatures, demonstrating energy-dependent scattering. We report the first simultaneous power factor enhancement and thermal conductivity reduction in a nanoparticle-based system, resulting in a high figure of merit, ZT=1.33 at 800 K.

  19. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on dental composite resins by silicon–oxygen thin film coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandracci, Pietro; Pirri, Candido F; Mussano, Federico; Ceruti, Paola; Carossa, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria on dental materials can be reduced by modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of their surfaces, either through the application of specific surface treatments or by the deposition of thin film coatings. Since this approach does not rely on the use of drugs or antimicrobial agents embedded in the materials, its duration is not limited by their possible depletion. Moreover it avoids the risks related to possible cytotoxic effects elicited by antibacterial substances released from the surface and diffused in the surrounding tissues. In this work, the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis was studied on four composite resins, commonly used for manufacturing dental prostheses. The surfaces of dental materials were modified through the deposition of a-SiO x thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The chemical bonding structure of the coatings was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology of the dental materials before and after the coating deposition was assessed by means of optical microscopy and high-resolution mechanical profilometry, while their wettability was investigated by contact angle measurements. The sample roughness was not altered after coating deposition, while a noticeable increase of wettability was detected for all the samples. Also, the adhesion of S. mitis decreased in a statistically significant way on the coated samples, when compared to the uncoated ones, which did not occur for S. mutans. Within the limitations of this study, a-SiO x coatings may affect the adhesion of bacteria such as S. mitis, possibly by changing the wettability of the composite resins investigated. (paper)

  20. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on dental composite resins by silicon-oxygen thin film coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracci, Pietro; Mussano, Federico; Ceruti, Paola; Pirri, Candido F; Carossa, Stefano

    2015-01-29

    Adhesion of bacteria on dental materials can be reduced by modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of their surfaces, either through the application of specific surface treatments or by the deposition of thin film coatings. Since this approach does not rely on the use of drugs or antimicrobial agents embedded in the materials, its duration is not limited by their possible depletion. Moreover it avoids the risks related to possible cytotoxic effects elicited by antibacterial substances released from the surface and diffused in the surrounding tissues. In this work, the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis was studied on four composite resins, commonly used for manufacturing dental prostheses. The surfaces of dental materials were modified through the deposition of a-SiO(x) thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The chemical bonding structure of the coatings was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology of the dental materials before and after the coating deposition was assessed by means of optical microscopy and high-resolution mechanical profilometry, while their wettability was investigated by contact angle measurements. The sample roughness was not altered after coating deposition, while a noticeable increase of wettability was detected for all the samples. Also, the adhesion of S. mitis decreased in a statistically significant way on the coated samples, when compared to the uncoated ones, which did not occur for S. mutans. Within the limitations of this study, a-SiO(x) coatings may affect the adhesion of bacteria such as S. mitis, possibly by changing the wettability of the composite resins investigated.

  1. Enhancement of as-sputtered silver-tantalum oxide thin film coating on biomaterial stainless steel by surface thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Rodianah; Mahmoodian, Reza; Shukor, Mohd Hamdi Abd; Yew, Been Seok; Muhamad, Martini

    2018-04-01

    Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) is extensively used as surgical/clinical tools due to its low carbon content and excellent mechanical characteristic. The fabrication of metal ceramic based on this metallic biomaterial favor its biofunctionality properties. However, instability phase of amorphous thin film lead to degradation, corrosion and oxidation. Thus, thin film coating requires elevated adhesion strength and higher surface hardness to meet clinical tools criteria. In this study, the SS316L was deposited with micron thickness of Ag-TaO thin film by using magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, elemental analysis and phase identification of Ag-TaO thin film were characterized by using FESEM, EDX and XRD, respectively; whereas the micro scratch test and micro hardness test were performed by using Micro Scratch Testing System and Vickers Micro Hardness Tester, respectively. It was found that the coating thin film's adhesion and hardness strength were improved from 672 to 2749 mN and 142 to 158 Hv respectively. It was found that the as-deposited surface were treated at 500 °C of temperatures with 2 °C/min ramping rate enhance 4.1 times of the adhesion strength value. Furthermore, FESEM characterization revealed coarsening structure of the thin film coating which can provide high durability service.

  2. Low friction slip-rolling contacts. Influences of alternative steels, high performance thin film coatings and lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness worldwide, containment provisions for CO{sub 2} emissions in mobility systems and increasing performance requirements the demands on mechanical systems and their materials continuously rise. These high demands require the implementation of new technical approaches, for example of light-weight strategies in automotive powertrains, and directly raise questions about the suitability of the most promising technical solution. Two basic parameters, the surface hardness of the tooth flanks and the core fatigue strength of the tooth root, illustrate exemplarily increasing demands on material grades used for gear wheels in automotive powertrains. In addition to light-weight strategies, a reduction in friction and an increase of the fatigue lifetime are two other major development directions to strive the mentioned targets. It is clear that any kind of solution must show an equal application profile, preferably an improvement, compared to the state-of-the-art solutions. For tribological systems, the following paths may offer lower friction and higher load carrying capabilities: 1. Alternative base oils and additives (such as esters, polyglycols), 2. Thin film coatings (e.g. DLC) and/or 3. Novel steel metallurgies. In previous investigations on the slip-rolling resistance of thin film coatings (a-C, ta-C, Zr(C,N)) the substrates were mainly made of the bearing steels 100Cr6H and Cronidur 30. Applying contact pressures of up to P{sub 0max} = 2.9 GPa (F{sub N} = 2,000 N), the samples were tested up to 10 million load cycles in endurance tests. The aim of the present work is to broaden the research by varying the input parameters. Newly developed engine oil mixtures, high performance thin film coatings and alternative steel solutions are intensively investigated in highly stressed slip-rolling contacts at lubricant temperatures of 120 C. Specifically, in using new steel metallurgies, i.e. the high toughness and high strength steels V300

  3. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronk, Ryan G.; Bellinger, Steven L.; Henson, Luke C.; Ochs, Taylor R.; Smith, Colten T.; Kenneth Shultis, J.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (MSNDs) have in recent years received much interest as high-efficiency replacements for thin-film-coated thermal neutron detectors. The basic device structure of the MSND involves micro-sized trenches that are etched into a vertically-oriented pvn-junction diode that are backfilled with a neutron converting material. Neutrons absorbed within the converting material induce fission of the parent nucleus, producing a pair of energetic charged-particle reaction products that can be counted by the diode. The MSND deep-etched microstructures produce good neutron-absorption and reaction-product counting efficiencies, offering a 10× improvement in intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency over thin-film-coated devices. Performance of present-day MSNDs are nearing theoretical limits; streaming paths between the conversion-material backfilled trenches, allow a considerable fraction of neutrons to pass undetected through the device. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs) have been developed that utilize a complementary second set of trenches on the back-side of the device to count streaming neutrons. DSMSND devices are theoretically capable of greater than 80% intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency for a 1-mm thick device. The first such prototype DSMSNDs, presented here, have achieved 29.48±0.29% nearly 2× better than MSNDs with similar microstructure dimensions.

  4. Shielding properties of protective thin film coatings and blended concrete compositions for high level waste storage packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusco, Michael A.; Winfrey, Leigh; Bourham, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Measured linear attenuation coefficients are the same for bare and coated steels. • Gamma mean free path is much larger than coating thickness; buildup is negligible. • ‘Concrete-6’ reduces exposure rate outside spent fuel cask significantly over ordinary concrete. - Abstract: Various thin film coatings have been proposed to protect stainless steel high level waste (HLW) containers from premature failure due to localized corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and mechanical wear. These coatings include TiN, ZrO 2 , MoS 2 , TiO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 , to be deposited either in multiple layers or as a thicker, single-layer composite. Linear attenuation coefficients of these materials have been simulated using MicroShield and measured experimentally for various photon energies. Additionally, spent fuel casks with overpacks made of two different types of concrete were simulated to compare exposure rate at the cask surface. In the energy range that is significant for high level waste storage all coating materials possess very similar attenuation behavior. A specialty concrete, containing magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and lead oxide (PbO), reduces the exposure rate at the outer surface of the overpack by several orders of magnitude. The higher-Z elements not present in ordinary concrete greatly increase attenuation of intermediate-energy gammas (0.4–1.0 MeV). The thin film coatings do not affect the shielding capabilities of the HLW packaging, as their total proposed thickness is nearly three orders of magnitude less than the mean free path (MFP) of the primary photons of interest.

  5. Fracture toughness improvements of dental ceramic through use of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-film coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ryan N; Stoner, Brian R; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Scattergood, Ronald O; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate strengthening mechanisms of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film coatings as a viable method for improving fracture toughness of all-ceramic dental restorations. Bars (2mm×2mm×15mm, n=12) were cut from porcelain (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) blocks and wet-polished through 1200-grit using SiC abrasive. A Vickers indenter was used to induce flaws with controlled size and geometry. Depositions were performed via radio frequency magnetron sputtering (5mT, 25°C, 30:1 Ar/O2 gas ratio) with varying powers of substrate bias. Film and flaw properties were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Flexural strength was determined by three-point bending. Fracture toughness values were calculated from flaw size and fracture strength. Data show improvements in fracture strength of up to 57% over unmodified specimens. XRD analysis shows that films deposited with higher substrate bias displayed a high %monoclinic volume fraction (19%) compared to non-biased deposited films (87%), and resulted in increased film stresses and modified YSZ microstructures. SEM analysis shows critical flaw sizes of 67±1μm leading to fracture toughness improvements of 55% over unmodified specimens. Data support surface modification of dental ceramics with YSZ thin film coatings to improve fracture toughness. Increase in construct strength was attributed to increase in compressive film stresses and modified YSZ thin film microstructures. It is believed that this surface modification may lead to significant improvements and overall reliability of all-ceramic dental restorations. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ceramic tantalum oxide thin film coating to enhance the corrosion and wear characteristics of Ti−6Al−4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmati, B., E-mail: r.bijan@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarhan, Ahmed A.D., E-mail: ah_sarhan@um.edu.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Basirun, W. Jeffrey [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abas, W.A.B.W. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    In this research, an attempt is made to study the corrosion and wear behavior of TaO{sub 2} thin film coating deposited onto Ti−6Al−4V alloy with the highest adhesion (was achieved in the author's previous experiments using Taguchi statistical method) which leads to increase corrosion resistance, decrease debris generation and improve durability. Accordingly, pure tantalum (Ta) was deposited onto Ti−6Al−4V substrate surface as intermetallic layer then to form a TaO{sub 2} thin film, Ta was deposited onto the sample surface in the presence of oxygen by using physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering (PVDMS). Corrosion testing was carried out in fetal bovine serum (FBS). The corrosion test in FBS medium confirmed that the corrosion resistance of the TaO{sub 2} – coated Ti−6Al−4V alloys was significantly higher than the uncoated Ti−6Al−4V substrate due to the decrease in corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) for the coated substrate with high thin-film adhesion. Wear testing was carried out on uncoated and coated Ti−6Al−4V substrates in the presence of FBS medium under 15 N load (natural walking load) at 1.09 m/s (simulated medium walking speed). The tests revealed that the specific wear ratio of TaO{sub 2} coating was significantly lower than the uncoated substrate wear ratio. The average friction coefficients obtained were 0.183 and 0.152 for uncoated substrate and TaO{sub 2} thin film coating, respectively. So, due to the noticeable corrosion and wear resistance characteristics of the TaO{sub 2} coating, it is suggested for hip joint implant. - Highlights: • The TaO{sub 2} coating has been created onto the Ti−6Al−4V surface by using PVDMS method. • The TaO{sub 2} coating has been formed on the Ti−6Al−4V sample at the highest adhesion. • The corrosion resistance of the coated Ti−6Al−4V substrate has been improved. • The wear resistance of the coated Ti−6Al−4V substrate has been increased. • The durability

  7. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  8. The secondary electron yield of TiZr and TiZrV non evaporable getter thin film coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Hilleret, Noël; Taborelli, M

    2001-01-01

    The secondary electron yield (SEY) of two different non evaporable getter (NEG) samples has been measured 'as received' and after thermal treatment. The investigated NEGs are TiZr and TiZrV thin film coatings of 1 mm thickness, which are sputter deposited onto copper substrates. The maximum SEY dmax of the air exposed TiZr and TiZrV coating decreases from above 2.0 to below 1.1 during a 2 hour heat treatment at 250 °C and 200 °C, respectively. Saturating an activated TiZrV surface under vacuum with the gases typically present in ultra high vacuum systems increases dmax by about 0.1. Changes in elemental surface composition during the applied heat treatments were monitored by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). After activation carbon, oxygen and chlorine were detected on the NEG surfaces. The potential of AES for detecting the surface modifications which cause the reduction of SE emission during the applied heat treatments is critically discussed.

  9. Solar selective performance of metal nitride/oxynitride based magnetron sputtered thin film coatings: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Khalil; Taha, Hatem; Mahbubur Rahman, M.; Kabir, Humayun; Jiang, Zhong-Tao

    2018-03-01

    Since solar-thermal collectors are considered to be the most direct way of converting solar energy into usable forms, in the last few years growing attention has been paid to the development of transition metal nitride and metal oxynitride based thin film selective surfaces for solar-thermal collectors, in order to harvest more solar energy. A solar-thermal energy system, generally, shows very high solar absorption of incident solar radiation from the solar-thermal collectors in the visible range (0.3 to 2.5 μm) and extremely low thermal losses through emission (or high reflection) in the infrared region (≥2.5 μm). The efficiency of a solar-thermal energy conversion system can be improved by the use of solar selective surfaces consisting of novel metallic nanoparticles embedded in metal nitride/oxynitride systems. In order to enhance the effectiveness of solar-thermal devices, solar selective surfaces with high thermal stability are a prerequisite. Over the years, substantial efforts have been made in the field of solar selective surfaces to attain higher solar absorptance and lower thermal emittance in high temperature (above 400 °C) applications. In this article, we review the present state-of-the-art transition metal nitride and/or oxynitride based vacuum sputtered nanostructured thin film coatings, with respect to their optical and solar selective surface applications. We have also summarized the solar selectivity data from recently published investigations, including discussion on some potential applications for these materials.

  10. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the growth kinetics of biomimetically grown hydroxyapatite thin-film coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, K.; Kumar, S.; Dutta, N.K.; Smart, R.St.C.; Voelcker, N.H.; Anderson, G.I.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin-film coatings grown biomimetically using simulated body fluid (SBF) are desirable for a range of applications such as improved fixation of fine- and complex-shaped orthopedic and dental implants, tissue engineering scaffolds and localized and sustained drug delivery. There is a dearth of knowledge on two key aspects of SBF-grown HA coatings: (i) the growth kinetics over short deposition periods, hours rather than weeks; and (ii) possible difference between the coatings deposited with and without periodic SBF replenishment. A study centred on these aspects is reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the growth kinetics of SBF-grown HA coatings for deposition periods ranging from 0.5 h to 21 days. The coatings were deposited with and without periodic replenishment of SBF. The XPS studies revealed that: (i) a continuous, stable HA coating fully covered the titanium substrate after a growth period of 13 h without SBF replenishment; (ii) thicker HA coatings about 1 μm in thickness resulted after a growth period of 21 days, both with and without SBF replenishment; and (iii) the Ca/P ratio at the surface of the HA coating was significantly lower than that in its bulk. No significant difference between HA grown with and without periodic replenishment of SBF was found. The coatings were determined to be carbonated, a characteristic desirable for improved implant fixation. The atomic force and scanning electron microscopies results suggested that heterogeneous nucleation and growth are the primary deposition mode for these coatings. Primary osteoblast cell studies demonstrated the biocompatibility of these coatings, i.e., osteoblast colony coverage of approximately 80%, similar to the control substrate (tissue culture polystyrene).

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the growth kinetics of biomimetically grown hydroxyapatite thin-film coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Kumar, S., E-mail: sunil.kumar@unisa.edu.au [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Dutta, N.K. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Smart, R.St.C. [Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Voelcker, N.H. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001 (Australia); Anderson, G.I. [School of Veterinary Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2010-09-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) thin-film coatings grown biomimetically using simulated body fluid (SBF) are desirable for a range of applications such as improved fixation of fine- and complex-shaped orthopedic and dental implants, tissue engineering scaffolds and localized and sustained drug delivery. There is a dearth of knowledge on two key aspects of SBF-grown HA coatings: (i) the growth kinetics over short deposition periods, hours rather than weeks; and (ii) possible difference between the coatings deposited with and without periodic SBF replenishment. A study centred on these aspects is reported. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the growth kinetics of SBF-grown HA coatings for deposition periods ranging from 0.5 h to 21 days. The coatings were deposited with and without periodic replenishment of SBF. The XPS studies revealed that: (i) a continuous, stable HA coating fully covered the titanium substrate after a growth period of 13 h without SBF replenishment; (ii) thicker HA coatings about 1 {mu}m in thickness resulted after a growth period of 21 days, both with and without SBF replenishment; and (iii) the Ca/P ratio at the surface of the HA coating was significantly lower than that in its bulk. No significant difference between HA grown with and without periodic replenishment of SBF was found. The coatings were determined to be carbonated, a characteristic desirable for improved implant fixation. The atomic force and scanning electron microscopies results suggested that heterogeneous nucleation and growth are the primary deposition mode for these coatings. Primary osteoblast cell studies demonstrated the biocompatibility of these coatings, i.e., osteoblast colony coverage of approximately 80%, similar to the control substrate (tissue culture polystyrene).

  12. Cuprous halides semiconductors as a new means for highly efficient light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Doyeol; Park, Seoung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    In group-III nitrides in use for white light-emitting diodes (LEDs), optical gain, measure of luminous efficiency, is very low owing to the built-in electrostatic fields, low exciton binding energy, and high-density misfit dislocations due to lattice-mismatched substrates. Cuprous halides I-VII semiconductors, on the other hand, have negligible built-in field, large exciton binding energies and close lattice matched to silicon substrates. Recent experimental studies have shown that the luminescence of I-VII CuCl grown on Si is three orders larger than that of GaN at room temperature. Here we report yet unexplored potential of cuprous halides systems by investigating the optical gain of CuCl/CuI quantum wells. It is found that the optical gain and the luminescence are much larger than that of group III-nitrides due to large exciton binding energy and vanishing electrostatic fields. We expect that these findings will open up the way toward highly efficient cuprous halides based LEDs compatible to Si technology. PMID:26880097

  13. Slip-rolling resistance of novel Zr(C,N) thin film coatings under high Hertzian contact pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manier, Charles-Alix

    2010-08-24

    Today, coatings are used in many applications ranging from the decoration purposes to the improvement of efficiency such as in machining tools, medical tools, computer devices (hard disks) and many more. Especially the automotive industry anticipates a benefit in using coatings for example in powertrains and gears where the mechanical components are stressed under slip-rolling motion. A cost effective option to increase efficiency is based on the increase of the load carrying capacity by thin film coatings. It would also represent a way towards downsizing. In the work presented here, a small review concerning rolling contact fatigue of coatings was performed. Experimentally it is then shown, that crystalline Zr(C,N) coatings can be slip-rolling resistant at 120 C in factory fill engine oil up to ten million cycles under average Hertzian contact pressures up to P{sub 0mean} = 1.94 GPa (P{sub 0max} = 2.91 GPa). Basically, it represents here the doubling of the normal force acting on the surface compared to uncoated steel traditionally lubricated with fully formulated oil. Typically, the coated substrates are made of the quenched and tempered bearing steel Cronidur 30. The Zr(C,N) coatings were fully characterized using different characterisation techniques in order to understand the difference in slip-rolling resistance under those high tribological demands. Effectively, the slip-rolling resistance of different batches of the Zr(C,N) coatings is evaluated using a defined and powerful testing procedure. Different results of lifetime were achieved without fundamental changes of the deposition procedure. The characterisation achieved permits the identification of microstructural disparities which should affect the load carrying capacity of the coating. Moreover, the efficiency of the high slip-rolling resistant Zr(C,N) coating was considered not only with respect to the improvement of the load carrying capacity of the substrate but also in terms of tribological

  14. Smooth Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films on Graphene for High-Efficiency Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlawacek, G.; Khokhar, F.S.; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Teichert, Christian

    2011-01-01

    High-quality thin films of conjugated molecules with smooth interfaces are important to assist the advent of organic electronics. Here, we report on the layer-by-layer growth of the organic semiconductor molecule p-sexiphenyl (6P) on the transparent electrode material graphene. Low energy electron

  15. Metal/Semiconductor and Transparent Conductor/Semiconductor Heterojunctions in High Efficient Photoelectric Devices: Progress and Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melvin David Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal/semiconductor and transparent conductive oxide (TCO/semiconductor heterojunctions have emerged as an effective modality in the fabrication of photoelectric devices. This review is following a recent shift toward the engineering of TCO layers and structured Si substrates, incorporating metal nanoparticles for the development of next-generation photoelectric devices. Beneficial progress which helps to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost, has been sequenced based on efficient technologies involved in making novel substrates, TCO layers, and electrodes. The electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO thin films can be enhanced by structuring the surface of TCO layers. The TCO layers embedded with Ag nanoparticles are used to enhance the plasmonic light trapping effect in order to increase the energy harvesting nature of photoelectric devices. Si nanopillar structures which are fabricated by photolithography-free technique are used to increase light-active surface region. The importance of the structure and area of front electrodes and the effect of temperature at the junction are the value added discussions in this review.

  16. Fused Methoxynaphthyl Phenanthrimidazole Semiconductors as Functional Layer in High Efficient OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Ramanathan, Periyasamy; Karunakaran, Chockalingam; Thanikachalam, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Efficient hole transport materials based on novel fused methoxynaphthyl phenanthrimidazole core structure were synthesised and characterized. Their device performances in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes were investigated. The high thermal stability in combination with the reversible oxidation process made promising candidates as hole-transporting materials for organic light-emitting devices. Highly efficient Alq3-based organic light emitting devices have been developed using phenanthrimidazoles as functional layers between NPB [4,4-bis(N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)biphenyl] and Alq3 [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium] layers. Using the device of ITO/NPB/4/Alq3/LiF/Al, a maximum luminous efficiency of 5.99 cd A(-1) was obtained with a maximum brightness of 40,623 cd m(-2) and a power efficiency of 5.25 lm W(-1).

  17. A 380 V High Efficiency and High Power Density Switched-Capacitor Power Converter using Wide Band Gap Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2018-01-01

    . This paper presents such a high voltage low power switched-capacitor DC-DC converter with an input voltage upto 380 V (compatible with rectified European mains) and an output power experimentally validated up to 21.3 W. The wideband gap semiconductor devices of GaN switches and SiC diodes are combined...... to compose the proposed power stage. Their switching and loss characteristics are analyzed with transient waveforms and thermal images. Different isolated driving circuits are compared and a compact isolated halfbridge driving circuit is proposed. The full-load efficiencies of 98.3% and 97.6% are achieved......State-of-the-art switched-capacitor DC-DC power converters mainly focus on low voltage and/or high power applications. However, at high voltage and low power levels, new designs are anticipated to emerge and a power converter that has both high efficiency and high power density is highly desirable...

  18. The Analysis of Distribution of Thickness of ThinFilm Coating During the Magnetron Sputtering on Systems with Planetary Movement of Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Sagatelyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article subject is a thin-film coating process using ion-plasma sputter deposition systems with magnetron sputtering targets. To improve coating thickness evenness of parts various manufacturers equip their systems with mechanisms for moving the coating parts, and sometimes the magnetrons. More specifically, the article concerns the ion-plasma sputtering process using a system equipped with a mechanism for providing a planetary movement of the coating parts in the plane perpendicular to the planes of two sputtering targets.The purpose of this work was to improve a distribution of the coating thickness evenness on the sputtering surface of the part. It is achieved through selection of the best combinations of kinematic and geometric factors that characterize a particular sputtering operation, depending on the size and position of the surface to be coated. These factors include a ratio between directions and frequencies of the self-rotation of satellite planetary gear, which holds a work piecesubstrate, and the translational motion i.e. planetary carrier rotation to carry the satellite; the angles of planes of the right and left magnetrons with respect to the system frontal plane. Since there is, essentially, a lack of mathematical models to perform the appropriate calculations for the considered type of system designs, a more specific aim of the article is to develop a technique to evaluate the uneven thickness of coatings provided by the systems of this type.To achieve this more specific purpose the analytical technique had been used, applying the postulates of analytical geometry and theoretical mechanics. The main results of the research described in the article are as follows:- mathematical models of dependencies of geometric and kinematic parameters, changing during the sputtering process and characterizing each considered point on the surface of the work piece, on the current position of the work piece in the structure of the planetary

  19. Final Report for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects: 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The

  20. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join

  1. Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, methods of making same and measuring wand and detector modules utilizing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Shultis, John K.; Rice, Blake B.; McNeil, Walter J.; Solomon, Clell J.; Patterson, Eric L.; Bellinger, Steven L.

    2010-12-21

    Non-streaming high-efficiency perforated semiconductor neutron detectors, method of making same and measuring wands and detector modules utilizing same are disclosed. The detectors have improved mechanical structure, flattened angular detector responses, and reduced leakage current. A plurality of such detectors can be assembled into imaging arrays, and can be used for neutron radiography, remote neutron sensing, cold neutron imaging, SNM monitoring, and various other applications.

  2. 1.9 W yellow, CW, high-brightness light from a high efficiency semiconductor laser-based system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Christensen, Mathias; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor lasers are ideal sources for efficient electrical-to-optical power conversion and for many applications where their small size and potential for low cost are required to meet market demands. Yellow lasers find use in a variety of bio-related applications, such as photocoagulation......, imaging, flow cytometry, and cancer treatment. However, direct generation of yellow light from semiconductors with sufficient beam quality and power has so far eluded researchers. Meanwhile, tapered semiconductor lasers at near-infrared wavelengths have recently become able to provide neardiffraction...... power in just 60 seconds. An advantage of using a single pass configuration, rather than an external cavity configuration, is increased stability towards external perturbations. For example, stability to fluctuating case temperature over a 30 K temperature span has been demonstrated. The combination...

  3. Construction of an optical semiconductor amplifier starting from a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Soto, H.; Marquez, H.; Valles V, N.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology to convert a semiconductor laser Fabry-Perot (SL-FP) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented. In order to suppress the cavity resonant an optical thin film coating was deposited on the facets of the SL-FP. The experiment was carried out putting on service a new monitoring technique that consist in the observation of the laser power spectrum during the antireflection coatings deposition. This allows to determine the moment were the facets reflectivity is minimum. The SOA obtained was characterized for different polarization currents. (Author)

  4. 1.9 W yellow, CW, high-brightness light from a high efficiency semiconductor laser-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A. K.; Christensen, M.; Noordegraaf, D.; Heist, P.; Papastathopoulos, E.; Loyo-Maldonado, V.; Jensen, O. B.; Stock, M. L.; Skovgaard, P. M. W.

    2017-02-01

    Semiconductor lasers are ideal sources for efficient electrical-to-optical power conversion and for many applications where their small size and potential for low cost are required to meet market demands. Yellow lasers find use in a variety of bio-related applications, such as photocoagulation, imaging, flow cytometry, and cancer treatment. However, direct generation of yellow light from semiconductors with sufficient beam quality and power has so far eluded researchers. Meanwhile, tapered semiconductor lasers at near-infrared wavelengths have recently become able to provide neardiffraction- limited, single frequency operation with output powers up to 8 W near 1120 nm. We present a 1.9 W single frequency laser system at 562 nm, based on single pass cascaded frequency doubling of such a tapered laser diode. The laser diode is a monolithic device consisting of two sections: a ridge waveguide with a distributed Bragg reflector, and a tapered amplifier. Using single-pass cascaded frequency doubling in two periodically poled lithium niobate crystals, 1.93 W of diffraction-limited light at 562 nm is generated from 5.8 W continuous-wave infrared light. When turned on from cold, the laser system reaches full power in just 60 seconds. An advantage of using a single pass configuration, rather than an external cavity configuration, is increased stability towards external perturbations. For example, stability to fluctuating case temperature over a 30 K temperature span has been demonstrated. The combination of high stability, compactness and watt-level power range means this technology is of great interest for a wide range of biological and biomedical applications.

  5. Construction of an optical semiconductor amplifier starting from a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser; Construccion de un amplificador optico de semiconductor a partir de un laser de semiconductor Fabry-Perot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Soto, H.; Marquez, H.; Valles V, N. [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada. Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A methodology to convert a semiconductor laser Fabry-Perot (SL-FP) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented. In order to suppress the cavity resonant an optical thin film coating was deposited on the facets of the SL-FP. The experiment was carried out putting on service a new monitoring technique that consist in the observation of the laser power spectrum during the antireflection coatings deposition. This allows to determine the moment were the facets reflectivity is minimum. The SOA obtained was characterized for different polarization currents. (Author)

  6. Fiscal 1998 research achievement report. Development of key technology for high-efficiency semiconductor manufacturing process; 1998 nendo kokoritsu handotai seizo process kiban gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    In the development of large-aperture/high-density plasma technology, research and development was carried out for balanced electron drift plasma technologies for uniform control of plasma density and the like, such as an excited plasma source and plasma drift to enable wide-range plasma generation in a chamber. In the development of high-efficiency exposure technology, studies were made for stable generation and control of short wavelength excimer laser and for higher-speed large-aperture mask writing by use of an electron beam. In the development of higher-speed processing and energy-efficient technologies, research and development was conducted involving probe card technology for increasing the speed of semiconductor inspection, software-aided virtual tester technology, local energy-efficient cleaning technology in wafer processing and transportation, sheet-type flexible manufacturing system, and the like. (NEDO)

  7. Optical Thin Film Coating Having High Damage Resistance in Near-Stoichiometric MgO-Doped LiTaO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Ryo; Kashiwagi, Kunihiro

    2008-08-01

    Currently, High power and compact red, green, and blue (RGB) lasers are being considered for use in large screen laser televisions and reception-lobby projectors. Among these three laser sources, green semiconductor lasers are expensive and exhibit inferior performance in terms of the semiconductor material used, making it difficult to achieve a high output. In this study, we examined the use of our coating on MgO-doped LiTaO3, using a mirror coated with a multilayer film. Over a substrate, a Ta2O5 film was used to coat a high-refractive-index film layer, and a SiO2 film was used to coat a low-refractive-index film layer. To improve reflectivity, we designed the peak of the electric field intensity to be in the film layer with the low refractive index. As a result, the film endurance of 100 J/cm2 was obtained by one-on-one testing. With the nonlinear crystal material, the mirror without our coating exhibited a damage threshold of 33 J/cm2; however, after coating, this mirror demonstrated a higher damage threshold of 47 J/cm2. Thus, the film we fabricated using this technique is useful for improving the strength and durability of laser mirrors.

  8. Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book deals with process and measurement of semiconductor. It contains 20 chapters, which goes as follows; semiconductor industry, introduction of semiconductor manufacturing, yield of semiconductor process, materials, crystal growth and a wafer forming, PN, control pollution, oxidation, photomasking photoresist chemistry, photomasking technologies, diffusion and ion injection, chemical vapor deposition, metallization, wafer test and way of evaluation, semiconductor elements, integrated circuit and semiconductor circuit technology.

  9. Ultrathin Epitaxial Ferromagneticγ-Fe2O3Layer as High Efficiency Spin Filtering Materials for Spintronics Device Based on Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In spintronics, identifying an effective technique for generating spin-polarized current has fundamental importance. The spin-filtering effect across a ferromagnetic insulating layer originates from unequal tunneling barrier heights for spin-up and spin-down electrons, which has shown great promise for use in different ferromagnetic materials. However, the low spin-filtering efficiency in some materials can be ascribed partially to the difficulty in fabricating high-quality thin film with high Curie temperature and/or partially to the improper model used to extract the spin-filtering efficiency. In this work, a new technique is successfully developed to fabricate high quality, ferrimagnetic insulating γ-Fe2O3 films as spin filter. To extract the spin-filtering effect of γ-Fe2O3 films more accurately, a new model is proposed based on Fowler–Nordheim tunneling and Zeeman effect to obtain the spin polarization of the tunneling currents. Spin polarization of the tunneled current can be as high as −94.3% at 2 K in γ-Fe2O3 layer with 6.5 nm thick, and the spin polarization decays monotonically with temperature. Although the spin-filter effect is not very high at room temperature, this work demonstrates that spinel ferrites are very promising materials for spin injection into semiconductors at low temperature, which is important for development of novel spintronics devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  10. High-efficiency photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

    1982-06-21

    High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

  11. Development of high-efficiency electric-optic conversion compound semiconductor - Lighting of the 21st century. Collection of essays; Kokoritsu denko henkan kagobutsu handotai kaihatsu (21 seiki no akari) seika ronbunshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    Collected in this volume are essays made public in 1998-2001 under the above-named development project intended at the practical application of an illumination light source using light-emission diodes (LED) whose energy consumption efficiency will be approximately twice as high as that of the fluorescent lamp. The project aims to develop a blue/ultraviolet LED capable of high-efficiency light emission at approximately 400 nm and a fluorescent substance capable of efficient radiation of white light as excited by the said LED and to eventually combine the two for the embodiment of a 80-100 lm/W light source device. Being conducted in the field of basics of physical properties, light-emission mechanism, and crystal growth are the elucidation of the physical properties and light-emission mechanism of GaN-based compound semiconductor materials, basic studies of bulk single crystal GaN grown by the solution growth method, studies of substrate crystal surface properties, research and development of GaNAsP-based multi-color luminescent materials, etc. Studies are also under way for the research and development of LED substrates, epitaxial LED devices, and light-source devices. (NEDO)

  12. High Efficiency S-Band 20 Watt Amplifier

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project includes the design and build of a prototype 20 W, high efficiency, S-Band amplifier.   The design will incorporate the latest semiconductor technology,...

  13. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  14. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for development of extra-high efficiency solar cells (fundamental research on extra-high efficiency III-V compound semiconductor tandem solar cells); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu no tame no kaiseki hyoka (chokokoritsu III-V zoku kagobutsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, T; Kawanami, H; Sakata, I; Nagai, K; Matsumoto, K; Miki, K [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of extra-high efficiency III-V compound semiconductor tandem solar cells. Heteroepitaxial structures of compound semiconductors, such as GaAs, on silicon substrates are analyzed and evaluated by EXAFS, Raman and RHEED for the initial stage of the film growth and heterointerfaces. The device capable of in-situ observation of the growing surface structures during the period of heteroepitaxial film growth is introduced, to investigate the effects of rise-up and initial growth conditions on defects. The effects of atomic hydrogen on growth of a GaAs film on a silicon substrate are investigated from photoluminescence and solar cell characteristics, to confirm the effects of reducing defects. Heteroepitaxial growth of InGaP, which has the optimum band width for forming multi-junction silicon solar cells, on a silicon substrate is investigated, to find that an interfacial buffer layer is necessary to form a good film. 2 figs.

  15. Tris(2-(1 H -pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) as p-Type Dopant for Organic Semiconductors and Its Application in Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burschka, Julian; Dualeh, Amalie; Kessler, Florian; Baranoff, Etienne; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Lê ; Yi, Chenyi; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K.; Grä tzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Chemical doping is an important strategy to alter the charge-transport properties of both molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors that find widespread application in organic electronic devices. We report on the use of a new class of Co

  16. TiCx thin films coatings prepared by reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoula, N.; Handa, K.; Kesri, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Transition metal carbides and nitrides attract large technological interest due to their unique properties like high hardness and young modulus, high electric conductivity, a considerable high-temperature strength, high corrosion resistance and high melting or decomposition temperatures. They have been applied as coatings for tools because of their superior properties. these materials have such properties due to atomic bonding, which shows a mixed covalent, metallic and ionic character. Among these nitrides and carbides titanium carbide is a compound of particular importance. Titanium carbide combines the advantages of a high melting point (3140 celsius degree) and hardness (3000 Hv) with those of relative lightness (density 4.93 10 3 Kg m -3 ).It also exhibits high resistance to both corrosion and oxidation and a relatively low friction coefficient. Usually, TiC films are produced by deposition with plasma-enhanced CVD (PCVD), thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) or activated reactive evaporation methods. However, these methods require high temperature (>600 celsius degree) substrates to achieve the deposition, which sometimes causes thermal damage to the deposited films. At temperature above 550 celsius degree, thermal diffusion of materials not suitable may also occur. In addition, it has been reported that the maximum temperature which permits the appropriate coating of hardened steel tools is 500 celsius degree. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a deposition technique for TiC films using low-temperature substrates to avoid thermal damage. So, different physical vapour deposition (PVD) processes for deposition of TiC at relatively low temperatures have been used through the years. These processes are based on vaporisation of titanium in hydrocarbon atmosphere or on sputtering of solid TiC target or titanium target in hydrocarbon atmosphere. the most often-used hydrocarbon gases are methane, acetylene, ethene and ethane. In previous works, we demonstrate clearly the great influence of the variation of different parameters (deposition time, RF power, total pressure, gas mixture (Ar+CH 4 ) on the film growth rates and thickness. The aim of present work is to study their influence of gas mixture, more specifically of carbon content on the structure, composition and the hardness of TiC coatings, prepared using an RF sputtering system

  17. Surface analysis of thin film coatings on container glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, A. [GCC Pty Ltd., Jindalee, QLD (Australia); Wood, B. [The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Department of Chemistry

    1999-12-01

    Full text: Container glass is generally coated with a tin oxide layer followed by a coating of polymer. These coatings are believed to improve the mechanical properties of container glass as well as aid in the application of advertising labels to glass. The tin oxide layer on commercial beer bottles has a total thickness of about 15-20nm which consists of an interfacial layer comprising 70-85% of the total thickness. The polymer coating is about 2-5nm thick and also possesses an interfacial layer with tin oxide. A PHI Model 560 XPS/ SAM/ SIMS multi-technique system Is used to estimate concentration profiles of Sn, O, C, Si, Ca, Na and O. A combination of XPS, AES and SIMS is necessary to describe the coatings. Instrumental conditions and sample preparation methods are developed to optimize the analysis of thin films on glass. The coating comprises of three areas, namely (A) where polymer and tin co-exist (B) a pure tin oxide layer and (C) where tin co-exists with glass. By varying the chemical source of tin, it is possible to systematically vary the thickness of the interface and the concentration profile of Sn. Using XRD, crystalline phase(s) could be detected in tin oxide films as thin as 15nm. While the principle phase is cassiterite, a second phase is also detected which is believed to originate from the interface. Using a UMIS 2000 nanoindentor system, instrumental parameters are optimized for measurement of elastic modulus of films at varying depths, i.e. from surface of coating to the bulk of the glass. A sharp rise is observed at depth corresponding to the interface which is indicative of the significance of the interfacial layer. Samples are prepared by systematic ion-milling which are representative of various regions of the coating, namely (A), (B) and (C). These samples are analyzed by XRD and TEM. Based on these studies, a structural model of tin oxide layer and interface is presented to explain increase in elastic modulus at the interface. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

  18. Surface analysis of thin film coatings on container glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Wood, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Container glass is generally coated with a tin oxide layer followed by a coating of polymer. These coatings are believed to improve the mechanical properties of container glass as well as aid in the application of advertising labels to glass. The tin oxide layer on commercial beer bottles has a total thickness of about 15-20nm which consists of an interfacial layer comprising 70-85% of the total thickness. The polymer coating is about 2-5nm thick and also possesses an interfacial layer with tin oxide. A PHI Model 560 XPS/ SAM/ SIMS multi-technique system Is used to estimate concentration profiles of Sn, O, C, Si, Ca, Na and O. A combination of XPS, AES and SIMS is necessary to describe the coatings. Instrumental conditions and sample preparation methods are developed to optimize the analysis of thin films on glass. The coating comprises of three areas, namely (A) where polymer and tin co-exist (B) a pure tin oxide layer and (C) where tin co-exists with glass. By varying the chemical source of tin, it is possible to systematically vary the thickness of the interface and the concentration profile of Sn. Using XRD, crystalline phase(s) could be detected in tin oxide films as thin as 15nm. While the principle phase is cassiterite, a second phase is also detected which is believed to originate from the interface. Using a UMIS 2000 nanoindentor system, instrumental parameters are optimized for measurement of elastic modulus of films at varying depths, i.e. from surface of coating to the bulk of the glass. A sharp rise is observed at depth corresponding to the interface which is indicative of the significance of the interfacial layer. Samples are prepared by systematic ion-milling which are representative of various regions of the coating, namely (A), (B) and (C). These samples are analyzed by XRD and TEM. Based on these studies, a structural model of tin oxide layer and interface is presented to explain increase in elastic modulus at the interface. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  19. Optimized thin film coatings for passive radiative cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshine, Babak B.; Saboonchi, Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Passive radiative cooling is a very interesting method, which lays on low atmospheric downward radiation within 8-13 μm waveband at dry climates. Various thin film multilayer structures have been investigated in numerous experimental studies, in order to find better coatings to exploit the full potential of this method. However, theoretical works are handful and limited. In this paper, the Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm are used to optimize a thin film multilayer structure for passive radiative cooling applications. Spectral radiative properties are calculated through the matrix formulation. Considering a wide range of materials, 30 high-potential convective shields are suggested. According to the calculations, cooling can be possible even under direct sunlight, using the introduced shields. Moreover, a few water-soluble materials are studied for the first time and the results show that, a KBr substrate coated by a thin CaF2 or polyethylene film can is very close to an ideal coating for passive radiative cooling at night.

  20. Non-Evaporable Getter Thin Film Coatings for Vacuum Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prodromides, A E

    2002-01-01

    Getters are solid materials capable of chemisorbing gas molecules on their surface: getters are chemical pumps. They are widely used for a variety of applications such as in particle accelerators, vacuum tubes, field-emission display (FED), inert gas purification systems, H2 plasma purification, hydrogen species recycling as in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. Among the different Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) materials tested, the TiZrV alloys have the lowest activation temperature. For this reason, the TiZrV coatings were the object of this work. In particular, the aim of this investigation was to understand how to optimise three important properties of TiZrV coatings: to achieve the lowest possible activation temperature (Ta), and to obtain the highest pumping speed and surface pumping capacity. This objective is important in the context of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator, since, before this work, the understanding and the knowledge of the TiZrV coatings properties were insufficient to adopt it fo...

  1. High-efficiency CARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  2. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main...... converter components. Wide bandgap power semiconductors are introduced due to their superior performance in comparison to traditional silicon power devices. The analysis presents a study based on switching loss measurements performed on Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs, SiC MOSFETs and their respective gate drivers...

  3. Tris(2-(1 H -pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) as p-Type Dopant for Organic Semiconductors and Its Application in Highly Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Burschka, Julian

    2011-11-16

    Chemical doping is an important strategy to alter the charge-transport properties of both molecular and polymeric organic semiconductors that find widespread application in organic electronic devices. We report on the use of a new class of Co(III) complexes as p-type dopants for triarylamine-based hole conductors such as spiro-MeOTAD and their application in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSCs). We show that the proposed compounds fulfill the requirements for this application and that the discussed strategy is promising for tuning the conductivity of spiro-MeOTAD in ssDSCs, without having to rely on the commonly employed photo-doping. By using a recently developed high molar extinction coefficient organic D-π-A sensitizer and p-doped spiro-MeOTAD as hole conductor, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 7.2%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM1.5G, 100 mW cm -2). We expect these promising new dopants to find widespread applications in organic electronics in general and photovoltaics in particular. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. FY 1999 report on the results of the development of high efficiency lightning conversion compound semiconductor. Plan on lighting for the 21st century; Kokoritsu denko henkan kagobutsu handotai kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 21 seiki no akari keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the white light-emitting diode (LEDs) lightening as 'a plan on lighting for the 21st century,' the results of the following R and D were obtained: 1) basic study of light-emitting mechanism; 2) improvement of epitaxial growth method of blue/ultraviolet LED; 3) substrate for homoepitaxial growth; 4) basic characteristics of phosphor-based light source for white LED lighting. In 1), light emitting mechanisms responsible for high-quantum efficiency of InGaN mixed semiconductors and InGaN/GaN quantum wells were studied by means of temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL and selective-excitation PL spectroscopy. In 2), precise lapping and polishing procedures of sapphire and GaN crystalline substrates for epitaxial growth using metalorganic chemical-vapor-deposition and MBE showed favorable surface characteristics of substrates. In 3), study was made on growth conditions and growth mechanism of GaN bulk single crystals using the nitrogen pressure-controlled solution growth method. A size of 12mm diameter of GaN single crystal showing good crystallinity and PL characteristics were obtained. In 4), excitation, absorption and PL spectra of rare-earth doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S red phosphor were studied in detail. (NEDO)

  5. New highly efficient piezoceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantsiger, A.Ya.; Razumovskaya, O.N.; Reznichenko, L.A.; Grineva, L.D.; Devlikanova, R.U.; Dudkina, S.I.; Gavrilyachenko, S.V.; Dergunova, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    New high efficient piezoceramic materials with various combination of parameters inclusing high Curie point for high-temperature transducers using in atomic power engineering are worked. They can be used in systems for heated matters nondestructive testing, controllers for varied industrial power plants and other high-temperature equipment

  6. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra-r...

  7. Overview of Ecological Agriculture with High Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Guo-qin; Zhao, Qi-guo; Gong, Shao-lin; Shi, Qing-hua

    2012-01-01

    From the presentation, connotation, characteristics, principles, pattern, and technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency, we conduct comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of the theoretical and practical progress of ecological agriculture with high efficiency. (i) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency was first advanced in China in 1991. (ii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency highlights "high efficiency", "ecology", and "combination". (iii) Ecol...

  8. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  9. High-efficient electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavatskikh, K.V.; Zverev, B.V.; Kalyuzhnyj, V.E.; Morozov, V.L.; Nikolaev, S.V.; Plotnikov, S.N.; Sobenin, N.P.; Vovna, V.A.; Gryzlov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison analysis of ELA on running and still waves designed for 10 MeV energy and with high efficiency is carried out. It is shown, that from the point of view of dimensions ELA with a still wave or that of a combined type is more preferable. From the point of view of impedance characteristics in any variant with application of magnetron as HF-generator it is necessary to implement special requirements to the accelerating structure if no ferrite isolation is provided in HF-channel. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Absorption and scattering effects by silver nanoparticles near the interface of organic/inorganic semiconductor tandem films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, Coleen T.; Vijapurapu, Divya K.; Petoukhoff, Christopher E.; Cheung, Gary Z.; O’Carroll, Deirdre M.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally and theoretically characterize back-scattering and extinction of Ag nanoparticle (AgNP) arrays on both Si wafer substrates and optically-thick Ag substrates with and without organic poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk-heterojunction thin film coatings. A strong red-shift in back-scattered light wavelength occurs from AgNP arrays on Si as a function of increasing mean nanoparticle diameter (ranging from 30 to 90 nm). Back-scattering from the AgNP array is notably quenched in the wavelength range of strong P3HT absorption when the organic layer is applied. However, back-scattering is enhanced to a degree relative to the uncoated AgNP array on Si at wavelengths greater than the absorption band edge of P3HT. For comparison, the optical properties of AgNPs on an optically-thick Ag substrate are reported with and without P3HT:PCBM thin film coatings. On the reflective Ag substrates, a significant enhancement (by a factor of 7.5) and red-shift of back-scattered light occurred upon coating of the AgNPs with the P3HT:PCBM layer. Additionally, red-edge extinction was enhanced in the P3HT:PCBM layer with the presence of the AgNPs compared to the planar case. Theoretical electromagnetic simulations were carried out to help validate and explain the scattering and extinction changes observed in experiment. Both increasing nanoparticle size and an increasing degree of contact with the Si substrate (i.e., effective index of the nanoparticle environment) are shown to play a role in increasing back- and forward-scattering intensity and wavelength, and in increasing absorption enhancements in both the organic and Si layers. AgNPs placed at the P3HT:PCBM/Si interface give rise to absorption increases in P3HT of up to 18 %, and only enhance Si absorption at wavelengths longer than the absorption band edge of P3HT (by almost 90 % in the 660–1,200 nm wavelength range). These results provide insight into how metal

  11. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  12. High efficiency battery converter with SiC devices for residential PV systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Teodorescu, Remus; Kerekes, Tamas

    2013-01-01

    The demand for high efficiency and higher power density is a challenge for Si-based semiconductors due to the physical characteristics of material. These can be overcome by employing wide-band-gap materials like SiC. This paper compares a second generator SiC MOSFETs against a normally-on Trench...

  13. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  14. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  15. Thin film coatings for new generation infrared thermal picture synthesising devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of infrared imaging devices has been proved by the continuous marketing of such products for more than 10 years. The need to produce thermal images with high apparent temperature values (600-800 deg. C) in the 3-5 micron waveband, mean that the operating temperature of the device pixels must be high. Such high temperature operation compromises the lifetime and switching speed of the pixels. It is hence desired that the real temperature of the pixels is kept as low as possible to achieve the desired apparent temperature. This requires coating the pixels with a high emissivity coating in the infrared. Current devices have multi-layer double resonating cavity interference structures built on their top surface. These structures enhance the emissivity of the pixels to a value around 50%. However, the manufacturing of such structures on top of the delicate pixels is time intensive and involves many delicate processes, which increase the probability of device failure during manufacture. The work presented in this thesis aims at achieving a simple and quick process that will provide the pixels with a single high emissivity coating. The process is carried out using standard cleanroom equipment with the coating aimed at being than one micron thick, and being able to withstand the operating temperatures of the pixel under ambient atmospheres. The work concludes with an optimised sputter-deposition process of two coatings with a combined thickness of 7000A, followed by annealing at 700 deg. C. This process achieves a coating with an emissivity of 84%. The work also describes the deposition of a thermally stable SiC coating which is highly transparent in the infrared. (author)

  16. Effect of elevated substrate temperature deposition on the mechanical losses in tantala thin film coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajente, G.; Birney, R.; Ananyeva, A.; Angelova, S.; Asselin, R.; Baloukas, B.; Bassiri, R.; Billingsley, G.; Fejer, M. M.; Gibson, D.; Godbout, L. J.; Gustafson, E.; Heptonstall, A.; Hough, J.; MacFoy, S.; Markosyan, A.; Martin, I. W.; Martinu, L.; Murray, P. G.; Penn, S.; Roorda, S.; Rowan, S.; Schiettekatte, F.; Shink, R.; Torrie, C.; Vine, D.; Reid, S.; Adhikari, R. X.

    2018-04-01

    Brownian thermal noise in dielectric multilayer coatings limits the sensitivity of current and future interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In this work we explore the possibility of improving the mechanical losses of tantala, often used as the high refractive index material, by depositing it on a substrate held at elevated temperature. Promising results have been previously obtained with this technique when applied to amorphous silicon. We show that depositing tantala on a hot substrate reduced the mechanical losses of the as-deposited coating, but subsequent thermal treatments had a larger impact, as they reduced the losses to levels previously reported in the literature. We also show that the reduction in mechanical loss correlates with increased medium range order in the atomic structure of the coatings using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, a discussion is included on our results, which shows that the elevated temperature deposition of pure tantala coatings does not appear to reduce mechanical loss in a similar way to that reported in the literature for amorphous silicon; and we suggest possible future research directions.

  17. Roll-to-roll thin film coating on fluoropolymer webs - status, challenges and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlteich, John; Steiner, Cindy; Schiller, Nicolas; Miesbauer, Oliver; Noller, Klaus; Deichmann, Karl-Joachim; Mirza, Mark; Amberg-Schwab, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Fluoropolymer webs and membranes commonly exhibit superior optical properties such as high transmittance over a broad wavelength range and very good outdoor stability. Therefore, fluoropolymer films are used in architecture, for example, in membrane roofs and facades in stadiums, shopping malls, and airports or as front-side encapsulation for solar cells. However, thin film deposition on fluoropolymer webs – both in vacuum and at atmospheric pressure – face several critical challenges includi...

  18. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  19. Effect of thin-film coating on wear in EGR-contaminated oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Aldajah, S. H.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2001-01-01

    Increased use of higher-efficiency compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) diesel engines instead of today's gasoline engines will result in reduced fuel consumption and greenhouse gases emissions. However, NO(sub x) and particulate exhaust emissions from diesel engines must be significantly reduced due to their possible adverse health effects. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective way to reduce NO(sub x) emissions from diesel engines, but the particulates and acidic exhaust products in the recirculated gas will contaminate engine lubricant oil by increasing the soot content and total acid number (TAN). These factors will increase the wear rate in many critical engine components and seriously compromise engine durability. We have investigated the use of commercially available thin and hard coatings (TiN, TiCN, TiAlN, and CrN) to mitigate the negative effects of EGR on wear. In tests with the four-ball machine according to ASTM D4172, we found that all the four coatings deposited on M-50 steel significantly reduced wear in EGR-contaminated oils when compared with uncoated M50 steel balls

  20. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated on rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are the major source of friction in lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. Our solution is to coat rubbers with flexible diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film by which the coefficient of friction is reduced from above 1.5 to below 0.15.

  1. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 75% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film, by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  2. Electrical four-point probing of spherical metallic thin films coated onto micron sized polymer particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Sigurd R., E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no; Stokkeland, August Emil; Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Jianying, E-mail: sigurd.r.pettersen@ntnu.no, E-mail: jianying.he@ntnu.no [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Kristiansen, Helge [NTNU Nanomechanical Lab, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway); Njagi, John; Goia, Dan V. [Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699-5814 (United States); Redford, Keith [Conpart AS, Dragonveien 54, NO-2013 Skjetten (Norway)

    2016-07-25

    Micron-sized metal-coated polymer spheres are frequently used as filler particles in conductive composites for electronic interconnects. However, the intrinsic electrical resistivity of the spherical thin films has not been attainable due to deficiency in methods that eliminate the effect of contact resistance. In this work, a four-point probing method using vacuum compatible piezo-actuated micro robots was developed to directly investigate the electric properties of individual silver-coated spheres under real-time observation in a scanning electron microscope. Poly(methyl methacrylate) spheres with a diameter of 30 μm and four different film thicknesses (270 nm, 150 nm, 100 nm, and 60 nm) were investigated. By multiplying the experimental results with geometrical correction factors obtained using finite element models, the resistivities of the thin films were estimated for the four thicknesses. These were higher than the resistivity of bulk silver.

  3. Application of fluoridated hydroxyapatite thin film coatings using KrF pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Ueda, Mamoru; Kohiga, Yu; Imura, Kazuki; Hontsu, Shigeki

    2018-06-08

    Fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) was investigated for application as an implant coating for titanium bone substitute materials in dental implants. A KrF pulsed excimer deposition technique was used for film preparation on a titanium plate. The compacts were ablated by laser irradiation at an energy density of 1 J/cm 2 on an area 1×1 mm 2 with the substrate at room temparature. Energydispersive spectrometric analysis of the FHA film revealed peaks of fluorine in addition to calcium and phosphorus. X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of crystalline FHA on the FHA film after a 10 h post annealing treatment at 450°C. The FHA film coating exhibited significant dissolution resistance to sodium phosphate buffer for up to 21 days, and favorable cell attachment of human mesenchymal stem cells compared with HA film. The results of this study suggest that FHA coatings are suitable for real-world implantation applications.

  4. Deposition and Characterization of Hermetic, Biocompatible Thin Film Coatings for Implantable, Electrically Active Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Robyn K.

    Retinal prostheses may be used to support patients suffering from Age-related macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. A hermetic encapsulation of the poly(imide )-based prosthesis is important in order to prevent the leakage of water and ions into the electric circuitry embedded in the poly(imide) matrix. The deposition of amorphous aluminum oxide (by sputtering) and diamond like carbon (by pulsed laser ablation and vacuum arc vapor deposition) were studied for the application in retinal prostheses. The resulting thin films were characterized for composition, thickness, adhesion and smoothness by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, profilometry and light microscopy. Electrical stability was evaluated and found to be good. The as-deposited films prevented incursion of salinated fluids into the implant over two (2) three month trials soaking in normal saline at body temperature, Biocompatibility was tested in vivo by implanting coated specimen subretinally in the eye of Yucatan pigs. While amorphous aluminum oxide is more readily deposited with sufficient adhesion quality, biocompatibility studies showed a superior behavior of diamond-like carbon. Amorphous aluminum oxide had more adverse effects and caused more severe damage to the retinal tissue.

  5. Organo-Aluminate Polymeric Materials as Advanced Erosion/Corrosion Resistant Thin Film Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    ...) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The coating system is based on the development of carboxylato- alumoxane precursors for fabrication of corrosion resistant oxide barrier layers and alumoxane-epoxy based primer coats...

  6. Spectral and directional radiation characteristics of thin-film coated isothermal semitransparent plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R P; Viskanta, R

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented for predicting the effective spectral directional radiation characteristics of an isothermal, semitransparent sheet surrounded on both sides by massive dielectrics. The sheet can be coated with an optically thin film and used as selective cover plates for solar collectors. Directional and polarization effects and the spectral transmittance and reflectance are considered. Sample results for candidate materials are presented.

  7. Optically transparent, superhydrophobic, biocompatible thin film coatings and methods for producing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Simpson, John T.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Trammell, Neil E.

    2017-09-05

    An optically transparent, hydrophobic coating, exhibiting an average contact angle of at least 100 degrees with a drop of water. The coating can be produced using low-cost, environmentally friendly components. Methods of preparing and using the optically transparent, hydrophobic coating.

  8. The HIE-ISOLDE Superconducting Cavities: Surface Treatment and Niobium Thin Film Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, G; Ferreira, L M A; Gustafsson, A E; Pasini, M; Trilhe, P; Palmieri, V

    2010-01-01

    CERN has designed and prepared new facilities for the surface treatment and niobium sputter coating of the HIE-ISOLDE superconducting cavities. We describe here the design choices, as well as the results of the first surface treatments and test coatings.

  9. Implementation of Carbon Thin Film Coatings in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) for Electron Cloud Mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P; Basso, T; Edwards, P; Mensi, M; Sublet, A; Taborelli, M

    2014-01-01

    Low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) carbon thin films eradicate electron multipacting in accelerator beam pipes. Two magnetic cells of the SPS were coated with such material and installed. In total more than forty vacuum vessels and magnet interconnections were treated. The feasibility of the coating process was validated. The performance of the carbon thin film will be tested with LHC nominal beams after the end of the long shutdown 1. Particular attention will be drawn to the long term behaviour. This paper presents the sputtering techniques used to coat the different components; their characterization (SEY measurements on coupons, RF multipacting tests and pump down curves); and the technology to etch the carbon film in case of a faulty coating. The strategy to coat the entire SPS will also be described.

  10. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  11. High efficiency lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1982-08-01

    The polarization characteristics and the specific cathode capacity of Teflon bonded carbon electrodes in the Li/SOCl2 system have been evaluated. Doping of electrocatalysts such as cobalt and iron phthalocyanine complexes improved both cell voltage and cell rate capability. High efficiency Li/SOCl2 cells were thus achieved with catalyzed cathodes. The electrochemical reduction of SOCl2 seems to undergo modification at catalyzed cathode. For example, the reduction of SOCl2 at FePc catalyzed cathode involves 2-1/2 e-/mole of SOCl2. Furthermore, the reduction mechanism is simplified and unwanted chemical species are eliminated by the catalyst. Thus a potentially safer high efficiency Li/SOCl2 can be anticipated.

  12. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A centrifugal compressor research effort conducted by United Technologies Research Center under NASA Research Announcement NNC08CB03C is documented. The objectives were to identify key technical barriers to advancing the aerodynamic performance of high-efficiency, high work factor, compact centrifugal compressor aft-stages for turboshaft engines; to acquire measurements needed to overcome the technical barriers and inform future designs; to design, fabricate, and test a new research compressor in which to acquire the requisite flow field data. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage -- splittered impeller, splittered diffuser, 90 degree bend, and exit guide vanes -- with aerodynamically aggressive performance and configuration (compactness) goals were designed, fabricated, and subquently tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  13. 2 W high efficiency PbS mid-infrared surface emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, A.; Sugiyama, Y.; Isaji, Y.; Kodama, K.; Takano, Y.; Sakata, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-09-01

    High efficiency laser operation with output power exceeding 2 W was obtained for vertical external-cavity PbS based IV-VI compound surface emitting quantum-well structures. The laser showed external quantum efficiency as high as 16%. Generally, mid-infrared III-V or II-VI semiconductor laser operation utilizing interband electron transitions are restricted by Auger recombination and free carrier absorption. Auger recombination is much lower in the IV-VI semiconductors, and the free-carrier absorption is significantly reduced by an optically pumped laser structure including multi-step optical excitation layers.

  14. High-power, high-efficiency FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-04-01

    High power, high efficiency FELs require tapering, as the particles loose energy, so as to maintain resonance between the electromagnetic wave and the particles. They also require focusing of the particles (usually done with curved pole faces) and focusing of the electromagnetic wave (i.e. optical guiding). In addition, one must avoid transverse beam instabilities (primarily resistive wall) and longitudinal instabilities (i.e sidebands). 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, lain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experim...

  16. High efficiency inverter and ballast circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilssen, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency push-pull inverter circuit employing a pair of relatively high power switching transistors is described. The switching on and off of the transistors is precisely controlled to minimize power losses due to common-mode conduction or due to transient conditions that occur in the process of turning a transistor on or off. Two current feed-back transformers are employed in the transistor base drives; one being saturable for providing a positive feedback, and the other being non-saturable for providing a subtractive feedback

  17. Recent Advances in High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshio; Ohshita; Hidetoshi; Suzuki; Kenichi; Nishimura; Masafumi; Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity is limited around 25%,when we use single junction solar cells. In the single junction cells,the major energy losses arise from the spectrum mismatching. When the photons excite carriers with energy well in excess of the bandgap,these excess energies were converted to heat by the rapid thermalization. On the other hand,the light with lower energy than that of the bandgap cannot be absorbed by the semiconductor,resulting in the losses. One way...

  18. Ultra-high Efficiency DC-DC Converter using GaN Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    properties of GaN devices can be utilized in power converters to make them more compact and highly efficient. This thesis entitled “Ultra-high Efficiency DC-DC Converter using GaN devices” focuses on achieving ultra-high conversion efficiency in an isolated dc-dc converter by the optimal utilization of Ga...... for many decades. However, the rate of improvement slowed as the silicon power materials asymptotically approached its theoretical bounds. Compared to Si, wideband gap materials such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) are promising semiconductors for power devices due to their superior...... in this thesis. Efficiency measurements from the hardware prototype of both the topologies are also presented in this thesis. Finally, the bidirectional operation of an optimized isolated dc-dc converter is presented. The optimized converter has achieved an ultra-high efficiency of 98.8% in both directions...

  19. High voltage generator circuit with low power and high efficiency applied in EEPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low power and high efficiency high voltage generator circuit embedded in electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). The low power is minimized by a capacitance divider circuit and a regulator circuit using the controlling clock switch technique. The high efficiency is dependent on the zero threshold voltage (V th ) MOSFET and the charge transfer switch (CTS) charge pump. The proposed high voltage generator circuit has been implemented in a 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS process. Measured results show that the proposed high voltage generator circuit has a low power consumption of about 150.48 μW and a higher pumping efficiency (83.3%) than previously reported circuits. This high voltage generator circuit can also be widely used in low-power flash devices due to its high efficiency and low power dissipation. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  1. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  2. High Power High Efficiency Diode Laser Stack for Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hui; Fu, Yueming; Cui, Yan

    2018-03-01

    High-power diode lasers based on GaAs semiconductor bars are well established as reliable and highly efficient laser sources. As diode laser is simple in structure, small size, longer life expectancy with the advantages of low prices, it is widely used in the industry processing, such as heat treating, welding, hardening, cladding and so on. Respectively, diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. At this power level, it can have many important applications, such as surgery, welding of polymers, soldering, coatings and surface treatment of metals. But there are some applications, which require much higher power and brightness, e.g. hardening, key hole welding, cutting and metal welding. In addition, High power diode lasers in the military field also have important applications. So all developed countries have attached great importance to high-power diode laser system and its applications. This is mainly due their low performance. In this paper we will introduce the structure and the principle of the high power diode stack.

  3. High efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Congyi; Wang, Bohan; Zhao, Tianfei; Chen, C. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Energy transmission efficiency and working bandwidth are the two major factors limiting the application of current acoustic diodes (ADs). This letter presents a design of high efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes composed of a nonlinear frequency converter and a linear wave filter. The converter consists of two masses connected by a bilinear spring with asymmetric tension and compression stiffness. The wave filter is a linear mass-spring lattice (sonic crystal). Both numerical simulation and experiment show that the energy transmission efficiency of the acoustic diode can be improved by as much as two orders of magnitude, reaching about 61%. Moreover, the primary working band width of the AD is about two times of the cut-off frequency of the sonic crystal filter. The cut-off frequency dependent working band of the AD implies that the developed AD can be scaled up or down from macro-scale to micro- and nano-scale.

  4. Experiments on high efficiency aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.; Cuccuru, A.; Kunz, P.

    1977-01-01

    Research on high efficiency aerosol filtration by the Nuclear Engineering Institute of Pisa University and by CAMEN in collaboration with CNEN is outlined. HEPA filter efficiency was studied as a function of the type and size of the test aerosol, and as a function of flowrate (+-50% of the nominal value), air temperature (up to 70 0 C), relative humidity (up to 100%), and durability in a corrosive atmosphere (up to 140 hours in NaCl mist). In the selected experimental conditions these influences were appreciable but are not sufficient to be significant in industrial HEPA filter applications. Planned future research is outlined: measurement of the efficiency of two HEPA filters in series using a fixed particle size; dependence of the efficiency on air, temperatures up to 300-500 0 C; performance when subject to smoke from burning organic materials (natural rubber, neoprene, miscellaneous plastics). Such studies are relevant to possible accidental fires in a plutonium laboratory

  5. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  6. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  7. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  8. Design of High Efficient MPPT Solar Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to design a High Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Solar Inverter. A boost converter is designed in the system to boost the power from the photovoltaic panel. By this experimental setup a room consisting of 500 Watts load (eight fluorescent tubes is completely controlled. It is aimed to decrease the maintenance cost. A microcontroller is introduced for tracking the P&O (Perturb and Observe algorithm used for tracking the maximum power point. The duty cycle for the operation of the boost convertor is optimally adjusted by using MPPT controller. There is a MPPT charge controller to charge the battery as well as fed to inverter which runs the load. Both the P&O scheme with the fixed variation for the reference current and the intelligent MPPT algorithm were able to identify the global Maximum power point, however the performance of the MPPT algorithm was better.

  9. High Efficiency Ka-Band Spatial Combiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Passi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Ka-Band, High Efficiency, Small Size Spatial Combiner (SPC is proposed in this paper, which uses an innovatively matched quadruple Fin Lines to microstrip (FLuS transitions. At the date of this paper and at the Author's best knowledge no such FLuS innovative transitions have been reported in literature before. These transitions are inserted into a WR28 waveguide T-junction, in order to allow the integration of 16 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPA's. A computational electromagnetic model using the finite elements method has been implemented. A mean insertion loss of 2 dB is achieved with a return loss better the 10 dB in the 31-37 GHz bandwidth.

  10. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  11. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen-Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2018-05-15

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaflop-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency. The network implements collective network and a global asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. Integrated in the node design include a list-based prefetcher. The memory system implements transaction memory, thread level speculation, and multiversioning cache that improves soft error rate at the same time and supports DMA functionality allowing for parallel processing message-passing.

  12. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  13. The CRRES high efficiency solar panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the High Efficiency Solar Panel (HESP) experiments which is to provide both engineering and scientific information concerning the effects of space radiation on advanced gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. The HESP experiment consists of an ambient panel, and annealing panel and a programmable load. This experiment, in conjunction with the radiation measurement experiments abroad the CREES, provides the first opportunity to simultaneously measure the trapped radiation belts and the results of radiation damage to solar cells. The engineering information will result in a design guide for selecting the optimum solar array characteristics for different orbits and different lifetimes. The scientific information will provide both correlation of laboratory damage effects to space damage effects and a better model for predicting effective solar cell panel lifetimes

  14. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  15. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  16. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  17. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  18. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  19. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  20. High efficiency, variable geometry, centrifugal cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsha, M.D.; Nichols, K.E.; Beale, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been developed which has a basic design that is rugged and reliable with variable speed and variable geometry features that achieve high pump efficiency over a wide range of head-flow conditions. The pump uses a sealless design and rolling element bearings to achieve high reliability and the ruggedness to withstand liquid-vapor slugging. The pump can meet a wide range of variable head, off-design flow requirements and maintain design point efficiency by adjusting the pump speed. The pump also has features that allow the impeller and diffuser blade heights to be adjusted. The adjustable height blades were intended to enhance the pump efficiency when it is operating at constant head, off-design flow rates. For small pumps, the adjustable height blades are not recommended. For larger pumps, they could provide off-design efficiency improvements. This pump was developed for supercritical helium service, but the design is well suited to any cryogenic application where high efficiency is required over a wide range of head-flow conditions

  1. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen -Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Smith, Brian; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2015-07-14

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaOPS-scale computing, at decreased cost, power and footprint, and that allows for a maximum packaging density of processing nodes from an interconnect point of view. The Supercomputer exploits technological advances in VLSI that enables a computing model where many processors can be integrated into a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Each ASIC computing node comprises a system-on-chip ASIC utilizing four or more processors integrated into one die, with each having full access to all system resources and enabling adaptive partitioning of the processors to functions such as compute or messaging I/O on an application by application basis, and preferably, enable adaptive partitioning of functions in accordance with various algorithmic phases within an application, or if I/O or other processors are underutilized, then can participate in computation or communication nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network with DMA that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency.

  2. High efficiency double sided solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1990-06-01

    Silicon technology state of the art for single crystalline was given to be limited to less than 20% efficiency. A proposed new form of photovoltaic solar cell of high current high efficiency with double sided structures has been given. The new forms could be n ++ pn ++ or p ++ np ++ double side junctions. The idea of double sided devices could be understood as two solar cells connected back-to-back in parallel electrical connection, in which the current is doubled if the cell is illuminated from both sides by a V-shaped reflector. The cell is mounted to the reflector such that each face is inclined at an angle of 45 deg. C to each side of the reflector. The advantages of the new structure are: a) High power devices. b) Easy to fabricate. c) The cells are used vertically instead of horizontal use of regular solar cell which require large area to install. This is very important in power stations and especially for satellite installation. If the proposal is made real and proved to be experimentally feasible, it would be a new era for photovoltaic solar cells since the proposal has already been extended to even higher currents. The suggested structures could be stated as: n ++ pn ++ Vp ++ np ++ ;n ++ pn ++ Vn ++ pn ++ ORp ++ np ++ Vp ++ np ++ . These types of structures are formed in wedged shape to employ indirect illumination by either parabolic; conic or V-shaped reflectors. The advantages of these new forms are low cost; high power; less in size and space; self concentrating; ... etc. These proposals if it happens to find their ways to be achieved experimentally, I think they will offer a short path to commercial market and would have an incredible impact on solar cell technology and applications. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  3. Multiscale approaches to high efficiency photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly James Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While renewable energies are achieving parity around the globe, efforts to reach higher solar cell efficiencies becomes ever more difficult as they approach the limiting efficiency. The so-called third generation concepts attempt to break this limit through a combination of novel physical processes and new materials and concepts in organic and inorganic systems. Some examples of semi-empirical modelling in the field are reviewed, in particular for multispectral solar cells on silicon (French ANR project MultiSolSi. Their achievements are outlined, and the limits of these approaches shown. This introduces the main topic of this contribution, which is the use of multiscale experimental and theoretical techniques to go beyond the semi-empirical understanding of these systems. This approach has already led to great advances at modelling which have led to modelling software, which is widely known. Yet, a survey of the topic reveals a fragmentation of efforts across disciplines, firstly, such as organic and inorganic fields, but also between the high efficiency concepts such as hot carrier cells and intermediate band concepts. We show how this obstacle to the resolution of practical research obstacles may be lifted by inter-disciplinary cooperation across length scales, and across experimental and theoretical fields, and finally across materials systems. We present a European COST Action “MultiscaleSolar” kicking off in early 2015, which brings together experimental and theoretical partners in order to develop multiscale research in organic and inorganic materials. The goal of this defragmentation and interdisciplinary collaboration is to develop understanding across length scales, which will enable the full potential of third generation concepts to be evaluated in practise, for societal and industrial applications.

  4. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  5. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  6. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K. [Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  7. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of

  8. High efficiency grating couplers based on shared process with CMOS MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chao; Sheng Zhen; Wu Ai-Min; Wang Xi; Zou Shi-Chang; Gan Fu-Wan; Li Le; Albert Pang

    2013-01-01

    Grating couplers are widely investigated as coupling interfaces between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers. In this work, a high-efficiency and complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor (CMOS) process compatible grating coupler is proposed. The poly-Si layer used as a gate in the CMOS metal—oxide—semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is combined with a normal fully etched grating coupler, which greatly enhances its coupling efficiency. With optimal structure parameters, a coupling efficiency can reach as high as ∼ 70% at a wavelength of 1550 nm as indicated by simulation. From the angle of fabrication, all masks and etching steps are shared between MOSFETs and grating couplers, thereby making the high performance grating couplers easily integrated with CMOS circuits. Fabrication errors such as alignment shift are also simulated, showing that the device is quite tolerant in fabrication. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  10. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    . In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the

  11. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  12. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  13. High Efficiency Semiconductor Arrays for Hard X-Ray Imaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The next generation of wide-field survey instruments with improved angular and energy resolution for research into astrophysical transient X-ray phenomena is...

  14. High Efficient THz Emission From Unbiased and Biased Semiconductor Nanowires Fabricated Using Electron Beam Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Soner; Czaplewski, David A.; Jung, Il Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyung; Hatami, Fariba; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin Margaret

    2017-07-01

    Besides having perfect control on structural features, such as vertical alignment and uniform distribution by fabricating the wires via e-beam lithography and etching process, we also investigated the THz emission from these fabricated nanowires when they are applied DC bias voltage. To be able to apply a voltage bias, an interdigitated gold (Au) electrode was patterned on the high-quality InGaAs epilayer grown on InP substrate bymolecular beam epitaxy. Afterwards, perfect vertically aligned and uniformly distributed nanowires were fabricated in between the electrodes of this interdigitated pattern so that we could apply voltage bias to improve the THz emission. As a result, we achieved enhancement in the emitted THz radiation by ~four times, about 12 dB increase in power ratio at 0.25 THz with a DC biased electric field compared with unbiased NWs.

  15. Doping Optimization for High Efficiency in Semiconductor Diode Lasers and Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ηiVph αm αm + αi (I − Ith) , (12) where ηi is the internal quantum efficiency, Vph is the voltage associated with the energy of a single photon, and...efficiency. In general, this could be a negligible detail; however, for certain cases such as V0 Vph , the difference could be significant, since...communications applications. Bour and Rosen provided an expression for the maximum PCE of a diode laser, given as [12] ηPCE = ηi Vph V0 αm αm + αi x( 1 + √ 1 + x

  16. Development of bonded semiconductor device for high counting rate high efficiency photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    We are trying to decrease dose exposure in medical diagnosis by way of measuring the energy of X-rays. For this purpose, radiation detectors for X-ray energy measurement with high counting rate should be developed. Direct bonding of Si wafers was carried out to make a radiation detector, which had separated X-ray absorber and detector. The resistivity of bonding interface was estimated with the results of four-probe measurements and model calculations. Direct bonding of high resistivity p and n-Si wafers was also performed. The resistance of the pn bonded diode was 0.7 MΩ. The resistance should be increased in the future. (author)

  17. Strong Exciton-photon Coupling in Semiconductor Microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    The basic building block of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and high efficiency diodes, is a quantum well embedded in a semiconductor microcavity. The high finesse that may be achieved in such a cavity is utilised to get a low threshold current in the VCSELs and a high directiona......The basic building block of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and high efficiency diodes, is a quantum well embedded in a semiconductor microcavity. The high finesse that may be achieved in such a cavity is utilised to get a low threshold current in the VCSELs and a high......-optical switches based on semiconductor microcavities....

  18. Semiconductor spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, J.; Abiague, A.M.; Ertler, Ch.; Stano, P.; Zutic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Spintronics refers commonly to phenomena in which the spin of electrons in a solid state environment plays the determining role. In a more narrow sense spintronics is an emerging research field of electronics: spintronics devices are based on a spin control of electronics, or on an electrical and optical control of spin of magnetism. While metal spintronics has already found its niche in the computer industry - giant magnetoresistance systems are used as hard disk read heads - semiconductor spintronics is vet demonstrate its full potential. This review presents selected themes of semiconductor spintronics, introducing important concepts in spin transport, spin transport, spin injection. Silsbee-Johnson spin-charge coupling, and spin-dependent tunneling, as well as spin relaxation and spin dynamics. The most fundamental spin-dependent interaction in nonmagnetic semiconductors is spin-orbit coupling. Depending on the crystal symmetries of the material, as well as on the structural properties of semiconductor based heterostructures, the spin-orbit coupling takes on different functional forms, giving a nice playground of effective spin-orbit Hamiltonians. The effective Hamiltonians for the most relevant classes of materials and heterostructures are derived here from realistic electronic band structure descriptions. Most semiconductor device systems are still theoretical concepts, waiting for experimental demonstrations. A review of selected proposed, and a few demonstrated devices is presented, with detailed description of two important classes: magnetic resonant tunnel structures and bipolar magnetic diodes and transistors. In view of the importance of ferromagnetic semiconductor material, a brief discussion of diluted magnetic semiconductors is included. In most cases the presentation is of tutorial style, introducing the essential theoretical formalism at an accessible level, with case-study-like illustrations of actual experimental results, as well as with brief

  19. Series-Tuned High Efficiency RF-Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens

    2008-01-01

    An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits.......An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits....

  20. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the following...

  1. High efficiency nebulization for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; McCormick, Ryan; Levine, Jonathan A.; Liu Huiying; Nam, S.-H.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatically-driven, high efficiency nebulizer is explored for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The aerosol characteristics and analyte transport efficiencies of the high efficiency nebulizer for nebulization with helium are measured and compared to the results obtained with argon. Analytical performance indices of the helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are evaluated in terms of detection limits and precision. The helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection limits obtained with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min are higher than those achieved with the ultrasonic nebulizer consuming 2 mL/min solution, however, precision is generally better with high efficiency nebulizer (1-4% vs. 3-8% with ultrasonic nebulizer). Detection limits with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min solution uptake rate approach those using ultrasonic nebulizer upon efficient desolvation with a heated spray chamber followed by a Peltier-cooled multipass condenser

  2. Oxide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Bengt G; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scient

  3. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  4. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  5. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  6. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  7. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  8. The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....

  9. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yimei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  10. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti, E-mail: joserenatocq@hotmail.com [Potiguar University, Department of Biotechnology, Natal (Brazil); Nogueira Junior, Lafayette [São Paulo State University, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Massi, Marcos [Federal University of São Paulo, Institute of Science and Technology, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio [São Paulo State University, Department of Prosthodontics and Dental Materials, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva [Technological Institute of Aeronautics, Department of Physics, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Özcan, Mutlu [University of Zurich, Dental Materials Unit, Center for Dental and Oral Medicine, Clinic for Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics and Dental Materials Science, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0–14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  11. Si-based thin film coating on Y-TZP: Influence of deposition parameters on adhesion of resin cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, José Renato Cavalcanti; Nogueira Junior, Lafayette; Massi, Marcos; Silva, Alecssandro de Moura; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares da Silva; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of deposition parameters for Si-based thin films using magnetron sputtering for coating zirconia and subsequent adhesion of resin cement. Zirconia ceramic blocks were randomly divided into 8 groups and specimens were either ground finished and polished or conditioned using air-abrasion with alumina particles coated with silica. In the remaining groups, the polished specimens were coated with Si-based film coating with argon/oxygen magnetron discharge at 8:1 or 20:1 flux. In one group, Si-based film coating was performed on air-abraded surfaces. After application of bonding agent, resin cement was bonded. Profilometry, goniometry, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy analysis were performed on the conditioned zirconia surfaces. Adhesion of resin cement to zirconia was tested using shear bond test and debonded surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Si-based film coating applied on air-abraded rough zirconia surfaces increased the adhesion of the resin cement (22.78 ± 5.2 MPa) compared to those of other methods (0–14.62 MPa) (p = 0.05). Mixed type of failures were more frequent in Si film coated groups on either polished or air-abraded groups. Si-based thin films increased wettability compared to the control group but did not change the roughness, considering the parameters evaluated. Deposition parameters of Si-based thin film and after application of air-abrasion influenced the initial adhesion of resin cement to zirconia.

  12. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha; Sivalingam, Durgajanani; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO 2 and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO 2 /TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 μM with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO 2 /TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 μM with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. Highlights: ► Developed lipase/nano-CeO 2 /TCO biosensor for tributyrin sensing. ► Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) TCO film acts as working electrode. ► CeO 2 film acts as nanointerface between lipase and the working TCO electrode. ► The biosensor showed a sharp response time of 5 s with a shelf life period of 6 weeks. ► The biosensor exhibited excellent linearity (0.33–1.98 mM) with a LOD of 2 μM.

  13. Structural characterization and comparison of iridium, platinum and gold/palladium ultra-thin film coatings for STM of biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebring, R.; Arendt, P.; Imai, B.; Bradbury, E.M.; Gatewood, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Panitz, J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Yau, P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-10-30

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is capable of atomic resolution and is ideally suited for imaging surfaces with uniform work function. A biological sample on a conducting substrate in air does not meet this criteria and requires a conductive coating for stable and reproducible STM imaging. In this paper, the authors describe the STM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of ultra-thin ion-beam sputtered films of iridium and cathode sputtered gold/palladium and platinum films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) which were developed for use as biomolecule coatings. The goals were the development of metal coatings sufficiently thin and fine grained that 15--20 {angstrom} features of biological molecules could be resolved using STM, and the development of a substrate/coating system which would allow complementary TEM information to be obtained for films and biological molecules. The authors demonstrate in this paper that ion-beam sputtered iridium on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has met both these goals. The ion-beam sputtered iridium produced a very fine grained (< 10 {angstrom}) continuous film at 5--6 {angstrom} thickness suitable for stable air STM imaging. In comparison, cathode sputtered platinum produced 16 {angstrom} grains with the thinnest continuous film at 15 {angstrom} thickness, and the sputtered gold/palladium produced 25 {angstrom} grains with the thinnest continuous film at 18 {angstrom} thickness.

  14. 125 MeV Si 9+ ion irradiation of calcium phosphate thin film coated by rf-magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M. I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R. V.; Kalkura, S. Narayana; Palanichamy, M.; Ashok, M.; Sivakumar, V. V.; Kulriya, P. K.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Asokan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium substrate was coated with hydroxyapatite by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (rf-magnetron sputtering) technique and subjected to swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation of 125 MeV with Si 9+ at fluences of 1 × 10 10, 1 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2. The glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis confirmed the HAp phase of the irradiated film. There was a considerable decrease in crystallinity and particle size after irradiation. In addition, DRS-UV reflectance spectra revealed a decrease in optical band gap ( Eg) from 5.2 to 4.6 eV. Wettability of biocompatible materials plays an important role in biological cells proliferation for tissue engineering, drug delivery, gene transfer and bone growth. HAp thin films irradiated with 1 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 fluence showed significant increase in wettability. While the SHI irradiated samples exhibited enhanced bioactivity, there was no significant variation in cell viability. Surface roughness, pores and average particle size were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  15. Lipase immobilized on nanostructured cerium oxide thin film coated on transparent conducting oxide electrode for butyrin sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panky, Sreedevi; Thandavan, Kavitha [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivalingam, Durgajanani [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeyaprakash, Beri Gopalakrishnan [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru, E-mail: rjbosco@ece.sastra.edu [Centre for Nanotechnology and Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India); School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-01-15

    Nanostructured cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique with cerium nitrate salt, Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as precursor. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film prepared using spray pyrolysis technique acts as the TCO film and hence the bare electrode. The structural, morphological and elemental characterizations of the films were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) respectively. The diffraction peak positions in XRD confirmed the formation of highly crystalline ceria with cubic structure and FE-SEM images showed uniform adherent films with granular morphology. The band gaps of CeO{sub 2} and TCO were found to be 3.2 eV and 2.6 eV respectively. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film to form the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, with lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO as working electrode and tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. -- Graphical abstract: Nanostructured cerium oxide thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate using spray pyrolysis technique. Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) thin film acts as the TCO film and hence the working electrode. Lipase enzyme was physisorbed on the surface of CeO{sub 2}/TCO film and hence the lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO bioelectrode has been fabricated. Sensing studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with tributyrin as substrate. The mediator-free biosensor with nanointerface exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a lowest detection limit of 2 {mu}M with sharp response time of 5 s and a shelf life of about 6 weeks. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed lipase/nano-CeO{sub 2}/TCO biosensor for tributyrin sensing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorine doped cadmium oxide (CdO:F) TCO film acts as working electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CeO{sub 2} film acts as nanointerface between lipase and the working TCO electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor showed a sharp response time of 5 s with a shelf life period of 6 weeks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor exhibited excellent linearity (0.33-1.98 mM) with a LOD of 2 {mu}M.

  16. Tribology of silicon-thin-film-coated SiC ceramics and the effects of high energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohzaki, Masao; Noda, Shoji; Doi, Harua

    1990-01-01

    The sliding friction coefficients and specific wear of SiC ceramics coated with a silicon thin film (Si/SiC) with and without subsequent Ar + irradiation against a diamond pin were measured with a pin-on-disk tester at room temperature in laboratory air of approximately 50% relative humidity without oil lubrication for 40 h. The friction coefficient of Ar + -irradiated Si/SiC was about 0.05 with a normal load of 9.8 N and remained almost unchanged during the 40 h test, while that of SiC increased from 0.04 to 0.12 during the test. The silicon deposition also reduced the specific wear of SiC to less than one tenth of that of the uncoated SiC. Effectively no wear was detected in Si/SiC irradiated to doses of over 2x10 16 ions cm -2 . (orig.)

  17. Influence of Nd-Doping on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Thin Film Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Nd nanopowders and thin films composed of those materials have been compared. Titania nanoparticles with 1, 3, and 6 at. % of Nd-dopant were synthesized by sol-gel method. Additionally, thin films with the same material composition were prepared with the aid of spin-coating method. The analysis of structural investigations revealed that all as-prepared nanopowders were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure. The average size of crystallites was ca. 4-5 nm and the correlation between the amount of neodymium and the size of TiO2 crystallites was observed. It was shown that the dopant content influenced the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The results of photocatalytic decomposition of MO showed that doping with Nd (especially in the amount of 3 at. % increased self-cleaning activity of the prepared titania nanopowder. Similar effect was received in case of the thin films, but the decomposition rate was lower due to their smaller active surface area. However, the as-prepared TiO2:Nd photocatalyst in the form of thin films or nanopowders seems to be a very attractive material for various applications.

  18. Synthesis of environmentally friendly highly dispersed magnetite nanoparticles based on rosin cationic surfactants as thin film coatings of steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2014-04-22

    This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement.

  19. Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Highly Dispersed Magnetite Nanoparticles Based on Rosin Cationic Surfactants as Thin Film Coatings of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement.

  20. Impact of the difference in power frequency on diamond-like carbon thin film coating over 3-dimensional objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, Masaki, E-mail: m-nakaya@kirin.co.jp [Packaging Technology Development Center, Technology Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8682 (Japan); Shimizu, Mari [Packaging Technology Development Center, Technology Development Department, Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd., 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-8682 (Japan); Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    With a type of capacitatively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, where two specially designed electrodes face to each other, the inner surface of hollow 3-dimensional objects such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles can be coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. DLC-coated PET bottles obtained with this technique have an enhanced gas barrier property, and therefore are applicable to industrial use such as for the extension of the shelf-life of contents sensitive to gas permeation. In this paper, the impact of power frequency ranging from 2.5 to 13.56 MHz was studied in order to research the behavior of plasma inside PET bottles and resultant properties. Different power frequency turned out to be influential on gas barrier property, the overall and distribution of tint, and adhesion between DLC and PET substrate. In addition, positron annihilation turned out to be powerful tool for the comparison of different coating conditions because it clarifies the homogeneity of DLC thin films through providing information on overall structure and thickness of them. These findings can be used for the optimization not only in the beverage PET bottle application, but also in other capacitatively coupled PECVD devices. - Highlights: • We demonstrated an effective methodology for the homogeneity of thin films. • We described the influence of power frequency on plasma and resultant thin film. • Diamond-like carbon coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles was used. • Different frequency provided homogenous thin films based on the above methodology. • For the industrial performance of the bottles, optimization was found at 6 MHz.

  1. Grey fuzzy logic approach for the optimization of DLC thin film coating process parameters using PACVD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadai, R. K.; Das, P. P.; Shivakoti, I.; Mondal, S. C.; Swain, B. P.

    2017-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are widely used in medical, manufacturing and aerospace industries due to their excellent mechanical, biological, optical and tribological properties. The selection of optimal process parameters for efficient characteristics of DLC film is always a challenging issue for the materials science researchers. The optimal combination of the process parameters involved in the deposition of DLC films provide a better result, which subsequently help other researchers to choose the process parameters. In the present work Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) and Fuzzy-logic are being used for the optimization of process parameters in DLC film coating by using plasma assist chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) technique. The bias voltage, bias frequency, deposition pressure, gas composition are considered as input process parameters and hardness (GPa), Young's modulus (GPa), ratio between diamond to graphic fraction, (Id/Ig) ratio are considered as response parameters. The input parameters are optimized by grey fuzzy analysis. The contribution of individual input parameter is done by ANOVA. In this analysis found that bias voltage having the least influence and gas composition has highest influence in the PACVD deposited DLC films. The grey fuzzy analysis results indicated that optimum results for bias voltage, bias frequency, deposition pressure, gas composition for the DLC thin films are -50 V, 6 kHz, 4 μbar and 60:40 % respectively.

  2. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film Coated Optical Fiber Sensors: A Novel Waveguide-Based Chemical Sensing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Joong; Lu, Ping; Culp, Jeffrey T; Ohodnicki, Paul R

    2018-02-23

    Integration of optical fiber with sensitive thin films offers great potential for the realization of novel chemical sensing platforms. In this study, we present a simple design strategy and high performance of nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) based optical gas sensors, which enables detection of a wide range of concentrations of small molecules based upon extremely small differences in refractive indices as a function of analyte adsorption within the MOF framework. Thin and compact MOF films can be uniformly formed and tightly bound on the surface of etched optical fiber through a simple solution method which is critical for manufacturability of MOF-based sensor devices. The resulting sensors show high sensitivity/selectivity to CO 2 gas relative to other small gases (H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , and CO) with rapid (optical fiber platform which results in an amplification of inherent optical absorption present within the MOF-based sensing layer with increasing values of effective refractive index associated with adsorption of gases.

  3. Wear behavior of contacting between thin film coating on SKD11 ball and 304 stainless steel disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriprasird, J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Wear is a well known problem in metal stamping die, especially on the die working with stainless steel workpiece, in which wear rate is severe. This research considered various types of material coating on tool surface which were regularly practised in modern stamping industry due to the ability to increase wear resistance. The model study of friction "Ball-on-disk" technique was employed throughout this work. The disk was made from stainless steel austenitic grade (SUS304. The ball was made from cold work tool steel, SKD11 (JIS and was hardened to 60±2 HRC. Ball surface conditions selected for this work were non-coated, coated by TiC-CVD, TiCN (TiC/TiCN/TiN Multilayer-CVD and TiCN (TiN/TiCN Double layer-PVD, and treated by VC-TD. Tests were carried out without lubricant. The results show that the coating film and the surface treatment has no effect on the friction coefficient but it can reduce wear rate by 64.1-99.7% at contact pressure condition less than 1,100 MPa. At the higher level of contact pressure, only 2 types of coating, TiCN (Multilayer-CVD and TiC-CVD, can reduce wear rate. The other two, which are TiCN (Double layer-PVD coating film and a surface treatment by VC-TD process, on the contrary increase the rate of wear significantly. This is due to delamination of coating film at high contact pressure. The coating particles of high hardness accelerate wear phenomenon on the tool surface. Therefore, proper selection of tool surface condition depends on level of contact pressure generated in the process.

  4. Impact of the difference in power frequency on diamond-like carbon thin film coating over 3-dimensional objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Masaki; Shimizu, Mari; Uedono, Akira

    2014-01-01

    With a type of capacitatively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, where two specially designed electrodes face to each other, the inner surface of hollow 3-dimensional objects such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles can be coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film. DLC-coated PET bottles obtained with this technique have an enhanced gas barrier property, and therefore are applicable to industrial use such as for the extension of the shelf-life of contents sensitive to gas permeation. In this paper, the impact of power frequency ranging from 2.5 to 13.56 MHz was studied in order to research the behavior of plasma inside PET bottles and resultant properties. Different power frequency turned out to be influential on gas barrier property, the overall and distribution of tint, and adhesion between DLC and PET substrate. In addition, positron annihilation turned out to be powerful tool for the comparison of different coating conditions because it clarifies the homogeneity of DLC thin films through providing information on overall structure and thickness of them. These findings can be used for the optimization not only in the beverage PET bottle application, but also in other capacitatively coupled PECVD devices. - Highlights: • We demonstrated an effective methodology for the homogeneity of thin films. • We described the influence of power frequency on plasma and resultant thin film. • Diamond-like carbon coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) bottles was used. • Different frequency provided homogenous thin films based on the above methodology. • For the industrial performance of the bottles, optimization was found at 6 MHz

  5. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  6. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  7. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 900 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. (author)

  8. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; Patkar, M.P.; Young, M.P. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    This report describes to examine new solar cell desip approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program consists of two elements. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for M-III semiconductors. Substantial efficiency gains may be possible by employing light trapping techniques to confine the incident photons, as well as the photons emitted by radiative recombination. The thin-film approach is a promising route for achieving substantial performance improvements in the already high-efficiency, single-junction, III-V cell. The second element of the research involves exploring desip approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high-quality material. This work has applications to multiple-junction cells, for which the selection of a component cell often involves a compromise between optimum band pp and optimum material quality. It could also be a benefit manufacturing environment by making the cell's efficiency less dependent on materialquality.

  9. Field test of radioactive high efficiency filter and filter exchange techniques of fuel cycle examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Chun, Young Bum; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Chu, Yong Sun; Kim, Eun Ka.

    1997-12-01

    The development of high efficiency filter was started to protect human beings from the contamination of radioactive particles, toxic gases and bacillus, and its gradual performance increment led to the fabrication of Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) today. The application field of ULPA has been spread not only to the air conditioning of nuclear power facilities, semiconductor industries, life science, optics, medical care and general facilities but also to the core of ultra-precision facilities. Periodic performance test on the filters is essential to extend its life-time through effective maintenance. Especially, the bank test on HEPA filter of nuclear facilities handling radioactive materials is required for environmental safety. Nowadays, the bank test technology has been reached to the utilization of a minimized portable detecting instruments and the evaluation techniques can provide high confidence in the area of particle distribution and leakage test efficiency. (author). 16 refs., 13 tabs., 14 figs

  10. Ultracompact high-efficiency polarising beam splitter based on silicon nanobrick arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Liu, Guogen; Kenney, Mitchell Guy; Li, Zile; He, Ping'an; Li, Song; Ren, Zhi; Deng, Qiling

    2016-03-21

    Since the transmission of anisotropic nano-structures is sensitive to the polarisation of an incident beam, a novel polarising beam splitter (PBS) based on silicon nanobrick arrays is proposed. With careful design of such structures, an incident beam with polarisation direction aligned with the long axis of the nanobrick is almost totally reflected (~98.5%), whilst that along the short axis is nearly totally transmitted (~94.3%). More importantly, by simply changing the width of the nanobrick we can shift the peak response wavelength from 1460 nm to 1625 nm, covering S, C and L bands of the fiber telecommunications windows. The silicon nanobrick-based PBS can find applications in many fields which require ultracompactness, high efficiency, and compatibility with semiconductor industry technologies.

  11. Realization of highly efficient polymer solar cell based on PBDTTT-EFT and [71]PCBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vishal; Chand, Suresh; Dutta, Viresh

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we have fabricated highly efficient polymer solar cells based on the blend of PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM in the inverted device configuration. By using low temperature processed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer (ETL) and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as additive in chlorobenzene (CB) solvent we have achieved PCE of 9.43% with an excellent short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.6 mAcm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.80 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.67. These results reveals that addition of 3% DIO additive in CB solvent improve the morphology (lower charge carrier recombination and better metal/organic semiconductor interface) and provide uniform interpenetrating networks in PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM blend active layer.

  12. Design of a high efficiency 30 kW boost composite converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeokjin [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Chen, Hua [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Maksimovic, Dragan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Erickson, Robert W. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-09-20

    An experimental 30 kW boost composite converter is described in this paper. The composite converter architecture, which consists of a buck module, a boost module, and a dual active bridge module that operates as a DC transformer (DCX), leads to substantial reductions in losses at partial power points, and to significant improvements in weighted efficiency in applications that require wide variations in power and conversion ratio. A comprehensive loss model is developed, accounting for semiconductor conduction and switching losses, capacitor losses, as well as dc and ac losses in magnetic components. Based on the developed loss model, the module and system designs are optimized to maximize efficiency at a 50% power point. Experimental results for the 30 kW prototype demonstrate 98.5%peak efficiency, very high efficiency over wide ranges of power and voltage conversion ratios, as well as excellent agreements between model predictions and measured efficiency curves.

  13. Improved contact metallization for high efficiency EFG polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, C.E.; Gonsiorawski, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of polycrystalline silicon solar cells based on a novel, laser patterned contact process are described. Small lots of cells having an average conversion efficiency of 14 + %, with several cells approaching 15%, are reported for cells of 45 cm 2 area. The high efficiency contact design is based on YAG laser patterning of the silicon nitride anti-reflection coating. The Cu metallization is done using light-induced plating, with the cell providing the driving voltage for the plating process. The Cu electrodeposits into the laser defined windows in the AR coating for reduced contact area, following which the Cu bridges on top of the Ar coating to form a continuous finger pattern. The higher cell conversion efficiency is attributed to reduced shadow loss, higher junction quality, and reduced metal-semiconductor interfacial area

  14. Charge transport in highly efficient iridium cored electrophosphorescent dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.; Weiter, Martin; Bässler, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Electrophosphorescent dendrimers are promising materials for highly efficient light-emitting diodes. They consist of a phosphorescent core onto which dendritic groups are attached. Here, we present an investigation into the optical and electronic properties of highly efficient phosphorescent dendrimers. The effect of dendrimer structure on charge transport and optical properties is studied using temperature-dependent charge-generation-layer time-of-flight measurements and current voltage (I-V) analysis. A model is used to explain trends seen in the I-V characteristics. We demonstrate that fine tuning the mobility by chemical structure is possible in these dendrimers and show that this can lead to highly efficient bilayer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with neat emissive layers. Power efficiencies of 20 lm/W were measured for devices containing a second-generation (G2) Ir(ppy)3 dendrimer with a 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene electron transport layer.

  15. Progress of OLED devices with high efficiency at high luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Carmen; Ingram, Grayson; Lu, Zhenghong

    2014-03-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressed significantly over the last two decades. For years, OLEDs have been promoted as the next generation technology for flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to their potential for high energy efficiency and dynamic range of colors. Although high efficiency can readily be obtained at low brightness levels, a significant decline at high brightness is commonly observed. In this report, we will review various strategies for achieving highly efficient phosphorescent OLED devices at high luminance. Specifically, we will provide details regarding the performance and general working principles behind each strategy. We will conclude by looking at how some of these strategies can be combined to produce high efficiency white OLEDs at high brightness.

  16. High-efficiency and low-loss gallium nitride dielectric metasurfaces for nanophotonics at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emani, Naresh Kumar; Khaidarov, Egor; Paniagua-Domínguez, Ramón; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Valuckas, Vytautas; Lu, Shunpeng; Zhang, Xueliang; Tan, Swee Tiam; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Kuznetsov, Arseniy I.

    2017-11-01

    The dielectric nanophotonics research community is currently exploring transparent material platforms (e.g., TiO2, Si3N4, and GaP) to realize compact high efficiency optical devices at visible wavelengths. Efficient visible-light operation is key to integrating atomic quantum systems for future quantum computing. Gallium nitride (GaN), a III-V semiconductor which is highly transparent at visible wavelengths, is a promising material choice for active, nonlinear, and quantum nanophotonic applications. Here, we present the design and experimental realization of high efficiency beam deflecting and polarization beam splitting metasurfaces consisting of GaN nanostructures etched on the GaN epitaxial substrate itself. We demonstrate a polarization insensitive beam deflecting metasurface with 64% and 90% absolute and relative efficiencies. Further, a polarization beam splitter with an extinction ratio of 8.6/1 (6.2/1) and a transmission of 73% (67%) for p-polarization (s-polarization) is implemented to demonstrate the broad functionality that can be realized on this platform. The metasurfaces in our work exhibit a broadband response in the blue wavelength range of 430-470 nm. This nanophotonic platform of GaN shows the way to off- and on-chip nonlinear and quantum photonic devices working efficiently at blue emission wavelengths common to many atomic quantum emitters such as Ca+ and Sr+ ions.

  17. High efficiency class-I audio power amplifier using a single adaptive supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhenfei; Yang Shanshand; Feng Yong; Hong Zhiliang; Liu Yang

    2012-01-01

    A high efficiency class-I linear audio power amplifier (PA) with an adaptive supply is presented. Its efficiency is improved by a dynamic supply to reduce the power transistors' voltage drop. A gain compression technique is adopted to make the amplifier accommodate a single positive supply. Circuit complicity and chip area are reduced because no charge pump is necessary for the negative supply. A common shared mode voltage and a symmetric layout pattern are used to minimize the non-linearity. A peak efficiency of 80% is reached at peak output power. The measured THD+N before and after the supply switching point are 0.01% and 0.05%, respectively. The maximum output power is 410 mW for an 8 Ω speaker load. Unlike switching amplifiers, the class-I amplifier operates as a linear amplifier and hence has a low EMI. The advantage of a high efficiency and low EMI makes the class-I amplifier suitable for portable and RF sensitive applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices is described in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 600 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. The process may be enhanced by the application of optical radiation from a Xenon lamp. (author)

  19. Technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells. Survey on the commercialization on analysis; Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on analysis of super-high efficiency solar cells for practical use in fiscal 1994. (1) On the survey on crystalline compound solar cells, it was pointed out that the present study target is III-V compound semiconductor solar cell, and efficiencies of 36-39% are theoretically expected by use of two-junction cells. (2) On structure of super-high efficiency solar cells of 40%, selection of upper and lower cell materials for multi-junction cells, high-efficiency tandem Si solar cells, and the merit and possibility of light collection operation were surveyed, and their issues were discussed. (3) On physical properties of mixed crystalline semiconductors and characteristic evaluation of solar cells, impurities, trap center, minority carrier life, and applicability of supper lattice structure to high-efficiency solar cells were surveyed. (4) On fabrication technology of compound semiconductor solar cells, various problems of and approaches to electrode formation and antireflection film technologies, the meaning and issues of thin film substrate technology and continuous process, trial calculation of costs, safety, and resource problem were surveyed.

  20. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianmin; Qian Yinge

    1988-08-01

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  1. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  2. Optimization of high-efficiency components; Optimieren auf hohem Niveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Eva

    2009-07-01

    High efficiency is a common feature of modern current inverters and is not a unique selling proposition. Other factors that influence the buyer's decision are cost reduction, reliability and service, optimum grid integration, and the challenges of the competitive thin film technology. (orig.)

  3. Orion, a high efficiency 4π neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crema, E.; Piasecki, E.; Wang, X.M.; Doubre, H.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Pouthas, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1990-01-01

    In intermediate energy heavy ion collisions the multiplicity of emitted neutrons is strongly connected to energy dissipation and to impact parameter. We present the 4π detector ORION, a high efficiency liquid scintillator detector which permits to get information on the multiplicity of neutrons measured event-wise and on the spatial distribution of these neutrons [fr

  4. High-Efficiency Klystron Design for the CLIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Mollard, Antoine; Peauger, Franck; Plouin, Juliette; Beunas, Armel; Marchesin, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    The CLIC project requests new type of RF sources for the high power conditioning of the accelerating cavities. We are working on the development of a new kind of high-efficiency klystron to fulfill this need. This work is performed under the EuCARD-2 European program and involves theoretical and experimental study of a brand new klystron concept.

  5. High efficiency hydrodynamic DNA fragmentation in a bubbling system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling

  6. High efficiency confinement mode by electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Akimasa

    1987-01-01

    In the medium size nuclear fusion experiment facility JFT-2M in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the research on the high efficiency plasma confinement mode has been advanced, and in the experiment in June, 1987, the formation of a high efficiency confinement mode was successfully controlled by electron cyclotron heating, for the first time in the world. This result further advanced the control of the formation of a high efficiency plasma confinement mode and the elucidation of the physical mechanism of that mode, and promoted the research and development of the plasma heating by electron cyclotron heating. In this paper, the recent results of the research on a high efficiency confinement mode at the JFT-2M are reported, and the role of the JFT-2M and the experiment on the improvement of core plasma performance are outlined. Now the plasma temperature exceeding 100 million deg C has been attained in large tokamaks, and in medium size facilities, the various measures for improving confinement performance are to be brought forth and their scientific basis is elucidated to assist large facilities. The JFT-2M started the operation in April, 1983, and has accumulated the results smoothly since then. (Kako, I.)

  7. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  8. High-efficient solar cells with porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migunova, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that the porous silicon is multifunctional high-efficient coating on silicon solar cells, modifies its surface and combines in it self antireflection and passivation properties., The different optoelectronic effects in solar cells with porous silicon were considered. The comparative parameters of uncovered photodetectors also solar cells with porous silicon and other coatings were resulted. (author)

  9. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  10. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  11. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  12. 3rd symposium on high-efficiency boiler technology: potential, performance, shortcomings of natural gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The brochure contains abstracts of the papers presented at the symposium. The potential, performance and marketing problems of natural gas high-efficiency boiler systems are outlined, and new ideas are presented for gas utilities, producers of appliances, fitters, and chimneysweeps. 13 papers are available as separate regards in this database. (HW) [de

  13. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs

  14. High efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Conner, J.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Turner, C.; Vahla, G.; Violet, C.; Williams, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiently particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing steel filters, they first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, prototype filters were then built for venting compressed gases and evaluated in their automated filter tester

  15. Development of high-efficiency solar cells on silicon web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D. L.; Greggi, J.; Okeeffe, T. W.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1986-01-01

    Work was performed to improve web base material with a goal of obtaining solar cell efficiencies in excess of 18% (AM1). Efforts in this program are directed toward identifying carrier loss mechanisms in web silicon, eliminating or reducing these mechanisms, designing a high efficiency cell structure with the aid of numerical models, and fabricating high efficiency web solar cells. Fabrication techniques must preserve or enhance carrier lifetime in the bulk of the cell and minimize recombination of carriers at the external surfaces. Three completed cells were viewed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to investigate further the relation between structural defects and electrical performance of web cells. Consistent with past TEM examinations, the cell with the highest efficiency (15.0%) had no dislocations but did have 11 twin planes.

  16. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  17. Irradiation effects on high efficiency Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy, T.; Amingual, D.; Colardelle, P.; Bernard, J.

    1974-01-01

    By optimizing the diffusion parameters, high efficiency cells are obtained with 2ohmsxcm (13.5% AMO) and 10ohmsxcm (12.5% AMO) silicon material. These new cells have been submitted to radiation tests under 1MeV, 2MeV electrons and 2.5MeV protons. Their behavior under irradiation is found to be dependent only on the bulk material. By using the same resistivity silicon, the rate of degradation is exactly the same than those of conventional cells. The power increase, due to a better superficial response of the cell, is maintained after irradiation. These results show that new high efficiency cells offer an E.O.L. power higher than conventional cells [fr

  18. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@nano.cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Karimi, Ebrahim [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  19. Holography as a highly efficient RG flow I: Rephrasing gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Behr, Nicolas; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalisation of Wilsonian RG flow in a strongly interacting large $N$ quantum field theory. We firstly define a \\textit{highly efficient RG flow} as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale -- to achieve this it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective sin...

  20. Sm , Bi phosphors with high efficiency white-light-emittin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... Therefore, researches on high efficiency red phos- phors are very important. So far ..... ing concentration and reached a maximum at y = 8 mol%. A .... [10] Xue L P, Wang Y J, Lv P W, Chen D G, Lin Z, Liang J K et al. 2009 Crystal ... [28] Liu J, Xu B, Song C, Luo H, Zou X, Han L et al 2012 Cryst-. EngComm.

  1. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  2. Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xuezheng; Gao, Shan; He, Mingyuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang, Jianguo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Energy Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The highly efficient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methanol. The KF/MgO has been selected as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions with the yield of 99.3%. Operational simplicity, without need of the purification of raw vegetable oil, low cost of the catalyst used, high activities, no saponification and reusability are the key features of this methodology. (author)

  3. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment

  4. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  5. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yong-Nong; Cheng, Hung-Liang; Kuo, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against de...

  6. High-efficiency pumps drastically reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-05-01

    Wilo's Stratos pumps for air conditioning and other domestic heating applications combine the advantages of wet runner technology with an innovative electronic commutator motor. The energy consumption of these high-efficiency pumps is halved compared with similar wet runner designs. With vast numbers of pumps used in buildings across Europe alone, the adoption of this technology potentially offers significant energy sayings. (Author)

  7. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais

    2013-01-01

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  8. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Carlo Gazzadi, Gian; Karimi, Ebrahim; Mafakheri, Erfan; Boyd, Robert W.; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science

  9. High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, Tukaram K.; Spindler, Jeffrey P.; Ricks, M. L.; Young, Ralph H.; Hamada, Yuuhiko; Saito, N.; Mameno, Kazunobu; Nishikawa, Ryuji; Takahashi, Hisakazu; Rajeswaran, G.

    2004-02-01

    Eastman Kodak Company and SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. recently demonstrated a 15" full-color, organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) using a high-efficiency white emitter combined with a color-filter array. Although useful for display applications, white emission from organic structures is also under consideration for other applications, such as solid-state lighting, where high efficiency and good color rendition are important. By incorporating adjacent blue and orange emitting layers in a multi-layer structure, highly efficient, stable white emission has been attained. With suitable host and dopant combinations, a luminance yield of 20 cd/A and efficiency of 8 lm/W have been achieved at a drive voltage of less than 8 volts and luminance level of 1000 cd/m2. The estimated external efficiency of this device is 6.3% and a high level of operational stability is observed. To our knowledge, this is the highest performance reported so far for white organic electroluminescent devices. We will review white OLED technology and discuss the fabrication and operating characteristics of these devices.

  10. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  11. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuo, E-mail: kazuo3_ikeda@ndc.mhi.co.jp

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  12. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  13. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  14. heat flow in a finite isolated pulsed avalanche semiconductor diode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1981-03-01

    Mar 1, 1981 ... high-power high-efficiency avalanche semiconductor devices. The ... computed, and useful practical design curves for a specified operation .... iv. For spherical shells of radius, ρ(x,y,z) = √x2+y2+z2. > R, the heat source.

  15. Heat pumps; Synergy of high efficiency and low carbon electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Akio

    2010-09-15

    Heat pump is attracting wide attention for its high efficiency to utilize inexhaustible and renewable ambient heat in the environment. With its rapid innovation and efficiency improvement, this technology has a huge potential to reduce CO2 emissions by replacing currently widespread fossil fuel combustion systems to meet various heat demands from the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Barriers to deployment such as low public awareness and a relatively long pay-back period do exist, so it is strongly recommended that each country implement policies to promote heat pumps as a renewable energy option and an effective method to combat global warming.

  16. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  17. All passive architecture for high efficiency cascaded Raman conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaswamy, V.; Arun, S.; Chayran, G.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    Cascaded Raman fiber lasers have offered a convenient method to obtain scalable, high-power sources at various wavelength regions inaccessible with rare-earth doped fiber lasers. A limitation previously was the reduced efficiency of these lasers. Recently, new architectures have been proposed to enhance efficiency, but this came at the cost of enhanced complexity, requiring an additional low-power, cascaded Raman laser. In this work, we overcome this with a new, all-passive architecture for high-efficiency cascaded Raman conversion. We demonstrate our architecture with a fifth-order cascaded Raman converter from 1117nm to 1480nm with output power of ~64W and efficiency of 60%.

  18. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  19. High-efficiency ventilated metamaterial absorber at low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Au-Yeung, Ka Yan; Li, Xin; Roberts, Robert Christopher; Tian, Jingxuan; Hu, Chuandeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Wang, Shuxia; Yang, Zhiyu; Wen, Weijia

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate a ventilated metamaterial absorber operating at low frequency (90%) has been achieved in both simulations and experiments. This high-efficiency absorption under the ventilation condition originates from the weak coupling of two identical split tube resonators constituting the absorber, which leads to the hybridization of the degenerate eigenmodes and breaks the absorption upper limit of 50% for conventional transmissive symmetric acoustic absorbers. The absorber can also be extended to an array and work in free space. The absorber should have potential applications in acoustic engineering where both noise reduction and ventilation are required.

  20. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  1. High bandgap III-V alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Wanlass, Mark

    2017-01-10

    High bandgap alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics are disclosed. An exemplary optoelectronic device may include a substrate, at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer, and a step-grade buffer between the substrate and at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer. The buffer may begin with a layer that is substantially lattice matched to GaAs, and may then incrementally increase the lattice constant in each sequential layer until a predetermined lattice constant of Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP is reached.

  2. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1999-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  3. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  4. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  5. Iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohla, K; Witte, K J

    1976-07-01

    The scaling laws of an iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate are reported. The laser is pumped with a new kind of low pressure Hg-UV-lamps which convert 32% of the electrical input in UV-light in the absorption band of the iodine laser and which can be fired up to 100 Hz. Details of a 10 kJ/1 nsec system as dimensions, energy density, repetition rate, flow velocity, gas composition and gas pressure and the overall efficiency are given which is expected to be about 2%.

  6. The problems of high efficient extraction from the isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, J.

    1994-06-01

    The problem of high efficient extraction (η ≥ 50%) from isochronous cyclotrons (with the exception of the stripping method) is not completely solved up to this day. This problem is specifically important, because these cyclotrons are being also applied in the production of medical radioisotopes, labeled pharmaceuticals as well as in neutron therapy (oncology), machine industry, agriculture (plant mutagenesis), etc. The aim of the proposed topic is to solve this problem on the AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron in the INP (Institute of Nuclear Physics). Lately, a beam of 20 MeV deuterons with an efficiency of ca. 15% was extracted from this cyclotron. (author). 25 refs, 14 figs

  7. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against device difference. Finally, a prototype circuit for driving 112 W LEDs in total was built and tested to verify the theoretical analysis.

  8. Highly efficient periodically poled KTP-isomorphs with large apertures and extreme domain aspect-ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalias, Carlota; Zukauskas, Andrius; Tjörnhamman, Staffan; Viotti, Anne-Lise; Pasiskevicius, Valdas; Laurell, Fredrik

    2018-02-01

    Since the early 1990's, a substantial effort has been devoted to the development of quasi-phased-matched (QPM) nonlinear devices, not only in ferroelectric oxides like LiNbO3, LiTaO3 and KTiOPO4 (KTP), but also in semiconductors as GaAs, and GaP. The technology to implement QPM structures in ferroelectric oxides has by now matured enough to satisfy the most basic frequency-conversion schemes without substantial modification of the poling procedures. Here, we present a qualitative leap in periodic poling techniques that allows us to demonstrate devices and frequency conversion schemes that were deemed unfeasible just a few years ago. Thanks to our short-pulse poling and coercive-field engineering techniques, we are able to demonstrate large aperture (5 mm) periodically poled Rb-doped KTP devices with a highly-uniform conversion efficiency over the whole aperture. These devices allow parametric conversion with energies larger than 60 mJ. Moreover, by employing our coercive-field engineering technique we fabricate highlyefficient sub-µm periodically poled devices, with periodicities as short as 500 nm, uniform over 1 mm-thick crystals, which allow us to realize mirrorless optical parametric oscillators with counter-propagating signal and idler waves. These novel devices present unique spectral and tuning properties, superior to those of conventional OPOs. Furthermore, our techniques are compatible with KTA, a KTP isomorph with extended transparency in the mid-IR range. We demonstrate that our highly-efficient PPKTA is superior both for mid-IR and for green light generation - as a result of improved transmission properties in the visible range. Our KTP-isomorph poling techniques leading to highly-efficient QPM devices will be presented. Their optical performance and attractive damage thresholds will be discussed.

  9. Semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstein Erik Stensrud

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents a study of two material systems containing semiconductor nanocrystals, namely porous silicon (PSi) films and germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) films. The PSi films were made by anodic etching of silicon (Si) substrates in an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid. The PSi films were doped with erbium (Er) using two different doping methods. electrochemical doping and doping by immersing the PSi films in a solution containing Er. The resulting Er concentration profiles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEN1) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The main subject of the work on PSi presented in this thesis was investigating and comparing these two doping methods. Ge nanocrystals were made by implanting Ge ions into Si02 films that were subsequently annealed. However. nanocrystal formation occurred only for certain sets of processing parameters. The dependence of the microstructure of the Ge implanted Si02 films on the processing parameters were therefore investigated. A range of methods were employed for these investigations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The observed structures, ranging from Ge nanocrystals to voids with diameters of several tens of nanometers and Ge rich Si02 films without any nanocrystals is described. A model explaining the void formation is also presented. For certain sets of processing parameters. An accumulation of Ge at the Si-Si02 interface was observed. The effect of this accumulation on the electrical properties of MOS structures made from Ge implanted SiO2 films was investigated using CV-measurements. (Author)

  10. High-Efficiency, Commercial Ready CdTe Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sites, James R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-11-19

    Colorado State’s F-PACE project explored several ways to increase the efficiency of CdTe solar cells and to better understand the device physics of those cells under study. Increases in voltage, current, and fill factor resulted in efficiencies above 17%. The three project tasks and additional studies are described in detail in the final report. Most cells studied were fabricated at Colorado State using an industry-compatible single-vacuum closed-space-sublimation (CSS) chamber for deposition of the key semiconductor layers. Additionally, some cells were supplied by First Solar for comparison purposes, and a small number of modules were supplied by Abound Solar.

  11. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  12. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  13. Detecting Android Malwares with High-Efficient Hybrid Analyzing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle the security issues caused by malwares of Android OS, we proposed a high-efficient hybrid-detecting scheme for Android malwares. Our scheme employed different analyzing methods (static and dynamic methods to construct a flexible detecting scheme. In this paper, we proposed some detecting techniques such as Com+ feature based on traditional Permission and API call features to improve the performance of static detection. The collapsing issue of traditional function call graph-based malware detection was also avoided, as we adopted feature selection and clustering method to unify function call graph features of various dimensions into same dimension. In order to verify the performance of our scheme, we built an open-access malware dataset in our experiments. The experimental results showed that the suggested scheme achieved high malware-detecting accuracy, and the scheme could be used to establish Android malware-detecting cloud services, which can automatically adopt high-efficiency analyzing methods according to the properties of the Android applications.

  14. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar

    2016-06-23

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  15. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Erqiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  16. Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

    2012-09-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

  17. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 4 March 1998--15 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G.

    2003-10-01

    This is the final report covering about 42 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high-efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have been extensively covered in two Annual Reports. For this Final Report, highlights of the first two Phases will be provided and then detail will be given on the last year and a half of Phase III. The effort on CdTe-based materials is led by Prof. Compaan and emphasizes the use of sputter deposition of the semiconductor layers in the fabrication of CdS/CdTe cells. The effort on high-efficiency a-Si materials is led by Prof. Deng and emphasizes plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for cell fabrication with major efforts on triple-junction devices.

  18. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  19. Molecular and Nanoscale Engineering of High Efficiency Excitonic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ginger, David S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cao, Guozhong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We combined the synthesis of new polymers and organic-inorganic hybrid materials with new experimental characterization tools to investigate bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells and hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells during the 2007-2010 period (phase I) of this project. We showed that the bulk morphology of polymer/fullerene blend solar cells could be controlled by using either self-assembled polymer semiconductor nanowires or diblock poly(3-alkylthiophenes) as the light-absorbing and hole transport component. We developed new characterization tools in-house, including photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy, time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (TR-EFM) and conductive and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM and pc-AFM), and used them to investigate charge transfer and recombination dynamics in polymer/fullerene BHJ solar cells, hybrid polymer-nanocrystal (PbSe) devices, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs); we thus showed in detail how the bulk photovoltaic properties are connected to the nanoscale structure of the BHJ polymer solar cells. We created various oxide semiconductor (ZnO, TiO2) nanostructures by solution processing routes, including hierarchical aggregates and nanorods/nanotubes, and showed that the nanostructured photoanodes resulted in substantially enhanced light-harvesting and charge transport, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  20. A High-Efficiency Voltage Equalization Scheme for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System in Renewable Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its fast charge and discharge rate, a supercapacitor-based energy storage system is especially suitable for power smoothing in renewable energy generation applications. Voltage equalization is essential for series-connected supercapacitors in an energy storage system, because it supports the system’s sustainability and maximizes the available cell energy. In this paper, we present a high-efficiency voltage equalization scheme for supercapacitor energy storage systems in renewable generation applications. We propose an improved isolated converter topology that uses a multi-winding transformer. An improved push-pull forward circuit is applied on the primary side of the transformer. A coupling inductor is added on the primary side to allow the switches to operate under the zero-voltage switching (ZVS condition, which reduces switching losses. The diodes in the rectifier are replaced with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs to reduce the power dissipation of the secondary side. In order to simplify the control, we designed a controllable rectifying circuit to achieve synchronous rectifying on the secondary side of the transformer. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  1. Corrugation Architecture Enabled Ultraflexible Wafer-Scale High-Efficiency Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.

    2018-01-02

    Advanced classes of modern application require new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience, large-scale, low cost, and excellent power conversion efficiency. Conventional crystalline silicon-based solar cells offer one of the most highly efficient power sources, but a key challenge remains to attain mechanical resilience while preserving electrical performance. A complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based integration strategy where corrugation architecture enables ultraflexible and low-cost solar cell modules from bulk monocrystalline large-scale (127 × 127 cm) silicon solar wafers with a 17% power conversion efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness of 240 μm and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells can reversibly withstand high mechanical stress and can be deformed to zigzag and bifacial modules. These corrugation silicon-based solar cells offer ultraflexibility with high stability over 1000 bending cycles including convex and concave bending to broaden the application spectrum. Finally, the smallest bending radius of curvature lower than 140 μm of the back contacts is shown that carries the solar cells segments.

  2. Corrugation Architecture Enabled Ultraflexible Wafer-Scale High-Efficiency Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, Rabab R.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Sepulveda, Adrian C.; Wicaksono, Irmandy; Nour, Maha A.; Wehbe, Nimer; Almislem, Amani Saleh Saad; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Syed, Ahad; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Advanced classes of modern application require new generation of versatile solar cells showcasing extreme mechanical resilience, large-scale, low cost, and excellent power conversion efficiency. Conventional crystalline silicon-based solar cells offer one of the most highly efficient power sources, but a key challenge remains to attain mechanical resilience while preserving electrical performance. A complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based integration strategy where corrugation architecture enables ultraflexible and low-cost solar cell modules from bulk monocrystalline large-scale (127 × 127 cm) silicon solar wafers with a 17% power conversion efficiency. This periodic corrugated array benefits from an interchangeable solar cell segmentation scheme which preserves the active silicon thickness of 240 μm and achieves flexibility via interdigitated back contacts. These cells can reversibly withstand high mechanical stress and can be deformed to zigzag and bifacial modules. These corrugation silicon-based solar cells offer ultraflexibility with high stability over 1000 bending cycles including convex and concave bending to broaden the application spectrum. Finally, the smallest bending radius of curvature lower than 140 μm of the back contacts is shown that carries the solar cells segments.

  3. Microbial electrolytic disinfection process for highly efficient Escherichia coli inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Xiaohu

    2018-01-01

    extensively studied for recalcitrant organics removal, its application potential towards water disinfection (e.g., inactivation of pathogens) is still unknown. This study investigated the inactivation of Escherichia coli in a microbial electrolysis cell based bio-electro-Fenton system (renamed as microbial......Water quality deterioration caused by a wide variety of recalcitrant organics and pathogenic microorganisms has become a serious concern worldwide. Bio-electro-Fenton systems have been considered as cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment platform technology. While it has been......]OH was identified as one potential mechanism for disinfection. This study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of bio-electro-Fenton process for pathogens inactivation, which offers insight for the future development of sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective biological water treatment technology....

  4. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  5. High efficiency heat transport and power conversion system for cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Bourque, R.F.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Cascade ICF reactor features a flowing blanket of solid BeO and LiAlO 2 granules with very high temperature capability (up to approx. 2300 K). The authors present here the design of a high temperature granule transport and heat exchange system, and two options for high efficiency power conversion. The centrifugal-throw transport system uses the peripheral speed imparted to the granules by the rotating chamber to effect granule transport and requires no additional equipment. The heat exchanger design is a vacuum heat transfer concept utilizing gravity-induced flow of the granules over ceramic heat exchange surfaces. A reference Brayton power cycle is presented which achieves 55% net efficiency with 1300 K peak helium temperature. A modified Field steam cycle (a hybrid Rankine/Brayton cycle) is presented as an alternate which achieves 56% net efficiency

  6. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  7. Simple processing of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamammu, I.M.; Ibrahim, K.

    2006-01-01

    Cost effective photovoltaic devices have been an area research since the development of the first solar cells, as cost is the major factor in their usage. Silicon solar cells have the biggest share in the photovoltaic market, though silicon os not the optimal material for solar cells. This work introduces a simplified approach for high efficiency silicon solar cell processing, by minimizing the processing steps and thereby reducing cost. The suggested procedure might also allow for the usage of lower quality materials compared to the one used today. The main features of the present work fall into: simplifying the diffusion process, edge shunt isolation and using acidic texturing instead of the standard alkaline processing. Solar cells of 17% efficiency have been produced using this procedure. Investigations on the possibility of improving the efficiency and using less quality material are still underway

  8. Highly Efficient Coherent Optical Memory Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Pin-Ju; Chen, Hung-Shiue; Lin, Sheng-Xiang; Hung, Chih-Chiao; Lee, Chih-Hsi; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yong-Fan; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%. Both are the best record to date in all kinds of schemes for the realization of optical memory. Our work significantly advances the pursuit of a high-performance optical memory and should have important applications in quantum information science.

  9. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  10. A Low VSWR and High Efficiency Waveguide Feed Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low VSWR and high efficiency antenna array operating in the Ku band for satellite communications is presented in this paper. To achieve high radiation efficiency and broad enough bandwidth, all-metal radiation elements and full-corporate waveguide feeding network are employed. As the general milling method is used in the multilayer antenna array fabrication, the E-plane waveguide feeding network is adopted here to suppress the wave leakage caused by the imperfect connectivity between adjacent layers. A 4 × 8 elements array prototype was fabricated and tested for verification. The measured results of proposed antenna array show bandwidth of 6.9% (13.9–14.8 GHz for VSWR < 1.5. Furthermore, antenna gain and efficiency of higher than 22.2 dBi and 80% are also exhibited, respectively.

  11. High efficiency graphene coated copper based thermocells connected in series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhuja, Mani; Indubala, Emayavaramban; Sudha, Venkatachalam; Harinipriya, Seshadri

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60ºC of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  12. High Efficiency Graphene Coated Copper Based Thermocells Connected in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Sindhuja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2 W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60°C of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  13. Rigid-beam model of a high-efficiency magnicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, D.E.; Tallerico, P.J.; Humphries, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The magnicon is a new type of high-efficiency deflection-modulated amplifier developed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. The prototype pulsed magnicon achieved an output power of 2.4 MW and an efficiency of 73% at 915 MHz. This paper presents the results of a rigid-beam model for a 700-MHz, 2.5-MW 82%-efficient magnicon. The rigid-beam model allows for characterization of the beam dynamics by tracking only a single electron. The magnicon design presented consists of a drive cavity; passive cavities; a pi-mode, coupled-deflection cavity; and an output cavity. It represents an optimized design. The model is fully self-consistent, and this paper presents the details of the model and calculated performance of a 2.5-MW magnicon

  14. Disposal of aqueous condensate from high efficiency gas boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, G J; Pattison, J R

    1984-01-01

    If highly efficient gas-fired condensing heating appliances are installed in Britain, the aqueous condensate produced can be conveniently run into existing sewage drains. The part of the drainage system that is most vulnerable to corrosion from the mildly acid condensate is that portion adjacent to the domestic premises. The tests described indicate that this is not at risk and the only precaution that might be considered necessary is to avoid running the condensate over galvanized drain covers in order to prevent unsightly staining. Water authorities in Britain and detailed studies in the US and Holland confirm that the condensate - after dilution by domestic waste, sewage, and rainwater - would be harmless to municipal sewage systems and would not, either in volume or chemical composition, affect the working of existing sewage treatment plants.

  15. Study on a Novel High-Efficiency Bridgeless PFC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Taiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement a high-efficiency bridgeless power factor correction converter, a new topology and operation principles of continuous conduction mode (CCM and DC steady-state character of the converter are analyzed, which show that the converter not only has bipolar-gain characteristic but also has the same characteristic as the traditional Boost converter, while the voltage transfer ratio is not related with the resonant branch parameters and switching frequency. Based on the above topology, a novel bridgeless Bipolar-Gain Pseudo-Boost PFC converter is proposed. With this converter, the diode rectifier bridge of traditional AC-DC converter is eliminated, and zero-current switching of fast recovery diode is achieved. Thus, the efficiency is improved. Next, we also propose the one-cycle control policy of this converter. Finally, experiments are provided to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed converter.

  16. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream

  17. Highly Efficient Catalytic Cyclic Carbonate Formation by Pyridyl Salicylimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Saravanan; Park, Joonho; Byun, Jeehye; Jung, Yousung; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2018-03-21

    Cyclic carbonates as industrial commodities offer a viable nonredox carbon dioxide fixation, and suitable heterogeneous catalysts are vital for their widespread implementation. Here, we report a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 addition to epoxides based on a newly identified active catalytic pocket consisting of pyridine, imine, and phenol moieties. The polymeric, metal-free catalyst derived from this active site converts less-reactive styrene oxide under atmospheric pressure in quantitative yield and selectivity to the corresponding carbonate. The catalyst does not need additives, solvents, metals, or co-catalysts, can be reused at least 10 cycles without the loss of activity, and scaled up easily to a kilogram scale. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the nucleophilicity of pyridine base gets stronger due to the conjugated imines and H-bonding from phenol accelerates the reaction forward by stabilizing the intermediate.

  18. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Weber, F.; Wilson, P.; Lopez, R.; Valha, G.; Conner, J.; Garr, J.; Williams, K.; Biermann, A.; Wilson, K.; Moore, P.; Gellner, C.; Rapchun, D.; Simon, K.; Turley, J.; Frye, L.; Monroe, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 6l0 x 6l0 x 292 mm aluminum frame and has 13.5 m 2 of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. We conducted an optimization study for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. We evaluated the prototype filter for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter has a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa at 1,700 m 3 /hr. Since we were not able to achieve a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa, the steel filter does not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster is used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generates a cloud of UO 2 aerosols. We used a 1,700 m 3 /hr slip stream from the 10,200 m 3 /hr exhaust system

  19. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  20. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  1. A new approach to a high efficiency inductive store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zowarka, R.C. Jr.; Kajs, J.P.; Price, J.H.; Weldon, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    In the Spring of 1989, Parker Kinetic Design, Inc. (PKD) and the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) conducted a study to examine the basic technologies to be used in the construction and operation of a feasible and reliable electromagnetic (EM) gun system. This work was performed for Brown and Root Vickers, Ltd. (BRV) in response to a feasibility analysis requirement of the Royal Armament and Development Establishment (RARDE), Ministry of Defence (MD) of the United Kingdom. This paper summarizes that this study focused on the analysis and evaluation of the suitability and applicability of various pulsed power supply options for the performance goals of the RARDE EM gun program. The existing technologies considered included batteries, compulsators, capacitors, and homopolar generators (HPGs). Primary performance specifications for the electrical energy radius system were that it be capable of providing 12 MJ of muzzle energy; velocities between 2.0 and 3.5 km/s; and a repetitive shot rate of up to 10 shots per day, with no more than a 30-min interval between shots. In addition, the recommended system needed to be reliable, easily maintainable, and capable of routinely firing large numbers of shots. Strict adherence to the goal of designing a system based only on demonstrated technology results in power supplies that are prohibitively expensive and large. As a consequence, candidate system designs represent a modest extrapolation from demonstrated technology well within an acceptable design envelope. A new topology has been developed for a highly efficient inductive store suitable for pulsed-power applications. The new design features high L/R ratios without having to cryogenically cool the conductors. This allows for high efficiency charging of the inductor from low impedance dc sources such as batteries of HPGs

  2. Solid spectroscopy: semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da

    1983-01-01

    Photoemission as technique of study of the semiconductor electronic structure is shortly discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous semiconductors, where volume and surface electronic structure, core levels and O and H chemisorption in GaAs, Schottky barrier are treated, respectively. Amorphous semiconductors are also discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires, with their unique capability to bridge the nanoscopic and macroscopic worlds, have already been demonstrated as important materials for different energy conversion. One emerging and exciting direction is their application for solar to fuel conversion. The generation of fuels by the direct conversion of solar energy in a fully integrated system is an attractive goal, but no such system has been demonstrated that shows the required efficiency, is sufficiently durable, or can be manufactured at reasonable cost. One of the most critical issues in solar water splitting is the development of a suitable photoanode with high efficiency and long-term durability in an aqueous environment. Semiconductor nanowires represent an important class of nanostructure building block for direct solar-to-fuel application because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap and efficient charge transport and collection. Nanowires can be readily designed and synthesized to deterministically incorporate heterojunctions with improved light absorption, charge separation and vectorial transport. Meanwhile, it is also possible to selectively decorate different oxidation or reduction catalysts onto specific segments of the nanowires to mimic the compartmentalized reactions in natural photosynthesis. In this talk, I will highlight several recent examples in this lab using semiconductor nanowires and their heterostructures for the purpose of direct solar water splitting.

  4. The thermodynamic characteristics of high efficiency, internal-combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermodynamics of an automotive engine are determined using a cycle simulation. ► The net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. ► High compression ratio, lean mixtures and high EGR were the important features. ► Efficiency increased due to lower heat losses, and increased work conversion. ► The nitric oxides were essentially zero due to the low combustion temperatures. - Abstract: Recent advancements have demonstrated new combustion modes for internal combustion engines that exhibit low nitric oxide emissions and high thermal efficiencies. These new combustion modes involve various combinations of stratification, lean mixtures, high levels of EGR, multiple injections, variable valve timings, two fuels, and other such features. Although the exact combination of these features that provides the best design is not yet clear, the results (low emissions with high efficiencies) are of major interest. The current work is directed at determining some of the fundamental thermodynamic reasons for the relatively high efficiencies and to quantify these factors. Both the first and second laws are used in this assessment. An automotive engine (5.7 l) which included some of the features mentioned above (e.g., high compression ratios, lean mixtures, and high EGR) was evaluated using a thermodynamic cycle simulation. These features were examined for a moderate load (bmep = 900 kPa), moderate speed (2000 rpm) condition. By the use of lean operation, high EGR levels, high compression ratio and other features, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. These increases are explained in a step-by-step fashion. The major reasons for these improvements include the higher compression ratio and the dilute charge (lean mixture, high EGR). The dilute charge resulted in lower temperatures which in turn resulted in lower heat loss. In addition, the lower temperatures resulted in higher ratios of the specific heats which

  5. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

    1997-01-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO x control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO x control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO x control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO x control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO x levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO x control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO x control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each technology sampling included: CO, SO 2 , N 2 O, total

  6. In-situ high efficiency filter testing at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses experience in the testing of high efficiency filters in a variety of reactor and plant installations at AEE Winfrith. There is rarely any concern about the effectiveness of the filter as supplied by any reputable manufacturer. Experience has shown there is a need to check for defects in the installation of filters which could lead to by-passing of aerosols and it is desirable to perform periodical re-tests to ensure that no subsequent deterioration occurs. It is important to use simple, portable apparatus for such tests; methods based on the use of sodium chloride aerosols, although suitable for the testing of filters prior to installation, involve apparatus which is too bulky for in-situ testing. At Winfrith a double automatic Pollak counter has been developed and used routinely since 1970. The aerosol involved has a particle size far smaller than the size most likely to penetrate intact filters, but this is irrelevant when one is primarily interested in particles which by-pass the filter. Comparisons with other methods of testing filters will be described. There is remarkably good agreement between the efficiency of the filter installation as measured by a Pollak counter compared with techniques involving aerosols of sodium chloride and Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP), presumably because the leakage around the filter is independent of particle size

  7. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Ashraf, Raja; Abdelsamie, Maged; Pont, Sebastian; Little, Mark; Moser, Maximilian; Hamid, Zeinab; Neophytou, Marios; Zhang, Weimin; Amassian, Aram; Durrant, James R.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  8. A high efficiency hybrid stirling-pulse tube cryocooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presented a hybrid cryocooler which combines the room temperature displacers and the pulse tube in one system. Compared with a traditional pulse tube cryocooler, the system uses the rod-less ambient displacer to recover the expansion work from the pulse tube cold end to improve the efficiency while still keeps the advantage of the pulse tube cryocooler with no moving parts at the cold region. In the meantime, dual-opposed configurations for both the compression pistons and displacers reduce the cooler vibration to a very low level. In the experiments, a lowest no-load temperature of 38.5 K has been obtained and the cooling power at 80K was 26.4 W with an input electric power of 290 W. This leads to an efficiency of 24.2% of Carnot, marginally higher than that of an ordinary pulse tube cryocooler. The hybrid configuration herein provides a very competitive option when a high efficiency, high-reliability and robust cryocooler is desired.

  9. MXene molecular sieving membranes for highly efficient gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Wei, Yanying; Li, Libo; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Haihui; Xue, Jian; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Caro, Jürgen; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-01-11

    Molecular sieving membranes with sufficient and uniform nanochannels that break the permeability-selectivity trade-off are desirable for energy-efficient gas separation, and the arising two-dimensional (2D) materials provide new routes for membrane development. However, for 2D lamellar membranes, disordered interlayer nanochannels for mass transport are usually formed between randomly stacked neighboring nanosheets, which is obstructive for highly efficient separation. Therefore, manufacturing lamellar membranes with highly ordered nanochannel structures for fast and precise molecular sieving is still challenging. Here, we report on lamellar stacked MXene membranes with aligned and regular subnanometer channels, taking advantage of the abundant surface-terminating groups on the MXene nanosheets, which exhibit excellent gas separation performance with H 2 permeability >2200 Barrer and H 2 /CO 2 selectivity >160, superior to the state-of-the-art membranes. The results of molecular dynamics simulations quantitatively support the experiments, confirming the subnanometer interlayer spacing between the neighboring MXene nanosheets as molecular sieving channels for gas separation.

  10. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  11. Novel Intermode Prediction Algorithm for High Efficiency Video Coding Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-seob Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called high efficiency video coding (HEVC. In the HEVC, there are three units in block structure: coding unit (CU, prediction unit (PU, and transform unit (TU. The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock (MB. Each CU performs recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the tree block. In this paper, we propose a fast CU depth decision algorithm for HEVC technology to reduce its computational complexity. In 2N×2N PU, the proposed method compares the rate-distortion (RD cost and determines the depth using the compared information. Moreover, in order to speed up the encoding time, the efficient merge SKIP detection method is developed additionally based on the contextual mode information of neighboring CUs. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the average time-saving factor of 44.84% in the random access (RA at Main profile configuration with the HEVC test model (HM 10.0 reference software. Compared to HM 10.0 encoder, a small BD-bitrate loss of 0.17% is also observed without significant loss of image quality.

  12. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of {approx} 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. High-efficiency ballistic electrostatic generator using microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Vreede, Lennart J.; de Boer, Hans L.; van der Meulen, Mark-Jan; Versluis, Michel; Sprenkels, Ad J.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2014-04-01

    The strong demand for renewable energy promotes research on novel methods and technologies for energy conversion. Microfluidic systems for energy conversion by streaming current are less known to the public, and the relatively low efficiencies previously obtained seemed to limit the further applications of such systems. Here we report a microdroplet-based electrostatic generator operating by an acceleration-deceleration cycle (‘ballistic’ conversion), and show that this principle enables both high efficiency and compact simple design. Water is accelerated by pumping it through a micropore to form a microjet breaking up into fast-moving charged droplets. Droplet kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy when the charged droplets decelerate in the electrical field that forms between membrane and target. We demonstrate conversion efficiencies of up to 48%, a power density of 160 kW m-2 and both high- (20 kV) and low- (500 V) voltage operation. Besides offering striking new insights, the device potentially opens up new perspectives for low-cost and robust renewable energy conversion.

  14. High Efficiency Hydrodynamic DNA Fragmentation in a Bubbling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-18

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling system. We expect that hydrodynamic forces generated during the bubbling process shear the DNA molecules, extending and breaking them at the points where shearing forces are larger than the strength of the phosphate backbone. Factors of applied pressure, bubbling time and temperature have been investigated. Genomic DNA could be fragmented down to controllable 1-10 Kbp fragment lengths with a yield of 75.30-91.60%. We demonstrate that the ends of the genomic DNAs generated from hydrodynamic shearing can be ligated by T4 ligase and the fragmented DNAs can be used as templates for polymerase chain reaction. Therefore, in the bubbling system, DNAs could be hydrodynamically sheared to achieve smaller pieces in dsDNAs available for further processes. It could potentially serve as a DNA sample pretreatment technique in the future.

  15. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  16. A Novel High Efficiency Fractal Multiview Video Codec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiview video which is one of the main types of three-dimensional (3D video signals, captured by a set of video cameras from various viewpoints, has attracted much interest recently. Data compression for multiview video has become a major issue. In this paper, a novel high efficiency fractal multiview video codec is proposed. Firstly, intraframe algorithm based on the H.264/AVC intraprediction modes and combining fractal and motion compensation (CFMC algorithm in which range blocks are predicted by domain blocks in the previously decoded frame using translational motion with gray value transformation is proposed for compressing the anchor viewpoint video. Then temporal-spatial prediction structure and fast disparity estimation algorithm exploiting parallax distribution constraints are designed to compress the multiview video data. The proposed fractal multiview video codec can exploit temporal and spatial correlations adequately. Experimental results show that it can obtain about 0.36 dB increase in the decoding quality and 36.21% decrease in encoding bitrate compared with JMVC8.5, and the encoding time is saved by 95.71%. The rate-distortion comparisons with other multiview video coding methods also demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme.

  17. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  18. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  19. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Budagavi, Madhukar; Sullivan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This book provides developers, engineers, researchers and students with detailed knowledge about the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. HEVC is the successor to the widely successful H.264/AVC video compression standard, and it provides around twice as much compression as H.264/AVC for the same level of quality. The applications for HEVC will not only cover the space of the well-known current uses and capabilities of digital video – they will also include the deployment of new services and the delivery of enhanced video quality, such as ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) and video with higher dynamic range, wider range of representable color, and greater representation precision than what is typically found today. HEVC is the next major generation of video coding design – a flexible, reliable and robust solution that will support the next decade of video applications and ease the burden of video on world-wide network traffic. This book provides a detailed explanation of the various parts ...

  20. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  1. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of ∼ 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  2. Characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Adam Nepomuk, E-mail: otte@gatech.edu; Garcia, Distefano; Nguyen, Thanh; Purushotham, Dhruv

    2017-02-21

    We report about the optical and electrical characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive Silicon photomultipliers from FBK, Hamamatsu, and SensL. Key features of the tested devices when operated at 90% breakdown probability are peak photon detection efficiencies between 40% and 55%, temperature dependencies of gain and PDE that are less than 1%/°C, dark rates of ∼50 kHz/mm{sup 2} at room temperature, afterpulsing of about 2%, and direct optical crosstalk between 6% and 20%. The characteristics of all three devices impressively demonstrate how the Silicon-photomultiplier technology has improved over the past ten years. It is further demonstrated how the voltage and temperature characteristics of a number of quantities can be parameterized on the basis of physical models. The models provide a deeper understanding of the device characteristics over a wide bias and temperature range. They also serve as examples how producers could provide the characteristics of their SiPMs to users. A standardized parameterization of SiPMs would enable users to find the optimal SiPM for their application and the operating point of SiPMs without having to perform measurements thus significantly reducing design and development cycles.

  3. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology

  4. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  5. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Large area flexible polymer solar cells with high efficiency enabled by imprinted Ag grid and modified buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shudi; Lin, Jie; Liu, Kong; Yue, Shizhong; Ren, Kuankuan; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Jin, Peng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    To take a full advantage of polymer semiconductors on realization of large-area flexible photovoltaic devices, herein, we fabricate polymer solar cells on the basis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with imprinted Ag grid as transparent electrode. The key fabrication procedure is the adoption of a modified PEDOT:PSS (PH1000) solution for spin-coating the buffer layer to form a compact contact with the substrate. In comparison with the devices with intrinsic PEDOT:PSS buffer layer, the advanced devices present a much higher efficiency of 6.51%, even in a large device area of 2.25 cm"2. Subsequent characterizations reveal that such devices show an impressive performance stability as the bending angle is enlarged to 180° and bending time is up to 1000 cycles. Not only providing a general methodology to construct high efficient and flexible polymer solar cells, this paper also involves deep insights on device working mechanism in bending conditions.

  7. Metal-semiconductor, composite radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, W.J.; Yee, J.H.; Fuess, D.A.

    1991-12-01

    In 1989, Naruse and Hatayama of Toshiba published a design for an increased efficiency x-ray detector. The design increased the efficiency of a semiconductor detector by interspersing layers of high-z metal within it. Semiconductors such as silicon make good, high-resolution radiation detectors, but they have low efficiency because they are low-z materials (z = 14). High-z metals, on the other hand, are good absorbers of high-energy photons. By interspersing high-z metal layers with semiconductor layers, Naruse and Hatayama combined the high absorption efficiency of the high-z metals with good detection capabilities of a semiconductor. This project is an attempt to use the same design to produce a high- efficiency gamma ray detector. By their nature, gamma rays require thicker metal layers to efficiently absorb them. These thicker layers change the behavior of the detector by reducing the resolution, compared to a solid state detector, and shifting the photopeak by a predictable amount. During the last year, we have modeled parts of the detector and have nearly completed a prototype device. 2 refs

  8. Metal-semiconductor, composite radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvis, W.J.; Yee, J.H.; Fuess, D.

    1992-12-01

    In 1989, Naruse and Hatayama of Toshiba published a design for an increased efficiency x-ray detector. The design increased the efficiency of a semiconductor detector by interspersing layers of high-z metal within it. Semiconductors such as silicon make good, high-resolution radiation detectors, but they have low efficiency because they are low-z materials (z = 14). High-z metals, on the other hand, are good absorbers of high-energy photons. By interspersing high-z metal layers with semiconductor layers, Naruse and Hatayama combined the high absorption efficiency of the high-z metals with the good detection capabilities of a semiconductor. This project is an attempt to use the same design to produce a high-efficiency, room temperature gamma ray detector. By their nature, gamma rays require thicker metal layers to efficiently absorb them. These thicker layers change the behavior of the detector by reducing the resolution, compared to a solid state detector, and shifting the photopeak by a predictable amount. During the last year, the authors have procured and tested a commercial device with operating characteristics similar to those of a single layer of the composite device. They have modeled the radiation transport in a multi-layered device, to verify the initial calculations of layer thickness and composition. They have modeled the electrostatic field in different device designs to locate and remove high-field regions that can cause device breakdown. They have fabricated 14 single layer prototypes

  9. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  10. Effects of p-type nickel oxide semiconductor and gold bilayer on highly efficient polymer solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Woo [R and D Center, Samsung Corning Precision Materials Co., Ltd., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Chul; Shin, Jae Won [Dept. of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University-SeouL, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we report a new hole-collecting interlayer (HCI) comprising NiO/Au/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)-based polymer solar cells (PSCs). The insertion of a bilayer of NiO/Au between indium tin oxide (ITO) and PEDOT:PSS improves the photocurrent generation of the PSCs. The NiO layer provides an intermediate step energy level between ITO and PEDOT:PSS, leading to enhanced hole collection. The ultrathin Au induces a surface plasmon resonance effect, allowing more photons to be absorbed by the photoactive layer and improving the hole-collecting properties by planarizing and doping the NiO. The PSCs with the NiO/Au/PEDOT:PSS HCIs yield a power-conversion efficiency of 3.9 ± 0.2%, which is approximately 15% higher than that of PSCs with a PEDOT:PSS-only HCI, under a simulated air mass 1.5 global (G) 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination.

  11. High Efficiency Multijunction Solar Cells with Finely-Tuned Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varonides, Argyrios C.

    The field of high efficiency (inorganic) photovoltaics (PV) is rapidly maturing in both efficiency goals and cover all cost reduction of fabrication. On one hand, know-how from space industry in new solar cell design configurations and on the other, fabrication cost reduction challenges for terrestrial uses of solar energy, have paved the way to a new generation of PV devices, capable of capturing most of the solar spectrum. For quite a while now, the goal of inorganic solar cell design has been the total (if possible) capture-absorption of the solar spectrum from a single solar cell, designed in such a way that a multiple of incident wavelengths could be simultaneously absorbed. Multi-absorption in device physics indicates parallel existence of different materials that absorb solar photons of different energies. Bulk solid state devices absorb at specific energy thresholds, depending on their respective energy gap (EG). More than one energy gaps would on principle offer new ways of photon absorption: if such a structure could be fabricated, two or more groups of photons could be absorbed simultaneously. The point became then what lattice-matched semiconductor materials could offer such multiple levels of absorption without much recombination losses. It was soon realized that such layer multiplicity combined with quantum size effects could lead to higher efficiency collection of photo-excited carriers. At the moment, the main reason that slows down quantum effect solar cell production is high fabrication cost, since it involves primarily expensive methods of multilayer growth. Existing multi-layer cells are fabricated in the bulk, with three (mostly) layers of lattice-matched and non-lattice-matched (pseudo-morphic) semiconductor materials (GaInP/InGaN etc), where photo-carrier collection occurs in the bulk of the base (coming from the emitter which lies right under the window layer). These carriers are given excess to conduction via tunnel junction (grown between

  12. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  13. Hot nuclei studied with high efficiency neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galin, J.

    1990-01-01

    We have shown the invaluable benefit that a high efficiency 4π neutron detector can bring to the study of reaction mechanisms following collisions of heavy nuclei at intermediate energy. Analysis requires Monte-Carlo simulations for comparison between experimental data and any emission model. In systematic measurements with projectiles of velocity corresponding to energies between 27 and 77 MeV/u, where both the influence of beam velocity and mass have been investigated separately, it has been shown that the projectile-target mass asymmetry, much more than velocity, has a decisive influence on energy dissipation. The closer the projectile mass to the target mass, the more energy is dissipated per unit mass of the considered projectile plus target system. The latter presents all the characteristics of a thermalized system, evaporating a copious number of light particles: up to about 40 neutrons (after efficiency correction) and 11 light charged particles in the most dissipative collisions between Kr+Au, and 90 neutrons for Pb+U with a yet unknown number of l.c.p. In the Kr experiment, these particles are isotropically emitted in the frame of a fused system, excited with 1.2 GeV. Moreover, l.c.p. exhibit Maxwellian energy distributions as in any standard evaporation process. We are now eager to better characterize the properties of the Pb+Au (U) systems for which about 1/3 of the neutrons are freed in a rather large fraction of all collisions. The thermalized energy should then approach very closely the total binding energy of the two interacting nuclei

  14. A critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Iain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experimental and theoretical means applied to two widely used materials, M50 bearing steel and IN718 nickel based superalloy. It has been shown that this grinding method using a stiff grinding centre such as the Edgetek 5-axis machine is a viable process. Using a number of experimental designs, produced results which were analysed using a variety of methods including visual assessment, sub-surface microscopy and surface analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), residual stress measurement using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, Barkhausen Noise Amplitude (BNA) measurements, surface roughness and Vickers micro-hardness appraisal. It has been shown that the fundamentals of the HEDG process have been understood through experimental as well as theoretical means and that through the various thermal models used, grinding temperatures can be predicted to give more control over this dynamic process. The main contributions to knowledge are made up of a number of elements within the grinding environment, the most important being the demonstration of the HEDG effect, explanation of the phenomenon and the ability to model the process. It has also been shown that grinding is a dynamic process and factors such as wheel wear will result in a continuous change in the optimum grinding conditions for a given material and wheel combination. With the significance of these factors recognised, they can be accounted for within an industrial adaptive control scenario with the process engineer confident of a

  15. [Tobacco--a highly efficient producer of vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Along with the depreciation of tobacco as a source of nicotine-containing commercial products, the increase of its appreciation as a potential producer of recombinant therapeutical proteins can be observed. Two species of tobacco--Nicotiana tabacum L. and N. benthamiana are easily grown by well established methods of field or green-house cultivation or cell culture, yield high biomass and soluble protein content, can be easily transformed by several methods and are not food for humans or feed for animals. Expression of foreign proteins, including vaccines, can be achieved in those plants either through stable transformation of nuclear or plastid (chloroplast) genomes or by transient transformation using infection with plant virus or bacteria--Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration). The most advanced mode of agrofiltration termed magnifection, which combines benefits of virus and Agrobacterium and depends on using Agrobacterium with viral pro-vectors, enables high-yield and rapid expression of therapeutical proteins, even in a few days, and can be employed on an industrial scale. Expression of many antigenic proteins, which may serve as antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoan and anticancer vaccines, and additionally a few autoantigens designed for the treatment of autoimunogenic diseases, like diabetes, have been achieved in tobacco. To date, a vaccine against Newcastle virus disease in poultry produced by tobacco cell culture has been approved for commercial application and several other vaccines are in advanced stage of development. The possibility of a high-level production of vaccines in tobacco against pandemic influenza or anthrax and plague due to a bioterroristic attack, as well as of individualised anticancer vaccines against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a much shorter period of time than by traditional methods became realistic and hence caused increased interest in tobacco as a high-efficient producer of vaccines not only of specialistic

  16. High efficiency, multiterawatt x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present undulator magnet tapering methods for obtaining high efficiency and multiterawatt peak powers in x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, a key requirement for enabling 3D atomic resolution single molecule imaging and nonlinear x-ray science. The peak power and efficiency of tapered XFELs is sensitive to time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. To analyze this dependence in detail we perform a comparative numerical optimization for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile including and intentionally disabling these effects. We show that the solution for the magnetic field taper profile obtained from time independent optimization does not yield the highest extraction efficiency when time dependent effects are included. Our comparative optimization is performed for a novel undulator designed specifically to obtain TW power x-ray pulses in the shortest distance: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. We determine that after a fully time dependent optimization of a 100 m long Linac coherent light source-like XFEL we can obtain a maximum efficiency of 7%, corresponding to 3.7 TW peak radiation power. Possible methods to suppress the synchrotron sidebands, and further enhance the FEL peak power, up to about 6 TW by increasing the seed power and reducing the electron beam energy spread, are also discussed.

  17. Progress of High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor Simulations Using TURBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Beach, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional, time-accurate, and phase-lagged computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor (HECC) stage were generated using the TURBO solver. Changes to the TURBO Parallel Version 4 source code were made in order to properly model the no-slip boundary condition along the spinning hub region for centrifugal impellers. A startup procedure was developed to generate a converged flow field in TURBO. This procedure initialized computations on a coarsened mesh generated by the Turbomachinery Gridding System (TGS) and relied on a method of systematically increasing wheel speed and backpressure. Baseline design-speed TURBO results generally overpredicted total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency, and the choking flow rate of the HECC stage as compared with the design-intent CFD results of Code Leo. Including diffuser fillet geometry in the TURBO computation resulted in a 0.6 percent reduction in the choking flow rate and led to a better match with design-intent CFD. Diffuser fillets reduced annulus cross-sectional area but also reduced corner separation, and thus blockage, in the diffuser passage. It was found that the TURBO computations are somewhat insensitive to inlet total pressure changing from the TURBO default inlet pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (101.35 kilopascals) down to 11.0 pounds per square inch (75.83 kilopascals), the inlet pressure of the component test. Off-design tip clearance was modeled in TURBO in two computations: one in which the blade tip geometry was trimmed by 12 mils (0.3048 millimeters), and another in which the hub flow path was moved to reflect a 12-mil axial shift in the impeller hub, creating a step at the hub. The one-dimensional results of these two computations indicate non-negligible differences between the two modeling approaches.

  18. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  19. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  20. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  1. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  2. A high-efficiency, low-noise power solution for a dual-channel GNSS RF receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jian; Mo Taishan; Gan Yebing; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun; Le Jianlian

    2012-01-01

    A high-efficiency low-noise power solution for a dual-channel GNSS RF receiver is presented. The power solution involves a DC—DC buck converter and a followed low-dropout regulator (LDO). The pulse-width-modulation (PWM) control method is adopted for better noise performance. An improved low-power high-frequency PWM control circuit is proposed, which halves the average quiescent current of the buck converter to 80 μA by periodically shutting down the OTA. The size of the output stage has also been optimized to achieve high efficiency under a light load condition. In addition, a novel soft-start circuit based on a current limiter has been implemented to avoid inrush current. Fabricated with commercial 180-nm CMOS technology, the DC—DC converter achieves a peak efficiency of 93.1% under a 2 MHz working frequency. The whole receiver consumes only 20.2 mA from a 3.3 V power supply and has a noise figure of 2.5 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  4. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  5. Radiation effects in technologies of semiconductor materials and devises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, F.P.; Bogatyrev, Yu.V.; Lastovskij, S.B.; Marchenko, I.G.; Zhdanovich, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper were considered the physical basics and practical results of using of penetrating radiations in technologies of nuclear transmutation of semiconductor materials (Si, GaAs) as well as in production of semiconductor devices including high-power silicon diodes, thyristors and transistors. It is shown the high efficiency of radiation technology for increasing of electronic device speed, exclusion of technological operations such as gold or platinum diffusions, increase of quality, decrease of prime cost and increase of good-to-bad device ratio yield

  6. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  7. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  8. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junhong [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  9. Perovskite Solar Cells for High-Efficiency Tandems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGehee, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    organic cation evolution and moisture penetration to overcome the often-reported thermal and environmental instability of metal halide perovskites. Previous perovskite-containing tandems utilized molybdenum oxide (MoOx) as a sputter buffer layer, but this has raised concerns over long-term stability, as the iodide in the perovskite can chemically react with MoOx. Mixed-cation perovskite solar cells have consistently outperformed their single-cation counterparts. The first perovskite device to exceed 20% PCE was fabricated with a mixture of methylammonium (MA) and formamidinium (FA). Recent reports have shown promising results with the introduction of cesium mixtures, enabling high efficiencies with improved photo-, moisture, and thermal stability. The increased moisture and thermal stability are especially important as they broaden the parameter space for processing on top of the perovskite, enabling the deposition of metal oxide contacts through atomic layer deposition (ALD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that may require elevated temperatures or water as a counter reagent. Both titanium dioxide (TiO2) and tin oxide (SnO2) have consistently proven to be effective electron-selective contacts for perovskite solar cells and both can be deposited via ALD at temperatures below 150 °C. We introduced a bilayer of SnO2 and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) that can be deposited by either low-temperature ALD or pulsed-CVD as a window layer with minimal parasitic absorption, efficient electron extraction, and sufficient buffer properties to prevent the organic and perovskite layers from damage during the subsequent sputter deposition of a transparent ITO electrode. We explored pulsed-CVD as a modified ALD process with a continual, rather than purely step-wise, growth component in order to considerably reduce the process time of the SnO2 deposition process and minimize potential perovskite degradation. These layers, when

  10. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  11. EVALUATION OF A LOW FRICTION - HIGH EFFICIENCY ROLLER BEARING ENGINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.

    2009-06-30

    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  12. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmann, Emily Cathryn

    While concentrator photovoltaic cells have shown significant improvements in efficiency in the past ten years, once these cells are integrated into concentrating optics, connected to a power conditioning system and deployed in the field, the overall module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. This efficiency is impressive compared to conventional flat plate modules, but it is far short of the theoretical limits for solar energy conversion. Designing a system capable of achieving ultra high efficiency of 50% or greater cannot be achieved by refinement and iteration of current design approaches. This thesis takes a systems approach to designing a photovoltaic system capable of 50% efficient performance using conventional diode-based solar cells. The effort began with an exploration of the limiting efficiency of spectrum splitting ensembles with 2 to 20 sub cells in different electrical configurations. Incorporating realistic non-ideal performance with the computationally simple detailed balance approach resulted in practical limits that are useful to identify specific cell performance requirements. This effort quantified the relative benefit of additional cells and concentration for system efficiency, which will help in designing practical optical systems. Efforts to improve the quality of the solar cells themselves focused on the development of tunable lattice constant epitaxial templates. Initially intended to enable lattice matched multijunction solar cells, these templates would enable increased flexibility in band gap selection for spectrum splitting ensembles and enhanced radiative quality relative to metamorphic growth. The III-V material family is commonly used for multijunction solar cells both for its high radiative quality and for the ease of integrating multiple band gaps into one monolithic growth. The band gap flexibility is limited by the lattice constant of available growth templates. The virtual substrate consists of a thin III-V film with the desired

  13. Semiconductors data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madelung, Otfried

    2004-01-01

    This volume Semiconductors: Data Handbook contains frequently used data from the corresponding larger Landolt-Börnstein handbooks in a low price book for the individual scientist working in the laboratory. The Handbook contain important information about a large number of semiconductors

  14. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  15. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I

    2008-01-01

    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  16. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  17. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  18. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  19. Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts in environmental purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiade; Fang, Wen [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); School of Environment Engineering and biology Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, 525000 Guangdong Province (China); Zhou, Wanqin [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350002 (China); Zhu, Lihua [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); Xie, Yu, E-mail: xieyu_121@163.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, Jiangxi (China)

    2015-12-15

    -based semiconductor could produce high efficient composite photocatalyts.

  20. Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts in environmental purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiade; Fang, Wen; Yu, Changlin; Zhou, Wanqin; Zhu, Lihua; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    -based semiconductor could produce high efficient composite photocatalyts.

  1. High-efficiency silicon solar cells for low-illumination applications

    OpenAIRE

    Glunz, S.W.; Dicker, J.; Esterle, M.; Hermle, M.; Isenberg, J.; Kamerewerd, F.; Knobloch, J.; Kray, D.; Leimenstoll, A.; Lutz, F.; Oßwald, D.; Preu, R.; Rein, S.; Schäffer, E.; Schetter, C.

    2002-01-01

    At Fraunhofer ISE the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells was extended from a laboratory scale to a small pilot-line production. Primarily, the fabricated cells are used in small high-efficiency modules integrated in prototypes of solar-powered portable electronic devices such as cellular phones, handheld computers etc. Compared to other applications of high-efficiency cells such as solar cars and planes, the illumination densities found in these mainly indoor applications are signific...

  2. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some problems openned in the study of defects in semiconductors are presented. In particular, a review is made of the more important problems in Si monocrystals of basic and technological interest: microdefects and the presence of oxigen and carbon. The techniques usually utilized in the semiconductor material characterization are emphatized according its potentialities. Some applications of x-ray techniques in the epitaxial shell characterization in heterostructures, importants in electronic optics, are shown. The increase in the efficiency of these defect analysis methods in semiconductor materials with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  4. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  5. Physics of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mroziewicz, B; Nakwaski, W

    2013-01-01

    Written for readers who have some background in solid state physics but do not necessarily possess any knowledge of semiconductor lasers, this book provides a comprehensive and concise account of fundamental semiconductor laser physics, technology and properties. The principles of operation of these lasers are therefore discussed in detail with the interrelations between their design and optical, electrical and thermal properties. The relative merits of a large number of laser structures and their parameters are described to acquaint the reader with the various aspects of the semiconductor l

  6. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  7. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  8. Advances in High-Efficiency III-V Multijunction Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. King

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The high efficiency of multijunction concentrator cells has the potential to revolutionize the cost structure of photovoltaic electricity generation. Advances in the design of metamorphic subcells to reduce carrier recombination and increase voltage, wide-band-gap tunnel junctions capable of operating at high concentration, metamorphic buffers to transition from the substrate lattice constant to that of the epitaxial subcells, concentrator cell AR coating and grid design, and integration into 3-junction cells with current-matched subcells under the terrestrial spectrum have resulted in new heights in solar cell performance. A metamorphic Ga0.44In0.56P/Ga0.92In0.08As/ Ge 3-junction solar cell from this research has reached a record 40.7% efficiency at 240 suns, under the standard reporting spectrum for terrestrial concentrator cells (AM1.5 direct, low-AOD, 24.0 W/cm2, 25∘C, and experimental lattice-matched 3-junction cells have now also achieved over 40% efficiency, with 40.1% measured at 135 suns. This metamorphic 3-junction device is the first solar cell to reach over 40% in efficiency, and has the highest solar conversion efficiency for any type of photovoltaic cell developed to date. Solar cells with more junctions offer the potential for still higher efficiencies to be reached. Four-junction cells limited by radiative recombination can reach over 58% in principle, and practical 4-junction cell efficiencies over 46% are possible with the right combination of band gaps, taking into account series resistance and gridline shadowing. Many of the optimum band gaps for maximum energy conversion can be accessed with metamorphic semiconductor materials. The lower current in cells with 4 or more junctions, resulting in lower I2R resistive power loss, is a particularly significant advantage in concentrator PV systems. Prototype 4-junction terrestrial concentrator cells have been grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy, with preliminary measured

  9. Development of III-Sb Quantum Dot Systems for High Efficiency Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffaker, Diana [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hubbard, Seth [Rochester Inst. of Technology, NY (United States); Norman, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This project aimed to develop solar cells that can help reduce cost per watt. This work focused on developing solar cells that utilize quantum dot (QD) nanomaterials to provide multijunction solar cell efficiency at the cost of single junction solar cell. We focused on a novel concept known as intermediate band solar cells (IBSC) where an additional energy band is inserted in a single solar cell to accommodate sub-bandgap photons absorption which otherwise are lost through transmission. The additional energy band can be achieved by growing QDs within a solar cell p-n junction. Though numerous studies have been conducted to develop such QD systems, very small improvements in solar energy conversion efficiency have been reported. This is mainly due to non-optimal material parameters such as band gap, band offset etc. In this work, we identified and developed a novel QD material system that meets the requirements of IBSC more closely than the current state-of-the-art technology. To achieve these goals, we focused on three important areas of solar cell design: band structure calculations of new materials, efficient device design for high efficiency, and development of new semiconductor materials. In this project, we focused on III-Sb materials as they possess a wide range of energy bandgaps from 0.2 eV to 2eV. Despite the difficulty involved in realizing these materials, we were successfully developed these materials through a systematic approach. Materials studied in this work are AlAsSb (Aluminum Arsenide Antimonide), InAlAs (Indium Aluminum Arsenide) and InAs (Indium Arsenide). InAs was used to develop QD layers within AlAsSb and InAlAs p-n junctions. As the QDs have very small volume, up to 30 QD layers been inserted into the p-n junction to enhance light absorption. These QD multi-stack devices helped in understanding the challenges associated with the development of quantum dot solar cells. The results from this work show that the quantum dot solar cells indeed

  10. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  11. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  12. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  13. Market survey of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, I.M.; Diegel, D.; Brown, A.; Brinker, C.S. den

    1977-06-01

    Examination of technology and product trends over the range of current and future products in integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Analysis and forecast of major economic influences that affect the production costs of integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Forecast of the applications and markets for integrated circuits up to 1985 in West Europe, the USA and Japan. Historic development of the semiconductor industry and the prevailing tendencies - factors which influence success in the semiconductor industry. (orig.) [de

  14. Electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einevoll, G.T.

    1991-02-01

    Ten papers on the electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures constitute the backbone of this thesis. Four papers address the form and validity of the single-band effective mass approximation for semiconductor heterostructures. In four other papers properties of acceptor states in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures are studied using the novel effective bond-orbital model. The last two papers deal with localized excitions. 122 refs

  15. The study of composition changes in thin film coatings of Ge-As-Se type under relativistic electron irradiation by means of electron Auger spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, L.G.; Dovgoshej, N.I.; Savchenko, N.D.

    1991-01-01

    Data on the influence of relativistic electrons on depth profile of Ge 33 As 12 Se 55 films were obtained for the first time. It was established that the most sufficient change of element composition of films in result of electron irradiation took place in the surface layer and on film-sublayer interface. It can be explained by increase of diffusion of impurities and free atoms

  16. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Bin [Department of Materials Science, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Baocheng, E-mail: caobch@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO{sub 2} thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  17. Fabrication and electrical resistivity of Mo-doped VO2 thin films coated on graphite conductive plates by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W.; Jung, H.M.; Um, S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Vanadium oxides (VO2) can be used in optical devices, thermochromic smart windows and sensors. This paper reported on a study in which vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) powder was prepared and mixed with Molybdenum Oxides (MoO3) to form Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films by a sol-gel method on graphite conductive substrates. The micro-structure and chemical compositions of the Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films was investigated using X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured as a function of the stoichiometric compositions between vanadium and molybdenum. In this study. Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films showed the typical metal to insulator transition (MIT), where temperature range could be adjusted by modifying the dopant atomic ratio. The through-plane substrate structure of the Mo-doped layer influences the electrical resistivity of the graphite substrate. As the amount of the molybdenum increases, the electrical resistivity of the graphite conductive substrate decreases in the lower temperature range below the freezing point of water. The experimental results showed that if carefully controlled, thermal dissipation of VO2 thin films can be used as a self-heating source to melt frozen water with the electrical current flowing through the graphite substrate. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Tribological Testing, Analysis and Characterization of D.C. Magnetron Sputtered Ti-Nb-N Thin Film Coatings on Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prathmesh

    To enhance the surface properties of stainless steel, the substrate was coated with a 1μm thick coating of Ti-Nb-N by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at different N2 flow rates, substrate biasing and Nb-Ti ratio. The characterization of the coated samples was performed by the following techniques: hardness by Knoop micro-hardness tester, phase analysis by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), compositional analysis by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and adhesion by scratch test. The tribology testing was performed on linearly reciprocating ball-on-plate wear testing machine and wear depth and wear volume were evaluated by white light interferometer. The micro-hardness test yielded appreciable enhancement in the surface hardness with the highest value being 1450 HK. Presence of three prominent phases namely NbN, Nb2N3 and TiN resulted from the XRD analysis. EDS analysis revealed the presence of Ti, Nb and Nitrogen. Adhesion was evaluated on the basis of critical loads for cohesive (Lc1) and adhesive (Lc2) failures with values varying between 7-12 N and 16-25 N respectively, during scratch test for coatings on SS substrates.

  19. A study of the optical properties and adhesion of zinc sulfide anti-reflection thin film coated on a germanium substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firoozifar, S.A.R. [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behjat, A., E-mail: abehjat@yazduni.ac.ir [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Photonics Research Group, Engineering Research Center, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kadivar, E. [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorashi, S.M.B.; Zarandi, M. Borhani [Atomic and Molecular Group, Faculty of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-01

    To conduct this study, zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films deposited on germanium (Ge) substrates were prepared by an evaporation method. The effects of deposition rate and annealing on the optical properties and adhesion of the ZnS thin films were investigated. The transmission intensity and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the samples showed that the transmittance of the samples decreases by increasing the evaporation rates. However, with the increase of the annealing temperature, crystallinity of the thin films improves which, in turn, results in the enhancement of the transmission intensity in a far infrared region. The maximum grain size was obtained at the annealing temperature of 225 deg. C. Our experimental results also show that evaporation rate and annealing influences the adhesion of ZnS thin films to Ge substrates.

  20. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi; Liu, Bin; Cao, Baocheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO 2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  1. Corrosion resistance of ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite multilayer thin films coated on carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Lateef, Hany M., E-mail: Hany_shubra@yahoo.co.uk; Khalaf, Mai M., E-mail: Mai_kha1@yahoo.com

    2015-10-15

    This work reports the achievement of preparing of x% zirconia (ZrO{sub 2})–titania (TiO{sub 2}) composite coatings with different ZrO{sub 2} percent on the carbon steel by dipping substrates in sol–gel solutions. The prepared coated samples were investigated by various surface techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Open-circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods were employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coated carbon steel substrates in 1.0 M HCl solution at 50 °C. The data showed that, the corrosion protection property is not always proportional to the percent of ZrO{sub 2}. It can be inferred that there is an optimum percent (10%ZrO{sub 2}) for beneficial effects of loading ZrO{sub 2} on the protection efficiency (98.70%), while higher loading percent of ZrO{sub 2} in the sol–gel coating leads to the formation of a fragile film with poor barrier properties. EDAX/SEM suggests that the metal surface was protected through coating with ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} composite films. - Highlights: • Sol–gel TiO{sub 2} doped with ZrO{sub 2} films deposited on carbon steel substrate • XRD measurements of x wt.% ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} showed the (101) peaks broader than that of TiO{sub 2}. • SEM results proved that, the cracking decreases with the number of layers. • The prepared films can improve the corrosion resistance of the carbon steel substrate. • 10%ZrO{sub 2} loading is the optimal percent for useful effects on the corrosion resistance.

  2. Standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of high efficiency motors and inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Yong [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center; Hyun, Chang Soon [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Most of the power systems energy is consumed by electrical motors. This report proposes a method for the standardization on the specification, test and evaluation of the high efficiency motors and related inverters. The results of this report can be referred to the rebate program for promoting the use of high efficiency motors and inverters (author). 26 refs., 102 figs.

  3. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for development of extra-high efficiency solar cells (fundamental research on extra-high efficiency Si solar cells); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Chokokoritsu taiyo denchi no gijutsu kaihatsu no tame no kaiseki hyoka (chokokoritsu silicon taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekikawa, T; Suzuki, E; Ishikawa, K; Takato, H; Yui, N; Shimokawa, R [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for development of extra-high efficiency silicon solar cells. It is necessary for development of extra-high efficiency Si solar cells to extend as far as possible service life of minority carriers and to develop the evaluation techniques. Noting photoluminescence (PL) observable even with Si, the method of evaluating characteristics of minority carriers, which are not limited in samples, is developed to experimentally determine their service life from transitional response of the PL characteristics. Si has an extremely low quantum effect, because it is an indirect transitional semiconductor, and needs measurement of very high sensitivity. A rapid heat annealing apparatus and others to generate carriers in the infrared and ultraviolet regions are provided in consideration that these are possible means to increase efficiency. These possibilities will be pursued by developing the annealing techniques. 1 fig.

  4. Architectures for Improved Organic Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jonathan H.

    Advancements in the microelectronics industry have brought increasing performance and decreasing prices to a wide range of users. Conventional silicon-based electronics have followed Moore's law to provide an ever-increasing integrated circuit transistor density, which drives processing power, solid-state memory density, and sensor technologies. As shrinking conventional integrated circuits became more challenging, researchers began exploring electronics with the potential to penetrate new applications with a low price of entry: "Electronics everywhere." The new generation of electronics is thin, light, flexible, and inexpensive. Organic electronics are part of the new generation of thin-film electronics, relying on the synthetic flexibility of carbon molecules to create organic semiconductors, absorbers, and emitters which perform useful tasks. Organic electronics can be fabricated with low energy input on a variety of novel substrates, including inexpensive plastic sheets. The potential ease of synthesis and fabrication of organic-based devices means that organic electronics can be made at very low cost. Successfully demonstrated organic semiconductor devices include photovoltaics, photodetectors, transistors, and light emitting diodes. Several challenges that face organic semiconductor devices are low performance relative to conventional devices, long-term device stability, and development of new organic-compatible processes and materials. While the absorption and emission performance of organic materials in photovoltaics and light emitting diodes is extraordinarily high for thin films, the charge conduction mobilities are generally low. Building highly efficient devices with low-mobility materials is one challenge. Many organic semiconductor films are unstable during fabrication, storage, and operation due to reactions with water, oxygen and hydroxide. A final challenge facing organic electronics is the need for new processes and materials for electrodes

  5. Multiferroic Double Perovskites ScFe1-xCrxO3 (1 /6 ≤x ≤5 /6 ) for Highly Efficient Photovoltaics and Spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tian-Yi; Liu, Shi-Chen; Ju, Sheng; Liu, Cheng-You; Guo, Guang-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Ferroelectric oxides are attractive materials for constructing efficient solar cells. Nevertheless, a wide band gap of nearly 3.0 eV in these ferroelectric oxides would result in poor overall sunlight absorption and, hence, low energy conversion efficiency. Here, by systematic first-principles density-functional calculations, we demonstrate that double-perovskite semiconductors ScFe1-xCrxO3 (1 /6 ≤x ≤5 /6 ) with a narrow band gap of approximately 1.8 eV would simultaneously exhibit large ferroelectric polarization (100 μ C /cm2 ) and ferrimagnetic magnetization (170 emu/cm3 ). Within a Schottky-based model for a typical sandwich solar-cell structure, a power-conversion efficiency of 9.0% can be reached by neglecting all other sources of photovoltaicity in ferroelectric materials. This value is larger than the largest value of 8.1% observed in ferroelectric oxides. Furthermore, these double perovskites are found to be single-spin semiconductors, and the obtained photocurrent is fully spin polarized over almost the entire Sun spectrum. These fascinating advantages would make ScFex Cr1 -xO3 (1 /6 ≤x ≤5 /6 ) semiconductors promising candidates for highly efficient solar cells and spin photovoltaic devices.

  6. Method of doping a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Rapp, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient

  7. High-efficiency cavity-dumped micro-chip Yb:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.; Maruko, A.; Inoue, M.; Takama, M.; Matsubara, S.; Okunishi, H.; Kato, K.; Kyomoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Shimabayashi, K.; Morioka, M.; Inayoshi, S.; Yamagata, S.; Kawato, S.

    2014-09-01

    High-efficiency cavity-dumped ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser was developed. Although the high quantum efficiency of ytterbium-doped laser materials is appropriate for high-efficiency laser oscillation, the efficiency is decreased by their quasi-three/four laser natures. High gain operation by high intensity pumping is suitable for high efficiency oscillation on the quasi-three/four lasers without extremely low temperature cooling. In our group, highest efficiency oscillations for continuous wave, nanosecond to picosecond pulse lasers were achieved at room temperature by the high gain operation in which pump intensities were beyond 100 kW/cm2.

  8. Advanced interface modelling of n-Si/HNO3 doped graphene solar cells to identify pathways to high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ma, Fa-Jun; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Hao; Jie, Jiansheng; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Bremner, Stephen P.

    2018-03-01

    In graphene/silicon solar cells, it is crucial to understand the transport mechanism of the graphene/silicon interface to further improve power conversion efficiency. Until now, the transport mechanism has been predominantly simplified as an ideal Schottky junction. However, such an ideal Schottky contact is never realised experimentally. According to literature, doped graphene shows the properties of a semiconductor, therefore, it is physically more accurate to model graphene/silicon junction as a Heterojunction. In this work, HNO3-doped graphene/silicon solar cells were fabricated with the power conversion efficiency of 9.45%. Extensive characterization and first-principles calculations were carried out to establish an advanced technology computer-aided design (TCAD) model, where p-doped graphene forms a straddling heterojunction with the n-type silicon. In comparison with the simple Schottky junction models, our TCAD model paves the way for thorough investigation on the sensitivity of solar cell performance to graphene properties like electron affinity. According to the TCAD heterojunction model, the cell performance can be improved up to 22.5% after optimizations of the antireflection coatings and the rear structure, highlighting the great potentials for fabricating high efficiency graphene/silicon solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

  9. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  10. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  11. Hydrogen in semiconductors II

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H; Weber, Eicke R; Nickel, Norbert H

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  12. Photoelectronic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bube, Richard H

    1992-01-01

    The interaction between light and electrons in semiconductors forms the basis for many interesting and practically significant properties. This book examines the fundamental physics underlying this rich complexity of photoelectronic properties of semiconductors, and will familiarise the reader with the relatively simple models that are useful in describing these fundamentals. The basic physics is also illustrated with typical recent examples of experimental data and observations. Following introductory material on the basic concepts, the book moves on to consider a wide range of phenomena, including photoconductivity, recombination effects, photoelectronic methods of defect analysis, photoeffects at grain boundaries, amorphous semiconductors, photovoltaic effects and photoeffects in quantum wells and superlattices. The author is Professor of Materials Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, and has taught this material for many years. He is an experienced author, his earlier books having fo...

  13. Advances in semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, James J; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scien

  14. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  15. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  16. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  17. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  18. Introductory semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2004-01-01

    ATOMS AND BONDINGThe Periodic TableIonic BondingCovalent BondingMetallic bondingvan der Waals BondingStart a DatabaseENERGY BANDS AND EFFECTIVE MASSSemiconductors, Insulators and MetalsSemiconductorsInsulatorsMetalsThe Concept of Effective MassCARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMICONDUCTORSDonors and AcceptorsFermi-LevelCarrier Concentration EquationsDonors and Acceptors Both PresentCONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTORSCarrier DriftCarrier MobilitySaturated Drift VelocityMobility Variation with TemperatureA Derivation of Ohm's LawDrift Current EquationsSemiconductor Band Diagrams with an Electric Field Presen

  19. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  20. Innovative Ultra-High Efficiency Cryogenic Actuators for Rocket Test Facilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SBIR Phase I project will develop advanced ultra-high efficiency cryogenic actuators for NASA cryogenic fluid transfer application. The actuator will have low...

  1. Ultra-Lightweight High Efficiency Nanostructured Materials and Coatings for Deep Space Mission Environments, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has developed a nanostructured spray self-assembly manufacturing method that has resulted in ultra-lightweight ( 1000%), and multi-layer, high efficiency...

  2. Qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones by the method of high-efficiency liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanotovskii, M.T.; Mogilevskaya, M.P.; Obol'nikova, E.A.; Kogan, L.M.; Samokhvalov, G.I.

    1986-01-01

    A method has been developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of ubiquinones CoQ 6 -CoQ 10 , using high-efficiency reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Tocopherol acetate was used as the internal standard

  3. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  4. Ultra-Lightweight, High Efficiency Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Based Power Electronic Converters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business of Innovation Research Phase I proposal seeks to investigate and prove the feasibility of developing highly efficient, ultra-lightweight SiC...

  5. Highly Efficient Closed-Loop CO2 Removal System for Deep-Space ECLSS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research Inc.(TDA) in collaboration with University of Puerto Rico ? Mayaguez (UPRM is proposing to develop a highly efficient CO2 removal system based on UPRM...

  6. MMIC for High-Efficiency Ka-BAnd GaN Power Amplifiers (2007043), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for high-efficiency, high-output power amplifiers operating in the Ka-band frequencies. For space communications, the power...

  7. High Efficiency Advanced Lightweight Fuel Cell (HEAL-FC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Infinity's High Efficiency Advanced Lightweight Fuel Cell (HEAL FC) is an improved version of its current fuel cell technology developed for space applications. The...

  8. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to utilize quantum dots to develop a super high-efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for space. In metamorphic triple junction space solar...

  9. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency heat...

  10. Physical principles of semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micek, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The general properties of semiconductors with respect to the possibilities of their use as the ionization radiation detectors are discussed. Some chosen types of semiconductor junctions and their characteristics are briefly presented. There are also discussed the physical phenomena connected with the formation of barriers in various types of semiconductor counters. Finally, the basic properties of three main types of semiconductor detectors are given. (author)

  11. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  12. Handbook of luminescent semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is an important approach for examining the optical interactions in semiconductors and optical devices with the goal of gaining insight into material properties. With contributions from researchers at the forefront of this field, Handbook of Luminescent Semiconductor Materials explores the use of this technique to study semiconductor materials in a variety of applications, including solid-state lighting, solar energy conversion, optical devices, and biological imaging. After introducing basic semiconductor theory and photoluminescence principles, the book focuses

  13. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  14. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  15. Additional compound semiconductor nanowires for photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, F.

    2016-02-01

    GaAs related compound semiconductor heterostructures are one of the most developed materials for photonics. Those have realized various photonic devices with high efficiency, e. g., lasers, electro-optical modulators, and solar cells. To extend the functions of the materials system, diluted nitride and bismide has been paid attention over the past decade. They can largely decrease the band gap of the alloys, providing the greater tunability of band gap and strain status, eventually suppressing the non-radiative Auger recombinations. On the other hand, selective oxidation for AlGaAs is a vital technique for vertical surface emitting lasers. That enables precisely controlled oxides in the system, enabling the optical and electrical confinement, heat transfer, and mechanical robustness. We introduce the above functions into GaAs nanowires. GaAs/GaAsN core-shell nanowires showed clear redshift of the emitting wavelength toward infrared regime. Further, the introduction of N elongated the carrier lifetime at room temperature indicating the passivation of non-radiative surface recombinations. GaAs/GaAsBi nanowire shows the redshift with metamorphic surface morphology. Selective and whole oxidations of GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires produce semiconductor/oxide composite GaAs/AlGaOx and oxide GaOx/AlGaOx core-shell nanowires, respectively. Possibly sourced from nano-particle species, the oxide shell shows white luminescence. Those property should extend the functions of the nanowires for their application to photonics.

  16. Semi-conductor rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for treating a semiconductor rectifier, comprising: heating the rectifier to a temperature in the range of 100 0 C to 500 0 C, irradiating the rectifier while maintaining its temperature within the said range, and then annealing the rectifier at a temperature of between 280 0 C and 350 0 C for between two and ten hours. (author)

  17. Semiconductor detector physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Comprehension of semiconductor detectors follows comprehension of some elements of solid state physics. They are recalled here, limited to the necessary physical principles, that is to say the conductivity. P-n and MIS junctions are discussed in view of their use in detection. Material and structure (MOS, p-n, multilayer, ..) are also reviewed [fr

  18. A High-Efficiency Compact SiC-based Power Converter System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wide-bandgap SiC semiconductors have been recently investigated for use in power devices, because of their potential capabilities of operating at high power...

  19. Study on highly efficient seismic data acquisition and processing methods based on sparsity constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Chen, S.; Tao, C.; Qiu, L.

    2017-12-01

    High-density, high-fold and wide-azimuth seismic data acquisition methods are widely used to overcome the increasingly sophisticated exploration targets. The acquisition period is longer and longer and the acquisition cost is higher and higher. We carry out the study of highly efficient seismic data acquisition and processing methods based on sparse representation theory (or compressed sensing theory), and achieve some innovative results. The theoretical principles of highly efficient acquisition and processing is studied. We firstly reveal sparse representation theory based on wave equation. Then we study the highly efficient seismic sampling methods and present an optimized piecewise-random sampling method based on sparsity prior information. At last, a reconstruction strategy with the sparsity constraint is developed; A two-step recovery approach by combining sparsity-promoting method and hyperbolic Radon transform is also put forward. The above three aspects constitute the enhanced theory of highly efficient seismic data acquisition. The specific implementation strategies of highly efficient acquisition and processing are studied according to the highly efficient acquisition theory expounded in paragraph 2. Firstly, we propose the highly efficient acquisition network designing method by the help of optimized piecewise-random sampling method. Secondly, we propose two types of highly efficient seismic data acquisition methods based on (1) single sources and (2) blended (or simultaneous) sources. Thirdly, the reconstruction procedures corresponding to the above two types of highly efficient seismic data acquisition methods are proposed to obtain the seismic data on the regular acquisition network. A discussion of the impact on the imaging result of blended shooting is discussed. In the end, we implement the numerical tests based on Marmousi model. The achieved results show: (1) the theoretical framework of highly efficient seismic data acquisition and processing

  20. New III-V cell design approaches for very high efficiency. Annual subcontract report, 1 August 1990--31 July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, M.S.; Melloch, M.R.; Lush, G.B.; O`Bradovich, G.J.; Young, M.P. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes progress during the first year of a three-year project. The objective of the research is to examine new design approaches for achieving very high conversion efficiencies. The program is divided into two areas. The first centers on exploring new thin-film approaches specifically designed for III-V semiconductors. The second area centers on exploring design approaches for achieving high conversion efficiencies without requiring extremely high quality material. Research activities consisted of an experimental study of minority carrier recombination in n-type, metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-deposited GaAs, an assessment of the minority carrier lifetimes in n-GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and developing a high-efficiency cell fabrication process.

  1. Room Temperature Hard Radiation Detectors Based on Solid State Compound Semiconductors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Kim, Sang Sub; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2018-05-01

    Si and Ge single crystals are the most common semiconductor radiation detectors. However, they need to work at cryogenic temperatures to decrease their noise levels. In contrast, compound semiconductors can be operated at room temperature due to their ability to grow compound materials with tunable densities, band gaps and atomic numbers. Highly efficient room temperature hard radiation detectors can be utilized in biomedical diagnostics, nuclear safety and homeland security applications. In this review, we discuss room temperature compound semiconductors. Since the field of radiation detection is broad and a discussion of all compound materials for radiation sensing is impossible, we discuss the most important materials for the detection of hard radiation with a focus on binary heavy metal semiconductors and ternary and quaternary chalcogenide compounds.

  2. Room Temperature Hard Radiation Detectors Based on Solid State Compound Semiconductors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Huh, Jeung-Soo; Kim, Sang Sub; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2018-03-01

    Si and Ge single crystals are the most common semiconductor radiation detectors. However, they need to work at cryogenic temperatures to decrease their noise levels. In contrast, compound semiconductors can be operated at room temperature due to their ability to grow compound materials with tunable densities, band gaps and atomic numbers. Highly efficient room temperature hard radiation detectors can be utilized in biomedical diagnostics, nuclear safety and homeland security applications. In this review, we discuss room temperature compound semiconductors. Since the field of radiation detection is broad and a discussion of all compound materials for radiation sensing is impossible, we discuss the most important materials for the detection of hard radiation with a focus on binary heavy metal semiconductors and ternary and quaternary chalcogenide compounds.

  3. Streptavidin-functionalized capillary immune microreactor for highly efficient chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Chemistry and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 88 South University Avenue, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zong Chen [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian, E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan Feng, E-mail: yanfeng2007@sohu.com [Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Prevention and Cure, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A novel capillary immune microreactor was proposed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent immunoassay. {yields} The microreactor was prepared by functionalizing capillary inner wall with streptavidin for capture of biotinylated antibody. {yields} The proposed immunoassay method showed wide dynamic range, good reproducibility, stability and practicality. {yields} The microreactor was low-cost and disposable, and possessed several advantages over the conventional immunoreactors. - Abstract: A streptavidin functionalized capillary immune microreactor was designed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay. The functionalized capillary could be used as both a support for highly efficient immobilization of antibody and a flow cell for flow-through immunoassay. The functionalized inner wall and the capture process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Compared to conventional packed tube or thin-layer cell immunoreactor, the proposed microreactor showed remarkable properties such as lower cost, simpler fabrication, better practicality and wider dynamic range for fast CL immunoassay with good reproducibility and stability. Using {alpha}-fetoprotein as model analyte, the highly efficient CL flow-through immunoassay system showed a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude from 0.5 to 200 ng mL{sup -1} and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup -1}. The capillary immune microreactor could make up the shortcoming of conventional CL immunoreactors and provided a promising alternative for highly efficient flow-injection immunoassay.

  4. Electrically pumped edge-emitting photonic bandgap semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Zubrzycki, Walter J.

    2004-01-06

    A highly efficient, electrically pumped edge-emitting semiconductor laser based on a one- or two-dimensional photonic bandgap (PBG) structure is described. The laser optical cavity is formed using a pair of PBG mirrors operating in the photonic band gap regime. Transverse confinement is achieved by surrounding an active semiconductor layer of high refractive index with lower-index cladding layers. The cladding layers can be electrically insulating in the passive PBG mirror and waveguide regions with a small conducting aperture for efficient channeling of the injection pump current into the active region. The active layer can comprise a quantum well structure. The quantum well structure can be relaxed in the passive regions to provide efficient extraction of laser light from the active region.

  5. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics.

  6. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  7. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  8. Semiconductor physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor Physics - An Introduction - is suitable for the senior undergraduate or new graduate student majoring in electrical engineering or physics. It will also be useful to solid-state scientists and device engineers involved in semiconductor design and technology. The text provides a lucid account of charge transport, energy transport and optical processes, and a detailed description of many devices. It includes sections on superlattices and quantum well structures, the effects of deep-level impurities on transport, the quantum Hall effect and the calculation of the influence of a magnetic field on the carrier distribution function. This 6th edition has been revised and corrected, and new sections have been added to different chapters.

  9. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  10. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  11. Optically coupled semiconductor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagaya, Naoki

    1988-11-18

    This invention concerns an optically coupled semiconductor device using the light as input signal and a MOS transistor for the output side in order to control on-off of the output side by the input signal which is insulated from the output. Concerning this sort of element, when a MOS transistor and a load resistance are planned to be accumulated on the same chip, a resistor and control of impurity concentration of the channel, etc. become necessary despite that the only formation of a simple P-N junction is enough, for a solar cell, hence cost reduction thereof cannot be done. In order to remove this defect, this invention offers an optically coupled semiconductor device featuring that two solar cells are connected in reverse parallel between the gate sources of the output MOS transistors and an operational light emitting element is individually set facing a respective solar cell. 4 figs.

  12. Doping of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Images through semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Improved image processing techniques are constantly being developed for television and for scanners using X-rays or other radiation for industrial or medical applications, etc. As Erik Heijne of CERN explains here, particle physics too has its own special requirements for image processing. The increasing use of semiconductor techniques for handling measurements down to the level of a few microns provides another example of the close interplay between scientific research and technological development. (orig.).

  14. Muonium states in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    There is a brief summary of what is known about the muonium states isotropic, anisotropic and diamagnetic in diamond and zincblende semiconductors. The report deals with muonium spectroscopy, including the formation probabilities, hyperfine parameters and electronic g-factors of the states. The dynamics of the states is treated including a discussion of the transition from isotropic Mu to anisotropic Mu in diamond, temperature-dependent linewidthes in silicon and germanium and effects of daping and radiation damage

  15. Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

  16. Doping of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  18. A new electrode design for ambipolar injection in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Ryota; Hitosugi, Taro; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2017-10-17

    Organic semiconductors have attracted much attention for low-cost, flexible and human-friendly optoelectronics. However, achieving high electron-injection efficiency is difficult from air-stable electrodes and cannot be equivalent to that of holes. Here, we present a novel concept of electrode composed of a bilayer of tetratetracontane (TTC) and polycrystalline organic semiconductors (pc-OSC) covered by a metal layer. Field-effect transistors of single-crystal organic semiconductors with the new electrodes of M/pc-OSC/TTC (M: Ca or Au) show both highly efficient electron and hole injection. Contact resistance for electron injection from Au/pc-OSC/TTC and hole injection from Ca/pc-OSC/TTC are comparable to those for electron injection from Ca and hole injection from Au, respectively. Furthermore, the highest field-effect mobilities of holes (22 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ) and electrons (5.0 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ) are observed in rubrene among field-effect transistors with electrodes so far proposed by employing Ca/pc-OSC/TTC and Au/pc-OSC/TTC electrodes for electron and hole injection, respectively.One of technological challenges building organic electronics is efficient injection of electrons at metal-semiconductor interfaces compared to that of holes. The authors show an air-stable electrode design with induced gap states, which support Fermi level pinning and thus ambipolar carrier injection.

  19. Broadband and high-efficiency vortex beam generator based on a hybrid helix array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chaoqun; Wu, Chao; Gong, Zhijie; Zhao, Song; Sun, Anqi; Wei, Zeyong; Li, Hongqiang

    2018-04-01

    The vortex beam which carries the orbital angular momentum has versatile applications, such as high-resolution imaging, optical communications, and particle manipulation. Generating vortex beams with the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase has drawn considerable attention for its unique spin-to-orbital conversion features. Despite the PB phase being frequency independent, an optical element with broadband high-efficiency circular polarization conversion feature is still needed for the broadband high-efficiency vortex beam generation. In this work, a broadband and high-efficiency vortex beam generator based on the PB phase is built with a hybrid helix array. Such devices can generate vortex beams with arbitrary topological charge. Moreover, vortex beams with opposite topological charge can be generated with an opposite handedness incident beam that propagates backward. The measured efficiency of our device is above 65% for a wide frequency range, with the relative bandwidth of 46.5%.

  20. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  1. Review of status developments of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Yao, Yao; Xiao, Shaoqing; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2018-03-01

    In order to further improve cell efficiency and reduce cost in achieving grid parity, a large number of PV manufacturing companies, universities and research institutes have been devoted to a variety of low-cost and high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells. In this article, the cell structures, characteristics and efficiency progresses of several types of high-efficiency crystalline Si solar cells that have been in small scale production or are promising in mass production are presented, including passivated emitter rear cell, tunnel oxide passivated contact solar cell, interdigitated back contact cell, heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer cell, and heterojunction solar cells with interdigitated back contacts. Both the industrialization status and future development trend of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells are also pinpointed.

  2. Survey of semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    1992-01-01

    Any book that covers a large variety of subjects and is written by one author lacks by necessity the depth provided by an expert in his or her own field of specialization. This book is no exception. It has been written with the encouragement of my students and colleagues, who felt that an extensive card file I had accumulated over the years of teaching solid state and semiconductor physics would be helpful to more than just a few of us. This file, updated from time to time, contained lecture notes and other entries that were useful in my research and permitted me to give to my students a broader spectrum of information than is available in typical textbooks. When assembling this material into a book, I divided the top­ ics into material dealing with the homogeneous semiconductor, the subject of the previously published Volume 1, and the inhomoge­ neous semiconductor, the subject of this Volume 2. In order to keep the book to a manageable size, sections of tutorial character which can be used as text for a g...

  3. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  4. The Physics of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    1999-02-01

    Modern fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce semiconductor devices whose dimensions are so small that quantum mechanical effects dominate their behavior. This book describes the key elements of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and solid-state physics that are necessary in understanding these modern semiconductor devices. The author begins with a review of elementary quantum mechanics, and then describes more advanced topics, such as multiple quantum wells. He then disusses equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Following this introduction, he provides a thorough treatment of solid-state physics, covering electron motion in periodic potentials, electron-phonon interaction, and recombination processes. The final four chapters deal exclusively with real devices, such as semiconductor lasers, photodiodes, flat panel displays, and MOSFETs. The book contains many homework exercises and is suitable as a textbook for electrical engineering, materials science, or physics students taking courses in solid-state device physics. It will also be a valuable reference for practicing engineers in optoelectronics and related areas.

  5. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROHATGI,A.; NARASIMHA,S.; MOSCHER,J.; EBONG,A.; KAMRA,S.; KRYGOWSKI,T.; DOSHI,P.; RISTOW,A.; YELUNDUR,V.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.

    2000-05-01

    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  6. A High Efficiency Li-Ion Battery LDO-Based Charger for Portable Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ziadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high efficiency Li-ion battery LDO-based charger IC which adopted a three-mode control: trickle constant current, fast constant current, and constant voltage modes. The criteria of the proposed Li-ion battery charger, including high accuracy, high efficiency, and low size area, are of high importance. The simulation results provide the trickle current of 116 mA, maximum charging current of 448 mA, and charging voltage of 4.21 V at the power supply of 4.8–5 V, using 0.18 μm CMOS technology.

  7. High-efficiency FEL with Bragg resonator driven by linear induction accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N S; Kaminskij, A A; Kaminskij, A K; Peskov, N Yu; Sedykh, S N; Sergeev, A P; Sergeev, A S [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    A narrow-band high-efficiency FEL-oscillator with a Bragg resonator was constructed based on a linear induction accelerator which formed a 1 MeV, 200 A, 200 ns electron beam. At the frequency of 31 GHz, radiation with a power of 31 MW and efficiency of 25% was measured. A high efficiency and a narrow width of the spectrum were achieved owing to the selective properties of the Bragg resonator in combination with the high quality of the helical electron beam formed in the reversed guide field regime. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  8. A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor used for optoelectronic integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liang; Li Zhi-Yong; Zhu Yu; Li Yun-Tao; Yu Yu-De; Yu Jin-Zhong; Fan Zhong-Cao; Han Wei-Hua

    2010-01-01

    A novel highly efficient grating coupler with large filling factor and deep etching is proposed in silicon-on-insulator for near vertical coupling between the rib waveguide and optical fibre. The deep slots acting as high efficient scattering centres are analysed and optimized. As high as 60% coupling efficiency at telecom wavelength of 1550-nm and 3-dB bandwidth of 61 nm are predicted by simulation. A peak coupling efficiency of 42.1% at wavelength 1546-nm and 3-dB bandwidth of 37.6 nm are obtained experimentally. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  9. Amorphous MoS{sub x} on CdS nanorods for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofang; Tang, Chaowan; Zheng, Qun; Shao, Yu; Li, Danzhen, E-mail: dzli@fzu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Loading cocatalyst on semiconductors was crucially necessary for improving the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Amorphous MoS{sub x} as a novel and noble metal-free cocatalyst was loaded on CdS nanorods by a simple photodeposition method. Efficient hydrogen evolution with amount of 15 mmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1} was observed over the MoS{sub x} modified CdS nanorods, which was about 6 times higher than that by using Pt as cocatalyst. Meanwhile, with MoS{sub x} cocatalyst, the efficiency of CdS nanorods was superior to that of CdS nanoparticles and bulk CdS. No deactivation could be observed in the efficiency of MoS{sub x} modified CdS nanorods under irradiation for successive 10 h. Further experimental results indicated that the efficient electrons transfer, low overpotential of hydrogen evolution and active S atoms over the MoS{sub x} modified CdS nanorods were responsible for the higher efficiency. Our results provided guidance for synthesizing noble metal-free materials as cocatalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. - Graphical abstract: Photodeposition of amorphous MoS{sub x} on CdS nanorods for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. - Highlights: • Amorphous MoSx cocatalyst was loaded on CdS NRs by a simple photodeposition. • MoS{sub x}/CdS NRs exhibited 6 times higher hydrogen evolution efficiency than Pt/CdS NRs. • The hydrogen evolution of MoS{sub x}/CdS NRs linearly increased with prolonging time. • Lower overpotential and efficient electron transfer were observed over MoS{sub x}/CdS NRs.

  10. Architectures and criteria for the design of high efficiency organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry; Forrest, Stephen R; Pendergrast Burk, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A method for fabricating an organic photovoltaic cell includes providing a first electrode; depositing a series of at least seven layers onto the first electrode, each layer consisting essentially of a different organic semiconductor material, the organic semiconductor material of at least an intermediate layer of the sequence being a photoconductive material; and depositing a second electrode onto the sequence of at least seven layers. One of the first electrode and the second electrode is an anode and the other is a cathode. The organic semiconductor materials of the series of at least seven layers are arranged to provide a sequence of decreasing lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) and a sequence of decreasing highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) across the series from the anode to the cathode.

  11. Three-terminal heterojunction bipolar transistor solar cell for high-efficiency photovoltaic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, A; Luque, A

    2015-04-22

    Here we propose, for the first time, a solar cell characterized by a semiconductor transistor structure (n/p/n or p/n/p) where the base-emitter junction is made of a high-bandgap semiconductor and the collector is made of a low-bandgap semiconductor. We calculate its detailed-balance efficiency limit and prove that it is the same one than that of a double-junction solar cell. The practical importance of this result relies on the simplicity of the structure that reduces the number of layers that are required to match the limiting efficiency of dual-junction solar cells without using tunnel junctions. The device naturally emerges as a three-terminal solar cell and can also be used as building block of multijunction solar cells with an increased number of junctions.

  12. A highly efficient pricing method for European-style options based on Shannon wavelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ortiz Gracia (Luis); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the search for robust, accurate and highly efficient financial option valuation techniques, we present here the SWIFT method (Shannon Wavelets Inverse Fourier Technique), based on Shannon wavelets. SWIFT comes with control over approximation errors made by means of sharp quantitative

  13. A Highly Efficient Shannon Wavelet Inverse Fourier Technique for Pricing European Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Gracia, Luis; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the search for robust, accurate, and highly efficient financial option valuation techniques, we here present the SWIFT method (Shannon wavelets inverse Fourier technique), based on Shannon wavelets. SWIFT comes with control over approximation errors made by means of sharp quantitative error

  14. A highly efficient Shannon wavelet inverse Fourier technique for pricing European options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ortiz Gracia (Luis); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the search for robust, accurate, and highly efficient financial option valuation techniques, we here present the SWIFT method (Shannon wavelets inverse Fourier technique), based on Shannon wavelets. SWIFT comes with control over approximation errors made by means of

  15. High Efficiency Non-isolated Three Port DC-DC Converter for PV-Battery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Manez, Kevin; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a nonisolated Three Port Converter (TPC) with a unidirectional port for photovoltaic (PV) panels and a bidirectional port for energy storage. With the proposed topology single power conversion is performed between each port, so high efficiencies are obtained. A theoretical...

  16. Atomic layer deposition for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, B.; van de Loo, B.W.H.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bachmann, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter illustrates that Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is in fact an enabler of novel high-efficiency Si solar cells, owing to its merits such as a high material quality, precise thickness control, and the ability to prepare film stacks in a well-controlled way. It gives an overview of the

  17. ETV REPORT: EVALUATION OF HYDROMETRICS, INC., HIGH EFFICIENCY REVERSE OSMOSIS (HERO™) INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrometrics, founded in 1979 and located in Helena, MT, manufactures a commercial-ready High Efficiency Reverse Osmosis (HERO™) industrial wastewater treatment system. The system uses a three-stage reverse osmosis process to remove and concentrate metals for recovery while prod...

  18. High efficiency thin-film solar cells for space applications: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leest, R.H. van

    2017-01-01

    In theory high efficiency thin-film III-V solar cells obtained by the epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique offer excellent characteristics for application in space solar panels. The thesis describes several studies that investigate the space compatibility of the thin-film solar cell design developed

  19. Ultra-high efficiency, fast graphene micro-heater on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Zhu, Xiaolong; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultra-high efficiency and fast graphene microheater on silicon photonic crystal waveguide. By taking advantage of slow-light effect, a tuning efficiency of 1.07 nm/mW and power consumption per free spectral range of 3.99 mW. A fast rise and decay times (10% to 90%) of only 750 ns...

  20. Compact high-efficiency vortex beam emitter based on a silicon photonics micro-ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shimao; Ding, Yunhong; Guan, Xiaowei

    2018-01-01

    Photonic integrated devices that emit vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum are becoming key components for multiple applications. Here we propose and demonstrate a high-efficiency vortex beam emitter based on a silicon micro-ring resonator integrated with a metal mirror. Such a compact...

  1. Standard specification for high efficiency particulate air filters. Revision No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    This specification covers the requirements for four types and four sizes of high efficiency particulate air filters, assembled with or without separators and gaskets. Types include Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant; Hydrogen Fluoride Fume (HF) Resistant; Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant and Chemical Resistant; and Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant, High Temperature and High Humidity

  2. SiC-based High Efficiency Bidirectional Battery Converter for Smart PV Residential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Biris, Valeriu-Ciprian; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    Smart PV inverters are essential components of future grids. Beside conventional functionalities they can communicate with the grid, supports the grid with reactive power and with active power from internal battery storage. To maximize internal consumption, a high efficiency bidirectional DC-DC c...

  3. High-efficiency electric motors: An analysis of a feasible tariff policy for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Delgado, M.A. de; Tolmasquim, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective is to calculate an average value for an electricity tariff which will facilitate the introduction of high-efficiency electric motors in the production sector. Two computational models will be developed for technical-economic evaluation to assess economic attractiveness by calculating feasible average electricity tariffs in order to create a market for substitution of standard motors by new high-efficiency models (Purchase Decision Model) as well as to determine if retrofitting of standard installed motors by others with high-efficiency characteristics is viable, and, if so, to specify the optimum timing for such substitution (Substitution Decision Model). It should be noted that the Purchase Decision Model takes into account power factor adjustment and the Substitution Decision Model incorporates considerations as to reduction in the electromechanical performance of operating motors. Results indicate that even where average electricity tariffs are low, as in Brazil, high-efficiency motors are economically attractive compared to standard motors. There is an obvious need for complementary instruments to assist massive market penetration

  4. High efficiency three-phase power factor correction rectifier using SiC switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents designing procedure of a high efficiency 5 kW silicon-carbide (SiC) based threephase power factor correction (PFC). SiC switches present low capacitive switching loss compared to the alternative Si switches. Therefore, the switching frequency can be increased and hence the siz...

  5. Highly efficient exciplex organic light-emitting diodes incorporating a heptazine derivative as an electron acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Nomura, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-06-11

    Highly efficient exciplex systems incorporating a heptazine derivative () as an electron acceptor and 1,3-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene () as an electron donor are developed. An organic light-emitting diode containing 8 wt% : as an emitting layer exhibits a maximum external quantum efficiency of 11.3%.

  6. Silica nanoparticles as a highly efficient catalyst for the one-pot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silica nanoparticles as a highly efficient catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of sterically congested ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... 42 nm) as a catalyst under solvent free conditions at room temperature is described. The ease of ...

  7. Highly efficient tandem polymer solar cells with a photovoltaic response in the visible light range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Maojie; Zhao, Kang; Ye, Long; Chen, Yu; Yang, Bei; Hou, Jianhui

    2015-02-18

    Highly efficient polymer solar cells with a tandem structure are fabricated by using two excellent photovoltaic polymers and a highly transparent intermediate recombination layer. Power conversion -efficiencies over 10% can be realized with a photovoltaic response within 800 nm. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Metallic metasurfaces for high efficient polarization conversion control in transmission mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Hu, Xiaobin; Chen, Huamin; Zhao, Chen; Xu, Yun; Wei, Xin; Song, Guofeng

    2017-10-02

    A high efficient broadband polarization converter is an important component in integrated miniaturized optical systems, but its performances is often restricted by the material structures, metallic metasurfaces for polarization control in transmission mode never achieved efficiency above 0.5. Herein, we theoretically demonstrate that metallic metasurfaces constructed by thick cross-shaped particles can realize a high efficient polarization transformation over a broadband. We investigated the resonant properties of designed matesurfaces and found that the interaction between double FP cavity resonances and double bulk magnetic resonances is the main reason to generate a high transmissivity over a broadband. In addition, through using four resonances effect and tuning the anisotropic optical response, we realized a high efficient (> 0.85) quarter-wave plate at the wavelength range from 1175nm to 1310nm and a high efficient (> 0.9) half-wave plate at the wavelength range from 1130nm to 1230nm. The proposed polarization converters may have many potential applications in integrated polarization conversion devices and optical data storage systems.

  9. Electrodes for Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Pil

    2017-01-01

    The electrodes of semiconductor gas sensors are important in characterizing sensors based on their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, response time, and long-term stability. The types and materials of electrodes used for semiconductor gas sensors are analyzed. In addition, the effect of interfacial zones and surface states of electrode–semiconductor interfaces on their characteristics is studied. This study describes that the gas interaction mechanism of the electrode–semiconductor interfaces should take into account the interfacial zone, surface states, image force, and tunneling effect. PMID:28346349

  10. Development of semiconductor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, John.

    1977-01-01

    In 1931, Wilson applied Block's theory about the energy bands for the motion of electrons in a crystal lattice to semiconductors and showed that conduction can take place in two different ways, by electrons and by holes. Not long afterwards Frenkel showed that these carriers can flow by diffusion in a concentration gradient as well as under the influence of an electric field and wrote down equations for the current flow. The third major contribution, in the late 1930's was the explanation of rectification at a metalsemiconductor contact by Mott and more completely by Schottky. In late 1947 the first transistor of the point contact type was invented by Brattin, Shockley and Bardeen. Then after single crystals of Ge were grown, the junction transistor was developed by the same group. The first silicon transistors appeared in 1954. Then an important step was discovery of the planar transistor by Hoenri in 1960 which led to development of integrated circuits by 1962. Many transistors are produced by batch processing on a slice of silicon. Then in 1965 Mos (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) transistor and in 1968 LSI (Large Scale Intergration circuits) were developed. Aside from electronic circuits, there are many other applications of semiconductors, including junction power rectifiers, junction luminescence (including lasers), solar batteries, radiation detectors, microwave oscillators and charged-coupled devices for computer memories and devices. One of the latest developments is a microprocessor with thousands of transistors and associated circuitry on a single small chip of silicon. It can be programmed to provide a variety of circuit functions, thus it is not necessary to go through the great expense of LSI's for each desired function, but to use standard microprocessors and program to do the job

  11. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  12. Electrowetting on semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Cesar; Deegan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Applying a voltage difference between a conductor and a sessile droplet sitting on a thin dielectric film separating it from the conductor will cause the drop to spread. When the conductor is a good metal, the change of the drop's contact angle due to the voltage is given by the Young-Lippmann (YL) equation. Here, we report experiments with lightly doped, single crystal silicon as the conductive electrode. We derive a modified YL equation that includes effects due to the semiconductor and contact line pinning. We show that light induces a non-reversible wetting transition, and that our model agrees well with our experimental results.

  13. Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57 Co and 60 Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239 Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

  14. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  15. High-efficiency single-photon source: The photonic wire geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, J.; Bazin, Maela; Malik, Nitin S.

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-photon-source design based on the emission of a quantum dot embedded in a semiconductor (GaAs) nanowire. The nanowire ends are engineered (efficient metallic mirror and tip taper) to reach a predicted record-high collection efficiency of 90% with a realistic design. Preliminar...

  16. Fabrication and characterization of Al2O3 /Si composite nanodome structures for high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiying Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on our fabrication and characterization of Al2O3/Si composite nanodome (CND structures, which is composed of Si nanodome structures with a conformal cladding Al2O3 layer to evaluate its optical and electrical performance when it is applied to thin film solar cells. It has been observed that by application of Al2O3thin film coating using atomic layer deposition (ALD to the Si nanodome structures, both optical and electrical performances are greatly improved. The reflectivity of less than 3% over the wavelength range of from 200 nm to 2000 nm at an incident angle from 0° to 45° is achieved when the Al2O3 film is 90 nm thick. The ultimate efficiency of around 27% is obtained on the CND textured 2 μm-thick Si solar cells, which is compared to the efficiency of around 25.75% and 15% for the 2 μm-thick Si nanodome surface-decorated and planar samples respectively. Electrical characterization was made by using CND-decorated MOS devices to measure device’s leakage current and capacitance dispersion. It is found the electrical performance is sensitive to the thickness of the Al2O3 film, and the performance is remarkably improved when the dielectric layer thickness is 90 nm thick. The leakage current, which is less than 4x10−9 A/cm2 over voltage range of from -3 V to 3 V, is reduced by several orders of magnitude. C-V measurements also shows as small as 0.3% of variation in the capacitance over the frequency range from 10 kHz to 500 kHz, which is a strong indication of surface states being fully passivated. TEM examination of CND-decorated samples also reveals the occurrence of SiOx layer formed between the interface of Si and the Al2O3 film, which is thin enough that ensures the presence of field-effect passivation, From our theoretical and experimental study, we believe Al2O3 coated CND structures is a truly viable approach to achieving higher device efficiency.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} /Si composite nanodome structures for high efficiency crystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruiying, E-mail: ryzhang2008@sinano.ac.cn [Key lab of nanodevices and applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Division of nano-devices and related materials, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215123 (China); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 China (China); Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yanyan; Qiu, Bocang [Key lab of nanodevices and applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Division of nano-devices and related materials, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Liu, Xuehua; Zhang, Jinping; Zhang, Yi [Platform for Characterization & Test, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Fang, Qi; Ren, Zhong [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Yatton, Bristol, BS49 4AP (United Kingdom); Bai, Yu [School of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Suzhou, 215123 (China)

    2015-12-15

    We report on our fabrication and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si composite nanodome (CND) structures, which is composed of Si nanodome structures with a conformal cladding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer to evaluate its optical and electrical performance when it is applied to thin film solar cells. It has been observed that by application of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}thin film coating using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to the Si nanodome structures, both optical and electrical performances are greatly improved. The reflectivity of less than 3% over the wavelength range of from 200 nm to 2000 nm at an incident angle from 0° to 45° is achieved when the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is 90 nm thick. The ultimate efficiency of around 27% is obtained on the CND textured 2 μm-thick Si solar cells, which is compared to the efficiency of around 25.75% and 15% for the 2 μm-thick Si nanodome surface-decorated and planar samples respectively. Electrical characterization was made by using CND-decorated MOS devices to measure device’s leakage current and capacitance dispersion. It is found the electrical performance is sensitive to the thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, and the performance is remarkably improved when the dielectric layer thickness is 90 nm thick. The leakage current, which is less than 4x10{sup −9} A/cm{sup 2} over voltage range of from -3 V to 3 V, is reduced by several orders of magnitude. C-V measurements also shows as small as 0.3% of variation in the capacitance over the frequency range from 10 kHz to 500 kHz, which is a strong indication of surface states being fully passivated. TEM examination of CND-decorated samples also reveals the occurrence of SiO{sub x} layer formed between the interface of Si and the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film, which is thin enough that ensures the presence of field-effect passivation, From our theoretical and experimental study, we believe Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CND structures is a truly viable approach to achieving higher device

  18. Single filament semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botez, D.

    1980-01-01

    A semiconductor laser comprising: a body of semiconductor material including a substrate having a surface and a pair of spaced, substantially parallel dove-tailed shaped grooves in said surface, said body having a pair of end surfaces between which said grooves extend, said end surfaces being reflective to light with at least one of said end surfaces being partially transparent to light a first epitaxial layer over said surface of the substrate and the surfaces of the grooves, said first epitaxial layer having a flat surface portion over the portion of the substrate surface between the grooves, a thin second epitaxial layer over said first epitaxial layer, a third epitaxial layer over said second epitaxial layer, said first and third epitaxial layers being of opposite conductivity types and the second epitaxial layer being the active recombination region of the laser with the light being generated therein in the vicinity of the portion which is over the flat surface portion of the first epitaxial layer, and a pair of contacts on said body with one contact being over said third epitaxial body and the other being on said substrate

  19. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  20. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F

    1983-02-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered.

  1. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding the low-temperature electrical transport properties of semiconductor nanowires. The semiconductor nanowires (1-100 nm in diameter) are grown from nanoscale gold particles via a chemical process called vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)

  2. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kisch, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  3. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  4. Semiconductor materials and their properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre; Reinders, Angele; Verlinden, Pierre; van Sark, Wilfried; Freundlich, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor materials are the basic materials which are used in photovoltaic (PV) devices. This chapter introduces solid-state physics and semiconductor properties that are relevant to photovoltaics without spending too much time on unnecessary information. Usually atoms in the group of

  5. Optical coherent control in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Vadim, Lyssenko; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2001-01-01

    of quantum control including the recent applications to semiconductors and nanostructures. We study the influence of inhomogeneous broadening in semiconductors on CC results. Photoluminescence (PL) and the coherent emission in four-wave mixing (FWM) is recorded after resonant excitation with phase...

  6. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...... breathing of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor....

  7. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, F.

    1983-01-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered. (Author) [pt

  8. Organic semiconductors in a spin

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, I

    2002-01-01

    A little palladium can go a long way in polymer-based light-emitting diodes. Inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide are essential for countless applications in everyday life, ranging from PCs to CD players. However, while they offer unrivalled computational speed, inorganic semiconductors are also rigid and brittle, which means that they are less suited to applications such as displays and flexible electronics. A completely different class of materials - organic semiconductors - are being developed for these applications. Organic semiconductors have many attractive features: they are easy to make, they can emit visible light, and there is tremendous scope for tailoring their properties to specific applications by changing their chemical structure. Research groups and companies around the world have developed a wide range of organic-semiconductor devices, including transistors, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells and lasers. (U.K.)

  9. Response function and optimum configuration of semiconductor backscattered-electron detectors for scanning electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, E. I.; Orlikovskiy, N. A.; Ivanova, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    A new highly efficient design for semiconductor detectors of intermediate-energy electrons (1–50 keV) for application in scanning electron microscopes is proposed. Calculations of the response function of advanced detectors and control experiments show that the efficiency of the developed devices increases on average twofold, which is a significant positive factor in the operation of modern electron microscopes in the mode of low currents and at low primary electron energies.

  10. Firetube boiler with high efficiency for producing saturated or superheated steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carosso, V J; Carosso, J Y

    1976-10-07

    This boiler for producing saturated or super-heated steam is to be manufactured in one piece or in units which can be assembled at site without skilled workers, at the factory. It is to have a high efficiency and dimensions which permit the transport of the completely assembled boiler by road transport. The relatively small water-steam vessel lies across the longitudinal axis of the boiler in the rear boiler space over a battery of preheater tubes. By these measures and by a very detailed and appropriately described rational arrangement of other parts, such as convection bundles, primary and secondary superheater, evaporation tubes, which form an 'evaporation shield', upper and lower longitudinal chambers with vertical connecting pipes of different crossections, the above mentioned condition for space requirement is fulfilled and a high efficiency should be achieved, but with considerable expense.

  11. In silico evaluation of highly efficient organic light-emitting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, H. Shaun; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang; Gavartin, Jacob; Dixon, Steve; Halls, Mathew D.

    2016-09-01

    Design and development of highly efficient organic and organometallic dopants is one of the central challenges in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) technology. Recent advances in the computational materials science have made it possible to apply computer-aided evaluation and screening framework directly to the design space of organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, we will showcase two major components of the latest in silico framework for development of organometallic phosphorescent dopants - (1) rapid screening of dopants by machine-learned quantum mechanical models and (2) phosphorescence lifetime predictions with spin-orbit coupled calculations (SOC-TDDFT). The combined work of virtual screening and evaluation would significantly widen the design space for highly efficient phosphorescent dopants with unbiased measures to evaluate performance of the materials from first principles.

  12. A highly efficient electric additive for enhancing photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    N-cetylpyridinium iodide (N-CPI) as a new electric additive for enhancing photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was studied.It showed high efficiency for enhancing both the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current density of DSSC when the suitable amount of N-CPI as 0.02 M was added in liquid electrolyte.The energy conversion effi- ciency of DSSC increased from 4.429% to 6.535%,with 47.55% enhancement.Therefore,it is a highly efficient electric addi- tive for DSSC.The intrinsic reason is owing to the special molecular structure of N-CPI,which contains two different polarity groups.As a surfactant,N-CPI could form ordered arrangement in liquid electrolyte,which affects the diffusing ability and the redox reaction of I-/I3-,and further affects the photovoltaic performance of DSSC.

  13. Light-induced lattice expansion leads to high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsinhan; Asadpour, Reza; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Durand, Olivier; Strzalka, Joseph W.; Chen, Bo; Verduzco, Rafael; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Tretiak, Sergei; Even, Jacky; Alam, Muhammad Ashraf; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.

    2018-04-01

    Light-induced structural dynamics plays a vital role in the physical properties, device performance, and stability of hybrid perovskite–based optoelectronic devices. We report that continuous light illumination leads to a uniform lattice expansion in hybrid perovskite thin films, which is critical for obtaining high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Correlated, in situ structural and device characterizations reveal that light-induced lattice expansion benefits the performances of a mixed-cation pure-halide planar device, boosting the power conversion efficiency from 18.5 to 20.5%. The lattice expansion leads to the relaxation of local lattice strain, which lowers the energetic barriers at the perovskite-contact interfaces, thus improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor. The light-induced lattice expansion did not compromise the stability of these high-efficiency photovoltaic devices under continuous operation at full-spectrum 1-sun (100 milliwatts per square centimeter) illumination for more than 1500 hours.

  14. A Short Progress Report on High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, He; He, Shengsheng; Peng, Chuangwei

    2017-12-01

    Faced with the increasingly serious energy and environmental crisis in the world nowadays, the development of renewable energy has attracted increasingly more attention of all countries. Solar energy as an abundant and cheap energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. While high-performance solar cells have been well developed in the last couple of decades, the high module cost largely hinders wide deployment of photovoltaic devices. In the last 10 years, this urgent demand for cost-effective solar cells greatly facilitates the research of solar cells. This paper reviews the recent development of cost-effective and high-efficient solar cell technologies. This report paper covers low-cost and high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. The development and the state-of-the-art results of perovskite solar cell technologies are also introduced.

  15. Highly efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells grown on flexible polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirilă, Adrian; Buecheler, Stephan; Pianezzi, Fabian; Bloesch, Patrick; Gretener, Christina; Uhl, Alexander R; Fella, Carolin; Kranz, Lukas; Perrenoud, Julian; Seyrling, Sieghard; Verma, Rajneesh; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Bilger, Gerhard; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2011-09-18

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se(2) absorber layers have yielded the highest conversion efficiency among all thin-film technologies, and the use of flexible polymer films as substrates offers several advantages in lowering manufacturing costs. However, given that conversion efficiency is crucial for cost-competitiveness, it is necessary to develop devices on flexible substrates that perform as well as those obtained on rigid substrates. Such comparable performance has not previously been achieved, primarily because polymer films require much lower substrate temperatures during absorber deposition, generally resulting in much lower efficiencies. Here we identify a strong composition gradient in the absorber layer as the main reason for inferior performance and show that, by adjusting it appropriately, very high efficiencies can be obtained. This implies that future manufacturing of highly efficient flexible solar cells could lower the cost of solar electricity and thus become a significant branch of the photovoltaic industry.

  16. Highly Efficient Synthesis of 2-Aryl-3-methoxyacrylates via Suzuki-Miyaura Coupling Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Ho; Lee, Chun Ho; Song, Young Seob; Park, No Kyun; Kim, Bum Tae; Heo, Jung Nyoung [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    We have developed a highly efficient and convergent synthesis of 2-aryl-3-methoxyacrylates via the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction of α-iodo-β-methoxy-acrylate with arylboronic acids. The biological activities of 2-aryl-3-methoxyacrylate derivatives will be reported in due course. The Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction provides a convenient access to the carbon-carbon bond formation with high efficiency. Recently, a number of 2-aryl-3-methoxy-acrylates served as a key scaffold for the development of biologically active pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Especially, the discovery of the naturally-occurring fungicides, such as strobilurin A and oudemansin A, possessing a β-methoxyacrylate moiety was immediately seized great attention by industrial research groups to open a new era of the strobilurin family including azoxy-strobin and picoxystrobin.

  17. A broadband high-efficiency Doherty power amplifier using symmetrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiqun; Zhang, Ming; Li, Jiangzhou; Liu, Guohua

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a method for broadband and high-efficiency amplification of Doherty power amplifier (DPA) using symmetric devices. In order to achieve the perfect load modulation, the carrier amplifier output circuit total power length is designed to odd multiple of 90°, and the peak amplifier output total power length is designed to even multiple of 180°. The proposed method is demonstrated by designing a broadband high-efficiency DPA using identical 10-W packaged GaN HEMT devices. Measurement results show that over 51% drain efficiency is achieved at 6-dB back-off power, over the frequency band of 1.9–2.4 GHz. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60123456), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LZ16F010001), and the Zhejiang Provincial Public Technology Research Project (No. 2016C31070).

  18. Highly efficient single-layer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with balanced charge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.

    2003-06-01

    High-efficiency single-layer-solution-processed green light-emitting diodes based on a phosphorescent dendrimer are demonstrated. A peak external quantum efficiency of 10.4% (35 cd/A) was measured for a first generation fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium cored dendrimer when blended with 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl and electron transporting 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene at 8.1 V. A maximum power efficiency of 12.8 lm/W was measured also at 8.1 V and 550 cd/m2. These results indicate that, by simple blending of bipolar and electron-transporting molecules, highly efficient light-emitting diodes can be made employing a very simple device structure.

  19. State Support for Promotion of Electrical Energy Produced in High Efficiency Cogeneration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushatescu V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania accumulated a useful experience in supporting high efficient cogeneration through a bonus type scheme. Spreading this experience to other countries that can choose a similar support scheme could lead to important savings and better results in developing this efficient tool. This state aid is operational, targeted to new investments stimulation for cogeneration technologies and replacement or existing plants rehabilitation. Present paper focuses on the results of support scheme after five years of its application: increase of number of producers who benefit of this aid, raising of general efficiency of high efficient cogeneration, important savings of primary energy and CO2 emissions avoided. On the other hand, use of this scheme showed a number of problems (to which this paper proposes adequate solutions on institutional/administrative, investition, technical, economical-financial and social frameworks that influences beneficiaries and/or financiers of state aid.

  20. Compact and high-efficiency device for Raman scattering measurement using optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    We describe the design and development of a high-efficiency optical measurement device for operation within the small bore of a high-power magnet at low temperature. For the high-efficiency measurement of light emitted from this small region, we designed a compact confocal optics with lens focusing and tilting systems, and used a piezodriven translation stage that allows micron-scale focus control of the sample position. We designed a measurement device that uses 10 m-long optical fibers in order to avoid the influence of mechanical vibration and magnetic field leakage of high-power magnets, and we also describe a technique for minimizing the fluorescence signal of optical fibers. The operation of the device was confirmed by Raman scattering measurements of monolayer graphene on quartz glass with a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Seawater splitting for high-efficiency hydrogen evolution by alloyed PtNix electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jingjing

    2017-08-01

    Robust electrocatalyst is a prerequisite to realize high-efficiency hydrogen evolution by water splitting. Expensive platinum (Pt) is a preferred electrode catalyst for state-of-the-art hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We present here a category of alloyed PtNix electrocatalysts by a facile green chemical reduction method, which are used to catalyze HER during seawater splitting. The catalytic performances are optimized by tuning stoichiometric Pt/Ni ratio, yielding a maximized catalytic behavior for PtNi5 electrode. The minimized onset potential is as low as -0.38 V and the corresponding Tafel slope is 119 mV dec-1. Moreover, the launched alloy electrodes have remarkable stability at -1.2 V over 12 h. The high efficiency as well as good durability demonstrates the PtNix electrocatalysts to be promising in practical applications.

  2. Highly efficient red OLEDs using DCJTB as the dopant and delayed fluorescent exciplex as the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Tianyou; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Wu, Hairuo; Yan, Xingwu; Jin, Fangming; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Chengyuan

    2015-05-29

    In this manuscript, we demonstrated a highly efficient DCJTB emission with delayed fluorescent exciplex TCTA:3P-T2T as the host. For the 1.0% DCJTB doped concentration, a maximum luminance, current efficiency, power efficiency and EQE of 22,767 cd m(-2), 22.7 cd A(-1), 21.5 lm W(-1) and 10.15% were achieved, respectively. The device performance is the best compared to either red OLEDs with traditional fluorescent emitter or traditional red phosphor of Ir(piq)3 doped into CBP host. The extraction of so high efficiency can be explained as the efficient triplet excitons up-conversion of TCTA:3P-T2T and the energy transfer from exciplex host singlet state to DCJTB singlet state.

  3. Highly efficient deep-blue organic light emitting diode with a carbazole based fluorescent emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Snehasis; Dubey, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Meenu; Joseph, Vellaichamy; Thomas, K. R. Justin; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2018-04-01

    High efficiency deep-blue emission is essential to realize energy-saving, high-quality display and lighting applications. We demonstrate here a deep-blue organic light emitting diode using a novel carbazole based fluorescent emitter 7-[4-(diphenylamino)phenyl]-9-(2-ethylhexyl)-9H-carbazole-2-carbonitrile (JV234). The solution processed resultant device shows a maximum luminance above 1,750 cd m-2 and CIE coordinates (0.15,0.06) with a 1.3 lm W-1 power efficiency, 2.0 cd A-1 current efficiency, and 4.1% external quantum efficiency at 100 cd m-2. The resulting deep-blue emission enables a greater than 100% color saturation. The high efficiency may be attributed to the effective host-to-guest energy transfer, suitable device architecture facilitating balanced carrier injection and low doping concentration preventing efficiency roll-off caused by concentration quenching.

  4. High-efficiency one-dimensional atom localization via two parallel standing-wave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiping; Wu, Xuqiang; Lu, Liang; Yu, Benli

    2014-01-01

    We present a new scheme of high-efficiency one-dimensional (1D) atom localization via measurement of upper state population or the probe absorption in a four-level N-type atomic system. By applying two classical standing-wave fields, the localization peak position and number, as well as the conditional position probability, can be easily controlled by the system parameters, and the sub-half-wavelength atom localization is also observed. More importantly, there is 100% detecting probability of the atom in the subwavelength domain when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. The proposed scheme may open up a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency 1D atom localization. (paper)

  5. Broadband and high efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for wavefront steering with easily obtained phase shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Deng, Yan

    2017-12-01

    All-dielectric metasurfaces for wavefront deflecting and optical vortex generating with broadband and high efficiency are demonstrated. The unit cell of the metasurfaces is optimized to function as a half wave-plate with high polarization conversion efficiency (94%) and transmittance (94.5%) at the telecommunication wavelength. Under such a condition, we can get rid of the complicated parameter sweep process for phase shift selecting. Hence, a phase coverage ranges from 0 to 2 π can be easily obtained by introducing the Pancharatnam-Berry phase. Metasurfaces composed of the two pre-designed super cells are demonstrated for optical beam deflecting and vortex beam generating. It is found that the metasurfaces with more phase shift sampling points (small phase shift increment) exhibit better performance. Moreover, optical vortex beams can be generated by the designed metasurfaces within a wavelength range of 200 nm. These results will provide a viable route for designing broadband and high efficiency devices related to phase modulation.

  6. High efficiency diffractive grating coupler based on transferred silicon nanomembrane overlay on photonic waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Tapas Kumar; Zhou Weidong [University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Electrical Engineering, NanoFAB Center, Arlington, TX 76019-0072 (United States)

    2009-04-21

    We report here the design of a new type of high efficiency grating coupler, based on single crystalline Si nanomembrane overlay and stacking. Such high efficiency diffractive grating couplers are designed for the purpose of coupling light between single mode fibres and nanophotonic waveguides, and for the coupling between multiple photonic interconnect layers for compact three-dimensional vertical integration. Two-dimensional model simulation based on eigenmode expansion shows a diffractive power-up efficiency of 81% and a fibre coupling efficiency of 64%. With nanomembrane stacking, it is feasible to integrate the side-distributed Bragg reflector and bottom reflector, which can lead to the diffractive power-up efficiency and the fibre coupling efficiency of 97% and 73.5%, respectively. For a negatively detuned coupler, the bottom reflector is not needed, and the diffractive power-up efficiency can reach 98% over a large spectral range. The device is extremely tolerant to fabrication errors.

  7. Holography as a highly efficient renormalization group flow. I. Rephrasing gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Nicolas; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2016-07-01

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalization of Wilsonian renormalization group (RG) flow in a strongly interacting large-N quantum field theory. We first define a highly efficient RG flow as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale. To achieve this, it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective single-trace operators. These redefinitions also absorb the contributions of the multitrace operators to these effective Ward identities. Thus, the background metric and external sources become effectively dynamical, reproducing the dual classical gravity equations in one higher dimension. Here, we focus on reconstructing the pure gravity sector as a highly efficient RG flow of the energy-momentum tensor operator, leaving the explicit constructive field theory approach for generating such RG flows to the second part of the work. We show that special symmetries of the highly efficient RG flows carry information through which we can decode the gauge fixing of bulk diffeomorphisms in the corresponding gravity equations. We also show that the highly efficient RG flow which reproduces a given classical gravity theory in a given gauge is unique provided the endpoint can be transformed to a nonrelativistic fixed point with a finite number of parameters under a universal rescaling. The results obtained here are used in the second part of this work, where we do an explicit field-theoretic construction of the RG flow and obtain the dual classical gravity theory.

  8. Highly-Efficient Thermoelectronic Conversion of Heat and Solar Radiation to Electric Power

    OpenAIRE

    Meir, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion has long been a candidate to convert solar radiation and the combustion heat of fossil fuels into electricity at high efficiencies. However, the formation of electron space charges has prevented the widespread use of the principle since its was first suggested in 1915. In this work, a novel mechanism to suppress the effects of the space charge was investigated: the acceleration of electrons in a special configuration of electric and magnetic fields. This work d...

  9. Analysis of Valve Requirements for High-Efficiency Digital Displacement Fluid Power Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power motors have been shown to enable high-efficiency operation in a wide operation range, including the part load range where conventional fluid power motors suffers from poor efficiencies. The use of these digital displacement motors set new requirements for the valve...... transition time and flow-pressure coefficient are normalized, leading to a presentation of the general efficiency map of the digital displacement motor. Finally the performance of existing commercial valves with respect to digital motors is commented....

  10. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  11. High-efficiency diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Wei, Z.Y.; Zou, Y.W.

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient diode-end-pumped femtosecond Yb:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser was demonstrated. Pumped by a 968 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, 1.9 W mode-locked output power at a repetition rate of 64.27 MHz was obtained with 3.5 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope...... efficiency of 76%. Our measurement showed that the pulse duration was 418 fs with the central wavelength of 1048 nm....

  12. Synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation in highly efficient photovoltaic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojie; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui

    2014-02-01

    The synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation is realized by introducing fluorine atoms onto both the donor and the acceptor moieties in a D-A polymer, and as a result, the polymer solar cell device based on the trifluorinated polymer, PBT-3F, shows a high efficiency of 8.6%, under illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-) (2) . © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Mechanism of Burn-in Loss in a High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-10-11

    Degradation in a high efficiency polymer solar cell is caused by the formation of states in the bandgap. These states increase the energetic disorder in the system. The power conversion efficiency loss does not occur when current is run through the device in the dark but occurs when the active layer is photo-excited. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High Efficiency Non-isolated Three Port DC-DC Converter for PV-Battery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Manez, Kevin; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Ouyang, Ziwei; Franke, Toke

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a nonisolated Three Port Converter (TPC) with a unidirectional port for photovoltaic (PV) panels and a bidirectional port for energy storage. With the proposed topology single power conversion is performed between each port, so high efficiencies are obtained. A theoretical analysis is carried out to analyze all operating modes and design considerations with the main equations are given. A 4kW laboratory prototype is developed and tested under all operatingconditions. Resul...

  15. High Efficiency Large-Angle Pancharatnam Phase Deflector Based on Dual Twist Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    construction and characterization of a ±40° beam steering device with 90% diffraction efficiency based on our dual-twist design at 633nm wavelength...N. & Escuti, M. J. Achromatic Wollaston prism beam splitter using polarization gratings. Opt. Lett. 41, 4461–4463 (2016). 13. Slussarenko, S., et...High-efficiency large-angle Pancharatnam phase deflector based on dual-twist design Kun Gao1, Colin McGinty1, Harold Payson2, Shaun Berry2, Joseph

  16. Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence in Polymers: A New Route toward Highly Efficient Solution Processable OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Cass, Michael; Bourcet, Florence; Mohamad, David; Roberts, Matthew

    2015-11-25

    Efficient intermonomer thermally activated delayed fluorescence is demonstrated for the first time, opening a new route to achieving high-efficiency solution processable polymer light-emitting device materials. External quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 10% is achieved in a simple fully solution-processed device structure, and routes for further EQE improvement identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Son, Jung Hwan; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Ryu, Jungho; Koo, Min; Choi, Insung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Byun, Myunghwan; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lee, Keon Jae

    2014-04-23

    A highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator is demonstrated using a laser lift-off (LLO) process. The PZT thin film nanogenerator harvests the highest output performance of ∼200 V and ∼150 μA·cm(-2) from regular bending motions. Furthermore, power sources generated from a PZT thin film nanogenerator, driven by slight human finger bending motions, successfully operate over 100 LEDs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Mild and Highly Efficient Copper(I Inspired Acylation of Alcohols and Polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch A. Mensah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new and highly efficient method mediated by tetrakis(acetonitrilecopper(I triflate for activating both simple and highly hindered anhydrides in the acylation of alcohols and polyols is described. This new acylation method is mild and mostly proceeds at room temperature with low catalyst loading. The method is versatile and has been extended to a wide variety of different alcohol substrates to afford the corresponding ester products in good to excellent yields.

  19. Results from the high efficiency solar panel experiment flown on CRRES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, K.P.; Mullen, E.G.; Trumble, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results from the High Efficiency Solar Panel Experiment (HESP) flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The on-orbit solar cell degradation is correlated with the proton and electron environments. Comparisons between gallium arsenide germanium (GaAs/Ge) and silicon (Si) solar cells are presented, and results from three different annealing methods of like GaAs solar cells are compared

  20. High Efficiency Power Converter for a Doubly-fed SOEC/SOFC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Manez, Kevin; Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells (RFC) have become an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to their high energy density and lower end-of-life disposal concerns. However, high efficiency design of power conditioning unit (PCU) for RFC becomes challenging due to their asymmetrical currentpow...... operating range of the RFC as well as the utilization of the same control strategy design for the two RFC operating modes....

  1. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-28

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  2. Ion implantation for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey-Morgan, T.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Over the past two decades, thousands of particle accelerators have been used to implant foreign atoms like boron, phosphorus and arsenic into silicon crystal wafers to produce special embedded layers for manufacturing semiconductor devices. Depending on the device required, the atomic species, the depth of implant and doping levels are the main parameters for the implantation process; the selection and parameter control is totally automated. The depth of the implant, usually less than 1 micron, is determined by the ion energy, which can be varied between 2 and 600 keV. The ion beam is extracted from a Freeman or Bernas type ion source and accelerated to 60 keV before mass analysis. For higher beam energies postacceleration is applied up to 200 keV and even higher energies can be achieved by mass selecting multiplycharged ions, but with a corresponding reduction in beam output. Depending on the device to be manufactured, doping levels can range from 10 10 to 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and are controlled by implanter beam currents in the range up to 30mA; continuous process monitoring ensures uniformity across the wafer of better than 1 % . As semiconductor devices get smaller, additional sophistication is required in the design of the implanter. The silicon wafers charge electrically during implantation and this charge must be dissipated continuously to reduce the electrical stress in the device and avoid destructive electrical breakdown. Electron flood guns produce low energy electrons (below 10 electronvolts) to neutralize positive charge buildup and implanter design must ensure minimum contamination by other isotopic species and ensure low internal sputter rates. The pace of technology in the semiconductor industry is such that implanters are being built now for 256 Megabit circuits but which are only likely to be widely available five years from now. Several specialist companies manufacture implanter systems, each costing around US$5 million, depending on the

  3. Research & Implementation of AC - DC Converter with High Power Factor & High Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiou-Hsian Nien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we design and develop a high power factor, high efficiency two-stage AC - DC power converter. This paper proposes a two-stage AC - DC power converter. The first stage is boost active power factor correction circuit. The latter stage is near constant frequency LLC resonant converter. In addition to traditional LLC high efficiency advantages, light-load conversion efficiency of this power converter can be improved. And it possesses high power factor and near constant frequency operating characteristics, can significantly reduce the electromagnetic interference. This paper first discusses the main structure and control manner of power factor correction circuit. And then by the LLC resonant converter equivalent model proceed to circuit analysis to determine the important parameters of the converter circuit elements. Then design a variable frequency resonant tank. The resonant frequency can change automatically on the basis of the load to reach near constant frequency operation and a purpose of high efficiency. Finally, actually design and produce an AC – DC power converter with output of 190W to verify the characteristics and feasibility of this converter. The experimental results show that in a very light load (9.5 W the efficiency is as high as 81%, the highest efficiency of 88% (90 W. Full load efficiency is 87%. At 19 W ~ 190 W power changes, the operating frequency change is only 0.4 kHz (AC 110 V and 0.3 kHz (AC 220 V.

  4. The Design of High Efficiency Crossflow Hydro Turbines: A Review and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Adhikari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is a critical consideration in the design of hydro turbines. The crossflow turbine is the cheapest and easiest hydro turbine to manufacture and so is commonly used in remote power systems for developing countries. A longstanding problem for practical crossflow turbines is their lower maximum efficiency compared to their more advanced counterparts, such as Pelton and Francis turbines. This paper reviews the experimental and computational studies relevant to the design of high efficiency crossflow turbines. We concentrate on the studies that have contributed to designs with efficiencies in the range of 88–90%. Many recent studies have been conducted on turbines of low maximum efficiency, which we believe is due to misunderstanding of design principles for achieving high efficiencies. We synthesize the key results of experimental and computational fluid dynamics studies to highlight the key fundamental design principles for achieving efficiencies of about 90%, as well as future research and development areas to further improve the maximum efficiency. The main finding of this review is that the total conversion of head into kinetic energy in the nozzle and the matching of nozzle and runner designs are the two main design requirements for the design of high efficiency turbines.

  5. High Current Planar Transformer for Very High Efficiency Isolated Boost DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac-resistance a......This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac......-resistance and transformer leakage inductance. Design and optimization procedures are validated based on an experimental prototype of a 6 kW dcdc isolated full bridge boost converter developed on fully planar magnetics. The prototype is rated at 30-80 V 0-80 A on the low voltage side and 700-800 V on the high voltage side...... with a peak efficiency of 97.8% at 80 V 3.5 kW. Results highlights that thick copper windings can provide good performance at low switching frequencies due to the high transformer filling factor. PCB windings can also provide very high efficiency if stacked in parallel utilizing the transformer winding window...

  6. Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with forward directed light emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Reineke, Sebastian; Furno, Mauro; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The demand for highly efficient and energy saving illumination has increased considerably during the last decades. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are promising candidates for future lighting technologies. They offer high efficiency along with excellent color quality, allowing substantially lower power consumption than traditional illuminants. Recently, especially top-emitting devices have attracted high interest due to their compatibility with opaque substrates like metal sheets. In this contribution, we demonstrate top-emitting OLEDs with white emission spectra employing a multilayer hybrid cavity structure with two highly efficient phosphorescent emitter materials for orange-red (Ir(MDQ)2(acac)) and green (Ir(ppy)3) emission as well as the stable fluorescent blue emitter TBPe. To improve the OLED performance and modify the color quality, two different electron blocking layers and anode material combinations are tested. Compared to Lambertian emission, our devices show considerably enhanced forward emission, which is preferred for most lighting applications. Besides broadband emission and angle independent emission maxima, power efficiencies of 13.3 lm/W at 3 V and external quantum efficiencies of 5.3% are achieved. The emission shows excellent CIE coordinates of (0.420,0.407) at approx. 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and color rendering indices up to 77.

  7. Highly efficient CRISPR/HDR-mediated knock-in for mouse embryonic stem cells and zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bangmei; Li, Kunyu; Wang, Amy; Reiser, Michelle; Saunders, Thom; Lockey, Richard F; Wang, Jia-Wang

    2015-10-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene editing technique, based on the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway, has been used to generate gene knock-outs with variable sizes of small insertion/deletions with high efficiency. More precise genome editing, either the insertion or deletion of a desired fragment, can be done by combining the homology-directed-repair (HDR) pathway with CRISPR cleavage. However, HDR-mediated gene knock-in experiments are typically inefficient, and there have been no reports of successful gene knock-in with DNA fragments larger than 4 kb. Here, we describe the targeted insertion of large DNA fragments (7.4 and 5.8 kb) into the genomes of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and zygotes, respectively, using the CRISPR/HDR technique without NHEJ inhibitors. Our data show that CRISPR/HDR without NHEJ inhibitors can result in highly efficient gene knock-in, equivalent to CRISPR/HDR with NHEJ inhibitors. Although NHEJ is the dominant repair pathway associated with CRISPR-mediated double-strand breaks (DSBs), and biallelic gene knock-ins are common, NHEJ and biallelic gene knock-ins were not detected. Our results demonstrate that efficient targeted insertion of large DNA fragments without NHEJ inhibitors is possible, a result that should stimulate interest in understanding the mechanisms of high efficiency CRISPR targeting in general.

  8. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Fiala, J.; Becla, P.; Motakef, Shariar

    2017-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br- species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10-8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br- ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation) for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  9. Stable room-temperature thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thallium bromide (TlBr is a highly efficient ionic semiconductor with excellent radiation detection properties. However, at room temperature, TlBr devices polarize under an applied electric field. This phenomenon not only degrades the charge collection efficiency of the detectors but also promotes chemical reaction of the metal electrodes with bromine, resulting in an unstable electric field and premature failure of the device. This drawback has been crippling the TlBr semiconductor radiation detector technology over the past few decades. In this exhaustive study, this polarization phenomenon has been counteracted using innovative bias polarity switching schemes. Here the highly mobile Br− species, with an estimated electro-diffusion velocity of 10−8 cm/s, face opposing electro-migration forces during every polarity switch. This minimizes the device polarization and availability of Br− ions near the metal electrode. Our results indicate that it is possible to achieve longer device lifetimes spanning more than 17 000 h (five years of 8 × 7 operation for planar and pixelated radiation detectors using this technique. On the other hand, at constant bias, 2500 h is the longest reported lifetime with most devices less than 1000 h. After testing several biasing switching schemes, it is concluded that the critical bias switching frequency at an applied bias of 1000 V/cm is about 17 μHz. Using this groundbreaking result, it will now be possible to deploy this highly efficient room temperature semiconductor material for field applications in homeland security, medical imaging, and physics research.

  10. Semiconductor radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  11. Semiconductor testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen.

    1992-01-01

    In a method of avoiding use of nuclear radiation, eg gamma rays, X-rays, electron beams, for testing semiconductor components for resistance to hard radiation, which hard radiation causes data corruption in some memory devices and 'latch-up' in others, similar fault effects can be achieved using a xenon or other 'light' flash gun even though the penetration of light is significantly less than that of gamma rays. The method involves treating a device with gamma radiation, measuring a particular fault current at the onset of a fault event, repeating the test with light to confirm the occurrence of the fault event at the same measured fault current, and using the fault current value as a reference for future tests using light on similar devices. (author)

  12. Radial semiconductor drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The conditions under which the energy resolution of a radial semiconductor drift chamber based detector system becomes dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current have been investigated. To minimise the drift chamber dark current attention should be paid to carrier generation at Si/SiO 2 interfaces. This consideration conflicts with the desire to reduce the signal risetime: a higher drift field for shorter signal pulses requires a larger area of SiO 2 . Calculations for the single shaping and pseudo Gaussian passive filters indicate that for the same degree of signal risetime sensitivity in a system dominated by the step noise from the detector dark current, the pseudo Gaussian filter gives only a 3% improvement in signal/noise and 12% improvement in rate capability compared with the single shaper performance. (orig.)

  13. Energy distribution in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ance, C.

    1979-01-01

    For various semiconductors the dispersive energy Esub(d) defined in the Wemple-Didomenico model is connected with the covalent and ionic energies Esub(h) and C. A continuous curve of ionicity against the ratio of the two energies Esub(A) and Esub(B), connected to Esub(h) and C is reported. Afromowitz's model is applied to the ternary compounds Gasub(1-x)Alsub(x)Sb using optical decomposition. From these results the average energy gap Esub(g) is given by Esub(g) = D 0 M 0 sup((IB))/(epsilon 1 (0)-1) where M 0 sup((IB)) is the interband transition contribution to the optical moment M 0 . (author)

  14. Organic Semiconductor Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2005-03-01

    Recent developments on organic photovoltaic elements are reviewed. Semiconducting conjugated polymers and molecules as well as nanocrystalline inorganic semiconductors are used in composite thin films. The photophysics of such photoactive devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting molecules onto acceptor type molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C60 and/or nanoparticles. Similar to the first steps in natural photosynthesis, this photoinduced electron transfer leads to a number of potentially interesting applications which include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena. Examples of photovoltaic architectures are discussed with their potential in terrestrial solar energy conversion. Several materials are introduced and discussed for their photovoltaic activities. Furthermore, nanomorphology has been investigated with AFM, SEM and TEM. The morphology/property relationship for a given photoactive system is found to be a major effect.

  15. Magnetic excitations in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furdyna, J.K.; Liu, X.; Zhou, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic excitations in a series of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductor films were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Using the FMR approach, multi-mode spin wave resonance spectra have been observed, whose analysis provides information on magnetic anisotropy (including surface anisotropy), distribution of magnetization precession within the GaMnAs film, dynamic surface spin pinning (derived from surface anisotropy), and the value of exchange stiffness constant D. These studies illustrate a combination of magnetism and semiconductor physics that is unique to magnetic semiconductors

  16. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  17. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1990-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and X-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. (orig.)

  18. State of the art in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and x-ray astronomy is briefly reviewed. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; classical semiconductor diode detectors; and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of signal formation for both groups of detectors are described and their performance is compared. New developments of silicon detectors are reported here. 13 refs., 8 figs

  19. Semiconductor device comprising a pn-heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    An electric device is disclosed comprising a pn-heterojunction ( 4 ) formed by a nanowire ( 3 ) of 111 -V semiconductor material and a semiconductor body ( 1 ) comprising a group IV semiconductor material. The nanowire ( 3 ) is positioned in direct contact with the surface ( 2 ) of the semiconductor

  20. Toward designing semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions for photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-02-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysts show a great potential for environmental and energy-related applications, however one of the major disadvantages is their relatively low photocatalytic performance due to the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Therefore, intensive research is being conducted toward design of heterojunctions, which have been shown to be effective for improving the charge-transfer properties and efficiency of photocatalysts. According to the type of band alignment and direction of internal electric field, heterojunctions are categorized into five different types, each of which is associated with its own charge transfer characteristics. Since the design of heterojunctions requires the knowledge of band edge positions of component semiconductors, the commonly used techniques for the assessment of band edge positions are reviewed. Among them the electronegativity-based calculation method is applied for a large number of popular visible-light-active semiconductors, including some widely investigated bismuth-containing semiconductors. On basis of the calculated band edge positions and the type of component semiconductors reported, heterojunctions composed of the selected bismuth-containing semiconductors are proposed. Finally, the most popular synthetic techniques for the fabrication of heterojunctions are briefly discussed.