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Sample records for high-dose total-body irradiation

  1. The carcinogenic risk of high dose total body irradiation in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bartstra, R.W.; Bekkum, D.W. van; Hage, M.H. van der; Zurcher, C.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Hollander, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    High dose total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is increasingly used for the treatment of haematological malignancies. With the increasing success of this treatment and its current introduction for treating refractory autoimmune diseases the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is of growing concern. Studies on turnout induction in non-human primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. Since the early sixties, studies have been performed on acute effects in Rhesus monkeys and the protective action of bone marrow transplantation after irradiation with X-rays (average total body dose 6.8 Gy) and fission neutrons (average dose 3.4 Gy). Of those monkeys, which were irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow, 20 animals in the X-irradiated group and nine animals in the neutron group survived more than 3 years. A group of 21 non-irradiated Rhesus monkeys of a comparable age distribution served as controls. All animals were regularly screened for the occurrence of neoplasms. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At post-irradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of tumours was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with one or more malignant tumours. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumours in the control group, in seven out of the 21 animals, appeared at much older a-e compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the tumours was diverse with a preponderance of renal carcinoma, sarcomas among which osteosarcormas, and malignant glomus tumours in the irradiated groups. When corrected for competing risks, the carcinogenic risk of TBI in the Rhesus monkeys is similar to that derived from the studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The increase of the risk by a

  2. The biological effects of high dose total body irradiation in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qingliang; Liu Xiaolan; Hao Jing; Xiong Guolin; Dong Bo; Zhao Zhenhu; Xia Zhengbiao; Qiu Liling; Mao Bingzhi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effects of Beagle dogs irradiated by γ-rays at different doses. Methods: All Beagle dogs were divided into six groups and were subjected respectively to total-body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.5, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, 3, 5 and 2.5 Gy γ-rays delivered by 60 Co sources at 7.224 x 10 -2 C/kg per minute. The general condition, blood cell counts and bone marrow cell CFC assays were observed. Results: Vomiting occurred at 0.5 to 2 hours after TBI in all groups. In 6.5 Gy group 3/5 dogs had blood-watery stool and 1/5 in 5.5 Gy group had watery stool. Diarrhea occurred in all other animals. Only one dog in 2.5 Gy group survived, all of others died. in order of decreasing irradiation dosage, the average survival time was 5.0, 8.0, 9.3, 9.5, 10.5 and 14.1 days, respectively. Conclusions: According to the clinical symptoms, leukocyte count and survival time of the dogs, the irradiation dose which will induce very severe hematopoietic radiation syndrome in Beagle dogs is 4.5 to 5.0 Gy

  3. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx 3 cr1 +/gfp blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  5. Hyperfractionated high-dose total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation for Ph{sup 1}-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Akira; Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Mitsui, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Hospital of the Institute of Medical Science] [and others

    1998-12-01

    In two cases of Philadelphia-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph{sup 1} ALL), we performed allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (AlloBMT) with preconditioning regimen, including hyperfractionated high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) (13.5 Gy, in 9 fractions). Their disease statuses at BMT were hematological relapse in case 1 and molecular relapse in case 2. Bone marrow donors were unrelated in case 1, and HLA was a partially mismatched mother in case 2. Regimen-related toxicity was tolerable in both cases. Hematological recovery was rapid, and engraftment was obtained on day 14 in case 1 and on day 12 in case 2. BCR/ABL message in bone marrow disappeared on day 89 in case 1 and on day 19 in case 2 and throughout their subsequent clinical courses. Although short-term MTX and Cy-A continuous infusion were used for GVHD prophylaxis, grade IV GVHD was observed in case 1 and grade III in case 2. Both cases experienced hemorrhagic cystitis because of adenovirus type 11 infection. Although case 1 died of interstitial pneumonitis on day 442, case 2 has been free of disease through day 231. AlloBMT for Ph{sup 1} ALL with preconditioning regimen including hyperfractionated high-dose TBI is considered to be worth further investigation. (author)

  6. Genistein protects against biomarkers of delayed lung sequelae in mice surviving high-dose total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.M.; Barshishat-Kupper, M.; Mog, S.R.; Mccart, E.A.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Landauer, M.R.; Davis, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60 Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment+Sham (NC), Vehicle+Sham (VC), Genistein+Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle+Radiation (VR), Genistein+Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13-28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. (author)

  7. Genistein Protects Against Biomarkers of Delayed Lung Sequelae in Mice Surviving High-Dose Total Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAY, Regina M.; BARSHISHAT-KUPPER, Michal; MOG, Steven R.; MCCART, Elizabeth A.; PRASANNA, P. G. S.; DAVIS, Thomas A.; LANDAUER, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment + Sham (NC), Vehicle + Sham (VC), Genistein + Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle + Radiation (VR), Genistein + Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13–28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. PMID:18434686

  8. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes body irradiation (TBI) being used increasingly as consolidation treatment in the management of leukaemia, lymphoma and various childhood tumours with the aim of sterilizing any malignant cells or micrometastases. Systemic radiotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy offers several possible benefits. There are no sanctuary sites for TBI; some neoplastic cells are very radiosensitive, and resistance to radiation appears to develop less readily than to drugs. Cross-resistance between chemotherapy and radiotherapy does not seem to be common and although plateau effects may be seen with chemotherapy there is a linear dose-response curve for clonogenic cell kill with radiation

  9. Treatment of aggressive multiple myeloma by high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation followed by blood stem cells autologous graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermand, J.P.; Levy, Y.; Gerota, J.; Benbunan, M.; Cosset, J.M.; Castaigne, S.; Seligmann, M.; Brouet, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with stage III aggressive multiple myeloma, refractory to current chemotherapy in six cases, were treated by high-dose chemotherapy (nitrosourea, etoposide, and melphalan) (HDC) and total body irradiation (TBI), followed by autografting with blood stem cells. These cells were previously collected by leukapheresis performed during hematologic recovery following cytotoxic drug-induced bone marrow aplasia. Seven patients were alive 9 to 17 months after HDC-TBI and graft. One died at day 40 from cerebral bleeding. All living patients achieved a 90% or greater reduction in tumor mass. In two cases, a complete remission (CR) has persisted at a follow-up of 15 and 16 months. Three patients have been well and off therapy with stable minimal residual disease (RD) since 10, 11, and 17 months, respectively. A patient in apparent CR and another with RD have relapsed 9 to 12 months posttreatment. Autologous blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells induced successful and sustained engraftment in all living patients. These results, although still preliminary, indicate that HDC and TBI, followed by blood stem cells autograft, which has both practical and theoretical interest over allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, deserve consideration in selected patients with multiple myeloma

  10. Results of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation After Treatment With Different High-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Regimens in Five Dutch Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loes van Kempen-Harteveld, M.; Brand, Ronald; Kal, Henk B.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Hofman, Pieter; Schattenberg, Anton V.; Maazen, Richard W. van der; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Eijkenboom, Wil M.H.; Lelie, Johannes P. van der; Oldenburger, Foppe; Barge, Renee M.; Biezen, Anja van; Vossen, Jaak M.J.J.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Struikmans, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate results of high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI) regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,032 patients underwent TBI in one or two fractions before autologous or allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The TBI regimens were normalized by using the biological effective dose (BED) concept. The BED values were divided into three dose groups. Study end points were relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis was performed, stratified by disease. Results: In the highest TBI dose group, RI was significantly lower and NRM was higher vs. the lower dose groups. However, a significant influence on RFS and OS was not found. Relapses in the eye region were found only after shielding to very low doses. Age was of significant influence on OS, RFS, and NRM in favor of younger patients. The NRM of patients older than 40 years significantly increased, and OS decreased. There was no influence of age on RI. Men had better OS and RFS and lower NRM. Type of transplantation significantly influenced RI and NRM for patients with acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no influence on RFS and OS. Conclusions: Both RI and NRM were significantly influenced by the size of the BED of single-dose or two-fraction TBI regimens; OS and RFS were not. Age was of highly significant influence on NRM, but there was no influence of age on RI. Hyperfractionated TBI with a high BED might be useful, assuming NRM can be reduced

  11. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors

  12. Total body irradiation for children with malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, Eiichi; Maeno, Toshio; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Mugishima, Hideo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Total body irradiation combined with high dose chemotherapy has been performed just before bone marrow transplantation in 35 children with advanced malignancies, with the object of achieving successful transplantation and improving the prognosis. Simulation was performed as follows: back scatter, flatness, dose accumulation using randophantom and dose distribution using a thermo-luminescence dosimeter and linac-graphy. The standard error of dose distribution was within 10%. In neuroblastoma, of which there were 14 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, the 5-year survival rate was 55%. In leukemia, of which all cases were in the high-risk group (7 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 2 of acute myeloblastic leukemia) the 5-year survival rate was 55%. The 5 cases having first remission survived disease-free while the 4 cases having non-first remission died. In malignant lymphoma (6 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, with bulky mass) the 5-year survival rate was 67%. Four cases with other diagnoses (severe aplastic anemia, and others) all survived. As yet no side effects resulting from total body irradiation have been recognized in our cases, but a longer follow-up period is necessary to observe possible late side effects. (author).

  13. A method for total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukochi, Hiroshi; Higashi, Shizuka; Okuhata, Yoshitaka; Lee, Keiichi; Ishioka, Kuniaki; Murakami, Koji; Nagai, Jun; Kuniyasu, Yoshio

    1988-01-01

    In these two years, we have treated four infant patients of acute leukemia by Cobalt-60 total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. During total body irradiation, thermoluminescence dosimeters were attached to the skin of patients. For four patients, nine dosimetries were performed. Reliability of this method was examined by phantom experiment. Every irradiation for the patient per fraction was 2.4 Gy, that is, 60 cGy for each four positions, right decubitus A-P and PA directions and left decubitus A-P and PA directions under aseptic circumstances. Radiation dose was uniform by this technique for each patient, and average determined dose for surface of the patients was between 87 % and 106 % compared with the air dose of the center of aseptic space (wagon). As the result, we suggest that this method is suitable for the total body irradiation of acute leukemia of infant. (author)

  14. Cataract incidence after total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierhut, D.; Lohr, F.; Schraube, P.; Huber, P.; Haas, R.; Hunstein, W.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate cataract incidence in a homogeneous group of patients after total-body irradiation followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Method and Materials: Between 11/1982 and 6/1994 in total 260 patients received in our hospital total-body irradiation for treatment of haematological malignancy. In 1996-96 patients out of these 260 patients were still alive. 85 from these still living patients (52 men, 33 women) answered evaluable on a questionnaire and could be examined ophthalmologically. Median age of these patients was 38,5 years (15 - 59 years) at time of total-body irradiation. Radiotherapy was applied as hyperfractionated total-body irradiation with a median dose of 14,4 Gy in 12 fractions over 4 days. Minimum time between fractions was 4 hours, photons with a energy of 23 MeV were used, and the dose rate was 7 - 18 cGy/min. Results: Median follow-up is now 5,8 years (1,7 - 13 years). Cataract occurred in (28(85)) patients after a median time of 47 months (1 - 104 months). In 6 out of these 28 patients who developed a cataract, surgery of the cataract was performed. Whole-brain irradiation prior to total-body irradiation was more often in the group of patients developing a cataract (14,3%) vs. 10,7% in the group of patients without cataract. Conclusion: Cataract is a common side effect of total-body irradiation. Cataract incidence found in our patients is comparable to results of other centres using a fractionated regimen for total-body irradiation. The hyperfractionated regimen used in our hospital does obviously not result in a even lower cataract incidence. In contrast to acute and late toxicity in other organ/organsystems, hyperfractionation of total-body irradiation does not further reduce toxicity for the eye-lens. Dose rate may have more influence on cataract incidence

  15. Implantation of total body irradiation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habitzreuter, Angela Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Before implementing a treatment technique, the characteristics of the beam under irradiation conditions must be well acknowledged and studied. Each one of the parameters used to calculate the dose has to be measured and validated before its utilization in clinical practice. This is particularly necessary when dealing with special techniques. In this work, all necessary parameters and measurements are described for the total body irradiation implementation in facilities designed for conventional treatments that make use of unconventional geometries to generate desired enlarged field sizes. Furthermore, this work presents commissioning data of this modality at Hospital das Clinicas of Sao Paulo using comparison of three detectors types for measurements of entrance dose during total body irradiation treatment. (author)

  16. Treatment of neuroblastoma. Role of total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, G; Perin, G P; Franzone, P; Corvo, R; Scarpati, D

    1986-01-01

    Advanced neuroblastoma, scarcely responsive to conventional therapies, can take advantage of high dose chemio-radiotherapic treatment followed by bone marrow transplant. Nineteen young patients underwent an ablative chemotherapy with high dose Vincristine and Melphalan plus Total Body Irradiation in Genoa, Italy; all of them underwent autologus bone marrow transplantation. Fourteen children were in complete remission (CR), 5 had residual disease. Thirteen are alive after a median of 7 months following transplant; 9 are in CR; 4 have disease; 1 died for toxicity; 5 for relapse. The results seem to suggest that ablative therapy should be given to patients in CR. Toxicity was not remarkable mainly as far as TBI is concerned.

  17. Biological basis of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubray, B.; Helfre, S.; Dendale, R.; Cosset, J.M.; Giraud, P.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the radiobiological bases of total body irradiation (TBI) is made difficult by the large number of normal and malignant tissues that must be taken into account. In addition, tissue responses to irradiation are also sensitive to associated treatments, type of graft and a number of patient characteristics. Experimental studies have yielded a large body of data, the clinical relevance of which still requires definite validation through randomized trials. Fractionated TBI schemes are able to reduce late normal tissue toxicity, but the ultimate consequences of the fractional dose reduction do not appear to be equivocal. Thus, leukemia and lymphoma cells are probably more radio-biologically heterogeneous than previously thought, with several cell lines displaying relatively high radioresistance and repair capability patterns. The most primitive host-type hematopoietic stem cells are likely to be at least partly protected by TBI fractionation and may hamper late engraftment. Similarly, but with possibly conflicting consequences on the probability of engraftment, the persistence of a functional marrow stroma may also be fractionation-sensitive, while higher rejection rates have been reported after T-depletion grafts and fractionated TBI. in clinical practice (as for performance of relevant clinical trials), the influence of these results are rather limited by the heavy logistic constraints created by a sophisticated and time-consuming procedure. Lastly, clinicians are now facing an increasing incidence of second cancers, at least partly induced by irradiation, which jeopardize the long-term prospects of otherwise cured patients. (authors)

  18. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckman, E.; Devergie, A.; Boiron, M.; Bernard, Jean; Dutreix, A.; Dutreix, J.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation was used in 22 patients as part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Nine patients with acute leukemia received 1000 cGy TBI in addition with chemotherapy. None of them survived and the main cause of death was interstitial pneumonitis (50%). 4 patients received 1000 cGy with a lung shielding of 500 cGy. Two patients with acute leukemia died of leukemia and sepsis, two patients had aplastic anemia, one is surviving, the other died of severe GVHD and infectious complications. Nine patients with severe aplastic anemia strongly immunized by previous blood transfusions received 800 cGy TBI with a lung shielding of 400 cGy. No rejection was observed and 7 patients (63%) are currently alive. One patient died of interstitial pneumonitis probably related to CMV infection, one of subacute necrotizing hepatitis, two of severe acute GVHD. It is concluded from this study that TBI remains the best immunosuppressive conditioning regimen even in strongly immunized patients. It may be a contributing factor of the incidence and severity of interstitial pneumonitis. A reduction of the dose of the lung to 400-500 cGy seems to decrease the severity of this complication

  19. Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with a lethal bone marrow disorder for bone marrow replacement. The therapeutic ratio of TBI followed by bone marrow transplantation is small. Many potentially lethal complications can occur, such as acute TBI side effects, late TBI side effects or immunological complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft versus host disease or graft rejection. The benefits of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are that they offer a chance for cure of previously lethal bone marrow disorders. The optimal parameters for TBI remain to be defined. The review discusses the current clinical and experimental animal data, as they relate to the future definition of less toxic TBI procedures with a better therapeutic ratio. Different TBI procedures are required for patients with malignant vs. non-malignant disorders or for patients with histoincompatible vs. histocompatible bone marrow donors.77 references

  20. Renal toxicity after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Martin; Hughes, Timothy; Horvath, Noemi; Rice, Michael; Thomas, Anthony C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of renal dysfunction after total body irradiation (TBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 1997, 64 patients (median age 50 years) received TBI as part of the conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Five patients with abnormal renal function at the beginning of treatment or with incomplete data were excluded. All patients received a total of 12 Gy (6 fractions twice daily for 3 consecutive days) prescribed to the peak lung dose (corrected for lung transmission) at a dose rate of 7.5 cGy/min. Renal shielding was not used. Renal dysfunction was assessed on the basis of the serum creatinine levels measured at the start and end of TBI and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after completion of BMT. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to evaluate the various factors known to affect renal function. Results: Only 4 patients had elevated serum creatinine levels at 12 months and subsequently only 2 of the 33 surviving patients had persistent elevated renal serum creatinine levels 24 months after BMT. A fifth patient developed proteinuria and mildly elevated serum creatinine levels at 2.5 years. In 2 patients, the elevation coincided with disease relapse and normalized once remission was achieved. In the third patient, the elevation in serum creatinine levels coincided with relapse of multiple myeloma and the presence of Bence-Jones proteinuria. The fourth patient was the only patient who developed chronic renal failure secondary to radiation nephritis at 2 years. The etiology of the fifth patient's rise in creatinine was unknown, but may have been secondary to radiation nephritis. On univariate analysis, but not on multivariate analysis, a significant correlation was found between TBI-related renal dysfunction and hypertension before and after BMT. Conclusion: A dose of 12 Gy at 2 Gy/fraction resulted in only 1 case of radiation nephritis in the 59 patients studied 24 months after the completion of TBI and BMT

  1. Immune reactivity after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, W.; Wottge, H.U.; von Kolzynski, M.; Mueller-Ruchholtz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Immune reactivity after total-body irradiation was investigated in rats using skin graft rejection as the indicator system. After sublethal irradiation with 10.5 Gy (approximately 50% lethality/6 weeks) the rejection of major histocompatibility complex allogeneic skin grafts was delayed significantly compared with nonirradiated control animals (28 versus 6.5 days). In contrast, skin grafts were rejected after 7.5 days in sublethally irradiated animals and 7 days in lethally irradiated animals if additional skin donor type alloantigens--namely, irradiated bone marrow cells--were given i.v. either simultaneously or with a delay of not more than 24 hr after the above conditioning regimen. These reactions were alloantigen-specific. They were observed in six different strain combinations with varying donors and recipients. Starting on day 2 after irradiation, i.v. injection of bone marrow gradually lost its effectivity and skin grafts were no longer rejected with uniform rapidity; skin donor marrow given on days 4 or 8 did not accelerate skin graft rejection at all. These data show that for approximately 1-2 days after high-dose total-body irradiation rats are still capable of starting a vigorous immune reaction against i.v.-injected alloantigens. The phenomenon of impaired rejection of skin grafted immediately after high-dose irradiation appears to result from the poor accessibility of skin graft alloantigens during the early postirradiation phase when vascularization of the grafted skin is insufficient

  2. Endocrine dysfunction after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Titlbach, O.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Kubel, M.; Helbig, W.; Leipzig Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Data regarding changes of endocrine parameters after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are described. Endocrine glands are usually resistant to irradiation under morphological aspects. But new methods of determination and sensitive tests were developed in the last few years. Now it is possible to detect already small functional changes. Endocrine studies in the course of the disease were followed serially in 16 patients with TBI and BMT. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with a high-dose, short-term chemotherapy. Reactions of the endocrine system showed a defined temporary order. Changes of ACTH and cortisol were in the beginning. The pituitary-adrenal cortex system responds in a different way. The pituitary-thyroid system develops a short-term 'low-T 3 -syndrome' reflecting the extreme stress of the organism. At the same time we obtained an increase of thyroxine. Testosterone and luteotropic hormone, the sexual steroids showed levels representing a primary gonadal insufficiency. The studies in the posttransplant period yielded a return to the normal range at most of the hormonal levels with the exception of the sexual steroids. Sterility is one of the late effects of TBI. A tendency towards hypothyroidism could be noticed in some cases being only subclinical forms. Reasons and possible therapy are discussed. (author)

  3. Late effects of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, A.; Gibson, B.

    1987-01-01

    Late effects of chemo-radiotherapy conditioning before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are being increasingly recognised in long-term survivors, particularly children. They can be divided into two categories: those affecting hormonal status and those affecting specific organ function. All women treated develop ovarian failure with low levels of β-oestradiol and raised values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH). In males, raised FSH and LH values are found with normal testosterone levels but most patients have azoospermia. In children, puberty is usually but not invariably delayed by treatment but can be induced by appropriate hormone replacement. Compensated hypothyroidism was found in 6/30 children. Growth hormone secretion may be impaired especially if previous cranial irradiation has been given. In children, a reduction in sitting height has been observed. Cataract has occurred in 20% of children between 3 and 6 years after treatment. Two second tumours have been observed. No other major organ toxicities have been encountered. (Auth.)

  4. Quality control of dosimetry in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallinger, W.

    1986-11-01

    An on-line dose measurement system for the quality control of the treatment of leukemia by means of total body irradiation with Co-60 gamma radiation is introduced. An ionization chamber and 5 diodes arranged on the surface of the patient incorporated with a microprocessor provides useful information and data necessary for the treatment. Following the concerted treatment procedure employing this system, the treatment of leukemia by means of total body irradiation is expected to be improved

  5. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  6. Acute tolerance of hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latz, D.; Schraube, P.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1996-01-01

    Background: Acute side effects of total body irradiation lead to intense molestations of the patients. Therefore, it is desirable to take measures to reduce these side effects. In a retrospective study the frequency on acute side effects of a hyperfractionated accelerated total body irradiation was assessed and compared to frequencies of other exposure schedules published in the literature. Additionally the influence of ondansetron on the frequency of nausea and vormiting was investigated. Patients and Method: From 1989 to 1992, 76 patients (47 male, 29 female; median age 38 years) underwent total body irradiation before autologeous bone marrow transplantation. They received 3 daily doses of 1.20 Gy each every 4 h on 4 successive days to a total dose of 14,40 Gy. Thirty-nine patients received 3x8 mg (daily, intravenous or per os) ondansetron during the whole course of irradiation. Results: The most relevant side effects were nausea and vomiting. Patients, who did not receive ondansetron (n=37) showed a nausea and emesis rate of 73%. With ondansetron (n=39) nausea and emesis were reduced to 38%. Also the grade of severity of these side effects was reduced. Conclusions: Ondansetron proved to be an effective medicament for relieving nausea and vormiting during total body irradiation. The results obtained are in concordance with those published in the literature. (orig.) [de

  7. Risk management in radiotherapy: analysis for total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banguero, Y., E-mail: ybanguero@cin.edu.uy [Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Píriz, G.; Guerrero, L.; Cardozo, L.; Quarneti, A. [Centro Hospital Pereira Rossell, Montevideo (Uruguay); Nader, A. [Autoridad Reguladora Nacional de Radioprotección, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: Management of risk in any technique that is using radiation energy is very important to prevent incidents and accidents. Pretending evaluate the risk in the all process of Total Body Irradiation (TBI), this work present a risk matrix with different possible events than could occur. Methods: SEVRRA-R platform that run in windows is using to build a risk matrix separating the process of TBI in commissioning, prescription, planning and delivering dose. Any stage has a procedure with different errors associated. We build a matrix using all this information to evaluate the kind of risk we have in the technique. Results: It was obtained a template that describes in general the process of TBI with principles events, barriers and consequences. Conclusion: Analyzing the risk in any stage of the process in Total Body irradiation is a useful tool to understand the key points to work in safety for this technique. (author)

  8. Therapeutic use of fractionated total body and subtotal body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-one patients were treated using fractionated subtotal body (STBI) or total body irradiation (TBI). These patients had generalized lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, leukemias, myelomas, seminomas, or oat-cell carcinomas. Subtotal body irradiation is delivered to the entire body, except for the skull and extremities. It was expected that a significantly higher radiation dose could be administered with STBI than with TBI. A five- to ten-fold increase in tolerance for STBI was demonstrated. Many of these patients have had long-term emissions. There is little or no treatment-induced symptomatology, and no sanctuary sites

  9. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  10. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD).

  11. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: ► Characterization of a silicon diode dosimetry system. ► Application of the diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. ► Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  12. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. High-dose irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Studies performed on behalf of the International Project on Food Irradiation in the period from 1971 until 1980 resulted in the concluding statement that ''.the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy presents no toxicological hazard; hence, toxicological testing of foods so treated is no longer required.'' Since then, licenses for food irradiation have been restricted to this maximum dose in any country applying this technology. Further testing programmes have been carried out investigating the wholesomeness or hazards of high-dose irradiation, but there has been little demand so far by the food industry for licensing of high-dose irradiation, as there is only a small range of products whose irradiation at higher doses offers advantages for given, intended use. These include eg. spices, dried herbs, meat products in flexible pouch packagings for astronauts, or patients with immune deficiencies. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  15. Intracranial meningiomas after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, D.; Gomori, J.M.; Siegal, T.; Shalit, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients who presented with intracranial meningiomas 12, 15, and 20 years, respectively, after therapeutic high-dose irradiation of a primary brain tumor are described. Analysis of these cases and similar documented cases suggests that meningiomas after high-dose irradiation constitute a recognizable entity. Patients with such tumors received radiation therapy at a young age (mean age, 9.4 years). After a latent period of 2 to 47 years (mean, 19.8 years) they developed meningiomas at the site of irradiation, at a much younger age than patients with ''spontaneous'' meningiomas. Similar to the situation with meningiomas after low-dose irradiation, a relatively high proportion of meningiomas induced by high-dose irradiation tend to be malignant and biologically aggressive. A very young age at the time of irradiation seems to predispose to the induction of malignant meningiomas, rather than benign tumors. These unusual features provide indirect evidence that high-dose radiation may play a role in the pathogenesis of meningiomas.41 references

  16. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah

    1999-01-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy

  17. Positioning variations of the lungs shields during total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; Marcie, S.; Boulabeiz, A.; Lagrange, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    During total body irradiation, the patient is entirely exposed to radiation and the dose to lungs have to be limited. Personalized shields are make and set between the source and the patient, in front of lungs. The patient and the shields set up are checked before the treatment session with radiographs. Verification films are performed during the treatment sessions with anterior and posterior beams. During the treatment session, the patient may move and his relative positioning can change. Also, for each daily session treatment, his positioning could be different. One way to determine position discrepancies of the shields lungs is to analyse verification films. A study has been achieved comparing positions of lungs and shields edges in digitised simulator and digitised verification images. Discrepancies on distance and angle between similar anatomical landmarks in both images are determined by applying a least squares minimisation approach. In this study, which concerns 29 patients, distance discrepancies are founded from 1,5 to 12,6 mm for the anterior beams and from 1,8 to 15,3 mm for the posterior beams. Angle discrepancies are founded from 0 to 2 degrees

  18. Biochemical and hematological indicators in model of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P.; Perez, M.R.; Barboza, M.; Luchetta, P.; Longoni, H.; Sorrentino, M.; Robison, A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures a study was carried out in 20 patients undergoing therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI). The following parameters were evaluated: a) Oxidative stress indicators: erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), lipo peroxyde levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity (TAA). b) Haematological indicators: reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. Non significant changes in SOD and CAT activity were observed. Significant higher TBARS levels were found in patients with unfavorable post-BTM course without any significant correlation with TAA. RMI decreased early and dropped to zero in most of the patients and rose several days prior to reticulocyte, neutrophils and platelets counts. A significant decrease in absolute counts of all lymphocyte subpopulations was observed during TBI, particularly for B lymphocytes. A subpopulation of natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+/ CD 56 +) showed a relative higher radioresistance. Cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased after TBI. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental over exposure d patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia. The implications of the different radiosensitivities within the NK subsets remains unanswered. (author) [es

  19. Total body irradiation for myasthenia gravis with thymoma: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kim, In Ah [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is relatively rare occuring as one of important autoimmune disease to affect neuromuscular junction. This study was clinically to evaluate total body irradiation (TBI) against two patients including 33-year and 39-year females for chronic MG with thymoma who hospitalized in the St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University since 1994 as well as who showed no response by thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. TBI designed by the dose of 150-180 cGy consisting of 10 cGy per fraction, three times a week, for 5-6 weeks using linear accelerator of 6 MV. During the treatment of TBI, they did complain acute side effect such as vomiting and also appear improved physical condition from 4-6 weeks after TBI. Through the follow-up period of 18 or 42 months after TBI, they did not have any symptomatic recurrence. Consequently, the results suggest that TBI can be used as an alternative tool for the patients concurrently for MG with thymoma who had been refractory to various conventional therapies like thymectomy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy.

  20. Design and characteristics of a 4 MV total body irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, W.R.; Chin, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A facility for total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) has been built using two 4 MV linear accelerators, one mounted under the ceiling, the other in a floor-pit. The distance between the two sources is 410 cm to produce a field size of 200 cm x 75 cm in the midplane. This field covers the patient, lying supine on a stretcher halfway between the sources. Components from commercially available accelerators were used. Special beam hardening and flattening filters were built to achieve acceptable dose profiles in the large field. The primary collimator was modified to produce a 235 cm x 92 cm field at 205 cm from the source, while movable focused collimators were designed to define fields up to 220 cm x 80 cm. Because of the wide beams, large rectangular parallel-plate ionization chambers were built to serve as beam monitors. The dose rate at 205 cm distance from the sources can be set between 5 and 80 cGy/min, each machine contributing half. The dosimetric characteristics are practically the same for both units. The per cent depth dose for the TBI beams is 76% at a source-surface distance of 195 cm. The half value layer decreases by 12% from the centre to near the edge of the beam. Owing to the large field size, the surface dose for the TBI beams is about 80% of the dose at 1 cm depth. The dose delivery has been verified to be within 2% of the calculated value at the reference point in a homogeneous water humanoid phantom. Measurements indicate that lung doses can be predicted by the ratio-of-TMR (tissue-to-maximum ratio) method with acceptable accuracy. Lead sheets are used as attenuators to prevent excessive lung doses. (author). 7 refs, 7 figs

  1. 'Mini' total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.; Sergieva, K.; Koleva, I.; Avramova, V.; Vassileva, V.; Georgieva, S.; Sultanov, B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The total body irradiation (TBI) combined with intensive chemotherapy plays an important role in the preparation of patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The first autologous BMT in Bulgaria was performed in 1997 in the Specialized Pediatric Hospital for Active Treatment (SPHAT) of oncohematological diseases. The first TBI, followed by allogeneic BMT, was carried out in 2002 in the 'Queen Giovanna' University Hospital, after which its routine application as a basic form of large field radiotherapy and a main stage of the conditioning regimen for BMT was started. Fourteen allogeneic BMTs including TBI as a basic conditioning regimen have been performed till May 2006. The objective of the present report is to present the first clinical observations in the Bulgarian oncological practice on 'mini' TBI followed by allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation. During the period October 2005 - May 2006, 'mini' TBI followed by allogeneic BMT was carried out for two patients of the age 43 and 50 years. The diagnosis of both patients was acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia, in the remission stage, after one relapse, respectively. Intensive preceding chemotherapy was applied for both patients. A conditioning regimen was applied including the fludarabine purine analogue (3 x 30 mg/m 2 ) and 200 cGy TBI. It was followed by transplantation of allogeneic cell concentrate containing 2.5 x10 6 /kg CD34+ and 4.0 x10 6 /kg CD34+ blood stem cells of partially compatible family donors (a sister and a son), which were tolerable for the patients without complications. Cyclosporine and mycophelonate mofetile were applied as post-transplantation treatment. Active antibiotic, antiviral, symptomatic and substituting therapy, as well as GvHD prophylaxis was applied for both patients. Good clinical tolerance was recorded for the applied low dose conditioning regimen. The patients were discharged within 30 days in good general condition and stable draft action, with

  2. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  3. Patterns of patient specific dosimetry in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); McMullen, Kevin P.; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) has been used for bone marrow transplant for hematologic and immune deficiency conditions. The goal of TBI is to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, with a generally accepted range of dose uniformity being within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose. The moving table technique for TBI could make dose uniform in whole body by adjusting couch speed. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the actual dose by calculation and hence in vivo dosimetry (IVD) is routinely performed. Here, the authors present patterns of patient-specific IVD in 161 TBI patients treated at our institution. Methods: Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit (Model C9 Cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, Picker X-ray Corporation) with customized moving bed (SITI Industrial Products, Inc., Fishers, IN) were used for TBI treatment. During treatment, OneDose{sup TM} (Sicel Technology, NC) Metal Oxide-silicon Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor detectors were placed at patient body surface; both entrance and exit side of the beam at patient head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee to estimate midplane dose. When large differences (>10%) between the prescribed and measured dose were observed, dose delivery was corrected for subsequent fractions by the adjustment of couch speed and/or bolus placement. Under IRB exempt status, the authors retrospectively analyzed the treatment records of 161 patients who received TBI treatment between 2006 and 2011. Results: Across the entire cohort, the median {+-} SD (range) percent variance between calculated and measured dose for head, neck, mediastinum, umbilicus, and knee was -2.3 {+-} 10.2% (-66.2 to +35.3), 1.1 {+-} 11.5% (-62.2 to +40.3), -1.9 {+-} 9.5% (-66.4 to +46.6), -1.1 {+-} 7.2% (-35.2 to +42.9), and 3.4 {+-} 12.2% (-47.9 to +108.5), respectively. More than half of treatments were within {+-}10% of the prescribed dose for all anatomical regions. For 80% of treatments (10%-90%), dose at the umbilicus was within {+-}10

  4. Osteochondroma after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Go; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ohtomo, Katsuyuki; Takayama, Jun; Beppu, Yasuo; Fukuma, Hisatoshi; Ohira, Mutsuro

    1996-01-01

    We present two cases of osteochondroma after total body irradiation in bone marrow recipients, the first in a 6-year-old boy with juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia and the second in a 13-year-old boy with acute myelogenous leukemia. The patients developed multiple osteochondromas three years and seven years, respectively, after 12 Gy of total body irradiation. Neither had a family history of hereditary multiple osteochondromatosis. A review of the English literature revealed only one report describing five cases of osteochondroma after 12 Gy of total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients. Osteochondroma should be considered as an additional adverse effect of total body irradiation. (author)

  5. Radiobiological considerations in the treatment of neuroblastoma by total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; O'Donoghue, J.; Gregor, A.; Livingstone, A.; Wilson, L.; West of Scotland Health Boards, Glasgow

    1986-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a radiosensitive neoplasm for which total body irradiation (TBI) is presently under clinical consideration. Collated data on the radiobiology of human neuroblastoma cells in vitro indicates moderate cellular radiosensitivity and low capacity for accumulation of sublethal damage. Mathematical studies incorporating these parameters suggest that low dose fractionated TBI is unlikely to achieve significant levels of tumour cell kill. When high dose TBI is used in conjuction with bone marrow rescue a tumour 'log cell kill' of 4-5 should be achievable. This effect would be additional to that acheived by chemotherapy. Fractionated TBI with bone marrow rescue may be curative for some patients in clinical remission who are presently destined to relapse. (Auth.)

  6. Myeloproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urowitz, M.B.; Rider, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Four patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total body irradiation administered in two sittings, 300 to 400 rads to each half of the body. All four patients had taken antimetabolites prior to receiving total body irradiation, and two continued to use them after total body irradiation. Two patients had taken alkylating agents before, and one had used them after total body irradiation. All patients showed clinical improvement. However, in two patients myeloproliferative disorders developed: a myelodysplastic preleukemia at 40 months after total body irradiation in one and acute myelogenous leukemia at 25 months in the other. Total body irradiation differs from total nodal irradiation in the total dose of irradiation (300 to 400 rads versus 2,000 to 3,000), and in the duration of the therapy (two sittings versus treatment over several weeks to months). Furthermore, the patients in the total body irradiation study frequently used cytotoxic drugs before and/or after irradiation, whereas in one total nodal irradiation study, azathioprine (2 mg/kg per day or less) was permitted, but no other cytotoxic agents were allowed. Rheumatologists may therefore face a binding decision when deciding to treat a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with either a cytotoxic drug or irradiation

  7. Total body irradiation in the bone marrow transplantation in leukemia:an experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapatero, A.; Martin de Vidales, C.; Pinar, B.; Marin, A.; Cerezo, L.; Dominguez, P.; Perez, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate long-term survival and morbidity of fractioned total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneicbone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukemia. From June 1985 to May 1992, 94 patients with acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), were treated with high dose cyclophosphamide(CY) and fractionated TBI to a total dose of 12 Gy in six fractions prior to allogeneic BMT. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 53% +-6 and 48%+- respectively for patients with standard risk disease (first remission of acute leukemia and first chronic phase of CML), and 24%+-7 and 21%+-6 for patients with more advanced disease (p=3D0.01). The incidence of interstitial pneumonitis (IP), venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and grade=3D>II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were respectively 15%, 29% and 51%. Fractionated TBI combined with high dose CY before allogeneic BMT for leukemia is an effective treatment in prolonging relapse-free survival witha low incidence of lung toxicity. (Author) 13 refs

  8. Total body irradiation (TBI) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, U; Johnson, R E

    1975-01-01

    80 patients with previously untreated CLL have been admitted to the Radiation Oncology Branch of the NCI. Fourteen of these patients have remained classified as 'indolent' until the present time and have not received any treatment. 48 patients with 'active' CLL were treated with TBI and were compared with 18 patients treated with chemotherapy and/or local irradiation. Our series of patients primarily treated with TBI have twice the median survival (57 months) measured from first therapy of the concurrent chemotherapy series (27 months). One third of the TBI group have experienced a complete or nearly complete remission and these patients showed a definite longer survival, with a median survival well in excess of five years until now. However, patients with a less complete remission failed to demonstrate a prolonged survival time with TBI in comparison to other modes of treatment. These results indicate that TBI can induce complete remissions which improve the prognosis in patients with active CLL.

  9. Dose compensation of the total body irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-P.; Chu, T.-C.; Liu, M.-T.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to improve dose uniformity in the body by the compensator-rice and to decrease the dose to the lung by the partial lung block. Rando phantom supine was set up to treat bilateral fields with a 15 MV linear accelerator at 415 cm treatment distance. The experimental procedure included three parts. The first part was the bilateral irradiation without rice compensator, and the second part was with rice compensator. In the third part, rice compensator and partial lung block were both used. The results of thermoluminescent dosimeters measurements indicated that without rice compensator the dose was non-uniform. Contrarily, the average dose homogeneity with rice compensator was measured within ±5%, except for the thorax region. Partial lung block can reduce the dose which the lung received. This is a simple method to improve the dose homogeneity and to reduce the lung dose received. The compensator-rice is cheap, and acrylic boxes are easy to obtain. Therefore, this technique is suitable for more studies

  10. Study on the immunological suppressive mechanisms of the cyclophosphamide-administration and total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakizaka, Yoshitaka; Uchino, Junichi; Yang, Zi-Bo.

    1994-01-01

    High dose-cyclophosphamide (CP) administration and total body irradiation (TBI) are often used for bone marrow transplantation in order to eradicate the residual tumor cells and to induce the immunological tolerance in the recipients. But CP is difficult to use as an immunosuppressant because this drug has indefinite effects on host's immune status depending on the dose, i.e. augment the humoral antibody production in small dosage and inhibit the rejective reaction in large dosage. Thus we study on the immunological mechanisms of this drug and the TBI used often with CP for bone marrow transplantation in leukemic patients. 150 mg/kg of CP was administered via tail vein, and 3 Gy (300 rads) of X-ray was irradiated. CP could suppress the host's cellular immunity within 5 days after administration but TBI could within 3 days. Reversely, CP augmented the cellular immunity since 5 days after treatment. CP damaged the IL-2 production irreversibely, but IL-3 production was inhibited by CP for only a few days and recovered rapidly. These characters were thought to be a big help for the implantation and development of the multipotent stem cells in the recipient's body after transplantation. (author)

  11. Gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Heidt, P.J.; Zurcher, C.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures for total and selective gastrointestinal decontamination of dogs are described. The selective procedure removed only Gram negative aerobic bacteria, yeast and fungi. Dogs receiving total decontamination were less susceptible to the GI syndrome following total body irradiation (TBI) than

  12. Total body irradiation as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toshihiko

    1987-01-01

    The history of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation is surprisingly old. Following the success of Thomas et al. in the 1970s, bone marrow transplantation appeared to be the sole curative treatment modality for high-risk leukemia. A supralethal dose of total body irradiation was widely accepted as a form of preparation for bone marrow transplantation. In this paper, I described the present status of bone marrow transplantation for leukemia patients in Japan based on the IVth national survey. Since interstitial pneumonitis was one of the most life threatening complications after bone marrow transplantation, I mentioned the dose, dose-rate and fraction of total body irradiation in more detail. In addition, I dealt with some problems of the total body irradiation, such as dose prescription, compensating contour as well as inhomogeneity, and shielding for the highrisk organs. (author) 82 refs

  13. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  14. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  15. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

  16. A reviewed technique for total body electron therapy using a Varian Clinac 2100C/D high dose rate treatment beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; Xuereb, E.M.A.; Last, V.; Hunt, P.B.; Wilfert, A.

    1996-01-01

    Our (Royal North Shore Hospital) most recent linear accelerator acquisition is a Varian Clinac 2100C/D which has a high dose rate (approximately 25Gy per minute at 1 metre) total body electron option. We investigated the physical characteristics of the electron beam to develop a suitable method of treatment for total body electron therapy. The useful electron beam width is defined as 80cm above and below the reference height. Measurements of the electron dose received from the two angled electron beams showed a critical dependence on the gantry angles. The treatment protocol uses ten different patient angles, fractionated into directly opposing fields and treated seuqentially each day. A full cycle of treatment is completed in five days. (author)

  17. Radiation nephritis following total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide in preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstein, J.; Andreoli, S.P.; Provisor, A.J.; Yum, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two children prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide developed hypertension, microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, diminished renal function, and anemia six months after transplantation. Light microscopy of the kidneys revealed mesangial expansion, glomerular capillary wall thickening, and lumenal thrombosis. Electron microscopy demonstrated widening of the subendothelial space due to the deposition of amorphous fluffy material. In one patient, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed glomerular capillary wall deposition of fibrin and immunoglobulins. The clinical and histologic findings support the diagnosis of radiation nephritis. Patients prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide should be followed closely after transplantation for the development of hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency

  18. Total lymphoid irradiation and total body irradiation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, Koichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Midori; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Miura, Takashi; Kanamaru, Akihisa; Kakishita, Eizo; Kai, Shunro; Hara, Hiroshi (Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan))

    Between April 1980 and June 1989, 15 patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) were treated at Hyogo College of Medicine with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after preparation consisting of cyclophosphamide (CY) and total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) or total body irradiation (TBI) for the purpose of reducing the incidence of graft rejection. All patients had initial evidence of engraftment after the first transplantation except for one patient who died of heart failure due to CY on the third day after transplantation and could not be evaluated for engraftment. Rejection later occurred in four of these 14 patients, who then underwent successful regrafting. One of these four patients, who was conditioned with CY alone at the first grafting, underwent successful regrafting after a conditioning regimen of CY and TBI. In the other three patients, irradiation was performed twice as the conditioning regimen. Thus, 14 of 15 patients underwent successful BMT and are alive with restored hematopoietic function. From the above results, the combination of TLI or TBI and CY was considered to be very useful as a conditioning regimen for BMT in patients with SAA. (author).

  19. Total body irradiation and marrow transplantation for acute leukaemia. The Royal Marsden Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, A; Barrett, A J; Powles, R L [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (UK). Surrey Branch; Royal Marsden Hospital, London (UK))

    1979-06-01

    The experience with total body irradiation at the Royal Marsden Hospital is described for an elective program of transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in first remission. Dose rate appears to be a critical factor in the reduction of radiation-associated damage and careful monitoring of the actual dose distribution and dose received is mandatory.

  20. Dosimetry for total body irradiation of rhesus monkeys with 300 kV X- rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, J.; Wagemaker, G.; Broerse, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain more accurate information on the dose distribution in rhesus monkeys for total body irradiation with orthovoltage X-rays. Materials and methods: Dose measurements were performed with an ionization chamber inside homogeneous cylindrical and rectangular phantoms of various

  1. Comparative evolution of coagulation disorders in baboons and Pigs after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destombe, C.; Lefleche, P.; Veyret, J.; Grasseau, A.; Agay, D.; Mestries, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Acute total body irradiation in pigs, with a lethal dose of either gamma or mixed gamma-neutron radiation, induced similar plasmatic coagulation disorders as those observed in baboons. These data validated pathophysiological hypothesis which were developed during previous studies, but do not support the idea of a possible species specific radiosensitivity. (author)

  2. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (26 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI

  3. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in spleen cells of mice exposed to low doses of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Hruby, E.

    1983-07-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced by UV irradiation of spleen cells obtained from C 57 Bl mice after repeated total body irradiation of 0.05 Gy 60 Co (0.00125 Gy/mice) and determined autoradiographically. An enhancement in the ability for repair of UV induced DNA lesions was observed in cells of gamma irradiated animals. While the amount of 3 H-thymidine incorporated per cell was increased, the percentage of labeled cells remained unchanged. The present results are compared with previous data on low dose radiation exposure in men. (Author) [de

  4. Fractionated homogenous total-body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duehmke, E; Brix, F; Hebbinghaus, D; Jensen, M; Wendhausen, H; Schmitz, N

    1985-03-01

    At the University of Kiel, myeloid and acute lymphatic leukemia is treated since 1983 by total-body irradiation applied prior to bone marrow transplantation. Dose deviations in the midplane caused by the irregular surface and tissue inhomogeneities of the patient are reduced down to +-3.5% compared to the central ray, with the help of CT-based individual compensators. This method prevents above all an excessive dose to the lungs. The radiobiologic advantages of fractionated irradiation have been employed for all patients treated hitherto (n = 9). At present, a total body dose of 12 Gy in six fractions is applied within three days. There were no undesired acute radiogenic reactions except a mild acute mucositis found in all patients. Chronic side effects, especially in the lungs, were not demonstrated, too. However, the average follow-up time of 149 days has been rather short. One patient died from relapse of leukemia after a total dose of 10 Gy, another patient died because the transplanted bone marrow was rejected, and a third died from catheter sepsis. Six out of nine patients are in complete remission with a maximum index of Karnofsky. The limited experiences gained hitherto show that the homogeneous accelerated-fractionated total-body irradiation offers essential advantages compared to non-compensated single dose irradiation with respect to the prevention of undesired radiogenic effects in sound tissues and that its therapeutic efficacy is at least the same.

  5. Radiological protection in a patient during a total body irradiation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez O, J. O.; Hinojosa G, J.; Gomez M, E.; Balam de la Vega, J. A.; Deheza V, J. C.

    2010-09-01

    A technique used in the Service of Radiotherapy of the Cancer Center of the American British Cowdray Medical Center (ABC) for the bone marrow transplantation, is the total body irradiation. It is known that the dose calculation, for this irradiation type, is old, since the dosimetric calculation is carried out by hand and they exist infinity of techniques for the patients irradiation and different forms of protecting organs of risk, as well as a great uncertainty in the given dose. In the Cancer Center of the ABC Medical Center, was carried out an irradiation procedure to total body with the following methodology: Computerized tomography of the patient total body (two vacuum mattresses in the following positions: dorsal and lateral decubitus), where is combined the two treatment techniques anterior-posterior and bilateral, skin delineate and reference volumes, dose calculation with the planning system Xi O of CMS, dose determination using an ionization chamber and a lung phantom IMRT Thorax Phantom of the mark CIRS and dosimetry in vivo. In this work is presented the used treatment technique, the results, statistics and the actualization of the patient clinical state. (Author)

  6. Accelerated Irradiations for High Dose Microstructures in Fast Reactor Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhijie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The objective of this project is to determine the extent to which high dose rate, self-ion irradiation can be used as an accelerated irradiation tool to understand microstructure evolution at high doses and temperatures relevant to advanced fast reactors. We will accomplish the goal by evaluating phase stability and swelling of F-M alloys relevant to SFR systems at very high dose by combining experiment and modeling in an effort to obtain a quantitative description of the processes at high and low damage rates.

  7. The application of high dose food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyn, I. De

    1997-01-01

    During the 1950's to end 1970's the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive 'dried cooked' taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 25 to 45 kGy (depending on the product) at a temperature of between -20 and -40 Centigrade to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions. The product can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. (Author)

  8. The application of high dose food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyn, I. De [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa LTD, Building 2000, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001, (South Africa)

    1997-12-31

    During the 1950`s to end 1970`s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive `dried cooked` taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 25 to 45 kGy (depending on the product) at a temperature of between -20 and -40 Centigrade to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions. The product can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. (Author)

  9. Dose-escalated total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, Steven L.; Powell, Simon N.; Colby, Christine; Spitzer, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) above the previously reported maximally tolerated dose, we have undertaken a Phase I-II trial of dose-escalated TBI with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Nine lymphoma patients with primary refractory disease (PRD) or in resistant relapse (RR) received dose-escalated TBI and PBSCT. The three dose levels of fractionated TBI (200 cGy twice daily) were 1,600 cGy, 1,800 cGy, and 2,000 cGy. Lung blocks were used to reduce the TBI transmission dose by 50%, and the chest wall dose was supplemented to the prescribed dose using electrons. Shielding of the kidneys was performed to keep the maximal renal dose at 1,600 cGy. Three patients, two with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in RR and one with PRD Hodgkin's disease, received 1,600 cGy + PBSCT, three patients (two NHL in RR, one PRD) received 1,800 cGy + PBSCT, and three patients with NHL (two in RR, one PRD) received 2,000 cGy + PBSCT. Results: Toxicities associated with this high-dose TBI regimen included reversible hepatic veno-occlusive disease in 1 patient, Grade 2 mucositis requiring narcotic analgesics in 8 patients, and neurologic toxicities consisting of a symmetrical sensory neuropathy (n=4) and Lhermitte's syndrome (n=1). Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 1 patient who received 1,800 cGy after receiving recombinant α-interferon (with exacerbation after rechallenge with interferon). Six (66%) patients achieved a response. Four (44%) patients achieved complete responses, three of which were of a duration greater than 1 year, and 2 (22%) patients achieved a partial response. One patient remains disease-free more than 5 years posttransplant. Corticosteroid-induced gastritis and postoperative infection resulted in the death of 1 patient in complete response, 429 days posttransplant. Conclusion: TBI in a dose range 1,600-2,000 cGy as

  10. Repair capacity of mouse lung after total body irradiation alone or combined with cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, Akmal; Bentzen, Soeren M.; Nielsen, Ole S.; Mahmoud, Hossam K.; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) combined with fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) is frequently used in the conditioning of patients prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). This study was performed to investigate the effect of CTX on the repair capacity of lung tissue after TBI in a mouse model for BMT. Materials and methods. TBI was given as a single fraction, 3 fractions in 3 days (Fx 3) or 9 fractions in 3 days (Fx 9) either alone or 24 h after a single dose of CTX. The single fraction TBI was given at either high dose rate (HDR) of 0.71 Gy/min or low dose rate (LDR) of 0.08 Gy/min. All mice were transplanted 4-6 h after the last TBI fraction. Lung damage was assessed using ventilation rate (VR) and lethality between 28 and 180 days. The repair capacity of lung tissue was estimated using the direct analysis method with the probability of reaching the end point described by a logistic formulation of the linear quadratic model. Results. The VR data confirmed the high repair capacity of lung tissue with an α/β ratio of 4.4 Gy though with a wide 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.03-10.5). Giving CTX before fractionated TBI marked reduced the doses needed to cause response in 50% of the animals. The sparing effect of using fractionated TBI was still evident in the combined CTX-TBI schedules. The estimated α/β ratio was 1.6 Gy (CI = 0.01-4.7) which is within the range of values reported after thoracic radiation only. On the other hand, the sparing effect seen in going from single fraction HDR to LDR was completely abolished when CTX was given 24 h before TBI. The same pattern was repeated when lethality between 28-180 days was used. Yet, the use of lethality to estimate lung damage in a TBI model, markedly underestimated the repair capacity. Conclusions. These results confirm the high repair capacity of lung tissue after TBI and emphasize the value of using a specific end point in testing lung damage after TBI. It also shows that there can be a negative

  11. The Basel experience with total body irradiation for conditioning patients with acute leukemia for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, B.; Cornu, P.; Nissen, C.; Gratwohl, A.; Sartorius, J.

    1979-01-01

    We are reporting our experience with 13 patients suffering from end stage acute leukemia that were prepared for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by combined chemotherapy followed by high dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI). Only one patient became a long term survivor. Of the evaluable 12 patients, 6 died of interstitial pneumonia, 4 of GvH and 1 of recurrent leukemia. We conclude that adding combined chemotherapy to the standard conditioning program with Cy and TBI probably increases the risk of developing fatal interstitial pneumonia without eliminating the risk of recurrent leukemia. We suggest that allogenic marrow grafts should be performed earlier in the course of refractory acute leukemias, because in patients with end stage disease its chances of being curative are small

  12. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaff, Luiz Alberto Malaguti

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using 60 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this work all the adapted formulas for dose rate calculations in several areas of the body are described, as well time/dose templates sheets for total body irradiation. The in vivo dosimetry, proved that either experimental or calculated dose rate values (achieved by the proposed method), did not have significant discrepancies. (author)

  13. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients

  14. Optimum combination of targeted 131I and total body irradiation for treatment of disseminated cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Amin E.; Wheldon, Tom E.; O'Donoghue, Joseph A.; Gaze, Mark N.; Barrett, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Radiobiological modeling was used to explore optimum combination strategies for treatment of disseminated malignancies of differing radiosensitivity and differing patterns of metastatic spread. The purpose of the study was to derive robust conclusions about the design of combination strategies that incorporate a targeting component. Preliminary clinical experience of a neuroblastoma treatment strategy, which is based upon general principles obtained from modelling, is briefly described. Methods and Materials: The radiobiological analysis was based on an extended (dose-rate dependent) formulation of the linear quadratic model. Radiation dose and dose rate for targeted irradiation of tumors of differing size was in part based on microdosimetric considerations. The analysis was applied to several tumor types with postulated differences in the pattern of metastatic spread, represented by the steepness of the slope of the relationship between numbers of tumors present and tumor diameter. The clinical pilot study entailed the treatment of five children with advanced neuroblastoma using a combination of 131 I metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) and total body irradiation followed by bone marrow rescue. Results: The theoretical analysis shows that both intrinsic radiosensitivity and pattern of metastatic spread can influence the composition of the ideal optimum combination strategy. High intrinsic radiosensitivity generally favors a high proportion of targeting component in the combination treatment, while a strong tendency to micrometastatic spread favors a major contribution by total body irradiation. The neuroblastoma patients were treated using a combination regimen with an initially low targeting component (2 Gy whole body dose from targeting component plus 12 Gy from total body irradiation). The treatment was tolerable and resulted in remissions in excess of 9 months in each of these advanced neuroblastoma patients. Conclusions: Radiobiological analysis, which

  15. The effect of total-body γ-irradiation on pigeons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadhia, P.K.; Shah, V.C.; Desai, R.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the effects of total-body 60 Coγ radiation (200 to 2000 rad) on the common pigeon (Columba livia) has indicated a LD 50/30 of 950 +- 50 rad. There were no deaths before 6 days and the peak frequency in average deaths occurred 9 days after irradiation. Most of the birds showed small changes in activity or behaviour in the first five days. A histopathological study was made of femoral bone marrow from irradiated (1000 rad) pigeons sacrificed 1 to 18 days post-irradiation. Slight aplasia was observed on the first day after irradiation, moderately marked on the third day and extensive on the fourth and fifth days. At the end of the second week regeneration was observed as the primitive lymphocyte-like cells were differentiating into granulocytes and erythrocytes. (UK)

  16. High Fidelity Ion Beam Simulation of High Dose Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, Gary; Wirth, Brian; Motta, Athur; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Hosemann, Peter; Odette, Robert

    2018-04-30

    Project Objective: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the capability to predict the evolution of microstructure and properties of structural materials in-reactor and at high doses, using ion irradiation as a surrogate for reactor irradiations. “Properties” includes both physical properties (irradiated microstructure) and the mechanical properties of the material. Demonstration of the capability to predict properties has two components. One is ion irradiation of a set of alloys to yield an irradiated microstructure and corresponding mechanical behavior that are substantially the same as results from neutron exposure in the appropriate reactor environment. Second is the capability to predict the irradiated microstructure and corresponding mechanical behavior on the basis of improved models, validated against both ion and reactor irradiations and verified against ion irradiations. Taken together, achievement of these objectives will yield an enhanced capability for simulating the behavior of materials in reactor irradiations

  17. SU-E-T-522: Investigation of Underdosage of Total Body Irradiation with Bilateral Irradiation Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, T; Eldib, A; Hossain, M; Price, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Patient in-vivo measurements report lower readings than those predicted from TMR-based treatment planning on TBI patient knees and ankles where rice was placed to fill the gap between patient’s legs. This study is to understand and correct the under dosage of Total Body Irradiation(TBI) with rice tissue equivalent bolus placement at TBI treatment patient setup. Methods: Bilateral TBI scheme was investigated with rice bags bolus placing between patient’s two legs acting as missing tissue. In-house TMR based treatment planning system was commissioned with measurements under TBI condition at 10MV, i.e. source-to-reference distance 383.4cm with 40×40cm field size with 1cm thickness Lucite. Predictions of patient specific dose points are reported at different sites with 200cGy prescription at patient umbilicus point. Solid water and rice bag phantoms are used at TBI conditions for the attenuation factor verification and CT scanned to verify the CT number and electron density. Results: We found that the rice bag bolus overall density is 11% lower than the water; however, the attenuation factor of rice bags could become 15% lower than that of water at TBI condition. This overestimate of rice bag electron density could cause the lack of lateral scatter and the lack of backscatter. This could Result in an overestimate of dose at in-vivo dosimeter measurement points with TMR-based treatment planning systems. Observations of patient specific optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters(OSLDs) were used to confirm this overestimation. Measurements of setups with increasing the rice bag filled patient leg separation were performed to demonstrate eliminating the overdose issue. Conclusion: Rice bolus has a lower electron density than water does(11%) but results in 15% lower in attenuation factor at TBI condition. This effect was observed in patient delivery with OSLD measurements and can be corrected by increasing the filling rice bolus thickness with 15% longer of

  18. SU-E-T-522: Investigation of Underdosage of Total Body Irradiation with Bilateral Irradiation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T; Eldib, A; Hossain, M; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Patient in-vivo measurements report lower readings than those predicted from TMR-based treatment planning on TBI patient knees and ankles where rice was placed to fill the gap between patient’s legs. This study is to understand and correct the under dosage of Total Body Irradiation(TBI) with rice tissue equivalent bolus placement at TBI treatment patient setup. Methods: Bilateral TBI scheme was investigated with rice bags bolus placing between patient’s two legs acting as missing tissue. In-house TMR based treatment planning system was commissioned with measurements under TBI condition at 10MV, i.e. source-to-reference distance 383.4cm with 40×40cm field size with 1cm thickness Lucite. Predictions of patient specific dose points are reported at different sites with 200cGy prescription at patient umbilicus point. Solid water and rice bag phantoms are used at TBI conditions for the attenuation factor verification and CT scanned to verify the CT number and electron density. Results: We found that the rice bag bolus overall density is 11% lower than the water; however, the attenuation factor of rice bags could become 15% lower than that of water at TBI condition. This overestimate of rice bag electron density could cause the lack of lateral scatter and the lack of backscatter. This could Result in an overestimate of dose at in-vivo dosimeter measurement points with TMR-based treatment planning systems. Observations of patient specific optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters(OSLDs) were used to confirm this overestimation. Measurements of setups with increasing the rice bag filled patient leg separation were performed to demonstrate eliminating the overdose issue. Conclusion: Rice bolus has a lower electron density than water does(11%) but results in 15% lower in attenuation factor at TBI condition. This effect was observed in patient delivery with OSLD measurements and can be corrected by increasing the filling rice bolus thickness with 15% longer of

  19. Renal toxicity in children undergoing total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esiashvili, Natia; Chiang, K.-Y.; Hasselle, Michael D.; Bryant, Cynthia; Riffenburgh, Robert H.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Contribution of total body irradiation (TBI) to renal toxicity in children undergoing the bone marrow transplant (BMT) remains controversial. We report our institutional retrospective study that evaluates the frequency of acute and chronic renal dysfunction in children after using total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning regimens. Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2003, 60 children with hematological malignancies underwent TBI as part of a conditioning regimen before allogeneic BMT. Patients received 4-14 Gy at 1.75-2 Gy/fraction in six-eight fractions. Lung shielding was used in all patients to limit lung dose to less than 10 Gy; renal shielding was not utilized. All patients had baseline renal function assessment and renal dysfunction post-BM was mainly evaluated on the basis of persistent serum creatinine elevation at acute (0-90 days) and chronic (>90 days) intervals after completion of BMT. Results: Acute renal dysfunction (ARD) was documented in 27 patients (45%); the majority had concurrent diagnosis of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and other potential causes (sepsis, antibiotic). The risk for delayed renal dysfunction (DRD) at 1 year approached 25% for surviving patients. The ARD was strongly linked with the risk of the DRD. There was no statistically significant relationship between ARD, DRD and underlying diagnosis, GVHD, VOD or TBI doses with both univariate and multivariate analyses. The younger age (<5 years) had significantly increased risk for the development of ARD (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Our analysis validates high incidence of renal dysfunction in the pediatric BMT population. In contrast to other reports we did not find total body irradiation dose to be a risk factor for renal dysfunction. Future prospective studies are needed to assess risk factors and interventions for this serious toxicity in children following allogeneic BM

  20. Effect of fractionated versus unfractionated total body irradiation on the growth of the BN acute myelocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbeek, A.; Martens, A.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of various total body irradiation (TBI) regimens prior to bone marrow transplantation was evaluated in a rat model for acute myelocytic leukemia (Dq = 85.1 cGy gamma ; N = 3.7). Using high dose rate gamma-irradiation (115 cGy/min), fractionated TBI with large total daily doses (400 to 600 cGy), either given as acute doses or as split doses at 8 hr intervals, was most effective. Split doses (2 fractions per day) offered no additional advantage. At the most, a 4 log leukemic cell kill was induced. No lethal toxicity was observed. Nine-hundred cGy flash TBI had a similar anti-tumor effect, but with this regimen almost half of the rats died from radiation-induced toxicity (lungs and gastro-intestinal tract). The results are explained in terms of differences between normal and leukemic cells as regards (a) repair of sublethal damage; and (b) repopulation. Low dose rate continuous gamma-irradiation (0.26 cGy/min) with total doses ranging from 900 to 2000 cGy was also quite effective. Maximally a 4 log cell kill was obtained. With 2000 cGy, 50% of the rats died from the gastro-intestinal tract-syndrome. In addition to the major role played by chemotherapy, TBI is mainly of importance in sterilizing the various sanctuaries in the body which contain leukemic cells anatomically resistant to most cytostatic agents

  1. Bone marrow transplantation in the patients with malignant tumor. Studies on supralethal total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuno, Ikuro; Saito, Yasuo

    1984-11-01

    Based on evidence gained from ten patients of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and eight patients of autologous BMT, recent knowledge on literatures of BMT and total body irradiation (TBI) is summarized. Interstitial pneumonia after BMT has a strong correlation with TBI. Low dose-rate and fractionation of TBI are seemed to reduce the lung injury, thereby reducing the incidence of nonleukemia deaths. BMT is applied to not only acute leukemia, malignant lymphoma and solid tumors but also to chronic leukemia. It is emphasized that several of the important prognostic factors are within the control of the transplantation team.

  2. Indication of total body irradiation in adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Masaharu (Sapporo Hokuyu Hospital (Japan). Artificial Organ and Transplantation Hospital)

    1992-10-01

    Indication of total body irradiation (TBI) in adult allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was discussed in comparison with non-TBI method of busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BU+CY). Each method has unique advantages and disadvantages. Concerning adverse effects of interstitial pneumonia, liver dysfunction and so on, there are no significant differences in both methods. TBI method should be preferably indicated for lymphatic leukemias and leukemias involving central nervous systems. It is important to clarify what kinds of combination regimen depending on the type and the stage of disease are most suitable for the longer survival of patients with leukemia or aplastic anemia by multicentric randomized study. (author).

  3. An Acute Transverse Myelitis Attack after Total Body Irradiation: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Keklik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation (TBI combined with chemotherapy is widely used as a pretreatment regimen of bone marrow transplantation (BMT in hematologic disorders. Late complications related to TBI as part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been revealed. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is a neurological syndrome characterized by disorder of motor, sensorial, and autonomic nerves, and tracts at medulla spinalis, which is resulted from involvement of spinal cord. In this paper, we presented an ATM attack developed after TBI in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL as it is a rarely seen case.

  4. Comparison of total body irradiation-based or non-total body irradiation-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in pediatric leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jeong Kim

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : This study aims to compare the outcome of total body irradiation (TBI- or non-TBI-containing conditioning regimens for leukemia in children. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated 77 children conditioned with TBI (n=40 or non-TBI (n=37 regimens, transplanted at Chonnam National University Hospital between January 1996 and December 2007. The type of transplantation, disease status at the time of transplant, conditioning regimen, engraftment kinetics, development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, complications, cause of deaths, overall survival (OS, and event-free survival (EFS were compared between the 2 groups. Results : Among 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 28 (82.4% were in the TBI group, while 72.7% (24/33 of patients with myeloid leukemia were in the non-TBI group. Although the 5-year EFS of the 2 groups was similar for all patients (62% vs 63%, the TBI group showed a better 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group when only ALL patients were analyzed (65% vs 17%; P =0.005. In acute myelogenous leukemia patients, the non-TBI group had better survival tendency (73% vs 38%; P=0.089. The incidence of GVHD, engraftment, survival, cause of death, and late complications was not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion : The TBI and non-TBI groups showed comparable results, but the TBI group showed a significantly higher 5-year EFS than the non-TBI group in ALL patients. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies involving larger number of patients are needed to assess the late-onset complications and to compare the socioeconomic quality of life.

  5. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  6. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy γ total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  7. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Section Autonome de Radiobiologie Appliquee a la Medecine, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-02-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy {gamma} total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  8. THE URINE PROTEOME FOR RADIATION BIODOSIMETRY: EFFECT OF TOTAL BODY VERSUS LOCAL KIDNEY IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D.; Wakim, Bassam T.; Savin, Virginia J.; Cohen, Eric P.; Moulder, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Victims of nuclear accidents or radiological terrorism are likely to receive varying doses of ionizing radiation inhomogeneously distributed over the body. Early biomarkers may be useful in determining organ-specific doses due to total body irradiation (TBI) or partial body irradiation. We used liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the effect of TBI and local kidney irradiation (LKI) on the rat urine proteome using a single 10 Gy dose of X-rays. Both TBI and LKI altered the urinary protein profile within 24 hours with noticeable differences in Gene Ontology categories. Some proteins including fetuin-B, tissue kallikrein, beta-glucuronidase, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 were detected only in the TBI group. Some other proteins including major urinary protein-1, RNA binding protein 19, neuron navigator, Dapper homolog 3, WD repeat and FYVE domain containing protein 3, sorting nexin-8, ankycorbin and aquaporin were detected only in the LKI group. Protease inhibitors and kidney proteins were more abundant (fraction of total scans) in the LKI group. Up/Uc ratio and urinary albumin abundance decreased in both TBI and LKI groups. Several markers of acute kidney injury were not detectable in either irradiated group. Present data indicate that abundance and number of proteins may follow opposite trends. These novel findings demonstrate intriguing differences between TBI and LKI, and suggest that urine proteome may be useful in determining organ-specific changes caused by partial body irradiation. PMID:20065682

  9. The urine proteome for radiation biodosimetry: effect of total body vs. local kidney irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D; Wakim, Bassam T; Savin, Virginia J; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E

    2010-02-01

    Victims of nuclear accidents or radiological terrorism are likely to receive varying doses of ionizing radiation inhomogeneously distributed over the body. Early biomarkers may be useful in determining organ-specific doses due to total body irradiation (TBI) or partial body irradiation. The authors used liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the effect of TBI and local kidney irradiation (LKI) on the rat urine proteome using a single 10-Gy dose of x-rays. Both TBI and LKI altered the urinary protein profile within 24 h with noticeable differences in gene ontology categories. Some proteins, including fetuin-B, tissue kallikrein, beta-glucuronidase, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, were detected only in the TBI group. Some other proteins, including major urinary protein-1, RNA binding protein 19, neuron navigator, Dapper homolog 3, WD repeat and FYVE domain containing protein 3, sorting nexin-8, ankycorbin and aquaporin were detected only in the LKI group. Protease inhibitors and kidney proteins were more abundant (fraction of total scans) in the LKI group. Urine protein (Up) and creatinine (Uc) (Up/Uc) ratios and urinary albumin abundance decreased in both TBI and LKI groups. Several markers of acute kidney injury were not detectable in either irradiated group. Present data indicate that abundance and number of proteins may follow opposite trends. These novel findings demonstrate intriguing differences between TBI and LKI, and suggest that urine proteome may be useful in determining organ-specific changes caused by partial body irradiation.

  10. Feasibility study of helical tomotherapy for total body or total marrow irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Susanta K.; Kapatoes, Jeff; Fowler, Jack; Henderson, Douglas; Olivera, Gustavo; Manon, Rafael R.; Gerbi, Bruce; Mackie, T. R.; Welsh, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Total body radiation (TBI) has been used for many years as a preconditioning agent before bone marrow transplantation. Many side effects still plague its use. We investigated the planning and delivery of total body irradiation (TBI) and selective total marrow irradiation (TMI) and a reduced radiation dose to sensitive structures using image-guided helical tomotherapy. To assess the feasibility of using helical tomotherapy (A) we studied variations in pitch, field width, and modulation factor on total body and total marrow helical tomotherapy treatments. We varied these parameters to provide a uniform dose along with a treatment times similar to conventional TBI (15-30 min). (B) We also investigated limited (head, chest, and pelvis) megavoltage CT (MVCT) scanning for the dimensional pretreatment setup verification rather than total body MVCT scanning to shorten the overall treatment time per treatment fraction. (C) We placed thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) inside a Rando phantom to measure the dose at seven anatomical sites, including the lungs. A simulated TBI treatment showed homogeneous dose coverage (±10%) to the whole body. Doses to the sensitive organs were reduced by 35%-70% of the target dose. TLD measurements on Rando showed an accurate dose delivery (±7%) to the target and critical organs. In the TMI study, the dose was delivered conformally to the bone marrow only. The TBI and TMI treatment delivery time was reduced (by 50%) by increasing the field width from 2.5 to 5.0 cm in the inferior-superior direction. A limited MVCT reduced the target localization time 60% compared to whole body MVCT. MVCT image-guided helical tomotherapy offers a novel method to deliver a precise, homogeneous radiation dose to the whole body target while reducing the dose significantly to all critical organs. A judicious selection of pitch, modulation factor, and field size is required to produce a homogeneous dose distribution along with an acceptable treatment time. In

  11. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  12. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells

  13. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  14. The effect of low-dose total body irradiation on tumor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Miyamoto, Miyako; Watabe, Nobuyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is considered to bring about an immunosuppressive effect on an organism, on the basis of data obtained from sublethal doses of TBI. However, there are no data on how low-dose TBI affects an organism. Over the last five years, we have been studying the effects of low-dose TBI on normal or tumor-bearing mice and the immunological background of these effects. In experimental studies, an increase in the TD50 value (the number of cells required for a tumor incidence of 50 %) in mice exposed to 10 rad was recognized and showed a remarkable increase at 6 hours to 15 hours after irradiation. TBI of 10 rad also showed an enhancement effect on tumor cell killing when given 12 hours before local tumor irradiation. In order to clarify the mechanism of this kind of effect, some immunological studies were performed using several immunological procedures, and the results suggested that 10 rad of TBI caused increasing tumor immunity in irradiated mice. Clinical trials in some patients with advanced tumors are now being undertaken on the basis of these experimental data, and the effect of TBI on tumor control appears promising, although it is too early to draw conclusions. (author)

  15. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  16. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaskes, S.; Kingdon, G.C.; Balish, E.

    1975-01-01

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  17. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  18. Cytogenetic studies on recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants after fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, N; Goedde-Salz, E; Loeffler, H [Christian-Albrechts-Univ., Kiel (Germany, F.R.)

    1985-06-01

    Cytogenetic findings from the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) of nine consecutive patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute or chronic myelogenous leukaemia are reported. After a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) given in five or six fractions of 2 Gy, persistence of host cells was detected in four out of seven cases with permanent engraftment. While one of these patients relapsed 4 months after host cells had been found in BM and PB, the other patients stayed relapse-free 124, 257 and 347 d after grafting. Before transplantation, the leukaemic cells in all three cases carried unique cytogenetic abnormalities giving the opportunity to distinguish the leukaemic population from chromosomally non-aberrant cells thought to represent residual normal host cells. As the persisting host cells after BMT lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities, it is suggested that they were members of residual normal clones not involved in the leukaemic process.

  19. Cobalt-60 total body irradiation dosimetry at 220 cm source-axis distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, G.P.; Mill, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Adults with acute leukemia are treated with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI) followed by autologous marrow transplants. For TBI, patients seated in a stand angled 45 0 above the floor are treated for about 2 hours at 220 cm source-axis distance (SAD) with sequential right and left lateral 87 cm x 87 cm fields to a 900 rad mid-pelvic dose at about 8 rad/min using a 5000 Ci cobalt unit. Maximum (lateral) to minimum (mid-plane) dose ratios are: hips--1.15, shoulders--1.30, and head--1.05, which is shielded by a compensator filter. Organ doses are small intestine, liver and kidneys--1100 rad, lung--1100 to 1200 rad, and heart--1300 rad. Verification dosimetry reveals the prescribed dose is delivered to within +-5%. Details of the dosimetry of this treatment are presented

  20. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for T-depleted HLA identical bone marrow transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, P.; Checcaglini, F.; Maranzano, E.; Aristei, C.; Panizza, B.M.; Gobbi, G.; Raymondi, C.; Aversa, F.; Martelli, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty patients suffering from malignant hemopathies (mean age 31.7 years) were given hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) as conditioning for T-depleted HLA identical allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. At an average of 12 months (range of 4.5-22 months) follow-up there were two cases of early death and two cases (11%) of rejection. There were no cases of acute or chronic graft versus host disease nor cases of interstitial pneumonitis. The average time for durable engraftment was 22 days. Disease-free survival at 12 months was 65%. To improve the results and further reduce the percent of rejection, the authors propose intensifying the immunosuppressive conditioning by increasing the cyclophosphamide dose and that of TBI so that a total dose of 1560 cGy is reached. 35 refs.; 1 figure

  1. Pilot production of the wedge filter for the TBI (total body irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezaki, Hiromi; Ikeda, Ikuo; Maruyama, Yasushi; Nako, Yasunobu; Tonari, Ayako; Kusuda, Junko; Takayama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is performed by various methods, such as a long SSD method and a translational couch method. For patient safety in carrying out TBI, the patient should be placed on the supine position and prone position near the floor. TBI is performed from 2 opposite ports (AP/PA) with a linear accelerator (10 MV X-ray). We experimented with a wedge filter for TBI created by us, which makes dose distribution to a floor uniform. The wedge filter, made of iron alloy, was attached to the linear accelerator. In designing the wedge filter, thickness of the lead-made wedge filter can be calculated numerically from the ratio of linear attenuation coefficient of iron alloy and lead. In measuring the dose profile for a phantom of 20 cm thick, dose homogeneity less than 10% was proved by the wedge filter for TBI. (author)

  2. Disturbances in dental development after total body irradiation in bone marrow transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlloef, G.B.; Barr, M.; Bolme, P.; Modeer, T.; Loennqvist, B.R.; Ringden, O.; Heimdahl, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dental status of 16 children who had been treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for serious bone marrow diseases was followed for up to 6 years. Several types of disturbances in dental development were observed in children who had been conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI) at 10 Gy before BMT. Thus, impaired root development that caused short V-shaped roots was found in all patients, a complete failure of root development and premature apical closure were found in five patients, enamel hypoplasia was observed in four patients, and microdontia was observed in three patients conditioned with TBI. Patients younger than 6 years of age at BMT exhibited the most severe and extensive dental aberrations. The TBI at 10 Gy appeared to be the major cause of the disturbances found

  3. Total body irradiation and autologus bone marrow transplantation in acute leukemias and non Hodgkin-lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvo, R; Franzone, P; Scarpati, D; Congiu, M; Carella, A

    1986-01-01

    From january 1984 to may 1986, 31 patients, 15 ANLL, 8 ALL (in remission status) and 8 NHL (6 in remission, 2 in relapse) have been treated with chemo-radiotherapy (cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg x 2 days + total body irradiation (TBI): 10 Gy/3 fr./3 days with 4 Gy boost testicular dose in ALL) and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Seventeen patients are alive, 16 in remission: 9 (60%) ANLL, 2 (25%) ALL, 5 (62%) NHL (median 8+ months, follow up 1+ /29+); 2 patients presented interstitial pneumonitis (6.45%). In this series, very good results have been achieved in ANLL, where no relapse was noted, encouraging achievements in NHL, with 4/8 relapse. Advantages and disadvanteges of autologus relative to allogenic BMT, and of conditioning regimen with or without TBI are discussed.

  4. Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doney, K; Buckner, C D; Sale, G E; Ramberg, R; Boyd, C; Thomas, E D [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute; Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). School of Medicine)

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia received bone marrow grafts from HLA identical siblings. Ten patients were in blast crisis prior to grafting, three were in an accelerated phase of their disease, and one was aplastic secondary to chemotherapy. Prior to transplant all patients were conditioned with chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation. Ten patients achieved engraftment while four died 1 to 26 days after marrow infusion without functioning grafts. Two patients reveived a second infusion of donor marrow because of delayed engraftment. Neither marrow cell dose nor presence of myelofibrosis correlated with succesful engraftment. Three out of ten engrafted patients developed graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonia occurred in seven patients. The immediate cause of death was bacterial septicemia in six patients. All evidence of leukemia disappeared in nine out of ten evaluable patients. The median survival was 43 days. One patient had a complete remission of 16 months duration.

  5. Treatment of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doney, K.; Buckner, C.D.; Sale, G.E.; Ramberg, R.; Boyd, C.; Thomas, E.D.; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1978-01-01

    Fourteen patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia received bone marrow grafts from HLA identical siblings. Ten patients were in blast crisis prior to grafting, three were in an accelerated phase of their disease, and one was aplastic secondary to chemotherapy. Prior to transplant all patients were conditioned with chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation. Ten patients achieved engraftment while four died 1 to 26 days after marrow infusion without functioning grafts. Two patients reveived a second infusion of donor marrow because of delayed engraftment. Neither marrow cell dose nor presence of myelofibrosis correlated with succesful engraftment. Three out of ten engrafted patients developed graft-versus-host disease. Interstitial pneumonia occurred in seven patients. The immediate cause of death was bacterial septicemia in six patients. All evidence of leukemia disappeared in nine out of ten evaluable patients. The median survival was 43 days. One patient had a complete remission of 16 months duration. (Author)

  6. Fetal liver transplantation in 2 patients with acute leukaemia after total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, G.; Izzi, T.; Porcellini, A.; Delfini, C.; Galimberti, M.; Moretti, L.; Polchi, P.; Agostinelli, F.; Andreani, M.; Manna, M.; Dallapiccola, B.

    1982-01-01

    2 patients with acute leukaemia in relapse were transplanted with fetal liver cells following a conditioning regimen of cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and total body irradiation (1000 r). Each patient achieved a remission with haematopoietic recovery that was rapid in one case and delayed in the other. In one case there was evidence of chimerism as demonstrated by the presence of the XYY karyotype of the donor fetus in 20 % of marrow metaphases, by the presence of double Y bodies in the peripheral blood, by the appearance of new HLA-antigens, and by red cell isoenzyme phenotypes of donor origin. In the second case there was prompt haemotopoietic recovery and the appearance of red cell isoenzyme phenotypes of donor origin. Survival was 153 and 30 d, respectively, and both patients died of interstitial pneumonia without evidence of graft versus host disease. (author)

  7. Cytogenetic studies on recipients of allogeneic bone marrow transplants after fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, N.; Goedde-Salz, E.; Loeffler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Cytogenetic findings from the bone marrow (BM) and the peripheral blood (PB) of nine consecutive patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute or chronic myelogenous leukaemia are reported. After a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) given in five or six fractions of 2 Gy, persistence of host cells was detected in four out of seven cases with permanent engraftment. While one of these patients relapsed 4 months after host cells had been found in BM and PB, the other patients stayed relapse-free 124, 257 and 347 d after grafting. Before transplantation, the leukaemic cells in all three cases carried unique cytogenetic abnormalities giving the opportunity to distinguish the leukaemic population from chromosomally non-aberrant cells thought to represent residual normal host cells. As the persisting host cells after BMT lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities, it is suggested that they were members of residual normal clones not involved in the leukaemic process. (author)

  8. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  9. The dosimetry of cobalt-60 γ-ray total body irradiation before bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Fan; Zhang Guiru

    1989-11-01

    The dosimetric considerations of using conventional cobalt-60 unit total body irradiation (TBI) are presented. By extending the source-to-midplane distance (SMD) to 346 cm, a 92 x 98 cm 2 rectangular field with diagonal dimension 134 cm was obtained. The results from the phantom measurements showed: (1) the effective field corresponding to an average-size patient is 25 x 25 cm 2 , and a method for estimating the effective field of human body is given; (2) the midplane doses are consistently higher than those of surfaces, but the dose ratio of midplane to surface decreases as the body thickness increases, and a significant negative correlation is existed between the dose ratio and thickness, thus a linear regression line is fitted; (3) the anterior-posterior (AP) or AP + bilateral irradiation will yield a more uniform dose distribution in the whole body than the bilateral irradiation; (4) the dose uniformity can apparently be improved by the tissue compensation, for which the technique is described

  10. A comparative study of total body irradiation as a method of inducing granulocyte depletion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogman, M.J.J.T.; Cornelissen, I.M.H.A.; Berden, J.H.M.; Jong, J. de; Koene, R.A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Since conventional methods of inducing depletion of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) in mice, such as treatment with cytostatic drugs and anti-PMN sera, proved to be insufficient to induce a stable PMN depletion for several days, and were accompanied by considerable toxic side effects, we induced neutrophil depletion in mice by total body irradiation (TBI) in a single dose of 6.0 Gy (600 rads.) at a dose rate of 0.20 Gy/min. This treatment reduced the number of PMNs in the peripheral circulation to values below 150/μl from day 3-10 after irradiation. The number of lymphocytes fell simultaneously. Platelet counts remained above 60% of normal values during the first 7 days after irradiation. Complement levels were not significantly affected by TBI. The results show that TBI of 6.0 Gy induces pronounced and stable PMN depletion in mice for at least 7 days. Furthermore, under an aseptic regimen the mice can be kept in good condition and losses are less than 5%. (Auth.)

  11. 28Si total body irradiation injures bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells via induction of cellular apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Feng, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Allen, Antiño R.; Turner, Jennifer; Stewart, Blair; Raber, Jacob; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-05-01

    Long-term space mission exposes astronauts to a radiation environment with potential health hazards. High-energy charged particles (HZE), including 28Si nuclei in space, have deleterious effects on cells due to their characteristics with high linear energy transfer and dense ionization. The influence of 28Si ions contributes more than 10% to the radiation dose equivalent in the space environment. Understanding the biological effects of 28Si irradiation is important to assess the potential health hazards of long-term space missions. The hematopoietic system is highly sensitive to radiation injury and bone marrow (BM) suppression is the primary life-threatening injuries after exposure to a moderate dose of radiation. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the acute effects of low doses of 28Si irradiation on the hematopoietic system in a mouse model. Specifically, 6-month-old C57BL/6 J mice were exposed to 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 Gy 28Si (600 MeV) total body irradiation (TBI). The effects of 28Si TBI on BM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were examined four weeks after the exposure. The results showed that exposure to 28Si TBI dramatically reduced the frequencies and numbers of HSCs in irradiated mice, compared to non-irradiated controls, in a radiation dose-dependent manner. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in BM HPCs regardless of radiation doses. Furthermore, irradiated HSCs exhibited a significant impairment in clonogenic ability. These acute effects of 28Si irradiation on HSCs may be attributable to radiation-induced apoptosis of HSCs, because HSCs, but not HPCs, from irradiated mice exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis in a radiation dose-dependent manner. However, exposure to low doses of 28Si did not result in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in HSCs and HPCs. These findings indicate that exposure to 28Si irradiation leads to acute HSC damage.

  12. High-dose irradiated food: Current progress, applications, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2018-03-01

    Food irradiation as an established and mature technology has gained more attention in the food industry for ensuring food safety and quality. Primarily used for phytosanitary applications, its use has been expanded for developing various food products for varied purposes (e.g. ready-to-eat & ready-to-cook foods, hospital diets, etc.). This paper summarized and analyzed the recent progress and application of high-dose irradiation and discussed its prospects in the field of food product development, its safety and quality.

  13. Total-body irradiation and bone-marrow transplantation - first observations on clinical tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.; Sergieva, K.; Koleva, I.; Mlachkova, D.; Michailov, G.; Avramova, B.

    2004-01-01

    About 50 000 bone-marrow transplantations (BMT) are performed annually at the present stage in numerous clinical centers all over the world. The Bulgarian experience in total-body irradiation (TBI) with following BMT is rather scarce. The routine TBI procedures in the oncological practice in the country date back just to 2001. The aim of the present publication is to describe the Bulgarian experience and the first impressions from the clinical tolerance of the total-body irradiation (TBI) with subsequent allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation (PSCT). Patient characteristics are presented in detail, including their distribution with respect to sex, age, primary diagnose, recurrence number till BMT, patient status during BMT performance (clinical hematological remission or relapse), as well as the basic parameters of the conditioning regime including TBI with subsequent allogeneic PSCT. The position of the patient and the applied radiotherapeutic equipment are described as well as the TBI schemes, respectively 5 fractions of 2 Gy per day for two patients and 3-day irradiation with 6 fractions (two fractions with a 6-hour interval between them) for the rest of the patients. The total dose (TD) of 10 Gy is realized for all patients. The clinical tolerance of 7 patients subjected to TBI and allogeneic PSCT is discussed. All patients were tolerable to the TBI treatment and had no serious problems. The radiotherapy was interrupted only in the case of the first two patients due to slight gastro-intestinal reactions. The first days of radiation were accompanied with a light degree of headache, nausea and vomiting, which were successfully overcome by granisetron. Diarrhea syndrome and mucositis to the II-III degree were developed subsequently without parotitis development. On the days 0 and +1 of the clinical protocol transplantation was realized of non- T-cell-depleted grafts (in 5 patients) and T-cell-depleted grafts (in 2 patients), which had no serious

  14. Physically-based biodosimetry using in vivo EPR of teeth in patients undergoing total body irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin B.; Dong, Ruhong; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Matthews, Thomas P.; Gladstone, David J.; Demidenko, Eugene; Zaki, Bassem I.; Salikhov, Ildar K.; Lesniewski, Piotr N.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The ability to estimate individual exposures to radiation following a large attack or incident has been identified as a necessity for rational and effective emergency medical response. In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of tooth enamel has been developed to meet this need. Materials and methods A novel transportable EPR spectrometer, developed to facilitate tooth dosimetry in an emergency response setting, was used to measure upper incisors in a model system, in unirradiated subjects, and in patients who had received total body doses of 2 Gy. Results A linear dose response was observed in the model system. A statistically significant increase in the intensity of the radiation-induced EPR signal was observed in irradiated versus unirradiated subjects, with an estimated standard error of dose prediction of 0.9 + 0.3 Gy. Conclusions These results demonstrate the current ability of in vivo EPR tooth dosimetry to distinguish between subjects who have not been irradiated and those who have received exposures that place them at risk for acute radiation syndrome. Procedural and technical developments to further increase the precision of dose estimation and ensure reliable operation in the emergency setting are underway. With these developments EPR tooth dosimetry is likely to be a valuable resource for triage following potential radiation exposure of a large population. PMID:21696339

  15. Dosimetry and verification of 60Co total body irradiation with human phantom and semiconductor diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahverdi Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Total Body Irradiation (TBI is a form of radiotherapy used for patients prior to bone marrow or stem cell transplant to destroy any undetectable cancer cells. The dosimetry characteristics of a 60 Co unit for TBI were studied and a simple method for the calculation of the prescribed dose for TBI is presented. Dose homogeneity was verified in a human phantom. Dose measurements were made in water phantom (30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 , using farmer ionization chamber (0.6 cc, TM30010, PTW and a parallel plate ionization chamber (TM23343, PTW. Point dose measurements for AP/PA irradiation were measured in a human phantom using silicon diodes (T60010L, PTW. The lung dose was measured with an ionization chamber (0.3 cc, TM31013. The validity of the proposed algorithm was checked at TBI distance using the human phantom. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm was within 3.5%. The dose delivered to the mid-lobe of the lung was 14.14 Gy and it has been reduced to 8.16 Gy by applying the proper shield. Dose homogeneity was within ±7% for all measured points. The results indicate that a good agreement between the total prescribed and calculated midplane doses can be achieved using this method. Therefore, it could be possible to use calculated data for TBI treatments.

  16. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  17. In vivo induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes by therapeutic fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.; Magdelenat, H.; Barbaroux, C.; Chaillet, M.-P.; Dubray, B.; Fourquet, A.; Cosset, J.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Girinsky, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have been reported as an in vitro apoptosis initiating stimulus in human lymphocytes. As the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiations and chemotherapeutic agents appears to be dependent on the efficacy of cell death induction, the manipulation of apoptosis initiation might be used as a means to suppress some pathological process. In the present study the in vivo induction of γ-ray mediated programmed cell death in humans is reported. The in vivo induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by ionizing radiations was investigated in 33 patients after each of two sessions (2 Gy and 4 Gy) of fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as part of their conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplantation. PBL committed to apoptosis were scored before irradiation (S1), 4 h (S2) and 24 h after 2 Gy (S3, 14-17 h after the second 2 Gy fraction). Nuclear morphology and chromatin-DNA were analysed by fluorescence microscopy immediately after blood sample withdrawal (I) and after 24 h in cell culture medium (II). (author)

  18. Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Ki Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Choo; Kim, Dong Jip

    1994-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1992, we treated 22 patients with chromic myelogenous leukemia; 14 in the chronic phase and 8 with more advanced disease. All were received with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after a total body irradiation (TBI) cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen. Patients were non-randomly assigned to either 1200 cGy/6 fractions/3 days (6 patients) or 1320 cGy/8 fractions/4 days (16 patients) by dose of TBI. Of the 22 patients, 8 were prepared with cyclophosphamide alone, 14 were conditioned with additional adriamycin or daunorubicin. To prevent graft versus host disease, cyclosporine was given either alone or in conjunction with methotrexate. The actuarial survival and leukemic-free survival at four years were 58.5% and 41.2%, respectively, and the relapse rate was 36% among 22 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients in chronic phase and more advanced phase (76% vs 33%, p=0.05). The relapse rate of patients receiving splenectomy was higher than that of patients receiving splenic irradiation (50% vs 0%, p=0.04). We conclude that the probability of cure is highest if transplantation is performed while the patient remains in the chronic phase

  19. Total Body Irradiation for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Ki Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Choo; Kim, Dong Jip [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    Between July 1987 and December 1992, we treated 22 patients with chromic myelogenous leukemia; 14 in the chronic phase and 8 with more advanced disease. All were received with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors after a total body irradiation (TBI) cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen. Patients were non-randomly assigned to either 1200 cGy/6 fractions/3 days (6 patients) or 1320 cGy/8 fractions/4 days (16 patients) by dose of TBI. Of the 22 patients, 8 were prepared with cyclophosphamide alone, 14 were conditioned with additional adriamycin or daunorubicin. To prevent graft versus host disease, cyclosporine was given either alone or in conjunction with methotrexate. The actuarial survival and leukemic-free survival at four years were 58.5% and 41.2%, respectively, and the relapse rate was 36% among 22 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in survival between the patients in chronic phase and more advanced phase (76% vs 33%, p=0.05). The relapse rate of patients receiving splenectomy was higher than that of patients receiving splenic irradiation (50% vs 0%, p=0.04). We conclude that the probability of cure is highest if transplantation is performed while the patient remains in the chronic phase.

  20. Colon mucosal cells after high-dose fractional irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorc-Pleskovic, R.; Vraspir-Porenta, O.; Petrovic, D.; Zorc, M.; Pleskovic, L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histological and stereological changes in cryptal enterocytes, mucosal lymphocytes and mast cells 10 days after irradiation. For experimental model, 24 Beagle dogs 1-2 years old were used. Twelve dogs were irradiated 20 days with 32 Gy over the whole pelvis and tail. Another 12 dogs represented a control group. For the detection of apoptosis, the TUNEL technique was used. Histological and stereological analyses were performed using a Wild sampling microscope M 1000. In the irradiated group, volume density (P < 0.01), numerical density (P < 0.05) and average volume of lymphocytes (P < 0.001) were significantly lower than in the nonirradiated group. Numerical areal density of mast cells in the irradiated group was also significantly lower (P < 0.05). Volume density (P < 0.001) and average volume of mast cells (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the irradiated group. The results of our experiments show that irradiation causes injury and loss of lymphocytes and mast cells in the colon mucosa. Apoptosis was detected in enterocytes and lymphocytes in the irradiated group and in nonirradiated group in equal numbers (2.5 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3; ns.), suggesting that 10 days after high-dose irradiation, the cell loss is not due to apoptosis. (author)

  1. Effect of BCNU combined with total body irradiation or cyclophosphamide on survival of dogs after autologous marrow grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, A.H.G.; English, D.

    1979-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either: (1) 750 rad total body irradiation; (2) BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg IV 48 hours prior to 750 rad total body irradiation; or (3) BCNU 4 mg/kg IV plus cyclophosphamide 30 mg/kg IV. Results showed that of 11 dogs who received 750 rad total body irradiation and did not receive cryopreserved autologous bone marrow cells, none survived, compared to an 88% survival (31 of 35 dogs) after 750 rad total body irradiation if the dogs received stored autologous bone marrow cells. However, when the dogs were treated with BCNU 2 or 4 mg/kg prior to 750 rad total body irradiation the survival rate, despite infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, dropped to 25% (3 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 2 mg/kg, and 17% (2 of 12 dogs) for BCNU 4 mg/kg. This effect did not seem to be due to direct serum inhibition of hemopoietic cell proliferation since serum obtained at various intervals after BCNU administrations failed to inhibit CFU growth in vitro. The dogs died from hemorrhage and infection; at autopsy there was hemorrhagic pneumonitis and intestinal ulcerations with petechial hemorrhages, suggesting that the combination of BCNU and total body irradiation may have synergistic toxicity on the canine gastro-intestinal tract. When BCNU was combined with cyclophosphamide, reversal of marrow toxicity occurred in 54% (6 of 11 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells compared to no survival (0 of 8 dogs) with stored autologous bone marrow cells. Thus while autologous bone marrow grafts are useful for reversal of marrow toxicity due to many therapeutic protocols, such grafts alone may not provide protection against toxicity due to the combination of high dosage BCNU and total body irradiation

  2. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Richard; Polishchuk, Alexei; DuBois, Steven; Hawkins, Randall; Lee, Stephanie W.; Bagatell, Rochelle; Shusterman, Suzanne; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Diller, Lisa; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Matthay, Katherine K.; London, Wendy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  3. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Richard [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Polishchuk, Alexei [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); DuBois, Steven [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hawkins, Randall [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, Stephanie W. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bagatell, Rochelle [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shusterman, Suzanne [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hill-Kayser, Christine [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Al-Sayegh, Hasan [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Diller, Lisa [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haas-Kogan, Daphne A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Matthay, Katherine K. [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); London, Wendy B. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  4. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amory Koch

    Full Text Available Acute radiation sickness (ARS following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1, which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated, 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors. In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies.

  5. Fiber-coupled Al_2O_3:C radioluminescence dosimetry for total body irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranurak, S.; Andersen, C.E.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry can be important and relevant in radiotherapy, especially when commissioning new treatment techniques at hospitals. This study investigates the potential use of fiber-coupled radioluminescence (RL) dosimetry based on Al_2O_3:C or organic plastic scintillators for this purpose in the context of Total Body Irradiations (TBIs) where patients are treated with large fields of 6 or 18 MV photons at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). The study shows that Al_2O_3:C dosimetry using the saturated-RL protocol may be suitable for real-time in vivo dosimetry during TBI treatments from the perspective of the good agreement with alanine dosimetry and other critical phantom tests, including the ability to cope with the large stem signal experienced during TBI treatments at extended SSD. In contrast, the chromatic stem removal technique often used for organic plastic scintillators did not work well in large fields with the tested calibration procedure and instrumentation. An apparent dose-rate effect discussed in a previous study of the RL properties of Al_2O_3:C (Andersen et al., 2011) was found to have resulted from an overlooked dead time problem in the counting system, and this potential caveat can therefore be removed from the list of potential problems associated with fiber-coupled Al_2O_3:C dosimetry using the saturated-RL protocol. This further has implications for TBI dosimetry using the RL Al_2O_3:C system due to large dose-rate differences between calibrations at the iso-center and in vivo measurements at extended source-to-surface distances. - Highlights: • Fiber-coupled dosimetry can be used for measurements during total body irradiations. • An apparent dose-effect associated with radioluminescence from Al2O3:C was resolved. • The gated-counting stem removal procedure worked well for Al2O3:C in pulsed accelerator beams. • The chromatic stem removal procedure did not work well with the tested instrumentation and organic plastic

  6. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  7. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  8. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Okamoto, Reiko; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Gen; Kumagai, Masaaki; Shioda, Yoko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Kitoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  9. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Fruehauf, Stefan; Wildermuth, Susanne; Kampen, Michael van; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of chronic radiation effects on the healthy adult brain using neuropsychological testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. Methods and Materials: 58 patients (43 ± 10 yr) undergoing hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (TBI, 14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy in 4 days) before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. Twenty-one recurrence-free long-term survivors were re-examined 6-36 months (median 27 months) after completion of TBI. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence, attention, and memory using normative, standardized psychometric tests. Mood status was controlled, as well. Test results are given as IQ scores (population mean 100) or percentiles for attention and memory (population mean 50). Results: The 21 patients showed normal baseline test results of IQ (101 ± 13) and attention (53 ± 28), with memory test scores below average (35 ± 21). Test results of IQ (98 ± 17), attention (58 ± 27), and memory (43 ± 28) showed no signs of clinically measurable radiation damage to higher CNS (central nervous system) functions during the follow-up. The mood status was improved. Conclusion: The investigation of CNS toxicity after hyperfractionated TBI showed no deterioration of test results in adult recurrence-free patients with tumor-free CNS. The median follow-up of 27 months will be extended.

  10. Dose rate and dose fractionation studies in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Netzel, B.; Schaffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) with 800-900 rads and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation according to the regimen designated by the Seattle group has induced remissions in patients with otherwise refractory acute leukemias. Relapse of leukemia after bone marrow transplantation remains the major problem, when the Seattle set up of two opposing 60 Co-sources and a low dose rate is used in TBI. Studies in dogs with TBI at various dose rates confirmed observations in mice that gastrointestinal toxicity is unlike toxicity against hemopoietic stem cells and possibly also leukemic stem cells depending on the dose rate. However, following very high single doses (2400 R) and marrow infusion acute gastrointestinal toxicity was not prevented by the lowest dose rate studied (0.5 R/min). Fractionated TBI with fractions of 600 R in addition to 1200 R (1000 rads) permitted the application of total doses up to 300 R followed by marrow infusion without irreversible toxicity. 26 dogs given 2400-3000 R have been observed for presently up to 2 years with regard to delayed radiation toxicity. This toxicity was mild in dogs given single doses at a low dose rate or fractionated TBI. Fractionated TBI is presently evaluated with allogeneic transplants in the dog before being applied to leukemic patients

  11. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  12. Efficacy of granisetron in the prevention of GIT problems in patients undergoing total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, L.; Jammet, P.; Campana, F.; Cosset, J.M.; Fourquet, A.

    1994-01-01

    From december 1991 to september 1992, 20 patients due to receive total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation were given granisetron (Kytril) in order to prevent intestinal (nausea and vomiting) early intolerance, TBI regimen was delivered on a fractional basis of six fractions, over 3 days. Twelve grays were delivered with a lung protection decreasing the pulmonary dose to 9 Gy Granisetron (3 mg) was administered by a 5-min intravenous infusion, 1 h before TBI. Up to two further infusions were given if nausea or vomiting occurred. The pretreatment perfusion was sufficient to prevent nausea and vomiting in 10/20 patients, one additional post-treatment perfusion was necessary in 7/20 patients, and two in 1/20 patients. In 2/20 cases, nausea and vomiting persisted in spite of three perfusions. Excellent or good efficacy was noted in 15/20 patients and a minor (or no) efficacy in five. Granisetron appears to be superior to the conventional anti emetic schemes to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving TBI for bone marrow transplantation. 15 Refs

  13. ACPSEM ROSG TBI working group recommendations for quality assurance in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelligan, Raelene; Bailey, Michael; Tran, Thu; Baldwin, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) radiation oncology specialty group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendations for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, and have been subject to independent expert reviews. For the Australian audience, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the tripartite radiation oncology practice standards [1, 2]. This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM total body irradiation working group (TBIWG) and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendations. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendations will contribute to the development of future versions through the ROSG of the ACPSEM. This document serves as a guideline for calibration and quality assurance of equipment used for TBI in Australasia.

  14. ACPSEM ROSG TBE working group recommendations for quality assurance in total body electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelligan, Raelene; Baldwin, Zoe; Ostwald, Trish; Tran, Thi; Bailey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) Radiation Oncology Specialty Group (ROSG) formed a series of working groups in 2011 to develop recommendations for guidance of radiation oncology medical physics practice within the Australasian setting. These recommendations are intended to provide guidance for safe work practices and a suitable level of quality control without detailed work instructions. It is the responsibility of the medical physicist to ensure that locally available equipment and procedures are sufficiently sensitive to establish compliance to these recommendations. The recommendations are endorsed by the ROSG, and have been subject to independent expert reviews. For the Australian readers, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with the Tripartite Radiation Oncology Reform Implementation Committee Quality Working Group: Radiation Oncology Practice Standards (2011), and Radiation Oncology Practice Standards Supplementary Guide (2011). This publication presents the recommendations of the ACPSEM ROSG Total Body Electron Irradiation Working Group and has been developed in alignment with other international associations. However, these recommendations should be read in conjunction with relevant national, state or territory legislation and local requirements, which take precedence over the ACPSEM recommendations. It is hoped that the users of this and other ACPSEM recommendations will contribute to the development of future versions through the Radiation Oncology Specialty Group of the ACPSEM. This document serves as a guideline for calibration and quality assurance of equipment used for TBE in Australasia.

  15. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, David J., E-mail: davideaton@nhs.net [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Warry, Alison J. [Department of Radiotherapy Physics, University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H. [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources.

  16. Benefits of online in vivo dosimetry for single-fraction total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, David J.; Warry, Alison J.; Trimble, Rachel E.; Vilarino-Varela, Maria J.; Collis, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a patient test dose before single-fraction total body irradiation (TBI) allows review of in vivo dosimetry and modification of the main treatment setup. However, use of computed tomography (CT) planning and online in vivo dosimetry may reduce the need for this additional step. Patients were treated using a supine CT-planned extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) technique with lead compensators and bolus. In vivo dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and diodes at 10 representative anatomical locations, for both a 0.1-Gy test dose and the treatment dose. In total, 28 patients were treated between April 2007 and July 2013, with changes made in 10 cases (36%) following test dose results. Overall, 98.1% of measured in vivo treatment doses were within 10% of the prescribed dose, compared with 97.0% of test dose readings. Changes made following the test dose could have been applied during the single-fraction treatment itself, assuming that the dose was delivered in subportions and online in vivo dosimetry was available for all clinically important anatomical sites. This alleviates the need for a test dose, saving considerable time and resources

  17. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Oncology Service); Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F. (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Department of Haematology); Raymondi, Carlo (University and Hospital, Policlinico, Perugia (Italy). Radiation Physics Service)

    1991-10-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab.

  18. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation after hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Paolo; Aristei, Cynthia; Checcaglini, Franco; Maranzano, Ernesto; Panizza, B.M.; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Aversa, Franco; Martelli, M.F.; Raymondi, Carlo

    1991-01-01

    From July 1985 to December 1989, 72 evaluable patients aged 6-51 (median age 27) suffering from hematological malignancies received allo-geneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) depleted of T-lymphocytes to reduce risks of graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD); 57 were matched and 15 mis-matched. Three different conditioning regiments were used in an effort to enhance cytoreduction without increase extramedullary toxicity. Mis-matched patients were treated with more immunosuppressive regimens. Total body irradiation (TBI) was given in 3 doses/day, 5 h apart over 4 days for a total of 12 fractions. The dose to the lungs was 14.4, 15.6 and 9 Gy according to the conditioning regimen. The incidence of inter-stitial pneumonia (IP) was 12.3 percent in matched and 46.7 in mis-matched patients. The results seem to indicate that lung toxicity is correlated with the intensity of the conditioning regimen, the stage of disease and, in mismatched patients, with the degree of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) disparity and the poor post-BMT reconstitution, rather than the radiotherapy dose delivered to the lungs. On the contrary, the hyperfractionated scheme adopted, the absence of GvHD and, perhaps, the post-TBI administration of cyclophosphamide all seem to have contributed to the low incidence of IP in the matched patients. (author). 30 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Linac-based total body irradiation (TBI) with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B.; Durmus, I. F.; Okumus, A.; Uzel, O. E.

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate dose distribution of Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning tecnique using Versa HD® lineer accelerator to deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) on the coach. Eight TBI patient's Treatment Planning System (TPS) were performed with dual arc VMAT for each patient. The VMAT-TBI consisted of three isocentres and three dual overlapping arcs. The prescribed dose was 12 Gy. Mean dose to lung and kidney were restricted less than 10 Gy and max. dose to lens were restricted less than 6 Gy. The plans were verified using 2D array and ion chamber. The comparison between calculation and measurement were made by γ-index analysis and absolute dose. An average total delivery time was determined 923±34 seconds and an average MU was determined 2614±228 MUs for dual arc VMAT. Mean dose to lungs was 9.7±0.2 Gy, mean dose to kidneys was 8.8±0.3 Gy, max. dose to lens was 5.5±0.3 Gy and max. dose was 14.6±0.3 Gy, HI of PTV was 1.13±0.2, mean dose to PTV was 12.6±1.5 Gy and mean γ-index pass rate was %97.1±1.9. The results show that the tecnique for TBI using VMAT on the treatment coach is feasible.

  20. Total body irradiation in intensive treatment necessitating bone marrow graft, of malignant hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, R.; Van Houtte, P.; Piron, A.; Debusscher, L.; Strijckmans, P.

    1990-01-01

    From 1980 to 1988, 65 consecutive patients were treated with a program of intensive chemotherapy and total body irradiation (TBI) for malignant hematological diseases at the Institut Jules-Bordet. Results were analyzed according to different prognostic factors as well as to the radiation technique; 3 different schedules were used: 3 fractions of 2.66 Gy given in one day at 3-h intervals, 6 daily fractions of 2 Gy in 6 days and 7 fractions of 2.25 Gy in 8 days. The second radiation schedule appears to give the best results as relapses were higher with the 1-day program and there was an increase in later effects and early deaths with 7 fractions of 2.25 Gy. Nevertheless, the results indicate that after administration of 5 or 6 times 2 Gy TBI, there might be possible benefit in treating certain parts of the body by radiation, those in particular that could be sanctuary sites for malignant cells from chemotherapy. The authors propose a simple and easy way of uniformizing the radiation schedule to carry out a multicentric trial [fr

  1. Total body irradiation therapy for thymectomized myasthenic patients and immunological evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kurihara, Teruyuki (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan))

    1983-06-01

    Three patients with intractable myasthenia gravis (MG) were treated with total body irradiation (TBI). All the three patients had been unstable after extended thymectomy and poorly responding to prednisolone therapy. Radiation therapy consisted of 10 doses of 10 rads/day given over five weeks. After the radiation therapy the three patients improved clinically, and an objective parameter, area of M-waves also improved. No significant side effects were noted. TBI therapy can be considered as a safe method to induce selective reduction of circulating lymphocytes. This was indeed achieved, as evidenced by a drop of the lymphocyte counts to the levels of 20-40 % of the pretreatment level. The effects were persistent over twelve weeks. Early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes were recognized. The levels of T..gamma.. cells were low before TBI therapy, increasing gradually during TBI therapy and returned to normal range after twelve weeks. Serum anti-AChR antibody titers decreased in all the cases, but it was impossible to determine whether the decrement was due to the therapy or natural course after thymectomy. Two of our three cases had a significant percentage decrement of the titers after TBI therapy. We suggest that TBI therapy is a safe method of immunosupperssive treatment for the myasthenic patients after thymectomy.

  2. Total body irradiation therapy for thymectomized myasthenic patients and immunological evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kurihara, Teruyuki

    1983-01-01

    Three patients with intractable myasthenia gravis (MG) were treated with total body irradiation (TBI). All the three patients had been unstable after extended thymectomy and poorly responding to prednisolone therapy. Radiation therapy consisted of 10 doses of 10 rads/day given over five weeks. After the radiation therapy the three patients improved clinically, and an objective parameter, area of M-waves also improved. No significant side effects were noted. TBI therapy can be considered as a safe method to induce selective reduction of circulating lymphocytes. This was indeed achieved, as evidenced by a drop of the lymphocyte counts to the levels of 20-40 % of the pretreatment level. The effects were persistent over twelve weeks. Early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes were recognized. The levels of Tγ cells were low before TBI therapy, increasing gradually during TBI therapy and returned to normal range after twelve weeks. Serum anti-AChR antibody titers decreased in all the cases, but it was impossible to determine whether the decrement was due to the therapy or natural course after thymectomy. Tow of our three cases had a significant percentage decrement of the titers after TBI therapy. We suggest that TBI therapy is a safe method of immunosupperssive treatment for the myasthenic patients after thymectomy. (author)

  3. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.

  4. Marrow transplantation for leukemia following fractionated total body irradiation. A comparative trial of methotrexate and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irle, C.; Deeg, H.J.; Buckner, C.D.; Swedish Hospital Medical Center, Seattle, WA; Veterans Administration Hospital, Seattle, WA; Washington Univ., Seattle

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-six patients, 30-47 yr of age, with leukemia in relapse received allogeneic marrow transplants from HLA-identical siblings. All patients were treated with cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) and 7 daily fractions of 2.25 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) for seven consecutive days. Nine patients (16%) are currently alive, free of disease, 324-845 days from transplantation. Actuarial relapse and survival rates at 2 yr were 56% and 9.5% respectively. These data were not remarkably different from those in previous studies using 10 Gy of TBI administered as a single dose. Thirty patients were randomized to receive methotrexate (MTX) and 26 to receive cyclosporine (CSP) as postgrafting prophylaxis for acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Probability of developing significant acute GVHD by day 100 post-transplant was 71% for patients in the MTX group and 45% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Probability of relapse was 37% for patients in the MTX group and 70% for patients in the CSP group (p<0.05). Transplant-related deaths were more frequent in the MTX group and leukemic deaths more frequent in the CSP group although this may have been related to an uneven distribution of high-risk patients. Long term disease-free survival was comparable. (author)

  5. Analysis of Surface Dose Refer to Distance between Beam Spoiler and Patient in Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Ji Min; Shin, Eun Hyuk; Song, Ki Won; Park, Young Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation is used to kill the total malignant cell and for immunosuppression component of preparatory regimens for bone-marrow restitution of patients. Beam spoiler is used to increase the dose to the superficial tissues. This paper finds the property of the distance between beam spoiler and patient. Set-up conditions are 6 MV-Xray, 300 MU, SAD = 400 cm, field size = 40 x 40 cm 2 . The parallel plate chamber located in surface, midpoint and exit of solid water phantom. The surface dose is measured while the distance between beam spoiler and patient is altered. Because it should be found proper distance. The solid water phantom is fixer and beam spoiler is moving. Central dose of phantom is 10.7 cGy and exit dose is 6.7 cGy. In case of distance of 50 cm to 60 cm between beam spoiler and solid water phantom, incidence dose is 14.58-14.92 cGy. Therefore, The surface dose was measured 99.4-101% with got near most to the prescription dose. In clinical case, distance between beam spoiler and patient affect surface dose. If once 50-60 cm of distance between beam spoiler and patient, surface dose of patient got near prescription dose. It would be taken distance between beam spoiler and patient into account in clinical therapy.

  6. Total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation: the influence of fractionation and delay of marrow infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichter, A.S.; Tracy, D.; Lam, W.C.; Order, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide is being employed increasingly in the therapy of end stage leukemia. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) represents a major acute toxicity after allogeneic transplantation. A more rapid reconstitution of lymphoid organs and bone marrow post transplant may result in increased immune competence and hence fewer opportunistic pulmonary infections and IP. By delaying the infusion of marrow to 72 hr after TBI (1250 rad at 7.5 rad/min) instead of the customary 24 hr, we can demonstrate an increase in initial repopulation of thymus, spleen and bone marrow, with syngeneic transplants in Lewis rats. Interstitial pneumonitis may also be caused, in part, by the pulmonary toxicity of large single exposures of TBI. Clinical and laboratory data suggest that fractionated TBI may be less toxic to the lung. When fractionated TBI (625 rad x 2, 7.5 rad/min) is compared to single dose TBI (1250 rad, 7.5 rad/min), and increased initial repopulation of lymphoid organs is observed when fractionated therapy is employed. Delay in marrow infusion and fractionation of TBI exposure may have clinical advantages in patients who receive BMT

  7. Biologically effective dose in total-body irradiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Heijenbrok-Kal, M.H.; Struikmans, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Total-body irradiation (TBI) is an important part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with hematologic malignancies. The results after treatment with various TBI regimes were compared, and dose-effect relationships for the endpoints relapse incidence, disease-free survival, treatment-related mortality, and overall survival were derived. The aim was to define requirements for an optimal treatment schedule with respect to leukemic cell kill and late normal-tissue morbidity. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed. Three randomized studies, four studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens, and nine reports with results of one specific TBI regimen were identified. Biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. The results of the randomized studies and the studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens were pooled, and the pooled relative risk (RR) was calculated for the treatments with high BED values versus treatments with a low BED. BED-effect relationships were obtained. Results: RRs for the high BED treatments were significantly lower for relapse incidence, not significantly different for disease-free survival and treatment-related mortality, and significantly higher for overall survival. BED-effect relationships indicate a decrease in relapse incidence and treatment-related mortality and an increase in disease-free and overall survival with higher BED values. Conclusion: 'More dose is better', provided that a TBI setting is used limiting the BEDs of lungs, kidneys, and eye lenses. (orig.)

  8. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI

  9. In pediatric leukemia, dose evaluation according to the type of compensators in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Busan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are the pre-treatment method of a stem cell transplantations of the childhood leukemia. in this study, we evaluate the Quantitative human body dose prior to the treatment. The MCNPX simulation program evaluated by changing the material of the tissue compensators with imitation material of pediatric exposure in a virtual space. As a result, first, the average skin dose with the material of the tissue compensators of Plexiglass tissue compensators is 74.60 mGy/min, Al is 73.96 mGy/min, Cu is 72.26 mGy/min and Pb 67.90 mGy/min respectively. Second, regardless of the tissue compensators material that organ dose were thyroid, gentile, digestive system, brain, lungs, kidneys higher in order. Finally, the ideal distance between body compensator and the patient were 50 cm aparting each other. In conclusion, tissue compensators Al, Cu, Pb are able to replace of the currently used in Plexiglass materials.

  10. Neurobehavioral toxicity of total body irradiation: a follow-up in long-term survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peper, Martin; Steinvorth, Sarah; Schraube, Peter; Fruehauf, Stefan; Haas, Rainer; Kimmig, Bernhard N.; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a routine treatment of hematological malignancy. A retrospective and a prospective group study of long-term cerebral side effects was performed, with a special emphasis on neurobehavioral toxicity effects. Methods and Materials: Twenty disease-free patients treated with hyperfractionated TBI (14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy, 4 days), 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and autologous BMT (mean age 38 years, range 17-52 years; age at TBI 35 years, 16-50 years; follow-up time 32 months, 9-65 months) participated in a neuropsychological, neuroradiological, and neurological examination. Data were compared to 14 patients who were investigated prior to TBI. Eleven patients with renal insufficiencies matched for sex and age (38 years, 20-52 years) served as controls. In a longitudinal approach, neuropsychological follow-up data were assessed in 12 long-term survivors (45 years, 23-59 years; follow-up time 8.8 years, 7-10.8 years; time since diagnosis 10.1 years, 7.5-14.2 years). Results: No evidence of neurological deficits was found in post-TBI patients except one case of peripheral movement disorder of unknown origin. Some patients showed moderate brain atrophy. Neuropsychological assessment showed a subtle reduction of memory performance of about one standard deviation. Cognitive decline in individual patients appeared to be associated with pretreatment (brain irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate). Ten-years post disease onset, survivors without pretreatment showed behavioral improvement up to the premorbid level. Conclusion: The incidence of long-term neurobehavioral toxicity was very low for the present TBI/BMT regimen

  11. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  12. Time- and radiation-dose dependent changes in the plasma proteome after total body irradiation of non-human primates: Implications for biomarker selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D Byrum

    Full Text Available Acute radiation syndrome (ARS is a complex multi-organ disease resulting from total body exposure to high doses of radiation. Individuals can be exposed to total body irradiation (TBI in a number of ways, including terrorist radiological weapons or nuclear accidents. In order to determine whether an individual has been exposed to high doses of radiation and needs countermeasure treatment, robust biomarkers are needed to estimate radiation exposure from biospecimens such as blood or urine. In order to identity such candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure, high-resolution proteomics was used to analyze plasma from non-human primates following whole body irradiation (Co-60 at 6.7 Gy and 7.4 Gy with a twelve day observation period. A total of 663 proteins were evaluated from the plasma proteome analysis. A panel of plasma proteins with characteristic time- and dose-dependent changes was identified. In addition to the plasma proteomics study reported here, we recently identified candidate biomarkers using urine from these same non-human primates. From the proteomic analysis of both plasma and urine, we identified ten overlapping proteins that significantly differentiate both time and dose variables. These shared plasma and urine proteins represent optimal candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure.

  13. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shuji [Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Shen, Robert K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Inwards, Carrie Y. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  14. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shuji; Shen, Robert K.; Laack, Nadia N.; Inwards, Carrie Y.; Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  15. Stock selection of high-dose-irradiation-resistant materials for filter press under high-dose irradiation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Minami, Mamoru; Hara, Kouji; Yamashita, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    In a volume reduction process for the decontamination of contained soil, the performance degradation of a filter press is expected owing to material deterioration under high-dose irradiation. Eleven-stock selection of candidate materials including polymers, fibers and rubbers for the filter press was conducted to achieve a high performance of volume reduction of contaminated soil and the following results were derived. Crude rubber and nylon were selected as prime candidates for packing, diaphragm and filter plate materials. Polyethylene was also selected as a prime candidate for the filter cloth material. (author)

  16. Radiobiological aspects of continuous low dose-rate irradiation and fractionated high dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turesson, I.

    1990-01-01

    The biological effects of continuous low dose-rate irradiation and fractionated high dose-rate irradiation in interstitial and intracavitary radiotherapy and total body irradiation are discussed in terms of dose-rate fractionation sensitivity for various tissues. A scaling between dose-rate and fraction size was established for acute and late normal-tissue effects which can serve as a guideline for local treatment in the range of dose rates between 0.02 and 0.005 Gy/min and fraction sizes between 8.5 and 2.5 Gy. This is valid provided cell-cycle progression and proliferation can be ignored. Assuming that the acute and late tissue responses are characterized by α/β values of about 10 and 3 Gy and a mono-exponential repair half-time of about 3 h, the same total doses given with either of the two methods are approximately equivalent. The equivalence for acute and late non-hemopoietic normal tissue damage is 0.02 Gy/min and 8.5 Gy per fraction; 0.01 Gy/min and 5.5 Gy per fraction; and 0.005 Gy/min and 2.5Gy per fraction. A very low dose rate, below 0.005 Gy/min, is thus necessary to simulate high dose-rate radiotherapy with fraction sizes of about 2Gy. The scaling factor is, however, dependent on the repair half-time of the tissue. A review of published data on dose-rate effects for normal tissue response showed a significantly stronger dose-rate dependence for late than for acute effects below 0.02 Gy/min. There was no significant difference in dose-rate dependence between various acute non-hemopoietic effects or between various late effects. The consistent dose-rate dependence, which justifies the use of a general scaling factor between fraction size and dose rate, contrasts with the wide range of values for repair half-time calculated for various normal-tissue effects. This indicates that the model currently used for repair kinetics is not satisfactory. There are also few experimental data in the clinical dose-rate range, below 0.02 Gy/min. It is therefore

  17. One hundred patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and allogeneic marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.D.; Buckner, C.D.; Banaji, M.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred patients, 54 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and 46 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), considered to be in the end stages of their disease, after combination chemotherapy were treated by marrow transplantation. All patients were given a marrow graft from an HLA-identical sibling after receiving 1000-rad total body irradiation (TBI). One group of 43 patients was given cyclophosphamide (CY), 60 mg/kg on each of 2 days, 5 and 4 days before TBI. In a second group of 31 patients, additional chemotherapy was given before CY and TBI. In a third group of 19 patients, BCNU was given before CY and TBI. A fourth group of 7 patients received other chemotherapy regimens before TBI. Six patients died 3 to 17 days after marrow infusion without evidence of engraftment. Ninety-four patients were engrafted rejected and only one patient rejected the graft. Thirteen patients are alive with a marrow graft, on no maintenance antileukemic therapy, and without recurrent leukemia 1--4 1 / 2 yr after transplantation. Three have chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The relapse rate appeared to be relatively constant over the first 2 yr and was extremely low after that time. Neither survival nor leukemic relapse appeared to be influenced by the type of leukemia nor by the preparative chemotherapy regimen given before TBI. Patients in fair clinical condition at the time of transplantation showed significantly longer survival times than patients in poor condition (p = 0.001). This observation, coupled with the observation that some patients may be cured of their disease, indicates that marrow transplantation should now be undertaken earlier in the management of patients with acute leukemia who have an HLA-matched sibling marrow donor

  18. In vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation: five‐year results and technique comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warry, Alison J.; Eaton, David J.; Collis, Christopher H.; Rosenberg, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish if the new CT‐based total body irradiation (TBI) planning techniques used at University College London Hospital (UCLH) and Royal Free Hospital (RFH) are comparable to the previous technique at the Middlesex Hospital (MXH) by analyzing predicted and measured diode results. TBI aims to deliver a homogeneous dose to the entire body, typically using extended SSD fields with beam modulation to limit doses to organs at risk. In vivo dosimetry is used to verify the accuracy of delivered doses. In 2005, when the Middlesex Hospital was decommissioned and merged with UCLH, both UCLH and the RFH introduced updated CT‐planned TBI techniques, based on the old MXH technique. More CT slices and in vivo measurement points were used by both; UCLH introduced a beam modulation technique using MLC segments, while RFH updated to a combination of lead compensators and bolus. Semiconductor diodes were used to measure entrance and exit doses in several anatomical locations along the entire body. Diode results from both centers for over five years of treatments were analyzed and compared to the previous MXH technique for accuracy and precision of delivered doses. The most stable location was the field center with standard deviations of 4.1% (MXH), 3.7% (UCLH), and 1.7% (RFH). The least stable position was the ankles. Mean variation with fraction number was within 1.5% for all three techniques. In vivo dosimetry can be used to verify complex modulated CT‐planned TBI, and demonstrate improvements and limitations in techniques. The results show that the new UCLH technique is no worse than the previous MXH one and comparable to the current RFH technique. PACS numbers: 87.55.Qr, 87.56.N‐ PMID:25207423

  19. Hyperfractionated total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation. Results in seventy leukemia patients with allogeneic transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, B.; Chu, F.C.H.; Dinsmore, R.

    1983-01-01

    From May, 1979 to March, 1981, 76 leukemia patients were prepared for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with a new hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) regimen (1320 cGy in 11 fractions, 3x/day), followed by cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, for two days. Partial lung shielding was done on each treatment, with supplemental electron beam treatments of the chest wall to compensate, and of the testes, a sanctuary site. This regimen was initiated to potentially reduce fatal interstitial pneumonitis as well as decrease leukemic relapse. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) patients is 63%, while relapse-free survival at 1 year is 53%. On the other hand, for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patients, there is no significant difference between relapse or remission patients with regard to overall survival or relapse-free survival, when relapse is defined as > 5% blasts in the marrow at the time of cytoreduction. Overall actuarial survival at 1 year for ALL is 61% and relapse-free survival is 45% at 1 year. Fatal interstitial pneumonitis has dropped to 18% compared with 50% in our previous single-dose TBI regimen (1000 cGy), in which the same doses of cyclophosphamide were given prior to TBI. In conclusion, not only has fatal interstitial pneumonitis been reduced by hyperfractionation and partial lung blocking, but there may be a survival advantage in ALL patients in relapse, who have a survival equal to that of remission patients. This may indicate a greater cell kill with the higher dose (1320 cGy) attained with this regimen, in these patients with a higher leukemic cell burden

  20. Cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation degree of visual impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten P.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Methods and Materials: The data from 93 patients who received TBI in 1 or 2 fractions as a part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation were analyzed with respect to the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation. The probability to develop severe visual impairment (SVI) was determined for all patients, and the degree of visual impairment was assessed for 56 patients with stabilized cataract, using three categories: no, mild, or severe. Results: For all 93 patients, the probability of developing a cataract causing SVI was 0.44. For allogeneic patients, it was 0.33 without and 0.71 with steroid treatment (p<0.001). All SVI-free probability curves reached a plateau distinct from the cataract-free curves. Apparently, cataracts developing late in the follow-up period rarely cause SVI. Of the patients with stabilized cataract, 32% had no visual impairment, 16% had mild, and 52% severe impairment. No or mild visual impairment was present in 61% of all patients with stable cataract and no steroid treatment compared with only 13% of the patients treated with steroids (p=0.035). Conclusion: SVI occurs in only some of the patients (52%) with stable cataract after TBI for bone marrow transplantation in 1 or 2 fractions. Steroid treatment markedly increases the probability of developing visual problems as result of a cataract after TBI

  1. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: Implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Janelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these ''sequential'' techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Methods: Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. Results: The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than ±10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times

  2. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A

    2010-11-01

    Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these "sequential" techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than +/- 10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times. However, the EUD was

  3. Cataract-free interval and severity of cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation: influence of treatment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine prospectively the cataract-free interval (latency time) after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and to assess accurately the final severity of the cataract. Methods and Materials: Ninety-three of the patients who received TBI as a part of their conditioning regimen for BMT between 1982 and 1995 were followed with respect to cataract formation. Included were only patients who had a follow-up period of at least 23 months. TBI was applied in one fraction of 8 Gy or two fractions of 5 or 6 Gy. Cataract-free period was assessed and in 56 patients, who could be followed until stabilization of the cataract had occurred, final severity of the cataract was determined using a classification system. With respect to final severity, two groups were analyzed: subclinical low-grade cataract and high-grade cataract. Cataract-free period and final severity were determined with respect to type of transplantation, TBI dose, and posttransplant variables such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and steroid treatment. Results: Cataract incidence of the analyzed patients was 89%. Median time to develop a cataract was 58 months for autologous transplanted patients. For allogeneic transplanted patients treated or not treated with steroids, median times were 33 and 46 months, respectively. Final severity was not significantly different for autologous or allogeneic patients. In allogeneic patients, however, final severity was significantly different for patients who had or had not been treated with steroids for GVHD: 93% versus 35% high-grade cataract, respectively. Final severity was also different for patients receiving 1 x 8 or 2 x 5 Gy TBI, from patients receiving 2 x 6 Gy as conditioning therapy: 33% versus 79% high-grade cataract, respectively. The group of patients receiving 2 x 6 Gy comprised, however, more patients with steroid treatment for GVHD. So the high percentage of high-grade cataract in the 2 x 6 Gy group might also

  4. Effect of radiation dose rate and cyclophosphamide on pulmonary toxicity after total body irradiation in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, Akmal; Nielsen, Ole S.; El-Badawy, Samy; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) is still a major complication after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). It is difficult to determine the exact role of radiation in this multifactorial complication, especially because most of the experimental work on lung damage was done using localized lung irradiation and not TBI. We have thus tested the effect of radiation dose rate and combining cyclophosphamide (CTX) with single fraction TBI on lung damage in a mouse model for BMT. Methods and Materials: TBI was given as a single fraction at a high dose rate (HDR, 0.71 Gy/min) or a low dose rate (LDR, 0.08 Gy/min). CTX (250 mg/kg) was given 24 h before TBI. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed 4-6 h after the last treatment. Lung damage was assessed using ventilation rate (VR) and lethality between 28 and 180 days (LD (50(28))-180 ). Results: The LD 50 for lung damage, ± standard error (SE), increased from 12.0 (± 0.2) Gy using single fraction HDR to 15.8 (± 0.6) Gy using LDR. Adding CTX shifted the dose-response curves towards lower doses. The LD 50 values for the combined treatment were 5.3 (± 0.2) and 3.5 (± 0.2) Gy for HDR and LDR, respectively. This indicates that the combined effect of CTX and LDR was more toxic than that of combined CTX and HDR. Lung damage evaluated by VR demonstrated two waves of VR increase. The first wave of VR increase occurred after 6 weeks using TBI only and after 3 weeks in the combined CTX-TBI treatment, irrespective of total dose or dose rate. The second wave of VR elevation resembled the IP that follows localized thoracic irradiation in its time of occurrence. Conclusions: Lung damage following TBI could be spared using LDR. However, CTX markedly enhances TBI-induced lung damage. The combination of CTX and LDR is more toxic to the lungs than combining CTX and HDR

  5. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Veyret, J.; Agay, D.; Van Uye, A.; Caterini, R.; Herodin, F.; Mathieu, J.; Chancerelle, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  6. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placek, V. E-mail: pla@ujv.cz; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M

    2004-10-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO{sub x}-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  7. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placek, V.; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M.

    2004-01-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x -containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested

  8. External-beam boost prior to total-body irradiation in relapsed NHL transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Jedidiah M; Neuberg, Donna; Freedman, Arnold S; Tarbell, Nancy J; Nadler, Lee M; Mauch, Peter

    1995-07-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the impact of an external beam boost (EBB) on the outcome, relapse pattern and normal tissue toxicities of patients undergoing total-body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for relapsed NHL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 1994, 299 patients at our institution underwent BMT for relapsed NHL. Patients underwent induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by conditioning with cyclophosphamide and 12 Gy TBI delivered in 6 fractions over 3 days. A total of 77 patients had persistent gross disease, defined as 2 cm or greater, after induction CT and received an EBB prior to BMT (EBB cohort). The median EBB dose was 28.8 Gy (range, 5-63), the median field size was 13 cm{sup 2} (range, 5-29.4) and the median time from EBB to BMT was 3 weeks (range, 1-20). A total of 222 patients were free of measurable disease or had disease measuring <2cm after CT and did not receive EBB (no-EBB cohort). To assess normal tissue toxicity, patients' simulation films and/or treatment records were reviewed for all 77 patients treated with local EBB and estimates were made of the percentage lung, heart and kidney in the radiation field. RESULTS: A total of 79 of 222 patients (36%) in the no-EBB cohort have relapsed; 33 of 77 patients (43%) in the EBB cohort have relapsed (p=0.28, by Fisher exact test). Median time to relapse after BMT was 54 months for the no-EBB cohort and 38 months for the EBB cohort (p=0.26, by log-rank test). The 3-year actuarial freedom from relapse (deaths in remission censored) was 59% for the no-EBB cohort (90% CI: 52-66%) and 51% for the EBB cohort (90% CI: 40-62%). Data on site of relapse was available for 101 of the 112 relapses (75 no-EBB, 26 EBB). For the no-EBB cohort 33 of 75 relapses (44%) were in sites of prior nodal disease only. For the EBB cohort, 12 of 26 relapses (46%) were in sites of prior nodal disease only, of these, only 6 (23%) were within the EBB treatment field. A total of 26 patients had thoracic

  9. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in adults after fractionated body irradiation and high dose cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinch, L.; Evensen, S.A.; Albrechtsen, D.; Egeland, T.; Solheim, B.G.; Rollag, H.; Naalsund, A.; Jacobsen, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present short and long-term results of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after hyper-fractionated total body irradiation and high dose cyclophosphamide in ten patients treated for leukaemia during th period 1985-89. Three patients died from complications connected to the transplantation, while seven are living free from leukaemia 18 to 59 months after transplantation. Two patients need treatment for chronic graft versus host disease. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is expensive and risky. Close cooperation between clinicians and laboratory specialists is essential. The treatment increases long term survival and probably cures certain patients with leukaemia. Some of the patients will need treatment for chronic graft versus host disease and other late sequelae. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver; Martus, Peter; Arnold, Renate

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  11. Toxicities of total-body irradiation for pediatric bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Rachel H.; Wong, Garrett B.; Kramer, Joel H.; Wara, Diane W.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Crittenden, Mary R.; Swift, Patrick S.; Cowan, Morton J.; Wara, William M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the acute and late effects, including cognitive function, of total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy for bone marrow transplant (BMT) in children with immunodeficiency or hematologic disorders. Methods and Materials: At UCSF, 15 children with immunodeficiency disorders and 58 children with leukemia received chemoradiotherapy between July 1982 and November 1993 and were evaluated for toxicity. Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) received 7 Gy TBI while leukemia patients received 12 Gy TBI. Results: Eight immunodeficient patients (53%) are alive at 4 months to 11 years posttransplant. Acute toxicity was limited and treatment well tolerated. Most patients developed mild nausea and vomiting, skin rash, or erythema. Transient fever/chills, oral mucositis, and alopecia were noted in approximately 50% of patients. Seventy-three percent of patients demonstrated acute liver dysfunction, but only four (27%) developed veno-occlusive disease. All children had decreased growth velocity but normal growth hormone levels. Other endocrinologic evaluations including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and thyroid hormones were normal. Only one evaluable girl had delayed puberty with late onset of secondary sexual characteristics. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated an intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction between the baseline and 1 year post-BMT, with some recovery at 3 years. Only one patient developed a clinically significant cataract. Thirteen percent of patients had chronic interstitial lung disease. Four children developed exostosis. Only 1 of the 15 children developed a second malignancy (acute myelogenous leukemia) at age 5, 51 months posttransplant for SCID. For patients with leukemia, similar toxicities were observed. Twenty-nine percent disease-free survival was noted with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years. Twenty-two percent had chronic interstitial lung disease and two patients were diagnosed with cataracts

  12. Total body irradiation with an arc and a gravity-oriented compensator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, C.-S.; Fontenla, Doracy P.; Mullokandov, Edward; Kapulsky, Alex; Lo, Y.-C.; Lo, C.-J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To deliver uniform dose distributions for total-body irradiation (TBI) with an arc field and a gravity-oriented compensator. This technique allows the patient to be treated lying on the floor in a small treatment room. Methods and Materials: Through the sweeping motion of the gantry, a continuous arc field can deliver a large field to a patient lying on the floor. The dose profile, however, would not be uniform if no compensator were used, due to the effects of inverse square variation of beam intensity with distance as well as the slanted depth in patient. To solve this problem, a gravity-oriented compensator made of cerrobend alloy was designed. This compensator has a cross-section of an inverted isosceles triangle, with the apex always pointing downward, due to gravity. By properly selecting the thickness of the compensator, the width of the base, and the distance between the pivots to the base, the difference in the path length through the compensator can be made just right to compensate the effects of inverse-square and slanted depth, thus producing a uniform dose profile. Results: Arc fields with a gravity-oriented compensator were used for 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photon beams. The arc field can cover a patient with a height up to 180 cm. The field width was chosen from 32 to 40 cm at the machine isocenter. The optimal thickness of the compensator was found to be 2.5 cm, and its base was 25 cm wide. The distance from the pivot points to the flat surface of the compensator proximal to the beam ranges from 13 to 14 cm for different beam energies. The dose uniformity at a depth of 10 cm is within ±5% for all beam energies used in this study. Conclusion: Highly uniform dose profiles for TBI treatments can be delivered with an arc and a gravity-oriented compensator. The proposed technique is simple and versatile. A single compensator can be used for all energies, because the amount of compensation can be adjusted by changing the distance to the pivot and

  13. Differential effect of L3T4+ cells on recovery from total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantel, K.; Nakeff, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have examined the importance of L3T4+ (murine equivalent to CD4+) cells for hematopoietic regulation in vivo in unperturbed mice and mice recovering from total-body irradiation (TBI) using a cytotoxic monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised with the GK 1.5 hybridoma. Ablating L3T4+ cells in normal (unperturbed) B6D2F1 mice substantially decreased the S-phase fraction (determined by in vivo hydroxyurea suicide) of erythroid progenitor cells (erythroid colony-forming units, CFU-E) as compared to the pretreatment level (10% +/- 14.1% [day 3 following depletion] vs 79.8% +/- 15.9%, respectively) with a corresponding decrease in the marrow content of CFU-E at this time to approximately 1% of the pretreatment value. Although the S-phase fraction of CFU-GM was decreased to 2.2% +/- 3.1% 3 days after L3T4+ cell ablation from the 21.3% +/- 8.3% pretreatment value, CFU-GM cellularity showed little change over the 3 days following anti-L3T4 treatment. Anti-L3T4 MoAb treatment had little or no effect on either the S-phase fraction or the marrow content of hematopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming units, CFU-S) committed to myeloerythroid differentiation. Ablating L3T4+ cells prior to a single dose of 2 Gy TBI resulted in significantly reduced marrow contents of CFU-S on day 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) on day 6 following TBI, with little or no effect on the corresponding recovery of CFU-E. The present findings provide the first in vivo evidence that L3T4+ cells are involved in: (1) maintaining the proliferative activity of CFU-E and CFU-GM in unperturbed mice and (2) supporting the restoration of CFU-S and CFU-GM following TBI-induced myelosuppression

  14. Sixteen adult patients with acute leukemia treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and allogeneic marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodera, Yoshihisa; Morishima, Yasuo; Morishita, Yoshihisa [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1984-12-01

    Since 1976, 16 adult patients with acute leukemia have been treated by chemotherapy, total body irradiation (TBI) and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in the medical school hospital and the satellite hospitals of Nagoya University. The first group of 10 patients were given marrow grafts at the time of leukemic relapse and the second group of six patients were given the grafts in the period of remission of their disease. For the first group (ALL/ANLL 2:8, age (median) 33, M/F 8:2), HLA-identical donor cells (25 x 10/sup 7//kg(median)) were infused after the patients were conditioned with NSC D 245382 (ACNU) or daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide (CY) and a single shot of 1000 rad of TBI. For the second group (ALL/ANLL 4:2, age (median) 20, M/F 5:1), HLA-identical donor cells (22 x 10/sup 7//kg(median)) were infused after the patients were conditioned with CY and fractionated (250 rad x 4) TBI. All the patients were isolated in a laminar air flow room (LAF) after gut and skin decontamination. Engraftment of donor cells was confirmed in 15 out of the 16 patients. Febrile periods in LAF and the days required for platelet transfusion were prolonged in the first group. All the patients in the first group died within 12-214 days after BMT because of interstitial pneumonitis (7 patients) or bacterial infection (3 patients). On the other hand, five out of six patients in the second group are alive 84-540 days after BMT. For the surviving patients, the complications of chronic graft versus host disease, viral infections, tuberculosis, hepatitis, hemorrhagic cystitis and recurrence of leukemia are now the problems. It can be stated that the patient's clinical condition at the time of BMT is one of the most essential factors for the success of BMT although the effects of other variables, such as a change in the conditioning regimens or the supportive care, must also be carefully analyzed.

  15. Booster irradiation to the spleen following total body irradiation. A new immunosuppressive approach for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidot, T.; Singer, T.S.; Salomon, O.; Terenzi, A.; Schwartz, E.; Reisner, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Graft rejection presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, after conditioning exactly as for leukemia patients, it was shown that over 99% of the residual host clonable T cells are concentrated in the spleen on day 5 after completion of cytoreduction. We have now corroborated these findings in a mouse model. After 9-Gy total body irradiation (TBI), the total number of Thy-1.2+ cells in the spleen reaches a peak between days 3 and 4 after TBI. The T cell population is composed of both L3T4 (helper) and Lyt-2 (suppressor) T cells, the former being the major subpopulation. Specific booster irradiation to the spleen (5 Gy twice) on days 2 and 4 after TBI greatly enhances production of donor-type chimera after transplantation of T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow. Similar enhancement can be achieved by splenectomy on day 3 or 4 after TBI but not if splenectomy is performed 1 day before TBI or 1 day after TBI, strengthening the hypothesis that, after lethal TBI in mice, the remaining host T cells migrate from the periphery to the spleen. These results suggest that a delayed booster irradiation to the spleen may be beneficial as an additional immunosuppressive agent in the conditioning of leukemia patients, in order to reduce the incidence of bone marrow allograft rejection

  16. Long-term results of total body irradiation in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, Simone; Zich, Alexander; Budach, Volker; Jahn, Ulrich; Neumann, Oliver [Charite University Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Martus, Peter [University Tuebingen, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biostatistics, Tuebingen (Germany); Arnold, Renate [Charite University Medicine, Campus CVK, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this chart review of adult patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with total body irradiation (TBI) was to evaluate early and late toxicity and long-term outcome. A total of 110 adult patients (34 ± 12 years) with ALL underwent TBI (6 fractions of 2 Gy for a total of 12 Gy) as a part of the treatment regimen before transplantation. Treatment-related toxicity, mortality, and hematologic outcome are reported. Mean follow-up was 70 months. The 2- and 5-year leukemia-free survival rates were 78 and 72 %, respectively. In all, 29 % (32/110) patients suffered from medullary recurrence after a median time of 7 months. Gender was the only statistically significant prognostic factor in terms of overall survival in favor of female patients. Treatment-related mortality and overall survival after 2 and 5 years were 16 and 22 %, and 60 and 52.7 %, respectively. The most frequent late reaction wascGVHD of the skin (n = 33, 30 %). In addition, 15.5 % (17/110 patients) suffered pulmonary symptoms, and 6 patients developed lung fibrosis. Eyes were frequently affected by the radiation (31/110 = 28 %); 12 of 110 patients (11 %) presented with symptoms from osteoporosis, 5 of 110 patients (4.5 %) developed hypothyreosis and 2 patients diabetes mellitus. Of the male patients, 11 % reported erectile dysfunction or loss of libido, while 2 of 36 women reported menopausal syndrome at the mean time of 28 months after treatment with requirement for substitution. No women became pregnant after treatment. No acute or late cardiac toxicities were documented in our patients. No secondary malignancies were documented. Although hematologic outcome was in the upper range of that reported in the literature, treatment-related mortality (TRM) and medullary recurrences remain a challenge. Sophisticated radiation techniques allow for decreasing toxicity to certain organs and/or dose escalation to the bone marrow in highly selected patients in order to improve therapeutic

  17. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier

  18. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  19. Fractionated total body irradiation; the gastrointestinal toxicity versus the conditioning effect for bone marrow transplantation with different fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walma, E.P.; Klapwijk, W.M.; Miller, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    In most cases, bone marrow transplantation is preceded by a conditioning regimen employing irradiation and/or cytotoxic drugs. The authors are searching for better fractionation schedules in order to optimize the conditioning regimen prior to transplantation of stem-cell-enriched bone marrow. They have determined damage to the gastrointestinal tract in dogs and mice after total body irradiation in mice and dogs following a number of fractionation schedules, and these results are presented. The schedules were chosen such as to minimize the interval between irradiation and the bone marrow transplantation and to maximize clinical feasibility. (Auth./C.F.)

  20. The role of total body irradiation in preparation for bone marrow transplantation in acute leukaemia. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    From extrapolation obtained from animal studies and radiation accidents, it is assumed that for man the LD 50 (30) will be between 300-500 rads total body irradiation (TBI) and the LD 100 at least 600 rads TBI. A dose of 1000 rads TBI is generally used in man for conditioning for bone marrow transplantation. In acute leukemia, total body irradiation is usually associated with cytoreductive chemotherapy. In Seattle 110 patients underwent bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in relapse. 15 patients became long term survivors. The main cause of failure were GVH, interstitial pneumonitis and leukemic relapse. New attempts are being made to improve the results: (1) better cytoreductive therapy preceding transplantation, (2) bone marrow transplantation during remission of the disease, (3) prevention of interstitial pneumonitis by modifications of the TBI technique

  1. Prospective neurodevelopmental studies of two children treated with total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleita, T.; Tesler, A.; Feig, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Five-year neurodevelopmental studies of two infants with acute leukemia are presented. Both patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation (TBI). Neither patient was treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Their outcome is remarkable for normal development of intelligence, language, perception, and motor coordination. These results suggest that TBI and BMT should be considered in future therapeutic studies of infants with acute leukemia, who are at great risk for failure of conventional therapy

  2. Treatment verification and in vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation using thermoluminescent and semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.F.; Amaral, L.L.; Costa, A.M.; Netto, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the characterization of thermoluminescent and semiconductor detectors and their applications in treatment verification and in vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation (TBI) technique. Dose measurements of TBI treatment simulation performed with thermoluminescent detectors inserted in the holes of a “Rando anthropomorphic phantom” showed agreement with the prescribed dose. For regions of the upper and lower chest where thermoluminescent detectors received higher doses it was recommended the use of compensating dose in clinic. The results of in vivo entrance dose measurements for three patients are presented. The maximum percentual deviation between the measurements and the prescribed dose was 3.6%, which is consistent with the action level recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), i.e., ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system and of a semiconductor dosimetric system for performing treatment verification and in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques demonstrated the value of these methods and the applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments. - Highlights: • Characterization of a semiconductor dosimetric system. • Characterization of a thermoluminescent dosimetric system. • Application of the TLDs for treatment verification in total body irradiation treatments. • Application of semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments. • Implementation of in vivo dosimetry as a part of a quality assurance program in radiotherapy

  3. The nucleic acids as early indicators of the recovery of patients subjected to total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, L.M.; Garcia Lima, O.; Carnot, J.; Cardenas, J.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to use the concentration of nucleic acids as an early indicator for the recovery of individuals exposed to high radiation was valued in 30 patients subjected to a dose of 10 Gy (cobalt 60) in two or three sessions of total body irradiation for bone marrow transplants. The determination of the concentration of the nucleic acids was carried out prior to the irradiation, and later in different periods until the patients discharge. The behaviour of indicate such as alpha amylase serics transaminases, glicemics, alkaline phosphatase and others was also studied

  4. Hematologic status of mice submitted to sublethal total body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Court, L.

    1989-01-01

    The hematologic status of mice exposed to sublethal whole body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation (mainly neutrons) is studied. A slight decrease of the blood cell count is still observed below 1 Gy. The recovery of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors seems to require more time than after pure gamma irradiation [fr

  5. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; McNeill, J.; Karolis, C.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Travis, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD 50 's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  6. High-dose MeV electron irradiation of Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high doses Si+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschieva, S.; Angelov, Ch; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The influence was studied of 22-MeV electron irradiation on Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high-fluence Si+ ions. Our earlier works demonstrated that Si redistribution is observed in Si+-ion-implanted Si-SiO2 structures (after MeV electron irradiation) only in the case when ion implantation is carried out with a higher fluence (1016 cm-2). We focused our attention on the interaction of high-dose MeV electron irradiation (6.0×1016 cm-2) with n-Si-SiO2 structures implanted with Si+ ions (fluence 5.4×1016 cm-2 of the same order magnitude). The redistribution of both oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted Si-SiO2 samples after MeV electron irradiation was studied by Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) spectroscopy in combination with a channeling technique (RBS/C). Our results demonstrated that the redistribution of oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted samples reaches saturation after these high doses of MeV electron irradiation. The transformation of amorphous SiO2 surface into crystalline Si nanostructures (after MeV electron irradiation) was evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon nanocrystals are formed on the SiO2 surface after MeV electron irradiation. The shape and number of the Si nanocrystals on the SiO2 surface depend on the MeV electron irradiation, while their size increases with the dose. The mean Si nanocrystals height is 16-20 nm after irradiation with MeV electrons at the dose of 6.0×1016 cm-2.

  7. The indication and the point at issue in total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yuzo; Nishino, Shigeo.

    1992-01-01

    The role of radiation in the cause of interstitial pneumonitis (IP) was analysed here. Also optimal dose fractionation was discussed about total absorbed lung dose, dose rate and fractionation in spect of IP. After all optimal time schedule was recommended 3, 4 and 6 fraction of ≤ 4 Gy of fraction size using conventional and hyperfractionated irradiation. In the end the present condition and the point at issue in the irradiation of blood for prevention GVHD were discussed. (author)

  8. Monte Carlo efficiency calibration of a neutron generator-based total-body irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R.J.; Ellis, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Many body composition measurement systems are calibrated against a single-sized reference phantom. Prompt-gamma neutron activation (PGNA) provides the only direct measure of total body nitrogen (TBN), an index of the body's lean tissue mass. In PGNA systems, body size influences neutron flux attenuation, induced gamma signal distribution, and counting efficiency. Thus, calibration based on a single-sized phantom could result in inaccurate TBN values. We used Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP-5; Los Alamos National Laboratory) in order to map a system's response to the range of body weights (65-160 kg) and body fat distributions (25-60%) in obese humans. Calibration curves were constructed to derive body-size correction factors relative to a standard reference phantom, providing customized adjustments to account for differences in body habitus of obese adults. The use of MCNP-generated calibration curves should allow for a better estimate of the true changes in lean tissue mass that many occur during intervention programs focused only on weight loss. (author)

  9. Factors modifying the toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) with bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, B.L.; Moulder, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In defined-flora, barrier-maintained rats, radiation nephritis is the principle late toxicity seen after single dose, high dose rate TBI with bone marrow transplant. Shielding the kidneys eliminates this late toxicity. If rats are exposed to a conventional microbiological environment during and after TBI and bone marrow transplant, the principle late toxicity is pneumonitis. Low dose rate TBI gives similar renal toxicity but at doses twice as large. Clinically, TBI and bone marrow transplant is preceded by intensive drug treatment, typically with cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). Pretreatment with a standard cytoxan/ara-C regimen, has no effect on the gastrointestinal toxicity of TBI, but results in a decrease in marrow toxicity. Late renal toxicity still occurs when bone marrow transplants are given, but it is to early to determine whether drug treatment has affected late renal tolerance. Experiments are also underway to determine the effects of fractionated TBI (3, 6 and 9 fractions in 60 hours) on acute tolerance and on late tolerance after bone marrow transplantation

  10. SU-E-T-540: Volumetric Modulated Total Body Irradiation Using a Rotational Lazy Susan-Like Immobilization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X; Hrycushko, B; Lee, H; Lamphier, R; Jiang, S; Abdulrahman, R; Timmerman, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional extended SSD total body irradiation (TBI) techniques can be problematic in terms of patient comfort and/or dose uniformity. This work aims to develop a comfortable TBI technique that achieves a uniform dose distribution to the total body while reducing the dose to organs at risk for complications. Methods: To maximize patient comfort, a lazy Susan-like couch top immobilization system which rotates about a pivot point was developed. During CT simulation, a patient is immobilized by a Vac-Lok bag within the body frame. The patient is scanned head-first and then feet-first following 180° rotation of the frame. The two scans are imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system and concatenated to give a full-body CT dataset. Treatment planning matches multiple isocenter volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) fields of the upper body and multiple isocenter parallel-opposed fields of the lower body. VMAT fields of the torso are optimized to satisfy lung dose constraints while achieving a therapeutic dose to the torso. The multiple isocenter VMAT fields are delivered with an indexed couch, followed by body frame rotation about the pivot point to treat the lower body isocenters. The treatment workflow was simulated with a Rando phantom, and the plan was mapped to a solid water slab phantom for point- and film-dose measurements at multiple locations. Results: The treatment plan of 12Gy over 8 fractions achieved 80.2% coverage of the total body volume within ±10% of the prescription dose. The mean lung dose was 8.1 Gy. All ion chamber measurements were within ±1.7% compared to the calculated point doses. All relative film dosimetry showed at least a 98.0% gamma passing rate using a 3mm/3% passing criteria. Conclusion: The proposed patient comfort-oriented TBI technique provides for a uniform dose distribution within the total body while reducing the dose to the lungs

  11. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Y; Hicsonmez, A; Uluoglu, C; Guney, H Z; Ozel Turkcu, U; Take, G; Yucel, B; Caglar, G; Bilgihan, A; Erdogan, D; Nalca Andrieu, M; Kurtman, C; Zengil, H

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB) or abdominopelvic (AP) irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g) in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset) or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset). Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively) to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05) and TB (P < 0.05) irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05) or evening (P < 0.05) decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  12. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guney

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB or abdominopelvic (AP irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset. Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05 and TB (P < 0.05 irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05 or evening (P < 0.05 decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05. Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalkina, M. V.; Alchinova, I. B.; Yakovenko, E. N.; Medvedeva, Yu S.; Saburina, I. N.; Karganov, M. Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 106/mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells.

  14. Fractionated total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation in dogs: Hemopoietic recovery after various marrow cell doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenburger, U.; Kolb, H.J.; Thierfelder, S.; Netzel, B.; Schaeffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1980-01-01

    Hemopoietic recovery was studied in dogs given 2400 R fractionated total body irradiation within one week and graded doses of cryopreserved autologous bone marrow. Complete hemopoietic recovery including histology was observed after this dose and sufficient doses of marrow cells. Doses of more than 5.5 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight were sufficient for complete recovery in all dogs, 1.5 to 5.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were effective in some of the dogs and less than 1.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were insufficient for complete recovery. Similarly, more than 30000 CFUsub(c)/kg body weight were required for hemopoietic recovery. The optimal marrow cell dose which has been defined as the minimal dose required for the earliest possible recovery of leukocyte and platelet counts was 7-8 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight. It has been concluded that fractionated total body irradiation with 2400 R dose not require greater doses of marrow cells for hemopoietic reconstitution than lower single doses and that the hemopoietic microenvironment is not persistently disturbed after this dose. (author)

  15. Dosimetric methods and results of measurement for total body electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ningyuan; Yu Geng; Yu Zihao

    1987-01-01

    A modified 'STANFORD TSEI TECHNIQUE' e.g. dual angled gantry, 6 turntable angles and 12 fields was developed on PHILIPS SL 75-20 linear accelerator to treat mycosis fungoides. A plastic scatter screen, 5 mm in thickness was used to reduce the primary electron energy to 4 MeV in order to control treatment depth (d 80 approx.= 1.2 cm) and skin dose up to 89%. The X-ray contamination was at an acceptable level of 2%. This measurement which involved multiple dosimetric methods, showed that the distance between the scattor screen and the patient, within 10-30 cm, had no influence on PDD and the dose distribution on the body surface was reasonably homogeneous, but strongly dependent on the anatomic positions. For those sites which were located in the electron beam shadows, boosting irradiation might be necessary. The preliminary clinical trials indicated that this technique is valid and feasible

  16. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyalkina, M V; Alchinova, I B; Yakovenko, E N; Medvedeva, Yu S; Saburina, I N; Karganov, M Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 10 6 /mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells. (paper)

  17. The effects of dose rate in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Bodenberger, U.; Holler, E.; Thierfelder, S.; Eckstein, R.

    1986-01-01

    In summary the studies in dogs show that the dose rate or exposure time has a great impact on survival of acute radiation syndromes. In contrast the inactivation of colony forming hemopoietic precursors is less influenced by the dose rate. The potential of hemopoietic recovery is determined by the survival of hemopoietic precursor cells. Therefore in patients with a suspected whole body exposure of more than 1.50 Gy, bacterial and fungal decontamination and reverse isolation in a sterile environment has to be started immediately. Human patients treated with about 10 Gy of TBI frequently developed nausea, elevated temperatures and swelling of the parotic glands at the first and second day. The extent of these changes varies from patient to patient. The temperature is rarely elevated above 38.5 0 C. The swelling of parotics and the nausea subside within 48 hours. The presence of such systemic symptoms may suggest the exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. The disappearance of immature red cells, i.e. reticulocytes, and bandforms of granulocytes within the first 5 days supports this suggestion. HLA typing of the victim and his family should be performed as soon as possible after the accident. An HLA-identical sibling would be a suitable bone marrow donor. Unlike therapeutic TBI accidental exposures bring about uncertainties in the calculation of dose, dose distribution and dose rate. Early after irradiation biological changes are extremely variable. Both biological and physical data have to be considered, when microbiological decontamination, reverse isolation and transplantation of bone marrow are to be decided upon. Obviously these intensive therapeutic efforts are limited to a small number of victims. (orig.)

  18. Incidence of interstitial pneumonia after hyperfractionated total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow/stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, F.; Schraube, P.; Wenz, F.; Flentje, M.; Kalle, K. von; Haas, R.; Hunstein, W.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Interstitial pneumonia (IP) is a severe complication after allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with incidence rates between 10 % and 40 % in different series. It is a polyetiologic disease that occurs depending on age, graft vs. host disease (GvHD), CMV-status, total body irradiation (TBI) and immunosuppressive therapy after BMT. The effects of fractionation and dose rate are not entirely clear. This study evaluates the incidence of lethal IP after hyperfractionated TBI for autologous BMT or stem cell transplantation. Materials and Methods Between 1982 and 1992, 182 patients (60 % male, 40 % female) were treated with hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) before autologous bone marrow transplantation. Main indications were leukemias and lymphomas (53 % AML, 21 % ALL, 22 % NHL, 4 % others) Median age was 30 ys (15 - 55 ys). A total dose of 14.4 Gy was applied using lung blocks (12 fractions of 1.2 Gy in 4 days, dose rate 7-18 cGy/min, lung dose 9 - 9.5 Gy). TBI was followed by cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg). 72 % were treated with bone marrow transplantation, 28 % were treated with stem cell transplantation. Interstitial pneumonia was diagnosed clinically, radiologically and by autopsy. Results 4 patients died most likely of interstitial pneumonia. For another 12 patients interstitial pneumonia was not the most likely cause of death but could not be excluded. Thus, the incidence of lethal IP was at least 2.2 % but certainly below 8.8 %. Conclusion Lethal interstitial pneumonia is a rare complication after total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow transplantation in this large, homogeously treated series. In the autologous setting, total doses of 14.4 Gy can be applied with a low risk for developing interstitial pneumonia if hyperfractionation and lung blocks are used. This falls in line with data from series with identical twins or t-cell depleted marrow and smaller, less homogeneous autologous transplant studies. Thus

  19. Busulfan and total body irradiation as antihematopoietic stem cell agents in the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkman, R.; Rappeport, J.M.; Hellman, S.; Lipton, J.; Smith, B.; Geha, R.; Nathan, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    The capacity of busulfan and total body irradiation to ablate hematopoietic stem cells as preparation for the allogeneic bone marrow transplantation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorders was studied. Fourteen patients received 18 transplants; busulfan was used in the preparatory regimen of eight transplants and total body irradiation in the regimens of six transplants. Sustained hematopoietic ablation was achieved in six of eight patients prepared with busulfan and in all six patients prepared with total body irradiation. Three patients prepared with total body irradiation died with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, whereas no patients receiving busulfan developed interstitial pneumonitis. The optimal antihematopoietic stem cell agent to be used for the preparation of patients with congenital bone marrow disorder for bone marrow transplantation is not certain

  20. Uptake of carbon monoxide by C3H mice following X irradiation of lung only or total-body irradiation with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Niewoehner, D.E.; Kim, T.H.; Song, C.W.; Levitt, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide uptake (V/sub co/) and ventilation rate (VR) of C3H mice were determined at 14 weeks following either X irradiation of lungs only or total-body irradiation with 60 Co at different dose rates. Following localized X irradiation of lung at 97 /sub c/Gy/min there was a reduction in V/sub co/, which was inversely related to radiation dose, with a small reduction below control levels being detected at 7 Gy, the lowest dose tested. An increase in VR could be detected only at doses of 11 Gy, or more. Another group of animals received 11.5 Gy total-body irradiation at either 26.2 or 4.85 /sub c/Gy/min fllowed by transplantation with syngeneic bone marrow. Following total-body irradiation, V/sub co/ was significantly reduced by about 37% at the higher dose rate and 23% at the lower dose rate. In contrast, a trend toward elevated VR was detected only at the higher dose rate.The results indicate that V/sub co/ is a sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury and that under the experimental conditions used V/sub co/ is a more sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury in C3H mice than VR

  1. Analysis of volatile organic compounds and sensory characteristics of pork loin samples irradiated to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhengchi; Sun Dakuan; Qin Zongying; Jin Jiang; Zhu Liandi; Yao Side; Sheng Kanglong

    2005-01-01

    Fresh pork loin samples, protein enzyme inactivated at (72 ± 3) degree C and vacuum packaged, were irradiated to up to 45 kGy at -20 degree C by 60 Co γ-rays. The irradiated samples were examined by various kinds of method to study high dose irradiation effects of sensory changes (meat color and off-odor), transverse shearing strength, weight loss in steam cooking, volatile organic compounds, and lipid oxidation. The results showed that the high dose irradiation produced no serious effects to the pork loin samples, and volunteer responses showed fine acceptability to the irradiated meat. (authors)

  2. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  3. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  4. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P.; Warhol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow 59 Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author)

  5. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Warhol, M. (Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Yeap, B. (Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow {sup 59}Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author).

  6. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  7. Total body irradiation: what schedule(s). Les irradiations corporelles totales: quel(s) schema(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, J M [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why a whole-body irradiation is still an essential step before a bone marrow graft. He presents irradiation protocols for acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. 14 refs.

  8. High doses dosimetry in irradiation process in Argentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda de Cancio, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    These report describes the lung dose dosimetry procedures of the Semi-Industrial Irradiation Plant in Ezeisa Atomic (500,00 Ci of Co 60) and Industrial Picorrad Plant (400,00 Ci of Co 60) using the nitrate dosimeter

  9. The development of radiocaries after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, N.; Gundacker, K.; Rohloff, R.

    1988-01-01

    39 patients, who were irradiated with doses of 50 to 70 Gy for ENT-tumors over a period of 3.5 months to three years prior to the examination, showed a rapidly progressing caries of the teeth inside the target volume. The teeth outside the target volume developed a caries of less extent. Radiation induced xerostomia, effects of the irradiation of the soft tissues, nutrition habits and hygienics are discussed as causes for the damage of the teeth. (orig.) [de

  10. CT analysis of lung density changes in patients undergoing total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Shank, B.; Bonfiglio, P.; Reid, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential changes in lung density measured by CT are potentially sensitive and convenient monitors of lung abnormalities following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods have been developed to compare pre- and post-TBI CT of lung. The average local features of a cross-sectional lung slice are extracted from three peripheral regions of interest in the anterior, posterior, and lateral portions of the CT image. Also, density profiles across a specific region may be obtained. These may be compared first for verification of patient position and breathing status and then for changes between pre- and post-TBI. These may also be compared with radiation dose profiles through the lung. A preliminary study on 21 leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation indicates the following: (a) Density gradients of patients' lungs in the antero-posterior direction show a marked heterogeneity before and after transplantation compared with normal lungs. The patients with departures from normal density gradients pre-TBI correlate with later pulmonary complications. (b) Measurements of average peripheral lung densities have demonstrated that the average lung density in the younger age group is substantially higher: pre-TBI, the average CT number (1,000 scale) is -638 +/- 39 Hounsfield unit (HU) for 0-10 years old and -739 +/- 53 HU for 21-40 years old. (c) Density profiles showed no post-TBI regional changes in lung density corresponding to the dose profile across the lung, so no differentiation of a radiation-specific effect has yet been possible. Computed tomographic density profiles in the antero-posterior direction are successfully used to verify positioning of the CT slice and the breathing level of the lung

  11. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-01

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  12. The effect of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence on growth and endocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiper, A.D.; Stanhope, R.; Lau, T.; Grant, D.B.; Blacklock, H.; Chessells, J.M.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen children with acute leukaemia and myeloproliferative disorders were investigated for growth and endocrine dysfunction. All had undergone bone marrow transplantation prepared with cyclophosphamide and single fraction total body irradiation (900-1000 cGy) between 1.5 and 3.8 (mean 2.2) years previously. The majority exhibited growth failure, of multiple aetiology. Ten patients, of whom eight had had previous prophylactic cranial irradiation, had evidence of growth hormone deficiency based on reduced growth hormone reponse to insulin induced hypoglycaemia. Three had evidence of hypothalamic damage. Gonadal failure was common. All four girls of adolescent age (10.6-14.1 years) had ovarian failure requiring sex steroid replacement. Of eight boys of adolescent age (12.3-18.3 years), two had testicular failure requiring sex steroid supplements. Both had had previous testicular irradiation. Five others had compensated gonadal failure; one had normal Leydig cell function. Abnormalities of the TSH response to TRH occurred in 10 patients but only three had overt hypothyroidism. Unlike growth hormone deficiency, gonadal and thyroid dysfunction showed no correlation with previous cranial radiotherapy. (author)

  13. The modifying effect of ibuprofen on total body irradiation-induced elevation of oxidative reactions in male hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokmeci, D.; Akpolat, M.; Aydogdu, N.; Uzal, C.; Turan, N.F.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy plays an important role in curative and palliative treatments of malignant diseases. Because of the lipid component in the membrane, lipid peroxidation has been reported to be particularly susceptible to radiation damage. However, lipid peroxidation is reversed by cellular defense mechanisms, and the use of various antioxidants involved in these mechanisms have recently been suggested to be beneficial. It is known that ibuprofen has antioxidative and/or free radical scavenging activities. Our purpose is to examine the antioxidant capacity of ibuprofen in hamsters undergoing total body irradiation (TBI). Ibuprofen was given by gavage at dose of 10 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. After this period, animals were exposed to TBI 60 Co gamma irradiation with a single dose of 8 Gy. After 24 h radiation exposure, the hamsters were killed and samples were taken from blood. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased significantly after radiation exposure, and ibuprofen diminished the amounts of TBARS. Significant protection of the radiation-induced changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was also recorded in the blood of ibuprofen-treated and -irradiated hamsters. These results suggest that ibuprofen with its antioxidant capacity could play a modulatory role against cellular damage effected by free radicals induced by TBI. (author)

  14. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Ingrid Nine

    2000-03-01

    During the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive "dried cooked" taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 45 kGy at a temperature of between -20 and -40°C to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa.

  15. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyn, Ingrid Nine de E-mail: debruyni@mweb.co.za

    2000-03-01

    During the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive 'dried cooked' taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 45 kGy at a temperature of between -20 and -40 deg. C to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa. (author)

  16. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyn, Ingrid Nine de

    2000-01-01

    During the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive 'dried cooked' taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 45 kGy at a temperature of between -20 and -40 deg. C to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa. (author)

  17. High dose neutron irradiation damage in beryllium as blanket material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakin, V.P. E-mail: fae@niiar.ru; Kazakov, V.A.; Teykovtsev, A.A.; Pimenov, V.V.; Shimansky, G.A.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.; Suslov, D.N.; Latypov, R.N.; Belozerov, S.V.; Kupriyanov, I.B. E-mail: vniinm.400@g23.relkom.ru

    2001-11-01

    The paper presents the investigation results of beryllium products that operated in the SM and BOR-60 reactors up to neutron doses of 2.8x10{sup 22} and 8.0x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV), respectively. The calculated and experimental data are given on helium and tritium accumulation, swelling, micro-hardness and thermal conductivity. The microstructural investigation results of irradiated beryllium are also presented. It is shown that the rate of helium and tritium accumulation in beryllium in the SM and BOR-60 reactors is high enough, which is of interest from the viewpoint of modeling the working conditions of the DEMO fusion reactor. Swelling of beryllium at irradiation temperature of 70-150 deg. C and neutron fluence of 2.8x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV) makes up 0.8-1.5%, at 400 deg. C and fluence of 8x10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (E>1 MeV)-3.2-5.0%. Irradiation hardening and decrease of thermal conductivity strongly depend on the irradiation temperature and are more significant at reduced temperatures. All results presented in the paper were analyzed with due account of the supposed working parameters of the DEMO fusion reactor blanket.

  18. High dose neutron irradiation damage in beryllium as blanket material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakin, V.P.; Kazakov, V.A.; Teykovtsev, A.A.; Pimenov, V.V.; Shimansky, G.A.; Ostrovsky, Z.E.; Suslov, D.N.; Latypov, R.N.; Belozerov, S.V.; Kupriyanov, I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents the investigation results of beryllium products that operated in the SM and BOR-60 reactors up to neutron doses of 2.8x10 22 and 8.0x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV), respectively. The calculated and experimental data are given on helium and tritium accumulation, swelling, micro-hardness and thermal conductivity. The microstructural investigation results of irradiated beryllium are also presented. It is shown that the rate of helium and tritium accumulation in beryllium in the SM and BOR-60 reactors is high enough, which is of interest from the viewpoint of modeling the working conditions of the DEMO fusion reactor. Swelling of beryllium at irradiation temperature of 70-150 deg. C and neutron fluence of 2.8x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV) makes up 0.8-1.5%, at 400 deg. C and fluence of 8x10 22 cm -2 (E>1 MeV)-3.2-5.0%. Irradiation hardening and decrease of thermal conductivity strongly depend on the irradiation temperature and are more significant at reduced temperatures. All results presented in the paper were analyzed with due account of the supposed working parameters of the DEMO fusion reactor blanket

  19. Clinical study of four patients with hematological malignancy treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after conditioning including hyperfractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Kazuaki; Naito, Kazuyuki; Akao, Yukihiro; Hiraiwa, Akikazu; Naoe, Tomoki; Yamada, Kazumasa; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Matsuzaki, Michio.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the cytoreductive regimen reported by O'Reilly et al, we transplanted to four patients with hematological malignancy the bone marrow cells harvested from their HLA identical siblings. In our method, they were pretreated with hyperfractionated total body irradiation (120R x 11 times) and high dose of cyclophosphamide prior to transplantation. Case 1: 19 year-old, female, ALL. She had a temporal GVHD (Grade I) on day 23, and suffered from interstitial pneumonia (IP) on day 72 that responded well to the steroid therapy. She is now healthy (day 717). Case 2: 15 year-old, female, ALL. She had a mild GVHD on day 20 and IP on day 175 that recovered shortly after treated with steroid. She had an acute nephritis temporarily on day 410, as well. She is now healthy (day 668). Case 3: 39 year-old, female, AML. She suffered from a GVHD (Grade IV) with severe skin eruption, diarrhea and jaundice, which started on day 15. She died of hepatic failure on day 74, for which GVHD was responsible. Case 4: 25 year-old, male, Burkitt Lymphoma. He had a mild GVHD on day 33, which recovered soon with the steroid therapy. On day 150, he suffered from IP to which the steroid therapy was effective. However, IP was recurrent as well as his pneumothorax that happened subsequently. He is now healthy (day 458). (author)

  20. Revisiting Biomarkers of Total-Body and Partial-Body Exposure in a Baboon Model of Irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valente

    Full Text Available In case of a mass casualty radiation event, there is a need to distinguish total-body irradiation (TBI and partial-body irradiation (PBI to concentrate overwhelmed medical resources to the individuals that would develop an acute radiation syndrome (ARS and need hematologic support (i.e., mostly TBI victims. To improve the identification and medical care of TBI versus PBI individuals, reliable biomarkers of exposure could be very useful. To investigate this issue, pairs of baboons (n = 18 were exposed to different situations of TBI and PBI corresponding to an equivalent of either 5 Gy 60Co gamma irradiation (5 Gy TBI; 7.5 Gy left hemibody/2.5 right hemibody TBI; 5.55 Gy 90% PBI; 6.25 Gy 80% PBI; 10 Gy 50% PBI, 15 Gy 30% PBI or 2.5 Gy (2.5 Gy TBI; 5 Gy 50% PBI. More than fifty parameters were evaluated before and after irradiation at several time points up to 200 days. A partial least square discriminant analysis showed a good distinction of TBI from PBI situations that were equivalent to 5 Gy. Furthermore, all the animals were pooled in two groups, TBI (n = 6 and PBI (n = 12, for comparison using a logistic regression and a non parametric statistical test. Nine plasmatic biochemical markers and most of hematological parameters turned out to discriminate between TBI and PBI animals during the prodromal phase and the manifest illness phase. The most significant biomarkers were aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactico dehydrogenase, urea, Flt3-ligand, iron, C-reactive protein, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the early period, and Flt3-ligand, iron, platelet count, hemoglobin, monocyte count, absolute neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio for the ARS phase. These results suggest that heterogeneity could be distinguished within a range of 2.5 to 5 Gy TBI.

  1. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study

  2. Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) measured using neuropsychological testing of attention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Hacke, Werner; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute normal tissue damage of low irradiation doses to the healthy, adult central nervous system (CNS) using neuropsychological testing of attention functions. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological testing (IQ, attention [modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine]) was used to examine 40 patients (43 ± 10 years) before and immediately after the first fraction (1.2 Gy) of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) at the University of Heidelberg. The patients received antiemetic premedication. Test results are given as mean percentiles ± standard deviation, with 50 ± 34 being normal. Thirty-eight control patients (53 ± 15 years) were studied to quantify the influence of hospitalization, stress, and repeated testing. Results: The patients showed normal baseline test results (IQ = 101 ± 14, attention = 54 ± 28) and no decrease in test results after 1.2 Gy TBI. Attention functions improved (66 ± 25) corresponding to a practice effect of repeated testing that was seen in the control group, although alternate versions of the tests were used (IQ = 104 ± 10, attention before = 42 ± 29, attention after = 52 ± 31). Conclusion: Our data show no deterioration of neuropsychologic test results acutely after 1.2 Gy whole body exposure in adult patients without CNS disease receiving antiemetic medication

  3. A pilot study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ondansetron and granisetron in fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Cassoni, A.M. [Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The duration of the antiemetic effect of granisetron was examined in a pilot study of patients (n = 26) undergoing a standard emetogenic stimulus in the form of total body irradiation fractionated over 3-4 days, in a randomized comparison with twice-daily ondansetron. A single intravenous dose of granisetron at the onset of therapy was effective over the entire follow-up period in 50% (6/12) of patients, compared with 77% (10/13) prescribed twice-daily oral ondansetron for 3 or 4 days. The response rate within the first 24 hours from the start of irradiation was 67% (8/12) for granisetron and 77% (10/13) for ondansetron. Granisetron and ondansetron was therefore of similar efficacy within the first 24-hour period, but granisetron was less efficaceous more than 24 hours after the onset of therapy. Patients who required a second dose of granisetron did so at intervals of 12, 42, 47 and 48 hours following the first fraction of radiotherapy. The cost per patient in this study was 48 for granisetron and {sub 1}54 for ondanestron, but the dose scheduling we used cannot be recommended in view of the lower effectiveness of granisetron. (author).

  4. A pilot study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ondansetron and granisetron in fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, S.J.; Cassoni, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The duration of the antiemetic effect of granisetron was examined in a pilot study of patients (n = 26) undergoing a standard emetogenic stimulus in the form of total body irradiation fractionated over 3-4 days, in a randomized comparison with twice-daily ondansetron. A single intravenous dose of granisetron at the onset of therapy was effective over the entire follow-up period in 50% (6/12) of patients, compared with 77% (10/13) prescribed twice-daily oral ondansetron for 3 or 4 days. The response rate within the first 24 hours from the start of irradiation was 67% (8/12) for granisetron and 77% (10/13) for ondansetron. Granisetron and ondansetron was therefore of similar efficacy within the first 24-hour period, but granisetron was less efficaceous more than 24 hours after the onset of therapy. Patients who required a second dose of granisetron did so at intervals of 12, 42, 47 and 48 hours following the first fraction of radiotherapy. The cost per patient in this study was 48 for granisetron and 1 54 for ondanestron, but the dose scheduling we used cannot be recommended in view of the lower effectiveness of granisetron. (author)

  5. Central axis dose verification in patients treated with total body irradiation of photons using a Computed Radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Rivero, A.; Caballero Pinelo, R.; Gonzalez Perez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    To propose and evaluate a method for the central axis dose verification in patients treated with total body irradiation (TBI) of photons using images obtained through a Computed Radiography (CR) system. It was used the Computed Radiography (Fuji) portal imaging cassette readings and correlate with measured of absorbed dose in water using 10 x 10 irradiation fields with ionization chamber in the 60 Co equipment. The analytical and graphic expression is obtained through software 'Origin8', the TBI patient portal verification images were processed using software ImageJ, to obtain the patient dose. To validate the results, the absorbed dose in RW3 models was measured with ionization chamber with different thickness, simulating TBI real conditions. Finally it was performed a retrospective study over the last 4 years obtaining the patients absorbed dose based on the reading in the image and comparing with the planned dose. The analytical equation obtained permits estimate the absorbed dose using image pixel value and the dose measured with ionization chamber and correlated with patient clinical records. Those results are compared with reported evidence obtaining a difference less than 02%, the 3 methods were compared and the results are within 10%. (Author)

  6. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min

    2017-05-07

    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  7. Cation disorder in high-dose, neutron-irradiated spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickafus, K.E.; Larson, A.C.; Yu, N.; Nastasi, M.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Garner, F.A.; Bradt, R.C.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine whether MgAl 2 O 4 spinel is a suitable ceramic for fusion applications. Here, the crystal structures of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel single crystals irradiated to high neutron fluences [>5·10 26 n/m 2 (E n > 0.1 MeV)] were examined by neutron diffraction. Crystal structure refinement of the highest dose sample indicated that the average scattering strength of the tetrahedral crystal sites decreased by ∼ 20% while increasing by ∼ 8% on octahedral sites. Since the neutron scattering length for Mg is considerably larger than for Al, this results is consistent with site exchange between Mg 2+ ions on tetrahedral sites and Al 3+ ions on octahedral sites. Least-squares refinements also indicated that, in all irradiated samples, at least 35% of Mg 2+ and Al 3+ ions in the crystal experienced disordering replacements. This retained dpa on the cation sublattices is the largest retained damage ever measured in an irradiated spinel material

  8. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Li; An, Lei; Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3"+, CD8"+, and CD4"+ T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4"+ T cells was delayed more than that of CD8"+ T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the proliferation of Th1 and

  9. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaodan [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuqi [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Lei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Honghai [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Shaobo [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); An, Lei [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Yao, Chengfang, E-mail: yaocf9941@163.com [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3{sup +}, CD8{sup +}, and CD4{sup +} T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4{sup +} T cells was delayed more than that of CD8{sup +} T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the

  10. High-dose, half-body irradiation and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelssner, W.; Standke, E.; Brock, A.; Dalicho, R.; Friedrich, A.; Kunze, M.L.; Melzer, R.; Sauer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The major early reactions observable were vegetative disturbances such as nausea, vertigo, repeated vomiting, rise in temperature and pulse rate, variations in blood pressure, and diarrhea in some cases. All these symptoms disappeared quite rapidly. Seven women developed parotitis, which disappeared after a certain time, and all patients suffered from complete epilation, which was followed by enhanced piliation. There were only light mucosal changes in all patients, but many changes in the blood count. Observation of cellular immunity revealed a temporary suppression, which faded out after 3 weeks. Further side effects could be detected in the biochemical regime. The main radiation effects on the lungs and the only virtual complication encountered were three cases of pneumonitis. Apart from these, lung density measurement by CT revealed a temporary increase in density. Effects of the half-body irradiation on the heart consisted for one part of direct effects detectable in the cells of the cardiac muscle in the myocardial capillaries, and for the other by adaptive responses to changes in the hemodynamics of the lesser circulatory system. There were no signs of renal lesions or formation of cataracts. A causality can be suspected between the radiotherapy and the occurrance of two secondary carcinoma, contralateral breast cancer in one patient, and stomach cancer in another. The efficiency of the half-body irradiation is shown by the delayed occurrence of metastases, and a prolongation of survival time of incurable patients. (orig./MG) With 20 figs., 9 tabs [de

  11. Experimental research on fresh mussel meat irradiated by high-dose electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lin; Lu Ruifeng; Hu Huachao; Wang Chaoqi; Liu Yanna

    2011-01-01

    The sterilization storage of fresh mussel irradiated high-dose electron beam was studied. From the subjective assessment by the weighted average of the test and other determined parameters, it can be concluded that the flavor of fresh mussel meat sealed canned food irradiated by high-dose electron beam has not been significant affected, and various micro-organisms can be killed effectively, which means that the irradiated fresh mussel meat can be preserved for long-term at room temperature. Therefore the method might resolve the problems induced by traditional frozen preservation methods. (authors)

  12. Combined modality therapy of diffuse histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weick, J.K.; Antunez, A.; Kraus, T.A.; Fabian, C.J.; Dixon, D.

    1983-01-01

    The combination of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) alternating with total body irradiation (TBI) has been shown earlier to be effective therapy in patients with malignant lymphoma who have received prior chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. A limited institutional pilot study was therefore done by the Southwest Oncology Group between October 1977, and November 1978 to test the benefit of this program in previously untreated persons with Stages 3 and 4 diffuse histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Eleven evaluable patients with the following histologies were treated: 7 poorly differentiated, 2 with histiocytic, 1 with mixed lymphoma and 1 with well-differentiated morphology. Responses were seen in 8/11 patients (6 CR and 2 PR); 5 persons are currently alive and 6 are dead. The median duration of remission is 15 months and the median survival for all patients is 48 months. The therapy was well tolerated with a mean nadir leukocyte count of 3020 x 10 9 /μl (range 1.2 to 5.5) and a mean nadir platelet count of 188 x 10 9 /μl (range 016 to 270). As delivered, this program is capable of producing durable remissions and needs to be verified in a larger series of patients

  13. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego; Bunin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  14. Treatment of blastic transformation of chronic granulocytic leukemia by chemotherapy, total body irradiation and infusion of cryopreserved autologous marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, C D; Stewart, P; Clift, R A; Fefer, A; Neiman, P E; Singer, J; Storb, R; Thomas, E D [Washington Univ., Seattle (USA). School of Medicine; The United States Public Health Service Hospital; Providence Medical Center, and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA)

    1978-01-01

    We have previously reported attempts to reestablish the chronic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), in two patients with blastic transrormation, utilizing intensive therapy followed by the infusion of cryopreserved autologous marrow. This approach has now been attempted in a total of seven patients. Marrow was harvested on single or multiple occasions during the chronic phase of CGL and cryopreserved in 10% dimethylsulfoxide. All patients were treated with cyclophosphamide, 120 mg/kg, plus 1,000 rad of total body irradiation followed by infusion of stored marrow. Two patients failed to achieve marrow repopulation and died of infection after 29 and 48 days. Three patients had partial marrow recovery. Two of these achieved repopulation of myeloid, erythroid, and lymphoid elements but did not recover platelet function; one died of hemorrhage on day 55, and one died of cytomegalovirus interstitial pneumonitis on day 58. A third patient had delayed engraftment of all cell elements, most prominently lymphocytes, and died after 84 days of an iodopathic interstitial pneumonitis. Two patients achieved prompt and complete reestablishment of the chronic phase of CGL. One died on day 72 with a fungal pheumonitis and one developed blastic transformation within 4 months. These preliminary results indicate that this approach to the treatment of blastic transformation of CGL is feasible but difficult. Improvements in results may be achieved by more frequent storage of marrow and pheripheral blood stem cells and lymphocytes and further advances in pretransplant therapy.

  15. Long-term renal toxicity in children following fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, Johanna; Meyer, Andreas; Fruehauf, Joerg; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael; Sykora, Karl-Walter

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: to retrospectively assess the incidence and time course of renal dysfunction in children (≤ 16 years) following total-body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Patients and methods: between 1986 and 2003, 92 children (median age, 11 years; range, 3-16 years) underwent TBI before allogeneic SCT. 43 of them had a minimum follow-up of 12 months (median, 51 months; range, 12-186 months) and were included into this analysis. Conditioning regimen included chemotherapy and fractionated TBI with 12 Gy (n = 26) or 11.1 Gy (n = 17). In one patient, renal dose was limited to 10 Gy by customized renal shielding due to known nephropathy prior to SCt. Renal dysfunction was defined as an increase of serum creatinine > 1.25 times the upper limit of age-dependent normal. Results: twelve children (28%) experienced an episode of renal dysfunction after a median of 2 months (range, 1-10 months) following SCT. In all but one patient renal dysfunction was transient and resolved after a median of 8 months (range, 3-16 months). One single patient developed persistent renal dysfunction with onset at 10 months after SCT. None of these patients required dialysis. The actuarial 3-year freedom from persistent renal toxicity for children surviving > 12 months after SCt was 97.3%. Conclusion: the incidence of persistent renal dysfunction after fractionated TBI with total doses ≤ 12 Gy was very low in this analysis. (orig.)

  16. In vivo dosimetry with semiconducting diodes for dose verification in total-body irradiation. A 10-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, U.; Licher, J.; Moog, J.; Scherf, C.; Kara, E.; Boettcher, H.D.; Roedel, C.; Mose, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: for total-body irradiation (TBI) using the translation method, dose distribution cannot be computed with computer-assisted three-dimensional planning systems. Therefore, dose distribution has to be primarily estimated based on CT scans (beam-zone method) which is followed by in vivo measurements to ascertain a homogeneous dose delivery. The aim of this study was to clinically establish semiconductor probes as a simple and fast method to obtain an online verification of the dose at relevant points. Patients and methods: in 110 consecutively irradiated TBI patients (12.6 Gy, 2 x 1.8 Gy/day), six semiconductor probes were attached to the body surface at dose-relevant points (eye/head, neck, lung, navel). The mid-body point of the abdomen was defined as dose reference point. The speed of translation was optimized to definitively reach the prescribed dose in this point. Based on the entrance and exit doses, the mid-body doses at the other points were computed. The dose homogeneity in the entire target volume was determined comparing all measured data with the dose at the reference point. Results: after calibration of the semiconductor probes under treatment conditions the dose in selected points and the dose homogeneity in the target volume could be quantitatively specified. In the TBI patients, conformity of calculated and measured doses in the given points was achieved with small deviations of adequate accuracy. The data of 80% of the patients are within an uncertainty of ± 5%. Conclusion: during TBI using the translation method, dose distribution and dose homogeneity can be easily controlled in selected points by means of semiconductor probes. Semiconductor probes are recommended for further use in the physical evaluation of TBI. (orig.)

  17. The evaluation of a modified technique of Total Body Irradiation in respect of treatment results and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronska-Gardas, A.; Dabrowski, R.; Pedziwiatr, K.

    2006-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is a well established part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Numerous different techniques are used and every center elaborates own solutions. The aim of our study to present the method of TBI developed in our department, and to discuss the results of treatment with respect of early and late toxicity. Between 11.2000 and 08.2004, 23 patients were with fractionated TBI at the Department of Radiotherapy of the M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology in Warsaw (MSCMCC). Conditioning chemotherapy and BMT were performed in different hematological departments. All patients were irradiated with a total midline dose of 12 Gy in 6 fractions over 3 consecutive days. Doses to the lung did not exceed 11 Gy. The TBI method used in our department was evaluated over a few years. The following modifications have been introduced to the previously applied technique: change of photon energy 6 MV to 15 MV; increase of lung dose from 9 Gy to 11 Gy; the use of an individual bolus as a lung compensator in lateral fields; more frequent boost irradiation of the mediastinum and legs with small fields; calculations of Monitor Units based on dosimetric data. Boost irradiation of chest wall with electrons been abandoned. Median follow up was 12 months. Up till now, 17/23 patients are alive, of these 16 with no relapse. Immediate toxicity was low. Early complications were observed during the first 6 months after BMT in 11 patients. In the case of 4 patients these complications were fatal. Late complications were observed in 10 patients, including chronic GVHD and hormone disturbance. Only one patient had developed the first symptoms of cataract. In one case Lhermitte's syndrome was observed. One patient died due to liver insufficiency. The results of treatment and the complications rates in patients treated with TBI at our department are consistent with those published in literature. We conclude that

  18. High dose rate intracavitary afterloading irradiation in malignant inoperable obturation of bile ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, J.; Saegusa, K.; Mamiya, T.; Miyoshi, T.; Arimizu, N.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Ohto, M.

    1986-02-01

    After decompression of the bile duct with PTCD, seven patients with carcinomas of the bile ducts were submitted to an intracavitary Ir-afterloading irradiation performed according to the high-dose-rate method with a Buchler device. Most of the patients were irradiated with 30 Gy in two fractions. Five patients were also exposed to percutaneous radiation with 40 to 50 Gy. Local control was achieved in six patients. One patient developed a locoregional recurrence which was possibly due to a so-called 'geographic miss'. In one patient a benign fibrotic stenosis of the bile duct was found at the site of most intensive irradiation. Intracavitary irradiation is very important in the treatment of malignant of bile ducts. However, there is an urgent need of research with regard to the combined method with percutaneous irradiation and to the optimum fractionation of intracavitary high dose rate irradiation.

  19. Electron beam irradiation facility for low to high dose irradiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Wanmode, Yashwant; Verma, Vijay Pal; Bhisikar, Abhay; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Shrivastava, P.; Gupta, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Electron beam based irradiation facilities are becoming more and more popular over the conventional irradiator facilities due to many inherent advantages such as tunability of beam energy, availability of radiation both in electron mode and X-ray mode, wide range of the dose rate, control of radiation from a ON-OFF switch and other safety related merits. A prototype experimental facility based on electron accelerator has been set-up at RRCAT to meet the low-dose, medium dose and high-dose requirements for radiation processing of food, agricultural and medical products. The facility can be operated in the energy range from 7-10 MeV at variable power level from 0.05-3 kW to meet the dose rate requirement of 100 Gy to kGy. The facility is also equipped with a Bremsstrahlung converter optimized for X-ray irradiation at 7.5 MV. Availability of dose delivery in wide range with precision control and measurement has made the facility an excellent tool for researchers interested in electron/X-ray beam irradiation. A precision dosimetry lab based on alanine EPR and radiochromic film dosimetry system have been established to characterize the radiation field and precise dose measurements. Electron beam scattering technique has been developed to achieve low dose requirement for EB irradiation of various seeds such as groundnut, wheat, soybeans, moong beans, black gram etc. for mutation related studies. This paper describes various features of the facility together with the dosimetric measurements carried out for qualification of the facility and recent irradiation experiments carried out using this facility. (author)

  20. Irradiation of meningioma: a prototype circumscribed tumor for planning high-dose irradiation of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide specific data concerning the radiation dose required to destroy meningioma, and to demonstrate that radiation doses much greater than the alleged tolerance dose, can be administered to the brain in some patients. Most meninglomas are not responsive to irradiation, but, some surgically incurable lesions benefit from irradiation with radically high doses to small volumes of tissue. The arrest of 7 of 12 consecutive meningiomas in adults for periods of 2 to 17 years following maximum tumor doses up to 8800 R in 40 days is reported in this paper. All patients, when irradiated, had active tumor in the form of inoperable primary tumor, recurrence, or known postoperative residual tumor. Three of the successful results were achieved with orthovoltage radiation. The incidence of brain damage may be acceptable to the patient when it is related to arrest of tumor growth but he must be forewarned of possible brain damage. The factors influencing the radioresponsiveness of meningioma are: the required tumor lethal dose, histology and vascularity of the tumor, anatomical site in the brain, treatment technique for each tumor site, small size of the treated volume, growth rate of the tumor, displacement of normal brain tissue by tumor, inherent individual variations of tumor and normal tissues, quality of the radiation, and tolerance of normal brain tissues. The role of these factors is discussed in the light of modern radiobiological concepts

  1. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristei, Cynthia; Carotti, Alessandra; Palazzari, Elisa; Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana; Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo; Lancellotta, Valentina; Palumbo, Isabella; Falzetti, Franca; Aversa, Franco; Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  2. TH-EF-BRB-09: Total Body Irradiation with Uniform MU and Modulated Arc Segments, UMMS-TBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, B; Chung, H; Mutaf, Y; Prado, K [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test a novel total body irradiation (TBI) system using conformal partial arc with patient lying on the stationary couch which is biologically equivalent to a moving couch TBI. This improves the scanning field TBI, which is previously presented. Methods: The Uniform MU Modulated arc Segments TBI or UMMS-TBI scans the treatment plane with a constant machine dose rate and a constant gantry rotation speed. A dynamic MLC pattern which moves while gantry rotates has been designed so that the treatment field moves same distance at the treatment plane per each gantry angle, while maintaining same treatment field size (34cm) at the plane. Dose across the plane varies due to the geometric differences including the distance from the source to a point of interest and the different attenuation from the slanted depth which changes the effective depth. Beam intensity is modulated to correct the dose variation across the plane by assigning the number of gantry angles inversely proportional to the uncorrected dose. Results: Measured dose and calculated dose matched within 1 % for central axis and 3% for off axis for various patient scenarios. Dose from different distance does not follow the inverse square relation as it is predicted from calculation. Dose uniformity better than 5% across 180 cm at 10cm depth is achieved by moving the gantry from −55 to +55 deg. Total treatment time for 2 Gy AP/PA fields is 40–50 minutes excluding patient set up time, at the machine dose rate of 200 MU/min. Conclusion: This novel technique, yet accurate but easy to implement enables TBI treatment in a small treatment room with less program development preparation than other techniques. The VMAT function of treatment delivery is not required to modulate beams. One delivery pattern can be used for different patients by changing the monitor units.

  3. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C.; Ottinger, H.; Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S.; Faul, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT ∝10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, ∝80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, ∝35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  4. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI, which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI.

  5. Total-body irradiation - role and indications. Results from the German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzelmann, F.; Bamberg, M.; Belka, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Ottinger, H. [German Registry for Stem Cell Transplantation (DRST) Secretary, Univ. of Essen (Germany); Mueller, C.H.; Allgaier, S. [DRST Datacenter, DRK Bloodbank Center Ulm (Germany); Faul, C. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Background and purpose: total-body irradiation (TBI) is a key part of the conditioning regimen before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The exact role of TBI as part of the conditioning regimen is largely unclear. In order to determine the relevance of TBI, the status of TBI utilization was analyzed on the basis of a nationwide registry. Material and methods: 14,371 patients (1998-2002) documented in the German Stem Cell Transplantation Registry (DRST) were analyzed regarding TBI utilization prior to autologous or allogeneic transplantation, underlying disorder, type of donor, stem cell source, and size of the treatment center. Results: for autologous HSCT {proportional_to}10% of the patients (873/8,167) received TBI, with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, {proportional_to}80%, 171/214) and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (l-NHL, {proportional_to}35%, 330/929) being the most important disorders. In the allogeneic setting 50% of the patients (2,399/4,904) received TBI, with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, 85%, 794/930), acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 45%, 662/1,487) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 49%, 561/1,156) being the key indications. The type of donor, stem cell source and center size did not strongly influence the use of TBI. Conclusion: TBI has only a limited role for the conditioning prior to autologous HCST. For allogeneic HSCT TBI is widely accepted with no major changes over the observation time. The use of TBI is generally accepted for ALL, whereas approximately half of the patients with CML or AML received TBI. Although a considerably large database was analyzed, no clear determinants for the use of TBI could be distinguished. (orig.)

  6. The Total Body Irradiation Schedule Affects Acute Leukemia Relapse After Matched T Cell–Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristei, Cynthia, E-mail: cynthia.aristei@unipg.it [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Carotti, Alessandra [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Palazzari, Elisa [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Amico, Lucia; Ruggeri, Loredana [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Perrucci, Elisabetta; Falcinelli, Lorenzo [Radiation Oncology Division, Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Lancellotta, Valentina [Radiation Oncology Section, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Palumbo, Isabella [Radiation Oncology Section, Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, University of Perugia and Perugia General Hospital, Perugia (Italy); Falzetti, Franca [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy); Aversa, Franco [Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Parma General Hospital and University, Parma (Italy); Merluzzi, Mara; Velardi, Andrea; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio [Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Department of Medicine, Perugia General Hospital and University, Perugia (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether the total body irradiation (TBI) schedule affected outcome in patients with acute leukemia in complete remission who received T cell–depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA identical siblings. Methods and Materials: The study recruited 55 patients (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-66 years; 30 men and 25 women; 34 with acute myeloid leukemia and 21 with acute lymphoid leukemia). Hyperfractionated TBI (HTBI) (1.2 Gy thrice daily for 4 days [for a total dose of 14.4 Gy] from day −12 to day −9) was administered to 29 patients. Single-dose TBI (STBI) (8 Gy, at a median dose rate of 10.7 cGy/min on day −9) was given to 26 patients. Results: All patients achieved primary, sustained engraftment with full donor-type chimerism. At 10 years, the overall cumulative incidence of transplant-related mortality was 11% (SE, ±0.1%). It was 7% (SE, ±0.2%) after HTBI and 15% (SE, ±0.5%) after STBI (P=.3). The overall cumulative incidence of relapse was 33% (SE, ±0.5). It was 13% (SE, ±0.5%) after HTBI and 46% (SE, ±1%) after STBI (P=.02). The overall probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 59% (SE, ±7%). It was 67% (SE, ±0.84%) after HTBI and 37% (SE, ±1.4%) after STBI (P=.01). Multivariate analyses showed the TBI schedule was the only risk factor that significantly affected relapse and DFS (P=.01 and P=.03, respectively). Conclusions: In patients with acute leukemia, HTBI is more efficacious than STBI in eradicating minimal residual disease after HLA-matched T cell–depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, thus affecting DFS.

  7. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil

    2012-04-01

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  8. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-01

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  9. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  10. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  11. Recovery of the Erythropoietin-Sensitive Stem-Cell Population following Total-Body X-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byron, J. W. [Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1968-08-15

    Erythropoietin acts upon haemopoietic stem cells to initiate their differentiation into the erythroid series. This effect may be used in polycythaemic mice to estimate changes in the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population following total-body irradiation (TBR). Generally, single doses of erythropoietin, less than that needed for maximum stem-cell response, are used to estimate changes in the stem-cell population. The validity of results using this test is based upon accepting several assumptions regarding erythropoietin kinetics. These are: (a) the contribution of endogenous erythropoietin is always negligible; (b) the origin of the dose-response curve to erythropoietin alters only because of changes in stem-cell numbers; (c) the proportion of stem cells responding to a given concentration of erythropoietin is independent of stem-cell numbers; (d) the slope of the dose-response curve does not alter; and (e) competition between erythropoietin and other factors for the stem cells remains unchanged. The studies to be reported indicate that some of these assumptions m a y not always be valid. Following 150 rad TBR, changes in erythropoietin dose-response curves were not always due to changes in the size of the stem-cell population, but also due to changes in erythropoietin kinetics. Changes in erythropoietin kinetics could be corrected for by using doses of erythropoietin which at any particular time after TBR gave maximum stem-cell response; through full dose-response studies, the nature of changes in erythropoietin kinetics following TBR could be established. These studies appear to explain discrepancies in results obtained in different laboratories using the erythropoietin test. The effect of 150 rad TBR on the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population is an initial depression within 30 min to 20% of normal followed by a second depression (post-irradiation dip) at about 12 h. Twenty-four hours after TBR there is a recovery to the initial depression. This

  12. High dose radiation damage in nuclear energy structural materials investigated by heavy ion irradiation simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongnan; Xu Yongjun; Yuan Daqing

    2014-01-01

    Structural materials in ITER, ADS and fast reactor suffer high dose irradiations of neutrons and/or protons, that leads to severe displacement damage up to lOO dpa per year. Investigation of radiation damage induced by such a high dose irradiation has attracted great attention along with the development of nuclear energy facilities of new generation. However, it is deeply hampered for the lacking of high dose neutron and proton sources. Irradiation simulation of heavy ions produced by accelerators opens up an effective way for laboratory investigation of high dose irradiation induced radiation damage encountered in the ITER, ADS, etc. Radiation damage is caused mainly by atomic displacement in materials. The displacement rate of heavy ions is about lO 3 ∼10 7 orders higher than those of neutrons and protons. High displacement rate of heavy ions significantly reduces the irradiation time. The heavy ion irradiation simulation technique (HIIS) technique has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy and a series of the HIIS experiments have been performed to investigate radiation damage in stainless steels, tungsten and tantalum at irradiation temperatures from room temperature to 800 ℃ and in the irradiation dose region up to 100 dpa. The experimental results show that he radiation swelling peak for the modified stainless steel appears in the temperature region around 580 ℃ and the radiation damage is more sensitive to the temperature, the size of the radiation induced vacancy cluster or void increase with the increasing of the irradiation dose, and among the three materials the home-made modified stainless steel has the best radiation resistant property. (authors)

  13. Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktaa, J., E-mail: jarir.aktaa@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of

  14. Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of

  15. The radiosensitizing effect of doranidazole on human colorectal cancer cells exposed to high doses of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Gong, Aimin; Ji, Jun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Lv, Suqing; Lv, Hongzhu; Sun, Xizhuo

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of a new radiosensitizer, doranidazole, and enhancing irradiation on colorectal cancer cells. The radiosensitizing effect of doranidazole was determined using colony formation and propidium iodide (PI) assays to measure cell growth inhibition and the cell killing effect of human colorectal cancer cell lines exposed to high doses of γ-ray irradiation under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Fluorescence staining and cell migration assays were also used to assess the radiosensitizing effect. Cell proliferation evaluated by clonogenic survival curves was significantly inhibited by 5 mmol/L doranidazole, particularly at doses ranging from 10 to 30 Gy of irradiation. The radiosensitizing effect of doranidazole on colorectal cancer cells occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Doranidazole also inhibited the mobility of cell invasion and migration. Doranidazole can enhance the killing effect and the cell growth inhibition of colorectal cancer after high-dose irradiation in a time and dose-dependent manner

  16. The recovery of bone marrow derived GM-CFU in baboons unilaterally exposed to a total body LD50/30d mixed neutron-gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Orfeuvre, H.; Janodet, D.; Mestries, J.C.; Fatome, M.

    1990-01-01

    The unilateral exposure of baboons to a total body LD 50/30d mixed neutron/gamma irradiation was characterized to be non uniform in dose distribution. The pattern of recovery of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in bone marrow samples collected from entrance and exit sides respectively is consistent with this observed heterogeneity [fr

  17. Epithelial regeneration of transposed intestine after high doses of X irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Both, N.J. de; Vermey, M [Erasmus Universiteit, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1976-01-01

    The regeneration capacities of normal and transposed small bowel epithelium were compared in rats after applying high doses of x irradiation. It has been shown that the potency of the mucosa to regenerate was much higher than assumed and that the mucosa could regenerate after single doses varying from 2000 to 5000 R. Even in the villus epithelium and in flat epithelium covering infiltrates of the lamina propria cells survived, which were still able to resume proliferative activity several days after irradiation.

  18. The biochemical changes of bone collagen after high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, Ken

    1980-01-01

    In our clinic, patients with malignant bone tumors have been treated by high-dose irradiation therapy, 10,000-20,000 rads, for primary lesions. In order to study the biochemical changes of normal bone around tumor tissue, especially bone collagen, after high-dose irradiation, the author performed the following experiments. The right knee joint of rabbits was irradiated with either 6,000, 10,000, or 15,000 rads by 60 Co-γ ray. The cortical bone of the right tibial metaphysis was used for analyses and compared with the left tibia of the same rabbit. These studies were followed for one year after the final irradiation. The calcium, phosphorous and collagen contents of irradiated bone were remarkably changed. These data indicate that collagen biosynthesis of irradiated bone was decreased and the calcification was disturbed. An increase in the amount of total soluble collagen and a decrease in the amount of hydroxylysine bound sugar were observed. The ratio of β to α chains of the collagen molecule was also changed by the irradiation. The amount of reducible cross-links per hydroxyproline residue was strikingly increased three months after the final irradiation. These changes were remarkable especially in the 10,000 and 15,000 rads irradiated group and found to be recovered approximately six months to one year after the final irradiation. These findings indicate that high-dose irradiation reduces the stability of bone collagen both with the destruction of sugar bonds of hydroxylysine residues and the replacement of matured collagen matrix to immatured one which contain mostly labile reducible cross-links. (author)

  19. Surface damage of 316 stainless steel irradiated with 4He+ to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    Surface blistering of niobium by implantation with helium ions in the 9 to 15 keV range was investigated. The apparent disappearance of blisters at sufficiently high doses was believed to be an equilibrium effect. To determine whether high temperature annealing causes the equilibrium condition, stainless steel-316 samples were irradiated at a constant 450 0 C. Results are presented

  20. Low- and high-dose laser irradiation effects on cell migration and destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Elivia; Gallagher, Kyra A.; Zukerman, Sara; Stevens, Brianna; Zhou, Feifan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2018-02-01

    Metastases are the cause of more than 90 percent of cancer-related deaths. Current treatment methods, including chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, fail to target the metastases effectively. One potential treatment for metastatic cancer is laser immunotherapy (LIT). LIT combines the use of a photothermal laser with an immunoadjuvant, Glycated Chitosan (GC). GC combined with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has proven to be a viable alternative to traditional cancer treatment methods, when under irradiation of laser with appropriate wavelength. In this study, the effects of low dose and high dose laser irradiation on metastatic pancreatic cancer cell migration were observed. It was found that low dose irradiation increased the migration rate, but the high dose irradiation significantly decreased the migration rate of the cancer cells. When using LIT, the goal is to kill tumor cells and to prompt the correct immune response. If the tumor were irradiated with a low dose, it would promote metastasis. If the dose of irradiation were too high, it would destroy the entire tumor and the immune response would not recognize the tumor. Therefore, the laser dose plays an important role in LIT, particularly when using SWNT as light absorbing agent. Our results from this study will delineate the optimal laser irradiation dose for destroying tumor cells and at the same time preserve and release tumor antigens as a precursor of antitumor immune response.

  1. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Magdelenat, Henri; Boisserie, Gilbert; Baillet, Francois; Mayo, Willy; Fessi, Hatem; Puisieux, Francis; Perderau, Bernard; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats and to define the therapeutic effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 4-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) while 120 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioral study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed 5 hours before irradiation and repeated the following days. Subcutaneous treatment was started 1 hour after irradiation and repeated daily for 2 weeks. In both the irradiated and sham group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (0.5 mg/kg), liposomes only, normal saline. Results: This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (90 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 0 to day 4 with a recall session at day 14. In study B (validation phase in 150 rats) the behavioral test was performed only from day 0 to day 6. Before irradiation, all rats showed a similar behavioral response. Study A (6 groups of 15 rats): Following TBI, irradiated rats treated with liposomes only or saline demonstrated a significant delay in learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.05 < p <0.001 depending upon the day of evaluation and the subgroup type). In contrast, irradiated rats treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from sham-irradiated rats. Study B (6 groups of 25 rats): The results were the same as those in study A, demonstrating a significant delay in the learning of the test in the liposome and saline-treated irradiated rats in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.02 < p < 0.001). The irradiated rats, treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusion: This study indicates that a relatively

  2. Radiological protection in a patient during a total body irradiation procedure; Proteccion radiologica en un paciente durante un procedimiento de TBI (irradiacion de cuerpo entero)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez O, J. O.; Hinojosa G, J.; Gomez M, E.; Balam de la Vega, J. A. [The American British Cowdray Medical Center, I. A. P., Sur 128 No. 143, Col. Americas, 01120 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Deheza V, J. C., E-mail: johernandezo@abchospital.co [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Luis Enrique Erro s/n, Edificio No. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    A technique used in the Service of Radiotherapy of the Cancer Center of the American British Cowdray Medical Center (ABC) for the bone marrow transplantation, is the total body irradiation. It is known that the dose calculation, for this irradiation type, is old, since the dosimetric calculation is carried out by hand and they exist infinity of techniques for the patients irradiation and different forms of protecting organs of risk, as well as a great uncertainty in the given dose. In the Cancer Center of the ABC Medical Center, was carried out an irradiation procedure to total body with the following methodology: Computerized tomography of the patient total body (two vacuum mattresses in the following positions: dorsal and lateral decubitus), where is combined the two treatment techniques anterior-posterior and bilateral, skin delineate and reference volumes, dose calculation with the planning system Xi O of CMS, dose determination using an ionization chamber and a lung phantom IMRT Thorax Phantom of the mark CIRS and dosimetry in vivo. In this work is presented the used treatment technique, the results, statistics and the actualization of the patient clinical state. (Author)

  3. Calibration of semiconductors diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments; Calibracao de diodos semicondutores para dosimetria in vivo em tratamentos de irradiacao de corpo inteiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernanda F.; Costa, Alessandro M.; Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz, E-mail: ferretti.oliveira@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias e Letras. Departamento de Fisica; Amaral, Leonardo L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the results of in vivo dosimetry with p-type semiconductors diodes, EDP-15 (Scanditronix Wellhoefer) of two patients who underwent total body irradiation treatments, at Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto University of Sao Paulo (HCFMRP-USP). The diodes were well calibrated and the calibration factors were determined with the aid of a reference ionization chamber (FC065, IBA dosimetry, sensitive volume of 0.65 cm{sup 3}).The calibration was performed in a Total Body Irradiation (TBI) setup, using solid water phantoms. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings (half of the lateral thickness). The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for both treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU), which is {+-}5%. (author)

  4. Influence of high dose irradiation on core structural and fuel materials in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) periodically organizes meeting to discuss and review important aspects of fast reactor technology. The fifth meeting held in Obninsk, Russian Federation, 16-19 June 1997, was devoted to the influence of high dose irradiation on the mechanical properties of reactor core structural and fuel materials. The proceedings includes the papers submitted at this meeting each with a separate abstract

  5. Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G.; Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H.

    1994-01-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig

  6. The effects of different schedules of total-body irradiation in heterotopic vascularized bone transplantation. An experimental study in the Lewis rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of irradiation on heterotopically placed vascularized knee isografts, a single dose of 10 Gy of total-body irradiation was given to Lewis donor rats. Irradiation was delivered either 2 or 6 days prior to harvesting or subsequent transplantation, and evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after grafting. Irradiation caused endothelial depopulation of the graft artery, although vascular pedicle patency was maintained throughout the study. Bone graft viability and mineralization were normal. Dramatic changes in the bone marrow were seen that included an increase of its fat content (P less than 0.001), and a concomitant decrease in bone marrow-derived immunocompetent cells. These changes were more prominent in recipients of grafts from day -6 irradiated donor rats. Total-body irradiation did not prejudice the use of vascularized bone grafts, and exhibited an associated immunosuppresant effect over the vascular endothelium and bone marrow. This may be a further rational conditioning procedure to avoid recipient manipulation in vascularized bone allotransplantation

  7. Epithelial regeneration of transposed intestine after high doses of X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both, N.J. de; Vermey, M.

    1976-01-01

    The regeneration capacities of normal and transposed small bowel epithelium were compared in rats after applying high doses of X-irradiation. It has been shown that the potency of the mucosa to regenerate was much higher than assumed and that the mucosa could regenerate after single doses varying from 2000 to 5000 R. Even in the villus epithelium and in flat epithelium covering infiltrates of the lamina propria cells survived, which were still able to resume proliferative activity several days after irradiation. (author)

  8. High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo

    2005-01-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author)

  9. High-dose radiation-induced meningioma following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Yuji; Yamada, Tomonori; Mishima, Hideaki; Tamaki, Ryo [National Hospital Organization Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kawachinagano (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    A 12 year-old girl was treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). At the age of 39, she was admitted to our hospital for status epilepticus. Computed tomography demonstrated two, enhancing bilateral sided intracranial tumors. After surgery, this patient presented meningiomas which histologically, were of the meningothelial type. The high cure rate in childhood ALL, attributable to aggressive chemotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation, is capable of inducing secondary brain tumor. Twelve cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma following ALL are also reviewed. (author)

  10. Role of total body irradiation as based on the comparison of preparation regimens for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in first complete remission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Ikeda, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tang, J.T.; Song, C.; Teshima, T.; Murayama, S.; Ohtani, M.; Shibata, H.; Masaoka, T.

    1993-01-01

    The role of total body irradiation (TBI) for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute leukemia in first complete remission was reevaluated in this study. From Japanese BMT Registry, data of 123 acute leukemia patients in first complete remission who underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in 22 hospitals between 1988 and 1990 were available for the present comparative study of preparation regimens with or without total body irradiation. Two-year survivals were 77% and 51% in the TBI containing regimen group and in the non-TBI regimen group, respectively (p=0.0010). Corresponding two-year relapse rates were 16% and 37%, respectively (p=0.0197). Corresponding probabilities of developing interstitial pneumonitis were 21% and 24%, respectively (p=0.8127). The analysis of causes of death indicated that non-TBI regimen increased the incidence of septicemia and lethal organ failures, such as liver, heart, lung and other multiple sites. It was emphasized that an additional role of total body irradiation was to disperse the treatment-related toxicity in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia. (orig.) [de

  11. Prospective randomized comparison of single-dose versus hyperfractionated total-body irradiation in patients with hematologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.; Benhamou, E.; Bourhis, J.H.; Dhermain, F.; Guillot-Valls, D.; Ganansia, V.; Luboinski, M.; Perez, A.; Cosset, J.M.; Socie, G.; Baume, D.; Bouaouina, N.; Briot, E.; Baudre, A.; Bridier, A.; Pico, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of the two irradiation modes are similar, but the hyperfractionated irradiation seems superior in term of global and specific survival. The incidence rates of pneumopathies are not different between the two groups but the incidence rate of the liver vein-occlusive illness is superior in the group treated by non fractionated whole body irradiation. The cost of the hyperfractionated whole body irradiation is superior to this one of the non fractionated whole body irradiation around a thousand dollars. (N.C.)

  12. Preservation of Minced Meats by Using Medium and High-doses Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I.; Swailam, H.M.H.; Taha, S.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of medium (2.5-10 kGy) dose irradiation and high(20-70 kGy) dose irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and organoleptic properties of minced meat samples was studied. It was found that irradiation dose of only 5 kGy greatly reduced all microbial counts and completely eliminated all non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria contaminated minced meat samples. Consequently this irradiation dose extended the refrigerated (3 degree ±1) storage life of these products for more than 8 weeks. This irradiation dose almost did not affect the chemical composition, particularly the main amino acids and main fatty acids of minced meat samples. Panelists could not differentiate between irradiated minced meat samples at this dose and unirradiated samples. High doses irradiation, i.e.40 and 70 kGy were sufficient and efficient in sterilization of minced meat samples and in obtaining long-stable minced meat products (Two years) at ambient temperature. These irradiation doses slightly reduced (not more than 7%) aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine and lysine of minced meat. It also decreased the relative percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids by not more than 17 % . These high irradiation doses caused loss of C 18:3 and C 20:1

  13. Mock-up experiments for the project of high dose irradiation on the RPV concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdarek, J.; Brabec, P.; Frybort, O.; Lahodova, Z.; Vit, J.; Stemberk, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aging of NPP's concrete structures comes into growing interest in connection with solution of life extension programmes of operated units. Securing continued safe operation of NPPs calls for additional proofs of suitable long term behaviour of loaded reinforced concrete structures. An irradiation test of concrete samples was performed in the core of the LVR-15 reactor. The irradiation capsule was hung in the irradiation channel and the cooling of the capsule was ensured through direct contact of the capsule wall with the primary circuit water. Cylindrical, serpentine concrete samples (50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length), representing composition of WWER RPV cavity, was chosen as a compromise of mechanical properties testing needs and dimension limitations of reactor irradiation channel. Heating during irradiation test was maintained under 93 Celsius degrees by cooling and was controlled by embedded thermocouple. Design of the cooling management was supported by computational analysis. The dependencies of heated concrete samples to the neutron fluence and the gamma heating were obtained by changing the thermal power of the reactor and by changing the vertical position of the sample in the irradiation channel. The irradiation capsule was filled with inert gas (helium) to allow the measurement of generated gas. The determination of concrete samples activity for long-term irradiation was performed on the principles of the Neutron Activation Analysis. Preliminary mock-up tests have proved the ability to fulfill technical needs for planned high dose irradiation experiment

  14. Base of skull and cervical spine chordomas in children treated by high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, Veronique; Liebsch, Norbert J; Munzenrider, John E; Efird, John; McManus, Patricia; Suit, Herman

    1995-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of children with base of skull or cervical spine chordomas treated by high dose irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eighteen children, 4 to 18 years of age, with base of skull or cervical spine chordomas, received fractionated high-dose postoperative radiation using mixed photon and 160 MeV proton beams. The median tumor dose was 69 Cobalt Gray-equivalent (CGE) with a 1.8 CGE daily fraction. Results: The median follow-up was 72 months. The 5-year actuarial survival was 68% and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 63%. The only significant prognostic factor was the location: patients with cervical spine chordomas had a worse survival than those with base of skull lesions (p = 0.008). The incidence of treatment-related morbidity was acceptable: two patients developed a growth hormone deficit corrected by hormone replacement, one temporal lobe necrosis, and one fibrosis of the temporalis muscle, improved by surgery. Conclusion: Chordomas in children behave similarly to those in adults: children can receive the same high-dose irradiation as adults with acceptable morbidity.

  15. Base of skull and cervical spine chordomas in children treated by high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benk, Veronique; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Munzenrider, John E.; Efird, John; McManus, Patricia; Suit, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of children with base of skull or cervical spine chordomas treated by high dose irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eighteen children, 4 to 18 years of age, with base of skull or cervical spine chordomas, received fractionated high-dose postoperative radiation using mixed photon and 160 MeV proton beams. The median tumor dose was 69 Cobalt Gray-equivalent (CGE) with a 1.8 CGE daily fraction. Results: The median follow-up was 72 months. The 5-year actuarial survival was 68% and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 63%. The only significant prognostic factor was the location: patients with cervical spine chordomas had a worse survival than those with base of skull lesions (p = 0.008). The incidence of treatment-related morbidity was acceptable: two patients developed a growth hormone deficit corrected by hormone replacement, one temporal lobe necrosis, and one fibrosis of the temporalis muscle, improved by surgery. Conclusion: Chordomas in children behave similarly to those in adults: children can receive the same high-dose irradiation as adults with acceptable morbidity

  16. Effect of high-dose irradiation on quality characteristics of ready-to-eat chicken breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Haeng Lee, Kyung; Jung Lee, Hyun; Woon Lee, Ju; Uk Ahn, Dong; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    High-dose (higher than 30 kGy) irradiation has been used to sterilize specific-purposed foods for safe and long-term storage. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on the quality characteristics of ready-to-eat chicken breast in comparison with those of the low-dose irradiation. Ready-to-eat chicken breast was manufactured, vacuum-packaged, and irradiated at 0, 5, and 40 kGy. The populations of total aerobic bacteria were 4.75 and 2.26 Log CFU/g in the samples irradiated at 0 and 5 kGy, respectively. However, no viable cells were detected in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy. On day 10, bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy but the number of bacteria in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy was increased. The pH at day 0 was higher in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy than those at 0 and 5 kGy. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of the samples were not significantly different on day 0. However, on day 10, the TBARS value was significantly higher in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy than those at 0 and 5 kGy. There was no difference in the sensory scores of the samples, except for off-flavor, which was stronger in samples irradiated at 5 and 40 kGy than control. However, no difference in off-flavor between the irradiated ones was observed. After 10 days of storage, only the samples irradiated at 40 kGy showed higher off-flavor score. SPME-GC–MS analysis revealed that 5 kGy of irradiation produced 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal, which were not present in the control, whereas 40 kGy of irradiation produced hexane, heptane, pentanal, dimethly disulfide, heptanal, and nonanal, which were not detected in the control or the samples irradiated at 5 kGy. However, the amount of compounds such as allyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide decreased significantly in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy and 40 kGy. - Highlights: ► Comparison of high (40 kGy) and low-dose irradiation (5 kGy) on

  17. Chromosomal Aberrations in Normal and AT Cells Exposed to High Dose of Low Dose Rate Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, T.; Shigematsu, N.; Kawaguchi, O.; Liu, C.; Furusawa, Y.; Hirayama, R.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a human autosomally recessive syndrome characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune dysfunction, and genomic instability, and high rate of cancer incidence. A-T cell lines are abnormally sensitive to agents that induce DNA double strand breaks, including ionizing radiation. The diverse clinical features in individuals affected by A-T and the complex cellular phenotypes are all linked to the functional inactivation of a single gene (AT mutated). It is well known that cells deficient in ATM show increased yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations after high-dose-rate irradiation, but, less is known on how cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation. It has been shown that AT cells contain a large number of unrejoined breaks after both low-dose-rate irradiation and high-dose-rate irradiation, however sensitivity for chromosomal aberrations at low-dose-rate are less often studied. To study how AT cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation, we exposed confluent normal and AT fibroblast cells to up to 3 Gy of gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/day and analyzed chromosomal aberrations in G0 using fusion PCC (Premature Chromosomal Condensation) technique. Giemsa staining showed that 1 Gy induces around 0.36 unrejoined fragments per cell in normal cells and around 1.35 fragments in AT cells, whereas 3Gy induces around 0.65 fragments in normal cells and around 3.3 fragments in AT cells. This result indicates that AT cells can rejoin breaks less effectively in G0 phase of the cell cycle? compared to normal cells. We also analyzed chromosomal exchanges in normal and AT cells after exposure to 3 Gy of low-dose-rate rays using a combination of G0 PCC and FISH techniques. Misrejoining was detected in the AT cells only? When cells irradiated with 3 Gy were subcultured and G2 chromosomal aberrations were analyzed using calyculin-A induced PCC technique, the yield of unrejoined breaks decreased in both normal and AT

  18. Synergies Between ' and Cavity Formation in HT-9 Following High Dose Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saleh, Tarik A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eftink, Benjamin P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Candidate cladding materials for advanced nuclear power reactors including fast reactor designs require materials capable of withstanding high dose neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures. One candidate material, HT-9, through various research programs have demonstrated the ability to withstand significant swelling and other radiation-induced degradation mechanisms in the high dose regime (>50 displacements per atom, dpa) at elevated temperatures (>300 C). Here, high efficiency multi-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) acquisition with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and modeling technique is used to probe the microstructural features that contribute to the exceptional swelling resistance of HT-9. In particular, the synergies between ' and fine-scale and moderate-scale cavity formation is investigated.

  19. Treatment of carcinoma of uterine cervix with high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation using Ralstron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, C.O.; Kim, G.E.; Loh, J.J.K.

    1988-01-01

    From May 1979 through December 1981, a total of 530 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with radiation therapy with curative intent. Of the 530 patients, 365 were treated with a high-dose-rate remote-controlled afterloading system (RALS) using a cobalt source, and 165 patients received a low dose rate using a radium source. External pelvic irradiation with a total of 40-50 Gy to the whole pelvis followed by intracavitary radiation (ICR) with a total dose of 30-39 Gy in ten to 13 fractions to point A was the treatment protocol. ICR was given three times a week with a dose of 3 Gy per fraction. Five-year actuarial survival rate with high-dose-rate ICR by stage was as follows: stage I:82.7% (N = 19) stage II:69.6% (N = 184), and stage III:52.2% (N = 156). The above results were comparable with those with conventional low-dose-rate ICR treatment, and late complications were far less. The application of high-dose-rate ICR was technically simple and easily performed on an outpatient basis without anesthesia, and the patients tolerated it very well. Radiation exposure to personnel was virtually none as compared with that of low-dose-rate ICR. Within a given period of time, more patients can be treated with high-dose-rate ICR because of the short treatment time. The authors therefore conclude that high-dose-rate ICR is suitable for a cancer center where a large number of patients are to be treated

  20. Gene therapy strategy to reduced bone marrow aplasia: evaluation in cynomolgus macaque exposed to a gamma total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becard, N.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess whether direct intra-marrow injection of an adeno-viral vector expressing human IL-1α gene stimulates hematopoiesis in healthy non-irradiated and gamma irradiated cynomolgus macaques. In the first hand, we have evaluated the feasibility of this gene therapy strategy in two healthy non-irradiated macaques. In this work, we have observed an increase of neutrophil, monocyte and platelets in the two animals treated with the therapeutic construct. This effect was associated with no abnormal clinical side effect. On the other hand, we have evaluated this strategy in non-human primate exposed to a sublethal gamma irradiation. Two of three animals treated by the therapeutic construct reduced significantly the neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia radio-induced. In conclusion, this gene therapy strategy gave a similar clinical benefit comparatively to systemic administration of huIL-1α but without severe side effect. (author) [fr

  1. Effect of liposome entrapped Cu/Zn bovine superoxide dismutase in rat after total body (neutron-gamma) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Martin, S.; Lambert, F.; Fontanille, P.; Fessi, H.; Puisieux, F.; Colas-Linhart, N.; Bok, B.; Fatome, M.; Martin, C.

    1998-01-01

    Our purpose was, to study in rat the effects of (neutron-gamma) exposure and of LIPSOD treatment (liposomal Cu/Zn super-oxide dismutase) on cognitive functions. Our data demonstrate that whole-body irradiation induces in Sprague-Dawley rats some cognitive dysfunction. Treatment using LIPSOD corrects in a significantly way this trend. Moreover, in sham-irradiated rats, this treatment shows an inhibitory effect. (authors)

  2. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Agarwal, Rajni; Modlin, Leslie A.; Gray, Christine C.; Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn; Kiamanesh, Eileen F.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  3. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Agarwal, Rajni [Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Modlin, Leslie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gray, Christine C. [Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Kiamanesh, Eileen F. [Cancer Clinical Trials Office, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  4. On-Line High Dose-rate Gamma Irradiation Test of the Profibus/DP module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Koo, In Soo; Hong, Seok Boong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The field bus data communication is considered for application in nuclear environments. The nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants, high radioactivity waste disposals, reprocessing plants and thermonuclear fusion installations can benefit from the unique advantages of the field bus communication network for the smart field instruments and controls. A major problem which arises when dealing with one in these nuclear environments, in special circumstances such as the RCS (reactor coolant system) area, is the presence of high gamma-ray irradiation fields. Radioactive constraints for the DBA(design basis accident) qualification of the RTD transmitter installed in the inside of the RCS pump are typically on the order of 4kGy/h with total doses up to 10kGy. In order to use an industrial field bus communication network as an ad-hoc sensor data link in the vicinity of the RCS area of the nuclear power plant, the robust survivability of these system in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore needs to be verified. We have conducted high dose-rate (up to 4kGy) gamma irradiation experiments on a profibus/DP communication module. In this paper we describe the evolution of its basic characteristics with high dose-rate gamma irradiation and shortly explain the observed phenomena.

  5. Preliminary studies of urinary metabolic profile in rats after acute total body homogeneous irradiation by 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huifang; Yang Biao; Guo Yuefeng; Guo Wanlong; Xing Lihong

    2011-01-01

    To detect the metabolic profile of rats urinary by use of 1 h-NMR, the rats were irradiated by 60 Cy γ-rays with a dose of 7 Gy (0.7 Gy/min). And the data was processed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). The results demonstrated that there were obvious differences in urine metabolites before and after irradiation, and the main metabolites included lactate, acetate, succinate, citrate, creatinine, trimethylamine-N-oxide and taurine. The relative content of lactate, acetate, creatinine and trimethylamine-N-oxide increased significantly on the first day following quickly decreasing on the second and third days, but increasing on the fourth day after irradiation. On the first three days after irradiation, the relative content of succinate and citrate had trending down, but had an ascending tendency on the fourth day. The relative content of taurine was basically stable but higher than pre-radiation. In conclusion, 1 H-NMR combined with PCA and PLS-DA provides a good research method to detect the urinary metabolic profile in rats before and after irradiation. (authors)

  6. Effect of high dose irradiation on the red cell span in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T.W.; Koh, J.W.; Woo, K.S.; Lee, O.H.; Youn, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    As a part of studies on acute effects of high dose irradiation in vivo, the present report was carried out to evaluate the changes of the red cell life span in the white rabbits by a single whole body exposure to gamma rays from 60 Co teletherapy unit. The exposure was done in dose levels of 100, 600 and 900 rads to each experimental group of 10 rabbits. The life span apparent half survival time of red cells, and that the red cell volume in the circulting blood were measured by ICSH Reference method using 51 Cr. (Author)

  7. Early changes in GABA and dlutamine levels and aminotransferase activity in rat brain after total-body γ-irradiation with absolutely lethal doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.A.; Karpovich, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of gaama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (GL) as well as GABA-aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activities were measured in rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex and truncus cerebri 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hr following total-body γ-irradiation ( 60 Co) with a dose of 30 Gy. All the indices under study changed in a similar way in the cortex and truncus cerebri while in the cerebellum, GABA level increased and GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransfearse activity decreased 60 min after irradiation. The levels of GABA and GL in the cortex and truncus cerebri decreased immediately and increased 24 hr after irradiation. Activity of aminotransferases changed in a phase manner: changes in aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activity were more pronounced than those of GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity and correlated with the glutamate level changes

  8. Radiation therapy in leukemia (total body irradiation excluded); Irradiations pour leucemie a l`exclusion de l`irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffert, D.; Hoffstetter, S. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Dept. de Radiotherapie

    1999-03-01

    Radiation techniques and indications in leukemias have been described in detail, yet prophylactic cranial irradiation in acute leukemia still has few indications. Cerebrospinal and testicular irradiation are reserved for relapsing disease. Radiation usually results in rapid functional improvement when used in neurologic emergencies and symptomatic neurologic or gross tumors relapses. Nevertheless, the improvements recently obtained by systemic chemotherapy have resulted in the reduction in the use of irradiation, especially in children, where it was considered deleterious with neuropsychological sequelae. Splenic irradiation remains useful for symptomatic myelo-proliferative syndrome. (authors)

  9. Total body irradiation in the bone marrow transplantation in leukemia: an experience; Irradiacion corporal total fraccionada en el transplante de medula osea ologenica en leucemias: experiencia de un centro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatero, A; Martin de Vidales, C; Pinar, B; Marin, A; Cerezo, L; Dominguez, P; Perez, A [Servicio de Oncologia Radidoterapica Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report was to evaluate long-term survival and morbidity of fractioned total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for leukemia. From June 1985 to May 1992, 94 patients with acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), were treated with high dose cyclophosphamide (CY) and fractionated TBI to a total dose of 12 Gy in six fractions prior to allogeneic BMT. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 53% +-6 and 48%+- respectively for patients with standard risk disease (first remission of acute leukemia and first chronic phase of CML), and 24%+-7 and 21%+-6 for patients with more advanced disease (p=0.01). The incidence of interstitial pneumonitis (IP), venoocclusive disease of the liver (VOD) and grade=>II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were respectively 15%, 29% and 51%. Fractionated TBI combined with high dose CY before allogeneic BMT for leukemia is an effective treatment in prolonging relapse-free survival with a low incidence of lung toxicity. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. Development of computerized dose planning system and applicator for high dose rate remote afterloading irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, T. J. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Kim, S. W. [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea); Kim, O. B.; Lee, H. J.; Won, C. H. [Keimyung Univ., Taegu (Korea); Yoon, S. M. [Dong-a Univ., Pusan (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To design and fabricate of the high dose rate source and applicators which are tandem, ovoids and colpostat for OB/Gyn brachytherapy includes the computerized dose planning system. Designed the high dose rate Ir-192 source with nuclide atomic power irradiation and investigated the dose characteristics of fabricated brachysource. We performed the effect of self-absorption and determining the gamma constant and output factor and determined the apparent activity of designed source. he automated computer planning system provided the 2D distribution and 3D includes analysis programs. Created the high dose rate source Ir-192, 10 Ci(370GBq). The effective attenuation factor from the self-absorption and source wall was examined to 0.55 of the activity of bare source and this factor is useful for determination of the apparent activity and gamma constant 4.69 Rcm{sup 2}/mCi-hr. Fabricated the colpostat was investigated the dose distributions of frontal, axial and sagittal plane in intra-cavitary radiation therapy for cervical cancer. The reduce dose at bladder and rectum area was found about 20 % of original dose. The computerized brachytherapy planning system provides the 2-dimensional isodose and 3-D include the dose-volume histogram(DVH) with graphic-user-interface mode. emoted afterloading device was built for experiment of created Ir-192 source with film dosimetry within {+-}1 mm discrepancy. 34 refs., 25 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  11. Cell biological effects of total body irradiation on growth and differentiation of acute myelogenous leukemia cells compared to normal bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S; Weichselbaum, R R; Botnick, L E; Sakakeeny, M; Moloney, W C

    1979-01-01

    Radiation therapy is used as total body treatment in preparation of the acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patient for bone marrow transplantation. Many AML patients will have residual leukemia cells at the time of total body irradiation (TBI). In the present study, the effect of TBI on leukemic myeloid cells was compared to the effect on normal marrow granulocytic stem cells (CFUc) in vitro. Little difference from that of normal CFUc was found in the radiosensitivity of two mouse myeloid leukemia cell lines. The effect of TBI on growth of WEHI-3 or J774 cells in millipore diffusion chambers was stimulatory. These AML cell lines as well as others derived from Friend or Abelson virus infected in vitro long term mouse marrow cultures showed some morphologic differentiation by 7 days growth in diffusion chambers in irradiated heterologous rat hosts, but immature cells predominated by day 21. Thus, evidence in murine models of AML indicates that residual AML cells surviving chemotherapy will show no greater susceptibility to radiation killing compared to normal stem cells and will rapidly repopulate the irradiated host.

  12. Fiber-coupled Al2O3:C radioluminescence dosimetry for total body irradiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buranurak, Siritorn; Andersen, Claus E.

    2016-01-01

    in the context of Total Body Irradiations (TBIs) where patients are treated with large fields of 6 or 18 MV photons at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD). The study shows that Al2O3:C dosimetry using the saturated-RL protocol may be suitable for real-time in vivo dosimetry during TBI treatments from...... the perspective of the good agreement with alanine dosimetry and other critical phantom tests, including the ability to cope with the large stem signal experienced during TBI treatments at extended SSD. In contrast, the chromatic stem removal technique often used for organic plastic scintillators did not work...

  13. Radiation-damage studies, irradiations and high-dose dosimetry for LHC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Coninckx, F; León-Florián, E; Leutz, H; Schönbacher, Helmut; Sonderegger, P; Tavlet, Marc; Sopko, B; Henschel, H; Schmidt, H U; Boden, A; Bräunig, D; Wulf, F; Cramariuc, R; Ilie, D; Fattibene, P; Onori, S; Miljanic, S; Paic, G; Razen, B; Razem, D; Rendic, D; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1991-01-01

    The proposal is divided into a main project and special projects. The main project consists of a service similar to the one given in the past to accelerator construction projects at CERN (ISR,SPS,LEP) on high-dose dosimetry, material irradiations, irradiations tests, standardization of test procedures and data compilations. Large experience in this field and numerous radiation damage test data of insulating and structural materials are available. The special projects cover three topics which are of specific interest for LHC detector physicists and engineers at CERN and in other high energy physics institutes, namely: Radiation effects in scintillators; Selection of radiation hard optical fibres for data transmission; and Selection and testing of radiation hard electronic components.

  14. Safety and toxicology assessment of chicken breast for high-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Feng Min; Yan Jianmin; Yang Ping; Wang Dening; Gao Meixu; Ha Yiming; Liu Chunquan

    2011-01-01

    Feeding wholesomeness tests of irradiated chicken breast were studied by using acute oral toxicology, Ames, micronucleus of born marrow cell, sperm shape abnormality in mice and 30 d feeding test. The LD 50 of all the rats and mice were more than 10 g/kg · BW, which means that the pet foods belonged to actually non-toxic grade; ames test, and the tests of micronucleus of born marrow cell, sampan shape abnormality in mice were all negative results; 30 d feeding test in rats demonstrated that it had no distinctive effects on routine blood, body weight and biochemical index. It is concluded that pet foods irradiated up to 25 kGy high dose were no safety and toxicology problems. (authors)

  15. Rescue by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in dogs from bone marrow failure after total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.R.; Gray, K.N.; Hester, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine the minimum dose of buffy coat cells necessary to achieve hematopoietic rescue following supralethal irradiation, mongrel dogs under general anesthesia were subjected to leukacytapheresis using three different techniques of cell separation. The buffy coats were frozen with dimethylsulfoxide and stored at -196 degrees C until transfused. Sixteen dogs were irradiated with 800 rads and were supported with antibiotics and transfusions of irradiated homologous blood. They were transfused with the frozen and thawed buffy coat cells, and, if they survived, they were followed for 100 days, sacrificed, and their tissues studied. The mean yield of mononuclear cells during leukocytapheresis ranged from 4.1 +/- 2.0 X 10(9) (mean +/- SD) to 6.0 +/- 4.0 X 10(9) for the three leukacytapheresis methods; one technique was not as satisfactory as the other two. Six of the 16 dogs fully recovered with evidence of marrow rescue; however, only one had a dose of mononuclear cells less than 11.1 X 10(9). These data indicate that seven to 17 leukacytapheresis procedures would be required to reconstitute a 70 kilogram patient. These preliminary findings suggest that, because the yields of transplantable cells with current technology are not adequate, the transplantation potential of buffy coat cells exposed to mobilizing agents should be evaluated

  16. The nuclear pore density in rat liver cells upon regeneration and total body X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, S.N.; Troitskaya, L.P.; Mirkhamidova, P.A.; Bul'dyaeva, T.V.; Zbarskij, I.B.; Grigor'ev, V.B.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Virusologii)

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear pore density has been investigated in rat liver cells in the course of regeneration and X-ray irradiation. It has been found that the number of pore complexes (PC) per nuclear shell (NS) unit area in the liver cells is not constant. In an hour following whole-body irradiation of rats with a regenerating liver at the 1200 R dose the number of PC per 1 μm 2 of the nuclear shell area decreases by 5, 8 times as compared with the PC density in the regenerating liver cells of the irradiated rats, the PC degradation and structural rupture being observed. It has been established by means of the freezing-etching method which enables PC surfaces observation as for cytoplasma as well as for nucleoplasma that the PC peripheral granulas and the central granula consist of subparticles being approximately of the same size. The central granula forms a channel through which the material containing RNA passes from the nucleus to the cytoplasma. On the basis of the fact that the treatement by Triton X-100, disarranging the integrity of the NS membranous structure, preserves PC in relation to the fibrous layer as well as on the basis of the unequal nuclear pore state observed on the platinum-carbon replicas from nuclei splits it is supposed that PC can be formed in the nucleus and then in the course of repening ''built in'' PS

  17. Protective role of Hippopahe leaves against kidney damage in total body 60Co-gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Manu; Prasad, Jagdish; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides has diverse therapeutic applications in Indian, Chinese and Tibetan medicine. Our earlier studies have shown that pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract rendered >90% survival in mice population. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of our herbal preparation from Hippophae leaf against radiation induced kidney damage. The study was conducted with Strain 'A' male mice weighing approximately 28 ±2 g. The mice were administered Hippophae leaf extract, 30 minutes prior to 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The weight of kidneys and histological changes in kidney tissues at the light microscopic level were examined at 2, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment. The results showed that no significant change was observed in kidney weight after 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The glomerular damage in the form of glomerular sclerosis and percentage of damaged glomeruli; tubular damage in form of tubular dilations; apoptosis, and interstitial hemorrhages in renal cortex was also observed after radiation treatment. The pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract countered most of the histological alterations induced by radiation. In comparison to radiation alone group, there was a significant decrease (p 60 cobalt gamma radiation induced damage. (author)

  18. Enhancement of distribution of dermal multipotent stem cells to bone marrow in rats of total body irradiation by platelet-derived growth factor-AA treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Zhaowen; Ren Yongchuan; Shen Yue; Chen Yonghua; Ran Xinze; Shi Chunmeng; Cheng Tianmin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe whether dermal multipotent stem cells (dMSCs) treated with platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) could distribute more frequently to the bone marrow in rats of total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: Male dMSCs were isolated and 10 μg/L PDGF-AA was added to the culture medium and further cultured for 2 h. Then the expression of tenascin-C were examined by Western blot, and the migration ability of dMSCs was assessed in transwell chamber. The pre-treated dMSCs were transplanted by tail vein injection into female rats administered with total body irradiation, and 2 weeks after transplantation, real-time PCR was employed to measure the amount of dMSCs in bone marrow. Non-treated dMSCs served as control.Results PDGF-AA treatment increased the expression of tenascin-C in dMSCs, made (1.79 ± 0.13) × 10 5 cells migrate to the lower chamber under the effect of bone marrow extract, and distributed to bone marrow in TBI rats, significantly more than (1.24 ± 0.09) ×10 5 in non-treated dMSCs (t=8.833, P<0.01). Conclusions: PDGF-AA treatment could enhance the migration ability of dMSCs and increase the amount of dMSCs in bone marrow of TBI rats after transplantation. (authors)

  19. Microstructural evolution in low alloy steels under high dose ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Fukuya, Koji; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Hono, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Radiation hardening and microstructural evolution in low Cu A533B steels (0.03 wt% Cu) irradiated by 3 MeV Ni 2+ ions at 290degC to 1 dpa were investigated by ultra-micro hardness measurement and leaser type three dimensional atom probe analysis. Mn-Ni-Si enriched precipitates were detected in the samples irradiated to 1 dpa by 3DAP analysis. The well-defined precipitates had a size of less than 4 nm, and the number density increased with dose. The formation of the precipitates under high dose rate irradiation suggested that Mn-Ni-Si enriched precipitates were formed by a process such as radiation induced precipitation rather than by thermal equilibrium process. The increase of yield stress calculated by size and number density of the precipitates in 1 dpa irradiated sample using the similar value of hardening efficiency to that of Cu rich precipitates was consistent with that estimated by data of increases of hardness measured by nano-indentation. The result indicates that effects of Mn-Ni-Si enriched precipitates on radiation embrittlement are similar to those of Cu rich precipitates. (author)

  20. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Susanne; Hable, Volker; Greubel, Christoph; Drexler, Guido A; Schmid, Thomas E; Belka, Claus; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2011-01-01

    Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >10 9 Gy s -1 may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly

  1. Tensile stress corrosion cracking of type 304 stainless steel irradiated to very high dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. M.; Ruther, W. E.; Strain, R. V.; Shack, W. J.

    2001-09-01

    Certain safety-related core internal structural components of light water reactors, usually fabricated from Type 304 or 316 austenitic stainless steels (SSs), accumulate very high levels of irradiation damage (20--100 displacement per atom or dpa) by the end of life. The data bases and mechanistic understanding of, the degradation of such highly irradiated components, however, are not well established. A key question is the nature of irradiation-assisted intergranular cracking at very high dose, i.e., is it purely mechanical failure or is it stress-commotion cracking? In this work, hot-cell tests and microstructural characterization were performed on Type 304 SS from the hexagonal fuel can of the decommissioned EBR-11 reactor after irradiation to {approximately}50 dpa at {approximately}370 C. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests were conducted at 289 C in air and in water at several levels of electrochemical potential (ECP), and microstructural characteristics were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microcopies. The material deformed significantly by twinning and exhibited surprisingly high ductility in air, but was susceptible to severe intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) at high ECP. Low levels of dissolved O and ECP were effective in suppressing the susceptibility of the heavily irradiated material to IGSCC, indicating that the stress corrosion process associated with irradiation-induced grain-boundary Cr depletion, rather than purely mechanical separation of grain boundaries, plays the dominant role. However, although IGSCC was suppressed, the material was susceptible to dislocation channeling at low ECP, and this susceptibility led to poor work-hardening capability and low ductility.

  2. Effects of mixed neutron-γ total-body irradiation on physical activity performance of rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    Behavioral incapacitation for a physical activity task and its relationship to emesis and survival time following exposure to ionizing radiation were evaluated in 39 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Subjects were trained to perform a shock avoidance activity task for 6 hr on a 10-min work/5-min rest schedule in a nonmotorized physical activity wheel. Following stabilization of performance, each subject received a single, pulsed dose of mixed neutron-γ, whole-body radiation (n/γ = 3.0) ranging between 1274 and 4862 rad. Performance testing was started 45 sec after exposure. A dose-response function for early transient incapacitation (ETI) during the first 2 hr after irradiation was fitted, and the median effective dose (ED 50 ) was calculated to be 1982 rad. Analysis done on the relationship of dose to ETI, emesis, and survival time found (a) a significant relationship between the radiation dose and the number and duration of ETIs; (b) no correlation between emesis and dose, survival time, or ETI; (c) no relation between survival time and ETI at any dose; and (d) no significant difference in survival time for dose groups between 1766 +/- 9 (SEM) and 2308 +/- 23 rad

  3. Total body irradiation (TBI) in pediatric patients. A single-center experience after 30 years of low-dose rate irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsenmeier, Claudia; Thoennessen, Daniel; Negretti, Laura; Streller, Tino; Luetolf, Urs Martin [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre [University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Hemato-Oncology; Oertel, Susanne [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiation-Oncology; Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2010-11-15

    To retrospectively analyze patient characteristics, treatment, and treatment outcome of pediatric patients with hematologic diseases treated with total body irradiation (TBI) between 1978 and 2006. 32 pediatric patients were referred to the Department of Radiation-Oncology at the University of Zurich for TBI. Records of regular follow-up of 28 patients were available for review. Patient characteristics as well as treatment outcome regarding local control and overall survival were assessed. A total of 18 patients suffered from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 5 from acute and 2 from chronic myelogenous leukemia, 1 from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 2 from anaplastic anemia. The cohort consisted of 15 patients referred after first remission and 13 patients with relapsed leukemia. Mean follow-up was 34 months (2-196 months) with 15 patients alive at the time of last follow-up. Eight patients died of recurrent disease, 1 of graft vs. host reaction, 2 of sepsis, and 2 patients died of a secondary malignancy. The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) was 60%. Overall survival was significantly inferior in patients treated after relapse compared to those treated for newly diagnosed leukemia (24% versus 74%; p=0.004). At the time of last follow-up, 11 patients survived for more than 36 months following TBI. Late effects (RTOG {>=}3) were pneumonitis in 1 patient, chronic bronchitis in 1 patient, cardiomyopathy in 2 patients, severe cataractogenesis in 1 patient (48 months after TBI with 10 Gy in a single dose) and secondary malignancies in 2 patients (36 and 190 months after TBI). Growth disturbances were observed in all patients treated prepubertally. In 2 patients with identical twins treated at ages 2 and 7, a loss of 8% in final height of the treated twin was observed. As severe late sequelae after TBI, we observed 2 secondary malignancies in 11 patients who survived in excess of 36 months. However, long-term morbidity is moderate following treatment with the fractionated

  4. Fast Megavoltage Computed Tomography: A Rapid Imaging Method for Total Body or Marrow Irradiation in Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magome, Taiki [Department of Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Haga, Akihiro [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Nakagawa, Keiichi [Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Dusenbery, Kathryn E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: shui@coh.org [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, California (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Megavoltage computed tomographic (MVCT) imaging has been widely used for the 3-dimensional (3-D) setup of patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT). One drawback of MVCT is its very long imaging time, the result of slow couch speeds of approximately 1 mm/s, which can be difficult for the patient to tolerate. We sought to develop an MVCT imaging method allowing faster couch speeds and to assess its accuracy for image guidance for HT. Methods and Materials: Three cadavers were scanned 4 times with couch speeds of 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm/s. The resulting MVCT images were reconstructed using an iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm with a penalty term of total variation and with a conventional filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. The MVCT images were registered with kilovoltage CT images, and the registration errors from the 2 reconstruction algorithms were compared. This fast MVCT imaging was tested in 3 cases of total marrow irradiation as a clinical trial. Results: The 3-D registration errors of the MVCT images reconstructed with the IR algorithm were smaller than the errors of images reconstructed with the FBP algorithm at fast couch speeds (2, 3, 4 mm/s). The scan time and imaging dose at a speed of 4 mm/s were reduced to 30% of those from a conventional coarse mode scan. For the patient imaging, faster MVCT (3 mm/s couch speed) scanning reduced the imaging time and still generated images useful for anatomic registration. Conclusions: Fast MVCT with the IR algorithm is clinically feasible for large 3-D target localization, which may reduce the overall time for the treatment procedure. This technique may also be useful for calculating daily dose distributions or organ motion analyses in HT treatment over a wide area. Automated integration of this imaging is at least needed to further assess its clinical benefits.

  5. Intracavitary irradiation of prostatic carcinoma by a high dose-rate afterloading technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odelberg-Johnson, O.; Underskog, I.; Johansson, J.E.; Bernshaw, D.; Sorbe, B.; Persson, J.E. (Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Urology Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Gynecologic Oncology Oerebro Medical Center Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics)

    1991-01-01

    A high dose-rate ({sup 60}Co) afterloading technique was evaluated in a series of 73 patients with prostatic carcinoma stages I-IV. The intraurethral irradiation was combined with external pelvic radiotherapy. A minimum total dose of 78 Gy was delivered to the target volume. In a subgroup of patients extramustine (Estracyt) was given as adjuvant chemohormonal therapy during irradiation. The median follow-up for the whole group was 63 months. The crude 5-year survival rate was 60% and the corrected survival rate 90%. Survival was related to the tumor grade. Local pelvic recurrences were recorded in 17.8%. 'Viable cells' in posttherapy aspiration biopsy were not associated with tumor recurrences or survival. Four patients (5%) had grade 3 late radiation reactions with urethral structure or bladder fibrosis. Urinary tract infections and prior transurethral resections were not associated with a higher frequency of reactions. Concurrent estramustine therapy seemed to increase the frequency of both acute and chronic radiation reactions. Local control, recurrence, and survival were not affected by chemohormonal therapy. The use of tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound as aids to computerized dosimetry may improve local dose distribution and reduce the irradiated volume. (orig.).

  6. High-dose external beam irradiation inhibits neointima formation in stented pig coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheye, Stefan; Coussement, Patrick K.; Salame, Mahomed Y.; Fallahi, Payam; Cui Jianhua; Chronos, Nicolas A.F.; King, Spencer B.; Crocker, Ian R.; Robinson, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-dose external beam irradiation (EBRT) in a pig coronary stent preparation because low and intermediate-dose EBRT failed to show inhibition of neointima formation in stented animal models. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 17 pigs. Seven pigs were exposed to a single dose of 21 Gy EBRT immediately after stenting. Ten stented, nonirradiated pigs served as controls. After 4 weeks, the study arteries and myocardium were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Compared with controls, 21 Gy EBRT resulted in a larger lumen area (7.57±1.67 mm 2 vs. 4.00±1.63 mm 2 , p 2 vs. 3.36±2.26 mm 2 , p<0.001) and a smaller maximal intimal thickness (0.16±0.09 mm vs. 0.68±0.31 mm, p<0.001). Unresorbed intramural hemorrhages and adherent mural thrombi were present in the irradiated vessels, which also showed incomplete re-endothelialization. The irradiated hearts demonstrated diffuse interstitial and perivascular inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions: EBRT at 21 Gy to the entire heart significantly inhibited neointima formation in stented pig coronary arteries but also resulted in incomplete re-endothelialization, myocardial inflammation, and fibrosis. Improvements in localization and delivery techniques are required to allow clinical implementation of this technique

  7. Desorption of tritium and helium from high dose neutron irradiated beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Vlasov, V. V.; Kovalev, A. M.; Chakin, V. P.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of high dose neutron irradiation on tritium and helium desorption in beryllium is described. Beryllium samples were irradiated in the SM and BOR-60 reactors to a neutron fluences ( E > 0.1 MeV) of (5-16) × 10 22 cm -2 at 70-100 °C and 380-420 °C. A mass-spectrometry technique was used in out of pile tritium release experiments during stepped annealing in the 250-1300 °C temperature range. The total amount of helium accumulated in irradiated beryllium samples varied from 6000 to 7200 appm. The first signs of tritium and helium release were detected at temperature of 312-445 °C and 500-740 °C, respectively. It is shown that most tritium (˜82%) from sample irradiated at 70-100 °C releases in temperature range of 312-700 °C before the beginning of helium release (740 °C). In the case of beryllium sample irradiated at 380-420 °C, tritium release starts at a higher temperature ( Ts > Tann = 445 °C) and most of the tritium (˜99.8%) is released concurrently with helium which could be considered as evidence of co-existence of partial amounts of tritium and helium in common bubbles. Both the Be samples differ little in the upper temperatures of gas release: 745 and 775 °C for tritium; 1140 and 1160 °C for helium. Swelling of beryllium starts to play a key role in accelerating tritium release at Tann > 600 °C and in helium release - at Tann > 750 °C.

  8. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Shim

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis.

  9. Case of severe intestinal complications caused by high dose-rate intracavitary irradiation for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Kenji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Matsuki, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1987-02-01

    A 46-year-old woman with severe intestinal complication caused by high dose-rate intracavitary irradiation is reported. She received radiation treatment of stage IIb cervical cancer between July 24 and September 26, 1984: a dose of 2400 rad to a point A concurrently with 2000 rad to the parametrium following 4000 rad to the whole pelvis. Eight months later she developed diarrhea and bloody stool. Barium enema study revealed a stenosis at 20 to 25 cm from the anal ring and romanoscopy oozing coagula at the same site. On November 29, 1985 transverse colostomy was performed because of continuing bloody stool and abdominal pain. On January 30, 1986 resection of the ileum and ileostomy were done because of the ileum perforation located 26 cm apart from the ileum end. Some discussion on the causes of this complication are made, suggesting that short length of a tandem and deep location of ovoids influence its cause.

  10. N-methylnicotinamide as a possible prognostic indicator of recovery from leukaemia in patients treated with total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulevicius, P; Streffer, C

    1984-04-01

    N-methylnicotinamide was determined in urine from patients with acute myelocytic leukaemia following total-body X-irradiation with 8.6 Gy and bone marrow transplantation. Patients that are alive and in excellent condition i.e. with acute leukaemia in full remission showed a distinct enhanced excretion of this metabolite about 20 days p.r. which returned to normal levels at about day 40 p.r. Patients that have died intercurrently of early leukaemic recurrences showed considerable fluctuations in N-methylnicotinamide excretion over the entire period and no ''normalization'' of levels in these patients was seen. In those cases where late leukaemic recurrence or infections were the cause of death, usually after discharge from the clinic, excretion patterns typical of those seen in disease-free patients were observed. We thus conclude that this metabolite appears to be a suitable tentative prognostic indicator for the overall state of recovery from leukaemia in the patients.

  11. Cytogenetic studies in dogs after total body irradiation and allogeneic transfusion with cryopreserved blood mononuclear cells: observations in long-term chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, F.; Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kratt, E.; Gerhartz, H.; Koerbling, M.; Nothdurft, W.; Ross, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed on two dog groups after total body irradiation and allogeneic transfusion with cryopreserved blood mononuclear cells. The first group of dogs was transfused with unseparated leukocytes and suffered from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Cytogenetic studies demonstrated only cells of donor origin in all dogs of this group. The second group of animals was transfused with fraction 2 of a discontinuous albumin gradient. The dogs of this group did not develop GvHD, and the cytogenetic studies showed the presence of a mosaic of cells from donor and recipient origin in all of them. These results suggest that the GvHD may suppress autochthonous regeneration

  12. Clinical evaluation of bone marrow transplantation using total body irradiation and induction chemotherapy. Treatment results during twelve years at our hospital and some problems on the therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Toshiki; Koga, Sukehiko; Kikukawa, Kaoru; Okamoto, Masataka; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Esaki, Kohji

    2000-01-01

    We performed sixty patients with hematological malignancies the total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation (TBI-BMT) from 1988 to 2000. We delivered our each patient hyperfractionated TBI consisting of 2 fractions of 3 Gy per day for 2 consecutive days following induction chemotherapy. It proved that TBI-BMT was a valuable treatment method for hematological malignancies which have poor prognosis. About the cumulative survival rate, patients of first remission were better outcome than patients beyond second remission. However, the therapy remained some problems which were the prophylaxis of GVHD for HLA-matched unrelated recipients. And we have to consider a new maintenance procedure to prevent relapse from transplanted donor cell. (author)

  13. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  14. Aging of magnesium stearate under high doses gamma irradiation and oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebeau, D.; Beuvier, L.; Cornaton, M. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, LECA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tabarant, M. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SEARS, LISL, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Magnesium stearate was radio-oxidized at very high doses using gamma-rays. • H{sub 2} emission was estimated as a function of the integrated dose. • Modifications in the organic solid were followed as a function of the integrated dose. • A non-exhaustive degradation mechanism of magnesium stearate was proposed. - Abstract: In nuclear waste packages conditioning processes, magnesium stearate is widely used because of its high lubricating properties. For safety purposes, the radiolytic degradation of these organic materials has to be better understood to be able to predict their aging in repository conditions. This study reports the radiolytic degradation of magnesium stearate, using gamma-rays at room temperature and under air. Modifications were followed using different analytical tools (XPS, ATR-FTIR, ICP-AES, ATG and mass spectrometry). It has been observed that molecules mainly formed up to 1000 kGy of gamma irradiation dose under radio-oxidation are alkanes, hydroperoxides, double bonds in the aliphatic chain, carboxylates with aliphatic chain shorter than the one of stearate and ketones. At a dose of 4000 kGy, dicarboxylic acids are observed: the formation of these molecules needs a dose of at least 1000 kGy to be created under radio-oxidation. These observations allow us to propose a non-exhaustive degradation mechanism of magnesium stearate under gamma-irradiation at room temperature and under air.

  15. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with 11 C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice. (author)

  16. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  17. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L; Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20-120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  18. Post operative high dose rate intravaginal irradiation in endometrial cancer: a safe and effective outpatient treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peter; Gibbons, Susan; Vicini, Frank; Weiner, Sheldon; Dmuchowski, Carl; Mele, Beth; Brabbins, Donald; Jennings, John; Gustafson, Gary; Martinez, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our experience with out patient high dose rate (HDR) intravaginal irradiation given post-operatively in endometrial cancer to assess local control, survival, and toxicity when used alone or in combination with external beam irradiation. Methods and Materials: From (12(88)) to (12(92)), 78 patients underwent TAH/BSO and received post-operative HDR intravaginal irradiation for endometrial cancer. Pathologic stage distribution was IB/IC: 56%, II: 22%, III: 22%. Adjuvant therapy was given in one of three schemes: HDR vaginal radiation alone (6 weekly fractions of 500 cGy prescribed 5 mm from the applicator surface treating the upper 4 cm of the vagina), pelvic irradiation with vaginal HDR (500 cGy x 4 weekly fractions) or whole abdomen/pelvic irradiation (WAPI) with vaginal HDR treatment (500 cGy x 3 weekly fractions). Prior to the first HDR vaginal treatment, a simulation with placement of vaginal apex metallic markers was performed to assure proper positioning of the intravaginal cylinders. Pelvic midline blocking was designed from the HDR intravaginal simulation films. The 55 patients who underwent combined external beam irradiation/brachytherapy received a median dose to the pelvis of 5040 cGy (range 25.2-51.6 Gy), and a median total vaginal dose of 5060 cGy (range 30.0-57.6 Gy). Results: Median follow-up is 37 months (range 6-73 months). Local control (vaginally) is 98.7%. The one vaginal failure was in the distal vagina, outside the treatment volume. All other failures (4) were distant with the vagina controlled [3 intra-abdominal and one bone/intra-abdominal]. For stages I and II, the disease free survival is 92.8%. For stage III the disease free survival is 86.5%. Median overall time to failure is 14.3 months (range 8.5-18.6 months). In terms of acute toxicity, no grade 3-4 acute toxicity of the vagina or bladder was seen. However, 9% acute GI toxicity was encountered. Chronic grade 1-2 toxicities included: vaginal 21.8% (foreshortening and

  19. High dose rate interstitial brachytherapy with external beam irradiation for localized prostate cancer. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Jo, Yoshimasa; Yoden, Eisaku; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Imajo, Yoshinari [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Nagase, Naomi; Narihiro, Naomasa; Kubota, Juichi

    2000-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the biochemical and pathological results of combined external beam radiotherapy and high dose rate Ir-192 brachytherapy (HDR-Ir192) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Between October 1997 and August 1999, 39 evaluable patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate diagnosed by biopsy were treated with interstitial and external beam irradiation. Patients ranged in age from 58-82 years, with a mean of 69.7 years. T1c, T2 and T3 tumors, according to the UICC classification system (1997), were found in 7, 21 and 11 cases respectively. The mean initial pre-treatment PSA was 35.9 ng/ml (median 13.2), with 77% of the patients having had a pre-treatment PSA greater than 10 ng/ml. Of all patients, 17 had received pre-treatment hormonal therapy. Hormonal pretreatment was stopped at the beginning of radiotherapy in all cases. External beam four-field box irradiation was given to the small pelvis to a dose of 45 Gy/25 fractions. Three HDR-Ir192 treatments were given over a 30-h period, with 5.5 Gy per fraction at the circumference of the prostate gland over the course of this study. Biochemical failure was defined as a PSA level >1.5 ng/ml and rising on three consecutive values. If serial post-treatment PSA levels showed a continuous downward trend, failure was not scored. The patient with clinical evidence of progression was classified as a clinical failure. The median follow-up at the time of evaluation was 19.6 months. A post-treatment PSA level {<=}1.0 ng/ml was seen in 26 (67%) patients, and values from >1.0 to {<=}2.0 ng/ml were seen in 10 (26%) patients. Biochemical failure was not seen in 38 patients except for one patient who developed a distant bone metastasis with negative prostatic biopsy 15 months after treatment. Biochemical control rate was 100% (38/38) except for the patient with bone metastasis classified as clinical failure. Negative biopsies 18 months after treatment were found in 93% (14/15) of patients. Only one patient

  20. Effects of low priming dose irradiation on cell cycle arrest of HepG2 cells caused by high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jingguang; Jin Xiaodong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Li Wenjian; Wang Jufang; Guo Chuanling; Gao Qingxiang

    2005-01-01

    Human hepatoma cells hepG2 were irradiated twice by 60 Co γ-rays with a priming dose of 5 cGy and a higher dose of 3 Gy performed 4h or 8h after the low dose irradiation. Effects of the priming dose irradiation on cell cycle arrest caused by high dose were examined with flow cytometry. Cells in G 2 /M phase accumulated temporarily after the 5 cGy irradiation, and proliferation of tumor cells was promoted significantly by the low dose irradiation. After the 3 Gy irradiation, G 2 phase arrest occurred, and S phase delayed temporally. In comparison with 3 kGy irradiation only, the priming dose delivered 4h prior to the high dose irradiation facilitated accumulation of hepG2 cells in G 2 /M phase, whereas the priming dose delivered 8h prior to the high dose irradiation helped the cells to overcome G 2 arrest. It was concluded that effects of the priming dose treatment on cell cycle arrest caused by high dose irradiation were dependent on time interval between the two irradiations. (authors)

  1. Mitigating the Effects of Xuebijing Injection on Hematopoietic Cell Injury Induced by Total Body Irradiation with γ rays by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deguan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic injury is the most common side effect of radiotherapy. However, the methods available for the mitigating of radiation injury remain limited. Xuebijing injection (XBJ is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat sepsis in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the effects of XBJ on the survival rate in mice with hematopoietic injury induced by γ ray ionizing radiation (IR. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with XBJ daily for seven days after total body irradiation (TBI. Our results showed that XBJ (0.4 mL/kg significantly increased 30-day survival rates in mice exposed to 7.5 Gy TBI. This effect may be attributable to improved preservation of white blood cells (WBCs and hematopoietic cells, given that bone marrow (BM cells from XBJ-treated mice produced more granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units (CFU-GM than that in the 2 Gy/TBI group. XBJ also decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS by increasing glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in serum and attenuated the increased BM cell apoptosis caused by 2 Gy/TBI. In conclusion, these findings suggest that XBJ enhances the survival rate of irradiated mice and attenuates the effects of radiation on hematopoietic injury by decreasing ROS production in BM cells, indicating that XBJ may be a promising therapeutic candidate for reducing hematopoietic radiation injury.

  2. Current status of total body irradiation in conditioning regimen for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Survey in the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study (JACLS) Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Hara, Jun-ichi; Chayama, Kohsuke; Akiyama, Yuichi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed methods of total body irradiation (TB I) in conditioning regimens of stem cell transplantation (SCT) for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at participating institutions of the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study (JACLS) ALL-97 protocol. We obtained information about TBI from 25 institutions. Total dose of 12 Gy fractionated by four to six in two to three days for TBI was conducted in 22 of 25 institutions. High-risk patients, such as patients with Philadelphia positive ALL, received over 12 Gy in five institutions. Beam direction and patient's positioning were horizontal and lateral respectively in 15 institutions. Shielding of lung and/or eyes and boost irradiation to central nervous system and/or testis were done in 24 and 11 institutions respectively, but in various ways. We have to keep in mind that a great variety of TBI have been undergone in each institution when we intend to interpret multi-institutional trials of treatment including SCT for patients with ALL. (author)

  3. In vitro radiation studies on Ewing's sarcoma cell lines and human bone marrow: application to the clinical use of total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Mitchell, J.B.; McPherson, S.; Miser, J.; Triche, T.; Glatstein, E.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with Ewing's sarcoma who present with a central axis or proximal extremity primary and/or with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis despite aggressive combination chemotherapy and local irradiation. In this high risk group of patients, total body irradiation (TBI) has been proposed as a systemic adjuvant. To aid in the design of a clinical TBI protocol, the authors have studied in the in vitro radiation response of two established cell lines of Ewing's sarcoma and human bone marrow CFUc. The Ewing's lines showed a larger D 0 and anti-n compared to the bone marrow CFU. No repair of potentially lethal radiation damage (PLDR) was found after 4.5 Gy in plateau phase Ewing's sarcoma cells. A theoretical split dose survival curve for both the Ewing's sarcoma lines and human bone marrow CFUc using this TBI schedule shows a significantly lower surviving fraction (10 -4 -10 -5 ) for the bone marrow CFUc. Based on these in vitro results, two 4.0 Gy fractions separated by 24 hours is proposed as the TBI regimen. Because of the potentially irreversible damage to bone marrow, autologous bone marrow transplantation following the TBI is felt to be necessary. The details of this clinical protocol in high risk Ewing's sarcoma patients are outlined

  4. Total body irradiation in a patient with fragile X syndrome for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in preparation for stem cell transplantation: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D T; Mannina, E M; Mendonca, M

    2015-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a congenital disorder caused by expansion of CGG trinucleotide repeat at the 5' end of the fragile X mental retardation gene 1 (FMR1) on the X chromosome that leads to chromosomal instability and diminished serum levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Afflicted individuals often have elongated features, marfanoid habitus, macroorchidism and intellectual impairment. Evolving literature suggests the condition may actually protect from malignancy while chromosomal instability would presumably elevate the risk. Increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation should also be predicted by unstable sites within the DNA. Interestingly, in this report, we detail a patient with FXS diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with induction followed by subsequent cycles of hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) with a complete response who then was recommended to undergo peripheral stem cell transplantation. The patient underwent total body irradiation (TBI) as a component of his conditioning regimen and despite the concern of his clinicians, developed minimal acute toxicity and successful engraftment. The pertinent literature regarding irradiation of patients with FXS is also reviewed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, T [The State University of New York at Buffalo (United States); Wang, IZ [The State University of New York at Buffalo (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45°) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90°) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  6. Postoperative vaginal irradiation by a high dose-rate afterloading technique in endometrial carcinoma stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorbe, B.; Smeds, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high dose-rate (cobalt-60) afterloading technique was used for postoperative vaginal irradiation in a series of 404 women with endometrial carcinoma stage I. The total recurrence rate was 3.7% with 0.7% vaginal lesions. The crude 5-year survival rate for the complete series was 91.8% compared to 13.3% for those with recurrences. Depth of myometrical infiltration (>1/3 of the uterine wall) and nuclear grade were the most important prognostic factors. Clinically significant late radiation reactions (bladder and/or rectum) were recorded in 6.9%. The absorbed dose per fraction and the size of the treatment volume were significantly related to the occurrence of both early and late radiation reactions. Vaginal shortening was closely related to the dose per fraction, length of the referce isodose and the applicator diameter. The shape of the vaginal applicator versus the isodose contours and the importance of the source train geometry and relative activity for absorbed dose inhomogeneitis within the treatment volume are discussed. Cumulative radiation effect (CRE) and linear-quadratic (LQ) calculations have been performed and related to tissue reactions within the target volume and in the risk organs. An alpha-beta quotient of 8.8 Gy for vaginal shrinkage effect and 2.0 Gy for late rectal complications are suggested on the basis of calculations using a maximum likelihood method for quantal radiation data. (orig.)

  7. Postoperative vaginal irradiation with high dose rate afterloading technique in endometrial carcinoma stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorbe, B.G.; Smeds, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    A high dose rate ( 60 Co) afterloading technique was used for postoperative prophylactic vaginal irradiation in a series of 404 women with endometrial carcinoma Stage I. The total recurrence rate was 3.7% with 0.7% vaginal deposits. The crude 5-year survival rate for the complete series was 91.8% compared to 13.3% for those with recurrences. Depth of myometrial infiltration (greater than 1/3 of the uterine wall) and nuclear grade were the most important prognostic factors. Clinically significant late radiation reactions (bladder and/or rectum) were recorded in 6.9%. Dose per fraction and the size of the target volume were highly significantly related to the occurrence of both early and late radiation reactions. Vaginal shortening is closely related to the dose per fraction, length of the reference isodose, and the applicator diameter. The shape of the vaginal applicator versus the isodoses and the importance of the source train geometry and relative activity for dose gradient inhomogeneities within the target volume are discussed. Cumulative radiation effect (CRE) and linear-quadratic (LQ) calculations have been performed and related to tissue reactions within the target volume and in the risk organs. An alpha-beta quotient of 8.8 for vaginal shrinkage effect and 2.0 for late rectal complications are suggested on the basis of calculations using a maximum likelihood method for quantal radiation data

  8. Hypofractionated High-Dose Irradiation with Positron Emission Tomography Data for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Miwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents clinical outcomes of hypofractionated high-dose irradiation by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (Hypo-IMRT with 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET data for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. A total of 45 patients with GBM were treated with Hypo-IMRT after surgery. Gross tumor volume (GTV was defined as the area of enhanced lesion on MRI, including MET-PET avid region; clinical target volume (CTV was the area with 5 mm margin surrounding the GTV; planning target volume (PTV was the area with 15 mm margin surrounding the CTV, including MET-PET moderate region. Hypo-IMRT was performed in 8 fractions; planning the dose for GTV was escalated to 68 Gy and that for CTV was escalated to 56 Gy, while keeping the dose delivered to the PTV at 40 Gy. Concomitant and adjuvant TMZ chemotherapy was administered. At a median follow-up of 18.7 months, median overall survival (OS was 20.0 months, and median progression-free survival was 13.0 months. The 1- and 2-year OS rates were 71.2% and 26.3%, respectively. Adjuvant TMZ chemotherapy was significantly predictive of OS on multivariate analysis. Late toxicity included 7 cases of Grade 3-4 radiation necrosis. Hypo-IMRT with MET-PET data appeared to result in favorable survival outcomes for patients with GBM.

  9. Increased health care utilization by survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia is confined to those treated with cranial or total body irradiation: a case cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Moëll, Christian; Hjorth, Lars; Lindgren, Anna; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Wiebe, Thomas; Øra, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased morbidity measured in terms of health care utilization. However, earlier studies have several potentially important limitations. To overcome some of these, we investigated hospital contact rates, and predictors thereof, among 5-year survivors of ALL in a population-based setting, and compared them to a control cohort regarding outcome measures from a comprehensive nation-wide health register. All individuals diagnosed with ALL before the age of 18 in Southern Sweden during 1970–1999 and alive January 2007 (n = 213; male = 107) were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Each subject was matched to fifty controls, identified in the Swedish Population Register. All study subjects were linked to the National Hospital Register and detailed information was obtained on all hospital contacts (hospital admissions and outpatients visits) starting five years after cancer diagnosis, and the corresponding date for the controls, until 2009. The median follow-up among the 5-year survivors of ALL was 16 years (range 5–33), accruing a total of 3,527 person-years. Of the 213 5-year survivors, 105 (49.3%) had at least one hospital contact compared to 3,634 (34.1%) of the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors had more hospital contacts (3 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–4] contacts, p < 0.001) and more total days in hospital (6 [2–18] vs. 3 [1–7] days, p < 0.001) than the controls during the study period. Logistic regression analysis showed that survivors treated with cranial irradiation and/or total body irradiation (45% and 7%, respectively) had an increased risk of at least one hospital contact (OR 2.3, 95%CI; 1.5–3.6 and OR 11.0, 95%CI; 3.2–50.7, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the non-irradiated survivors and controls. We show that irradiated survivors of childhood ALL have an increased morbidity measured in terms of hospital

  10. Extreme heterogeneity of myeloablative total body irradiation techniques in clinical practice: a survey of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Sebastian; Miszczyk, Leszek; Slosarek, Krzysztof; Moukhtari, Leila; Ciceri, Fabio; Esteve, Jordi; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Labopin, Myriam; Nagler, Arnon; Schmid, Christoph; Mohty, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is widely used for conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation. Its efficacy and toxicity may depend on many methodological aspects. The goal of the current study was to explore current clinical practice in this field. A questionnaire was sent to all centers collaborating in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and included 19 questions regarding various aspects of TBI. A total of 56 centers from 23 countries responded. All centers differed with regard to at least 1 answer. The total maximum dose of TBI used for myeloablative transplantation ranged from 8 grays (Gy) to 14.4 Gy, whereas the dose per fraction was 1.65 Gy to 8 Gy. A total of 16 dose/fractionation modalities were identified. The dose rate ranged from 2.25 centigrays to 37.5 centigrays per minute. The treatment unit was linear accelerator (LINAC) (91%) or cobalt unit (9%). Beams (photons) used for LINAC were reported to range from 6 to 25 megavolts. The most frequent technique used for irradiation was "patient in 1 field," in which 2 fields and 2 patient positions per fraction are used (64%). In 41% of centers, patients were immobilized during TBI. Approximately 93% of centers used in vivo dosimetry with accepted discrepancies between the planned and measured doses of 1.5% to 10%. In 84% of centers, the lungs were shielded during irradiation. The maximum accepted dose for the lungs was 6 Gy to 14.4 Gy. TBI is an extremely heterogeneous treatment modality. The findings of the current study should warrant caution in the interpretation of clinical studies involving TBI. Further investigation is needed to evaluate how methodological differences influence outcome. Efforts to standardize the method should be considered. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  11. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Jung, E-mail: forejs2@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Won, E-mail: JUNWON@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyun, E-mail: gochunghee@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woori, E-mail: asleo02@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Bioinformatics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Hoon, E-mail: wonhoon@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seoae, E-mail: seoae@cnkgenomics.com [C& K Genomics, Seoul National University Mt.4-2, Main Bldg. #514, SNU Research Park, NakSeoungDae, Gwanakgu, Seoul 151-919 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yu Jeong, E-mail: yunk9275@daum.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin, E-mail: yjlee8@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Research Center for Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-760 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaeho, E-mail: jjhmd@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  12. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Yoo, Hyun; Kwak, Woori; Choi, Won Hoon; Cho, Seoae; Choi, Yu Jeong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Cho, Jaeho

    2015-01-01

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm 2 fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL-33

  13. Postoperative vaginal cuff irradiation using high dose rate remote afterloading: a Phase II clinical protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, William R.; Bastin, Kenneth; Edwards, Scott A.; Buchler, Dolores A.; Stitt, Judith A.; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Fowler, Jack F.; Kinsella, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: In September 1989, a postoperative Phase II high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy protocol was started for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. This review reports the overall survival, local control, and complication rates for the initial 63 patients treated in this Phase II study. Methods and Materials: High dose rate brachytherapy was delivered using an Iridium-192 HDR remote afterloader. Sixty-three patients were entered into the Phase II protocol, each receiving two vaginal cuff treatments 1 week apart (range 4-12 days) with vaginal ovoids (diameter 2.0-3.0 cm). No patient received adjuvant external beam radiation. A dose of 32.4 Gy in two fractions was prescribed to the ovoid surface in 63 patients. The first three patients treated at our institution received 15, 16.2, and 29 Gy, respectively, to determine acute effects. Results: At a median follow-up of 1.6 years (range 0.75-4.3 years) no patient has developed a vaginal cuff recurrence. One regional recurrence (1.6%) occurred at 1.2 years at the pelvic side wall. This patient is alive and without evidence of disease 7 months after completion of salvage irradiation, which resulted in the only vaginal stenosis (1.6%). Fourteen patients (22%) experienced vaginal apex fibrosis by physical exam, which was clinically symptomatic in four patients. Two patients reported stress incontinence; however, these symptoms were noted prior to their HDR therapy. One patient died 2.4 years after HDR therapy due to cardiovascular disease without evidence of cancer at autopsy. Conclusion: Preliminary results of our phase II HDR vaginal cuff protocol for postoperative FIGO Stage IA, Grade 3 or Stage IB, Grade 1-2 patients demonstrate that 32.4 Gy in two fractions is well tolerated by the vaginal cuff mucosa. Local control appears comparable to our prior experience and others with low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy. Additional patient accrual and further follow

  14. The effect of total body irradiation dose and chronic graft-versus-host disease on leukaemic relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassoni, F; Bacigalupo, A [Ospedale San Martino (Italy). Centro Trapianti Midollo Osseo; Scarpati, D [Univ. di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia; and others

    1989-10-01

    One-hundred and five patients undergoing allo-geneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n=61) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (n=44) were analysed for risk factors associated with relapse. All patients received marrow from an HLA identical sibling after preparation with cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg and total body irradiation (TBI) 330 cGy on each of the three days prior to transplantation. A multivariate Cox analysis indicated that a lower TBI dose (less than 990 cGy) was the most significant factor associated with relapse and the second most important factor associated with recurrence of leukaemia was the absence of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD). Actuarial relapse incidence was 62%, 28% and 18% for patients with no, limited or extensive chronic GvHD respectively. However, chronic GvHD had no significant impact on survival. Combined stratification for TBI dose and cGvHD showed that the dose effect of TBI on relapse was evident both in patients with and without cGvHD. Chronic GvHD influenced the risk of relapse only in patients receiving less than 990 cGy. These results suggest that a higher dose of TBI, within this schedule, produced long-term disease-free survival in the majority of AMLs and CMLs. Minor radiobiological side effects were experienced, but a small reduction of the dose may significantly increase the risk of relapse. (author).

  15. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with conditioning regimen to total body irradiation + thiotepa + melphalan for 35 patients with high-risk leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumura-Yagi, Keiko; Inoue, Masami; Okamura, Takayuki

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-five children with high-risk leukemia received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) following a pre-conditioning regimen consisting of total body irradiation, thiotepa and melphalan. Twenty-one patients had acute lymphocytic leukemia, 6 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, 2 acute undifferentiated leukemia, 2 acute mixed lineage leukemia, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome and 2 juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia. Sixteen patients received BMT while in complete remission (CR), but 19 were not in CR. Eighteen patients received transplants from HLA-matched related donors, 15 from unrelated donors and 2 from HLA-mismatched related donors. Cyclosporin±methotrexate was used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in the BMTs from related donors and tacrolimus±prednisolone in the BMTs from unrelated donors. Transplant-related death occurred in 12 patients; 5 acute GVHD, 4 infections (3 fungal infections, 1 Cytomegalovirus pneumonia), 1 intracranial haemorrhage and 2 chronic GVHD. Relapses were observed in 6 patients (69, 168, 175, 222, 275 and 609 days post BMT). Event-free survival rate at 2 years is 38.1% in CR patients and 36.9% in nonCR patients. (author)

  16. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Moo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.

  17. The effect of total body irradiation dose and chronic graft-versus-host disease on leukaemic relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frassoni, F.; Bacigalupo, A.; Scarpati, D.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred and five patients undergoing allo-geneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n=61) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (n=44) were analysed for risk factors associated with relapse. All patients received marrow from an HLA identical sibling after preparation with cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg and total body irradiation (TBI) 330 cGy on each of the three days prior to transplantation. A multivariate Cox analysis indicated that a lower TBI dose (less than 990 cGy) was the most significant factor associated with relapse and the second most important factor associated with recurrence of leukaemia was the absence of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD). Actuarial relapse incidence was 62%, 28% and 18% for patients with no, limited or extensive chronic GvHD respectively. However, chronic GvHD had no significant impact on survival. Combined stratification for TBI dose and cGvHD showed that the dose effect of TBI on relapse was evident both in patients with and without cGvHD. Chronic GvHD influenced the risk of relapse only in patients receiving less than 990 cGy. These results suggest that a higher dose of TBI, within this schedule, produced long-term disease-free survival in the majority of AMLs and CMLs. Minor radiobiological side effects were experienced, but a small reduction of the dose may significantly increase the risk of relapse. (author)

  18. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 10: Results from Canada Wide Survey on Total Body Irradiation Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studinski, Ryan; Fraser, Danielle; Samant, Rajiv; MacPherson, Miller [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Total Body Irradiation (TBI) is delivered to a relatively small number of patients with a variety of techniques; it has been a challenge to develop consensus studies for best practice. This survey was created to assess the current state of TBI in Canada. Methods: The survey was created with questions focusing on the radiation prescription, delivery technique and resources involved. The survey was circulated electronically to the heads of every clinical medical physics department in Canada. Responses were gathered and collated, and centres that were known to deliver TBI were urged to respond. Results: Responses from 20 centres were received, including 12 from centres that perform TBI. Although a variety of TBI dose prescriptions were reported, 12 Gy in 6 fractions was used in 11 centres while 5 centres use unique prescriptions. For dose rate, a range of 9 to 51 cGy/min was reported. Most centres use an extended SSD technique, with the patient standing or lying down against a wall. The rest use either a “sweeping” technique or a more complicated multi-field technique. All centres but one indicated that they shield the lungs, and only a minority shield other organs. The survey also showed that considerable resources are used for TBI including extra staffing, extended planning and treatment times and the use of locally developed hardware or software. Conclusions: This survey highlights that both similarities and important discrepancies exist between TBI techniques across the country, and is an opportunity to prompt more collaboration between centres.

  19. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Moo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.

  20. The role of low-dose total body irradiation in treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a new look at an old method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, A.

    2000-01-01

    The use of low-dose total body irradiation (LTBI) in treatment of lymphomatous malignancies dates back to the 1920s. The usual practice was to give very low individual TBI fraction sizes (0. 1-0.25 Gy) several times a week to a total dose of 1.5-2 Gy. Despite this very low total dose, LTBI could induce long term remissions and was always as effective as the chemotherapy to which it was compared. In modem radiotherapy, LTBI is still a valid option in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and the advanced stages of indolent low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Its use in the early stages of low-grade NHL is under investigation in a large multi-institutional trial. The efficacy of LTBI is believed to stem from three mechanisms, namely; immune-enhancement, induction of apoptosis, and the intrinsic hypersensitivity to low-radiation doses demonstrated in many cell lines and tumour systems. Thus, LTBI seems to provide 'alternative' mechanisms of action against cancer cells. This should encourage researchers to explore strategies that integrate LTBI in new and innovative experimental treatment protocols that explore the possible synergism between LTBI and chemotherapy, biological response modifiers and/or immunotherapy. The increased incidence of secondary leukaemia that occurs when LTBI is combined with alkylating agents and/or total lymphoid irradiation should be kept in mind when designing such protocols as it may limit the use of LTBI in highly curable diseases and young patients in whom long survival is expected. (author)

  1. Combined low- and high-dose irradiation and its interpretation from the point of view of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade some 'stimulating' or 'hormetic' effects have been ascribed to low-levels of radiation. The adaptive response was a phenomenon recently used as an argument among others advertising such hormetic effects of low dose irradiation. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes may show a decrease of chromosomal aberrations (CA) after high doses of ionizing radiation if they have been previously irradiated by small doses of internally deposited tritium from labelled thymidine, or by small doses of X-rays. This response looks as if some adaptation would take place to the low-dose irradiation and was called 'adaptive response' (AR). It was attributed to repair mechanisms elicited by damaging the lymphocyte DNA by small doses of radiation so that after the high dose, delivered at times when higher levels of repair proteins and other molecules are still present in cells, a lower damaging effect may be expressed. Our work was aimed at gaining information about the frequency distribution of the responses to a combination of low-dose irradiation with tritium and high-dose irradiation with gamma rays and at comparing two endpoints: counts of CA with counts of micronuclei (M) in lymphocytes from the same donors in a human population sample

  2. Total body irradiation in conditioning patients for bone marrow transplantation. Irradiation technique and preliminary results at the West German Tumour Centre, Universitaetsklinikum Essen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, G.; Schaefer, U.W.; Nowrousian, M.R.; Oehl, S.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary results of bone marrow transplantation of 8 patients are presented with particular reference to the irradiation technique. 5 patients died 0.5 to 8 months after transplantation. 3 patients are alive and in good condition 2 to 15 months after transplantation

  3. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Dose and Energy Spectra From Neutron Induced Radioactivity in Medical Linear Accelerators Following High Energy Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keehan, S; Taylor, M; Franich, R; Smith, R; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk posed by neutron induced activation of components in medical linear accelerators (linacs) following the delivery of high monitor unit 18 MV photon beams such as used in TBI. Methods: Gamma spectroscopy was used to identify radioisotopes produced in components of a Varian 21EX and an Elekta Synergy following delivery of photon beams. Dose and risk estimates for TBI were assessed using dose deliveries from an actual patient treatment. A 1 litre spherical ion chamber (PTW, Germany) has been used to measure the dose at the beam exit window and at the total body irradiation (TBI) treatment couch following large and small field beams with long beam-on times. Measurements were also made outside of the closed jaws to quantify the benefit of the attenuation provided by the jaws. Results: The radioisotopes produced in the linac head have been identified as 187 W, 56 Mn, 24 Na and 28 Al, which have half-lives from between 2.3 min to 24 hours. The dose at the beam exit window following an 18 MV 2197 MU TBI beam delivery was 12.6 µSv in ten minutes. The dose rate at the TBI treatment couch 4.8 m away is a factor of ten lower. For a typical TBI delivered in six fractions each consisting of four beams and an annual patient load of 24, the annual dose estimate for a staff member at the treatment couch for ten minutes is 750 µSv. This can be further reduced by a factor of about twelve if the jaws are closed before entering the room, resulting in a dose estimate of 65 µSv. Conclusion: The dose resulting from the activation products for a representative TBI workload at our clinic of 24 patients per year is 750 µSv, which can be further reduced to 65 µSv by closing the jaws

  4. SU-C-213-04: Application of Depth Sensing and 3D-Printing Technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Patient Measurement and Treatment Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, B; Xing, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Jenkins, C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate an innovative method of using depth sensing cameras and 3D printing techniques for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatment planning and compensator fabrication. Methods: A tablet with motion tracking cameras and integrated depth sensing was used to scan a RANDOTM phantom arranged in a TBI treatment booth to detect and store the 3D surface in a point cloud (PC) format. The accuracy of the detected surface was evaluated by comparison to extracted measurements from CT scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section was measured for TBI treatment planning. A 2D map containing a detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs). Results: The whole scan of the anthropomorphic phantom took approximately 30 seconds. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom compare to CT was 0.44 ± 0.268 cm. These errors resulted in approximately 2% dose error calculation and 0.4 mm tungsten thickness deviation for the compensator design. The accuracy of 3D compensator printing was within 0.2 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed the overall dose difference was within 3%. Conclusion: Motion cameras and depth sensing techniques proved to be an accurate and efficient tool for TBI patient measurement and treatment planning. 3D printing technique improved the efficiency and accuracy of the compensator production and ensured a more accurate treatment delivery.

  5. SU-C-213-04: Application of Depth Sensing and 3D-Printing Technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Patient Measurement and Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M; Suh, T; Han, B; Xing, L; Jenkins, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate an innovative method of using depth sensing cameras and 3D printing techniques for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatment planning and compensator fabrication. Methods: A tablet with motion tracking cameras and integrated depth sensing was used to scan a RANDOTM phantom arranged in a TBI treatment booth to detect and store the 3D surface in a point cloud (PC) format. The accuracy of the detected surface was evaluated by comparison to extracted measurements from CT scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section was measured for TBI treatment planning. A 2D map containing a detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs). Results: The whole scan of the anthropomorphic phantom took approximately 30 seconds. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom compare to CT was 0.44 ± 0.268 cm. These errors resulted in approximately 2% dose error calculation and 0.4 mm tungsten thickness deviation for the compensator design. The accuracy of 3D compensator printing was within 0.2 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed the overall dose difference was within 3%. Conclusion: Motion cameras and depth sensing techniques proved to be an accurate and efficient tool for TBI patient measurement and treatment planning. 3D printing technique improved the efficiency and accuracy of the compensator production and ensured a more accurate treatment delivery

  6. Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil after nonmyeloablative matched-sibling donor allogeneic stem-cell transplantations conditioned with fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Yago; Patton, Nigel; Hawkins, Timothy; Spearing, Ruth; Bearman, Scott I; Jones, Roy B; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Zeng, Chan; Barón, Anna; McSweeney, Peter A

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after a nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (NST) from a matched sibling donor (MSD). Thirty-two patients (median age, 57 years) with advanced hematologic malignancies, who were poor candidates for a conventional myeloablative transplantation, received fludarabine (30 mg/m(2), day -4 to day -2), total-body irradiation (TBI) (200 cGy, day 0), infusion of donor peripheral blood progenitor cells (day 0), oral tacrolimus 0.06 mg/kg twice daily (from day 3), and oral MMF at 15 mg/kg twice daily (days 0-+27). Tacrolimus was tapered from day +100 to day +180 in those patients with indolent malignancies (n = 25), and from day +35 to day +56 in those with aggressive tumors (n = 7). Regimen toxicities and myelosuppression were mild, allowing 75% of patients to have entirely outpatient transplantations. One patient (3%) experienced a nonfatal graft rejection. Rates of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD were 15.6% and 3%, respectively. Acute GVHD was diagnosed at median day +78 (range, days +31-+84). Extensive chronic GVHD was observed in 10 of 24 evaluable patients (41.6%) at a median onset of day +198 (range, days +128-+277), either spontaneously (n = 5) or elicited after tumor progression (n = 5). Five patients experienced transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (15.6%) from either acute GVHD-related multiorgan failure (MOF) (n = 3) or infectious complications (n = 2). At median follow-up of 19 months (range, 2-41 months), the overall survival, progression-free survival, and disease-free survival rates are 62.5%, 50%, and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, the use of tacrolimus/MMF after MSD NST is associated with encouraging rates of GVHD control.

  7. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with conditioning regimen of total body irradiation/busulfan/melphalan for 16 patients in children with high-risk leukemia and lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshihara, Takao; Fujii, Noriko [Matsushita Memorial Hospital, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Naya, Mayumi [and others

    1999-02-01

    We report the therapeutic results of allogeneic bone marrow transplantations (BMT) for 16 children with high-risk leukemia and lymphoma. The conditioning regimen consisted of total body irradiation (TBI) (12 Gy), busulfan (Bu) (4 mg/kg x 2 days), and melphalan (L-PAM) (70 mg/m{sup 2} x 2 or 3 days). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was performed with cyclosporin (CsA) + methotrexate (MTX) (4 cases) and CsA + MTX-methyl-prednisolone (11 cases). Seven patients had acute lymphocytic leukemia, 6 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, 2 B-cell type non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma, and 1 peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Nine patients were in complete remission (CR) and 7 in non CR at BMT. Nine patients received transplants from HLA-matched related (MR) donors, 4 from HLA-mismatched related (MisR) donors, and 3 from unrelated (UR) donors. Seven of the cases, all of which were transplanted from MR, have continued complete remission for 15-47 (median 27) months. Nine patients, of which seven were transplanted from MisR/UR, died from complications from fungal pneumonia (3), cytomegalovirus pneumonitis (1), GVHD (1), rhabdomyolysis (1), lymphoproliferative disorder (1), rejection (1), and relapse (1). These results suggest that the combination of TBI, Bu, and L-PAM as a BMT regimen has a significant anti-neoplastic benefit and is considered to be useful; however, considering the high rate of fatal transplant-related complications, more refinement is required, especially for transplants from MisR and UR donors. (author)

  8. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with conditioning regimen of total body irradiation/busulfan/melphalan for 16 patients in children with high-risk leukemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihara, Takao; Fujii, Noriko; Naya, Mayumi

    1999-01-01

    We report the therapeutic results of allogeneic bone marrow transplantations (BMT) for 16 children with high-risk leukemia and lymphoma. The conditioning regimen consisted of total body irradiation (TBI) (12 Gy), busulfan (Bu) (4 mg/kg x 2 days), and melphalan (L-PAM) (70 mg/m 2 x 2 or 3 days). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was performed with cyclosporin (CsA) + methotrexate (MTX) (4 cases) and CsA + MTX-methyl-prednisolone (11 cases). Seven patients had acute lymphocytic leukemia, 6 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, 2 B-cell type non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 1 peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Nine patients were in complete remission (CR) and 7 in non CR at BMT. Nine patients received transplants from HLA-matched related (MR) donors, 4 from HLA-mismatched related (MisR) donors, and 3 from unrelated (UR) donors. Seven of the cases, all of which were transplanted from MR, have continued complete remission for 15-47 (median 27) months. Nine patients, of which seven were transplanted from MisR/UR, died from complications from fungal pneumonia (3), cytomegalovirus pneumonitis (1), GVHD (1), rhabdomyolysis (1), lymphoproliferative disorder (1), rejection (1), and relapse (1). These results suggest that the combination of TBI, Bu, and L-PAM as a BMT regimen has a significant anti-neoplastic benefit and is considered to be useful; however, considering the high rate of fatal transplant-related complications, more refinement is required, especially for transplants from MisR and UR donors. (author)

  9. TU-CD-304-04: Scanning Field Total Body Irradiation Using Dynamic Arc with Variable Dose Rate and Gantry Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, B; Xu, H; Mutaf, Y; Prado, K [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Enable a scanning field total body irradiation (TBI) technique, using dynamic arcs, which is biologically equivalent to a moving couch TBI. Methods: Patient is treated slightly above the floor and the treatment field scans across the patient by a moving gantry. MLC positions change during gantry motion to keep same field opening at the level of the treatment plane (170 cm). This is done to mimic the same geometry as the moving couch TBI technique which has been used in our institution for over 10 years. The dose rate and the gantry speed are determined considering a constant speed of the moving field, variations in SSD and slanted depths resulting from oblique gantry angles. An Eclipse (Varian) planning system is commissioned to accommodate the extended SSD. The dosimetric foundations of the technique have been thoroughly investigated using phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity better than 2% across 180 cm length at 10cm depth is achieved by moving the gantry from −55 to +55 deg. Treatment range can be extended by increasing gantry range. No device such as a gravity-oriented compensator is needed to achieve a uniform dose. It is feasible to modify the dose distribution by adjusting the dose rate at each gantry angle to compensate for body thickness differences. Total treatment time for 2 Gy AP/PA fields is 40–50 minutes excluding patient set up time, at the machine dose rate of 100 MU/min. Conclusion: This novel yet transportable moving field technique enables TBI treatment in a small treatment room with less program development preparation than other techniques. Treatment length can be extended per need, and. MLC-based thickness compensation and partial lung blocking are also possible.

  10. Comparison of Cyclophosphamide Combined with Total Body Irradiation, Oral Busulfan, or Intravenous Busulfan for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Kenjiro; Kako, Shinichi; Shigematsu, Akio; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Doki, Noriko; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kanamori, Heiwa; Onizuka, Makoto; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Kurokawa, Mineo; Inoue, Yoshiko; Nagamura-Inoue, Tokiko; Morishima, Yasuo; Mizuta, Shuichi; Tanaka, Junji

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to compare outcomes in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with conditioning regimens containing cyclophosphamide (CY) in combination with total body irradiation (TBI), oral busulfan (p.o. BU), or intravenous busulfan (i.v. BU). We used data for January 2000 to December 2012 from the Transplant Registry Unified Management Program of the Japan Society of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. We identified 2130 patients treated with TBI/CY (n = 2028), p.o. BU/CY (n = 60), or i.v. BU/CY (n = 42). Two-year overall survival (OS) and 2-year relapse-free survival rates were 69.0% and 62.1%, respectively, in the TBI/CY group, 55.9% and 54.2% in the p.o. BU/CY group, and 71.0% and 46.8% in the i.v. BU/CY group. In multivariate analysis, compared with TBI/CY, p.o. BU/CY, but not i.v. BU/CY, was associated with lower OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; P = .047) and a higher incidence of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HR, 3.36; P = .030). No between-group differences were seen in the incidence of nonrelapse mortality, relapse, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or chronic GVHD. We suggest that i.v. BU/CY might be a possible alternative allo-HCT conditioning regimen for adults with ALL who are not suitable for TBI. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacologic ATM but not ATR kinase inhibition abrogates p21-dependent G1 arrest and promotes gastrointestinal syndrome after total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Frank P; Leibowitz, Brian J; Barnes, Jennifer; Schamus, Sandy; Kiesel, Brian F; Abberbock, Shira; Conrads, Thomas; Clump, David Andy; Cadogan, Elaine; O'Connor, Mark J; Yu, Jian; Beumer, Jan H; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    We show that ATM kinase inhibition using AZ31 prior to 9 or 9.25 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) reduced median time to moribund in mice to 8 days. ATR kinase inhibition using AZD6738 prior to TBI did not reduce median time to moribund. The striking finding associated with ATM inhibition prior to TBI was increased crypt loss within the intestine epithelium. ATM inhibition reduced upregulation of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and blocked G1 arrest after TBI thereby increasing the number of S phase cells in crypts in wild-type but not Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice. In contrast, ATR inhibition increased upregulation of p21 after TBI. Thus, ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent arrest while ATR inhibition may potentiate arrest in crypt cells after TBI. Nevertheless, ATM inhibition reduced median time to moribund in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice after TBI. ATM inhibition also increased cell death in crypts at 4 h in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/-, earlier than at 24 h in wild-type mice after TBI. In contrast, ATR inhibition decreased cell death in crypts in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice at 4 h after TBI. We conclude that ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent and p21-independent mechanisms that radioprotect intestinal crypts and that ATM inhibition promotes GI syndrome after TBI.

  12. Single center experience with total body irradiation and melphalan (TBI-MEL) myeloablative conditioning regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with refractory hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Bhavana; Rapoport, Aaron P; Fang, Hong-Bin; Ilyas, Can; Marangoz, Deniz; Akbulut, Vinil; Ruehle, Kathleen; Badros, Ashraf; Yanovich, Saul; Akpek, Görgün

    2014-04-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (1,200 cGy) and melphalan (MEL) (100-110 mg/m(2)) myeloablative conditioning in 48 patients with nonremission AML (n = 14), ALL (n = 10), NHL (n = 18), and other refractory hematologic malignancies (n = 6) who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) between 2002 and 2011. Median age was 48 years (22 to 68); 14 out of 26 leukemia patients (54 %) had circulating blasts at transplant, 20 (50 %) evaluable patients had poor-risk cytogenetics, 12 (25 %) had prior SCT, and 10 (21 %) received stem cells from a mismatch donor. All patients received tacrolimus with or without methotrexate for GVHD prophylaxis. At the time of analysis, 13 patients (27 %) were alive and disease free. Engraftment was complete in all patients. The median time to ANC recovery (>500) was 12 days (range, 6-28). The most common grade III and IV toxicities were mucositis and infections. Eighteen patients (43 %) developed grade II-IV acute GVHD, and eight (26 %) had extensive chronic GVHD. Of 44 evaluable patients for response, 28 (64 %) achieved a complete remission (CR), and seven (15 %) had a partial remission after the transplant. With a median follow-up of 30 months (4 to 124 months) for surviving patients, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 45 % at 1 year, and the probability of overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 22.5 %. Multivariate analysis showed that platelet count (500 IU/L) at SCT were associated with relapse. Age less than 53 years and CR after SCT were associated with better OS. Our data suggest that TBI-MEL can result in CR in two thirds, durable remission in one third, and 5-year survival in about one quarter of patients with nonremission hematologic malignancies. Further studies with TBI-MEL in standard risk transplant patients are warranted.

  13. Renal Shielding and Dosimetry for Patients With Severe Systemic Sclerosis Receiving Immunoablation With Total Body Irradiation in the Scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide or Transplantation Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciunescu, Oana I.; Steffey, Beverly A.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Larrier, Nicole A.; Paarz-Largay, Cathy J.; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Chao, Nelson; Chute, John; Gasparetto, Cristina; Horwitz, Mitchell; Long, Gwynn; Rizzieri, David; Sullivan, Keith M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe renal shielding techniques and dosimetry in delivering total body irradiation (TBI) to patients with severe systemic sclerosis (SSc) enrolled in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant protocol. Methods and Materials: The Scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide or Transplantation (SCOT) protocol uses a lymphoablative preparative regimen including 800 cGy TBI delivered in two 200-cGy fractions twice a day before CD34 + selected autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Lung and kidney doses are limited to 200 cGy to protect organs damaged by SSc. Kidney block proximity to the spinal cord was investigated, and guidelines were developed for acceptable lumbar area TBI dosing. Information about kidney size and the organ shifts from supine to standing positions were recorded using diagnostic ultrasound (US). Minimum distance between the kidney blocks (dkB) and the lumbar spine region dose was recorded, and in vivo dosimetry was performed at several locations to determine the radiation doses delivered. Results: Eleven patients were treated at our center with an anteroposterior (AP)/posteroanterior (PA) TBI technique. A 10% to 20% dose inhomogeneity in the lumbar spine region was achieved with a minimum kidney block separation of 4 to 5 cm. The average lumbar spine dose was 179.6 ± 18.1 cGy, with an average dkB of 5.0 ± 1.0 cm. Kidney block shield design was accomplished using a combination of US and noncontrast computerized tomography (CT) or CT imaging alone. The renal US revealed a wide range of kidney displacement from upright to supine positions. Overall, the average in vivo dose for the kidney prescription point was 193.4 ± 5.1 cGy. Conclusions: The dose to the kidneys can be attenuated while maintaining a 10% to 20% dose inhomogeneity in the lumbar spine area. Kidneys were localized more accurately using both US and CT imaging. With this technique, renal function has been preserved, and the study continues to enroll patients.

  14. TH-EF-BRB-06: Implementation of a Modulated-Arc Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Technique Using the RayStation Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J; Cheung, J; Held, M; Han, D; Morin, O [UCSF, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a clinical workflow for delivering a modulated-arc total body irradiation (TBI) with RayStation scripting. This technique uses arc fields with the patient lying at floor level on a padded table and is validated through measurements taken on a custom-made TBI phantom. Methods: Treatment planning was performed for a retrospective cohort of eight patients with a diverse range of heights and body types. Each was replanned using an open-field dual arc method, with the patient in supine and prone positions on the floor of the vault. All plans were optimized using Raystation Planning 4.7.2.5 (RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm, Sweden), with 200 cGy prescribed to the 95% of the body contour − 5mm. This results in an open-field beam that sweeps craniocaudally across the length of the patient. The technique is validated with measurements at 10 cm intervals in a custom-milled, 5 cm thick acrylic phantom. A centrally located CC13 ion chamber and a Mobile MOSFET (Best Medical Canada, Ottawa, ON) detector array were used to measure dose. Supine and prone arcs for each patient were consecutively delivered, and the aggregate dose at each point was compared to the planned dose calculated in the phantom. Results: The ion chamber measurements differed from the planned dose by an average of .5%, with a standard deviation of 2.1%. All measured data for the MOSFETS were within 10% of the corresponding planned dose except for two outlying points. The standard deviation of dose differences across the entire cohort was 4.0%. Most significant discrepancies occurred either in inhomogeneous regions with large gradients, or at inferior points where beam angle was steepest. Conclusion: We have confirmed that the planned dose is well matched to our measurements within 10% for this method of planning and delivery. We are currently incorporating this technique into our clinical workflow. This work is supported by RaySearch.

  15. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  16. Short- and long-term follow-up of thyroid dysfunction after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation without the use of preparative total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubert, M E; Socié, G; Gluckman, E; Aractingi, S; Espérou, H; Devergie, A; Ribaud, P; Parquet, N; Schlageter, M H; Beressi, J P; Rain, J D; Vexiau, P

    1997-08-01

    We studied the incidence and potential prognostic value of thyroid abnormalities after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) without total body irradiation (TBI) conditioning. 77 consecutive patients who received a chemotherapy-alone-based conditioning regimen pretransplant were included. Free serum thyroxine (FT4), free serum triiodothyronine (FT3) and serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels were assayed before and 3 and 14 months after BMT. Patients were classified in three categories: normal thyroid profile if FT3 and FT4 were within the normal range and TSH was normal or low, peripheral thyroid insufficiency (PTI) if TSH was >4 mIU/l, or an 'euthyroid sick syndrome' (ETS) if FT3 and/or FT4 were low and TSH was normal or low. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction at 3 months was 57%, and 29% at 14 months. This was mostly due to the occurrence of ETS which was more frequent at 3 months (48%, 29/61) than at 14 months (19%, 9/48). Furthermore, at 3 months, survival was significantly lower in the ETS group (34.5%) than in the euthyroid group (96.2%), or in the PTI group (83.3%) (P < 0.0001). PTI was observed even in the absence of TBI in 11 patients (14%) and was equally distributed at 3 months (n = 6) and 14 months (n = 5). In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction is not a rare complication even without pretransplant TBI conditioning regimen. Hypothyroidism prevalence was 10%, and ETS, which was more frequently observed, displayed a dismal predictive value at 3 months.

  17. Busulfan, cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with non-lymphocytic hematopoietic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with the conditioning regimen of 8 mg/kg of busulfan (BUS), 120 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CPM) and 10 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) was evaluated in the patients with non-lymphocytic hematopoietic malignancies. The disease distribution of the 22 patients was as follows; 14 in the standard risk group (SRG), 8 in the high risk group (HRG). SRG included the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the first complete remission, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in chronic phase and myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia, while HRG included the patients with refractory AML and CML in blastic phase. The median age of patients was 33 years old (y.o.), and the median observation period was 34.5 months No relapse occurred, but 8 patients (36%) died of various complications. Ail the patients who died of interstitial pneumonitis (4 cases) were 40 y.o. and more. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and chronic GvHD were clinically controllable. The probability of disease-free survival rate at 5 years (5y-DFS) was 50.0% in overall patients. The 5y-DFS was 57.1% in HRG (7 cases), while 54.3% in SRG (13 cases) donated from the HLA identical siblings (20 cases). In these 13 patients in SRG, the 5y-DFS was 100% in patients under 40 y.o. (6 cases), while the probability of disease-free survival rate at 3 years was 68.6% and the 5y-DFS was 0% in patients over 40 y.o. (7 cases). Our data indicate that the conditioning regimen combining BUS, CPM and TBI for allogeneic BMT is promising for the treatment of the patients of HRG and the patients under 40 y.o. in SRG. (author)

  18. Busulfan, cyclophosphamide and fractionated total body irradiation as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with non-lymphocytic hematopoietic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with the conditioning regimen of 8 mg/kg of busulfan (BUS), 120 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CPM) and 10 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) was evaluated in the patients with non-lymphocytic hematopoietic malignancies. The disease distribution of the 22 patients was as follows; 14 in the standard risk group (SRG), 8 in the high risk group (HRG). SRG included the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the first complete remission, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in chronic phase and myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory anemia, while HRG included the patients with refractory AML and CML in blastic phase. The median age of patients was 33 years old (y.o.), and the median observation period was 34.5 months No relapse occurred, but 8 patients (36%) died of various complications. Ail the patients who died of interstitial pneumonitis (4 cases) were 40 y.o. and more. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and chronic GvHD were clinically controllable. The probability of disease-free survival rate at 5 years (5y-DFS) was 50.0% in overall patients. The 5y-DFS was 57.1% in HRG (7 cases), while 54.3% in SRG (13 cases) donated from the HLA identical siblings (20 cases). In these 13 patients in SRG, the 5y-DFS was 100% in patients under 40 y.o. (6 cases), while the probability of disease-free survival rate at 3 years was 68.6% and the 5y-DFS was 0% in patients over 40 y.o. (7 cases). Our data indicate that the conditioning regimen combining BUS, CPM and TBI for allogeneic BMT is promising for the treatment of the patients of HRG and the patients under 40 y.o. in SRG. (author)

  19. SU-F-T-406: Verification of Total Body Irradiation Commissioned MU Lookup Table Accuracy Using Treatment Planning System for Wide Range of Patient Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D; Chi, P; Tailor, R; Aristophanous, M; Tung, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To verify the accuracy of total body irradiation (TBI) measurement commissioning data using the treatment planning system (TPS) for a wide range of patient separations. Methods: Our institution conducts TBI treatments with an 18MV photon beam at 380cm extended SSD using an AP/PA technique. Currently, the monitor units (MU) per field for patient treatments are determined using a lookup table generated from TMR measurements in a water phantom (75 × 41 × 30.5 cm3). The dose prescribed to an umbilicus midline point at spine level is determined based on patient separation, dose/ field and dose rate/MU. One-dimensional heterogeneous dose calculations from Pinnacle TPS were validated with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) placed in an average adult anthropomorphic phantom and also in-vivo on four patients with large separations. Subsequently, twelve patients with various separations (17–47cm) were retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired in the left and right decubitus positions from vertex to knee. A treatment plan for each patient was generated. The ratio of the lookup table MU to the heterogeneous TPS MU was compared. Results: TLD Measurements in the anthropomorphic phantom and large TBI patients agreed with Pinnacle calculated dose within 2.8% and 2%, respectively. The heterogeneous calculation compared to the lookup table agreed within 8.1% (ratio range: 1.014–1.081). A trend of reduced accuracy was observed when patient separation increases. Conclusion: The TPS dose calculation accuracy was confirmed by TLD measurements, showing that Pinnacle can model the extended SSD dose without commissioning a special beam model for the extended SSD geometry. The difference between the lookup table and TPS calculation potentially comes from lack of scatter during commissioning when compared to extreme patient sizes. The observed trend suggests the need for development of a correction factor between the lookup table and TPS dose

  20. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator

  1. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L [Univ Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator.

  2. SU-F-T-327: Total Body Irradiation In-Vivo Dose Measurements Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) NanoDots and Farmer Type Ion Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, H; Kumar, S; Sarkar, B; Ganesh, T; Giri, U; Jassal, K; Rathinamuthu, S; Gulia, G; Gopal, V; Mohanti, B; Munshi, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to analyze the agreement between optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) nanoDots measured doses and 0.6 cc Farmer type ionization chamber measured doses during total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: In-vivo dose measurements using OSL nanoDots and Farmer chamber were done in a total of twelve patients who received TBI at our center by bilateral parallel-opposed beams technique. In this technique, the patient is kept inside the TBI box which is filled with rice bags and irradiated using two bilateral parallel opposed beams of 40×40 cm"2 size with 45° collimator rotation at an SSD of 333.5 cm in an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. All patients received a dose of 2 Gy in single fraction as conditioning regimen. The beams were equally weighted at the midplane of the box. The nanoDots were placed over forehead, right and left neck, right and left lung, umbilicus, right and left abdomen, medial part of thigh, knee and toe. A 0.6 cc Farmer chamber was placed in between the thighs of the patient. Measured doses are reported along with the statistical comparisons using paired sample t-test. Results: For the above sites the mean doses were 212.2±21.1, 218.2±7.6, 218.7±9.3, 215.6±9.5, 217.5±11.5, 214.5±7.7, 218.3±6.8, 221.5±15, 229.1±11.0, 220.5±7.7 and 223.3±5.1 cGy respectively. For all OSL measurements the mean dose was 218.6±11.8 cGy. Farmer chamber measurements yielded a mean dose of 208.8±15.6 cGy. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between OSL measured doses in forehead, right and left neck, right and left lung, umbilicus, right and left abdomen and toe and Farmer chamber measured doses (0.72≤p≤0.06). However the mean OSL doses at thigh and knee were statistically different (p<0.05) from the Farmer chamber measurements. Conclusion: OSL measurements were found to be in agreement with Farmer type ionization chamber measurements in in-vivo dosimetry of TBI.

  3. SU-F-T-327: Total Body Irradiation In-Vivo Dose Measurements Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) NanoDots and Farmer Type Ion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, H; Kumar, S; Sarkar, B; Ganesh, T; Giri, U; Jassal, K; Rathinamuthu, S; Gulia, G; Gopal, V; Mohanti, B; Munshi, A [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study was performed to analyze the agreement between optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) nanoDots measured doses and 0.6 cc Farmer type ionization chamber measured doses during total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: In-vivo dose measurements using OSL nanoDots and Farmer chamber were done in a total of twelve patients who received TBI at our center by bilateral parallel-opposed beams technique. In this technique, the patient is kept inside the TBI box which is filled with rice bags and irradiated using two bilateral parallel opposed beams of 40×40 cm{sup 2} size with 45° collimator rotation at an SSD of 333.5 cm in an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. All patients received a dose of 2 Gy in single fraction as conditioning regimen. The beams were equally weighted at the midplane of the box. The nanoDots were placed over forehead, right and left neck, right and left lung, umbilicus, right and left abdomen, medial part of thigh, knee and toe. A 0.6 cc Farmer chamber was placed in between the thighs of the patient. Measured doses are reported along with the statistical comparisons using paired sample t-test. Results: For the above sites the mean doses were 212.2±21.1, 218.2±7.6, 218.7±9.3, 215.6±9.5, 217.5±11.5, 214.5±7.7, 218.3±6.8, 221.5±15, 229.1±11.0, 220.5±7.7 and 223.3±5.1 cGy respectively. For all OSL measurements the mean dose was 218.6±11.8 cGy. Farmer chamber measurements yielded a mean dose of 208.8±15.6 cGy. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between OSL measured doses in forehead, right and left neck, right and left lung, umbilicus, right and left abdomen and toe and Farmer chamber measured doses (0.72≤p≤0.06). However the mean OSL doses at thigh and knee were statistically different (p<0.05) from the Farmer chamber measurements. Conclusion: OSL measurements were found to be in agreement with Farmer type ionization chamber measurements in in-vivo dosimetry of TBI.

  4. Secondary intracranial meningiomas after high-dose cranial irradiation: report of five cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strojan, Primoz; Popovic, Mara; Jereb, Berta

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To review cases of secondary intracranial meningiomas following high-dose cranial irradiation (≥ 10 Gy) identified in Slovenia between 1968 and 1998, to determine their histological profile and to review the literature on this topic. Methods and Materials: Personal files of patients treated for secondary intracranial meningioma during a 31-year period were reviewed. In cases which met the criteria for radiation-induced tumors, steroid hormone receptor and Ki-67 status were analyzed. For the literature review, computerized database systems and reference lists from respective publications were used. Results: Five patients (2 females, 3 males), 3-11 years old at the time of cranial irradiation, developed secondary meningioma after a latency period of 9.5-31.5 years. Three patients had multiple tumors and 2 developed recurrent disease. Of 9 histologically examined tumors, 5 were graded as benign and 4 as atypical meningiomas, with Ki-67 proliferative index 3.2 ± 3.6 and 10 ± 6, respectively. The ratio between positive and negative meningiomas regarding immunostaining for progesterone and estrogen receptors was eight-to-one and six-to-three, respectively. Cumulative actuarial risk of secondary meningioma in a cohort of 445 children 16 years or younger treated with high-dose cranial irradiation between 1968 and 1990 in Slovenia at 10, 20, and 25 years was 0.53%, 1.2%, and 8.18%, respectively. Out of 126 cases of radiation-induced meningiomas reported, 57% were females and 43% were males, with mean age at presentation 33 ± 17.3 years. The majority (68%) of patients was irradiated during childhood. The latency period was significantly shorter in those who aged 5 years or less at the time of cranial irradiation (p = 0.04), and in those with atypical/anaplastic tumor (p = 0.01). Correlation between radiation dose and latency period could not be found. Conclusion: Secondary meningiomas following high-dose cranial irradiation are characterized by younger age at

  5. [French experience in paediatric total body irradiation: A study from the radiotherapy committee of the Société française des cancers de l'enfant (SFCE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, C; Supiot, S; Claude, L; Carrie, C; Mazeron, R; Helfré, S; Alapetite, C; Jouin, A; Coche, B; Padovani, L; Muracciole, X; Bernier, V; Vigneron, C; Noël, G; Leseur, J; Le Prisé, É; Stefan, D; Habrand, J L; Kerr, C; Bondiau, P Y; Ruffier, A; Chapet, S; Mahé, M A

    2016-06-01

    A survey was conducted in 2015 in France on the care of children in radiotherapy services. We present the results for total body irradiation in children, a specific technique of radiation treatment, which needs dedicated controls for this particular population. Of the 17 centres interviewed, 16 responded, and 13 practiced total body irradiation. Patients are positioned in lateral decubitus in 11 centres and supine/prone in two centres. Doses used for total body irradiation in myeloablative bone marrow transplantation are the same in all centres (12Gy); treatments are always fractionated. Lung shielding is positioned to limit the dose at an average of 8Gy with extremes ranging from 6 to 10Gy. The shape of the shieldings varies depending on departments' protocol, with a smaller size in case of mediastinal mass. Four centres have experience of total body irradiation under general anaesthesia, despite twice-daily fractions. In total, practice is relatively homogeneous throughout France and is inspired by the knowledge obtained in adults. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Wonkwang Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Kyoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow.

  7. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimen using low-dose total body irradiation before allogeneic transplant for hematologic malignancies: Experience from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Yazid; Labopin, Myriam; Hennequin, Christophe; Hoffstetter, Sylvette; Mungai, Raffaello; Wygoda, Marc; Lundell, Marie; Finke, Jurgen; Aktinson, Chris; Lorchel, Frederic; Durdux, Catherine; Basara, Nadezda

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The high rate of toxicity is the limitation of myelobalative regimens before allogeneic transplantation. A reduced intensity regimen can allow engraftment of stem cells and subsequent transfer of immune cells for the induction of a graft-vs.-tumor reaction. Methods and Materials: The data from 130 patients (80 males and 50 females) treated between 1998 and 2003 for various hematologic malignancies were analyzed. The median patient age was 50 years (range, 3-72 years). Allogeneic transplantation using peripheral blood or bone marrow, or both, was performed in 104 (82%), 22 (17%), and 4 (3%) patients, respectively, from HLA identical sibling donors (n = 93, 72%), matched unrelated donors (n = 23, 18%), mismatched related donors (4%), or mismatched unrelated donors (6%). Total body irradiation (TBI) at a dose of 2 Gy delivered in one fraction was given to 101 patients (78%), and a total dose of 4-6 Gy was given in 29 (22%) patients. The median dose rate was 14.3 cGy/min (range, 6-16.4). Results: After a median follow-up period of 20 months (range, 1-62 months), engraftment was obtained in 122 patients (94%). Acute graft-vs.-host disease of Grade 2 or worse was observed in 37% of patients. Multivariate analysis showed three favorable independent factors for event-free survival: HLA identical sibling donor (p < 0.0001; relative risk [RR], 0.15), complete remission (p < 0.0001; RR, 3.08), and female donor to male patient (p = 0.006; RR 2.43). For relapse, the two favorable prognostic factors were complete remission (p < 0.0001, RR 0.11) and HLA identical sibling donor (p = 0.0007; RR 3.59). Conclusions: In this multicenter study, we confirmed high rates of engraftment and chimerism after the reduced intensity regimen. Our results are comparable to those previously reported. Radiation parameters seem to have no impact on outcome. However, the lack of a statistically significant difference in terms of dose rate may have been due, in part, to the small population

  8. Fractionated or single-dose total body irradiation in 171 acute myeloblastic leukemias in first complete remission: is there a best choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resbeut, Michel; Cowen, Didier; Blaise, Didier; Gluckman, Eliane; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Rio, Bernard; Pene, Francoise; Milpied, Nicolas; Cuillere, Jean-Claude; Reiffers, Josy; Richaud, Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the importance of fractionating total body irradiation (TBI) in patients receiving an allogenic bone marrow transplant (BMT) for an acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1990, 171 consecutive patients received either single dose TBI (STBI) (n = 65) or fractionated TBI (FTBI) (n = 106) after being conditioned with cyclophosphamide and before receiving a non-T-depleted Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-identical marrow. Both groups were comparable except for date of BMT and diagnosis-to-BMT interval (D-BMT). Results: After 63 months median follow-up, transplant-related mortality (TRM), probability of relapse, and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) were 0.38 and 0.27 (p = 0.04), 0.29 and 0.26 (p = 0.22), 0.43 and 0.56 (p = 0.06), respectively, for STBI and FTBI. The supposed influence of the schedule of TBI disappeared in the multivariate analysis: TRM was enhanced by severe acute graft vs. host disease (p = 0.0002), early years of transplant (before January 1, 1987) (p = 0.0003), and longer D-BMT intervals (p = 0.038). Relapse was linked to early years of transplant (p < 0.00001), and the absence of chronic GVHD (p = 0.007). Longer DFSs were observed for later years of transplant (after January 1, 1987 and later) (p = 0.001), milder acute GVHD (p = 0.005), and shorter D-BMT intervals (p = 0.045). Important improvements of the results were made during the 7-year observation period: TRM, probability of relapse, and DFS were, respectively, 0.36, 0.28, and 0.46 for patients transplanted before January 1, 1987 vs. 0.21, 0.15, and 0.67 after that date. Conclusion: Our data strongly suggest that allogenic BMT is the best postremission treatment for AML in CR1, and the results are better when BMT shortly follows the achievement of remission. The schedule of TBI was of little importance compared with the improvements made in the management of patients undergoing BMT during the 1980s, and

  9. Biochemical and hematological indicators in model of total body irradiation; Indicadores bioquimicos y hematologicos en un modelo de irradiacion corporal total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P; Perez, M R [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Barboza, M [Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Luchetta, P; Longoni, H; Sorrentino, M; Robison, A [Hospital Naval Pedro Mallo, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1998-07-01

    With the purpose of evaluating the applicability of several biological indicators in accidental overexposures a study was carried out in 20 patients undergoing therapeutical total body irradiation (TBI). The following parameters were evaluated: a) Oxidative stress indicators: erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), lipo peroxyde levels (TBARS) and total plasma antioxidant activity (TAA). b) Haematological indicators: reticulocyte maturity index (RMI) and charges in lymphocyte subpopulations. Non significant changes in SOD and CAT activity were observed. Significant higher TBARS levels were found in patients with unfavorable post-BTM course without any significant correlation with TAA. RMI decreased early and dropped to zero in most of the patients and rose several days prior to reticulocyte, neutrophils and platelets counts. A significant decrease in absolute counts of all lymphocyte subpopulations was observed during TBI, particularly for B lymphocytes. A subpopulation of natural killer (NK) cells (CD16+/ CD 56 +) showed a relative higher radioresistance. Cytotoxic activity was significantly decreased after TBI. These data suggest that TBARS could provide an useful evolutive indicator in accidental over exposure d patients and RMI is an early indicator of bone marrow recovery after radioinduced aplasia. The implications of the different radiosensitivities within the NK subsets remains unanswered. (author) [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de un estudio multiparametrico realizado en pacientes sometidos a irradiacion corporal total (ICT) a fin de evaluar al aplicabilidad de ciertos indicadores bioquimicos y hematologicos en personas accidentalmente sobreexpuestas a radiaciones ionizantes. El trabajo se realizo en pacientes incluidos en un protocolo de irradiacion terapeutica (12 Gy / 4 dias) previo a un transplante de medula osea (TMO). Se tomaron muestras secuenciales de sangre periferica hasta el alta del paciente. Se evaluaron: a

  10. Allogeneic marrow transplantation following cyclophosphamide and escalating doses of hyperfractionated total body irradiation in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies: a phase I/II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirer, Taner; Petersen, Finn B.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Barnett, Todd A.; Sanders, Jean; Deeg, H. Joachim; Storb, Rainer; Doney, Kristine; Bensinger, William I.; Shannon-Dorcy, Kathleen; Buckner, C. Dean

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of unshielded total body irradiation (TBI) delivered from dual 60 C sources at an exposure rate of 0.08 Gy/min and given in thrice daily fractions of 1.2 Gy in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with a median age of 28 (range 6-48) years were entered into a Phase I/II study. All patients received cyclophosphamide (CY), 120 mg/kg administered over 2 days before TBI. Marrow from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical siblings was infused following the last dose of TBI. An escalation-deescalation schema designed to not exceed an incidence of 25% of Grade 3-4 regimen-related toxicities (RRTs) was used. The first dose level tested was 13.2 Gy followed by 14.4 Gy. Results: None of the four patients at the dose level of 13.2 Gy developed Grade 3-4 RRT. Two of the first eight patients receiving 14.4 Gy developed Grade 3-4 RRT, establishing this as the MTD. An additional 32 patients were evaluated at the 14.4 Gy level to confirm these initial observations. Of 40 patients receiving 14.4 Gy, 13 (32.5%) developed Grade 3-4 RRTs; 46% in adults and 12% in children. The primary dose limiting toxicity was Grade 3-4 hepatic toxicity, which occurred in 12.5% of patients. Noninfectious Grade 3-4 interstitial pneumonia syndrome occurred in 5% of patients. The actuarial probabilities of event-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality at 2 years were 0.10, 0.81, and 0.47, respectively, for patients who received 14.4 Gy of TBI. Conclusions: The outcome for patients receiving 14.4 Gy of TBI was not different from previous studies of other CY and TBI regimens in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies. These data showed that the incidence of Grade 3-4 RRTs in adults was greater than the 25% maximum set as the goal of this study, suggesting that 13.2 Gy is a more appropriate dose of TBI for adults, while 14.4 Gy is an appropriate dose for children

  11. Abrogation of bone marrow allograft resistance in mice by increased total body irradiation correlates with eradication of host clonable T cells and alloreactive cytotoxic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.; Lapidot, T.; Gozes, D.; Singer, T.S.; Reisner, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Host-vs-graft activity presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, conditioned exactly like leukemia patients, it was shown that residual host clonable T cells, as well as alloreactive cytotoxic precursors, were present in peripheral blood and spleen after completion of cytoreduction. We have now extended this study in a mouse model for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. C 3 H/HeJ mice were treated by 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and 24 hr later their spleen cells were cultured in the presence of T cell growth factor and phytohemagglutinin according to the limit dilution procedure. After 7 days of culture the average frequency of clonable cells was 2.5 X 10(-3) compared with 37 X 10(-3) in the spleens of normal mice. The T cell derivation of the growing cells was ascertained by complement-mediated cytotoxicity with anti-Thy-1 as well as with anti-Lyt-2 and anti-Ly-3T4. In parallel, we found that the initial engraftment rate of bone marrow allograft in mice given 9 Gy TBI was lower than that found in recipients of syngeneic marrow. The initial engraftment rate was measured by the number of colony-forming units in the spleen and by splenic uptake of 125 IUdR. A slight increase in TBI from 9 Gy to 11 Gy markedly reduced the difference in the number of spleen colony-forming units or the IUdR uptake between recipients of allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow. This increase in TBI also coincided with eradication of detectable clonable T cells. Moreover, in mice transplanted with T cell-depleted bone marrow after 9 Gy TBI, we also demonstrate that cytotoxicity against donor-type target cells is present in the spleen 10 to 14 days posttransplantation, whereas in mice treated by 11 Gy TBI such alloreactivity could not be detected

  12. Similar Survival for Patients Undergoing Reduced-Intensity Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Versus Myeloablative TBI as Conditioning for Allogeneic Transplant in Acute Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikell, John L., E-mail: jmikell@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Waller, Edmund K. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Rangaraju, Sravanti; Ali, Zahir; Graiser, Michael [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Hall, William A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Langston, Amelia A. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khoury, H. Jean [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the mainstay of treatment for adults with acute leukemia. Total body irradiation (TBI) remains an important part of the conditioning regimen for HCST. For those patients unable to tolerate myeloablative TBI (mTBI), reduced intensity TBI (riTBI) is commonly used. In this study we compared outcomes of patients undergoing mTBI with those of patients undergoing riTBI in our institution. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with acute leukemia who underwent TBI-based conditioning, using a prospectively acquired database of HSCT patients treated at our institution. Patient data including details of the transplantation procedure, disease status, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), response rates, toxicity, survival time, and time to progression were extracted. Patient outcomes for various radiation therapy regimens were examined. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Between June 1985 and July 2012, 226 patients with acute leukemia underwent TBI as conditioning for HSCT. Of those patients, 180 had full radiation therapy data available; 83 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 94 had acute myelogenous leukemia; 45 patients received riTBI, and 135 received mTBI. Median overall survival (OS) was 13.7 months. Median relapse-free survival (RFS) for all patients was 10.2 months. Controlling for age, sex, KPS, disease status, and diagnosis, there were no significant differences in OS or RFS between patients who underwent riTBI and those who underwent mTBI (P=.402, P=.499, respectively). Median length of hospital stay was shorter for patients who received riTBI than for those who received mTBI (16 days vs 23 days, respectively; P<.001), and intensive care unit admissions were less frequent following riTBI than mTBI (2.22% vs 12.69%, respectively, P=.043). Nonrelapse survival rates were also similar (P=.186). Conclusions: No differences in OS or RFS were seen between

  13. Self-ion emulation of high dose neutron irradiated microstructure in stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Z.; Michalicka, J.; Was, G. S.

    2018-04-01

    Solution-annealed 304L stainless steel (SS) was irradiated to 130 dpa at 380 °C, and to 15 dpa at 500 °C and 600 °C, and cold-worked 316 SS (CW 316 SS) was irradiated to 130 dpa at 380 °C using 5 MeV Fe++/Ni++ to produce microstructures and radiation-induced segregation (RIS) for comparison with that from neutron irradiation at 320 °C to 46 dpa in the BOR60 reactor. For the 304L SS alloy, self-ion irradiation at 380 °C produced a dislocation loop microstructure that was comparable to that by neutron irradiation. No voids were observed in either the 380 °C self-ion irradiation or the neutron irradiation conditions. Irradiation at 600 °C produced the best match to radiation-induced segregation of Cr and Ni with the neutron irradiation, consistent with the prediction of a large temperature shift by Mansur's invariant relations for RIS. For the CW 316 SS alloy irradiated to 130 dpa at 380 °C, both the irradiated microstructure (dislocation loops, precipitates and voids) and RIS reasonably matched the neutron-irradiated sample. The smaller temperature shift for RIS in CW 316 SS was likely due to the high sink (dislocation) density induced by the cold work. A single self-ion irradiation condition at a dose rate ∼1000× that in reactor does not match both dislocation loops and RIS in solution-annealed 304L SS. However, a single irradiation temperature produced a reasonable match with both the dislocation/precipitate microstructure and RIS in CW 316 SS, indicating that sink density is a critical factor in determining the temperature shift for self-ion irradiations.

  14. Clastogenic effects in human lymphocytes exposed to low and high dose rate X-ray irradiation and vitamin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopacka, M; Rogolinski, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we investigated the ability of vitamin C to modulate clastogenic effects induced in cultured human lymphocytes by X-irradiation delivered at either high (1 Gy/min) or low dose rate (0.24 Gy/min). Biological effects of the irradiation were estimated by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay including the analysis of the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and apoptotic cells as well as calculation of nuclear division index (NDI). The numbers of micronucleated binucleate lymphocytes (MN-CBL) were 24.85 ± 2.67% and 32.56 ± 3.17% in cultures exposed to X-rays (2 Gy) delivered at low and high dose rates, respectively. Addition of vitamin C (1-20 μg/ml) to the medium of cultures irradiated with the low dose rate reduced the frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes with multiple MN in a concentration-dependent manner. Lymphocytes exposed to the high dose rate radiation showed a U-shape response: low concentration of vitamin C significantly reduced the number of MN, whereas high concentration influenced the radiation-induced total number of micronucleated cells insignificantly, although it increased the number of cells with multiple MN. Addition of vitamin C significantly reduced the fraction of apoptotic cells, irrespective of the X-ray dose rate. These results indicate that radiation dose rate is an important exposure factor, not only in terms of biological cell response to irradiation, but also with respect to the modulating effects of antioxidants. (authors)

  15. Analysis of the radiolytic products on high-dose irradiated food and packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Su; Shim, Sung Lye; Chung, In Sun

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to prepare the government approval for the extension of food irradiation item to food or its products, to promote the industrial application of radiation technology, and to apply basic data in policy for introduction of irradiation. The change of hydrocarbons by irradiation was evaluated for the detection of irradiated meat. The results showed that hydrocarbons were detected in all of irradiated samples, but these hydrocarbons were not detected in non-irradiated samples. There were no difference between vacuum and N 2 - packaging. According to fatty acid compounds and degradation pathway of beef and pork, it could be deliberated that a great amount of produced hydrocarbons such as 8-heptadenene and 1,7-hexadecadien were able to be used as identification factor of irradiated meat. Effects of γ-irradiation on the volatile organic compounds in agricultural products were determined by analyzing changes of volatile composition. The composition of volatile organic compounds were little changed, but few specific compounds induced by γ-irradiation were identified. The variations of concentration in irradiated samples identified in this study could be due to the radiation sensitivity of compounds with the dose used. Effects of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds in packaging materials were determined by analyzing changes of volatile composition. In polyethylene and polypropylene, 1,3-DBB was identified only in irradiated samples. Levels of 1,3-DBB increased with increasing irradiation doses. These results suggest may be useful in evaluation of γ-irradiation effects on food packaging materials

  16. Analysis of the radiolytic products on high-dose irradiated food and packing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Su; Shim, Sung Lye; Chung, In Sun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The aims of this study were to prepare the government approval for the extension of food irradiation item to food or its products, to promote the industrial application of radiation technology, and to apply basic data in policy for introduction of irradiation. The change of hydrocarbons by irradiation was evaluated for the detection of irradiated meat. The results showed that hydrocarbons were detected in all of irradiated samples, but these hydrocarbons were not detected in non-irradiated samples. There were no difference between vacuum and N{sub 2}- packaging. According to fatty acid compounds and degradation pathway of beef and pork, it could be deliberated that a great amount of produced hydrocarbons such as 8-heptadenene and 1,7-hexadecadien were able to be used as identification factor of irradiated meat. Effects of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile organic compounds in agricultural products were determined by analyzing changes of volatile composition. The composition of volatile organic compounds were little changed, but few specific compounds induced by {gamma}-irradiation were identified. The variations of concentration in irradiated samples identified in this study could be due to the radiation sensitivity of compounds with the dose used. Effects of {gamma}-irradiation on the volatile compounds in packaging materials were determined by analyzing changes of volatile composition. In polyethylene and polypropylene, 1,3-DBB was identified only in irradiated samples. Levels of 1,3-DBB increased with increasing irradiation doses. These results suggest may be useful in evaluation of {gamma}-irradiation effects on food packaging materials

  17. Available evidence on re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy following high-dose previous thoracic radiotherapy for lung malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Berardino; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Mazzola, Rosario; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Trovò, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo; Alongi, Filippo

    2015-06-01

    Patients affected with intra-thoracic recurrences of primary or secondary lung malignancies after a first course of definitive radiotherapy have limited therapeutic options, and they are often treated with a palliative intent. Re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) represents an appealing approach, due to the optimized dose distribution that allows for high-dose delivery with better sparing of organs at risk. This strategy has the goal of long-term control and even cure. Aim of this review is to report and discuss published data on re-irradiation with SABR in terms of efficacy and toxicity. Results indicate that thoracic re-irradiation may offer satisfactory disease control, however the data on outcome and toxicity are derived from low quality retrospective studies, and results should be cautiously interpreted. As SABR may be associated with serious toxicity, attention should be paid for an accurate patients' selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of high dose gamma irradiation on ITO thin film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alyamani, A. [National Nanotechnology Center, King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mustapha, N., E-mail: nazirmustapha@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physics, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, P.O. Box 90950, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-29

    Transparent thin-film Indium Tin Oxides (ITO) were prepared on 0.7 mm thick glass substrates using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) process with average thickness of 150 nm. The samples were then exposed to high gamma γ radiation doses by {sup 60}Co radioisotope. The films have been irradiated by performing exposure cycles up to 250 kGy total doses at room temperature. The surface structures before and after irradiation were analysed by x-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was performed on all samples before and after irradiation to investigate any change in the grain sizes, and also in the roughness of the ITO surface. We investigated the influence of γ irradiation on the spectra of transmittance T, in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectrum using spectrophotometer measurements. Energy band gap E{sub g} was then calculated from the optical spectra for all ITO films. It was found that the optical band gap values decreased as the radiation dose was increased. To compare the effect of the irradiation on refractive index n and extinction coefficient k properties, additional measurements were done on the ITO samples before and after gamma irradiation using an ellipsometer. The optical constants n and k increased by increasing the irradiation doses. Electrical properties such as resistivity and sheet resistance were measured using the four-point probe method. The good optical, electrical and morphological properties maintained by the ITO films even after being exposed to high gamma irradiation doses, made them very favourable to be used as anodes for solar cells and as protective coatings in space windows. - Highlights: • Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition. • Effects of Gamma irradiation were investigated. • Changes of optical transmission and electrical properties of ITO films were studied. • Intensity of the diffraction peaks and the film's structure changed with increasing irradiation doses.

  19. The high dose and low dose food irradiation programmes in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    Many highly acceptable shelf-stable irradiated food items have been developed in the United States of America. The most extensive wholesomeness studies ever carried out on any food-processing method continue to indicate that irradiated foods are wholesome. (author)

  20. Implementation of the technique of partial irradiation accelerated the breast with high doses (HDR) brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Pardo Perez, E.; Castro Novais, J.; Martinez Ortega, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Cerro Penalver, E. del

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is presents procedure carried out in our Centre for the implementation of the accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI, accelerated partial-breast irradiation) with high-rate brachytherapy (HDR), using plastic tubes as applicators. Carried out measures, the evaluation of the dosimetric parameters analyzing and presenting the results. (Author)

  1. A Performance Evaluation of a Notebook PC under a High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Wan Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the performance of a notebook PC under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation test. A notebook PC, which is small and light weight, is generally used as the control unit of a robot system and loaded onto the robot body. Using TEPCO’s CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system data, the gamma ray dose rate before and after a hydrogen explosion in reactor units 1–3 of the Fukushima nuclear power plant was more than 150 Gy/h. To use a notebook PC as the control unit of a robot system entering a reactor building to mitigate the severe accident situation of a nuclear power plant, the performance of the notebook PC under such intense gamma-irradiation fields should be evaluated. Under a similar dose-rate (150 Gy/h gamma ray environment, the performances of different notebook PCs were evaluated. In addition, a simple method for a performance evaluation of a notebook PC under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation test is proposed. Three notebook PCs were tested to verify the method proposed in this paper.

  2. Dose-effect relationship for cataract induction after single-dose total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Belkacemi, Yazid; Kal, Henk B.; Labopin, Myriam; Frassoni, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine a dose-effect relationship for cataract induction, the tissue-specific parameter, α/β, and the rate of repair of sublethal damage, μ value, in the linear-quadratic formula have to be known. To obtain these parameters for the human eye lens, a large series of patients treated with different doses and dose rates is required. The data of patients with acute leukemia treated with single-dose total body irradiation (STBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) collected by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation were analyzed. Methods and Materials: The data of 495 patients who underwent BMT for acute leukemia, who had STBI as part of their conditioning regimen, were analyzed using the linear-quadratic concept. The end point was the incidence of cataract formation after BMT. Of the analyzed patients, 175 were registered as having cataracts. Biologic effective doses (BEDs) for different sets of values for α/β and μ were calculated for each patient. With Cox regression analysis, using the overall chi-square test as the parameter evaluating the goodness of fit, α/β and μ values were found. Risk factors for cataract induction were the BED of the applied TBI regimen, allogeneic BMT, steroid therapy for >14 weeks, and heparin administration. To avoid the influence of steroid therapy and heparin on cataract induction, patients who received steroid or heparin treatment were excluded, leaving only the BED as a risk factor. Next, the most likely set of α/β and μ values was obtained. With this set, the cataract-free survival rates were calculated for specific BED intervals, according to the Kaplan-Meier method. From these calculations, cataract incidences were obtained as function of the BED at 120 months after STBI. Results: The use of BED instead of the TBI dose enabled the incidence of cataract formation to be predicted in a reasonably consistent way. With Cox regression analysis for all STBI data, a maximal chi-square value was

  3. Total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation: efficacy and safety of granisetron in the prophylaxis and control of radiation-induced emesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Yazid; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Pene, Francoise; Rio, Bernard; Sutton, Laurent; Laporte, Jean-Philippe; Touboul, Emmanuel; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Laugier, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced emisis is one of the most disturbing side effects of total body irradiation (TBI). To evaluate the efficacy and to determine the best schedule of granisetron (a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 serotonin receptor antagonist) administration in the prevention of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting, we conducted a trial involving patients receiving single-dose TBI before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n 12), multiple myeloma (n = 8), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 7), acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), and chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 3) referred to our department between March 1992 and February 1994 were enrolled in this study to assess the efficacy of granisetron during single-dose TBI before autologous BMT (n = 26), allogeneic BMT (n = 8), or syngeneic BMT (n 2). The male-to-female ratio was 22:14 (1.57), and the mean age was 41 ± 11 years (range 16-58). Before TBI, conditioning chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide (CY) alone (60 mg/kg per day on 2 successive days) in 24 patients, CY combined with other drugs in 6, and combinations without CY in 6. All patients received single-dose TBI (10 Gy administered to the midplane at L4, and 8 Gy to the lungs). The mean instantaneous and average dose rates were 0.039 ± 0.012 Gy/min (range 0.031-0.058), and 0.025-0.006 Gy/min (range 2.08-3.96), respectively. Granisetron was administered 30-45 min before TBI according to two different modalities: a total dose of 3 mg as a 5-min intravenous (i.v.) infusion (Treatment A, n = 15; 42%) or the same treatment plus 3 mg of granisetron as a 24-h continuous i.v. infusion (total dose: 6 mg, Treatment B, n = 21; 58%). Depending on the BMT teams, hyper diuresis was continued (n = 19, 53%) or suspended (n = 17, 47%) during TBI. Nausea and vomiting were assessed during the TBI session and the following 12 h, and were scored as follows: S1 = no nausea or vomiting; S2

  4. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A. Joe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: PMaxim@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, “FLASH”) potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). Methods and Materials: We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Results: Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. Conclusions: We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community.

  5. Experimental Platform for Ultra-high Dose Rate FLASH Irradiation of Small Animals Using a Clinical Linear Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Emil; Trovati, Stefania; King, Gregory; Lartey, Frederick; Rafat, Marjan; Villegas, Manuel; Praxel, A Joe; Loo, Billy W; Maxim, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    A key factor limiting the effectiveness of radiation therapy is normal tissue toxicity, and recent preclinical data have shown that ultra-high dose rate irradiation (>50 Gy/s, "FLASH") potentially mitigates this effect. However, research in this field has been strongly limited by the availability of FLASH irradiators suitable for small animal experiments. We present a simple methodologic approach for FLASH electron small animal irradiation with a clinically available linear accelerator (LINAC). We investigated the FLASH irradiation potential of a Varian Clinac 21EX in both clinical mode and after tuning of the LINAC. We performed detailed FLUKA Monte Carlo and experimental dosimetric characterization at multiple experimental locations within the LINAC head. Average dose rates of ≤74 Gy/s were achieved in clinical mode, and the dose rate after tuning exceeded 900 Gy/s. We obtained 220 Gy/s at 1-cm depth for a >4-cm field size with 90% homogeneity throughout a 2-cm-thick volume. We present an approach for using a clinical LINAC for FLASH irradiation. We obtained dose rates exceeding 200 Gy/s after simple tuning of the LINAC, with excellent dosimetric properties for small animal experiments. This will allow for increased availability of FLASH irradiation to the general research community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal conductivity of beryllium under low temperature high dose neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakin, V.P.; Latypov, R.N.; Suslov, D.N.; Kupriyanov, I.B.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of compact beryllium of several Russian grades such as TE-400, TE-56, TE-30, TIP and DIP differing in the production technology, grain size and impurity content has been investigated. The thermal diffusivity of beryllium was measured on the disks in the initial and irradiated conditions using the pulse method in the range from room temperature to 200degC. The thermal conductivity was calculated using the table values for the beryllium thermal capacity. The specimens and beryllium neutron source fragments were irradiation in the SM reactor at 70degC and 200degC to a neutron fluence of (0.5-11.4)·10 22 cm -2 (E>0.1 MeV) and in the BOR-60 reactor at 400degC to 16·10 22 cm -2 (E>0.1MeV), respectively. The low-temperature irradiation leads to the drop decrease of the beryllium thermal conductivity and the effect depends on the irradiation parameters. The paper analyses the effect of irradiation parameters (temperature, neutron fluence), measurement temperature and structural factors on beryllium conductivity. The experiments have revealed that the short time post-irradiation annealing at high temperature results in partial reduction of the thermal conductivity of irradiated beryllium. (author)

  7. Structural, optical and compositional stability of MoS2 multi-layer flakes under high dose electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotunno, E.; Fabbri, F.; Cinquanta, E.; Kaplan, D.; Longo, M.; Lazzarini, L.; Molle, A.; Swaminathan, V.; Salviati, G.

    2016-06-01

    MoS2 multi-layer flakes, exfoliated from geological molybdenite, have been exposed to high dose electron irradiation showing clear evidence of crystal lattice and stoichiometry modifications. A massive surface sulfur depletion is induced together with the consequent formation of molybdenum nanoislands. It is found that a nanometric amorphous carbon layer, unwillingly deposited during the transmission electron microscope experiments, prevents the formation of the nanoislands. In the absence of the carbon layer, the formation of molybdenum grains proceeds both on the top and bottom surfaces of the flake. If carbon is present on both the surfaces then the formation of Mo grains is completely prevented.

  8. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts from lung tumors maintain their immuno-suppressive abilities after high-dose irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia eGorchs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence supports the notion that high-dose (>5 Gy radiotherapy (RT regimens are triggering stronger pro-immunogenic effects than standard low-dose (2 Gy regimens. However, the effects of RT on certain immunoregulatory elements in tumors remain unexplored. In this study we have investigated the effects of high-dose irradiation (HD-RT on the immunomodulating functions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs. Primary CAF cultures were established from lung cancer specimens derived from patients diagnosed for non-small cell lung cancer. Irradiated and non-irradiated CAFs were examined for immunomodulation in experiments with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from random, healthy donors. Regulation of lymphocytes behavior was checked by lymphocyte proliferation assays, lymphocyte migration assays and T-cell cytokine production. Additionally, CAF-secreted immuno-regulatory factors were studied by multiplex protein arrays, ELISAs and by LC-MS/MS proteomics. In all functional assays we observed a powerful immuno-suppressive effect exerted by CAF-conditioned medium on activated T-cells (p>0,001, and this effect was sustained after a single radiation dose of 18 Gy. Relevant immuno-suppressive molecules such as prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and -10, or transforming growth factor-β were found in CAF conditioned medium, but their secretion was unchanged after irradiation. Finally, immunogenic cell death responses in CAFs were studied by exploring the release of high motility group box-1 and ATP. Both alarmins remained undetectable before and after irradiation. In conclusion, CAFs play a powerful immuno-suppressive effect over activated T-cells, and this effect remains unchanged after HD-RT. Importantly, CAFs do not switch on immunogenic cell death responses after exposure to HD-RT.

  9. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties. - Highlights: ► The antioxidative properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant produced by gamma-irradiation was investiated. ► The antioxidant activities and total phenolic content levels were higher in mutant strain. ► These results suggest that gamma-irradiation induced algae mutant with superior antioxidant properties.

  10. Complications from high-dose para-aortic and pelvic irradiation for malignant genitourinary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, R.; Barber-Derus, S.; Glisch, C.; Lawton, C.A.; Cox, J.D.; Wilson, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1967 and 1982, 59 patients (33 with gynecologic malignancies and 26 with malignant tumors of the genitourinary system) received irradiation of 40 Gy or more for metastases to the para-aortic lymph nodes, in addition to pelvic irradiation. Disease in the para-aortic lymph nodes was controlled in 50 patients; the treatment failed in nine. Moderately acute side effects were seen in 25 patients, but none was severe. Late effects of irradiation were moderate in five patients and severe in three. Thirty patients are alive at 5 years. The benefits of local control and prolonged disease-free survival appear to outweigh considerably the risk of late effects from pelvic and para-aortic irradiation for advanced malignant tumors of the genitourinary system

  11. SR-TXRF analysis of trace elements in whole blood and heart of rats: effects of irradiation with low and high doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, C. L.; Pickler, A.; Braz, D.; Barroso, R. C.; Mantuano, A.; Salata, C.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; Lau, C. C.; de Almeida, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    In the last decades, studies showed that the exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation of the body could sense and activate the cell signaling pathways needed to respond to any induced cellular damage. This procedure reduces cell killing compared with a single dose of high radiation dose. Damage to the vasculature can affect the function of most body organs by restricting blood flow and oxygen to tissues; however, the heart and brain are of main concern. The precise relationship between long-term health effects and low-dose exposures remain poorly understood. Biological markers are powerful tools that can be used to determine dose- response relationships and to estimate risk, especially when dealing with, the effects of low dose exposures in humans. These markers should be specific, sensitive, as well as easy and fast to quantify. Various types of biologic specimens are potential candidates for identifying biomarkers but blood has the advantage of being minimally invasive to obtain. In this study, we propose to apply total reflection X-ray fluorescence to quantify possible chemical elemental concentration (sulfer, iron, zinc, potassium and calcium) changes in blood and heart tissues of Wistar rats after total body irradiation with low (0.1 Gy) and high (2.5 Gy) doses. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The results showed that the irradiated animals with low doses have significant alterations in blood and cardiac tissue when compared with animals that received high doses of radiation. Taken together the analysis of all the elements, we can observe that the radiation induced oxidative stress may be the leading cause for alteration of the elemental level in the studied samples.

  12. Use of high dose irradiation for development of special purposed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yohan; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Full text: FAO/WHO Food Safety Committee indicated that food borne disease is one of the most widespread threats to human health and is ever increasing, which requires a national measure against the problems in public health and consequent economic productivity. The increasing demand for convenient foods as well as safer foods needs new technologies with potentials to solve or complement the limitations of existing methods for preserving and improving the food quality and safety. There are various techniques for preserving foods, most of which have problems in terms of effectiveness, quality, safety, economic feasibility, and environmental impact. Food irradiation has been studied more extensively and scientifically than any other food processing technologies. It is a physical method for food treatment comparable to heat pasteurization, canning or freezing. The process involves exposing foods, either packaged or in bulk, to one of three types of ionizing energy: gamma rays, machine-generated electrons or X-rays. Food irradiation is a promising food safety technology that can eliminate spoilage and pathogens from foods. However, low consumer acceptance of irradiated foods has been become an obstacle to make food irradiation technology as widely accepted method. Thus, use of the technology in development of special-purposed foods should be a first step to make irradiation technology as a common decontamination method in food industry. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has used irradiation technology to develop space foods for astronauts, and four Korean foods (Kimchi: fermented vegetable, Ramen: ready-to-cook noodles, Saengshik bar: raw grain bar, Sujeonggwa: cinnamon beverage) were certificated by Institute of Biomedical Problems, followed by sensory and quality evaluation in International Space Stations. With this previous research experience, KAERI has researched on development of patient foods and military rations. Hospital patients are a special

  13. Effects of neonatal thymic exposure to high doses of X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, G.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1979-01-01

    The thymic region of neonatal Swiss mice was exposed to doses varying from 1000 R to 2000 R of X-irradiation. The animals did not show any signs of wasting syndrome up to 6 months after irradiation. At this time hyperplasia of the thymus with an associated lymphocytosis was evident in irradiated animals. Antibody production to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was not affected. However, at 12 months post-irradiation the animals showed signs of wasting disease with a progressive increase in their numbers at 18 and 24 months of age. The percentage incidence of animals with wasting disease was dose dependent. At this stage in the majority of the animals with the disease the thymus showed varying degrees of atrophy along with splenomegaly. There were no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes but the number of granulocytes showed a substantial increase. This was more evident in animals exposed to 2000 R to the thymic region. Though one observed a lowered ability to form antibodies to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with advancing age, the thymic irradiation did not affect the immune response to BSA even in animals manifesting wasting disease. An interesting observation has been the development of a severe loss of muscle power and tone in the hind limbs in a large majority of animals. (author)

  14. High doses of ionizing radiation on bone repair: is there effect outside the irradiated site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Dias, Pâmella Coelho; Limirio, Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira; Lara, Vitor Carvalho; Batista, Jonas Dantas; Dechichi, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Local ionizing radiation causes damage to bone metabolism, it reduces blood supply and cellularity over time. Recent studies indicate that radiation promotes biological response outside the treatment field. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on bone repair outside the irradiated field. Ten healthy male Wistar rats were used; and five animals were submitted to radiotherapy on the left femur. After 4 weeks, in all animals were created bone defects in the right and left femurs. Seven days after surgery, animals were euthanized. The femurs were removed and randomly divided into 3 groups (n=5): Control (C) (right femur of the non-irradiated animals); Local ionizing radiation (IR) (left femur of the irradiated animals); Contralateral ionizing radiation (CIR) (right femur of the irradiated animals). The femurs were processed and embedded in paraffin; and bone histologic sections were evaluated to quantify the bone neoformation. Histomorphometric analysis showed that there was no significant difference between groups C (24.6±7.04) and CIR (25.3±4.31); and IR group not showed bone neoformation. The results suggest that ionizing radiation affects bone repair, but does not interfere in bone repair distant from the primary irradiated site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prophylactic CNS therapy in childhood leukemia. Randomized controlled study of high-dose intravenous methotrexate and cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Hiyoshi, Yasuhiko [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine; Fujimoto, Takeo

    1982-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of CNS-prophylaxis with high-dose methotrexate (MTX). Seventy children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) entered to this study between July 1978 and December 1980. According to initial white blood count (WBC), they were stratified to induce remission with; vincristine and prednine in low initial WBC ( lt 25,000/mm/sup 3/) group and these two agents plus adriamycin in high initial WBC ( gt 25,000/mm/sup 3/) group. After inducing remission, 62 children who achieved CR, received different CNS-prophlaxis; using a regimen of three doses of weekly high-dose MTX (1,000 mg/m/sup 2/) 6-hour infusion, which was repeated every 12 weeks-Group A (n = 14); high-dose MTX followed by 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MT X-Group B (n = 15), 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MTX-Group C (n = 16), and in 17 patients with high initial WBC, same as in Group A-Group D (n = 17). During an intravenous 6-h infusion of MTX at a dose of 1,000 mg/m/sup 2/, the CSF concentration of MTX rose to 2.3 +- 2.4 x 10/sup -6/M after initiation of infusion and remained in 10/sup -7/ M level for 48 hours. CNS-leukemia terminated complete remission in one of 14 children in Group A, two of 15 in Group B, two of 16 in Group C and two of 17 in Group D. The cumulative incidence of CNS-leukemia at 20 months calculated by the technique of Kaplan and Meier was 0% in Group A, 18.1% in Group B, 7.1% in Group C and 50.8% in Group D. There was no statistical difference among Groups A, B and C. These data suggested that CNS-prophylaxis with high-dose intravenous MTX was effective as well as 2400 rad cranial irradiation plus three doses of i.t. MTX in childhood ALL with low initial WBC.

  16. High dose effects in neutron irradiated face-centered cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B.

    1993-06-01

    During neutron irradiation, most face-centered cubic metals and alloys develop saturation or quasi-steady state microstructures. This, in turn, leads to saturation levels in mechanical properties and quasi-steady state rates of swelling and creep deformation. Swelling initially plays only a small role in determining these saturation states, but as swelling rises to higher levels, it exerts strong feedback on the microstructure and its response to environmental variables. The influence of swelling, either directly or indirectly via second order mechanisms, such as elemental segregation to void surfaces, eventually causes major changes, not only in irradiation creep and mechanical properties, but also on swelling itself. The feedback effects of swelling on irradiation creep are particularly complex and lead to problems in applying creep data derived from highly pressurized creep tubes to low stress situations, such as fuel pins in liquid metal reactors

  17. Transverse colon conduit urinary diversion in patients treated with very high dose pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, R.; Dewan, A.K.; Pandey, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary diversion may be required in patients receiving pelvic irradiation for gynaecological or genitourinary cancers either as part of a planned or salvage surgical procedure or for urological complications of irradiation. Records were reviewed for 30 such patients who underwent transverse colon conduit as a primary form of urinary diversion. Most of the conduits were constructed using refluxing ureterocolic anastomoses with stents. The results showed no operative mortality. Although the procedure was associated with a complication rate of 37% and a re-operation rate of 20%, there were no bowel or urinary anastomotic leaks. The operation could be safely performed on patients with renal failure, with 83% of such patients showing normal or improved serum creatinine levels post operatively. The advantages of transverse colon conduit urinary diversion are the use of non-irradiated bowel and ureters for diversion. It is recommended as a primary form of urinary diversion in these high risk cases. (Author)

  18. Contribution to the understanding of zirconium alloy deformation under irradiation at high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Nesrine

    2015-01-01

    The growth of zirconium alloy tubes of PWR fuel assemblies is the result of two phenomena: axial irradiation creep and stress 'free' growth which is correlated to the formation of c-loops at high irradiation doses. This PhD work aims at investigating the coupling between these two phenomena through a fine Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the effect of a macroscopic applied stress on the c-loop microstructure. 600 keV Zr + ion irradiations were performed at 300 C on two recrystallized zirconium alloys: Zircaloy-4 and M5. Thanks to a device specifically designed, different tensile or compressive stress levels were applied under ion irradiation. The microstructural observations have shown that the c-loop density reduces in grains oriented with the c-axis close to the direction of the applied tensile stress or far from the direction of the applied compressive stress, which is in good agreement with the SIPA mechanism. Nevertheless, the examination of a large number of grains has revealed dispersion from grain to grain. This dispersion, which could be explained by the intergranular heterogeneities, reduces the magnitude of the stress effect on c-loop microstructure. In parallel to this experimental study, a cluster dynamics model has been able to describe the evolution under irradiation of zirconium and Zircaloy-4 microstructure and to assess the effect of stress on c-loop microstructure. On the macroscopic scale, a physical model was also developed to predict the irradiation growth and creep behaviour of zirconium alloy tubes. (author) [fr

  19. Comparative study on hematopoietic damage of mice caused by high-dose of gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongying; Wang Yueying; Li Deguan; Wang Xiaochun; Zhang Heng; Lu Lu; Chang Jianhui; Du Liqing; Wang Yan; Men Aimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of high-dose of gamma-ray irradiation on hematopoiesis injury and recovery of IRM-2 and C57BL/6 J mouse. Methods: The experiment was designed to study the effects of radiation (4 Gy) on spleen index, CFU-S and DNA damage on the 9 th day of IRM-2 and ICR mice and the effects of radiation (6 Gy) on WBC change and its absolute value on the 45 th days of IRM-2 and C57BL/6 J mice. Results: The IRM-2 mouse spleen index, CFU-S and DNA were higher than ICR mouse on the 9 th days, and there were significant difference in CFU-S and DNA (P<0.01). The IRM-2 mouse WBC, RMC, HGB and HCT were higher than C57BL/6 J mouse on the 45 th days, and there were significant difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: IRM-2 mouse hematopoiesis resumes quicker than C57BL/6 J and ICR do after high-dose of gamma-ray irradiation. (authors)

  20. Outcomes of high-dose unilateral kidney irradiation in patients with gastric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Moshe H.; North, Luceil B.; Cabanillas, Fernando F.; Ames, Angie L.; Hess, Mark A.; Cox, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To review the long-term clinical effects of unilateral kidney irradiation on overall renal function and blood pressure in patients with gastric lymphoma. Methods and Materials: In the study were 27 patients with Stage I or II gastric lymphoma who had undergone irradiation of at least 24 Gy to ≥1/3 of the left kidney. They include 16 women and 11 men, aged 31 to 77, with a mean age of 57.6 years (median 56). Fifteen patients had Stage I and 12 had Stage II disease. In 13 patients the whole kidney had been irradiated, and 14 had had partial kidney irradiation, at doses ranging between 24 and 40.5 Gy. All patients received combined chemotherapy with various drugs: all patients received corticosteroids, and five received cis-platinum. Their follow-up ranged between 0.7 and 7.8 years (mean 3.4 years). Data on possible effects of the treatment on blood pressure, renal function as assessed by blood urea and creatinine, and kidney shrinkage as seen by serial computed tomography scanning were collected on all patients. Results: Three patients had persistent, mild elevations of urea and creatinine levels, which did not require special treatment. All three also received cis-platinum. Ipsilateral kidney shrinkage was evident in most patients. In 19 patients the craniocaudal measurement of the kidney shrank by ≥1.6 cm. Shrinkage in other dimensions was also evident. The degree of atrophy was related to the volume of kidney irradiated. Only two patients developed hypertension, both at a low level of 150/90; one patient had had 40 Gy to the whole kidney, the other 40 Gy to half the kidney. Neither patient had elevated urea or creatinine. Conclusions: Notwithstanding the shrinkage to the irradiated part of the kidney, the treatment did not lead to clinically significant hypertension or renal dysfunction. The administration of cis-platinum to patients with gastric lymphoma that requires kidney irradiation should be further evaluated

  1. Studies on the radiation sensitivity of food microorganism by high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Han Joon; Lee, Eun Jung; Yu, Hyun Hee; Lee, Jae Ho

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the radio resistance of pathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and Escherichia coli O157) in irradiating environments. Their radiation conditions of pathogenic microorganisms varied with pH(3-10), salt concentration(1-15%), temperature(-20, 4 and 25 .deg. C) and atmospheric condition. In addition, the effect of γ-irradiation on the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms inoculated into food (saengsik, sliced ham, chopped beef) was investigated. The radiation dose ranged from 0 to 3 kGy. The γ--irradiated B.cereus(γ--BC) St.aureus(γ--SA), MRSA(γ--MRSA) and E.coli O157(γ--EC) were then cultured and the viable cell count on plate count agar and D10-values(dose required to inactivate 90% of a microbial population) were calculated. The number of pathogenic microorganisms at pH(3-10) and salt concentration(1-15%), temperature(-20, 4 and 25 .deg. C) and atmospheric condition decreased by 1 log CFU/ml after irradiation. The D 10 -value of γ--SA in the optimum condition was 0.152 kGy, and these of γ--MRSA and γ--EC were 0.346 and 0.240 kGy, respectively. The initial cell counts of pathogenic microorganisms in culture broth were slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration. However, radiation resistance of pathogenic microorganisms was increased at frozen state. Moreover, D 10 -values of these is test strains in saengsik, sliced ham and chopped beef were 0.597, 0.226 , 0.398 and 0.416 kGy, respectively. These results provide the basic information for the in activation of pathogenic microorganisms in foods by irradiation

  2. Long term evolution of the immune response in the rat irradiated at mean and high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malarbet, J.L.; Veyrat, M.; Le Go, R.; Prudhomme, J.; Genest, L.; Castelnau, L.

    1977-01-01

    In irradiated animals, the lymphocytes, immunity vectors, are quickly and quantitatively depressed. Their ability to respond to an antigenic stimulus was tested in rats during post-irradiation lymphopenia and after restoration of normal lymphocytosis. The antigenic stimulus, sheep erythrocytes, was applied first 2 and 3 weeks, then 1, 2 and 3 months after exposures to 60 Co gamma rays (doses 300 and 600 rads). This study covered the 3rd through the 10th day after immunisation. Blood lymphocytes were separated by the Ficoll-Contrix gradient method and spleen lymphocytes were obtained by crushing. A lymphocyte sub-population separation was obtained from centrifugation on 4 discontinuous Ficoll-Contrix gradients. Size distribution spectra show that the lighter sub-population is made up of large-sized cells and that the heavier the cells, the smaller they are. The determination of surface immunoglobulins with fluorescent antigens shows that cells bearing immunoglobulins are predominant in the low-density sub-population. The measurement of electrophoretic mobility shows a low-mobility, low-density population and a higher density, faster mobility population which could reflect a higher proportion of B-cells in the low density population and of T-cells in the higher density population. The immune response was tested on the sub-populations. The rosette-forming ability was depressed during 1 month after irradiation then became progressively normal. The cellular plaque-forming ability was markedly suppressed 15 days after irradiation, but was soon active again. These results show the qualitative aspect of the post-irradiation immune defect [fr

  3. Studies on the radiation sensitivity of food microorganism by high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Han Joon; Lee, Eun Jung; Yu, Hyun Hee; Lee, Jae Ho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We investigated the radio resistance of pathogenic microorganisms (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and Escherichia coli O157) in irradiating environments. Their radiation conditions of pathogenic microorganisms varied with pH(3-10), salt concentration(1-15%), temperature(-20, 4 and 25 .deg. C) and atmospheric condition. In addition, the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms inoculated into food (saengsik, sliced ham, chopped beef) was investigated. The radiation dose ranged from 0 to 3 kGy. The {gamma}--irradiated B.cereus({gamma}--BC) St.aureus({gamma}--SA), MRSA({gamma}--MRSA) and E.coli O157({gamma}--EC) were then cultured and the viable cell count on plate count agar and D10-values(dose required to inactivate 90% of a microbial population) were calculated. The number of pathogenic microorganisms at pH(3-10) and salt concentration(1-15%), temperature(-20, 4 and 25 .deg. C) and atmospheric condition decreased by 1 log CFU/ml after irradiation. The D{sub 10}-value of {gamma}--SA in the optimum condition was 0.152 kGy, and these of {gamma}--MRSA and {gamma}--EC were 0.346 and 0.240 kGy, respectively. The initial cell counts of pathogenic microorganisms in culture broth were slightly decreased as the decrease of pH and the increase of salt concentration. However, radiation resistance of pathogenic microorganisms was increased at frozen state. Moreover, D{sub 10}-values of these is test strains in saengsik, sliced ham and chopped beef were 0.597, 0.226 , 0.398 and 0.416 kGy, respectively. These results provide the basic information for the in activation of pathogenic microorganisms in foods by irradiation

  4. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, test results of gamma ray irradiation to CCD/CMOS cameras are described. From the CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system) data of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant station, we found out that the gamma ray dose-rate when the hydrogen explosion occurred in nuclear reactors 1{approx}3 is about 160 Gy/h. If assumed that the emergency response robot for the management of severe accident of the nuclear power plant has been sent into the reactor area to grasp the inside situation of reactor building and to take precautionary measures against releasing radioactive materials, the CCD/CMOS cameras, which are loaded with the robot, serve as eye of the emergency response robot. In the case of the Japanese Quince robot system, which was sent to carry out investigating the unit 2 reactor building refueling floor situation, 7 CCD/CMOS cameras are used. 2 CCD cameras of Quince robot are used for the forward and backward monitoring of the surroundings during navigation. And 2 CCD (or CMOS) cameras are used for monitoring the status of front-end and back-end motion mechanics such as flippers and crawlers. A CCD camera with wide field of view optics is used for monitoring the status of the communication (VDSL) cable reel. And another 2 CCD cameras are assigned for reading the indication value of the radiation dosimeter and the instrument. In the preceding assumptions, a major problem which arises when dealing with CCD/CMOS cameras in the severe accident situations of the nuclear power plant is the presence of high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. In the case of the DBA (design basis accident) situations of the nuclear power plant, in order to use a CCD/CMOS camera as an ad-hoc monitoring unit in the vicinity of high radioactivity structures and components of the nuclear reactor area, a robust survivability of this camera in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore should be verified. The CCD/CMOS cameras of various types were gamma irradiated at a

  5. Structural and Optical Changes of Poly-Vinylidene Fluoride by Electron Irradiation at High Dose Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaleh, B.; Fakhri, P.; Borhani, M.; Habibi, S.; Noroozi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Poly-vinylidene fluoride films were prepared and irradiated by 10MeV electrons at different doses ranging from 50 to 300kGy with a dose rate of 10kGy/s. The FTIR results indicated that no major phase content change was observed. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the electron irradiation results in shifting of the absorption peak, appearance of a new peak and increasing the band gap (Eg). These changes may be due to the breaking of polymer chains and creation of new defects. The X-ray diffraction analysis of samples indicated that the crystallinity did not show any major changes. Concerning the gel fraction measurements, it was observed that gel fraction increases with increasing the dose, where it is an indication of the formation of cross-linked films.

  6. Effect of chemoradiotherapy using ACNU, vincristine, and nicardipine with high-dose irradiation on malignant astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genka, Shigeru; Shitara, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Takakura, Kintomo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1993-05-01

    Fifty-two patients with malignant astrocytoma were treated with cellular synchronization radiation therapy at the University of Tokyo Hospital between 1977 and 1989. Twenty-five patients (Group 1) received 1 - (4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl - 3 - (2-chloroethyl) - 3 - nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), vincristine, and 60 Gy of irradiation, and 27 patients (Group 2) ACNU, vincristine, the Ca-channel blocker nicardipine, and 72 Gy of irradiation. Median survival times for Groups 1 and 2 were 15 and 30 months, respectively. Although there was no significant difference, Group 2 achieved longer survival with 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates of 85.2, 65.8, and 46.9% compared to rates of 66.7, 40.0, and 26.7%, respectively, for Group 1. (author).

  7. Phase stability and microstructures of high entropy alloys ion irradiated to high doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Songqin [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Gao, Michael C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, 1450 Queen Ave SW, Albany, OR, 97321 (United States); AECOM, P.O. Box 1959, Albany, OR, 97321 (United States); Yang, Tengfei [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Liaw, Peter K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996 (United States); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: drzhangy@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2016-11-15

    The microstructures of Al{sub x}CoCrFeNi (x = 0.1, 0.75 and 1.5 in molar ratio) high entropy alloys (HEAs) irradiated at room temperature with 3 MeV Au ions at the highest fluence of 105, 91, and 81 displacement per atom, respectively, were studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analyses show that the initial microstructures and phase composition of all three alloys are retained after ion irradiation and no phase decomposition is observed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the disordered face-centered cubic (FCC) and disordered body-centered cubic (BCC) phases show much less defect cluster formation and structural damage than the NiAl-type ordered B2 phase. This effect is explained by higher entropy of mixing, higher defect formation/migration energies, substantially lower thermal conductivity, and higher atomic level stress in the disordered phases.

  8. Effect of chemoradiotherapy using ACNU, vincristine, and nicardipine with high-dose irradiation on malignant astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genka, Shigeru; Shitara, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Takakura, Kintomo

    1993-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with malignant astrocytoma were treated with cellular synchronization radiation therapy at the University of Tokyo Hospital between 1977 and 1989. Twenty-five patients (Group 1) received 1 - (4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl - 3 - (2-chloroethyl) - 3 - nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), vincristine, and 60 Gy of irradiation, and 27 patients (Group 2) ACNU, vincristine, the Ca-channel blocker nicardipine, and 72 Gy of irradiation. Median survival times for Groups 1 and 2 were 15 and 30 months, respectively. Although there was no significant difference, Group 2 achieved longer survival with 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates of 85.2, 65.8, and 46.9% compared to rates of 66.7, 40.0, and 26.7%, respectively, for Group 1. (author)

  9. Effects of two different high doses of irradiation on antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Bukan, Neslihan; Dizman, Aysen; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2004-03-01

    To examine the state of the oxidant-antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pig caused by high doses of ionizing radiation in the early period. The research was carried out on guinea pigs irradiated with the doses of 8 Gy (group 2) or 15 Gy (group 3) (single dose/whole body) in comparison with control group (group 1). The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of selenium in the liver were measured. TBARS levels in the irradiated animals were markedly higher than those in controls. In group 3, GSH levels and GSH-Px activity were significantly increased while activity of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased compared to groups 1 and 2. Liver selenium levels were not influenced by irradiation. The data have shown that gamma-irradiation at the doses of 8 Gy or 15 Gy results in significant increase in free radical formation while antioxidant enzymes were affected only at a dose of 15 Gy.

  10. High-dose irradiation and misonidazole in the treatment of malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelnik, H.D.; Kaercher, K.H.; Szepesi, T.; Schratter-Sehn, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with grade III and IV supratentorial astrocytomas who were entered into a radomized two-arm study to evaluate the effect of misonidazole in conjunction with postoperative irradiation are available for analysis. All patients received the same radiation dose: 6650 rads (43 MeV photons) in 31 fractions over 7 1/2 weeks. Misonidazole was given orally 4 to 5 hours before irradiation on those treatment days when fractional radiation doses of 400 rads were used. The cumulative dose of misonidazole was 27 g, corresponding to 12.6 to 16.4 g/m 2 . With a minimum follow-up time of one year, median survival for patients receiving postoperative irradiation had a median survival of 57.1 weeks. The difference in the distribution of survival times between both groups is statistically significant (p < 0.02). From an analysis of variance for age, it cannot be ruled out that the survival difference between the two groups is at least partly due to differences in ages. Side effects of misonidazole were minimal, with only 2 patients experiencing mild paresthesias and 4 noting a transient tinnitus

  11. Tensile and stress corrosion cracking properties of type 304 stainless steel irradiated to a very high dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Strain, R.V.; Shack, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Certain safety-related core internal structural components of light water reactors, usually fabricated from Type 304 or 316 austenitic stainless steels (SSs), accumulate very high levels of irradiation damage (20-100 displacement per atom or dpa) by the end of life. Our databases and mechanistic understanding of the degradation of such highly irradiated components, however, are not well established. A key question is the nature of irradiation-assisted intergranular cracking at very high doses, i.e. is it purely mechanical failure or is it stress-corrosion cracking? In this work, hot-cell tests and microstructural characterization were performed on Type 304 SS from the hexagonal fuel can of the decommissioned EBR-II reactor after irradiation to ∼50 dpa at ∼370 deg. C. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests were conducted at 289 degree sign C in air and in water at several levels of electrochemical potential (ECP), and microstructural characteristics were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The material deformed significantly by twinning and exhibited surprisingly high ductility in air, but was susceptible to severe intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) at high ECP. Low levels of dissolved O and ECP were effective in suppressing the susceptibility of the heavily irradiated material to IGSCC, indicating that the stress corrosion process associated with irradiation-induced grain-boundary Cr depletion, rather than purely mechanical separation of grain boundaries, plays the dominant role. However, although IGSCC was suppressed, the material was susceptible to dislocation channeling at a low ECP, and this susceptibility led to a poor work-hardening capability and low ductility

  12. Short-term irradiation of the glioblastoma with high-dosed fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkelbein, W.; Bruggmoser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1984-01-01

    Compared to surgery alone, postoperative radiotherapy leads with glioblastomas (grade IV gliomas) to a significant improvement of the therapeutic results. The prolongation of survival time, however, is to a large extent compensated by the therapy itself (it normally implicates hospitalisation). Therefore, we tested the efficiency of rapid course irradiation with high fractions. 70 patients were treated daily with individual fractions of 3.5 Gy, 4 to 6 fractions per week. The entire dose amounted to 31.5 to 38.5 Gy. The average survival time was 33.5 weeks corresponding to the survival time known from the combined surgical and radiotherapeutical treatment of glioblastomas. An effective increase in therapy-free survival time seems possible, especially when the entire focal dose does not exceed 35 Gy. It is remarkable that the patients with the maximum exposure did not have the longest survival times and rates. Living conditions for the patients were similar to those with conventional fractioning, or even better. Rapid course irradiation with high fractions and a limited total dose (35 Gy) presently is - apart from the accelerated superfractioning - a successful measure to prolong the therapyfree survival time for patients with grade IV gliomas. (orig.) [de

  13. Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix Treated with High Dose Rate Intracavitary Irradiation : 1. Patterns of Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Choi, Tae Jin; Kim, Jin Hee

    1993-01-01

    226 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with curative radiation therapy at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Dongsan hospital, Keimyung university, School of medicine, from July, 1988 to May, 1991 were evaluated. The patients with all stages of the disease were included in this study. The maximum and mean follow up durations were 60 and 43 months. The radiation therapy consisted of external irradiation to the whole pelvis (2700 - 4500 cGy) and boost parametrial doses(for a total of 4500 - 6300 cGy) with midline shill(4x10 cm), and combined with intracavitary irradiation irradiation(5700 - 7500 cGy to point A). The distribution of patients according to the stage was as follows: stage IB 37(16.4%), stage IIA 91 (40.3%), Stage IIB 58(25.7%), stage III 32(13.8%), stage IV 8 (3.5%). The overall failure rate was 23.9%(54 patients). The failure rate increased as a function of stage from 13.5% in stage 1B to 15.4% in stage IIA, 25.9% in stage IIB, 46.9% in stage III, and 62.5% in stage IV. The pelvic failure alone were 32 patients and 11 patients were as a components of other failure, and remaining 11 patients had distant metastasis only. Among the 43 patients of locoregional failure, 28 patients were not controlled initially and in other words nearly half of total failures were due to residual tumor. The mean medial paracervical(point A) doses were 6700 cGy in stage IIB, 7200 cGy in stage IIA, 7450 cGy in stage IIB, 7600 cGy in stage III and 8100 cGy in stage IV. The medial paracevical doses showed some correlation with tumor control rate in early stage of disease (stage Ib, IIA), but there were higher central failure rate in advanced stage in spite of higher paracervical doses. In advanced stage, failure were not reduced by simple Increment of paracervical doses. To improve a locoregional control rate in advanced stages, it is necessary to give additional treatment such as concomitant chemoradiation

  14. Use of high dose X-irradiation to block back stimulation in the MLC reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasazuki, T.; McMichael, A.; Radvany, R.; Payne, R.; McDevitt, H.

    1976-01-01

    Paradoxical stimulation, ''back stimulation'' was observed in MLR (mixed lymphocyte culture reaction) in both family and population studies. This is one of the major problems in obtaining clear cut-off points for stimulation and non-stimulation in MLR using LD (lymphocyte defined) homozygous typing cells. The ability to provoke back stimulation was found to be different among LD homozygous typing cells. The presence of nonspecific blastogenic factors in supernatant from mixed culture of LD homozygous and heterozygous cells, which might be responsible for back stimulation, was confirmed. It was clearly shown that irradiation of LD homozygous typing cells with 6,000 rads instead of the widely used 3,000 rads can greatly reduce or eliminate this back stimulation without introducing any false non-stimulation. (author)

  15. High-dose-rate afterloading intracavitary irradiation and expandable metallic biliary endoprosthesis for malignant biliary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Ohishi, Hajime; Yoshioka, Tetsuya [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan); and others

    1989-04-01

    A double lumen catheter was developed as an applicator for the remote afterloading system (RALS) of {sup 60}Co for the intracavitary irradiation of an obstructed common bile duct due to gallbladder cancer in 1 case and by cholangiocarcinoma in 7 cases. This was followed by the biliary endoprosthesis with expandable metallic stents to maintain patency. The mean survival period after treatment was not long (14 weeks). However, removal of the external drainage tube was possible in 7 of the 8 cases, and none of the 8 cases showed dislodgement or deformity of the stent, or obstruction of the bile duct in the stent-inserted area. This combination effectively provided palliation, and has considerable potential for malignant biliary obstruction. (author).

  16. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-colony stimulating factor stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D; Holt, Rebecca K; Whitnall, Mark H

    2013-08-01

    We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  18. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes

  19. Mechanism of action for anti-radiation vaccine in reducing the biological impact of high-dose gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after high-dose gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naïve animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which they mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  20. Single administration of p2TA (AB103, a CD28 antagonist peptide, prevents inflammatory and thrombotic reactions and protects against gastrointestinal injury in total-body irradiated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salida Mirzoeva

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to elucidate the action of the CD28 mimetic peptide p2TA (AB103 that attenuates an excessive inflammatory response in mitigating radiation-induced inflammatory injuries. BALB/c and A/J mice were divided into four groups: Control (C, Peptide (P; 5 mg/kg of p2TA peptide, Radiation (R; total body irradiation with 8 Gy γ-rays, and Radiation + Peptide (RP; irradiation followed by p2TA peptide 24 h later. Gastrointestinal tissue damage was evaluated by analysis of jejunum histopathology and immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation (Cyclin D1 and inflammation (COX-2 markers, as well as the presence of macrophages (F4/80. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and KC as well as fibrinogen were quantified in plasma samples obtained from the same mice. Our results demonstrated that administration of p2TA peptide significantly reduced the irradiation-induced increase of IL-6 and fibrinogen in plasma 7 days after exposure. Seven days after total body irradiation with 8 Gy of gamma rays numbers of intestinal crypt cells were reduced and villi were shorter in irradiated animals compared to the controls. The p2TA peptide delivery 24 h after irradiation led to improved morphology of villi and crypts, increased Cyclin D1 expression, decreased COX-2 staining and decreased numbers of macrophages in small intestine of irradiated mice. Our study suggests that attenuation of CD28 signaling is a promising therapeutic approach for mitigation of radiation-induced tissue injury.

  1. Researches, development and characterization of dosimetric materials for monitoring in irradiation processes with high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galante, Ana Maria Sisti

    2003-01-01

    Dosimetric materials that can be produced in Brazil with material acquired in the national market to replace the imported dosimeters used in radiation processing were developed in this work. Mixtures of potassium nitrate and sensitizers compounds as manganese dioxide, barium nitrate and potassium bromide were prepared in the pellet form. Dosimetric characteristics such as dose-response useful range, sensitivity, environmental conditions and dose rate influences were evaluated in 60 Co gamma radiation fields. Dyed polymethylmethacrylate detectors were also produced and its dosimetric characteristics were evaluated. The main characteristics evaluated in this case were: dose response useful range sensitivity, environmental conditions, dose rate influences and radiation energy dependence in gamma radiation fields and accelerated electrons beam of 0.8 to 1.5 MeV. The applied analytic technique was spectrophotometry. The calibration was performed in the irradiation facilities belonging to IPEN and certified by the International Atomic Energy Agency by means of the program IDAS (International Dose Assurance Service ) using the Fricke dosimeter. The mixture of potassium nitrate and manganese dioxide presented the best results and a wide dose range between 200 and 600 kGy. The response of the developed polymethylmethacrylate detectors are similar to the imported detectors and the dose range is characteristic to each detector and depends on the dye added in its formulation. (author)

  2. High-dose Extended-Field Irradiation and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Cervical Cancer With Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of extended-field radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic nodes. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the results for 33 women with Stage IB-IVB cervical cancer. Each patient had received 59.4 Gy, including a three-dimensional conformal boost to the para-aortic lymph nodes and 41.4-50.4 Gy of external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis. Each patient also underwent six or seven applications of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (median, 5 Gy to point A at each session). Results: The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 39 months. The most common acute toxicity was hematologic, observed in 23 women. Severe acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 3 and 4 patients, respectively. More than three-quarters of patients showed a complete response, encompassing the primary mass, metastatic pelvic, and para-aortic lymph nodes. Of the 33 women, 15 had no evidence of disease, 6 had persistent disease, 4 developed in-field failures, and 6 developed distant failures. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 47% and 42%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with extended-field radiotherapy is feasible in women with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic lymph nodes, with acceptable late morbidity and a high survival rate, although it was accompanied by substantial acute toxicity.

  3. Hall effect measurements of Frenkel defect clustering in aluminium during high-dose reactor irradiation at 4.6 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.; Mauer, W.; Pfaendner, K.; Rosner, P.

    1976-01-01

    The low-field Hall coefficient R 0 of irradiated aluminium at 4.6 K is independent of the Frenkel defect (FD) concentration, however sensitively dependent of their configuration. Since measurement of R 0 is not too difficult, rather extensive investigations of FD clustering during irradiation can be performed, but only qualitative interpretations are possible. Several pure Al samples have been irradiated with reactor neutrons at 4.6 K up to very high doses phit resp. resistivity increments Δrho 0 (maximum 91% of extrapolated saturation value Δrho 0 sup(sat) approximately 980 nΩcm). The main results are 1.FD clustering within a single displacement cascade is not a very strong effect in Al, since the R 0 values are essentially the same after reactor and after electron irradiation. Rough cascade averages are: volume Vsub(c) approximately 2.1 x 10 5 at.vol. and FD concentration csub(c) approximately 1100 ppm. 2. There is practically no dose-dependent FD clustering up to Δrho 0 approximately 350 nΩcm, since R 0 remains essentially constant there. It follows that dose-dependent FD clustering can only occur for high-order overlap of cascade volumes. The differential dose curve dΔrho 0 /dphit is perfectly linear in Δrho 0 as long as R 0 = const. 3. For Δrho 0 > 350 nΩcm FD clustering becomes increasingly important and R 0 changes strongly. Surprisingly dR 0 /dphit approximately const whence there is a constant rate of cluster size increase in spite of the vanishing rate of FD production, evidence of the continuous regrouping of the lattice and its defects. (author)

  4. Cluster dynamics modeling of the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimbal, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.brimbal@areva.com [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Fournier, Lionel [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Barbu, Alain [Alain Barbu Consultant, 6 Avenue Pasteur Martin Luther King, 78230 Le Pecq (France)

    2016-01-15

    A mean field cluster dynamics model has been developed in order to study the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructural evolution of metals. In this model, self-interstitial clusters, stacking-fault tetrahedra and helium-vacancy clusters are taken into account, in a configuration well adapted to austenitic stainless steels. For small helium-vacancy cluster sizes, the densities of each small cluster are calculated. However, for large sizes, only the mean number of helium atoms per cluster size is calculated. This aspect allows us to calculate the evolution of the microstructural features up to high irradiation doses in a few minutes. It is shown that the presence of stacking-fault tetrahedra notably reduces cavity sizes below 400 °C, but they have little influence on the microstructure above this temperature. The binding energies of vacancies to cavities are calculated using a new method essentially based on ab initio data. It is shown that helium has little effect on the cavity microstructure at 300 °C. However, at higher temperatures, even small helium production rates such as those typical of sodium-fast-reactors induce a notable increase in cavity density compared to an irradiation without helium. - Highlights: • Irradiation of steels with helium is studied through a new cluster dynamics model. • There is only a small effect of helium on cavity distributions in PWR conditions. • An increase in helium production causes an increase in cavity density over 500 °C. • The role of helium is to stabilize cavities via reduced emission of vacancies.

  5. Modulation of toxicity following external beam irradiation preceded by high-dose rate brachytherapy in inoperable oesophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taal, B.G.; Aleman, B.M.P.; Koning, C.C.E.; Boot, H.

    1996-01-01

    To induce fast relief of dysphagia in inoperable oesephageal cancer, we applied high-dose rate (HDR) intraluminal irradiation followed by external irradiation (EBRT) in a phase II study. 15 patients (group A: n = 15; 10 men, 5 women; median age 66 years) were treated with 10 Gy HDR brachytherapy plus 40 Gy EBRT (15 fractions of 2.67 Gy). Severe side-effects were encountered in 60% of patients: 3 late ulceration, 2 pending fistula and 2 patients with fatal haemorrhage after an interval of 6 months. Overall response was excellent: 9 complete remissions (60%) and 6 partial responses (40%). Because of the high toxicity rate, in a subsequent study (group B: n = 30; 23 mean, 7 women; median age 66 years) the EBRT scheme was changed using smaller fractions (2.0 Gy) to reach the same total dose of 40 Gy. The complication rate (17%) was significantly reduced, while the overall response remained excellent (83%): 17 complete and 8 partial responses. The impressive change in complication rate of HDR brachytherapy and EBRT stresses the impact of the fraction per dose and illustrates the small therapeutic margins. (author)

  6. Modulation of toxicity following external beam irradiation preceded by high-dose rate brachytherapy in inoperable oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taal, B.G.; Aleman, B.M.P.; Koning, C.C.E.; Boot, H. [Nederlands Kanker Inst. `Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis`, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    To induce fast relief of dysphagia in inoperable oesephageal cancer, we applied high-dose rate (HDR) intraluminal irradiation followed by external irradiation (EBRT) in a phase II study. 15 patients (group A: n = 15; 10 men, 5 women; median age 66 years) were treated with 10 Gy HDR brachytherapy plus 40 Gy EBRT (15 fractions of 2.67 Gy). Severe side-effects were encountered in 60% of patients: 3 late ulceration, 2 pending fistula and 2 patients with fatal haemorrhage after an interval of 6 months. Overall response was excellent: 9 complete remissions (60%) and 6 partial responses (40%). Because of the high toxicity rate, in a subsequent study (group B: n = 30; 23 mean, 7 women; median age 66 years) the EBRT scheme was changed using smaller fractions (2.0 Gy) to reach the same total dose of 40 Gy. The complication rate (17%) was significantly reduced, while the overall response remained excellent (83%): 17 complete and 8 partial responses. The impressive change in complication rate of HDR brachytherapy and EBRT stresses the impact of the fraction per dose and illustrates the small therapeutic margins. (author).

  7. New generation of nuclear fuels: Stability of different stearates under high doses gamma irradiation in the manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebeau, D.; Esnouf, S. [Den-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gracia, J. [Den-Service d' Etudes des Combustibles et Matériaux à base d' Actinides (SECA), CEA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Audubert, F. [Den-Service d' Analyse et de Caractérisation du Comportement des Combustibles (SA3C), CEA, F- 13115 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [Den-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-07-15

    In the future reactors, the pellets radioactivity will increase due to the modification of the plutonium concentration. The stability of the organic additive used as lubricating/deagglomerating agent has thus to be evaluated. Up to now, zinc stearate is employed, but new additives are tested in this study and compared to zinc stearate. In a first part of this paper, the order of magnitude of the dose deposited in the stearates has been estimated. Afterward, three different stearates have been irradiated, using gamma-rays at doses as high as 2000 kGy. Two atmospheres of irradiation were tested, i.e. inert atmosphere and air. Samples were characterized using the following analytical tools: mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The objective is the evaluation of the ageing of these materials. In the nuclear fuel pellets manufacturing context, the candidate which could replace zinc stearate, if this one is too degraded to fulfill its role of lubricant in the pellets of the future manufacturing, has been determined. - Highlights: •Dose deposition estimation for different stearates. •Stearates radiolysis and radio-oxidization at high doses using gamma-rays. •H{sub 2} emission estimation as a function of atmosphere and dose. •Chemical modifications in stearates as a function of atmosphere and dose. •Comparison of three stearates.

  8. Efficacy of granisetron in the prevention of GIT problems in patients undergoing total body irradiation. Interet du granisetron dans la prevention des troubles digestifs lors des irradiations corporelles totales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuvret, L.; Jammet, P.; Campana, F.; Cosset, J.M.; Fourquet, A. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-01-01

    From december 1991 to september 1992, 20 patients due to receive total body irradiation (TBI) prior to allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation were given granisetron (Kytril) in order to prevent intestinal (nausea and vomiting) early intolerance, TBI regimen was delivered on a fractional basis of six fractions, over 3 days. Twelve grays were delivered with a lung protection decreasing the pulmonary dose to 9 Gy Granisetron (3 mg) was administered by a 5-min intravenous infusion, 1 h before TBI. Up to two further infusions were given if nausea or vomiting occurred. The pretreatment perfusion was sufficient to prevent nausea and vomiting in 10/20 patients, one additional post-treatment perfusion was necessary in 7/20 patients, and two in 1/20 patients. In 2/20 cases, nausea and vomiting persisted in spite of three perfusions. Excellent or good efficacy was noted in 15/20 patients and a minor (or no) efficacy in five. Granisetron appears to be superior to the conventional anti emetic schemes to prevent nausea and vomiting in patients receiving TBI for bone marrow transplantation. 15 Refs.

  9. In vivo dosimetry study of semi-conductors EPD-20 in total body irradiation technique; Etude de la dosimetrie in vivo par semi-conducteurs EPD-20 dans les conditions de l'irradiation corporelle totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besbes, M.; Kochbati, L.; Ben Abdennabi, A.; Abdessaied, S.; Salem, L.; Frikha, H.; Nasr Ben Ammar, C.; Hentati, D.; Gargouri, W.; Messai, T.; Benna, F.; Maalej, M. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de radiotherapie oncologique, Tunis (Tunisia); Mahjoubi, H. [Institut superieur des technologies medicales de Tunis, Dept. de biophysique, Tunis (Tunisia); Farhat, L. [CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Service de radiotherapie oncologique, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work was the study of in vivo dosimetry performed in a series of 54 patients receiving total body irradiation (T.B.I.) at the Salah-Azaiz Institute of Tunis since 2004. In vivo dosimetry measurements were compared to analytically calculated doses from monitor units delivered. Patients and method: The irradiation was conducted by a linear accelerator (Clinac 1800, Varian, Palo Alto, USA) using nominal X-rays energies of 6 MV and 18 MV, depending on the thickness of the patient at the abdomen. The dose was measured by semi-conductors p-type E.P.D.-20. These diodes were calibrated in advance with an ionization chamber 'P.T.W. Farmer' type of 0.6 cm{sup 3} and were placed on the surface of plexiglas phantom in the same T.B.I. conditions. A study of dosimetric characteristics of semi-conductors E.P.D.-20 was carried out as a function of beam direction and temperature. Afterwards, we conducted a comparative analysis of doses measured using these detectors during irradiation to those calculated retrospectively from monitor units delivered to each patient conditioned by T.B.I.. Results: Experience showed that semi-conductors are sensitive to the angle of beam radiation (0-90 degrees) and the temperature (22-40 Celsius degrees). The maximum variation is respectively 5 and 7%, but in our irradiation conditions these correction factors are less than 1%. The analysis of the results of the in vivo dosimetry had shown that the ratio of the average measured doses and analytically calculated doses at the abdomen, mediastinum, right lung and head are 1.005, 1.007, 1.0135 and 1.008 with a standard deviation 'type A' respectively of 3.04, 2.37, 7.09 et 4.15%. Conclusion: In vivo dosimetry by semi-conductors is in perfect agreement with dosimetry by calculation. However, in vivo dosimetry using semiconductors is the only technique that can reflect the dose actually received instantly by the patient during T.B.I. given the many factors

  10. Creatine level and lipide analysis in radiosensitive organs of mice after total body irradiation - a contribution to further development of biologic radiodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breiter, N; Ungemach, F R; Hegner, D; Beck, G; Mayr, A

    1986-02-01

    The authors intended to test the suitability of creatine level and/or certain criteria of lipide analysis in radiosensitive organs for an individual (i.e. considering biologic variations of radiosensitivity), qualitative and quantitative demonstration of an irradiation damage. It was found that creatine determination and several criteria of lipide peroxydation are not suitable for a biologic radiation dosimetry due to the absence of organ dependent, radiation dose dependent, and time dependent changes. The reasons are discussed.

  11. Creatine level and lipide analysis in radiosensitive organs of mice after total body irradiation - a contribution to further development of biologic radiodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breiter, N.; Ungemach, F.R.; Hegner, D.; Beck, G.; Mayr, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors intend