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Sample records for high-dimensional single-nucleotide polymorphism

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Pereira, Vania; Andersen, Jeppe Dyrberg

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent DNA sequence variations in the genome. They have been studied extensively in the last decade with various purposes in mind. In this chapter, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using SNPs for human identification...... technologies (also called next generation sequencing or NGS) have the potential to completely transform forensic genetic investigations as we know them today. Here, we will make a short introduction to NGS and explain how NGS may combine analysis of the traditional forensic genetic markers with analysis...

  2. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also investigated the correlation of these two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with plasma resistin levels. The C1431T SNP was associated with higher levels of plasma resistin ( = 0.017). Furthermore, C1431T was associated with resistin in different tertiles. Prevalence of the 'Pro-C' haplotype decreased with ...

  3. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    the metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes. We also investigated the correlation of these two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with plasma resistin levels. The C1431T SNP was associated with higher levels of plasma resistin (P = 0.017). Furthermore, C1431T was associated with resistin in different tertiles.

  4. [Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in centenarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Juan; Gimeno-Mallench, Lucía; Inglés, Marta; Olaso, Gloria; Abdelaziz, Kheira Mohamed; Avellana, Juan Antonio; Belenguer, Ángel; Cruz, Raquel; Mas-Bargues, Cristina; Borras, Consuelo; Viña, José

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is determined by genetic and external factors, such as nutritional, environmental, social, etc. Nevertheless, when living conditions are optimal, longevity is determined by genetic variations between individuals. In a same population, with relative genotypic homogeneity, subtle changes in the DNA sequence affecting a single nucleotide can be observed. These changes, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are present in 1-5% of the population. A total of 92 subjects were recruited, including 28 centenarians and 64 controls, in order to find SNP that maybe implicated in the extreme longevity, as in the centenarians. Blood samples were collected to isolate and amplify the DNA in order to perform the analysis of SPN by Axiom™ Genotyping of Affymetrix technology. Statistical analyses were performed using the Plink program and libraries SNPassoc and skatMeta. Our results show 12 mutations with a p<.001, where 5 of these (DACH1, LOC91948, BTB16, NFIL3 y HDAC4) have regulatory functions of the expressions of others genes. Therefore, these results suggest that the genetic variation between centenarians and controls occurs in five genes that are involved in the regulation of gene expression to adapt to environmental changes better than controls. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. In-silico single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) mining of Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be considered the ultimate genetic markers as they represent the finest resolution of a DNA sequence (a single nucleotide), and are generally abundant in populations with a low mutation rate. SNPs are important tools in studying complex genetic traits and genome evolution.

  6. Association study of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrera, Noa; Arrojo, Manuel; Sanjuán, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies using several hundred thousand anonymous markers present limited statistical power. Alternatively, association studies restricted to common nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) have the advantage of strongly reducing the multiple testing problem, ...

  7. Relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms in un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to unravel the link between human leukocyte antigen-G un- translated region (HLA-G 3-UTR) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and preeclampsia by examining polymorphisms in HLA-G 3-UTR in preeclampsia patients and their newborns, as well as those of women with normal ...

  8. Detection of new single nucleotide polymorphisms by means of real ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    technique in molecular genetics which allows quantifica- tion of polymorphic DNA regions and genotyping of sin- ... RESEARCH NOTE. Keywords. Single nucleotide polymorphism; real time PCR; DNA melting curve analysis. .... tion is located in an open reading frame, it is unlikely that it influences a splicing event.

  9. Compositions and methods for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsin-Chih; Werner, James; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2016-11-22

    Described herein are nucleic acid based probes and methods for discriminating and detecting single nucleotide variants in nucleic acid molecules (e.g., DNA). The methods include use of a pair of probes can be used to detect and identify polymorphisms, for example single nucleotide polymorphism in DNA. The pair of probes emit a different fluorescent wavelength of light depending on the association and alignment of the probes when hybridized to a target nucleic acid molecule. Each pair of probes is capable of discriminating at least two different nucleic acid molecules that differ by at least a single nucleotide difference. The methods can probes can be used, for example, for detection of DNA polymorphisms that are indicative of a particular disease or condition.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection on a magnetoresistive sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dufva, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We present a magnetoresistive sensor platform for hybridization assays and demonstrate its applicability on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. The sensor relies on anisotropic magnetoresistance in a new geometry with a local negative reference and uses the magnetic field from the se...... for external electromagnets and thus allows for miniaturization of the sensor platform....

  11. Regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms at the beginning of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There are two regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs) at the beginning of the second intron of the mouse - gene that are strongly associated with lung cancer susceptibility. We performed functional analysis of three SNPs (rs12228277: T>A, rs12226937: G>A, and rs61761074: T>G) located in the same ...

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking region of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolactin (PRL), a polypeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by the animal's anterior pituitary gland, plays an important role in the regulation of mammalian lactation and avian reproduction. Considering the significant association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5'-flanking region of PRL and ...

  13. Prospects for inferring pairwise relationships with single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery C. Glaubitz; O. Eugene, Jr. Rhodes; J. Andrew DeWoody

    2003-01-01

    An extraordinarily large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now available in humans as well as in other model organisms. Technological advancements may soon make it feasible to assay hundreds of SNPs in virtually any organism of interest. One potential application of SNPs is the determination of pairwise genetic relationships in populations without...

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and its application on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... wide trait analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are the most common sequence variation and a significant amount of effort has been invested in re-sequencing alleles to discover .... logical markers and are usually visually characterized .... regard two-nucleotide changes and small indels up to a.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ghrelin gene and the resulting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone releasing peptide which also affects feed intake in chickens. Ghrelin is encoded by chicken ghrelin gene (cGHRL) found in chromosome 7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported in cGHRL in Chinese native chickens, but such studies have not been carried out in chickens ...

  16. Review Single nucleotide polymorphism in genome-wide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genome-wide patterns of variation across individuals provide most powerful source of data for uncovering the history of migration, expansion, and adaptation of the human population. The arrival of new technologies that type more than millions of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a single experiment has ...

  17. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of European archaeological M. leprae DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Watson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy was common in Europe eight to twelve centuries ago but molecular confirmation of this has been lacking. We have extracted M. leprae ancient DNA (aDNA from medieval bones and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typed the DNA, this provides insight into the pattern of leprosy transmission in Europe and may assist in the understanding of M. leprae evolution. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Skeletons have been exhumed from 3 European countries (the United Kingdom, Denmark and Croatia and are dated around the medieval period (476 to 1350 A.D.. we tested for the presence of 3 previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 10 aDNA extractions. M. leprae aDNA was extracted from 6 of the 10 bone samples. SNP analysis of these 6 extractions were compared to previously analysed European SNP data using the same PCR assays and were found to be the same. Testing for the presence of SNPs in M. leprae DNA extracted from ancient bone samples is a novel approach to analysing European M. leprae DNA and the findings concur with the previously published data that European M. leprae strains fall in to one group (SNP group 3. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the suggestion that the M. leprae genome is extremely stable and show that archaeological M. leprae DNA can be analysed to gain detailed information about the genotypic make-up of European leprosy, which may assist in the understanding of leprosy transmission worldwide.

  18. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds.

  19. Single-nucleotide polymorphism identification and genotyping in Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravinder; Bollina, Venkatesh; Higgins, Erin E; Clarke, Wayne E; Eynck, Christina; Sidebottom, Christine; Gugel, Richard; Snowdon, Rod; Parkin, Isobel A P

    Camelina sativa, a largely relict crop, has recently returned to interest due to its potential as an industrial oilseed. Molecular markers are key tools that will allow C. sativa to benefit from modern breeding approaches. Two complementary methodologies, capture of 3' cDNA tags and genomic reduced-representation libraries, both of which exploited second generation sequencing platforms, were used to develop a low density (768) Illumina GoldenGate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The array allowed 533 SNP loci to be genetically mapped in a recombinant inbred population of C. sativa. Alignment of the SNP loci to the C. sativa genome identified the underlying sequenced regions that would delimit potential candidate genes in any mapping project. In addition, the SNP array was used to assess genetic variation among a collection of 175 accessions of C. sativa, identifying two sub-populations, yet low overall gene diversity. The SNP loci will provide useful tools for future crop improvement of C. sativa.

  20. Molecular karyotype single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of early fetal demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Liu, Yan; He, Nan-nan; Hu, Lin-li; Zhang, Yi-le; Wang, Yang; Dong, Fang-li; Guo, Yi-hong; Su, Ying-chun; Sun, Ying-pu

    2013-08-01

    We explored the application of single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP array) in molecular karyotype analysis for early spontaneous abortion detection in assisted reproductive technology (ART). SNP array was performed in 81 cases. Of the 81 cases, 16 experienced natural conception (NC) and 65 were pregnant by ART. Of the 65 cases, 4 underwent artificial insemination (AI), 32 fresh in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), 9 fresh intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and 20 thawed embryo transfer. In the 81 cases examined 69.1% displayed an abnormal molecular karyotype. In the subjects greater than 35 years of age, the abnormal molecular karyotype rate was 87.5% higher compared to 61.4% in younger individuals (P abnormal molecular karyotype rate or type between ART (64.6%) and NC (87.5%). Compared with traditional cytogenetic diagnosis, the SNP array can identify a greater number of abnormal karyotypes.

  1. Pinched flow fractionation devices for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.V.; Poulsen, L.; Birgens, H.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a new and flexible micro fluidic based method for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs). The method relies on size separation of selectively hybridized polystyrene microspheres in a micro fluidic pinched flow fractionation (PFF) device. The micro fluidic PFF devices...... and 5.6 mu m were functionalized with biotin-labeled oligonucleotides for the detection of a mutant (Mt) or wild-type (Wt) DNA sequence in the HBB gene, respectively. Hybridization to functionalized beads was performed with fluorescent targets comprising synthetic DNA oligonucleotides or amplified RNA......, synthesized using human DNA samples from individuals with point mutations in the HBB gene. Following a stringent wash, the beads were separated in a PFF device and the fluorescent signal from the beads was analyzed. Patients being wildtypes, heterozygotes or mutated respectively for the investigated mutation...

  2. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Linkage Disequilibrium in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M.; Berry, Simon T.; Leon, Alberto J.; Slabaugh, Mary B.; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K.; Burke, John M.; Knapp, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression−the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines (θ = 0.0094) than wild populations (θ = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome (∼3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping. PMID:17660563

  3. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis of Protamine Genes in Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Salamian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs are considered as one of the underlyingcauses of male infertility. Proper sperm chromatin packaging which involves replacement ofhistones with protamines has profound effect on male fertility. Over 20 SNPs have been reportedfor the protamine 1 and 2.Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of two previouslyreported SNPs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP approach in 35, 96 and 177 normal, oligozoospermic and azoospermic individuals. TheseSNPs are: 1. A base pair substitution (G at position 197 instead of T in protamine type 1 Openreading frame (ORF including untranslated region, which causes an Arg residue change to Serresidue in a highly conserved region. 2. cytidine nucleotide change to thymidine in position of 248of protamine type 2 ORF which caused a nonsense point mutation.Results: The two mentioned SNPs were not present in the studied population, thus concluding thatthese SNPs can not serves as molecular markers for male infertility diagnosis.Conclusion: The results of our study reveal that in a selected Iranian population, the SNP G197Tand C248T are completely absent and are not associated with male infertility and therefore theseSNPs may not represent a molecular marker for genetic diagnosis of male infertility.

  4. Toward optimal set of single nucleotide polymorphism investigation before IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A V; Dedul, A G; Fedotov, Y N; Komlichenko, E V

    2016-10-01

    At present, the patient preparation for IVF needs to undergo a series of planned tests, including the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles of some genes. In former USSR countries, such investigation was not included in overwhelming majority of health insurance programs and paid by patient. In common, there are prerequisites to the study of more than 50 polymorphisms. An important faced task is to determine the optimal panel for SNP genotyping in terms of price/number of SNP. During 2009-2015 in the University Hospital of St. Petersburg State University, blood samples were analyzed from 550 women with different reproductive system disorders preparing for IVF and 46 healthy women in control group. In total, 28 SNP were analyzed in the genes of thrombophilia factors, folic acid cycle, detoxification system, and the renin-angiotensin system. The method used was real-time PCR. A significant increase in the frequency of pathological alleles of some polymorphisms in patients with habitual failure of IVF was shown, compared with the control group. As a result, two options defined panels for optimal typing SNP before IVF were composed. Standard panel includes 8 SNP, 5 in thromborhilic factors, and 3 in folic acid cycle genes. They are 20210 G > A of FII gene, R506Q G > A of FV gene (mutation Leiden), -675 5G > 4G of PAI-I gene, L33P T > C of ITGB3 gene, -455 G > A of FGB gene, 667 C > T of MTHFR gene, 2756 A > G of MTR gene, and 66 A > G of MTRR gene. Extended panel of 15 SNP also includes 807 C > T of ITGA2 gene, T154M C > T of GP1BA gene, second polymorphism 1298 A > C in MTHFR gene, polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin gene AGT M235T T > C and -1166 A > C of AGTR1 gene, polymorphisms I105V A > G and A114V C > T of detoxification system gene GSTP. The results of SNP genotyping can be adjusted for treatment tactics and IVF, and also medical support getting pregnant. The success rate of

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with abnormal coronary microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Satoshi; Cilluffo, Rebecca; Best, Patricia J M; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Aoki, Tatsuo; Cunningham, Julie M; de Andrade, Mariza; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2014-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation. Although microvascular pathology is associated with cardiovascular events, genetic phenotypes causing microvascular disease remain largely unknown. This study identifies sex-specific SNPs associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction. Six hundred and forty-three patients without significant obstructive coronary heart disease were enrolled, referred for cardiac catheterization, and underwent invasive coronary microcirculatory assessment. Patient data were collected from 1529 autosomal SNPs and seven X chromosome SNPs, which were selected to represent the variability from 76 candidate genes with published associations with coronary vasoreactivity, angiogenesis, inflammation, vascular calcification, atherosclerosis risk factors, female hormones, blood coagulation, or coronary heart disease. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was assessed by an intracoronary injection of adenosine. Patients were categorized according to a CFR above or below 2.5 and were stratified by sex.After adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, this study shows that SNPs within VEGFA and CDKN2B-AS1 are associated with abnormal CFR (Pcoronary microvascular dysfunction. Furthermore, sex-specific allelic variants within MYH15, VEGFA, and NT5E are associated with an increased risk of coronary microvascular dysfunction in men.

  6. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification, Characterization, and Linkage Mapping in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Maughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa ( Willd. is an important seed crop throughout the Andean region of South America. It is important as a regional food security crop for millions of impoverished rural inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano (high plains. Efforts to improve the crop have led to an increased focus on genetic research. We report the identification of 14,178 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using a genomic reduction protocol as well as the development of 511 functional SNP assays. The SNP assays are based on KASPar genotyping chemistry and were detected using the Fluidigm dynamic array platform. A diversity screen of 113 quinoa accessions showed that the minor allele frequency (MAF of the SNPs ranged from 0.02 to 0.50, with an average MAF of 0.28. Structure analysis of the quinoa diversity panel uncovered the two major subgroups corresponding to the Andean and coastal quinoa ecotypes. Linkage mapping of the SNPs in two recombinant inbred line populations produced an integrated linkage map consisting of 29 linkage groups with 20 large linkage groups, spanning 1404 cM with a marker density of 3.1 cM per SNP marker. The SNPs identified here represent important genomic tools needed in emerging plant breeding programs for advanced genetic analysis of agronomic traits in quinoa.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of myostatin gene in Chinese domestic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Liu, Dong-Hua; Cao, Chun-Na; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Dang, Rui-Hua; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Wu-Jun; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2014-03-15

    The myostatin gene (MSTN) is a genetic determinant of skeletal muscle growth. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in MSTN are of importance due to their strong associations with horse racing performances. In this study, we screened the SNPs in MSTN gene in 514 horses from 15 Chinese horse breeds. Six SNPs (g.26T>C, g.156T>C, g.587A>G, g.598C>T, g.1485C>T, g.2115A>G) in MSTN gene were detected by sequencing and genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. The g.587A>G and g.598C>T residing in the 5'UTR region were novel SNPs identified by this study. The g.2115A>G which have previously been associated with racing performances were present in Chinese horse breeds, providing valuable genetic information for evaluating the potential racing performances in Chinese domestic breeds. The six SNPs together defined thirteen haplotypes, demonstrating abundant haplotype diversities in Chinese horses. Most of the haplotypes were shared among different breeds with no haplotype restricted to a specific region or a single horse breed. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the genetic variance was attributable to differences among individuals without any significant contribution by the four geographical groups. This study will provide fundamental and instrumental genetic information for evaluating the potential racing performances of Chinese horse breeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Patients with Moyamoya Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disorder that displays various clinical features and results in cerebral infarct or hemorrhagic stroke. Specific genes associated with the disease have not yet been identified, making identification of at-risk patients difficult before clinical manifestation. Familial MMD is not uncommon, with as many as 15% of MMD patients having a family history of the disease, suggesting a genetic etiology. Studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMD have mostly focused on mechanical stress on vessels, endothelium, and the relationship to atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss SNPs studies targeting the genetic etiology of MMD. Genetic analyses in familial MMD and genome-wide association studies represent promising strategies for elucidating the pathophysiology of this condition. This review also discusses future research directions, not only to offer new insights into the origin of MMD, but also to enhance our understanding of the genetic aspects of MMD. There have been several SNP studies of MMD. Current SNP studies suggest a genetic contribution to MMD, but further reliable and replicable data are needed. A large cohort or family-based design would be important. Modern SNP studies of MMD depend on novel genetic, experimental, and database methods that will hopefully hasten the arrival of a consensus conclusion. PMID:26180609

  9. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the nuclear lamina proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegele, R A; Yuen, J; Cao, H

    2001-01-01

    Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) has been shown to be due to mutations in the LMNA gene encoding nuclear lamins A and C, indicating that defective structure of the nuclear envelope can produce this unique phenotype. Some patients with inherited partial lipodystrophy have normal LMNA coding, promoter, and 3'-untranslated region sequences. This suggests that the FPLD phenotype is genetically heterogeneous. Among the candidate genes to consider for the non-LMNA-associated forms of FPLD are other components of the inner nuclear membrane, such as lamin B1 and B2 and the lamin B receptor. We developed amplification primers for the coding regions of LMNB1, LMNB2, and LBR, which encode lamin B1, lamin B2, and the lamin B receptor, respectively. We found no putative disease mutations in any of these proteins in subjects with non-LMNA FPLD, but, through the screening of diseased and normal subjects, we identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); specifically, five SNPs in LMNB1 and four SNPs in LBR. The LMNB2 gene was monomorphic in screening experiments. We conclude that mutations in other constituent proteins of the nuclear envelope are not present in subjects with non-LMNA-associated FPLD. However, the identification of amplification primers and SNPs provides tools to investigate these proteins for their association with other phenotypes.

  10. Association of prediabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms with microalbuminuria.

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    Jong Wook Choi

    Full Text Available Increased glycemic exposure, even below the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus, is crucial in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications represented by microalbuminuria. Nonetheless, there is limited evidence regarding which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with prediabetes and whether genetic predisposition to prediabetes is related to microalbuminuria, especially in the general population. Our objective was to answer these questions. We conducted a genomewide association study (GWAS separately on two population-based cohorts, Ansung and Ansan, in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES. The initial GWAS was carried out on the Ansung cohort, followed by a replication study on the Ansan cohort. A total of 5682 native Korean participants without a significant medical illness were classified into either control group (n = 3153 or prediabetic group (n = 2529. In the GWAS, we identified two susceptibility loci associated with prediabetes, one at 17p15.3-p15.1 in the GCK gene and another at 7p15.1 in YKT6. When variations in GCK and YKT6 were used as a model of prediabetes, this genetically determined prediabetes increased microalbuminuria. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that fasting glucose concentration in plasma and SNP rs2908289 in GCK were associated with microalbuminuria, and adjustment for age, gender, smoking history, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels did not attenuate this association. Our results suggest that prediabetes and the associated SNPs may predispose to microalbuminuria before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Further studies are needed to explore the details of the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying this genetic association.

  11. Sequencing genes in silico using single nucleotide polymorphisms

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    Zhang Xinyi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high throughput sequencing technology has enabled the 1000 Genomes Project Pilot 3 to generate complete sequence data for more than 906 genes and 8,140 exons representing 697 subjects. The 1000 Genomes database provides a critical opportunity for further interpreting disease associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered from genetic association studies. Currently, direct sequencing of candidate genes or regions on a large number of subjects remains both cost- and time-prohibitive. Results To accelerate the translation from discovery to functional studies, we propose an in silico gene sequencing method (ISS, which predicts phased sequences of intragenic regions, using SNPs. The key underlying idea of our method is to infer diploid sequences (a pair of phased sequences/alleles at every functional locus utilizing the deep sequencing data from the 1000 Genomes Project and SNP data from the HapMap Project, and to build prediction models using flanking SNPs. Using this method, we have developed a database of prediction models for 611 known genes. Sequence prediction accuracy for these genes is 96.26% on average (ranges 79%-100%. This database of prediction models can be enhanced and scaled up to include new genes as the 1000 Genomes Project sequences additional genes on additional individuals. Applying our predictive model for the KCNJ11 gene to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC Type 2 diabetes cohort, we demonstrate how the prediction of phased sequences inferred from GWAS SNP genotype data can be used to facilitate interpretation and identify a probable functional mechanism such as protein changes. Conclusions Prior to the general availability of routine sequencing of all subjects, the ISS method proposed here provides a time- and cost-effective approach to broadening the characterization of disease associated SNPs and regions, and facilitating the prioritization of candidate

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm

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    De Jong Walter S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current breeding approaches in potato rely almost entirely on phenotypic evaluations; molecular markers, with the exception of a few linked to disease resistance traits, are not widely used. Large-scale sequence datasets generated primarily through Sanger Expressed Sequence Tag projects are available from a limited number of potato cultivars and access to next generation sequencing technologies permits rapid generation of sequence data for additional cultivars. When coupled with the advent of high throughput genotyping methods, an opportunity now exists for potato breeders to incorporate considerably more genotypic data into their decision-making. Results To identify a large number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in elite potato germplasm, we sequenced normalized cDNA prepared from three commercial potato cultivars: 'Atlantic', 'Premier Russet' and 'Snowden'. For each cultivar, we generated 2 Gb of sequence which was assembled into a representative transcriptome of ~28-29 Mb for each cultivar. Using the Maq SNP filter that filters read depth, density, and quality, 575,340 SNPs were identified within these three cultivars. In parallel, 2,358 SNPs were identified within existing Sanger sequences for three additional cultivars, 'Bintje', 'Kennebec', and 'Shepody'. Using a stringent set of filters in conjunction with the potato reference genome, we identified 69,011 high confidence SNPs from these six cultivars for use in genotyping with the Infinium platform. Ninety-six of these SNPs were used with a BeadXpress assay to assess allelic diversity in a germplasm panel of 248 lines; 82 of the SNPs proved sufficiently informative for subsequent analyses. Within diverse North American germplasm, the chip processing market class was most distinct, clearly separated from all other market classes. The round white and russet market classes both include fresh market and processing cultivars. Nevertheless, the russet and round

  13. Myosin individualized: single nucleotide polymorphisms in energy transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieben Eric D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myosin performs ATP free energy transduction into mechanical work in the motor domain of the myosin heavy chain (MHC. Energy transduction is the definitive systemic feature of the myosin motor performed by coordinating in a time ordered sequence: ATP hydrolysis at the active site, actin affinity modulation at the actin binding site, and the lever-arm rotation of the power stroke. These functions are carried out by several conserved sub-domains within the motor domain. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affect the MHC sequence of many isoforms expressed in striated muscle, smooth muscle, and non-muscle tissue. The purpose of this work is to provide a rationale for using SNPs as a functional genomics tool to investigate structurefunction relationships in myosin. In particular, to discover SNP distribution over the conserved sub-domains and surmise what it implies about sub-domain stability and criticality in the energy transduction mechanism. Results An automated routine identifying human nonsynonymous SNP amino acid missense substitutions for any MHC gene mined the NCBI SNP data base. The routine tested 22 MHC genes coding muscle and non-muscle isoforms and identified 89 missense mutation positions in the motor domain with 10 already implicated in heart disease and another 8 lacking sequence homology with a skeletal MHC isoform for which a crystallographic model is available. The remaining 71 SNP substitutions were found to be distributed over MHC with 22 falling outside identified functional sub-domains and 49 in or very near to myosin sub-domains assigned specific crucial functions in energy transduction. The latter includes the active site, the actin binding site, the rigid lever-arm, and regions facilitating their communication. Most MHC isoforms contained SNPs somewhere in the motor domain. Conclusions Several functional-crucial sub-domains are infiltrated by a large number of SNP substitution sites suggesting these

  14. T-786C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of endothelial nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T-786C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and serum level of vascular endothelial relaxant factor (VERF) in non-diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five polymorphic sites were analysed using the polymerase chain reaction: restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) (TaiI and MspI restriction enzymes) and amplification-created restriction site (ACRS) (SnaBI, TasI and TaqI restriction enzymes). The frequencies of the most common alleles were 0.67 for the T ...

  16. The association of single nucleotide polymorphism of interleukin-21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yasmin Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-05-08

    May 8, 2016 ... of memory and plasma cells [22,24]. Approximately 90% of DNA polymorphisms are SNPs due to single base substitutions. Some have effects on regulation of gene expression or on the function of the coded protein. These functional polymorphisms, despite being of low penetrance, could contribute to the ...

  17. Single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and unexpected consanguinity: considerations for clinicians when returning results to families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Fernanda; Tabor, Holly K; Chow, Penny M; Conta, Jessie H; Feldman, Kenneth W; Tsuchiya, Karen D; Beck, Anita E

    2015-05-01

    The broad use of single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays has increased identification of unexpected consanguinity. Therefore, guidelines to address reporting of consanguinity have been published for clinical laboratories. Because no such guidelines for clinicians exist, we describe a case and present recommendations for clinicians to disclose unexpected consanguinity to families. In a boy with multiple endocrine abnormalities and structural birth defects, single-nucleotide polymorphism array analysis revealed ~23% autosomal homozygosity suggestive of a first-degree parental relationship. We assembled an interdisciplinary health-care team, planned the most appropriate way to discuss results of the single-nucleotide polymorphism array with the adult mother, including the possibility of multiple autosomal recessive disorders in her child, and finally met with her as a team. From these discussions, we developed four major considerations for clinicians returning results of unexpected consanguinity, all guided by the child's best interests: (i) ethical and legal obligations for reporting possible abuse, (ii) preservation of the clinical relationship, (iii) attention to justice and psychosocial challenges, and (iv) utilization of the single-nucleotide polymorphism array results to guide further testing. As single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays become a common clinical diagnostic tool, clinicians can use this framework to return results of unexpected consanguinity to families in a supportive and productive manner.

  18. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 19q13.2-13.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jiaoyang; Vogel, Ulla; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    The genetic susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma (BCC) among Danish psoriatic patients was investigated in association studies with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 19q13.2-3. The results show a significant association between BCC and the A-allele of a polymorphism in ERCCI exon...

  19. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism of growth hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yurnalis

    The pupose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphisms of bovine growth hormone gene exon. 4, and intron 4 in local cattle breeds in West Sumatera Province of Indonesia. DNA was isolated from 60 blood samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product of GH5 fragment (366 bp) were directly sequenced.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and its application on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nucleotide diversity across a genome is the source of most phenotypic variation. Such DNA polymorphism is the basis for the development of molecular markers, an indispensable tool in genetic mapping studies. In general, the high resolution fine mapping of genes is often limited by lack of sufficient number of ...

  1. Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of apoVLDL-II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... polymorphism on chicken growth and body composition traits. Genomic DNAs were extracted from 400 chickens from four different commercial broiler lines. Genotyping for the apoVLDL-II gene by using. PCR-RFLP method and SfcI restriction endonuclease showed a mutation in 492-bp fragment located on.

  2. Infectious mononucleosis-linked HLA class I single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Naghmeh; Broer, Linda; Hoppenbrouwers, Ilse A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hintzen, Rogier Q

    2010-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a presumed autoimmune disease associated with genetic and environmental risk factors such as infectious mononucleosis. Recent research has shown infectious mononucleosis to be associated with a specific HLA class I polymorphism. Our aim was to test if the infectious mononucleosis-linked HLA class I single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6457110) is also associated with multiple sclerosis. Genotyping of the HLA-A single nucleotide polymorphism rs6457110 using TaqMan was performed in 591 multiple sclerosis cases and 600 controls. The association of multiple sclerosis with the HLA-A single nucleotide polymorphism was tested using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and HLA-DRB1*1501. HLA-A minor allele (A) is associated with multiple sclerosis (OR = 0.68; p = 4.08 × 10( -5)). After stratification for HLA-DRB1*1501 risk allele (T) carrier we showed a significant OR of 0.70 (p = 0.003) for HLA-A. HLA class I single nucleotide polymorphism rs6457110 is associated with infectious mononucleosis and multiple sclerosis, independent of the major class II allele, supporting the hypothesis that shared genetics may contribute to the association between infectious mononucleosis and multiple sclerosis.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in lung cancer patients and cisplatin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stenzel-Bembenek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for over 80% of all cases of lung cancer. Despite efforts to develop and improve early screening methods, the majority of tumors are detected at advanced stages. For over 30 years, cisplatin (CDDP, or any of its analogues, has been used in the treatment of many types of tumors, including lung cancer. The use of platinum-based chemotherapeutics is limited by their toxicity and later on by the development of chemoresistance by tumor cells. The molecular mechanisms of CDDP resistance are not fully resolved. Genetic variants of DNA repair proteins, as well as proteins involved in drug accumulation or detoxification, play a crucial role in determining the cell’s response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The identification of selected gene polymorphisms could improve the prognosis of a patient’s response to therapy and overall survival. In this review we will focus on the gene polymorphisms involved in CDDP resistance, in particular in lung tumors, and discuss their potential as prognosis and survival markers.

  4. Correlation between a single nucleotide polymorphism (G/T at nt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between a single nucleotide polymorphism (G/T at nt –88) in the Mx1 gene promoter and the response to interferon therapy for hepatitis C virus in ... We found that Mx1 nt-88 SNP is not significantly correlated to achieving sustained virological response (SVR) after pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin ...

  5. Lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Velásquez García, Héctor A; Spinelli, John; Gaffney, Patrick; Smedby, Karin E; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Wang, Sophia S.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Albanes, Demetrius; Angelucci, Emanuele; Ansell, Stephen M.; Asmann, Yan W.; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Bracci, Paige M.; Brennan, Paul; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Cerhan, James R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Conde, Lucia; Cotenbader, Karen H; Cox, David G; Cozen, Wendy; Crouch, Simon; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; De Sanjose, Silvia; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Diver, W. Ryan; Dogan, Ahmet; Foretova, Lenka; Ghesquières, Hervé; Giles, Graham G.; Glimelius, Bengt; Habermann, Thomas M.; Haioun, Corinne; Hartge, Patricia; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Holford, Theodore R.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kane, Eleanor; Kelly, Rachel S.; Klein, Robert J.; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Lan, Qing; Lawrence, Charles; Liebow, Mark; Lightfoot, Tracy; Link, Brian K.; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Melbye, Mads; Molina, Thierry Jo; Monnereau, Alain; Morton, Lindsay M.; Nieters, Alexandra; North, Kari E.; Novak, Anne J.; Offit, Kenneth; Purdue, Mark P.; Rais, Marco; Riby, Jacques; Roman, Eve; Rothman, Nathaniel; Salles, Gilles; Severi, Gianluca; Severson, Richard K.; Skibola, Christine F.; Slager, Susan L.; Smith, Alex; Smith, Martyn T.; Southey, Melissa C.; Staines, Anthony; Teras, Lauren R.; Thompson, Carrie A.; Tilly, Hervé; Tinker, Lesley F.; Tjonneland, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Vajdic, Claire M.; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Vijai, Joseph; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wang, Zhaoming; Weinstein, Stephanie; Witzig, Thomas E.; Zelenetz, Andrew; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zhang, Yawei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Clarke, Ann E

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Determinants of the increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in SLE are unclear. Using data from a recent lymphoma genome-wide association study (GWAS), we assessed whether certain lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also associated with DLBCL.

  6. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and a complex female endocrine disorder, and is one of the leading cause of female infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 gene in the pathogenesis of PCOS.

  7. Development and characterization of 35 single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canovas, Fernando; Mota, Catarina; Ferreira-Costa, Joana; Serrao, Ester; Coyer, Jim; Olsen, Jeanine; Pearson, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We characterized 35 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. Based on existing Fucus Expressed Sequence Tag libraries for heat and desiccation-stressed tissue, SNPs were developed and confirmed by re-sequencing cDNA from a diverse panel of individuals. SNP

  8. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the B7H3 gene are not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 3. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the B7H3 gene are not associated with human autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Priya Sakthivel Xiongbiao Wang Baback Gharizadeh Ricardo Giscombe Ritva Pirskanen Pål Nyren Ann Kari Lefvert. Research Note Volume 85 ...

  9. The application and performance of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for population genetic analyses of Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are nucleotide substitution mutations that tend to be at high densities within eukaryotic genomes. The development of assays that detect allelic variation at SNP loci is attractive for genome mapping, population genetics, and phylogeographic applications. A p...

  10. IL-13 R130Q single nucleotide polymorphism in asthmatic Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IL-13 R130Q single nucleotide polymorphism in asthmatic Egyptian children. ... Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) ... Objective: We sought to study the association of IL-13 genetic variant R130Q with bronchial asthma in Egyptian children and its relation to various clinical and laboratory phenotypes ...

  11. Association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs6180) in GHR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. growth hormone receptor; single-nucleotide polymorphism; rs6180; physical traits; autopsied samples. Author Affiliations. Junko Fujihara1 Kaori Kimura-Kataoka1 Toshihiro Yasuda2 Rie Sano3 Yoshihiko Kominato3 Haruo Takeshita1. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Legal Medicine, Shimane University, ...

  12. Association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs6180) in GHR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth hormone receptor (GHR) belongs to the cytokine receptor superfamily and mediates majority of growth hor- mone. Only nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymor- phism (SNP) rs6180 (p.Ile544Leu; c.1630 A>C) in exon 3 of the GHR gene is highly polymorphic. In the present study, we focussed on analysing ...

  13. Sirtuin 1 gene rs2273773 C >T single nucleotide polymorphism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1), a protein has been found to protect the cells against oxidative stress due to its deacetylase activity. In this investigation, we aimed to study SIRT-1 gene rs2273773 C >T single nucleotide polymorphism and markers of serum protein oxidation (protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl groups) in ...

  14. Verification of genetic identity of introduced cacao germplasm in Ghana using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate identification of individual genotypes is important for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) breeding, germplasm conservation and seed propagation. The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in cacao offers an effective way to use a high-throughput genotyping system for cacao gen...

  15. Ligase chain reaction amplification for sensitive electrochemiluminescent detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Mengli; Xiang, Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn; Yuan, Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn; Chai, Yaqin

    2013-09-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Ligase chain reaction amplification (LCR) is employed to sensitively detect single nucleotide polymorphisms. •During LCR, the mutant target gene is recycled and duplicated exponentially to achieve dramatic signal amplification. •The method shows a selectivity factor of 10{sup 3} toward the mutant target gene against the interfering wild target gene. -- Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are the most common type of genetic variations among human beings and can serve as biomarkers for various types of diseases. In this work, based on ligase chain reaction amplification for the production of massive hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes to quench the electrochemiluminescent (ECL) emission of quantum dots (QDs), a universal and sensitive single nucleotide polymorphism detection method is described. During the ligase chain reaction process, the mutant K-ras target gene is recycled and exponentially duplicated, leading to the attachment of numerous G-rich sequences on the QD-embedded sensing surface. Upon the addition of the assistant sequences and hemin, numerous hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes are formed, which consume the dissolved oxygen in the detection buffer and result in significant quenching of QD ECL emission for sensitive single nucleotide polymorphism determination. The developed method shows a linear range of 50 fM to 50 pM and an estimated detection limit of 45 fM for the mutant K-ras gene. The proposed strategy also exhibits high selectivity towards the mutant K-ras gene against the co-existence of 10{sup 3}-fold excess of the wild-type K-ras gene, which makes our method a useful addition to the alternatives for single nucleotide polymorphism monitoring.

  16. Genetic Bit Analysis: a solid phase method for typing single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforov, T T; Rendle, R B; Goelet, P; Rogers, Y H; Kotewicz, M L; Anderson, S; Trainor, G L; Knapp, M R

    1994-01-01

    A new method for typing single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA is described. In this method, specific fragments of genomic DNA containing the polymorphic site(s) are first amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using one regular and one phosphorothioate-modified primer. The double-stranded PCR product is rendered single-stranded by treatment with the enzyme T7 gene 6 exonuclease, and captured onto individual wells of a 96 well polystyrene plate by hybridization to an immobilized oli...

  17. Pairwise Kinship Analysis by the Index of Chromosome Sharing Using High-Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Chie; Manabe, Sho; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kawai, Chihiro; Fujimoto, Shuntaro; Hamano, Yuya; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new approach for pairwise kinship analysis in forensic genetics based on chromosomal sharing between two individuals. Here, we defined "index of chromosome sharing" (ICS) calculated using 174, 254 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci typed by SNP microarray and genetic length of the shared segments from the genotypes of two individuals. To investigate the expected ICS distributions from first- to fifth-degree relatives and unrelated pairs, we used computationally generated...

  18. Functional Implications of the CLOCK 3111T/C Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Ozburn, Angela R.; Purohit, Kush; Parekh, Puja K.; Kaplan, Gabrielle N.; Falcon, Edgardo; Mukherjee, Shibani; Cates, Hannah M.; Colleen A McClung

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disruptions are prominently associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Circadian rhythms are regulated by the molecular clock, a family of proteins that function together in a transcriptional–translational feedback loop. The CLOCK protein is a key transcription factor of this feedback loop, and previous studies have found that manipulations of the Clock gene are sufficient to produce manic-like behavior in mice (1). The CLOCK 3111T/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1801260...

  19. Approach to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms by automated constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerheim, Jens; Abrahamsen, Torveig Weum; Kristensen, Annette Torgunrud; Gaudernack, Gustav; Ekstroem, Per O

    2003-05-15

    Melting gel techniques have proven to be amenable and powerful tools in point mutation and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. With the introduction of commercially available capillary electrophoresis instruments, a partly automated platform for denaturant capillary electrophoresis with potential for routine screening of selected target sequences has been established. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the use of automated constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (ACDCE) in single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of various target sequences. Optimal analysis conditions for different single nucleotide polymorphisms on ACDCE are evaluated with the Poland algorithm. Laboratory procedures include only PCR and electrophoresis. For direct genotyping of individual SNPs, the samples are analyzed with an internal standard and the alleles are identified by co-migration of sample and standard peaks. In conclusion, SNPs suitable for melting gel analysis based on theoretical thermodynamics were separated by ACDCE under appropriate conditions. With this instrumentation (ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer), 48 samples could be analyzed without any intervention. Several institutions have capillary instrumentation in-house, thus making this SNP analysis method accessible to large groups of researchers without any need for instrument modification.

  20. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of the PARKIN gene and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Ignacio F; Alvarez, Victoria; García-Moreira, Vanessa; Guisasola, Luis M; Ribacoba, René; Salvador, Carlos; Blázquez, Marta; Sarmiento, Rogelio González; Lahoz, Carlos H; Menes, Bernardino B; García, Eliecer Coto

    2002-08-30

    Mutations in the PARKIN gene have been identified in families with recessively inherited Parkinson disease (PD). Common DNA-polymorphisms at the PARKIN gene could contribute to the risk for PD in the general population. Here we searched for DNA-polymorphisms in the PARKIN promoter. We found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (-324 A/G and -797 A/G). In order to analyse the association of PD with these and two previously described polymorphisms (1281 G/A, Asp394Asn, and 601 G/A, Ser167Asn) we genotyped 105 patients and 150 healthy controls. Allele and genotype frequencies for the four polymorphisms did not differ between patients and controls, or between patients with an early-onset (40 years; n = 85). According to our data, the genetic variation at the PARKIN gene (including promoter polymorphisms) did not contribute to the risk of developing PD in the general population. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms as susceptibility, prognostic, and therapeutic markers of nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zienolddiny S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shanbeh Zienolddiny, Vidar SkaugSection for Toxicology and Biological Work Environment, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Lung cancer is a major public health problem throughout the world. Among the most frequent cancer types (prostate, breast, colorectal, stomach, lung, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Among the two major subtypes of small cell lung cancer and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 85% of tumors belong to the NSCLC histological types. Small cell lung cancer is associated with the shortest survival time. Although tobacco smoking has been recognized as the major risk factor for lung cancer, there is a great interindividual and interethnic difference in risk of developing lung cancer given exposure to similar environmental and lifestyle factors. This may indicate that in addition to chemical and environmental factors, genetic variations in the genome may contribute to risk modification. A common type of genetic variation in the genome, known as single nucleotide polymorphism, has been found to be associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. Interestingly, many of these polymorphisms are found in the genes that regulate major pathways of carcinogen metabolism (cytochrome P450 genes, detoxification (glutathione S-transferases, adduct removal (DNA repair genes, cell growth/apoptosis (TP53/MDM2, the immune system (cytokines/chemokines, and membrane receptors (nicotinic acetylcholine and dopaminergic receptors. Some of these polymorphisms have been shown to alter the level of mRNA, and protein structure and function. In addition to being susceptibility markers, several of these polymorphisms are emerging to be important for response to chemotherapy/radiotherapy and survival of patients. Therefore, it is hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms will be valuable genetic markers in individual-based prognosis and therapy in future. Here we will review some of the most

  2. Using molecular beacons to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms with real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhlanga, M M; Malmberg, L

    2001-12-01

    Detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in high-throughput studies promises to be an expanding field of molecular medicine in the near future. Highly specific, simple, and accessible methods are needed to meet the rigorous requirements of single-nucleotide detection needed in pharmacogenomic studies, linkage analysis, and the detection of pathogens. Molecular beacons present such a solution for the high-throughput screening of SNPs in homogeneous assays using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular beacons are probes that fluoresce on hybridization to their perfectly complementary targets. In recent years they have emerged as a leading genetic analysis tool in a wide range of contexts from quantification of RNA transcripts, to probes on microarrays, to single-nucleotide polymorphism detection. The majority of these methods use PCR to obtain sufficient amounts of sample to analyze. The use of molecular beacons with other amplification schemes has been reliably demonstrated, though PCR remains the method of choice. Here we discuss and present how to design and use molecular beacons to achieve reliable SNP genotyping and allele discrimination in real-time PCR. In addition, we provide a new means of analyzing data outputs from such real-time PCR assays that compensates for differences between sample condition, assay conditions, variations in fluorescent signal, and amplification efficiency. The mechanisms by which molecular beacons are able to have extraordinary specificity are also presented. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).

  3. Characterization of polyploid wheat genomic diversity using a high‐density 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Shichen; Wong, Debbie; Forrest, Kerrie; Allen, Alexandra; Chao, Shiaoman; Huang, Bevan E; Maccaferri, Marco; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara G; Cattivelli, Luigi; Mastrangelo, Anna M; Whan, Alex; Stephen, Stuart; Barker, Gary; Wieseke, Ralf; Plieske, Joerg; Lillemo, Morten; Mather, Diane; Appels, Rudi; Dolferus, Rudy; Brown‐Guedira, Gina; Korol, Abraham; Akhunova, Alina R; Feuillet, Catherine; Salse, Jerome; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; Luo, Ming‐Cheng; Dvorak, Jan; Morell, Matthew; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Ganal, Martin; Tuberosa, Roberto; Lawley, Cindy; Mikoulitch, Ivan; Cavanagh, Colin; Edwards, Keith J; Hayden, Matthew; Akhunov, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    High‐density single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNP ) genotyping arrays are a powerful tool for studying genomic patterns of diversity, inferring ancestral relationships between individuals in populations and studying marker...

  4. Predicting responses to sunitinib using single nucleotide polymorphisms: Progress and recommendations for future trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Ram N; Bukowski, Ronald M

    2011-12-30

    Targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors has led to a substantial improvement in the standard of care for patients with advanced or metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Because the mechanism of action, metabolism and transport of tyrosine kinase inhibitors can affect outcome and toxicity, several investigators have pursued the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with these actions. We discuss SNPs associated with outcome and toxicity following sunitinib therapy and provide recommendations for future trials to facilitate the use of SNPs in personalized therapy for this disease.

  5. Mitochondrial localization of the OAS1 p46 isoform associated with a common single nucleotide polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Karina Hansen; Pahus, Jytte; Hansen, Mariann Fagernæs

    2014-01-01

    cellular RNAs which in turn inhibits protein translation and induces apoptosis. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OAS1 gene have been associated with disease. We have investigated the functional effect of two common SNPs in the OAS1 gene. The SNP rs10774671 affects splicing to one...... vacuoles/lysosomes. By using recombinantly expressed OAS1 mutant proteins, we found that the OAS1 SNP rs1131454 (former rs3741981) did not affect the enzymatic OAS1 activity. Conclusions: The SNP rs10774671 determines differential expression of the OAS1 isoforms. In Daudi and HT1080 cells the p46 isoform...

  6. Association of the DIO2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with recurrent depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecka, Elżbieta; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Górski, Paweł; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Szemraj, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors may play a role in the etiology of depressive disorder. The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase gene (DIO2) encoding the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of T4 to T3 is suggested to play a role in the recurrent depressive disorder (rDD). The current study investigates whether a specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the DIO2 gene, Thr92Ala (T/C); rs 225014 or ORFa-Gly3Asp (C/T); rs 12885300, correlate with the risk for recurrent depression. Genotypes for these two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in 179 patients meeting the ICD-10 criteria for rDD group and in 152 healthy individuals (control group) using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method. The specific variant of the DIO2 gene, namely the CC genotype of the Thr92Ala polymorphism, was more frequently found in healthy subjects than in patients with depression, what suggests that it could potentially serve as a marker of a lower risk for recurrent depressive disorder. The distribution of four haplotypes was also significantly different between the two study groups with the TC (Thr-Gly) haplotype more frequently detected in patients with depression. In conclusion, data generated from this study suggest for the first time that DIO2 gene may play a role in the etiology of the disease, and thus should be further investigated.

  7. No association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the development of nephrotoxicity after orthotopic heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Bärbel; Wirth, Andreas; Zittermann, Armin; Bohms, Birte; Tenderich, Gero; Körfer, Reiner; Milting, Hendrik

    2008-07-01

    Survival for heart transplantation (HTx) patients is limited by nephrotoxicity of the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine and tacrolimus. To determine whether genetic factors are involved in the development of renal dysfunction under immunosuppressive therapy, we screened various genes for sequence variations. In a case-control study we analyzed in parallel polymorphisms within the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene (TGF-beta1; L10P, R25P), the multidrug resistance gene MDR 1 (A893T/S) and the CYP3A5 gene (CYP3A5*1/*3 allele). In total, we included 53 cardiac allograft recipients with renal insufficiency (serum creatinine >or=1.8 mg/dl and glomerular filtration rate 0.05) relationship was found between the polymorphisms investigated and the susceptibility of renal insufficiency under immunosuppressive therapy. Our data do not justify genotyping of the investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess the development of renal dysfunction post-HTx.

  8. Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Altered Drug Responsiveness in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is one of the most frequent mortality causes in western countries, with rapidly increasing prevalence. Anti-diabetic drugs are the first therapeutic approach, although many patients develop drug resistance. Most drug responsiveness variability can be explained by genetic causes. Inter-individual variability is principally due to single nucleotide polymorphisms, and differential drug responsiveness has been correlated to alteration in genes involved in drug metabolism (CYP2C9 or insulin signaling (IRS1, ABCC8, KCNJ11 and PPARG. However, most genome-wide association studies did not provide clues about the contribution of DNA variations to impaired drug responsiveness. Thus, characterizing T2D drug responsiveness variants is needed to guide clinicians toward tailored therapeutic approaches. Here, we extensively investigated polymorphisms associated with altered drug response in T2D, predicting their effects in silico. Combining different computational approaches, we focused on the expression pattern of genes correlated to drug resistance and inferred evolutionary conservation of polymorphic residues, computationally predicting the biochemical properties of polymorphic proteins. Using RNA-Sequencing followed by targeted validation, we identified and experimentally confirmed that two nucleotide variations in the CAPN10 gene—currently annotated as intronic—fall within two new transcripts in this locus. Additionally, we found that a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP, currently reported as intergenic, maps to the intron of a new transcript, harboring CAPN10 and GPR35 genes, which undergoes non-sense mediated decay. Finally, we analyzed variants that fall into non-coding regulatory regions of yet underestimated functional significance, predicting that some of them can potentially affect gene expression and/or post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs affecting the splicing.

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Diagnostic System for Crop-Associated Sclerotinia Species ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Marion; Kohn, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    A molecular diagnostic system using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was developed to identify four Sclerotinia species: S. sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, S. minor Jagger, S. trifoliorum Erikss., and the undescribed species Sclerotinia species 1. DNAs of samples are hybridized with each of five 15-bp oligonucleotide probes containing an SNP site midsequence unique to each species. For additional verification, hybridizations were performed using diagnostic single nucleotide substitutions at a 17-bp sequence of the calmodulin locus. The accuracy of these procedures was compared to that of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method based on Southern hybridizations of EcoRI-digested genomic DNA probed with the ribosomal DNA-containing plasmid probe pMF2, previously shown to differentiate S. sclerotiorum, S. minor, and S. trifoliorum. The efficiency of the SNP-based assay as a diagnostic test was evaluated in a blind screening of 48 Sclerotinia isolates from agricultural and wild hosts. One isolate of Botrytis cinerea was used as a negative control. The SNP-based assay accurately identified 96% of Sclerotinia isolates and could be performed faster than RFLP profiling using pMF2. This method shows promise for accurate, high-throughput species identification. PMID:19581480

  10. Candidate gene analysis using imputed genotypes: cell cycle single-nucleotide polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Vierkant, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes critical to cell cycle control are outstanding candidates for association with ovarian cancer risk; numerous genes have been interrogated by multiple research groups using differing tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sets. To maximize information gleaned from...... existing genotype data, we conducted a combined analysis of five independent studies of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Up to 2,120 cases and 3,382 controls were genotyped in the course of two collaborations at a variety of SNPs in 11 cell cycle genes (CDKN2C, CDKN1A, CCND3, CCND1, CCND2, CDKN1B, CDK2......, and rs3212891; CDK2 rs2069391, rs2069414, and rs17528736; and CCNE1 rs3218036. These results exemplify the utility of imputation in candidate gene studies and lend evidence to a role of cell cycle genes in ovarian cancer etiology, suggest a reduced set of SNPs to target in additional cases and controls....

  11. Development of a genetic traceability test in pig based on single nucleotide polymorphism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffaux, F; China, B; Dams, L; Clinquart, A; Daube, G

    2005-07-16

    In order to assure traceability along the meat transformation process, a powerful system is required. The administrative traceability shows limits that the use of genetic markers could overcome. The individual genomes contain sequence differences, basis of the genetic polymorphism of which the genetic markers are the witnesses. Among them, two classes seem to dominate on the traceability field: the microsatellites and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The aim of this work was to develop a genetic traceability test in pig based on SNPs mainly located in 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). A set of 21 SNP markers including new SNPs identified in this study and SNPs previously described was selected. A genotyping assay was performed on 96 individuals representing the major crossbred of the pig population in Belgium. Results showed that all individuals tested presented a different genotype. This genotyping method might help the administrative system to guarantee the traceability of pork meat along the transformation process.

  12. Development of 101 novel EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers for Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqin; Bao, Zhenmin; Li, Ling; Wang, Xiaojian; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-09-01

    Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) is an important maricultured species in China. Many researches on this species, such as population genetics and QTL fine-mapping, need a large number of molecular markers. In this study, based on the expressed sequence tags (EST), a total of 300 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and validated using high resolution melting (HRM) technology with unlabeled probe. Of them, 101 (33.7%) were found to be polymorphic in 48 individuals from 4 populations. Further evaluation with 48 individuals from Qingdao population showed that all the polymorphic loci had two alleles with the minor allele frequency ranged from 0.046 to 0.500. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.925 and from 0.089 to 0.505, respectively. Fifteen loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and significant linkage disequilibrate was detected in one pair of markers. BLASTx gave significant hits for 72 of the 101 polymorphic SNP-containing ESTs. Thirty four polymorphic SNP loci were predicted to be non-synonymous substitutions as they caused either the change of codons (33 SNPs) or pretermination of translation (1 SNP). The markers developed can be used for the population studies and genetic improvement on Zhikong scallop.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in coding regions of canine dopamine- and serotonin-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingaas Frode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphism in genes of regulating enzymes, transporters and receptors of the neurotransmitters of the central nervous system have been associated with altered behaviour, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs represent the most frequent type of genetic variation. The serotonin and dopamine signalling systems have a central influence on different behavioural phenotypes, both of invertebrates and vertebrates, and this study was undertaken in order to explore genetic variation that may be associated with variation in behaviour. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms in canine genes related to behaviour were identified by individually sequencing eight dogs (Canis familiaris of different breeds. Eighteen genes from the dopamine and the serotonin systems were screened, revealing 34 SNPs distributed in 14 of the 18 selected genes. A total of 24,895 bp coding sequence was sequenced yielding an average frequency of one SNP per 732 bp (1/732. A total of 11 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs, which may be involved in alteration of protein function, were detected. Of these 11 nsSNPs, six resulted in a substitution of amino acid residue with concomitant change in structural parameters. Conclusion We have identified a number of coding SNPs in behaviour-related genes, several of which change the amino acids of the proteins. Some of the canine SNPs exist in codons that are evolutionary conserved between five compared species, and predictions indicate that they may have a functional effect on the protein. The reported coding SNP frequency of the studied genes falls within the range of SNP frequencies reported earlier in the dog and other mammalian species. Novel SNPs are presented and the results show a significant genetic variation in expressed sequences in this group of genes. The results can contribute to an improved understanding of the genetics of behaviour.

  14. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for growth in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breidy Lizeth Cuevas-Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present work was to identify and validate single nucleotide variations located in candidate genes to growth traits in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Two transitions were identified in the promoter region of the growth hormone gene (GH; eight nucleotide changes were identified in introns and promoter region of the IGF-I gene; and a transition (T/C was identified in the Myogenin gene (MyoG. The highest genotypic frequency (0.8 for GHpA1 and MyoG was found in the GG and TT homozygous individuals, while the highest frequency (0.9 for GHpB1 was observed in the CT heterozygous fish. There was no genotypic frequency in the CC homozygous tilapia for the GHpB1 and MyoG markers. Based on their allelic frequencies, validation as novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of those variations located at O. niloticus GH and MyoG genes was possible. These new markers will allow their association with growth traits in tilapia to be exploited in order to determine their potential use as assisted-selection markers.

  15. Genetic Bit Analysis: a solid phase method for typing single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, T T; Rendle, R B; Goelet, P; Rogers, Y H; Kotewicz, M L; Anderson, S; Trainor, G L; Knapp, M R

    1994-10-11

    A new method for typing single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA is described. In this method, specific fragments of genomic DNA containing the polymorphic site(s) are first amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using one regular and one phosphorothioate-modified primer. The double-stranded PCR product is rendered single-stranded by treatment with the enzyme T7 gene 6 exonuclease, and captured onto individual wells of a 96 well polystyrene plate by hybridization to an immobilized oligonucleotide primer. This primer is designed to hybridize to the single-stranded target DNA immediately adjacent from the polymorphic site of interest. Using the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I or the modified T7 DNA polymerase (Sequenase), the 3' end of the capture oligonucleotide is extended by one base using a mixture of one biotin-labeled, one fluorescein-labeled, and two unlabeled dideoxynucleoside triphosphates. Antibody conjugates of alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase are then used to determine the nature of the extended base in an ELISA format. This paper describes biochemical features of this method in detail. A semi-automated version of the method, which we call Genetic Bit Analysis (GBA), is being used on a large scale for the parentage verification of thoroughbred horses using a predetermined set of 26 diallelic polymorphisms in the equine genome.

  16. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćupić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene polymorphisms result from evolutionary processes representing mutations that survive in the population with a frequency higher than 1%. The most investigated type of gene polymorphisms are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The SNPs of IL-12B (rs 3212227 A/C among a population of kidney graft CMV-seropositive recipients have an impact on a clinical events in cytomegalovirus (CMV disease. Constitutive -308 G/A TNF-α polymorphism (rs1800629 is related to the susceptibility of HR-HPV-associated cervical dysplasia and cancer. SNP located 3 kb upstream of the IL- 28B gene (rs12979860 seems to be the strongest host genetic predictor of sustained virologic response (SVR in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients. It is very important to identify viral and host genetic markers that may facilitate the risk of developing viral disease or some viral-associated cancers. In addition, these markers could be useful in the choice of effective treatments and preventive strategies against virally induced infection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175073 i br. 175038

  17. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of MC4R gene and carcass traits in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei-Shan; Chen, Shi-Yi; Lai, Song-Jia; Deng, Xiao-Song; Chen, Yun; Wan, Jie

    2008-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding sequence of melanoeortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene were detected by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing method in Harbin white rabbit, Tianfu black rabbit, Belgian hare, ZIKA rabbit, and California rabbit breeds. A-->G conversion mutation at base position 237 was found with high frequency in Harbin white rabbit, Belgian hare, and Zika rabbit and low frequency in Tianfu black rabbit and California rabbit. The allele A was pre-dominant allele for each of meat rabbit breeds. AA genotype frequency was higher than AG genotype in the five studied rabbit breeds. GLM analysis for the effect of genotypes on performance traits demonstrated that AG genotype was significantly associated with body weight, eviscerated weight and feed conversion efficiency (P0.05). It was concluded from the results that MC4R gene could be a candidate modifier gene that affects or controls body weight and carcass traits of rabbit.

  18. [Comparative study of prenatal diagnosis with single nucleotide polymorphism array and karyotype analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling; Zhao, Nan; Wei, Yuan; Zhong, Su; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-10-18

    To compare the roles of single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) and karyotype analysis in high-risk pregnant women prenatal diagnosis. From July 2012 to December 2013, a total of 141 pregnant women with high-risk in prenatal diagnosis were selected as the object of study in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, 78 cases of umbilical cord puncture and 63 of amnion cavity puncture , both taking SNP array detection and karyotype analysis. The abnormality karyotype rate was 6.4%, the abnormal rate of SNP array result was 11.3%, and the abnormal rate of the combined two methods for detecting was 12.1%. There were significant differences between the SNP array and karyotype analysis (P=0.039). There were obvious differences between the two techniques. It is an effective way to determine genetic disease by integrating SNP array and karyotype analysis in prenatal diagnosis.

  19. Application of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing: simple association and beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Raphael Gibbs

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The International HapMap Project and the arrival of technologies that type more than 100,000 SNPs in a single experiment have made genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (GW-SNP assay a realistic endeavor. This has sparked considerable debate regarding the promise of GW-SNP typing to identify genetic association in disease. As has already been shown, this approach has the potential to localize common genetic variation underlying disease risk. The data provided from this technology also lends itself to several other lines of investigation; autozygosity mapping in consanguineous families and outbred populations, direct detection of structural variation, admixture analysis, and other population genetic approaches. In this review we will discuss the potential uses and practical application of GW-SNP typing including those above and beyond simple association testing.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from Theobroma cacao expressed sequence tags associated with witches' broom disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L S; Gramacho, K P; Carels, N; Novais, R; Gaiotto, F A; Lopes, U V; Gesteira, A S; Zaidan, H A; Cascardo, J C M; Pires, J L; Micheli, F

    2009-07-14

    In order to increase the efficiency of cacao tree resistance to witches' broom disease, which is caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae), we looked for molecular markers that could help in the selection of resistant cacao genotypes. Among the different markers useful for developing marker-assisted selection, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute the most common type of sequence difference between alleles and can be easily detected by in silico analysis from expressed sequence tag libraries. We report the first detection and analysis of SNPs from cacao-M. perniciosa interaction expressed sequence tags, using bioinformatics. Selection based on analysis of these SNPs should be useful for developing cacao varieties resistant to this devastating disease.

  1. A Lateral Flow Biosensor for the Detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingwen; Xiao, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    A lateral flow biosensor (LFB) is introduced for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The assay is composed of two steps: circular strand displacement reaction and lateral flow biosensor detection. In step 1, the nucleotide at SNP site is recognized by T4 DNA ligase and the signal is amplified by strand displacement DNA polymerase, which can be accomplished at a constant temperature. In step 2, the reaction product of step 1 is detected by a lateral flow biosensor, which is a rapid and cost effective tool for nuclei acid detection. Comparing with conventional methods, it requires no complicated machines. It is suitable for the use of point of care diagnostics. Therefore, this simple, cost effective, robust, and promising LFB detection method of SNP has great potential for the detection of genetic diseases, personalized medicine, cancer related mutations, and drug-resistant mutations of infectious agents.

  2. Heated oligonucleotide ligation assay (HOLA): an affordable single nucleotide polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, W C; Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N; Duteau, N M

    2006-03-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection requires expensive equipment and reagents. The oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is an inexpensive SNP assay that detects ligation between a biotinylated "allele-specific detector" and a 3' fluorescein-labeled "reporter" oligonucleotide. No ligation occurs unless the 3' detector nucleotide is complementary to the SNP nucleotide. The original OLA used chemical denaturation and neutralization. Heated OLA (HOLA) instead uses a thermal stable ligase and cycles of denaturing and hybridization for ligation and SNP detection. The cost per genotype is approximately US$1.25 with two-allele SNPs or approximately US$1.75 with three-allele SNPs. We illustrate the development of HOLA for SNP detection in the Early Trypsin and Abundant Trypsin loci in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) and at the a-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s.

  3. Rapid single nucleotide polymorphism analysis by primer extension and capillary electrophoresis using polyvinyl pyrrolidone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, C; Ronai, Z; Sasvari-Szekely, M; Guttman, A

    2001-01-01

    Rapid molecular diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency by detecting the most common mutation in the 21-hydroxylase gene is presented using primer extension and capillary electrophoresis with a polyvinyl pyrrolidone matrix. DNA samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to amplify a 422 bp fragment of the CYP21 gene containing the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site. This product served as a template in the primer extension reaction using a fluorescently labeled primer in close proximity to the SNP. ddGTP was used to block the extension if the mutation was present and the other three dNTPs to enable elongation of the primer. Fast analysis of the resulting fragments was performed by capillary electrophoresis using 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone as sieving and wall coating matrix. The Cy5-labeled primer and the two possible primer extension products (mutant and wild type) were completely separated in 90 s.

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping and Distribution of Coxiella burnetii Strains from Field Samples in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Renaville, Bénédicte; Martinelle, Ludovic; Renaville, Robert; Thys, Christine; Smeets, François; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Grégoire, Fabien; Delooz, Laurent; Czaplicki, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The genotypic characterization of Coxiella burnetii provides useful information about the strains circulating at the farm, region, or country level and may be used to identify the source of infection for animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the strains of C. burnetii circulating in caprine and bovine Belgian farms using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) technique. Direct genotyping was applied to different samples (bulk tank milk, individual milk, vaginal swab, fetal product, and air sample). Besides the well-known SNP genotypes, unreported ones were found in bovine and caprine samples, increasing the variability of the strains found in the two species in Belgium. Moreover, multiple genotypes were detected contemporarily in caprine farms at different years of sampling and by using different samples. Interestingly, certain SNP genotypes were detected in both bovine and caprine samples, raising the question of interspecies transmission of the pathogen. PMID:26475104

  5. Forensic usefulness of a 25 X-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphism marker set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J; Castro, Jose Aurelio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The analysis of X-chromosome markers can be valuable in particular situations, for example, deficiency kinship cases, where the putative father cannot be typed. X-chromosome short-tandem repeats (X-STRs) are widely used in forensic genetics, while the use of X-chromosome single......-nucleotide polymorphisms (X-SNPs) is still limited. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The forensic usefulness of a set of 25 SNPs located across the X-chromosome was analyzed in 13 populations. The applicability of the 25 X-SNPs in kinship testing was illustrated in two immigration cases where the conclusions based...... on the analysis of 15 autosomal STRs were ambiguous and, in one of the cases, misleading. The samples in the two cases were also typed for eight X-STRs, 52 autosomal SNPs, and seven autosomal variable number of tandem repeats. RESULTS: The combined power of discrimination of the 25 X-chromosome markers varied...

  6. DivStat: a user-friendly tool for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of genomic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Soares

    Full Text Available Recent developments have led to an enormous increase of publicly available large genomic data, including complete genomes. The 1000 Genomes Project was a major contributor, releasing the results of sequencing a large number of individual genomes, and allowing for a myriad of large scale studies on human genetic variation. However, the tools currently available are insufficient when the goal concerns some analyses of data sets encompassing more than hundreds of base pairs and when considering haplotype sequences of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Here, we present a new and potent tool to deal with large data sets allowing the computation of a variety of summary statistics of population genetic data, increasing the speed of data analysis.

  7. A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, G K; Hillier, L; Brandstrom, M; Croojmans, R; Ovcharenko, I; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L; Lucas, S; Glavina, T; Kaiser, P; Gunnarsson, U; Webber, C; Overton, I

    2005-02-20

    We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a comparison of the sequences of 3 domestic chickens (broiler, layer, Silkie) to their wild ancestor Red Jungle Fowl (RJF). Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about 5 SNP/kb for almost every possible comparison between RJF and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--contrary to the idea that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated prior to domestication, and there is little to no evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales of greater than 100 kb.

  8. Reinvestigations of six unusual paternity cases by typing of autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In some relationship cases, the initial investigations of autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) lead to an ambiguous conclusion and supplementary investigations become necessary. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Six unusual paternity cases were previously investigated by other researchers...... and published as case work examples in forensic journals. Here, the cases were reinvestigated by typing the samples for 49 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the SNPforID multiplex assay. RESULTS: Three cases were solved by the SNP investigation without the need for any additional testing....... In two cases, the SNP results supported the conclusions based on STRs. In the last case, the SNP results spoke in favor of paternity, and the combined paternity index based on autosomal STRs and SNPs was 12.3 billion. Nevertheless, the alleged father was excluded by X-chromosome typing. CONCLUSION...

  9. Comprehensive Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Beta-lactam Resistance within Pneumococcal Mosaic Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chewapreecha, Claire; Marttinen, Pekka; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Salter, Susannah J.; Harris, Simon R.; Mather, Alison E.; Hanage, William P.; Goldblatt, David; Nosten, Francois H.; Turner, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Traditional genetic association studies are very difficult in bacteria, as the generally limited recombination leads to large linked haplotype blocks, confounding the identification of causative variants. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae arises readily as the bacteria can quickly incorporate DNA fragments encompassing variants that make the transformed strains resistant. However, the causative mutations themselves are embedded within larger recombined blocks, and previous studies have only analysed a limited number of isolates, leading to the description of “mosaic genes” as being responsible for resistance. By comparing a large number of genomes of beta-lactam susceptible and non-susceptible strains, the high frequency of recombination should break up these haplotype blocks and allow the use of genetic association approaches to identify individual causative variants. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels that could confer beta-lactam non-susceptibility using 3,085 Thai and 616 USA pneumococcal isolates as independent datasets for the variant discovery. The large sample sizes allowed us to narrow the source of beta-lactam non-susceptibility from long recombinant fragments down to much smaller loci comprised of discrete or linked SNPs. While some loci appear to be universal resistance determinants, contributing equally to non-susceptibility for at least two classes of beta-lactam antibiotics, some play a larger role in resistance to particular antibiotics. All of the identified loci have a highly non-uniform distribution in the populations. They are enriched not only in vaccine-targeted, but also non-vaccine-targeted lineages, which may raise clinical concerns. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying resistance will be essential for future use of genome sequencing to predict antibiotic sensitivity in clinical microbiology. PMID:25101644

  10. Comprehensive identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with beta-lactam resistance within pneumococcal mosaic genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Chewapreecha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional genetic association studies are very difficult in bacteria, as the generally limited recombination leads to large linked haplotype blocks, confounding the identification of causative variants. Beta-lactam antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae arises readily as the bacteria can quickly incorporate DNA fragments encompassing variants that make the transformed strains resistant. However, the causative mutations themselves are embedded within larger recombined blocks, and previous studies have only analysed a limited number of isolates, leading to the description of "mosaic genes" as being responsible for resistance. By comparing a large number of genomes of beta-lactam susceptible and non-susceptible strains, the high frequency of recombination should break up these haplotype blocks and allow the use of genetic association approaches to identify individual causative variants. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and indels that could confer beta-lactam non-susceptibility using 3,085 Thai and 616 USA pneumococcal isolates as independent datasets for the variant discovery. The large sample sizes allowed us to narrow the source of beta-lactam non-susceptibility from long recombinant fragments down to much smaller loci comprised of discrete or linked SNPs. While some loci appear to be universal resistance determinants, contributing equally to non-susceptibility for at least two classes of beta-lactam antibiotics, some play a larger role in resistance to particular antibiotics. All of the identified loci have a highly non-uniform distribution in the populations. They are enriched not only in vaccine-targeted, but also non-vaccine-targeted lineages, which may raise clinical concerns. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying resistance will be essential for future use of genome sequencing to predict antibiotic sensitivity in clinical microbiology.

  11. Caveolin-1 single nucleotide polymorphism in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Chand

    Full Text Available Immunosuppression is cornerstone treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (AAV but is later complicated by infection, cancer, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Caveolin-1 is an essential structural protein for small cell membrane invaginations known as caveolae. Its functional role has been associated with these complications. For the first time, caveolin-1 (CAV1 gene variation is studied in AAV.CAV1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs4730751 was analysed in genomic DNA from 187 white patients with AAV from Birmingham, United Kingdom. The primary outcome measure was the composite endpoint of time to all-cause mortality or renal replacement therapy. Secondary endpoints included time to all-cause mortality, death from sepsis or vascular disease, cancer and renal replacement therapy. Validation of results was sought from 589 white AAV patients, from two European cohorts.The primary outcome occurred in 41.7% of Birmingham patients. In a multivariate model, non-CC genotype variation at the studied single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with increased risk from: the primary outcome measure [HR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.14-3.04; p=0.013], all-cause mortality [HR:1.83; 95% CI: 1.02-3.27; p=0.042], death from infection [HR:3.71; 95% CI: 1.28-10.77; p=0.016], death from vascular disease [HR:3.13; 95% CI: 1.07-9.10; p=0.037], and cancer [HR:5.55; 95% CI: 1.59-19.31; p=0.007]. In the validation cohort, the primary outcome rate was far lower (10.4%; no association between genotype and the studied endpoints was evident.The presence of a CC genotype in Birmingham is associated with protection from adverse outcomes of immunosuppression treated AAV. Lack of replication in the European cohort may have resulted from low clinical event rates. These findings are worthy of further study in larger cohorts.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key cytokines may modulate food allergy phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula; Nair, Bindukumar; Mahajan, Supriya D; Sykes, Donald E; Rich, Gary; Reynolds, Jessica L; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Wheeler, John; Schwartz, Stanley A

    2012-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can play a direct or indirect role in phenotypic expression in food allergy pathogenesis. Our goal was to quantitate the expression of SNPs in relevant cytokines that were expressed in food allergic patients. SNPs in cytokine genes IL-4 and IL-10 are known to be important in IgE generation and regulation. We examined IL-4 (C-590T), IL-4Rα (1652A/G) and IL-10 (C-627A) SNPs using real-time PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Our results show that the AA, AG and GG genotypes for IL-4Rα (1652A/G) polymorphisms were statistically different in radioallergosorbent test (RAST) positive versus negative patients, and although no statistically significant differences were observed between genotypes in the IL-4 (C-590T) and IL-10 (C-627A) SNPs, we observed a significant decrease in IL-4 (C-590T) gene expression and increase in IL-4Rα (1652A/G) and IL-10 (C-627A) gene expression between RAST(+) versus RAST(-) patients, respectively. We also observed significant modulation in the protein expression of IL-4 and IL-10 in the serum samples of the RAST(+) patients as compared to the RAST(-) patients indicating that changes in SNP expression resulted in altered phenotypic response in these patients.

  13. Multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping by adapter ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-peng; Ni, Kun-yi; Zhou, Guo-hua

    2006-08-15

    An improved approach for increasing the multiplex level of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing by adapter ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification (ALM-ASA) has been developed. Based on an adapter ligation, each reaction requires n allele-specific primers plus an adapter-specific primer that is common for all SNPs. Thus, only n+1 primers are used for an n-plex PCR amplification. The specificity of ALM-ASA was increased by a special design of the adapter structure and PCR suppression. Given that the genetic polymorphisms in the liver enzyme cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 (debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase) have profound effects on responses of individuals to a particular drug, we selected 17 SNPs in the CYP2D6 gene as an example for the multiplex SNP typing. Without extensive optimization, we successfully typed 17-plex SNPs in the CYP2D6 gene by ALM-ASA. The results for genotyping 70 different genome samples by the 17-plex ALM-ASA were completely consistent with those obtained by both Sanger's sequencing and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. ALM-ASA is a potential method for SNP typing at an ultra-low cost because of a high multiplex level and a simple optimization step for PCR. High-throughput SNP typing could be readily realized by coupling ALM-ASA with a well-developed automation device for sample processing.

  14. Profiling single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across intracellular folate metabolic pathway in healthy Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, Yogita; Chopra, Arvind; Shintre, Pooja; Puranik, Amrutesh; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2011-03-01

    Many pharmacologically-relevant polymorphisms show variability among different populations. Though limited, data from Caucasian subjects have reported several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in folate biosynthetic pathway. These SNPs may be subjected to racial and ethnic differences. We carried out a study to determine the allelic frequencies of these SNPs in an Indian ethnic population. Whole blood samples were withdrawn from 144 unrelated healthy subjects from west India. DNA was extracted and genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP and Real-time Taqman allelic discrimination for 12 polymorphisms in 9 genes of folate-methotrexate (MTX) metabolism. Allele frequencies were obtained for MTHFR 677T (10%) and 1298 C (30%), TS 3UTR 0bp (46%), MDR1 3435T and 1236T (62%), RFC1 80A (57%), GGH 401T (61%), MS 2756G (34%), ATIC 347G (52%) and SHMT1 1420T (80%) in healthy subjects (frequency of underlined SNPs were different from published study data of European and African populations). The current study describes the distribution of folate biosynthetic pathway SNPs in healthy Indians and validates the previous finding of differences due to race and ethnicity. Our results pave way to study the pharmacogenomics of MTX in the Indian population.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key cytokines may modulate food allergy phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E.; Rich, Gary; Reynolds, Jessica L.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Wheeler, John; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can play a direct or indirect role in phenotypic expression in food allergy pathogenesis. Our goal was to quantitate the expression of SNPs in relevant cytokines that were expressed in food allergic patients. SNPs in cytokine genes IL-4 and IL-10 are known to be important in IgE generation and regulation. We examined IL-4 (C-590T), IL-4Rα (1652A/G) and IL-10 (C-627A) SNPs using real-time PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Our results show that the AA, AG and GG genotypes for IL-4Rα (1652A/G) polymorphisms were statistically different in radioallergosorbent test (RAST) positive versus negative patients, and although no statistically significant differences were observed between genotypes in the IL-4 (C-590T) and IL-10 (C-627A) SNPs, we observed a significant decrease in IL-4 (C-590T) gene expression and increase in IL-4Rα (1652A/G) and IL-10 (C-627A) gene expression between RAST+ versus RAST− patients, respectively. We also observed significant modulation in the protein expression of IL-4 and IL-10 in the serum samples of the RAST+ patients as compared to the RAST− patients indicating that changes in SNP expression resulted in altered phenotypic response in these patients. PMID:23230389

  16. Analysis of Association Between MGMT and p53 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Laryngeal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yayun; Jia, Chuanliang; Jiang, Aihua; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Yunqiang; Liu, Feifei; Yang, Linlin; Sun, Yan; Lv, Runli; Song, Xicheng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the p53 and O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)5' upstream sequence gene promoter regions for single nucleotide polymorphisms and explore the p53 gene 5' upstream sequence consisting of two haplotypes to provide a genetic marker for the incidence of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We included 96 cases of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and 102 controls. We used SNaPshot micro-sequencing analysis of the MGMT promoter region for four single nucleotide polymorphisms and p53 gene 5' upstream sequence loci (rs1625649, rs2287499, rs2287498, rs228749) genotypes. We calculated and compared two groups for genotypic and allelic frequencies, applied HaploView4.2 for computing rs2287499, rs2287498, rs228749 values and haplotype frequencies and tested control loci and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. All the experimental data were statistically evaluated using SPSS17.0. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis with pp53 were polymorphic in both patient and control groups. There was no statistical significance in frequency distributions for the four loci genotypes when comparing patients and healthy controls (Chi-square values were 4.47, 0.98, 1.67, 4.68, respectively; p>0.05). However, allelic frequencies of the MGMT promoter region locus rs1625649 between patients and healthy control groups were statistically significantly different (chi-square value of 5.77; pp53 gene 5' upstream sequence loci rs2287499, rs2287498 and rs228749 between patients and the healthy control group were not statistically significant (Chi-square values were 1.11,1.56,3.36; p>0.05). Nor were those for the two haplotypes of rs2287499, rs2287498 and rs228749 between patients and the healthy control group were not statistically significant (Chi-square value 1.46, p>0.05). MGMT gene polymorphism appears to be associated with the incidence of laryngeal cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights

  17. Leveraging reads that span multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms for haplotype inference from sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yun; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Wang, Zhanyong; He, Dan; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Eskin, Eleazar

    2013-09-15

    Haplotypes, defined as the sequence of alleles on one chromosome, are crucial for many genetic analyses. As experimental determination of haplotypes is extremely expensive, haplotypes are traditionally inferred using computational approaches from genotype data, i.e. the mixture of the genetic information from both haplotypes. Best performing approaches for haplotype inference rely on Hidden Markov Models, with the underlying assumption that the haplotypes of a given individual can be represented as a mosaic of segments from other haplotypes in the same population. Such algorithms use this model to predict the most likely haplotypes that explain the observed genotype data conditional on reference panel of haplotypes. With rapid advances in short read sequencing technologies, sequencing is quickly establishing as a powerful approach for collecting genetic variation information. As opposed to traditional genotyping-array technologies that independently call genotypes at polymorphic sites, short read sequencing often collects haplotypic information; a read spanning more than one polymorphic locus (multi-single nucleotide polymorphic read) contains information on the haplotype from which the read originates. However, this information is generally ignored in existing approaches for haplotype phasing and genotype-calling from short read data. In this article, we propose a novel framework for haplotype inference from short read sequencing that leverages multi-single nucleotide polymorphic reads together with a reference panel of haplotypes. The basis of our approach is a new probabilistic model that finds the most likely haplotype segments from the reference panel to explain the short read sequencing data for a given individual. We devised an efficient sampling method within a probabilistic model to achieve superior performance than existing methods. Using simulated sequencing reads from real individual genotypes in the HapMap data and the 1000 Genomes projects, we show

  18. Correlations between ACE single nucleotide polymorphisms and prognosis of patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xin-Man; Cheng, Hui-Juan; Meng, Ling; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Ke, Yi-Hong; Liu, Li-Ping; Li, Yu-Min

    2017-04-30

    The aim of the present study is to investigate association between septic shock (SS) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). From October 2009 to December 2016, 238 SS patients and 242 healthy individuals were selected for our study. ACE activity was detected, ACE rs4291 and rs4646994 polymorphisms were detected using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was employed to evaluate the association between ACE SNPs and patients' survival and univariate and multivariate analyses to estimate risk factors for SS. ACE activity in the case group was increased in comparison with the control group. Allele and genotype frequencies of rs4291 and rs4646994 were different between the case and control groups. The TT genotype frequency of the rs4291 polymorphisms and the DD genotype of the rs4646994 polymorphisms of the case group were higher than those in the control group. The AT and TT genotypes indicated a significant elevation of ACE activity than the AA genotype, while a significant decline was found in the DI and II genotypes in comparison with the DI genotype. Patients with TT or DD genotypes had increased fatality rate within 7 and 30 days when compared with those with non-TT or non-DD genotypes. Lower sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, rs4291, serum ACE and rs4646994 were all considered as risky factors for SS patients. The study demonstrates that TT genotype of rs4291 or DD genotype of rs4646994 may be indicative of a higher risk of SS and a poorer prognosis in SS patients. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Luo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity.

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Common Bean: Their Discovery and Genotyping Using a Multiplex Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gaitán-Solís

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are by far the most common form of DNA polymorphism in a genome. The objectives of this study were to discover SNPs in common bean ( L. by comparing sequences from coding and noncoding regions obtained from the GenBank and genomic DNA and to compare sequencing results with those obtained using single base extension (SBE assays on the Luminex-100 system for use in high-throughput germplasm evaluation. We assessed the frequency of SNPs in 47 fragments of common bean DNA, using SBE as the evaluation methodology. We conducted a sequence analysis of 10 genotypes of cultivated and wild beans belonging to the Mesoamerican and Andean genetic pools of . For the 10 genotypes evaluated, a total of 20,964 bp of sequence were analyzed in each genotype and compared, resulting in the discovery of 239 SNPs and 133 InDels, giving an average SNP frequency of one per 88 bp and an InDel frequency of one per 157 bp. This is the equivalent of a nucleotide diversity (θ of 6.27 × 10. Comparisons with the SNP genotypes previously obtained by direct sequencing showed that the SBE assays on the Luminex-100 were accurate, with 2.5% being miscalled and 1% showing no signal. These results indicate that the Luminex-100 provides a high-throughput system that can be used to analyze SNPs in large samples of genotypes both for purposes of assessing diversity and also for mapping studies.

  1. [Single nucleotide polymorphism of XRCC1 gene in Bouyei and Shui populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Li, Hong-bin; Xi, Jing-zhuan; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To analyze the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the genotype combinations and the allele frequency distributions of the X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 1 (XRCC1) C26304T, G27466A and G28152A in Bouyei and Shui populations. Genomic DNA of leukocytes in venous blood was obtained from 192 Bouyei people and 197 Shui people. The SNPs of XRCC1 C26304T, G27466A and G28152A were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction restrained fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP). Three SNPs were identified in XRCC1 C26304T, G27466A and G28152A, which were located in the exon 6, 9 and 10 respectively. All of the gene distributions matched the equilibrium law of Hardy-Weinberg. Eight genotype combinations were found in C26304T and G28152A. Seven genotype combinations were found in C26304T and G27466A. Seven genotype combinations were found in G28152A and G27466A. This study reveals the features of the SNPs, the genotype combinations and the allele frequency distributions of XRCC1 and provides essential data for future studies regarding the relationship between XRCC1 SNPs, its physiological function and diseases.

  2. Identification of Diagnostic Mitochondrial DNA Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Specific to Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Rianti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypervariable region I of mitochondrial DNA has frequently been used to distinguish among populations, in particular in species with strong female philopatry. In such cases, populations are expected to diverge rapidly for hypervariable region I markers because of the smaller effective population size and thus increased genetic drift. This rapid divergence leads to the accumulation of mutations exclusively found in one population, which may serve as diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To date, diagnostic SNPs distinctive to Sumatran orangutan populations have not yet been described. However, given the continuously declining numbers of Sumatran orangutans, this information can be vital for effective conservation measures, especially regarding reintroductions of orangutans in rehabilitation centers. Phylogenetic analyses of 54 samples of Sumatran orangutans from nine sampling sites with good provenance, we found five major clades and a total of 20 haplotypes. We propose a total of 52 diagnostic SNPs that are specific to Sumatran orangutan populations. Data can be used to develop restriction fragment length polymorphism assays to carry out genetic assignments using basic laboratory equipment to assign Sumatran orangutan to their population of origin.

  3. A new single nucleotide polymorphism in the ryanodine gene of chicken skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droval, A A; Binneck, E; Marin, S R R; Paião, F G; Oba, A; Nepomuceno, A L; Shimokomaki, M

    2012-04-03

    Some genes affect meat quality in chickens. We looked for polymorphisms in the Gallus gallus α-RyR gene (homologous to RyR 1) that could be associated with PSE (pale, soft and exudative) meat. Because RyR genes are over 100,000 bp long and code for proteins with about 5000 amino acids, primers were designed to amplify a fragment of hotspot region 2, a region with a high density of mutations in other species. Total blood DNA was extracted from 50 birds, 25 that had PSE meat and 25 normal chickens. The DNA samples were amplified by PCR, cloned, sequenced, and used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The amplified fragment of α-RyR was 604 nucleotides in length; 181 nucleotides were similar to two exons from a hypothetical turkey cDNA sequence for α-RyR. A non-synonymous nucleotide substitution (G/A) was identified in at least one of the three sequenced clones obtained from nine animals, six PSE (HAL+) birds and three normal (HAL-) birds; they were heterozygous for this mutation. This SNP causes a change from Val to Met in the α-RYR protein. Since the frequencies of this SNP were not significantly different in the PSE versus normal chickens, it appears that this mutation (in heterozygosity) does not alter the structure or function of the muscle protein, making it an inappropriate candidate as a genetic marker for PSE meat.

  4. The Role of Vitamin D Level and Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J. Lam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand has one of the highest rates of Crohn’s Disease (CD in the world, and there is much speculation as to why this might be. A high risk of CD has been associated with deficient or insufficient levels of Vitamin D (Vit D, lifestyle as well as various genetic polymorphisms. In this study we sought to analyse the relevance of serum Vit D levels, lifestyle and genotype to CD status. Serum samples were analysed for 25-OH-Vitamin D levels. DNA was isolated from blood and cheek-swabs, and Sequenom and ImmunoChip techniques were used for genotyping. Serum Vit D levels were significantly lower in CD patients (mean = 49.5 mg/L than those found in controls (mean = 58.9 mg/L, p = 4.74 × 10−6. A total of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were examined for effects on serum Vit D levels, with adjustment for confounding variables. Two variants: rs731236[A] (VDR and rs732594[A] (SCUBE3 showed a significant association with serum Vit D levels in CD patients. Four variants: rs7975232[A] (VDR, rs732594[A] (SCUBE3, and rs2980[T] and rs2981[A] (PHF-11 showed a significant association with serum Vit D levels in the control group. This study demonstrates a significant interaction between Vit D levels and CD susceptibility, as well as a significant association between Vit D levels and genotype.

  5. Assessment of the geographic origins of pinewood nematode isolates via single nucleotide polymorphism in effector genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is native to North America but it only causes damaging pine wilt disease in those regions of the world where it has been introduced. The accurate detection of the species and its dispersal routes are thus essential to define effective control measures. The main goals of this study were to analyse the genetic diversity among B. xylophilus isolates from different geographic locations and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs markers for geographic origin, through a comparative transcriptomic approach. The transcriptomes of seven B. xylophilus isolates, from Continental Portugal (4, China (1, Japan (1 and USA (1, were sequenced in the next generation platform Roche 454. Analysis of effector gene transcripts revealed inter-isolate nucleotide diversity that was validated by Sanger sequencing in the genomic DNA of the seven isolates and eight additional isolates from different geographic locations: Madeira Island (2, China (1, USA (1, Japan (2 and South Korea (2. The analysis identified 136 polymorphic positions in 10 effector transcripts. Pairwise comparison of the 136 SNPs through Neighbor-Joining and the Maximum Likelihood methods and 5-mer frequency analysis with the alignment-independent bilinear multivariate modelling approach correlated the SNPs with the isolates geographic origin. Furthermore, the SNP analysis indicated a closer proximity of the Portuguese isolates to the Korean and Chinese isolates than to the Japanese or American isolates. Each geographic cluster carried exclusive alleles that can be used as SNP markers for B. xylophilus isolate identification.

  6. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Daokun; Chen, Liang; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Peng, Yunliang; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity. PMID:23538839

  7. Identification of Diagnostic Mitochondrial DNA Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Specific to Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Rianti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypervariable region I of mitochondrial DNA has frequently been used to distinguish among populations, in particular in species with strong female philopatry. In such cases, populations are expected to diverge rapidly for hypervariable region I markers because of the smaller effective population size and thus increased genetic drift. This rapid divergence leads to the accumulation of mutations exclusively found in one population, which may serve as diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To date, diagnostic SNPs distinctive to Sumatran orangutan populations have not yet been described. However, given the continuously declining numbers of Sumatran orangutans, this information can be vital for effective conservation measures, especially regarding reintroductions of orangutans in rehabilitation centers. Phylogenetic analyses of 54 samples of Sumatran orangutans from nine sampling sites with good provenance, we found five major clades and a total of 20 haplotypes. We propose a total of 52 diagnostic SNPs that are specific to Sumatran orangutan populations. Data can be used to develop restriction fragment length polymorphism assays to carry out genetic assignments using basic laboratory equipment to assign Sumatran orangutan to their population of origin.

  8. CD14 and TNFα single nucleotide polymorphisms are candidates for genetic biomarkers of peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, Mia; Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra; Struillou, Xavier; Matic, Smiljana; Stamatovic, Novak; Vojvodic, Danilo

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to investigate whether CD14-159 C/T and TNFα -308 A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with peri-implantitis and to evaluate their effects on bone resorption by correlating with local levels of receptor activator nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Study population included 369 Southeastern Europe Caucasians (180 with peri-implantitis and 189 with healthy peri-implant tissues). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction from the periphery blood samples, while RANKL and OPG were evaluated in peri-implant crevicular fluid specimens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis of CD14-159 C/T polymorphism showed that genotype of CC nucleic acid combination was associated with peri-implantitis demonstrating a fivefold increased risk in these carriers. Furthermore, for TNFα -308 A/G polymorphisms, it was evidenced that AG genotype was associated with peri-implantitis and a fivefold increased risk in these carriers. Peri-implantitis patients with CC genotype at CD14-159 exhibited significantly higher concentrations of RANKL and relative ratio RANKL/OPG when compared to patients with CT genotype, while concentration of biomarkers between different genotypes at TNFα -308 remained insignificant. Within the limitations of the study, we can conclude that CD14-159 C/T and TNFα -308 A/G polymorphisms are associated with peri-implantitis and may present biomarkers for peri-implantitis. Investigated genetic markers might serve as precious parameters in clinical practice in course of treatment planning and prognosis, since preventive and treatment approach could be positively shifted and adjusted depending on present genotype.

  9. High-throughput multiplex single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis for red cell and platelet antigen genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denomme, G A; Van Oene, M

    2005-05-01

    Transfusion recipients who become alloimmunized to red cell or platelet (PLT) antigens require antigen-negative blood to limit adverse transfusion reactions. Blood collection facilities use regulated and unregulated antibodies to phenotype blood, the cost of which can be prohibitive depending on the antisera and demand. An alternative strategy is to screen blood for these antigens with genomic DNA and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-oligonucleotide extension assay was developed with genomic DNA and a SNP genotyping platform (GenomeLab SNPstream, Beckman Coulter) to identify SNPs related to D, C/c, E, S/s, K/k, Kp(a/b), Fy(a/b), FY0 (-33 promoter silencing polymorphism), Jk(a/b), Di(a/b), and human PLT antigen (HPA)-1a/1b. A total of 372 samples were analyzed for 12 SNPs. The genotypes were compared to the blood group and PLT antigen phenotypes. Individual sample results varied from 98 to 100 percent for 11 of 12 SNPs. D was correctly identified in 292 of 296 (98.6%) D+ donors. The RHCE exon 5 E/e SNP analysis had the lowest concordance (89.5%). Thirty-three R(1)R(1) and 1 r"r were correctly identified. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) on selected samples confirmed the presence of the FY0 silencing polymorphism in nine donors. Homozygous HPA-1b/1b was identified in four donors, which was confirmed by PCR-RFLP (n = 4) and anti-HPA-1a serology (n = 2). The two HPA-1a-negative donors were recruited into the plateletpheresis program. The platform has the capacity to genotype thousands of samples per day. The suite of SNPs provides genotype data for all blood donors within 36 hours of the start of testing.

  10. Association between xanthine dehydrogenase tag single nucleotide polymorphisms and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baogang; Hao, Ying; Shi, Jin; Geng, Ning; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Yanli; Sun, Zhaoqing; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Hong; Li, Naijing; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in the rural Han Chinese population of Fuxin, Liaoning. Han Chinese individuals, who had lived in rural areas of Fuxin, were selected as subjects for the present study. A total of 521 unrelated patients with hypertension were selected, along with a further 533 unrelated individuals with normal blood pressure, in order to serve as controls. Five tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the XDH gene were selected. An estimation of SNP allele frequency was determined using DNA pooling and pyrosequencing methods. Prior to Bonferroni correction, T allele frequency for rs206811 was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, as compared with the controls (64.1 vs. 59.4%; P=0.031); C allele frequency for rs1042039 was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, as compared with the controls (66.1 vs. 60.6%; P=0.011), C allele frequency for rs1054889 was significantly lower in patients with hypertension, as compared with the controls (38.8 vs. 44.8%; P=0.007); and A allele frequency for rs2073316 was significantly lower in patients with hypertension, as compared with the controls (29.2 vs. 34.4%; P=0.013). However, once a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied, the XDH gene polymorphisms rs1042039, rs1054889, and rs2073316 were shown to be associated with hypertension (P=0.044, 0.035, and 0.039, respectively). These results suggest that the XDH gene polymorphisms rs1042039, rs1054889, and rs2073316 may be associated with hypertension in the rural Han Chinese population.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in antigen processing machinery component ERAP1 significantly associate with clinical outcome in cervical carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, Akash M.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Corver, Willem E.; van Wezel, Tom; Uh, Hae-Won; Kenter, Gemma G.; Jan Fleuren, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variation of the antigen processing machinery (APM) components TAP2, LMP7, and ERAP1 is related to cervical carcinoma risk, although the relation with expression and clinical outcome remains unknown. We have investigated the occurrence of APM component single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

  12. No association between a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs4141463, in the MACROD2 gene and autism spectrum disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, S.; Bolton, P.; Rozsnyai, K.; Chiocchetti, A.; Klauck, S.M.; Duketis, E.; Poustka, F.; Schlitt, S.; Freitag, C.M.; Lee, I. van der; Muglia, P.; Poot, M.; Staal, W.G.; Jonge, M.V. de; Ophoff, R.A.; Lewis, C.; Skuse, D.; Mandy, W.; Vassos, E.; Fossdal, R.; Magnusson, P.; Hreidarsson, S.; Saemundsen, E.; Stefansson, H.; Stefansson, K.; Collier, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium recently reported genome-wide significant association between autism and an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism marker, rs4141463, within the MACROD2 gene. In the present study we attempted to replicate this finding using an independent case-control

  13. A Comprehensive Experiment for Molecular Biology: Determination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Human REV3 Gene Using PCR-RFLP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shao, Meng; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zixuan; Zhou, Liping; Yan, Yongmin; Shao, Qixiang; Xu, Wenrong; Qian, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory exercise is helpful for medical students to understand the basic principles of molecular biology and to learn about the practical applications of molecular biology. We have designed a lab course on molecular biology about the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in human REV3 gene, the product of which is a subunit of…

  14. Detection of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum by PCR Primer Extension and Lateral Flow Immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, A.P.H.A.; Hallett, R.L.; Borrow, R.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Sutherland, C.J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2015-01-01

    The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to some antimalarial drugs is linked to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Currently, there are no methods for the identification of resistant parasites that are sufficiently simple, cheap, and fast enough to be performed at point-of-care, i.e., in local

  15. Finding the right coverage : The impact of coverage and sequence quality on single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping error rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountain, Emily D.; Pauli, Jonathan N.; Reid, Brendan N.; Palsboll, Per J.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    Restriction-enzyme-based sequencing methods enable the genotyping of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in nonmodel organisms. However, in contrast to traditional genetic markers, genotyping error rates in SNPs derived from restriction-enzyme-based methods remain largely unknown.

  16. Effect of secondary structure on single nucleotide polymorphism detection with a porous microarray matrix; implications for probe selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, R. M.; Schuitema, A. R. J.; Chan, A. B.; Boender, P. J.; Klatser, P. R.; Oskam, L.

    2003-01-01

    Oligonucleotide arrays capable of detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from amplified nucleic acid have many applications. The expected SNP is usually placed approximately in the center of the probe to ensure the maximum shift in Tm between complementary and SNP sequences. Unfortunately,

  17. Risk of estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer and single-nucleotide polymorphism 2q35-rs13387042

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Benítez, Javier; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent genome-wide association study identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 2q35-rs13387042 as a marker of susceptibility to estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We attempted to confirm this association using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: 2q35...

  18. A multiplex bead-based suspension array assay for interrogation of phylogenetically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms for Bacillus anthracis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry, S.; Hamidjaja, R.A.; Girault, G.; Lofstrom, C.; Ruuls-van Stalle, E.M.F.; Sylviane, D.

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant in genomes of all species and represent informative DNA markers extensively used to analyze phylogenetic relationships between strains. Medium to high throughput, open methodologies able to test many SNPs in a minimum time are therefore in great

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the LDHA Gene as a Potential Marker for the Racing Performance of Pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proskura, W.S.; Cichon, D.; Grzesiak, W.; Zaborski, D.; Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Cheng, A.; Dybus, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the g.2582481G>A, g.2583935G>A and g.2584057C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the lactate dehydrogenase A gene (LDHA) coding for lactate dehydrogenase isoform A and the racing performance of

  20. Electrochemical primer extension for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cardiomyopathy associated MYH7 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debela, A M; Thorimbert, S; Hasenknopf, B; O'Sullivan, C K; Ortiz, M

    2016-01-14

    We report the labelling of dideoxy nucleotides (ddNTPs) for use in electrochemical array based primer extension for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The results confirm the extension of the immobilised primers for each of the four ddNTPs, representing a significant advance in achieving a cost-effective platform for screening of disease-specific SNPs.

  1. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B region affect pancreatic cancer risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campa, D.; Pastore, M.; Gentiluomo, M.; Talar-Wojnarowska, R.; Kupcinskas, J.; Malecka-Panas, E.; Neoptolemos, J. P.; Niesen, W.; Vodička, Pavel; Delle Fave, G.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Gazouli, M.; Pacetti, P.; Di Leo, M.; Ito, H.; Klüter, H.; Souček, P.; Corbo, V.; Yamao, K.; Hosono, S.; Kaaks, R.; Vashist, Y.; Gioffreda, D.; Strobel, O.; Shimizu, Y.; Dijk, F.; Andriulli, A.; Ivanauskas, A.; Bugert, P.; Tavano, F.; Vodičková, L.; Zambon, C.F.; Lovecek, M.; Landi, S.; Key, T. J.; Boggi, U.; Pezzilli, R.; Jamroziak, K.; Mohelníková-Duchoňová, B.; Mambrini, A.; Bambi, F.; Busch, O.; Pazienza, V.; Valente, R.; Theodoropoulos, G.E.; Hackert, T.; Capurso, G.; Cavestro, G.M.; Pasquali, C.; Basso, D.; Sperti, C.; Matsuo, K.; Büchler, M.; Khaw, K. T.; Izbicki, J.; Costello, E.; Katzke, V.; Michalski, Ch.; Stepien, A.; Rizzato, C.; Canzian, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 35 (2016), s. 57011-57020 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1734 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : pancreatic cancer * CDKN2A * single nucleotide polymorphisms Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  2. A common single nucleotide polymorphism can exacerbate long-QT type 2 syndrome leading to sudden infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nof, Eyal; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Pérez, Guillermo J

    2010-01-01

    the mother (both asymptomatic), led to 2 cases of sudden infant death. METHODS AND RESULTS: KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, KCNE2, CACNA1c, CACNB2b, and KCNJ2 genes were amplified and analyzed by direct sequencing. Functional electrophysiological studies were performed with the single nucleotide polymorphism...

  3. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats in genotype identification and diversity assessment of cacao germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate identification of individual genotypes in an efficient manner is especially important for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm conservation and breeding. The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in cacao offers the opportunity to use a high throughput genotyping syste...

  4. Identification and analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the mosquito Anopheles funestus, malaria vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemingway Janet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common source of genetic variation in eukaryotic species and have become an important marker for genetic studies. The mosquito Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in Africa and yet, prior to this study, no SNPs have been described for this species. Here we report a genome-wide set of SNP markers for use in genetic studies on this important human disease vector. Results DNA fragments from 50 genes were amplified and sequenced from 21 specimens of An. funestus. A third of specimens were field collected in Malawi, a third from a colony of Mozambican origin and a third form a colony of Angolan origin. A total of 494 SNPs including 303 within the coding regions of genes and 5 indels were identified. The physical positions of these SNPs in the genome are known. There were on average 7 SNPs per kilobase similar to that observed in An. gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. Transitions outnumbered transversions, at a ratio of 2:1. The increased frequency of transition substitutions in coding regions is likely due to the structure of the genetic code and selective constraints. Synonymous sites within coding regions showed a higher polymorphism rate than non-coding introns or 3' and 5'flanking DNA with most of the substitutions in coding regions being observed at the 3rd codon position. A positive correlation in the level of polymorphism was observed between coding and non-coding regions within a gene. By genotyping a subset of 30 SNPs, we confirmed the validity of the SNPs identified during this study. Conclusion This set of SNP markers represents a useful tool for genetic studies in An. funestus, and will be useful in identifying candidate genes that affect diverse ranges of phenotypes that impact on vector control, such as resistance insecticide, mosquito behavior and vector competence.

  5. Genetic susceptibility to chronic otitis media with effusion: candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Carol J; Wilmot, Beth; Wang, Linda; Schuller, Michael; Lighthall, Jessyka; Trune, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    The genetic factors leading to a predisposition to otitis media are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to develop a tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel to determine if there is an association between candidate gene polymorphisms and the development of chronic otitis media with effusion. A 1:1 case/control design of 100 cases and 100 controls was used. The study was limited to the chronic otitis media with effusion phenotype to increase the population homogeneity. A panel of 192 tag-SNPs was selected. Saliva for DNA extraction was collected from 100 chronic otitis media with effusion cases and 100 controls. After quality control, 100 case and 79 control samples were available for hybridization. Genomic DNA from each subject was hybridized to the SNP probes, and genotypes were generated. Quality control across all samples and SNPs reduced the final SNPs used for analysis to 170. Each SNP was then analyzed for statistical association with chronic otitis media with effusion. Eight SNPs from four genes had an unadjusted P value of otitis media with effusion phenotype (TLR4, MUC5B, SMAD2, SMAD4); five of these polymorphisms were in the TLR4 gene. Even though these results need to be replicated in a novel population, the presence of five SNPs in the TLR4 gene having association with chronic otitis media with effusion in our study population lends evidence for the possible role of this gene in the susceptibility to otitis media. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Development of a single nucleotide polymorphism barcode to genotype Plasmodium vivax infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lynn Baniecki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax, one of the five species of Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria, is responsible for 25-40% of malaria cases worldwide. Malaria global elimination efforts will benefit from accurate and effective genotyping tools that will provide insight into the population genetics and diversity of this parasite. The recent sequencing of P. vivax isolates from South America, Africa, and Asia presents a new opportunity by uncovering thousands of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genotyping a selection of these SNPs provides a robust, low-cost method of identifying parasite infections through their unique genetic signature or barcode. Based on our experience in generating a SNP barcode for P. falciparum using High Resolution Melting (HRM, we have developed a similar tool for P. vivax. We selected globally polymorphic SNPs from available P. vivax genome sequence data that were located in putatively selectively neutral sites (i.e., intergenic, intronic, or 4-fold degenerate coding. From these candidate SNPs we defined a barcode consisting of 42 SNPs. We analyzed the performance of the 42-SNP barcode on 87 P. vivax clinical samples from parasite populations in South America (Brazil, French Guiana, Africa (Ethiopia and Asia (Sri Lanka. We found that the P. vivax barcode is robust, as it requires only a small quantity of DNA (limit of detection 0.3 ng/μl to yield reproducible genotype calls, and detects polymorphic genotypes with high sensitivity. The markers are informative across all clinical samples evaluated (average minor allele frequency > 0.1. Population genetic and statistical analyses show the barcode captures high degrees of population diversity and differentiates geographically distinct populations. Our 42-SNP barcode provides a robust, informative, and standardized genetic marker set that accurately identifies a genomic signature for P. vivax infections.

  7. Development of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Barcode to Genotype Plasmodium vivax Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniecki, Mary Lynn; Faust, Aubrey L.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Park, Daniel J.; Galinsky, Kevin; Daniels, Rachel F.; Hamilton, Elizabeth; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Serre, David; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Sá, Juliana M.; Wellems, Thomas E.; Musset, Lise; Legrand, Eric; Melnikov, Alexandre; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Wirth, Dyann F.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax, one of the five species of Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria, is responsible for 25–40% of malaria cases worldwide. Malaria global elimination efforts will benefit from accurate and effective genotyping tools that will provide insight into the population genetics and diversity of this parasite. The recent sequencing of P. vivax isolates from South America, Africa, and Asia presents a new opportunity by uncovering thousands of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotyping a selection of these SNPs provides a robust, low-cost method of identifying parasite infections through their unique genetic signature or barcode. Based on our experience in generating a SNP barcode for P. falciparum using High Resolution Melting (HRM), we have developed a similar tool for P. vivax. We selected globally polymorphic SNPs from available P. vivax genome sequence data that were located in putatively selectively neutral sites (i.e., intergenic, intronic, or 4-fold degenerate coding). From these candidate SNPs we defined a barcode consisting of 42 SNPs. We analyzed the performance of the 42-SNP barcode on 87 P. vivax clinical samples from parasite populations in South America (Brazil, French Guiana), Africa (Ethiopia) and Asia (Sri Lanka). We found that the P. vivax barcode is robust, as it requires only a small quantity of DNA (limit of detection 0.3 ng/μl) to yield reproducible genotype calls, and detects polymorphic genotypes with high sensitivity. The markers are informative across all clinical samples evaluated (average minor allele frequency > 0.1). Population genetic and statistical analyses show the barcode captures high degrees of population diversity and differentiates geographically distinct populations. Our 42-SNP barcode provides a robust, informative, and standardized genetic marker set that accurately identifies a genomic signature for P. vivax infections. PMID:25781890

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the IS900 Sequence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Are Strain Type Specific▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Elena; Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucia; Álvarez, Julio; Rodríguez, Sabrina; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Stevenson, Karen; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Insertion sequence IS900 is used as a target for the identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Previous reports have revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms within IS900. This study, which analyzed the IS900 sequences of a panel of isolates representing M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types I, II, and III, revealed conserved type-specific polymorphisms that could be utilized as a tool for diagnostic and epidemiological purposes. PMID:19439536

  9. Candidate genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with variation in residual feed intake in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisa, B K; Thomson, J; Wang, Z; Stothard, P; Moore, S S; Plastow, G S

    2013-08-01

    The candidate gene approach was used to identify genes associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in beef steers. The approach uses prior knowledge of gene functions to predict their biological role in the variation observed in a trait. It is suited to identify genes associated with complex traits where each gene has a relatively small effect. First, positional candidate genes were identified within the genomic positions of previously reported QTL associated with component traits related to RFI such as dry matter intake (DMI), growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), average daily gain (ADG), and energy balance. Secondly, the positional candidate genes were prioritized into functional candidate genes according to their biological functions and their relationship with the biological processes associated with RFI including carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, thermoregulation, immunity and muscle activity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the functional candidate genes were identified using mRNA sequences and prioritized into functional classes such as non-synonymous (nsSNP), synonymous (sSNP) or intronic SNP. A total of 117 nsSNP were considered as functional SNP and genotyped in steers at the University of Alberta ranch in Kinsella. Multiple marker association analysis in ASReml was performed using RFI data obtained from 531 beef steers. Twenty-five SNP were significantly associated with RFI (P energy metabolism, electron transport and membrane signaling. The genes in this study, if validated in other beef cattle populations, may be useful for marker assisted selection for feed efficiency.

  10. Self-similar characteristics of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the rice genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Yong

    2016-11-01

    With single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from the 3,000 rice genome project, we investigate the mutational characteristics of the rice genome from the perspective of statistical physics. From the frequency distributions of the space between adjacent SNPs, we present evidence that SNPs are not spaced randomly, but clustered across the genome. The clustering property is related to a long-range correlation in SNP locations, suggesting that a mutation occurring in a locus may affect other mutations far away along the sequence in a chromosome. In addition, the reliability of the existence of the long-range correlation is supported by the agreement between the results of two independent analysis methods. The highly-skewed and long-tailed distribution of SNP spaces is further characterized by a multi-fractal, showing that SNP spaces possess a rich structure of a statistical self-similarity. These results can be used for an optimal design of a microarray assay and a primer, as well as for genotyping quality control.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphism arrays: a decade of biological, computational and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFramboise, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Array manufacturers originally designed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to genotype human DNA at thousands of SNPs across the genome simultaneously. In the decade since their initial development, the platform's applications have expanded to include the detection and characterization of copy number variation--whether somatic, inherited, or de novo--as well as loss-of-heterozygosity in cancer cells. The technology's impressive contributions to insights in population and molecular genetics have been fueled by advances in computational methodology, and indeed these insights and methodologies have spurred developments in the arrays themselves. This review describes the most commonly used SNP array platforms, surveys the computational methodologies used to convert the raw data into inferences at the DNA level, and details the broad range of applications. Although the long-term future of SNP arrays is unclear, cost considerations ensure their relevance for at least the next several years. Even as emerging technologies seem poised to take over for at least some applications, researchers working with these new sources of data are adopting the computational approaches originally developed for SNP arrays.

  12. Development of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for genotyping of Pandora neoaphidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, A; Widmer, F; Enkerli, J

    2010-01-01

    Pandora neoaphidis (Entomophthoromycotina, Entomophthorales) is one of the most important fungal pathogens of aphids with great potential as a biological control agent. Development of tools that allow high-resolution monitoring of P. neoaphidis in the environment is a prerequisite for the successful implementation of biological control strategies. In this study, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay was developed. The assay targets 13 SNPs identified in 6 genomic regions including the largest subunit of nuclear RNA polymerase II (RPB1) gene, the second-largest subunit of nuclear RNA polymerase II (RPB2) gene, the β-tubulin (BTUB) gene, the elongation factor 1α-like (EFL) gene, the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene together with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The assay allowed the discrimination of 15 different SNP profiles among 19 P. neoaphidis isolates and 4 P. neoaphidis-infected cadavers. Results showed that the assay is applicable to DNA extracted from infected aphids allowing genotyping of the fungus without cultivation. The SNP assay provides an efficient tool for investigation of population structures and dynamics of P. neoaphidis, as well as its persistence and epidemiology in agro-ecosystems. Furthermore, it constitutes a powerful approach for monitoring potential biological control strains of P. neoaphidis in the environment. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid high resolution single nucleotide polymorphism-comparative genome hybridization mapping in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flibotte, Stephane; Edgley, Mark L; Maydan, Jason; Taylor, Jon; Zapf, Rick; Waterston, Robert; Moerman, Donald G

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a significantly improved and simplified method for high-resolution mapping of phenotypic traits in Caenorhabditis elegans using a combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and oligo array comparative genome hybridization (array CGH). We designed a custom oligonucleotide array using a subset of confirmed SNPs between the canonical wild-type Bristol strain N2 and the Hawaiian isolate CB4856, populated with densely overlapping 50-mer probes corresponding to both N2 and CB4856 SNP sequences. Using this method a mutation can be mapped to a resolution of approximately 200 kb in a single genetic cross. Six mutations representing each of the C. elegans chromosomes were detected unambiguously and at high resolution using genomic DNA from populations derived from as few as 100 homozygous mutant segregants of mutant N2/CB4856 heterozygotes. Our method completely dispenses with the PCR, restriction digest, and gel analysis of standard SNP mapping and should be easy to extend to any organism with interbreeding strains. This method will be particularly powerful when applied to difficult or hard-to-map low-penetrance phenotypes. It should also be possible to map polygenic traits using this method.

  14. Multiplex SNP-SCALE: a cost-effective medium-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenta, T; Gratten, J; Haigh, N S; Hinten, G N; Slate, J; Butlin, R K; Burke, T

    2008-11-01

    We describe a convenient, cost-effective and flexible medium-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method, Multiplex SNP-SCALE, which enables the simultaneous amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of up to 25 (or potentially more) loci followed by electrophoresis in an automated DNA sequencer. We extended the original SNP-SCALE method to include (i) use of a commercial multiplex PCR kit, (ii) a four-dye system, (iii) much-reduced (2-µL) reaction volumes, (iv) drying down of template DNA before PCR, (v) use of pig-tailed primers, (vi) a PCR product weighting system, (vii) a standard optimized touchdown PCR thermocycling programme, and (viii) software (SNP-SCALE Primer Designer) that automatically designs suitable SNP-SCALE primers for a batch of loci. This new protocol was validated for different types of SNPs. The method is cost- and time-effective for medium-scale evolutionary and ecological projects involving 10s to 100s of loci. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Estimation of single-nucleotide polymorphism allele frequency by alternately binding probe competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naohiro; Tani, Hidenori; Morita, Nao; Kurata, Shinya; Nakamura, Kazunori; Kanagawa, Takahiro; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2008-02-11

    Estimation of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequency in pooled DNA samples is a promising approach to clarify the relationships between SNPs and diseases. Here, we present a simple, accurate, and cost-effective method for estimating SNP allele frequency, called alternately binding probe (ABProbe) competitive polymerase chain reaction (ABC-PCR) that entails no expensive devices for real-time fluorescence measurement and complex post-PCR steps. We prepared DNA pools of PCR products derived from homozygous samples of three different SNPs (ALDH2, GNB3, and HTR2A) in different portions, and the allele frequencies of these samples were estimated by ABC-PCR. Two alleles were coamplified by PCR with a fluorescent probe that binds to either alleles, and then fluorescence intensity was measured using a simple fluorometer. The ratio of the two alleles was calculated from the fluorescence intensity of the probe at the end-point. The estimated allele frequencies strongly correlated to the expected ratios for all three SNPs with high accuracy. When the allele frequencies were more than 5%, the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) of ABC-PCR were less than 20%. Moreover, we also confirmed that this method was applicable to SNP genotyping.

  16. Digital camera and smartphone as detectors in paper-based chemiluminometric genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Elena M; Kalogianni, Despina P; Tragoulias, Sotirios S; Ioannou, Penelope C; Christopoulos, Theodore K

    2016-10-01

    Chemi(bio)luminometric assays have contributed greatly to various areas of nucleic acid analysis due to their simplicity and detectability. In this work, we present the development of chemiluminometric genotyping methods in which (a) detection is performed by using either a conventional digital camera (at ambient temperature) or a smartphone and (b) a lateral flow assay configuration is employed for even higher simplicity and suitability for point of care or field testing. The genotyping of the C677T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of methylenetetrahydropholate reductase (MTHFR) gene is chosen as a model. The interrogated DNA sequence is amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by a primer extension reaction. The reaction products are captured through hybridization on the sensing areas (spots) of the strip. Streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate is used as a reporter along with a chemiluminogenic substrate. Detection of the emerging chemiluminescence from the sensing areas of the strip is achieved by digital camera or smartphone. For this purpose, we constructed a 3D-printed smartphone attachment that houses inexpensive lenses and converts the smartphone into a portable chemiluminescence imager. The device enables spatial discrimination of the two alleles of a SNP in a single shot by imaging of the strip, thus avoiding the need of dual labeling. The method was applied successfully to genotyping of real clinical samples. Graphical abstract Paper-based genotyping assays using digital camera and smartphone as detectors.

  17. A single-nucleotide polymorphism of human neuropeptide s gene originated from Europe shows decreased bioactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Deng

    Full Text Available Using accumulating SNP (Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism data, we performed a genome-wide search for polypeptide hormone ligands showing changes in the mature regions to elucidate genotype/phenotype diversity among various human populations. Neuropeptide S (NPS, a brain peptide hormone highly conserved in vertebrates, has diverse physiological effects on anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, food intake, and sleeping time through its cognate receptor-NPSR. Here, we report a SNP rs4751440 (L(6-NPS causing non-synonymous substitution on the 6(th position (V to L of the NPS mature peptide region. L(6-NPS has a higher allele frequency in Europeans than other populations and probably originated from European ancestors ~25,000 yrs ago based on haplotype analysis and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Functional analyses indicate that L(6-NPS exhibits a significant lower bioactivity than the wild type NPS, with ~20-fold higher EC50 values in the stimulation of NPSR. Additional evolutionary and mutagenesis studies further demonstrate the importance of the valine residue in the 6(th position for NPS functions. Given the known physiological roles of NPS receptor in inflammatory bowel diseases, asthma pathogenesis, macrophage immune responses, and brain functions, our study provides the basis to elucidate NPS evolution and signaling diversity among human populations.

  18. Pairwise Kinship Analysis by the Index of Chromosome Sharing Using High-Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Chie; Manabe, Sho; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kawai, Chihiro; Fujimoto, Shuntaro; Hamano, Yuya; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Tamaki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    We developed a new approach for pairwise kinship analysis in forensic genetics based on chromosomal sharing between two individuals. Here, we defined "index of chromosome sharing" (ICS) calculated using 174,254 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci typed by SNP microarray and genetic length of the shared segments from the genotypes of two individuals. To investigate the expected ICS distributions from first- to fifth-degree relatives and unrelated pairs, we used computationally generated genotypes to consider the effect of linkage disequilibrium and recombination. The distributions were used for probabilistic evaluation of the pairwise kinship analysis, such as likelihood ratio (LR) or posterior probability, without allele frequencies and haplotype frequencies. Using our method, all actual sample pairs from volunteers showed significantly high LR values (i.e., ≥ 108); therefore, we can distinguish distant relationships (up to the fifth-degree) from unrelated pairs based on LR. Moreover, we can determine accurate degrees of kinship in up to third-degree relationships with a probability of > 80% using the criterion of posterior probability ≥ 0.90, even if the kinship of the pair is totally unpredictable. This approach greatly improves pairwise kinship analysis of distant relationships, specifically in cases involving identification of disaster victims or missing persons.

  19. Prediction of maize phenotype based on whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms using deep belief networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmatia, H.; Kusuma, W. A.; Hasibuan, L. S.

    2017-05-01

    Selection in plant breeding could be more effective and more efficient if it is based on genomic data. Genomic selection (GS) is a new approach for plant-breeding selection that exploits genomic data through a mechanism called genomic prediction (GP). Most of GP models used linear methods that ignore effects of interaction among genes and effects of higher order nonlinearities. Deep belief network (DBN), one of the architectural in deep learning methods, is able to model data in high level of abstraction that involves nonlinearities effects of the data. This study implemented DBN for developing a GP model utilizing whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) as data for training and testing. The case study was a set of traits in maize. The maize dataset was acquisitioned from CIMMYT’s (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) Global Maize program. Based on Pearson correlation, DBN is outperformed than other methods, kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) regression, Bayesian LASSO (BL), best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP), in case allegedly non-additive traits. DBN achieves correlation of 0.579 within -1 to 1 range.

  20. Estimating single nucleotide polymorphism associations using pedigree data: applications to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D R; Barrowdale, D; Beesley, J; Chen, X; James, P A; Hopper, J L; Goldgar, D; Chenevix-Trench, G; Antoniou, A C; Mitchell, G

    2013-06-25

    Pedigrees with multiple genotyped family members have been underutilised in breast cancer (BC) genetic-association studies. We developed a pedigree-based analytical framework to characterise single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with BC risk using data from 736 BC families ascertained through multiple affected individuals. On average, eight family members had been genotyped for 24 SNPs previously associated with BC. Breast cancer incidence was modelled on the basis of SNP effects and residual polygenic effects. Relative risk (RR) estimates were obtained by maximising the retrospective likelihood (RL) of observing the family genotypes conditional on all disease phenotypes. Models were extended to assess parent-of-origin effects (POEs). Thirteen SNPs were significantly associated with BC under the pedigree RL approach. This approach yielded estimates consistent with those from large population-based studies. Logistic regression models ignoring pedigree structure generally gave larger RRs and association P-values. SNP rs3817198 in LSP1, previously shown to exhibit POE, yielded maternal and paternal RR estimates that were similar to those previously reported (paternal RR=1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.27), P=0.081, one-sided P=0.04; maternal RR=0.94 (95% CI: 0.84-1.06), P=0.33). No other SNP exhibited POE. Our pedigree-based methods provide a valuable and efficient tool for characterising genetic associations with BC risk or other diseases and can complement population-based studies.

  1. Allele specific LAMP- gold nanoparticle for characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ferreira Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their relevance as disease biomarkers and for diagnostics, screening of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs requires simple and straightforward strategies capable to provide results in medium throughput settings. Suitable approaches relying on isothermal amplification techniques have been evolving to substitute the cumbersome and highly specialized PCR amplification detection schemes. Nonetheless, identification of an individual’s genotype still requires sophisticated equipment and laborious methods.Here, we present a low-cost and reliable approach based on the allele specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (AS-LAMP coupled to ssDNA functionalized gold nanoparticle (Au-nanoprobe colorimetric sequence discrimination. The Au-nanoprobe integration allows for the colorimetric detection of AS-LAMP amplification product that can be easily interpreted in less than 15 min. We targeted a clinical relevant SNP responsible for lactose intolerance (-13910C/T dbSNP rs#: 4988235 to demonstrate its proof of concept and full potential of this novel approach. Keywords: SNP, Isothermal amplification, Gold nanoparticles, Gold nanoprobes, Lactose intolerance

  2. Functional Implications of the CLOCK 3111T/C Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela R; Purohit, Kush; Parekh, Puja K; Kaplan, Gabrielle N; Falcon, Edgardo; Mukherjee, Shibani; Cates, Hannah M; McClung, Colleen A

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disruptions are prominently associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Circadian rhythms are regulated by the molecular clock, a family of proteins that function together in a transcriptional-translational feedback loop. The CLOCK protein is a key transcription factor of this feedback loop, and previous studies have found that manipulations of the Clock gene are sufficient to produce manic-like behavior in mice (1). The CLOCK 3111T/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1801260) is a genetic variation of the human CLOCK gene that is significantly associated with increased frequency of manic episodes in BD patients (2). The 3111T/C SNP is located in the 3'-untranslated region of the CLOCK gene. In this study, we sought to examine the functional implications of the human CLOCK 3111T/C SNP by transfecting a mammalian cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from Clock(-/-) knockout mice) with pcDNA plasmids containing the human CLOCK gene with either the T or C SNP at position 3111. We then measured circadian gene expression over a 24-h time period. We found that the CLOCK3111C SNP resulted in higher mRNA levels than the CLOCK 3111T SNP. Furthermore, we found that Per2, a transcriptional target of CLOCK, was also more highly expressed with CLOCK 3111C expression, indicating that the 3'-UTR SNP affects the expression, function, and stability of CLOCK mRNA.

  3. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE CLOCK 3111T/C SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Ozburn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm disruptions are prominently associated with Bipolar Disorder (BD. Circadian rhythms are regulated by the molecular clock, a family of proteins that function together in a transcriptional-translational feedback loop. The CLOCK protein is a key transcription factor of this feedback loop, and previous studies have found that manipulations of the Clock gene are sufficient to produce manic-like behavior in mice (Roybal et al., 2007. The Clock 3111T/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1801260 is a genetic variation of the human Clock gene that is significantly associated with increased frequency of manic episodes in BD patients (Benedetti et al., 2003. The 3111T/C SNP is located in the 3’ untranslated region of the Clock gene. In this study, we sought to examine the functional implications of the human Clock 3111T/C SNP by transfecting a mammalian cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from Clock -/- knockout mice with pcDNA plasmids containing the human Clock gene with either the T or C SNP at position 3111. We then measured circadian gene expression over a 24 hour time period. We found that the Clock3111C SNP resulted in higher mRNA levels than the Clock 3111T SNP. Further, we found that Per2, a transcriptional target of CLOCK, was also more highly expressed with Clock 3111C expression, indicating the 3’UTR SNP affects the expression, function and stability of Clock mRNA.

  4. Dynamic Programming for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism ID Identification in Systematic Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs play an important role in personalized medicine. However, the SNP data reported in many association studies provide only the SNP nucleotide/amino acid position, without providing the SNP ID recorded in National Center for Biotechnology Information databases. A tool with the ability to provide SNP ID identification, with a user-friendly interface, is needed. In this paper, a dynamic programming algorithm was used to compare homologs when the processed input sequence is aligned with the SNP FASTA database. Our novel system provides a web-based tool that uses the National Center for Biotechnology Information dbSNP database, which provides SNP sequence identification and SNP FASTA formats. Freely selectable sequence formats for alignment can be used, including general sequence formats (ACGT, [dNTP1/dNTP2] or IUPAC formats and orientation with bidirectional sequence matching. In contrast to the National Center for Biotechnology Information SNP-BLAST, the proposed system always provides the correct targeted SNP ID (SNP hit, as well as nearby SNPs (flanking hits, arranged in their chromosomal order and contig positions. The system also solves problems inherent in SNP-BLAST, which cannot always provide the correct SNP ID for a given input sequence. Therefore, this system constitutes a novel application which uses dynamic programming to identify SNP IDs from the literature and keyed-in sequences for systematic association studies. It is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/SNPosition/.

  5. Dynamic programming for single nucleotide polymorphism ID identification in systematic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2009-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play an important role in personalized medicine. However, the SNP data reported in many association studies provide only the SNP nucleotide/amino acid position, without providing the SNP ID recorded in National Center for Biotechnology Information databases. A tool with the ability to provide SNP ID identification, with a user-friendly interface, is needed. In this paper, a dynamic programming algorithm was used to compare homologs when the processed input sequence is aligned with the SNP FASTA database. Our novel system provides a web-based tool that uses the National Center for Biotechnology Information dbSNP database, which provides SNP sequence identification and SNP FASTA formats. Freely selectable sequence formats for alignment can be used, including general sequence formats (ACGT, [dNTP1/dNTP2] or IUPAC formats) and orientation with bidirectional sequence matching. In contrast to the National Center for Biotechnology Information SNP-BLAST, the proposed system always provides the correct targeted SNP ID (SNP hit), as well as nearby SNPs (flanking hits), arranged in their chromosomal order and contig positions. The system also solves problems inherent in SNP-BLAST, which cannot always provide the correct SNP ID for a given input sequence. Therefore, this system constitutes a novel application which uses dynamic programming to identify SNP IDs from the literature and keyed-in sequences for systematic association studies. It is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/SNPosition/.

  6. [Unexpected discovery of a fetus with DMD gene deletion using single nucleotide polymorphism array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaobin; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Bingyi; Gu, Heng

    2017-08-10

    To investigate the value of single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) for the identification of de novo mutations in the DMD gene among fetuses. G-banded karyotyping and SNP array were performed on a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction but without family history of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was subsequently applied on amniocytes and maternal peripheral blood sample to detect DMD gene deletion/duplication mutations. Karyotyping of amniocytes showed a normal 46, XY karyotype. SNP array on amniocytes detected a 116 kb deletion (chrX: 32 455 741-32 571 504) at Xp21.1 with breakpoints at introns 16 and 30 respectively, encompassing exons 17-29 of the DMD gene. In addition, MLPA analysis of the DMD gene on amniocytes confirmed the deletion of exons 17 to 29 identified by SNP array. However, no deletion/duplication mutation was detected by MLPA in the mother. The de novo deletion of exons 17 to 29 of the DMD gene detected in the fetus may result in BMD or DMD. SNP array can improve the efficiency for detecting genomic disorders in fetuses with unidentified pathogenic genes, negative family history and nonspecific phenotypes.

  7. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in iron-related genes and iron status in multiethnic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E McLaren

    Full Text Available The existence of multiple inherited disorders of iron metabolism suggests genetic contributions to iron deficiency. We previously performed a genome-wide association study of iron-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using DNA from white men aged ≥ 25 y and women ≥ 50 y in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS Study with serum ferritin (SF ≤ 12 µg/L (cases and controls (SF >100 µg/L in men, SF >50 µg/L in women. We report a follow-up study of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian HEIRS participants, analyzed for association between SNPs and eight iron-related outcomes. Three chromosomal regions showed association across multiple populations, including SNPs in the TF and TMPRSS6 genes, and on chromosome 18q21. A novel SNP rs1421312 in TMPRSS6 was associated with serum iron in whites (p = 3.7 × 10(-6 and replicated in African Americans (p = 0.0012.Twenty SNPs in the TF gene region were associated with total iron-binding capacity in whites (p<4.4 × 10(-5; six SNPs replicated in other ethnicities (p<0.01. SNP rs10904850 in the CUBN gene on 10p13 was associated with serum iron in African Americans (P = 1.0 × 10(-5. These results confirm known associations with iron measures and give unique evidence of their role in different ethnicities, suggesting origins in a common founder.

  8. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in iron-related genes and iron status in multiethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Christine E; McLachlan, Stela; Garner, Chad P; Vulpe, Chris D; Gordeuk, Victor R; Eckfeldt, John H; Adams, Paul C; Acton, Ronald T; Murray, Joseph A; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Snively, Beverly M; Barcellos, Lisa F; Cook, James D; McLaren, Gordon D

    2012-01-01

    The existence of multiple inherited disorders of iron metabolism suggests genetic contributions to iron deficiency. We previously performed a genome-wide association study of iron-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using DNA from white men aged ≥ 25 y and women ≥ 50 y in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study with serum ferritin (SF) ≤ 12 µg/L (cases) and controls (SF >100 µg/L in men, SF >50 µg/L in women). We report a follow-up study of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian HEIRS participants, analyzed for association between SNPs and eight iron-related outcomes. Three chromosomal regions showed association across multiple populations, including SNPs in the TF and TMPRSS6 genes, and on chromosome 18q21. A novel SNP rs1421312 in TMPRSS6 was associated with serum iron in whites (p = 3.7 × 10(-6)) and replicated in African Americans (p = 0.0012).Twenty SNPs in the TF gene region were associated with total iron-binding capacity in whites (p<4.4 × 10(-5)); six SNPs replicated in other ethnicities (p<0.01). SNP rs10904850 in the CUBN gene on 10p13 was associated with serum iron in African Americans (P = 1.0 × 10(-5)). These results confirm known associations with iron measures and give unique evidence of their role in different ethnicities, suggesting origins in a common founder.

  9. The regulated secretory pathway and human disease: insights from gene variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eSalton

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulated secretory pathway provides critical control of peptide, growth factor, and hormone release from neuroendocrine and endocrine cells, and neurons, maintaining physiological homeostasis. Propeptides and prohormones are packaged into dense core granules (DCGs, where they frequently undergo tissue-specific processing as the DCG matures. Proteins of the granin family are DCG components, and although their function is not fully understood, data suggest they are involved in DCG formation and regulated protein/peptide secretion, in addition to their role as precursors of bioactive peptides. Association of gene variation, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with neuropsychiatric, endocrine and metabolic diseases, has implicated specific secreted proteins and peptides in disease pathogenesis. For example, a SNP at position 196 (G/A of the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene dysregulates protein processing and secretion and leads to cognitive impairment. This suggests more generally that variants identified in genes encoding secreted growth factors, peptides, hormones, and proteins involved in DCG biogenesis, protein processing, and the secretory apparatus, could provide insight into the process of regulated secretion as well as disorders that result when it is impaired.

  10. Exploration of deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms in late-onset Alzheimer disease susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Tariq Ahmad; Al Shammari, Sulaiman A; Al-Muammar, May N; Alhamdan, Adel A; Talluri, Venkateswar Rao

    2013-01-10

    Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) are considered as biomarkers to disease susceptibility. In the present study, nsSNPs in CLU, PICALM and BIN1 genes were screened for their functional impact on concerned proteins and their plausible role in Alzheimer disease (AD) susceptibility. Initially, SNPs were retrieved from dbSNP database, followed by identification of potentially deleterious nsSNPs and prediction of their effect on proteins by PolyPhen and SIFT. Protein stability and the probability of mutation occurrence were predicted using I-Mutant and PANTHER respectively. SNPs3D and FASTSNP were used for the functional analysis of nsSNPs. The functional impact on the 3D structure of proteins was evaluated by SWISSPDB viewer and NOMAD-Ref server. On analysis, 3 nsSNPs with IDs rs12800974 (T158P) of PICALM and rs11554585 (R397C) and rs11554585 (N106D) of BIN1 were predicted to be functionally significant with higher scores of I-Mutant, SIFT, PolyPhen, PANTHER, FASTSNP and SNPs3D. The mutant models of these nsSNPs also showed very high energies and RMSD values compared to their native structures. Current study proposes that the three nsSNPs identified in this study constitute a unique resource of potential genetic factors for AD susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. GenoExp: a web tool for predicting gene expression levels from single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Ohad; Segal, Eran

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the expression level of genes is an important goal. We recently published a study in which we devised a multi-SNP predictive model for gene expression in Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), and showed that it can robustly predict the expression of a small number of genes in test individuals. Here, we validate the generality of our models by predicting expression profiles for genes in LCL in an independent study, and extend the pool of predictable genes for which we are able to explain more than 25% of their expression variability to 232 genes across 14 different cell types. As the number of people who obtained their SNP profiles through companies such as 23andMe is rising rapidly, we developed GenoExp, a web-based tool in which users can upload their individual SNP data and obtain predicted expression levels for the set of predictable genes across the 14 different cell types. Our tool thus allows users with biological knowledge to study the possible effects that their set of SNPs might have on these genes and predict their cell-specific expression levels relative to the population average. GenoExp is freely available at http://genie.weizmann.ac.il/pubs/GenoExp/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Social cognition, face processing, and oxytocin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylissa M. Slane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has provided evidence of a link between behavioral measures of social cognition (SC and neural and genetic correlates. Differences in face processing and variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene have been associated with SC deficits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD traits. Much work has examined the qualitative differences between those with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals, but very little has been done to quantify the natural variation in ASD-like traits in the typical population. The present study examines this variation in TD children using a multidimensional perspective involving behavior assessment, neural electroencephalogram (EEG testing, and OXTR genotyping. Children completed a series of neurocognitive assessments, provided saliva samples for sequencing, and completed a face processing task while connected to an EEG. No clear pattern emerged for EEG covariates or genotypes for individual OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, SNPs rs2254298 and rs53576 consistently interacted such that the AG/GG allele combination of these SNPs was associated with poorer performance on neurocognitive measures. These results suggest that neither SNP in isolation is risk-conferring, but rather that the combination of rs2254298(A/G and rs53576(G/G confers a deleterious effect on SC across several neurocognitive measures.

  13. The Influence of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Microarray-Based Molecular Karyotype on Preimplantation Embryonic Development Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; He, Nannan; Jin, Haixia; Liu, Yan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the molecular karyotype based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray on embryonic development potential in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data generated by PGD using embryos retrieved from parents with chromosome rearrangements in our center. In total, 929 embryos from 119 couples had exact diagnosis and development status. The blastocyst formation rate of balanced molecular karyotype embryos was 56.6% (276/488), which was significantly higher than that of genetic imbalanced embryos 24.5% (108/441) (P35 respectively. Blastocyst formation rates of male and female embryos were 44.5% (183/411) and 38.8% (201/518) respectively, with no significant difference between them (P>0.05). The rates of balanced molecular karyotype embryos vary from groups of embryos with different cell numbers at 68 hours after insemination. The blastocyst formation rate of embryos with 6-8 cells (48.1%) was significantly higher than that of embryos with 8 cells (42.9%) (Pabnormal molecular karyotypes in the subgroup of the arrest, morula and blastocyst. Thus, we conclude that embryos with balanced molecular karyotype have significant higher development potential than those with imbalanced molecular karyotype whilst maternal age, embryo gender and types of abnormal molecular karyotype have no significant influence on blastocyst formation. Compared with embryos with 8 cells, embryos with 6-8 blastomeres have higher rate of balanced molecular karyotype and blastocyst formation.

  14. Genotypic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms in oral cancer: global scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Shaleen; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2016-11-01

    Globocan 2012 reports the global oral cancer incidence of 300,373 new oral cancer cases annually, contributing to 2.1 % of the world cancer burden. The major well-established risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco, betel/areca nut, alcohol and high-risk oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) 16/18. However, only 5-10 % of individuals with high-risk lifestyle develop oral cancer. Thus, genomic variants in individuals represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence susceptibility to oral cancer. With a view to understanding the role of genomic variants in oral cancer, we reviewed SNPs in case-control studies with a minimum of 100 cases and 100 controls. PubMed and HuGE navigator search engines were used to obtain data published from 1990 to 2015, which identified 67 articles investigating the role of SNPs in oral cancer. Single publications reported 93 SNPs in 55 genes, with 34 SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. Meta-analysis of data in multiple studies defined nine SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. The genes were associated with critical functions deregulated in cancers, including cell proliferation, immune function, inflammation, transcription, DNA repair and xenobiotic metabolism.

  15. EnsembleGASVR: A novel ensemble method for classifying missense single nucleotide polymorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Rapakoulia, Trisevgeni

    2014-04-26

    Motivation: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are considered the most frequently occurring DNA sequence variations. Several computational methods have been proposed for the classification of missense SNPs to neutral and disease associated. However, existing computational approaches fail to select relevant features by choosing them arbitrarily without sufficient documentation. Moreover, they are limited to the problem ofmissing values, imbalance between the learning datasets and most of them do not support their predictions with confidence scores. Results: To overcome these limitations, a novel ensemble computational methodology is proposed. EnsembleGASVR facilitates a twostep algorithm, which in its first step applies a novel evolutionary embedded algorithm to locate close to optimal Support Vector Regression models. In its second step, these models are combined to extract a universal predictor, which is less prone to overfitting issues, systematizes the rebalancing of the learning sets and uses an internal approach for solving the missing values problem without loss of information. Confidence scores support all the predictions and the model becomes tunable by modifying the classification thresholds. An extensive study was performed for collecting the most relevant features for the problem of classifying SNPs, and a superset of 88 features was constructed. Experimental results show that the proposed framework outperforms well-known algorithms in terms of classification performance in the examined datasets. Finally, the proposed algorithmic framework was able to uncover the significant role of certain features such as the solvent accessibility feature, and the top-scored predictions were further validated by linking them with disease phenotypes. © The Author 2014.

  16. Combinations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in neuroendocrine effector and receptor genes predict chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzel, Benjamin N; Pennachin, Cassio; de Souza Coelho, Lucio; Gurbaxani, Brian; Maloney, Elizabeth M; Jones, James F

    2006-04-01

    This paper asks whether the presence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) can be more accurately predicted from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiles than would occur by chance. Specifically, given SNP profiles for 43 CFS patients, together with 58 controls, we used an enumerative search to identify an ensemble of conjunctive rules that predict whether a patient has CFS. The accuracy of the rules reached 76.3%, with the highest accuracy rules yielding 49 true negatives, 15 false negatives, 28 true positives and nine false positives (odds ratio [OR] 8.94, p genes containing the SNPs accounting for the highest accumulated importances were neuronal tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). The fact that only 28 out of several million possible SNPs predict whether a person has CFS with 76% accuracy indicates that CFS has a genetic component that may help to explain some aspects of the illness.

  17. An effective method based on real time fluorescence quenching for single nucleotide polymorphism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichun; Han, Shuai; Huang, Xinhua; Zhuo, Shichao; Dai, Huiqing; Wang, Ke; Li, Zhou; Liu, Jianwen

    2014-09-30

    In the Human Genome Project, the most common type of these variations is single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A large number of different SNP typing technologies have been developed in recent years. Enhancement and innovation for genotyping technologies are currently in progress. We described a rapid and effective method based on real time fluorescence quenching for SNP detection. The new method, Quenching-PCR, offering a single base extension method fully integrated with PCR which used a probe with quencher to eliminate fluorophor of the terminal base according to dideoxy sequencing method. In this platform, dideoxy sequencing reaction and obtaining values of real-time fluorescence occur simultaneously. The assay was validated by 106 DNA templates comparing with Sanger's sequencing and TaqMan assay. Compared with the results of DNA sequencing, the results of Quenching-PCR showed a high concordance rate of 93.40%, while the results of TaqMan platform showed a concordance rate of 92.45%, indicating that Quenching PCR and TaqMan assay were similar in accuracy. Therefore, Quenching PCR will be easily applicable and greatly accelerate the role of SNP detection in physiological processes of human health. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms across a species' range: implications for conservation studies of Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeb, L W; Templin, W D; Sato, S; Abe, S; Warheit, K; Park, J Y; Seeb, J E

    2011-03-01

    Studies of the oceanic and near-shore distributions of Pacific salmon, whose migrations typically span thousands of kilometres, have become increasingly valuable in the presence of climate change, increasing hatchery production and potentially high rates of bycatch in offshore fisheries. Genetics data offer considerable insights into both the migratory routes as well as the evolutionary histories of the species. However, these types of studies require extensive data sets from spawning populations originating from across the species' range. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been particularly amenable for multinational applications because they are easily shared, require little interlaboratory standardization and can be assayed through increasingly efficient technologies. Here, we discuss the development of a data set for 114 populations of chum salmon through a collaboration among North American and Asian researchers, termed PacSNP. PacSNP is focused on developing the database and applying it to problems of international interest. A data set spanning the entire range of species provides a unique opportunity to examine patterns of variability, and we review issues associated with SNP development. We found evidence of ascertainment bias within the data set, variable linkage relationships between SNPs associated with ancestral groupings and outlier loci with alleles associated with latitude. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Are Myocardial Infarction–Associated Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Ischemic Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ching; Anderson, Christopher D.; Bione, Silvia; Keene, Keith; Maguire, Jane M.; Nalls, Michael; Rasheed, Asif; Zeginigg, Marion; Attia, John; Baker, Ross; Barlera, Simona; Biffi, Alessandro; Bookman, Ebony; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Fang Chen, PhD; Chen, Wei-Min; Ciusani, Emilio; Cole, John W.; Cortellini, Lynelle; Danesh, John; Doheny, Kimberly; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Frossard, Philippe; Furie, Karen L.; Golledge, Jonathan; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hernandez, Dena; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Jannes, Jim; Kamal, Ayeesha; Khan, Muhammad Saleem; Kittner, Steven J.; Koblar, Simon A.; Lewis, Martin; Lincz, Lisa; Lisa, Antonella; Matarin, Mar; Moscato, Pablo; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Parati, Eugenio A.; Parolo, Silvia; Pugh, Elizabeth; Rost, Natalia S.; Schallert, Michael; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J.; Sturm, Jonathan W.; Yadav, Sunaina; Zaidi, Moazzam; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B.; Levi, Christopher Royce; Meschia, James F.; Rosand, Jonathan; Sale, Michele; Saleheen, Danish; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sharma, Pankaj; Worrall, Bradford; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke (IS) shares many common risk factors with coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that genetic variants associated with myocardial infarction (MI) or CAD may be similarly involved in the etiology of IS. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 11 different loci recently associated with MI or CAD through genome-wide association studies were associated with IS. Methods Meta-analyses of the associations between the 11 MI-associated SNPs and IS were performed using 6865 cases and 11 395 control subjects recruited from 9 studies. SNPs were either genotyped directly or imputed; in a few cases a surrogate SNP in high linkage disequilibrium was chosen. Logistic regression was performed within each study to obtain study-specific βs and standard errors. Meta-analysis was conducted using an inverse variance weighted approach assuming a random effect model. Results Despite having power to detect odds ratio of 1.09–1.14 for overall IS and 1.20–1.32 for major stroke subtypes, none of the SNPs were significantly associated with overall IS and/or stroke subtypes after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Our results suggest that the major common loci associated with MI risk do not have effects of similar magnitude on overall IS but do not preclude moderate associations restricted to specific IS subtypes. Disparate mechanisms may be critical in the development of acute ischemic coronary and cerebrovascular events. PMID:22363065

  20. Varietal identification of tea (Camellia sinensis) using nanofluidic array of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wan-Ping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Tan, Hua-Wei; Zhou, Lin; Mischke, Sue; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Apart from water, tea is the world's most widely consumed beverage. Tea is produced in more than 50 countries with an annual production of approximately 4.7 million tons. The market segment for specialty tea has been expanding rapidly owing to increased demand, resulting in higher revenues and profits for tea growers and the industry. Accurate varietal identification is critically important to ensure traceability and authentication of premium tea products, which in turn contribute to on-farm conservation of tea genetic diversity. Using a set of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers developed from the expressed sequence tag (EST) database of Camilla senensis, we genotyped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples extracted from a diverse group of tea varieties, including both fresh and processed commercial loose-leaf teas. The validation led to the designation of 60 SNPs that unambiguously identified all 40 tested tea varieties with high statistical rigor (ptea varieties. This method provides a powerful tool for variety authentication and quality control for the tea industry. It is also highly useful for the management of tea genetic resources and breeding, where accurate and efficient genotype identification is essential.

  1. From Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Constant Immunosuppression: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, Jacques; Nooka, Ajay K.

    2013-01-01

    The regenerative abilities and the immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) make them potentially the ideal cellular product of choice for treatment of autoimmune and other immune mediated disorders. Although the usefulness of MSCs for therapeutic applications is in early phases, their potential clinical use remains of great interest. Current clinical evidence of use of MSCs from both autologous and allogeneic sources to treat autoimmune disorders confers conflicting clinical benefit outcomes. These varied results may possibly be due to MSC use across wide range of autoimmune disorders with clinical heterogeneity or due to variability of the cellular product. In the light of recent genome wide association studies (GWAS), linking predisposition of autoimmune diseases to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the susceptible genetic loci, the clinical relevance of MSCs possessing SNPs in the critical effector molecules of immunosuppression is largely undiscussed. It is of further interest in the allogeneic setting, where SNPs in the target pathway of MSC's intervention may also modulate clinical outcome. In the present review, we have discussed the known critical SNPs predisposing to disease susceptibility in various autoimmune diseases and their significance in the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. PMID:24350294

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are inherited from parents and they measure heritable events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemminki Kari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are extensively used in case-control studies of practically all cancer types. They are used for the identification of inherited cancer susceptibility genes and those that may interact with environmental factors. However, being genetic markers, they are applicable only on heritable conditions, which is often a neglected fact. Based on the data in the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we review familial risks for all main cancers and discuss the evidence for a heritable component in cancer. The available evidence is not conclusive but it is consistent in pointing to a minor heritable etiology in cancer, which will hamper the success of SNP-based association studies. Empirical familial risks should be used as guidance for the planning of SNP studies. We provide calculations for the assessment of familial risks for assumed allele frequencies and gene effects (odds ratios for different modes of inheritance. Based on these data, we discuss the gene effects that could account for the unexplained proportion of familial breast and lung cancer. As a conclusion, we are concerned about the indiscriminate use of a genetic tool to cancers, which are mainly environmental in origin. We consider the likelihood of a successful application of SNPs in gene-environment studies small, unless established environmental risk factors are tested on proven candidate genes.

  3. Fetal and maternal candidate single nucleotide polymorphism associations with cerebral palsy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Michael E; Maclennan, Alastair H; Gibson, Catherine S; McMichael, Gai L; Haan, Eric A; Broadbent, Jessica L; Goldwater, Paul N; Painter, Jodie N; Montgomery, Grant W; Dekker, Gus A

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested associations between certain genetic variants and susceptibility to cerebral palsy (CP). This study was designed to assess established and novel maternal and child genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for CP along with their interactions. DNA from 587 case and 1154 control mother-child pairs was analyzed. A panel of 35 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined and included SNPs in genes associated with (1) thrombophilia, (2) inflammation, and (3) risk factors for CP (eg, preterm birth). Comparisons were specified a priori and made by using a χ(2) test. There were 40 fetal and 28 maternal associations with CP when analyzed by CP subtype, gestational age, genotypes of apolipoprotein E, and haplotypes of mannose-binding-lectin. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, no fetal or maternal candidate SNP was associated with CP or its subtypes. Only fetal carriage of prothrombin gene mutation remained marginally associated with hemiplegia in term infants born to mothers with a reported infection during pregnancy. Odds ratio directions of fetal SNP associations were compared with previously reported studies and confirmed no trend toward association. Except for the prothrombin gene mutation, individual maternal and fetal SNPs in our candidate panel were not found to be associated with CP outcome. Past reported SNP associations with CP were not confirmed, possibly reflecting type I error from small numbers and multiple testing in the original reports.

  4. Tuberculosis risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms do not show association with leprosy in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Wang, Na; Yu, Yongxiang; Yu, Gongqi; Wang, Zhenzhen; Fu, Xi'an; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Furen

    2015-06-01

    Leprosy and tuberculosis (TB) are chronic granulomatous infectious diseases. As well as pathogen and environmental factors, host genetic factors make a substantial contribution to susceptibility to both diseases. More importantly, leprosy and TB also have pathogenic mechanisms and clinical features in common. In this study, the genetic association between leprosy and TB was investigated in a Chinese Han population. A genetic association study that included 46 TB susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed, involving 1150 leprosy cases and 1150 controls from the Chinese Han population. The Sequenom MassARRAY system was used. No significant association was found between the 46 SNPs and leprosy. Therefore, according to the present study, there is no shared susceptibility locus between leprosy and TB in the Chinese Han population. Although leprosy and TB have a number of similar characteristics, no shared susceptibility loci were found in the Chinese Han population. Thus, this study demonstrated that the genetic basis of the pathogenesis of the two diseases may vary greatly. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive Dysfunction and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Persons: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Tatiana Lins; Lima, Raul Emídio; Góes, Gustavo Henrique Belarmino; Pereira, Lívio Amaro; Fernandes, Matheus Santos de Sousa; Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; Vasconcelos, Luydson Richardson Silva; Correia, Carolina Cunha

    2017-10-10

    The aim of this study was to realize a systematic review to identify data reported in the literature involving people infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) with cognitive dysfunctions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The research was realized in six databases and the selection of studies was performed in two stages. Initially, we searched indexed articles from the following electronic databases: SciELO, MEDLINE, PubMed, HighWire, LILACS, and ScienceDirect. Then the articles were completely read and those that did not meet the eligibility criteria were excluded. Therefore, 5,669 articles were obtained and, of these, 25 were selected. Finally, one article involving people with HCV and cognitive impairment was included in the review. The frequency of the APOE-ɛ4 allele in people with HCV and mild liver disease was significantly lower in those with work memory impairment (p = 0.003) and attention (p = 0.008). This situation differs from other studies that showed an association between ɛ4 allele high frequency and cognitive decline. Thus, studies with larger samples involving people with HCV, cognitive alterations, and SNPs are necessary, in view of the lack of this theme in the literature and the divergences in the findings.

  6. SNPHunter: a bioinformatic software for single nucleotide polymorphism data acquisition and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Simin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs provide an important tool in pinpointing susceptibility genes for complex diseases and in unveiling human molecular evolution. Selection and retrieval of an optimal SNP set from publicly available databases have emerged as the foremost bottlenecks in designing large-scale linkage disequilibrium studies, particularly in case-control settings. Results We describe the architectural structure and implementations of a novel software program, SNPHunter, which allows for both ad hoc-mode and batch-mode SNP search, automatic SNP filtering, and retrieval of SNP data, including physical position, function class, flanking sequences at user-defined lengths, and heterozygosity from NCBI dbSNP. The SNP data extracted from dbSNP via SNPHunter can be exported and saved in plain text format for further down-stream analyses. As an illustration, we applied SNPHunter for selecting SNPs for 10 major candidate genes for type 2 diabetes, including CAPN10, FABP4, IL6, NOS3, PPARG, TNF, UCP2, CRP, ESR1, and AR. Conclusion SNPHunter constitutes an efficient and user-friendly tool for SNP screening, selection, and acquisition. The executable and user's manual are available at http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/ppg/software.htm.

  7. From Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Constant Immunosuppression: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Autoimmune Diseases

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    Raghavan Chinnadurai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative abilities and the immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs make them potentially the ideal cellular product of choice for treatment of autoimmune and other immune mediated disorders. Although the usefulness of MSCs for therapeutic applications is in early phases, their potential clinical use remains of great interest. Current clinical evidence of use of MSCs from both autologous and allogeneic sources to treat autoimmune disorders confers conflicting clinical benefit outcomes. These varied results may possibly be due to MSC use across wide range of autoimmune disorders with clinical heterogeneity or due to variability of the cellular product. In the light of recent genome wide association studies (GWAS, linking predisposition of autoimmune diseases to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the susceptible genetic loci, the clinical relevance of MSCs possessing SNPs in the critical effector molecules of immunosuppression is largely undiscussed. It is of further interest in the allogeneic setting, where SNPs in the target pathway of MSC's intervention may also modulate clinical outcome. In the present review, we have discussed the known critical SNPs predisposing to disease susceptibility in various autoimmune diseases and their significance in the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs.

  8. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms and keratoconus in the Han Chinese population.

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    Wang, Yani; Jin, Tianbo; Zhang, Xuehui; Wei, Wei; Cui, Yan; Geng, Tingting; Liu, Qianping; Gao, Jing; Liu, Ming; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Changning; Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether the tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in VSX1, COL4A3, COL4A4, IL1A and IL1B genes were associated with keratoconus (KTCN) in the Han Chinese population. Ninety-seven KTCN patients and 101 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All cases were diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination. Twenty-one tSNPs were selected for association study in five genes. SNP genotyping was performed by Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000. Sequenom Typer 4.0 Software, PLINK, Haploview and SHEsis software platform were used to perform data management and analyses. Three tSNPs in the VSX1 gene were observed to be associated with KTCN risk at a 5% level by χ(2) test (rs56157240 and rs12480307, p = 0.0499, OR: 6.42, 95% CI: 0.77-53.78; rs6050307, p = 1.22 × 10(-7), OR: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.23). Rs2071376 in the IL1A gene was also associated with KTCN (p = 0.0487, OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.00-2.26). Three haplotypes in the VSX1 gene were found to be associated with risk of KTCN (p < 0.05). Our findings confirmed previous reports that polymorphisms of VSX1 and IL1A genes were associated with risk of KTCN in the Chinese population, suggesting an important determinant of KTCN development by VSX1 and IL1A genes.

  9. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-07-14

    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips.

  10. BIRC3 single nucleotide polymorphism associate with asthma susceptibility and the abundance of eosinophils and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Eugene; Hamon, Rhys; Ruffin, Richard E; Grant, Janet; Hodge, Sandra; Zalewski, Peter; Lester, Susan

    2017-03-01

    Aberrant apoptosis is a disease susceptibility mechanism relevant for asthma, whereby fragility of the airway epithelium and enhanced survival of inflammatory cells, contributes to its pathogenesis and prolongation. Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (cIAP) suppress apoptosis, and participate in the immune response. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the BIRC2 (codes cIAP1) and BIRC3 (cIAP2) genes were evaluated for an association with asthma. Caucasian asthmatic (n = 203) and control (n = 198) subjects were selected from participants in the North West Adelaide Health Study. SNPs (n = 9) spanning the consecutively positioned BIRC2 and BIRC3 genes, were selected using a haplotype tagging approach. Alleles and haplotype associations were analysed by logistic regression, assuming an additive genetic model, and adjusted for gender and atopy. The frequency of the minor allele for the BIRC3 SNP rs3460 was significantly lower in asthmatics compared to the control cases (P = 0.046). BIRC3 SNPs rs7928663 and rs7127583 associated with a reduction in eosinophil and neutrophil abundance when assessed across the study population (multivariate P values = 0.002, and 0.005, respectively). Further, the frequency of a haplotype tagged by rs3460, rs7928663 and rs7127583 was reduced in the asthma sub group (P = 0.05), while the presence of the major allele for rs7928663 associated with an increased load of circulating eosinophils and neutrophils (multivariate P value = 0.001). Polymorphisms in the BIRC3 gene, but not BIRC2, are associated with a protective effect with regards to asthma susceptibility, and a reduced load of inflammatory cells.

  11. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase single nucleotide polymorphism and left ventricular function in early chronic kidney disease.

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    Sourabh Chand

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with accelerated cardiovascular disease and heart failure. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS Glu298Asp single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotype has been associated with a worse phenotype amongst patients with established heart failure and in patients with progression of their renal disease. The association of a cardiac functional difference in non-dialysis CKD patients with no known previous heart failure, and eNOS gene variant is investigated.140 non-dialysis CKD patients, who had cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR imaging and tissue doppler echocardiography as part of two clinical trials, were genotyped for eNOS Glu298Asp SNP retrospectively.The median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was 50 mls/min and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 74% with no overt diastolic dysfunction in this cohort. There were significant differences in LVEF across eNOS genotypes with GG genotype being associated with a worse LVEF compared to other genotypes (LVEF: GG 71%, TG 76%, TT 73%, p = 0.006. After multivariate analysis, (adjusting for age, eGFR, baseline mean arterial pressure, contemporary CMR heart rate, total cholesterol, high sensitive C-reactive protein, body mass index and gender GG genotype was associated with a worse LVEF, and increased LV end-diastolic and systolic index (p = 0.004, 0.049 and 0.009 respectively.eNOS Glu298Asp rs1799983 polymorphism in CKD patients is associated with relevant sub-clinical cardiac remodelling as detected by CMR. This gene variant may therefore represent an important genetic biomarker, and possibly highlight pathways for intervention, in these patients who are at particular risk of worsening cardiac disease as their renal dysfunction progresses.

  12. Effects of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Marker Density on Haplotype Block Partition

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    Sun Ah Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have found that one of the most important characteristics of the structure of linkage disequilibrium is that the human genome can be divided into non-overlapping block partitions in which only a small number of haplotypes are observed. The location and distribution of haplotype blocks can be seen as a population property influenced by population genetic events such as selection, mutation, recombination and population structure. In this study, we investigate the effects of the density of markers relative to the full set of all polymorphisms in the region on the results of haplotype partitioning for five popular haplotype block partition methods: three methods in Haploview (confidence interval, four gamete test, and solid spine, MIG++ implemented in PLINK 1.9 and S-MIG++. We used several experimental datasets obtained by sampling subsets of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers of chromosome 22 region in the 1000 Genomes Project data and also the HapMap phase 3 data to compare the results of haplotype block partitions by five methods. With decreasing sampling ratio down to 20% of the original SNP markers, the total number of haplotype blocks decreases and the length of haplotype blocks increases for all algorithms. When we examined the marker-independence of the haplotype block locations constructed from the datasets of different density, the results using below 50% of the entire SNP markers were very different from the results using the entire SNP markers. We conclude that the haplotype block construction results should be used and interpreted carefully depending on the selection of markers and the purpose of the study.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and unacceptable late toxicity in breast cancer adjuvant radiotherapy: a case report

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    Lazzari G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grazia Lazzari,1 Maria Iole Natalicchio,2 Angela Terlizzi,3 Francesco Perri,4 Giovanni Silvano1 1Radiation Oncology Unit, San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Taranto, 2Molecular Biology Laboratory, Pathological Anatomy Department, Ospedali Riuniti, Foggia, 3Medical Physic Unit, San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, 4Medical Oncology Unit, Presidio Ospedaliero Centrale - Santissima Annunziata, Taranto, Italy Background: There has recently been a strong interest in the inter-individual variation in normal tissue and tumor response to radiotherapy (RT, because tissue radiosensitivity seems to be under genetic control. Evidence is accumulating on the role of polymorphic genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that could influence normal tissue response after radiation. The most studied SNPs include those in genes involved in DNA repair (single- and double-strand breaks, and base excision and those active in the response to oxidative stress.Case report: We present the case report of a 60-year-old woman with early breast cancer who underwent adjuvant hormone therapy and conventional radiotherapy, and subsequently developed unacceptable cosmetic toxicities of the irradiated breast requiring a genetic test of genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms. The patient was found to be heterozygous for G28152A (T/C and C18067T (A/G mutations in X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1 and 3 (XRCC3, respectively, homozygous for A313G (G/G mutation in glutathione S transferase Pi 1 (GSTP1, and wild-type for A4541G (A/A in XRCC3 and G135C (G/G in RAD51 recombinase.Conclusion: The role of SNPs should be taken into account when a severe phenomenon appears in normal tissues after radiation treatment, because understanding the molecular basis of individual radiosensitivity may be useful for identifying moderately or extremely radiosensitive patients who may need tailored therapeutic strategies. Keywords: radiosensitivity, SNPs, fibrosis, DNA repair

  14. Association of interleukin-6 single nucleotide polymorphisms with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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    Ziaee, Vahid; Maddah, Marzieh; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Rezaei, Arezou; Zoghi, Samaneh; Sadr, Maryam; Harsini, Sara; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in children. Genetics and inflammatory elements seem to act as major underlying factors in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to identify the associations between interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphisms and individuals' vulnerability to JIA in a group of Iranian pediatric patients. Fifty-four patients with JIA were enrolled in this investigation and compared with 139 healthy individuals. Using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers, cytokine genotyping was performed. The allele and genotype frequencies of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL-6 gene at -174 and +565 positions were assessed. A significant positive association was observed for IL -6 -174 G allele in the patient group (p = 0.02). Furthermore, a positive association was observed in patients with JIA for the GG genotype at the same position (p < 0.01), thus revealing a predisposing effect in JIA patients. On the other hand, a significant negative association was found for IL-6 -174 CG genotype (p < 0.01) in the case group. No significant difference was discovered in both the allelic and genotypic frequencies of IL-6 +565 position between patients and controls. Additionally, haplotype analysis divulged over representation of IL-6 GG haplotype in patient group (p < 0.01) as well as IL-6 CG haplotype in healthy controls (p < 0.01). Certain allele, genotype, and haplotype in IL-6 gene were over expressed in patients with JIA, which probably could render individuals more susceptible to this disease.

  15. Screening of a Brassica napus bacterial artificial chromosome library using highly parallel single nucleotide polymorphism assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficient screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers is feasible provided that a multidimensional pooling strategy is implemented. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be screened in multiplexed format, therefore this marker type lends itself particularly well for medium- to high-throughput applications. Combining the power of multiplex-PCR assays with a multidimensional pooling system may prove to be especially challenging in a polyploid genome. In polyploid genomes two classes of SNPs need to be distinguished, polymorphisms between accessions (intragenomic SNPs) and those differentiating between homoeologous genomes (intergenomic SNPs). We have assessed whether the highly parallel Illumina GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay is suitable for the screening of a BAC library of the polyploid Brassica napus genome. Results A multidimensional screening platform was developed for a Brassica napus BAC library which is composed of almost 83,000 clones. Intragenomic and intergenomic SNPs were included in Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay and both SNP classes were used successfully for screening of the multidimensional BAC pools of the Brassica napus library. An optimized scoring method is proposed which is especially valuable for SNP calling of intergenomic SNPs. Validation of the genotyping results by independent methods revealed a success of approximately 80% for the multiplex PCR-based screening regardless of whether intra- or intergenomic SNPs were evaluated. Conclusions Illumina’s GoldenGate® Genotyping Assay can be efficiently used for screening of multidimensional Brassica napus BAC pools. SNP calling was specifically tailored for the evaluation of BAC pool screening data. The developed scoring method can be implemented independently of plant reference samples. It is demonstrated that intergenomic SNPs represent a powerful tool for BAC library screening of a polyploid genome

  16. Discovery and characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemento, A J; Abadía-Cardoso, A; Starks, H A; Garza, J C

    2011-03-01

    Molecular population genetics of non-model organisms has been dominated by the use of microsatellite loci over the last two decades. The availability of extensive genomic resources for many species is contributing to a transition to the use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the study of many natural populations. Here we describe the discovery of a large number of SNPs in Chinook salmon, one of the world's most important fishery species, through large-scale Sanger sequencing of expressed sequence tag (EST) regions. More than 3 Mb of sequence was collected in a survey of variation in almost 132 kb of unique genic regions, from 225 separate ESTs, in a diverse ascertainment panel of 24 salmon. This survey yielded 117 TaqMan (5' nuclease) assays, almost all from separate ESTs, which were validated in population samples from five major stocks of salmon from the three largest basins on the Pacific coast of the contiguous United States: the Sacramento, Klamath and Columbia Rivers. The proportion of these loci that was variable in each of these stocks ranged from 86.3% to 90.6% and the mean minor allele frequency ranged from 0.194 to 0.236. There was substantial differentiation between populations with these markers, with a mean F(ST) estimate of 0.107, and values for individual loci ranging from 0 to 0.592. This substantial polymorphism and population-specific differentiation indicates that these markers will be broadly useful, including for both pedigree reconstruction and genetic stock identification applications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A single nucleotide polymorphism map of the mitochondrial genome of the parasitic nematode Cooperia oncophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Veer, M; de Vries, E

    2004-04-01

    The 13,636 bp mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the trichostrongylid nematode Cooperia oncophora was determined. Like the mt genomes of other nematodes it is AT rich (76.75%) and cytidine is the least common nucleoside in the coding strand. There are 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes, 22 transfer RNA (trn) genes and 12 protein coding genes. The relatively short AT-rich region (304 bp) and the lack of a non-coding region between two of the NADH dehydrogenase genes, nad3 and nad5, makes the mt genome of C. oncophora one of the smallest known to date, having only 525 bp of non-coding regions in total. The majority of the C. oncophora protein encoded genes are predicted to end in an abbreviated stop codon like T or TA. In total, 426 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were mapped on the mt genome of C. oncophora, which is an average of 1 polymorphism per 32 bp. The most common SNPs in the mt genome of C. oncophora were G/A (59.2%) and C/T (28.4%) transitions. Synonymous substitutions (86.4%) were favoured over non-synonymous substitutions. However, the degree of sequence conservation between individual protein genes of different parasitic nematode species did not always correspond to the relative number of non-synonymous SNPs. The mt genome sequence of C. oncophora presents the first mt genome of a member of the Trichostrongyloidea and will be of importance in refining phylogenetic relationships between nematodes. The, still limited, SNP map presented here provides a basis for obtaining insight into the genetic diversity present in the different protein coding genes, trn, rrn and non-coding regions. A more detailed study of the more variable regions will be of use in determining the population genetic structure of C. oncophora. Ultimately this knowledge will add to the understanding of the host-parasite relationship.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms minisequencing in hypervariable regions for screening of Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongngam, Punlop; Leewattanapasuk, Worraanong; Bhoopat, Tanin; Sangthong, Padchanee

    2017-09-05

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has displayed an important role and been considered as a powerful tool in various fields of forensic science applications. Nowadays, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on mtDNA have become additional DNA markers when conventional STR typing practically fails. mtDNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the hypervariable region I (HVRI) and II (HVRII) is the standard method of mtDNA analysis. However, mtDNA sequencing is rather expensive, time consuming and technically complex. This study aims to develop the SNPs minisequencing for screening of Thai populations. For this purpose, sixteen SNPs that possess high discriminating power in hypervariable regions were selected. The DNA samples were obtained from 100 buccal swab samples of Thai healthy individuals. All DNA samples were extracted and were subsequently amplified by single duplex PCR technique. The duplex PCR products were genotyped by SNPs minisequencing. Based on 16 SNPs, a total of 63 haplotypes were observed of which 46 haplotypes were unique. The haplotype diversity, discriminating power and random match probability were calculated to be 0.9830, 0.9732 and 0.0268, respectively. The SNPs at 150, 199, 489, 16129, 16189, 16223, and 16304 were highly polymorphic in the studied population. Our results suggested that the SNPs minisequencing can be an alternative method of SNPs genotyping. This method can be used for an exclusion of a large number of mismatch samples and as a presumptive test prior to do confirmatory mtDNA sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

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    Fujita Tatsuo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1 gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus TTN was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored SNP in TTN and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. Findings A SNP in the promoter region of TTN, referred to as g.231054C>T, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 101 sires (P = 0.004, 848 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 5 sires heterozygous for the g.231054C>T (P = 0.046, and 820 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for C allele at the g.231054C>T (P = 0.051, in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion These findings suggest that in addition to the EDG1 SNPs, the TTN SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. Further replicate studies will be needed to confirm the allelic association observed here, and to expand the results to evaluate all possible genotypic combinations of alleles.

  20. Sirtuin1 single nucleotide polymorphism (A2191G is a diagnostic marker for vibration-induced white finger disease

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    Voelter-Mahlknecht Susanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibration-induced white finger disease (VWF, also known as hand-arm vibration syndrome, is a secondary form of Raynaud’s disease, affecting the blood vessels and nerves. So far, little is known about the pathogenesisof the disease. VWF is associated with an episodic reduction in peripheral blood flow. Sirtuin 1, a class III histone deacetylase, has been described to regulate the endothelium dependent vasodilation by targeting endothelial nitric oxide synthase. We assessed Sirt1single nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with VWF to further elucidate the role of sirtuin 1 in the pathogenesis of VWF. Methods Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 74 patients with VWF (male 93.2%, female 6.8%, median age 53 years and from 317 healthy volunteers (gender equally distributed, below 30 years of age. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and screened for potential Sirt1single nucleotide polymorphisms. Four putative genetic polymorphisms out of 113 within the Sirt1 genomic region (NCBI Gene Reference: NM_012238.3 were assessed. Allelic discrimination was performed by TaqMan-polymerasechainreaction-based allele-specific genotyping single nucleotide polymorphism assays. Results Sirt1single nucleotide polymorphism A2191G (Assay C_25611590_10, rs35224060 was identified within Sirt1 exon 9 (amino acid position 731, Ile → Val, with differing allelic frequencies in the VWF population (A/A: 70.5%, A/G: 29.5%, G/G: 0% and the control population (A/A: 99.7%, A/G: 0.3%, G/G: 0.5%, with significance levels of P U test (two-tailed P t-test and Chi-square test with Yates correction (all two-tailed: P Conclusion We identified theSirt1A2191Gsingle nucleotide polymorphism as a diagnostic marker for VWF.

  1. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from the transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Benita, Miri; Ish-Shalom, Mazal; Sharabi-Schwager, Michal; Rozen, Ada; Saada, David; Cohen, Yuval; Ophir, Ron

    2015-11-14

    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers. We describe a de novo transcriptome assembly from mango cultivar 'Keitt'. Variation discovery was performed using Illumina resequencing of 'Keitt' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars identified 332,016 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1903 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs). Most of the SSRs (70.1%) were of trinucleotide with the preponderance of motif (GGA/AAG)n and only 23.5% were di-nucleotide SSRs with the mostly of (AT/AT)n motif. Further investigation of the diversity in the Israeli mango collection was performed based on a subset of 293 SNPs. Those markers have divided the Israeli mango collection into two major groups: one group included mostly mango accessions from Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia) and India and the other with mainly of Floridian and Israeli mango cultivars. The latter group was more polymorphic (FS=-0.1 on the average) and was more of an admixture than the former group. A slight population differentiation was detected (FST=0.03), suggesting that if the mango accessions of the western world apparently was originated from Southeast Asia, as has been previously suggested, the duration of cultivation was not long enough to develop a distinct genetic background. Whole-transcriptome reconstruction was used to significantly broaden the mango's genetic variation resources, i.e., SNPs and SSRs. The set of SNP markers described in this study is novel. A subset of SNPs was sampled to explore the Israeli mango collection and most of them were polymorphic in many mango accessions. Therefore, we believe that these SNPs will be valuable as they recapitulate and

  2. Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in HLA class II/III region with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, D; Zheng, Q; Chen, D; Zhu, L; Qin, A; Fan, J; Liao, J; Xu, Z; Lin, Z; Norman, P; Xu, J; Nakamura, T; Dai, K; Zheng, M; Jiang, Q

    2010-11-01

    A genome-wide association study and a replication using Japanese, Spanish and Greek Caucasian populations have recently indicated two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7775228 and rs10947262) associated with knee Osteoarthritis (OA) susceptibility. We have further evaluated the association in knee OA subjects from Han Chinese and Australian Caucasian origin. Two independent case-control association studies were performed using Han Chinese and Australian Caucasian populations. The two SNPs were genotyped in patients who had primary symptomatic knee OA with radiographic confirmation and/or received total knee replacement surgery as well as in matched controls. They were subjected to statistic analyses. A total of 991 OA patients and 1536 controls were genotyped. No significant difference was detected in genotype or allele frequencies of the two SNPs between knee OA and control groups in the two populations (all P>0.05). The association was also negative even after stratification by sex, body mass index (BMI) and Kellgren/Lawrence scores. The significant heterogeneity was detected between Chinese and Japanese (both P0.05). The result of meta-analysis showed significant association between knee OA and rs10947262 in total subjects [summary OR=1.26, 95%confidence intervals (CI)=1.07-1.27, P=3 × 10(-8)] and in Caucasian samples (summary OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.04-1.57, P=0.02). We demonstrated no association between the two SNPs in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II/III region and knee OA in Han Chinese population. A significant association was detected between SNP rs10947262 and knee OA in Caucasian subjects. Further replication studies are required to identify the impact of controversial association. Copyright © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporating Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms Into the Lyman Model to Improve Prediction of Radiation Pneumonitis

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    Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li Minghuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xu Ting; Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yuan Xianglin [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yu Jinming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu Zhensheng; Yin Ming; Guan Xiaoxiang; Wang Lie; Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Martel, Mary [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with DNA repair, cell cycle, transforming growth factor-{beta}, tumor necrosis factor and receptor, folic acid metabolism, and angiogenesis can significantly improve the fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen SNPs from 10 different genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX1, MDM2, TGF{beta}, TNF{alpha}, TNFR, MTHFR, MTRR, and VEGF) were genotyped in 141 NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy. The LKB model was used to estimate the risk of severe (grade {>=}3) RP as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with SNPs and patient smoking status incorporated into the model as dose-modifying factors. Multivariate analyses were performed by adding significant factors to the MLD model in a forward stepwise procedure, with significance assessed using the likelihood-ratio test. Bootstrap analyses were used to assess the reproducibility of results under variations in the data. Results: Five SNPs were selected for inclusion in the multivariate NTCP model based on MLD alone. SNPs associated with an increased risk of severe RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, TNF{alpha}, XRCC1 and APEX1. With smoking status included in the multivariate model, the SNPs significantly associated with increased risk of RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, and XRCC3. Bootstrap analyses selected a median of 4 SNPs per model fit, with the 6 genes listed above selected most often. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that SNPs can significantly improve the predictive ability of the Lyman MLD model. With a small number of SNPs, it was possible to distinguish cohorts with >50% risk vs <10% risk of RP when they were exposed to high MLDs.

  4. Real time hybridization studies by resonant waveguide gratings using nanopattern imaging for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bougot-Robin, Kristelle

    2013-12-20

    2D imaging of biochips is particularly interesting for multiplex biosensing. Resonant properties allow label-free detection using the change of refractive index at the chip surface. We demonstrate a new principle of Scanning Of Resonance on Chip by Imaging (SORCI) based on spatial profiles of nanopatterns of resonant waveguide gratings (RWGs) and its embodiment in a fluidic chip for real-time biological studies. This scheme allows multiplexing of the resonance itself by providing nanopattern sensing areas in a bioarray format. Through several chip designs we discuss resonance spatial profiles, dispersion and electric field distribution for optimal light-matter interaction with biological species of different sizes. Fluidic integration is carried out with a black anodized aluminum chamber, advantageous in term of mechanical stability, multiple uses of the chip, temperature control and low optical background. Real-time hybridization experiments are illustrated by SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) detection in gyrase A of E. coli K12, observed in evolution studies of resistance to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. We choose a 100 base pairs (bp) DNA target (∼30 kDa) including the codon of interest and demonstrate the high specificity of our technique for probes and targets with close affinity constants. This work validates the safe applicability of our unique combination of RWGs and simple instrumentation for real-time biosensing with sensitivity in buffer solution of ∼10 pg/mm2. Paralleling the success of RWGs sensing for cells sensing, our work opens new avenues for a large number of biological studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with feed efficiency in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serão, Nick Vl; González-Peña, Dianelys; Beever, Jonathan E; Faulkner, Dan B; Southey, Bruce R; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2013-09-25

    General, breed- and diet-dependent associations between feed efficiency in beef cattle and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes were identified on a population of 1321 steers using a 50 K SNP panel. Genomic associations with traditional two-step indicators of feed efficiency - residual feed intake (RFI), residual average daily gain (RADG), and residual intake gain (RIG) - were compared to associations with two complementary one-step indicators of feed efficiency: efficiency of intake (EI) and efficiency of gain (EG). Associations uncovered in a training data set were evaluated on independent validation data set. A multi-SNP model was developed to predict feed efficiency. Functional analysis of genes harboring SNPs significantly associated with feed efficiency and network visualization aided in the interpretation of the results. For the five feed efficiency indicators, the numbers of general, breed-dependent, and diet-dependent associations with SNPs (P-value feed efficiency indicators. The associations of 17 SNPs and 7 haplotypes with feed efficiency were confirmed on the validation data set. Nine clusters of Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway categories (mean P-value feed efficiency. The general SNP associations suggest that a single panel of genomic variants can be used regardless of breed and diet. The breed- and diet-dependent associations between SNPs and feed efficiency suggest that further refinement of variant panels require the consideration of the breed and management practices. The unique genomic variants associated with the one- and two-step indicators suggest that both types of indicators offer complementary description of feed efficiency that can be exploited for genome-enabled selection purposes.

  6. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing based on pyrosequencing chemistry and acryl-modified glass chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huan; Wu, Haiping; Xiao, Pengfeng; Zhou, Guohua

    2009-03-01

    A new method (termed as "chip-BAMPER" (bioluminometric assay coupled with modified primer extension reactions)) for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) genotyping was developed by pyrosequencing chemistry coupled with hydrogel chip immobilized with single-stranded target DNAs. The method is based on allele-specific extension reaction, which is switched by the base type in the 3' end of allele-specific primers. A genotype is determined by comparing the light intensity from a pair of gel pads, and the specificity is improved by introducing an artificially mismatched base at the third position upstream from the 3' end of the allele-specific primer. The big problem of chip-BAMPER is the ultra-high background of the detection mixture because apyrase could not be used. Here, we successfully prepared and used beaded apyrase, which can be removed from the detection mixture before sample typing, to decrease the high background due to adenosine 5'-triphosphate and inorganic pyrophosphate or sodium pyrophosphate decahydrate contamination. Unlike gel-based pyrosequencing, chip-BAMPER is highly sensitive because many bases are extended at a time in one extension reaction. Usually, less than 0.25 microL of PCR products can give a successful genotyping. To evaluate the method, four SNPs, OLR1-C15577T, OLR1-C14417G, PPARG-Pro12Ala, and PPARG-C2821T, were detected. To avoid the crosstalk between two adjacent spots in a gel-chip, mineral oil was dispensed to coat the gel-chip for physically separating two spots. It is shown that this new strategy of SNP typing based on the acryl-modified glass chip is highly sensitive, simple, inexpensive, and easy to be automated. It can be used for various applications of DNA analysis at a relative high-throughput.

  7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism relevance learning with Random Forests for Type 2 diabetes risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Beatriz; Torrent-Fontbona, Ferran; Viñas, Ramón; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-09-21

    The use of artificial intelligence techniques to find out which Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) promote the development of a disease is one of the features of medical research, as such techniques may potentially aid early diagnosis and help in the prescription of preventive measures. In particular, the aim is to help physicians to identify the relevant SNPs related to Type 2 diabetes, and to build a decision-support tool for risk prediction. We use the Random Forest (RF) technique in order to search for the most important attributes (SNPs) related to diabetes, giving a weight (degree of importance), ranging between 0 and 1, to each attribute. Support Vector Machines and Logistic Regression have also been used since they are two other machine learning techniques that are well-established in the health community. Their performance has been compared to that achieved by RF. Furthermore, the relevance of the attributes obtained through the use of RF has then been used to perform predictions with k-Nearest Neighbour method weighting attributes in the similarity measure according to the relevance of the attributes with RF. Testing is performed on a set of 677 subjects. RF is able to handle the complexity of features' interactions, overfitting, and unknown attribute values, providing the SNPs' relevance with an up to 0.89 area under the ROC curve in terms of risk prediction. RF outperforms all the other tested machine learning techniques in terms of prediction accuracy, and in terms of the stability of the estimated relevance of the attributes. The Random Forest is a useful method for learning predictive models and the relevance of SNPs without any underlying assumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with hyperproduction of alpha-toxin in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Xudong Liang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The virulence factor α-toxin (hla is needed by Staphylococcus aureus in order to cause infections in both animals and humans. Although the complicated regulation of hla expression has been well studied in human S. aureus isolates, the mechanisms of of hla regulation in bovine S. aureus isolates remain undefined. In this study, we found that many bovine S. aureus isolates, including the RF122 strain, generate dramatic amounts of α-toxin in vitro compared with human clinical S. aureus isolates, including MRSA WCUH29 and MRSA USA300. To elucidate potential regulatory mechanisms, we analyzed the hla promoter regions and identified predominant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at positions -376, -483, and -484 from the start codon in α-toxin hyper-producing isolates. Using site-directed mutagenesis and hla promoter-gfp-luxABCDE dual reporter approaches, we demonstrated that the SNPs contribute to the differential control of hla expression among bovine and human S. aureus isolates. Using a DNA affinity assay, gel-shift assays and a null mutant, we identified and revealed that an hla positive regulator, SarZ, contributes to the involvement of the SNPs in mediating hla expression. In addition, we found that the bovine S. aureus isolate RF122 exhibits higher transcription levels of hla positive regulators, including agrA, saeR, arlR and sarZ, but a lower expression level of hla repressor rot compared to the human S. aureus isolate WCUH29. Our results indicate α-toxin hyperproduction in bovine S. aureus is a multifactorial process, influenced at both the genomic and transcriptional levels. Moreover, the identification of predominant SNPs in the hla promoter region may provide a novel method for genotyping the S. aureus isolates.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding to evaluate oral cancer risk using odds ratio-based genetic algorithms

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    Cheng-Hong Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancers often involve the synergistic effects of gene–gene interactions, but identifying these interactions remains challenging. Here, we present an odds ratio-based genetic algorithm (OR-GA that is able to solve the problems associated with the simultaneous analysis of multiple independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with oral cancer. The SNP interactions between four SNPs—namely rs1799782, rs2040639, rs861539, rs2075685, and belonging to four genes (XRCC1, XRCC2, XRCC3, and XRCC4—were tested in this study, respectively. The GA decomposes the SNPs sets into different SNP combinations with their corresponding genotypes (called SNP barcodes. The GA can effectively identify a specific SNP barcode that has an optimized fitness value and uses this to calculate the difference between the case and control groups. The SNP barcodes with a low fitness value are naturally removed from the population. Using two to four SNPs, the best SNP barcodes with maximum differences in occurrence between the case and control groups were generated by GA algorithm. Subsequently, the OR provides a quantitative measure of the multiple SNP synergies between the oral cancer and control groups by calculating the risk related to the best SNP barcodes and others. When these were compared to their corresponding non-SNP barcodes, the estimated ORs for oral cancer were found to be great than 1 [approx. 1.72–2.23; confidence intervals (CIs: 0.94–5.30, p < 0.03–0.07] for various specific SNP barcodes with two to four SNPs. In conclusion, the proposed OR-GA method successfully generates SNP barcodes, which allow oral cancer risk to be evaluated and in the process the OR-GA method identifies possible SNP–SNP interactions.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within interferon signaling pathway genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival.

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    Shun Lu

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN signaling has been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to examine potentially functional genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, IRF5, IRF7, type I and type II IFN and their receptor genes with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC risk and clinical outcome. Altogether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were covered by the 34 SNPs genotyped in a hospital-based case-control study of 1327 CRC cases and 758 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 483 patients. Seven SNPs in IFNA1, IFNA13, IFNA21, IFNK, IFNAR1 and IFNGR1 were associated with CRC risk. After multiple testing correction, the associations with the SNPs rs2856968 (IFNAR1 and rs2234711 (IFNGR1 remained formally significant (P = 0.0015 and P<0.0001, respectively. Multivariable survival analyses showed that the SNP rs6475526 (IFNA7/IFNA14 was associated with overall survival of the patients (P = 0.041 and event-free survival among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, P = 0.034. The hazard ratios (HRs for rs6475526 remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, gender, grade and stage (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036, respectively, suggesting that rs6475526 is an independent prognostic marker for CRC. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the IFN signaling pathway genes may play a role in the etiology and survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.

  11. Whole Genome Association Study to Detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for Behavior in Sapsaree Dog (

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    J. H. Ha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize genetic architecture of behavior patterns in Sapsaree dogs. The breed population (n = 8,256 has been constructed since 1990 over 12 generations and managed at the Sapsaree Breeding Research Institute, Gyeongsan, Korea. Seven behavioral traits were investigated for 882 individuals. The traits were classified as a quantitative or a categorical group, and heritabilities (h2 and variance components were estimated under the Animal model using ASREML 2.0 software program. In general, the h2 estimates of the traits ranged between 0.00 and 0.16. Strong genetic (rG and phenotypic (rP correlations were observed between nerve stability, affability and adaptability, i.e. 0.9 to 0.94 and 0.46 to 0.68, respectively. To detect significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP for the behavioral traits, a total of 134 and 60 samples were genotyped using the Illumina 22K CanineSNP20 and 170K CanineHD bead chips, respectively. Two datasets comprising 60 (Sap60 and 183 (Sap183 samples were analyzed, respectively, of which the latter was based on the SNPs that were embedded on both the 22K and 170K chips. To perform genome-wide association analysis, each SNP was considered with the residuals of each phenotype that were adjusted for sex and year of birth as fixed effects. A least squares based single marker regression analysis was followed by a stepwise regression procedure for the significant SNPs (p<0.01, to determine a best set of SNPs for each trait. A total of 41 SNPs were detected with the Sap183 samples for the behavior traits. The significant SNPs need to be verified using other samples, so as to be utilized to improve behavior traits via marker-assisted selection in the Sapsaree population.

  12. Electroactive chitosan nanoparticles for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms using peptide nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, Kagan; Saito, Masato; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    Here we report an electrochemical biosensor that would allow for simple and rapid analysis of nucleic acids in combination with nuclease activity on nucleic acids and electroactive bionanoparticles. The detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using PNA probes takes advantage of the significant structural and physicochemical differences between the full hybrids and SNPs in PNA/DNA and DNA/DNA duplexes. Ferrocene-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (Chi-Fc) were used as the electroactive indicator of hybridization. Chi-Fc had no affinity towards the neutral PNA probe immobilized on a gold electrode (AuE) surface. When the PNA probe on the electrode surface hybridized with a full-complementary target DNA, Chi-Fc electrostatically attached to the negatively-charged phosphate backbone of DNA on the surface and gave rise to a high electrochemical oxidation signal from ferrocene at approximately 0.30 V. Exposing the surface to a single-stranded DNA specific nuclease, Nuclease S1, was found to be very effective for removing the nonspecifically adsorbed SNP DNA. An SNP in the target DNA to PNA made it susceptible to the enzymatic digestion. After the enzymatic digestion and subsequent exposure to Chi-Fc, the presence of SNPs was determined by monitoring the changes in the electrical current response of Chi-Fc. The method provided a detection limit of 1 fM (S/N = 3) for the target DNA oligonucleotide. Additionally, asymmetric PCR was employed to detect the presence of genetically modified organism (GMO) in standard Roundup Ready soybean samples. PNA-mediated PCR amplification of real DNA samples was performed to detect SNPs related to alcohol dehydrogenase (ALDH). Chitosan nanoparticles are promising biomaterials for various analytical and pharmaceutical applications.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination with and without an ethidium bromide intercalator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenati, Renzo A.; Connolly, Ashley R. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: amanda.ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 (Australia); Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is an important aspect in understanding genetic variations. Here, we discriminate SNPs using toe-hold mediated displacement reactions. The biological target is an 80 nucleotide long double-stranded–DNA from the mtDNA HV1 region, associated with maternal ancestry. This target has been specially designed with a pendant toehold and a cationic fluorophore, ATTO 647N, as a reporter, produced in a polymerase chain reaction. Rates of reaction for the toehold-polymerase chain reaction products (TPPs) with their corresponding complementary displacing sequences, labelled with a Black Hole Quencher 1, followed the order TPP–Cytosine > TPP–Thymine > TPP–Adenine ≥ TPP–Guanine. Non-complementary rates were the slowest with mismatches involving cytosine. These reactions, operating in a static/or contact mode, gave averaged readouts between SNPs within 15 min (with 80–90% quenching), compared to 25–30 min in previous studies involving fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Addition of an intercalating agent, ethidium bromide, retarded the rate of reaction in which cytosine was involved, presumably through stabilization of the base pairing, which resulted in markedly improved discrimination of cytosine containing SNPs. - Highlights: • Fluorophores and DNA intercalators effect the rate of toehold-mediated strand displacement. • Ethidium bromide had a destabilizing effect on mismatches that contained cytosine. • A cationic fluorophore and Black Hole Quencher 1 strand displacement system was 2–3 times faster than a FRET system. • This enabled SNP detection using toehold-mediated strand displacement in 15 min.

  14. Analysis of healthy cohorts for single nucleotide polymorphisms in C1q gene cluster

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    MARIA A. RADANOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available C1q is the first component of the classical pathway of complement activation. The coding region for C1q is localized on chromosome 1p34.1–36.3. Mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in C1q gene cluster can cause developing of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE because of C1q deficiency or other unknown reason. We selected five SNPs located in 7.121 kbp region on chromosome 1, which were previously associated with SLE and/or low C1q level, but not causing C1q deficiency and analyzed them in terms of allele frequencies and genotype distribution in comparison with Hispanic, Asian, African and other Caucasian cohorts. These SNPs were: rs587585, rs292001, rs172378, rs294179 and rs631090. One hundred eighty five healthy Bulgarian volunteers were genotyped for the selected five C1q SNPs by quantative real-time PCR methods. International HapMap Project has been used for information about genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the five SNPs in, Hispanics, Asians, Africans and others Caucasian cohorts. Bulgarian healthy volunteers and another pooled Caucasian cohort had similar frequencies of genotypes and alleles of rs587585, rs292001, rs294179 and rs631090 SNPs. Nevertheless, genotype AA of rs172378 was significantly overrepresented in Bulgarians when compared to other healthy Caucasians from USA and UK (60% vs 31%. Genotype distribution of rs172378 in Bulgarians was similar to Greek-Cyriot Caucasians. For all Caucasians the major allele of rs172378 was A. This is the first study analyzing the allele frequencies and genotype distribution of C1q gene cluster SNPs in Bulgarian healthy population.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRTC1 and BARX1 are associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma

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    Anna M. J. van Nistelrooij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC and Barrett′s esophagus (BE were identified; rs10419226 (CRTC10, rs11789015 (BARX1, rs2687201 (FOXP10, rs2178146 (FOXF1, rs3111601 (FOXF10, and rs9936833 (FOXF1. These findings indicate that genetic susceptibility could play a role in the initiation of EAC in BE patients. The aim of this study was to validate the association between these previously identified SNPs and the risk of EAC in an independent and large case-control study. Design: Six SNPs found to be associated with EAC and BE were genotyped by a multiplex SNaPshot analysis in 1071 EAC patients diagnosed and treated in the Netherlands. Allele frequencies were compared to a control group derived from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort study (n = 6206. Logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR. Results: Rs10419226 (CRTC1 showed a significantly increased EAC risk for the minor allele (OR = 1.17, P = 0.001, and rs11789015 (BARX1 showed a significantly decreased risk for the minor allele (OR = 0.85, P = 0.004 in the logistic regression analysis. The meta-analysis of the original GWAS and the current study revealed an improved level of significance for rs10419226 (CRTC1 (OR = 1.18, P = 6.66 × 10–10 and rs11789015 (BARX1 (OR = 0.83, P = 1.13 × 10–8 . Conclusions: This independent and large Dutch case-control study confirms the association of rs10419226 (CRTC1 and rs11789015 (BARX1 with the risk of EAC. These findings suggest a contribution of the patient genetic make-up to the development of EAC and might contribute to gain more insight in the etiology of this cancer.

  16. Single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery by high-throughput sequencing in sorghum

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    White Frank F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eight diverse sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench accessions were subjected to short-read genome sequencing to characterize the distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Two strategies were used for DNA library preparation. Missing SNP genotype data were imputed by local haplotype comparison. The effect of library type and genomic diversity on SNP discovery and imputation are evaluated. Results Alignment of eight genome equivalents (6 Gb to the public reference genome revealed 283,000 SNPs at ≥82% confirmation probability. Sequencing from libraries constructed to limit sequencing to start at defined restriction sites led to genotyping 10-fold more SNPs in all 8 accessions, and correctly imputing 11% more missing data, than from semirandom libraries. The SNP yield advantage of the reduced-representation method was less than expected, since up to one fifth of reads started at noncanonical restriction sites and up to one third of restriction sites predicted in silico to yield unique alignments were not sampled at near-saturation. For imputation accuracy, the availability of a genomically similar accession in the germplasm panel was more important than panel size or sequencing coverage. Conclusions A sequence quantity of 3 million 50-base reads per accession using a BsrFI library would conservatively provide satisfactory genotyping of 96,000 sorghum SNPs. For most reliable SNP-genotype imputation in shallowly sequenced genomes, germplasm panels should consist of pairs or groups of genomically similar entries. These results may help in designing strategies for economical genotyping-by-sequencing of large numbers of plant accessions.

  17. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of microRNA processing machinery genes and risk of colorectal cancer

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    Zhao Y

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yufei Zhao, Yanming Du, Shengnan Zhao, Zhanjun GuoDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: MicroRNA (miRNA-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (miR-SNPs in miRNA processing machinery genes can affect cancer risk, treatment efficacy, and patient prognosis. We genotyped 6 miR-SNPs of miRNA processing machinery genes including XPO5 (rs11077, RAN (rs14035, Dicer (rs3742330, TNRC6B (rs9623117, GEMIN3 (rs197412, and GEMIN4 (rs2740348 in a case-control study to evaluate their impact on colorectal cancer (CRC risk.Materials and methods: miR-SNPs were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction–ligase detection reaction. The Χ2 test was used to analyze dichotomous values, such as the presence or absence of any individual SNP in CRC patients and healthy controls.Results: Two of these SNPs were identified for their association with cancer risk in the Dicer and GEMIN3 genes. The AA allele of rs3742330 located in the Dicer gene exhibited a significantly increased risk of CRC (odds ratio, 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.33–3.34; P=0.001; the TT allele of rs197412 located in GEMIN3 also exhibited a significantly increased risk of CRC (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.07–2.65; P=0.024.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the specific genetic variants in miRNA machinery genes may affect CRC susceptibility.Keywords: miR-SNP, CRC, GEMIN3, Dicer

  18. SiNoPsis: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms selection and promoter profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloc, Daniel; Rodríguez, Natalia; Gassó, Patricia; Abril, Josep F; Bernardo, Miquel; Lafuente, Amalia; Mas, Sergi

    2017-09-14

    The selection of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) using bibliographic methods can be a very time-consuming task. Moreover, a SNP selected in this way may not be easily visualized in its genomic context by a standard user hoping to correlate it with other valuable information. Here we propose a web form built on top of Circos that can assist SNP-centred screening, based on their location in the genome and the regulatory modules they can disrupt. Its use may allow researchers to prioritize SNPs in genotyping and disease studies. SiNoPsis is bundled as a web portal. It focuses on the different structures involved in the genomic expression of a gene, especially those found in the core promoter upstream region. These structures include transcription factor binding sites (for promoter and enhancer signals), histones, and promoter flanking regions. Additionally, the tool provides eQTL and linkage disequilibrium (LD) properties for a given SNP query, yielding further clues about other indirectly associated SNPs. Possible disruptions of the aforementioned structures affecting gene transcription are reported using multiple resource databases. SiNoPsis has a simple user-friendly interface, which allows single queries by gene symbol, genomic coordinates, Ensembl gene identifiers, RefSeq transcript identifiers and SNPs. It is the only portal providing useful SNP selection based on regulatory modules and LD with functional variants in both textual and graphic modes (by properly defining the arguments and parameters needed to run Circos). SiNoPsis is freely available at https://compgen.bio.ub.edu/SiNoPsis /.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphism detection using gold nanoprobes and bio-microfluidic platform with embedded microlenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacka-Wojcik, Iwona; Águas, Hugo; Carlos, Fabio Ferreira; Lopes, Paulo; Wojcik, Pawel Jerzy; Costa, Mafalda Nascimento; Veigas, Bruno; Igreja, Rui; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Martins, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    The use of microfluidics platforms combined with the optimal optical properties of gold nanoparticles has found plenty of application in molecular biosensing. This paper describes a bio-microfluidic platform coupled to a non-cross-linking colorimetric gold nanoprobe assay to detect a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with increased risk of obesity fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 (Carlos et al., 2014). The system enabled significant discrimination between positive and negative assays using a target DNA concentration of 5 ng/µL below the limit of detection of the conventionally used microplate reader (i.e., 15 ng/µL) with 10 times lower solution volume (i.e., 3 µL). A set of optimization of our previously reported bio-microfluidic platform (Bernacka-Wojcik et al., 2013) resulted in a 160% improvement of colorimetric analysis results. Incorporation of planar microlenses increased 6 times signal-to-loss ratio reaching the output optical fiber improving by 34% the colorimetric analysis of gold nanoparticles, while the implementation of an optoelectronic acquisition system yielded increased accuracy and reduced noise. The microfluidic chip was also integrated with a miniature fiber spectrometer to analyze the assays' colorimetric changes and also the LEDs transmission spectra when illuminating through various solutions. Furthermore, by coupling an optical microscope to a digital camera with a long exposure time (30 s), we could visualise the different scatter intensities of gold nanoparticles within channels following salt addition. These intensities correlate well to the expected difference in aggregation between FTO positive (none to small aggregates) and negative samples (large aggregates). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Non-invasive prenatal detection of trisomy 21 using tandem single nucleotide polymorphisms.

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    Sujana Ghanta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Screening tests for Trisomy 21 (T21, also known as Down syndrome, are routinely performed for the majority of pregnant women. However, current tests rely on either evaluating non-specific markers, which lead to false negative and false positive results, or on invasive tests, which while highly accurate, are expensive and carry a risk of fetal loss. We outline a novel, rapid, highly sensitive, and targeted approach to non-invasively detect fetal T21 using maternal plasma DNA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Highly heterozygous tandem Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP sequences on chromosome 21 were analyzed using High-Fidelity PCR and Cycling Temperature Capillary Electrophoresis (CTCE. This approach was used to blindly analyze plasma DNA obtained from peripheral blood from 40 high risk pregnant women, in adherence to a Medical College of Wisconsin Institutional Review Board approved protocol. Tandem SNP sequences were informative when the mother was heterozygous and a third paternal haplotype was present, permitting a quantitative comparison between the maternally inherited haplotype and the paternally inherited haplotype to infer fetal chromosomal dosage by calculating a Haplotype Ratio (HR. 27 subjects were assessable; 13 subjects were not informative due to either low DNA yield or were not informative at the tandem SNP sequences examined. All results were confirmed by a procedure (amniocentesis/CVS or at postnatal follow-up. Twenty subjects were identified as carrying a disomy 21 fetus (with two copies of chromosome 21 and seven subjects were identified as carrying a T21 fetus. The sensitivity and the specificity of the assay was 100% when HR values lying between 3/5 and 5/3 were used as a threshold for normal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, a targeted approach, based on calculation of Haplotype Ratios from tandem SNP sequences combined with a sensitive and quantitative DNA measurement technology can be used to accurately detect fetal

  1. Association of the FCN2 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

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    Dan-Dan Xu

    Full Text Available Ficolin-2 (FCN2 is an innate immune pattern recognition molecule that can activate the complement pathway, opsonophagocytosis, and elimination of the pathogens. The present study aimed to investigate the association of the FCN2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. A total of seven SNPs in exon 8 (+6359 C>T and +6424 G>T and in the promoter region (-986 G>A, -602 G>A, -557 A>G, -64 A>C and -4 A>G of the FCN2 gene were genotyped using the PCR amplification and DNA sequencing methods in the healthy controls group (n = 254 and the pulmonary TB group (n = 282. The correlation between SNPs and pulmonary TB was analyzed using the logistic regression method. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the distribution of allelic frequencies of seven SNPs between the pulmonary TB group and the healthy controls group. However, the frequency of the variant homozygous genotype (P = 0.037, -557 A>G; P = 0.038, -64 A>C; P = 0.024, +6424 G>T in the TB group was significantly lower than the control group. After adjustment for age and gender, these variant homozygous genotypes were found to be recessive models in association with pulmonary TB. In addition, -64 A>C (P = 0.047 and +6424 G>T (P = 0.03 were found to be codominant models in association with pulmonary TB. There was strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 > 0.80, P A site. Therefore, -557 A>G, -64 A>C and +6424 G>T SNPs of the FCN2 gene were correlated with pulmonary TB, and may be protective factors for TB. This study provides a novel idea for the prevention and control of TB transmission from a genetics perspective.

  2. Association of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in , , and with Blood Related Traits in Pigs

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    Jae-Bong Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect positional candidate genes located within the support interval (SI regions based on the results of red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin quantitative trait locus (QTL in Sus scrofa chromosome 13, and to verify the correlation between specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the exonic region of the positional candidate gene and the three genetic traits. The flanking markers of the three QTL SI regions are SW38 and S0215. Within the QTL SI regions, 44 genes were located, and runt-related transcription factor 1, dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A, and potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 15 KCNJ15–which are reported to be related to the hematological traits and clinical features of Down syndrome–were selected as positional candidate genes. The ten SNPs located in the exonic region of the three genes were detected by next generation sequencing. A total of 1,232 pigs of an F2 resource population between Landrace and Korean native pigs were genotyped. To investigate the effects of the three genes on each genotype, a mixed-effect model which is the considering family structure model was used to evaluate the associations between the SNPs and three genetic traits in the F2 intercross population. Among them, the MCV level was highly significant (nominal p = 9.8×10−9 in association with the DYRK1A-SNP1 (c.2989 G

  3. Discovery and characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in steelhead/rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Clemento, Anthony J; Garza, John Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have several advantages over other genetic markers, including lower mutation and genotyping error rates, ease of inter-laboratory standardization, and the prospect of high-throughput, low-cost genotyping. Nevertheless, their development and use has only recently moved beyond model organisms to groups such as salmonid fishes. Oncorhynchus mykiss is a salmonid native to the North Pacific rim that has now been introduced throughout the world for fisheries and aquaculture. The anadromous form of the species is known as steelhead. Native steelhead populations on the west coast of the United States have declined and many now have protected status. The nonanadromous, or resident, form of the species is termed rainbow, redband or golden trout. Additional life history and morphological variation, and interactions between the forms, make the species challenging to study, monitor and evaluate. Here, we describe the discovery, characterization and assay development for 139 SNP loci in steelhead/rainbow trout. We used EST sequences from existing genomic databases to design primers for 480 genes. Sanger-sequencing products from these genes provided 130 KB of consensus sequence in which variation was surveyed for 22 individuals from steelhead, rainbow and redband trout groups. The resulting TaqMan assays were surveyed in five steelhead populations and three rainbow trout stocks, where they had a mean minor allele frequency of 0.15-0.26 and observed heterozygosity of 0.18-0.35. Mean F(ST) was 0.204. The development of SNPs for O. mykiss will help to provide highly informative genetic tools for individual and stock identification, pedigree reconstruction, phylogeography and ecological investigation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Analysis of the association of HOTAIR single nucleotide polymorphism (rs920778) and risk of cervical cancer.

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    Qiu, Haifeng; Liu, Qiuli; Li, Juan; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Yuan; Yuan, Zhongfu; Li, Jing; Pei, Dong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that overexpression of HOTAIR (Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA) was associated with tumor progression and radio-resistance in human cervical cancer. Considering the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs920778 (C>T) could influence HOTAIR expression and cancer predisposition in other malignancies, we herein investigated the association between rs920778 status and cervical cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. Using the specific TaqMan PCR assay, we genotyped rs920778 in 215 cervical cancer patients and 430 age-matched healthy controls. As shown in our data, TT genotype of rs920778 was significantly correlated with the upregulation of HOTAIR (p = 0.008). Compared with the healthy control, TT genotype and T allele notably indicated a much higher risk of cervical cancer [TT genotype: odds ratio (OR) = 2.186, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.378-3.466, p = 0.003; T allele: OR = 1.556, 95% CI = 1.221-1.981]. In addition, we also found that the TT genotype of rs920778 was correlated with advanced tumor stage (p = 0.039), highly histological grade (p = 0.013), lympho node metastasis (p HPV (p patients who underwent concurrent chemo-radiotherapy, TT genotype carriers present notably resistance to the combination of EBRT + ICBT + cisplatin (p = 0.023). In conclusion, we firstly reported that TT genotype of HOTAIR rs920778 was significantly associated with the cervical cancer susceptibility. Moreover, the TT genotype of rs920778 might be a potent prognostic marker in cervical cancer patients. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Identification of single-nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixin; Vallejo, Roger L; Gao, Guangtu; Palti, Yniv; Weber, Gregory M; Hernandez, Alvaro; Rexroad, Caird E

    2015-06-01

    Understanding stress responses is essential for improving animal welfare and increasing agriculture production efficiency. Previously, we reported microsatellite markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting plasma cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout. In this study, our main objectives were to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with cortisol response to crowding in rainbow trout using both GWAS (genome-wide association studies) and QTL mapping methods and to employ rapidly expanding genomic resources for rainbow trout toward the identification of candidate genes affecting this trait. A three-generation F2 mapping family (2008052) was genotyped using RAD-seq (restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing) to identify 4874 informative SNPs. GWAS identified 26 SNPs associated with cortisol response to crowding whereas QTL mapping revealed two significant QTL on chromosomes Omy8 and Omy12, respectively. Positional candidate genes were identified using marker sequences to search the draft genome assembly of rainbow trout. One of the genes in the QTL interval on Omy12 is a putative serine/threonine protein kinase gene that was differentially expressed in the liver in response to handling and confinement stress in our previous study. A homologue of this gene was differentially expressed in zebrafish embryos exposed to diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and an environmental toxicant. NSAIDs have been shown to affect the cortisol response in rainbow trout; therefore, this gene is a good candidate based on its physical position and expression. However, the reference genome resources currently available for rainbow trout require continued improvement as demonstrated by the unmapped SNPs and the putative assembly errors detected in this study.

  6. Human coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms at ramp regions of mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Qu, Hui-Qi

    2013-01-01

    According to the ramp model of mRNA translation, the first 50 codons favor rare codons and have slower speed of translation. This study aims to detect translational selection on coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (sSNP) to support the ramp theory. We investigated fourfold degenerate site (FFDS) sSNPs with A ↔ G or C ↔ T substitutions in human genome for distribution bias of synonymous codons (SC), grouped by CpG or non-CpG sites. Distribution bias of sSNPs between the 3(rd) ~50(th) codons and the 51(st) ~ remainder codons at non-CpG sites were observed. In the 3(rd) ~50(th) codons, G → A sSNPs at non-CpG sites are favored than A → G sSNPs [P = 2.89 × 10(-3)], and C → T at non-CpG sites are favored than T → C sSNPs [P = 8.50 × 10(-3)]. The favored direction of SC usage change is from more frequent SCs to less frequent SCs. The distribution bias is more obvious in synonymous substitutions CG(G → A), AC(C → T), and CT(C → T). The distribution bias of sSNPs in human genome, i.e. frequent SCs to less frequent SCs is favored in the 3(rd) ~50(th) codons, indicates translational selection on sSNPs in the ramp regions of mRNA templates.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism array profiling of adrenocortical tumors--evidence for an adenoma carcinoma sequence?

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    Cristina L Ronchi

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors consist of benign adenomas and highly malignant carcinomas with a still incompletely understood pathogenesis. A total of 46 adrenocortical tumors (24 adenomas and 22 carcinomas were investigated aiming to identify novel genes involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (Affymetrix were used to detect copy number alterations (CNAs and copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (cnLOH. Genomic clustering showed good separation between adenomas and carcinomas, with best partition including only chromosome 5, which was highly amplified in 17/22 malignant tumors. The malignant tumors had more relevant genomic aberrations than benign tumors, such as a higher median number of recurrent CNA (2631 vs 94, CNAs >100 Kb (62.5 vs 7 and CN losses (72.5 vs 5.5, and a higher percentage of samples with cnLOH (91% vs 29%. Within the carcinoma cohort, a precise genetic pattern (i.e. large gains at chr 5, 7, 12, and 19, and losses at chr 1, 2, 13, 17, and 22 was associated with a better prognosis (overall survival: 72.2 vs 35.4 months, P=0.063. Interestingly, >70% of gains frequent in benign were also present in malignant tumors. Notch signaling was the most frequently involved pathway in both tumor entities. Finally, a CN gain at imprinted "IGF2" locus chr 11p15.5 appeared to be an early alteration in a multi-step tumor progression, followed by the loss of one or two alleles, associated with increased IGF2 expression, only in carcinomas. Our study serves as database for the identification of genes and pathways, such as Notch signaling, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. Using these data, we postulate an adenoma-carcinoma sequence for these tumors.

  8. Swedish population substructure revealed by genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data.

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    Elina Salmela

    Full Text Available The use of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data has recently proven useful in the study of human population structure. We have studied the internal genetic structure of the Swedish population using more than 350,000 SNPs from 1525 Swedes from all over the country genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 array. We have also compared them to 3212 worldwide reference samples, including Finns, northern Germans, British and Russians, based on the more than 29,000 SNPs that overlap between the Illumina and Affymetrix 250K Sty arrays. The Swedes--especially southern Swedes--were genetically close to the Germans and British, while their genetic distance to Finns was substantially longer. The overall structure within Sweden appeared clinal, and the substructure in the southern and middle parts was subtle. In contrast, the northern part of Sweden, Norrland, exhibited pronounced genetic differences both within the area and relative to the rest of the country. These distinctive genetic features of Norrland probably result mainly from isolation by distance and genetic drift caused by low population density. The internal structure within Sweden (F(ST = 0.0005 between provinces was stronger than that in many Central European populations, although smaller than what has been observed for instance in Finland; importantly, it is of the magnitude that may hamper association studies with a moderate number of markers if cases and controls are not properly matched geographically. Overall, our results underline the potential of genome-wide data in analyzing substructure in populations that might otherwise appear relatively homogeneous, such as the Swedes.

  9. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome by exome-seq.

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    Katherine Shortt

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a lung condition characterized by impaired gas exchange with systemic release of inflammatory mediators, causing pulmonary inflammation, vascular leak and hypoxemia. Existing biomarkers have limited effectiveness as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. To identify disease-associating variants in ARDS patients, whole-exome sequencing was performed on 96 ARDS patients, detecting 1,382,399 SNPs. By comparing these exome data to those of the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP which are potentially associated with ARDS. 50,190SNPs were found in all case subgroups and controls, of which89 SNPs were associated with susceptibility. We validated three SNPs (rs78142040, rs9605146 and rs3848719 in additional ARDS patients to substantiate their associations with susceptibility, severity and outcome of ARDS. rs78142040 (C>T occurs within a histone mark (intron 6 of the Arylsulfatase D gene. rs9605146 (G>A causes a deleterious coding change (proline to leucine in the XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 3 gene. rs3848719 (G>A is a synonymous SNP in the Zinc-Finger/Leucine-Zipper Co-Transducer NIF1 gene. rs78142040, rs9605146, and rs3848719 are associated significantly with susceptibility to ARDS. rs3848719 is associated with APACHE II score quartile. rs78142040 is associated with 60-day mortality in the overall ARDS patient population. Exome-seq is a powerful tool to identify potential new biomarkers for ARDS. We selectively validated three SNPs which have not been previously associated with ARDS and represent potential new genetic biomarkers for ARDS. Additional validation in larger patient populations and further exploration of underlying molecular mechanisms are warranted.

  10. Impaired fasting glucose, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and risk for colorectal cancer in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Keum Ji; Kim, Miyong To; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels and certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, their combined effects are still unclear. Of a total of 144,527 men and women free of cancer at baseline, 317 developed CRC during 5.3 years of follow-up. A case-cohort study (n=1,691) was used, consisting of participants with a DNA sample available. Three well-known SNPs (rs3802842, rs6983267, rs10795668) were genotyped. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CRC, colon and rectal cancer were calculated, with the Cox proportional hazard models. The crude incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were 41.1 overall, 48.4 for men, and 29.3 for women. Among participants with dysglycemia, SNPs rs3802842 and rs6983267 were both associated with an increased risk of CRC (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.5 and HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1, respectively) and rectal cancer (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8 to 6.6 and HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 7.1, respectively). The interaction effect of dysglycemia and SNPs was positive, that is, resulted in an elevated risk of CRC, but was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates that both high FSG and certain SNPs are major risk factors for CRC and rectal cancer but that they did not interact synergistically. The difference in effect size of the SNPs according to CRC subtype (i.e., colon or rectal cancer) and presence of dysglycemia merits further research.

  11. A high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism multiplex assay for parentage assignment in New Zealand sheep.

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    Shannon M Clarke

    Full Text Available Accurate pedigree information is critical to animal breeding systems to ensure the highest rate of genetic gain and management of inbreeding. The abundance of available genomic data, together with development of high throughput genotyping platforms, means that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are now the DNA marker of choice for genomic selection studies. Furthermore the superior qualities of SNPs compared to microsatellite markers allows for standardization between laboratories; a property that is crucial for developing an international set of markers for traceability studies. The objective of this study was to develop a high throughput SNP assay for use in the New Zealand sheep industry that gives accurate pedigree assignment and will allow a reduction in breeder input over lambing. This required two phases of development--firstly, a method of extracting quality DNA from ear-punch tissue performed in a high throughput cost efficient manner and secondly a SNP assay that has the ability to assign paternity to progeny resulting from mob mating. A likelihood based approach to infer paternity was used where sires with the highest LOD score (log of the ratio of the likelihood given parentage to likelihood given non-parentage are assigned. An 84 "parentage SNP panel" was developed that assigned, on average, 99% of progeny to a sire in a problem where there were 3,000 progeny from 120 mob mated sires that included numerous half sib sires. In only 6% of those cases was there another sire with at least a 0.02 probability of paternity. Furthermore dam information (either recorded, or by genotyping possible dams was absent, highlighting the SNP test's suitability for paternity testing. Utilization of this parentage SNP assay will allow implementation of progeny testing into large commercial farms where the improved accuracy of sire assignment and genetic evaluations will increase genetic gain in the sheep industry.

  12. A high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism multiplex assay for parentage assignment in New Zealand sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shannon M; Henry, Hannah M; Dodds, Ken G; Jowett, Timothy W D; Manley, Tim R; Anderson, Rayna M; McEwan, John C

    2014-01-01

    Accurate pedigree information is critical to animal breeding systems to ensure the highest rate of genetic gain and management of inbreeding. The abundance of available genomic data, together with development of high throughput genotyping platforms, means that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now the DNA marker of choice for genomic selection studies. Furthermore the superior qualities of SNPs compared to microsatellite markers allows for standardization between laboratories; a property that is crucial for developing an international set of markers for traceability studies. The objective of this study was to develop a high throughput SNP assay for use in the New Zealand sheep industry that gives accurate pedigree assignment and will allow a reduction in breeder input over lambing. This required two phases of development--firstly, a method of extracting quality DNA from ear-punch tissue performed in a high throughput cost efficient manner and secondly a SNP assay that has the ability to assign paternity to progeny resulting from mob mating. A likelihood based approach to infer paternity was used where sires with the highest LOD score (log of the ratio of the likelihood given parentage to likelihood given non-parentage) are assigned. An 84 "parentage SNP panel" was developed that assigned, on average, 99% of progeny to a sire in a problem where there were 3,000 progeny from 120 mob mated sires that included numerous half sib sires. In only 6% of those cases was there another sire with at least a 0.02 probability of paternity. Furthermore dam information (either recorded, or by genotyping possible dams) was absent, highlighting the SNP test's suitability for paternity testing. Utilization of this parentage SNP assay will allow implementation of progeny testing into large commercial farms where the improved accuracy of sire assignment and genetic evaluations will increase genetic gain in the sheep industry.

  13. Interaction of iron status with single nucleotide polymorphisms on incidence of type 2 diabetes.

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    Jihye Kim

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with a risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2D in Korean adults and to investigate the longitudinal association between these SNPs and T2D and the interaction effects of iron intake and average hemoglobin level. Data from the KoGES_Ansan and Ansung Study were used. Gene-iron interaction analysis was conducted using a two-step approach. To select candidate SNPs associated with T2D, a total of 7,935 adults at baseline were included in genome-wide association analysis (step one. After excluding T2D prevalent cases, prospective analyses were conducted with 7,024 adults aged 40-69 (step two. The association of selected SNPs and iron status with T2D and their interaction were determined using a Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 3 SNPs [rs9465871 (CDKAL1, rs10761745 (JMJD1C, and rs163177 (KCNQ1] were selected as candidate SNPs related to T2D. Among them, rs10761745 (JMJD1C and rs163177 (KCNQ1 were prospectively associated with T2D. High iron intake was also prospectively associated with the risk of T2D after adjusting for covariates. Average hemoglobin level was positively associated with T2D after adjusting for covariates in women. We also found significant interaction effects between rs10761745 (JMJD1C and average hemoglobin levels on the risk of T2D among women with normal inflammation and without anemia at baseline. In conclusion, KCNQ1 and JMJD1C may prospectively contribute to the risk of T2D incidence among adults over the age of 40 and JMJD1C, but CDKAL1 may not, and iron status may interactively contribute to T2D incidence in women.

  14. Correlation between prostate volume and single nucleotide polymorphisms implicated in the steroid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Audet-Walsh, Etienne; Drouin, Sarah; Bigot, Pierre; Valeri, Antoine; Fournier, Georges; Azzouzi, Abdel-Rahmène; Roupret, Morgan; Cormier, Luc; Chanock, Stephen; Guillemette, Chantal; Cussenot, Olivier; Lévesque, Eric; Cancel-Tassin, Géraldine

    2017-02-01

    A few preliminary studies have suggested a link between some genetics variants and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Our goal was to study the link between a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) implicated in the steroid pathway and accurate measurement of prostate volume in a cohort of men who underwent radical prostatectomy. Clinical and pathological data including prostate weight were obtained from 611 Caucasian patients with small volume, localized prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy. Patients were genotyped for 90 SNPs located inside or nearby genes implicated in the steroid pathway (Sequenom iPLEX). Correlation between prostate weight and genotypes from each SNP was studied by analysis of covariance, adjusted on age and tumor stage. A Bonferroni correction was applied, and the SNPs implicated were then incorporated in a multivariable model. Seven SNPs located in or nearby genes implicated in steroid hormone metabolism were significantly associated with prostate volume: HSD17B2 (rs1119933), ESR2 (rs8006145), SULT2B1 (rs279451), NQO1 (rs2917670), ESR1 (rs1569788), GSTP1 (rs1138272), and CYP19A1 (rs17523880). Significant association was maintained after multivariate analysis for four SNPs, indicating their independent association with prostate volume. The power of the association of each SNP with prostate volume was comparable to the effect of age. The strongest associations were found with variants in ESR1, ESR2, HSD17B2, and CYP19A1 genes, indicating a potential role of the estrogen signaling pathway in genesis of BPH. Our results are in favor of an implication of estrogen biotransformation and signaling pathways in the pathophysiology of BPH.

  15. EFIN: predicting the functional impact of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shuai; Yang, Jing; Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Lau, Yu Lung; Yang, Wanling

    2014-06-10

    Predicting the functional impact of amino acid substitutions (AAS) caused by nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) is becoming increasingly important as more and more novel variants are being discovered. Bioinformatics analysis is essential to predict potentially causal or contributing AAS to human diseases for further analysis, as for each genome, thousands of rare or private AAS exist and only a very small number of which are related to an underlying disease. Existing algorithms in this field still have high false prediction rate and novel development is needed to take full advantage of vast amount of genomic data. Here we report a novel algorithm that features two innovative changes: 1. making better use of sequence conservation information by grouping the homologous protein sequences into six blocks according to evolutionary distances to human and evaluating sequence conservation in each block independently, and 2. including as many such homologous sequences as possible in analyses. Random forests are used to evaluate sequence conservation in each block and to predict potential impact of an AAS on protein function. Testing of this algorithm on a comprehensive dataset showed significant improvement on prediction accuracy upon currently widely-used programs. The algorithm and a web-based application tool implementing it, EFIN (Evaluation of Functional Impact of Nonsynonymous SNPs) were made freely available (http://paed.hku.hk/efin/) to the public. Grouping homologous sequences into different blocks according to the evolutionary distance of the species to human and evaluating sequence conservation in each group independently significantly improved prediction accuracy. This approach may help us better understand the roles of genetic variants in human disease and health.

  16. Genetic analysis of glucosinolate variability in broccoli florets using genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allan F; Yousef, Gad G; Reid, Robert W; Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Thomas, Aswathy; Krueger, Christopher; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Jackson, Eric; Juvik, John A

    2015-07-01

    The identification of genetic factors influencing the accumulation of individual glucosinolates in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of glucosinolate levels in Brassica vegetables and will accelerate the development of vegetables with glucosinolate profiles tailored to promote human health. Quantitative trait loci analysis of glucosinolate (GSL) variability was conducted with a B. oleracea (broccoli) mapping population, saturated with single nucleotide polymorphism markers from a high-density array designed for rapeseed (Brassica napus). In 4 years of analysis, 14 QTLs were associated with the accumulation of aliphatic, indolic, or aromatic GSLs in floret tissue. The accumulation of 3-carbon aliphatic GSLs (2-propenyl and 3-methylsulfinylpropyl) was primarily associated with a single QTL on C05, but common regulation of 4-carbon aliphatic GSLs was not observed. A single locus on C09, associated with up to 40 % of the phenotypic variability of 2-hydroxy-3-butenyl GSL over multiple years, was not associated with the variability of precursor compounds. Similarly, QTLs on C02, C04, and C09 were associated with 4-methylsulfinylbutyl GSL concentration over multiple years but were not significantly associated with downstream compounds. Genome-specific SNP markers were used to identify candidate genes that co-localized to marker intervals and previously sequenced Brassica oleracea BAC clones containing known GSL genes (GSL-ALK, GSL-PRO, and GSL-ELONG) were aligned to the genomic sequence, providing support that at least three of our 14 QTLs likely correspond to previously identified GSL loci. The results demonstrate that previously identified loci do not fully explain GSL variation in broccoli. The identification of additional genetic factors influencing the accumulation of GSL in broccoli florets provides novel insight into the regulation of GSL levels in Brassicaceae and will accelerate development of vegetables with modified or enhanced GSL

  17. Molecular and pathological characterization of the EZH2 rs3757441 single nucleotide polymorphism in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Lorenzo; Faviana, Pinuccia; De Gregorio, Veronica; Vivaldi, Caterina; Paolicchi, Elisa; Masi, Gianluca; Loupakis, Fotios; Sensi, Elisa; Lupi, Cristiana; Fontanini, Gabriella; Wang, Yuzhuo; Danesi, Romano; Falcone, Alfredo; Crea, Francesco

    2015-11-09

    The enhancer of zeste-homolog 2 (EZH2) is involved in cancer development through gene silencing by trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3). The C/C genotype for the EZH2 rs3757441 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is linked with poor prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), but molecular and pathological characterization of this SNP is lacking. 119 primary CRCs were analyzed. SNP was evaluated by real-time PCR from colonic healthy tissue, while EZH2 and H3K27me3 expression were studied by immunohistochemistry. We primarily looked for correlation between EZH2 rs3757441 genotypes and EZH2/H3K27me3 expression. Potential associations between EZH2/H3K27me3 expression and clinico-pathological features or KRAS exon 2 and BRAF exon 15 mutations were secondary endpoints. Statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test, T-test or ANOVA. The C/C genotype was significantly associated with higher EZH2 (100 vs. 44 %; P = 0.019) and H3K27me3 (100 vs. 38 %; P = 0.009) staining intensity compared with C/T and T/T. EZH2 3+ staining significantly correlated with stronger H3K27me3 expression (P = 0.039). KRAS and BRAF mutations were not associated with EZH2 or H3K27me3 expression. EZH2 rs3757441 C/C genotype is associated with stronger EZH2 and H3K27me3 immunoreactivity in primary CRC: this SNP may serve as a promising biomarker for EZH2-targeting agents and may add independent information to KRAS and BRAF testing.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within interferon signaling pathway genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shun; Pardini, Barbara; Cheng, Bowang; Naccarati, Alessio; Huhn, Stefanie; Vymetalkova, Veronika; Vodickova, Ludmila; Buchler, Thomas; Hemminki, Kari; Vodicka, Pavel; Försti, Asta

    2014-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) signaling has been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to examine potentially functional genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF5, IRF7, type I and type II IFN and their receptor genes with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and clinical outcome. Altogether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were covered by the 34 SNPs genotyped in a hospital-based case-control study of 1327 CRC cases and 758 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 483 patients. Seven SNPs in IFNA1, IFNA13, IFNA21, IFNK, IFNAR1 and IFNGR1 were associated with CRC risk. After multiple testing correction, the associations with the SNPs rs2856968 (IFNAR1) and rs2234711 (IFNGR1) remained formally significant (P = 0.0015 and P<0.0001, respectively). Multivariable survival analyses showed that the SNP rs6475526 (IFNA7/IFNA14) was associated with overall survival of the patients (P = 0.041 and event-free survival among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, P = 0.034). The hazard ratios (HRs) for rs6475526 remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, gender, grade and stage (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036, respectively), suggesting that rs6475526 is an independent prognostic marker for CRC. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the IFN signaling pathway genes may play a role in the etiology and survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

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    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  20. Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms by high-resolution melting of small amplicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Michael; Pryor, Robert; Palais, Robert; Meadows, Cindy; Erali, Maria; Lyon, Elaine; Wittwer, Carl

    2004-07-01

    High-resolution melting of PCR amplicons with the DNA dye LCGreen I was recently introduced as a homogeneous, closed-tube method of genotyping that does not require probes or real-time PCR. We adapted this system to genotype single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after rapid-cycle PCR (12 min) of small amplicons (SNP base changes. In addition, clinical protocols for factor V (Leiden) 1691G>A, prothrombin 20210G>A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 1298A>C, hemochromatosis (HFE) 187C>G, and beta-globin (hemoglobin S) 17A>T were developed. LCGreen I was included in the reaction mixture before PCR, and high-resolution melting was obtained within 2 min after amplification. In all cases, heterozygotes were easily identified because heteroduplexes altered the shape of the melting curves. Approximately 84% of human SNPs involve a base exchange between A::T and G::C base pairs, and the homozygotes are easily genotyped by melting temperatures (T(m)s) that differ by 0.8-1.4 degrees C. However, in approximately 16% of SNPs, the bases only switch strands and preserve the base pair, producing very small T(m) differences between homozygotes (G protocol, but, as predicted from the sequence changes, was not needed for the other four clinical protocols. SNP genotyping by high-resolution melting analysis is simple, rapid, and inexpensive, requiring only PCR, a DNA dye, and melting instrumentation. The method is closed-tube, performed without probes or real-time PCR, and can be completed in less than 2 min after completion of PCR.

  1. Selected Melanocortin 1 Receptor Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Differentially Alter Multiple Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, J. R.; Fortin, J. P.; Beinborn, M.

    2012-01-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is a highly polymorphic G protein-coupled receptor, which is known to modulate pigmentation and inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of select single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (V60L, R163Q, and F196L). After transient expression of MC1Rs in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, basal and ligand-induced cAMP signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation were assessed by using luciferase reporter gene assays and Western blot analysis, respectively. All receptor variants showed decreased basal cAMP activity. With the V60L and F196L variants, the decrease in constitutive activity was attributable, at least in part, to a reduction in surface expression. The F196L variant also displayed a significant reduction in potency for both the peptide agonist α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and the small-molecule agonist 1-[1-(3-methyl-l-histidyl-O-methyl-d-tyrosyl)-4-phenyl-4-piperidinyl]-1-butanone (BMS-470539). In MAPK signaling assays, the F196L variant showed decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase levels after stimulation with either α-MSH or BMS-470539. In contrast, the R163Q variant displayed a selective loss of α-MSH-induced MAPK activation; whereas responsiveness to the small-molecule agonist BMS-470539 was preserved. Further assessment of MC1R variants in A549 cells, an in vitro model of inflammation, revealed an enhanced inflammatory response resulting from expression of the F196L variant (versus the wild-type MC1R). This alteration in function was restored by treatment with BMS-470539. Overall, these studies illustrate novel signaling profiles linked to distinct MC1R SNPs. Furthermore, our investigations highlight the potential for small-molecule drugs to rescue the function of MC1R variants that show reduced basal and/or α-MSH stimulated activity. PMID:22547573

  2. Correlating single nucleotide polymorphisms in the myostatin gene with performance traits in rabbit

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    E.M. Abdel-Kafy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Myostatin (MSTN, or Growth and Differentiation Factor 8 (GDF8, gene has been implicated in the double muscling phenomenon, in which a series of mutations render the gene inactive and unable to properly regulate muscle fibre deposition. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MSTN gene have been correlated to production traits, making it a candidate target gene to enhance livestock and fowl productivity. This study aimed to assess any association of three SNPs in the rabbit MSTN gene (c.713T>A in exon 2, c.747+34C>T in intron 2, and c.*194A>G in 3’-untranslated region and their combinations, with carcass, production and reproductive traits. The investigated traits included individual body weight, daily body weight gain, carcass traits and reproductive traits. The 3 SNPs were screened using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-based analysis and the effects of the different SNP genotypes and their combinations were estimated in a rabbit population. Additionally, additive and dominance effects were estimated for significant traits. The results found no significant association between the c.713 T>A SNP and all the examined traits. Allele T at the c.747+34C>T SNP was only significantly associated (PG, allele G was significantly associated (PG SNP also had positive effects on most carcass traits. The estimated additive genetic effect for the c.*194A>G SNP was significant (PA and c.747+34C>T, GG at the c.*194A>G SNP correlated with highest values in body weight and daily weight gain. In conclusion, the ‘G’ allele at the c.*194A>G SNP had positive effects on growth and carcass traits and so could be used as a favourable allele in planning rabbit selection. Further population-wide studies are necessary to test the association of the c.*194A>G SNP with carcass traits. We also recommend evaluation of the potential effects of the c.*194A>G SNP on MSTN gene expression.

  3. Identification of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammatory genes as risk factors associated with trachomatous trichiasis.

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    Berna Atik

    Full Text Available Trachoma is the leading preventable cause of global blindness. A balanced Th1/Th2/Th3 immune response is critical for resolving Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the primary cause of trachoma. Despite control programs that include mass antibiotic treatment, reinfection and recurrence of trachoma are common after treatment cessation. Furthermore, a subset of infected individuals develop inflammation and are at greater risk for developing the severe sequela of trachoma known as trachomatous trichiasis (TT. While there are a number of environmental and behavioral risk factors for trachoma, genetic factors that influence inflammation and TT risk remain ill defined.We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 36 candidate inflammatory genes and interactions among these SNPs that likely play a role in the overall risk for TT. We conducted a case control study of 538 individuals of Tharu ethnicity residing in an endemic region of Nepal. Trachoma was graded according to World Health Organization guidelines. A linear array was used to genotype 51 biallelic SNPs in the 36 genes. Analyses were performed using logic regression modeling, which controls for multiple comparisons. We present, to our knowledge, the first significant association of TNFA (-308GA, LTA (252A, VCAM1 (-1594TC, and IL9 (T113M polymorphisms, synergistic SNPs and risk of TT. TT risk decreased 5 times [odds ratio = 0.2 (95% confidence interval 0.11.-0.33, p = 0.001] with the combination of TNFA (-308A, LTA (252A, VCAM1 (-1594C, SCYA 11 (23T minor allele, and the combination of TNFA (-308A, IL9 (113M, IL1B (5'UTR-T, and VCAM1 (-1594C. However, TT risk increased 13.5 times [odds ratio = 13.5 (95% confidence interval 3.3-22, p = 0.001] with the combination of TNFA (-308G, VDR (intron G, IL4R (50V, and ICAM1 (56M minor allele.Evaluating genetic risk factors for trachoma will advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis, and should be considered in the context of designing global

  4. Correcting estimators of theta and Tajima's D for ascertainment biases caused by the single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez-Soriano, Anna; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Most single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data suffer from an ascertainment bias caused by the process of SNP discovery followed by SNP genotyping. The final genotyped data are biased toward an excess of common alleles compared to directly sequenced data, making standard genetic methods of analys...... the variances and covariances of these estimators and provide a corrected version of Tajima's D statistic. We reanalyze a human genomewide SNP data set and find substantial differences in the results with or without ascertainment bias correction....

  5. Genetic Characteristic of Indonesian Local Ducks Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Analysis in D-loop Region Mitochondria DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Purwantini, Dattadewi; Ismoyowati, Ismoyowati

    2014-01-01

    . Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik genetik dan polimorfisme itik lokal Indonesia yaitu itik Magelang, Tegal, Mojosari, Bali dan Alabio berdasarkan analisis Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) daerah D-loop mtDNA. Tujuan jangka panjangnya adalah menetapkan marker atau penanda genetik berdasarkan SNP daerah D-loop mtDNA spesifik yang dapat membedakan itik-itik lokal yang ada di Indonesia. Selanjutnya digunakan sebagai alat bantu seleksi untuk konservasi, pembibitan da...

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in bovine liver using RNA-seq technology.

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    Chandra Shekhar Pareek

    Full Text Available RNA-seq is a useful next-generation sequencing (NGS technology that has been widely used to understand mammalian transcriptome architecture and function. In this study, a breed-specific RNA-seq experiment was utilized to detect putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in liver tissue of young bulls of the Polish Red, Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF and Hereford breeds, and to understand the genomic variation in the three cattle breeds that may reflect differences in production traits.The RNA-seq experiment on bovine liver produced 107,114,4072 raw paired-end reads, with an average of approximately 60 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 345.06, 290.04 and 436.03 million paired-end reads were obtained from the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA read alignments showed that 81.35%, 82.81% and 84.21% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. This study identified 5,641,401 SNPs and insertion and deletion (indel positions expressed in the bovine liver with an average of 313,411 SNPs and indel per young bull. Following the removal of the indel mutations, a total of 195,3804, 152,7120 and 205,3184 raw SNPs expressed in bovine liver were identified for the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Breed-wise, three highly reliable breed-specific SNP-databases (SNP-dbs with 31,562, 24,945 and 28,194 SNP records were constructed for the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Using a combination of stringent parameters of a minimum depth of ≥10 mapping reads that support the polymorphic nucleotide base and 100% SNP ratio, 4,368, 3,780 and 3,800 SNP records were detected in the Polish Red, Polish HF, and Hereford breeds, respectively. The SNP detections using RNA-seq data were successfully validated by kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASPTM SNP genotyping assay. The

  7. G80A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Reduced Folate Carrier-1 Gene in a Mexican Population and its Impact on Survival in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Myrna; Ojeda, Juan; Gutiérrez-Hernández, Olga; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Vidal-Millán, Silvia; Dueñas-González, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Hyper-CVAD is the treatment for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in our institution. To evaluate the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms at genes associated with methotrexate metabolism on survival. The presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms G80A at reduced folate carrier-1 gene and C677T in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene was determined by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and validated by sequencing. Both single nucleotide polymorphisms were evaluated in 71 healthy donors and in an exploratory pilot trial with acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients to determine the influence of these single nucleotide polymorphisms on clinical outcome. Clinical characteristics, response, and outcome were registered. A Cox regression analysis was done to evaluate factors influencing response and overall survival. There were no differences in the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms between volunteers and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients according to the Hardy-Weinberg test. Sensitivity and specificity were 72 and 91% for the G80A, and 64 and 75% for the C677T, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the T-immunophenotype and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphism G80A reduced folate carrier-1 were associated with a shorter relapse-free survival and overall survival. The presence of G80A single nucleotide polymorphism at reduced folate carrier-1 gene in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients was associated with a poorer prognosis.

  8. Mouse SNP Miner: an annotated database of mouse functional single nucleotide polymorphisms

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    Ramensky Vasily E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mapping of quantitative trait loci in rat and mouse has been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions associated with human disease-related phenotypes. However, identifying the specific phenotype-causing DNA sequence variations within a quantitative trait locus has been much more difficult. The recent availability of genomic sequence from several mouse inbred strains (including C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J has made it possible to catalog DNA sequence differences within a quantitative trait locus derived from crosses between these strains. However, even for well-defined quantitative trait loci ( Description To help identify functional DNA sequence variations within quantitative trait loci we have used the Ensembl annotated genome sequence to compile a database of mouse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, or splice site mutations (available at http://bioinfo.embl.it/SnpApplet/. For missense mutations we have used the PolyPhen and PANTHER algorithms to predict whether amino acid changes are likely to disrupt protein function. Conclusion We have developed a database of mouse SNPs predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations. Our analysis revealed that 20% and 14% of missense SNPs are likely to be deleterious according to PolyPhen and PANTHER, respectively, and 6% are considered deleterious by both algorithms. The database also provides gene expression and functional annotations from the Symatlas, Gene Ontology, and OMIM databases to further assess candidate phenotype-causing mutations. To demonstrate its utility, we show that Mouse SNP Miner successfully finds a previously identified candidate SNP in the taste receptor, Tas1r3, that underlies sucrose preference in the C57BL/6J strain. We also use Mouse SNP Miner to derive a list of candidate phenotype-causing mutations within a previously

  9. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

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    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  10. Mining of haplotype-based expressed sequence tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunxian; Gmitter, Fred G

    2013-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant variations in a genome, have been widely used in various studies. Detection and characterization of citrus haplotype-based expressed sequence tag (EST) SNPs will greatly facilitate further utilization of these gene-based resources. In this paper, haplotype-based SNPs were mined out of publicly available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different citrus cultivars (genotypes) individually and collectively for comparison. There were a total of 567,297 ESTs belonging to 27 cultivars in varying numbers and consequentially yielding different numbers of haplotype-based quality SNPs. Sweet orange (SO) had the most (213,830) ESTs, generating 11,182 quality SNPs in 3,327 out of 4,228 usable contigs. Summed from all the individually mining results, a total of 25,417 quality SNPs were discovered - 15,010 (59.1%) were transitions (AG and CT), 9,114 (35.9%) were transversions (AC, GT, CG, and AT), and 1,293 (5.0%) were insertion/deletions (indels). A vast majority of SNP-containing contigs consisted of only 2 haplotypes, as expected, but the percentages of 2 haplotype contigs varied widely in these citrus cultivars. BLAST of the 25,417 25-mer SNP oligos to the Clementine reference genome scaffolds revealed 2,947 SNPs had "no hits found", 19,943 had 1 unique hit / alignment, 1,571 had one hit and 2+ alignments per hit, and 956 had 2+ hits and 1+ alignment per hit. Of the total 24,293 scaffold hits, 23,955 (98.6%) were on the main scaffolds 1 to 9, and only 338 were on 87 minor scaffolds. Most alignments had 100% (25/25) or 96% (24/25) nucleotide identities, accounting for 93% of all the alignments. Considering almost all the nucleotide discrepancies in the 24/25 alignments were at the SNP sites, it served well as in silico validation of these SNPs, in addition to and consistent with the rate (81%) validated by sequencing and SNaPshot assay. High-quality EST-SNPs from different citrus genotypes were detected, and

  11. Mining of haplotype-based expressed sequence tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most abundant variations in a genome, have been widely used in various studies. Detection and characterization of citrus haplotype-based expressed sequence tag (EST) SNPs will greatly facilitate further utilization of these gene-based resources. Results In this paper, haplotype-based SNPs were mined out of publicly available citrus expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different citrus cultivars (genotypes) individually and collectively for comparison. There were a total of 567,297 ESTs belonging to 27 cultivars in varying numbers and consequentially yielding different numbers of haplotype-based quality SNPs. Sweet orange (SO) had the most (213,830) ESTs, generating 11,182 quality SNPs in 3,327 out of 4,228 usable contigs. Summed from all the individually mining results, a total of 25,417 quality SNPs were discovered – 15,010 (59.1%) were transitions (AG and CT), 9,114 (35.9%) were transversions (AC, GT, CG, and AT), and 1,293 (5.0%) were insertion/deletions (indels). A vast majority of SNP-containing contigs consisted of only 2 haplotypes, as expected, but the percentages of 2 haplotype contigs varied widely in these citrus cultivars. BLAST of the 25,417 25-mer SNP oligos to the Clementine reference genome scaffolds revealed 2,947 SNPs had “no hits found”, 19,943 had 1 unique hit / alignment, 1,571 had one hit and 2+ alignments per hit, and 956 had 2+ hits and 1+ alignment per hit. Of the total 24,293 scaffold hits, 23,955 (98.6%) were on the main scaffolds 1 to 9, and only 338 were on 87 minor scaffolds. Most alignments had 100% (25/25) or 96% (24/25) nucleotide identities, accounting for 93% of all the alignments. Considering almost all the nucleotide discrepancies in the 24/25 alignments were at the SNP sites, it served well as in silico validation of these SNPs, in addition to and consistent with the rate (81%) validated by sequencing and SNaPshot assay. Conclusions High-quality EST-SNPs from different

  12. An integrated database-pipeline system for studying single nucleotide polymorphisms and diseases

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    Oh Jeongsu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the relationship between disease and genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are important. Genetic variations can cause disease by influencing important biological regulation processes. Despite the needs for analyzing SNP and disease correlation, most existing databases provide information only on functional variants at specific locations on the genome, or deal with only a few genes associated with disease. There is no combined resource to widely support gene-, SNP-, and disease-related information, and to capture relationships among such data. Therefore, we developed an integrated database-pipeline system for studying SNPs and diseases. Results To implement the pipeline system for the integrated database, we first unified complicated and redundant disease terms and gene names using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS for classification and noun modification, and the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC and NCBI gene databases. Next, we collected and integrated representative databases for three categories of information. For genes and proteins, we examined the NCBI mRNA, UniProt, UCSC Table Track and MitoDat databases. For genetic variants we used the dbSNP, JSNP, ALFRED, and HGVbase databases. For disease, we employed OMIM, GAD, and HGMD databases. The database-pipeline system provides a disease thesaurus, including genes and SNPs associated with disease. The search results for these categories are available on the web page http://diseasome.kobic.re.kr/, and a genome browser is also available to highlight findings, as well as to permit the convenient review of potentially deleterious SNPs among genes strongly associated with specific diseases and clinical phenotypes. Conclusion Our system is designed to capture the relationships between SNPs associated with disease and disease-causing genes. The integrated database-pipeline provides a list of candidate genes and SNP markers for

  13. Genomic expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism profiling discriminates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma

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    Thiounn Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC and renal oncocytoma are two distinct but closely related entities with strong morphologic and genetic similarities. While chRCC is a malignant tumor, oncocytoma is usually regarded as a benign entity. The overlapping characteristics are best explained by a common cellular origin, and the biologic differences between chRCC and oncocytoma are therefore of considerable interest in terms of carcinogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. Previous studies have been relatively limited in terms of examining the differences between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. Methods Gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix HGU133Plus2 platform was applied on chRCC (n = 15 and oncocytoma specimens (n = 15. Supervised analysis was applied to identify a discriminatory gene signature, as well as differentially expressed genes. High throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping was performed on independent samples (n = 14 using Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 100 K arrays to assess correlation between expression and gene copy number. Immunohistochemical validation was performed in an independent set of tumors. Results A novel 14 probe-set signature was developed to classify the tumors internally with 93% accuracy, and this was successfully validated on an external data-set with 94% accuracy. Pathway analysis highlighted clinically relevant dysregulated pathways of c-erbB2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling in chRCC, but no significant differences in p-AKT or extracellular HER2 expression was identified on immunohistochemistry. Loss of chromosome 1p, reflected in both cytogenetic and expression analysis, is common to both entities, implying this may be an early event in histogenesis. Multiple regional areas of cytogenetic alterations and corresponding expression biases differentiating the two entities were identified. Parafibromin, aquaporin 6, and synaptogyrin 3 were novel

  14. Genomic expression and single-nucleotide polymorphism profiling discriminates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Min-Han; Wong, Chin Fong; Tan, Hwei Ling; Yang, Ximing J; Ditlev, Jonathon; Matsuda, Daisuke; Khoo, Sok Kean; Sugimura, Jun; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Furge, Kyle A; Kort, Eric; Giraud, Sophie; Ferlicot, Sophie; Vielh, Philippe; Amsellem-Ouazana, Delphine; Debré, Bernard; Flam, Thierry; Thiounn, Nicolas; Zerbib, Marc; Benoît, Gérard; Droupy, Stéphane; Molinié, Vincent; Vieillefond, Annick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Richard, Stéphane; Teh, Bin Tean

    2010-05-12

    Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma are two distinct but closely related entities with strong morphologic and genetic similarities. While chRCC is a malignant tumor, oncocytoma is usually regarded as a benign entity. The overlapping characteristics are best explained by a common cellular origin, and the biologic differences between chRCC and oncocytoma are therefore of considerable interest in terms of carcinogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. Previous studies have been relatively limited in terms of examining the differences between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC. Gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix HGU133Plus2 platform was applied on chRCC (n = 15) and oncocytoma specimens (n = 15). Supervised analysis was applied to identify a discriminatory gene signature, as well as differentially expressed genes. High throughput single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed on independent samples (n = 14) using Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 100 K arrays to assess correlation between expression and gene copy number. Immunohistochemical validation was performed in an independent set of tumors. A novel 14 probe-set signature was developed to classify the tumors internally with 93% accuracy, and this was successfully validated on an external data-set with 94% accuracy. Pathway analysis highlighted clinically relevant dysregulated pathways of c-erbB2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in chRCC, but no significant differences in p-AKT or extracellular HER2 expression was identified on immunohistochemistry. Loss of chromosome 1p, reflected in both cytogenetic and expression analysis, is common to both entities, implying this may be an early event in histogenesis. Multiple regional areas of cytogenetic alterations and corresponding expression biases differentiating the two entities were identified. Parafibromin, aquaporin 6, and synaptogyrin 3 were novel immunohistochemical markers effectively discriminating

  15. Prevalence of single nucleotide polymorphism among 27 diverse alfalfa genotypes as assessed by transcriptome sequencing

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    Li Xuehui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alfalfa, a perennial, outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume producing highly nutritious biomass. Currently, improvement of cultivated alfalfa mainly relies on recurrent phenotypic selection. Marker assisted breeding strategies can enhance alfalfa improvement efforts, particularly if many genome-wide markers are available. Transcriptome sequencing enables efficient high-throughput discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for a complex polyploid species. Result The transcriptomes of 27 alfalfa genotypes, including elite breeding genotypes, parents of mapping populations, and unimproved wild genotypes, were sequenced using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. De novo assembly of quality-filtered 72-bp reads generated 25,183 contigs with a total length of 26.8 Mbp and an average length of 1,065 bp, with an average read depth of 55.9-fold for each genotype. Overall, 21,954 (87.2% of the 25,183 contigs represented 14,878 unique protein accessions. Gene ontology (GO analysis suggested that a broad diversity of genes was represented in the resulting sequences. The realignment of individual reads to the contigs enabled the detection of 872,384 SNPs and 31,760 InDels. High resolution melting (HRM analysis was used to validate 91% of 192 putative SNPs identified by sequencing. Both allelic variants at about 95% of SNP sites identified among five wild, unimproved genotypes are still present in cultivated alfalfa, and all four US breeding programs also contain a high proportion of these SNPs. Thus, little evidence exists among this dataset for loss of significant DNA sequence diversity from either domestication or breeding of alfalfa. Structure analysis indicated that individuals from the subspecies falcata, the diploid subspecies caerulea, and the tetraploid subspecies sativa (cultivated tetraploid alfalfa were clearly separated. Conclusion We used transcriptome sequencing to discover large numbers of SNPs

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  17. miRNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, John Paul; SanGiovanni, Peter M; Sapieha, Przemysław; De Guire, Vincent

    2017-05-01

    Advanced age-related macular degeneration (AAMD) is a complex sight-threating disease of public health significance. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as biomarkers for AAMD. The presence of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may influence the explanatory value of these biomarkers. Here we present findings from an integrated approach used to determine whether AAMD-associated SNPs have the capacity to influence miRNA-mRNA pairing and, if so, to what extent such pairing may be manifested in a discrete AAMD transcriptome. Using a panel of 8854 SNPs associated with AAMD at p-values ≤5.0E-7 from a cohort of >30,000 elderly people, we identified SNPs in miRNA target-encoding constituents of: (1) regulator of complement activation (RCA) genes (rs390679, CFHR1, p≤2.14E-214 | rs12140421, CFHR3, p≤4.63E-29); (2) genes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci (rs4151672, CFB, p≤8.91E-41 | rs115404146, HLA-C, p≤6.32E-12 | rs1055821, HLA-B, p≤1.93E-9 | rs1063355, HLA-DQB1, p≤6.82E-14); and (3) genes of the 10q26 AAMD locus (rs1045216, PLEKHA1, p≤4.17E-142 | rs2672603, ARMS2, p≤7.14E-46). We used these findings with existing data on AAMD-related retinal miRNA and transcript profiles for the purpose of making inferences on SNP-mRNA-miRNA-AAMD relationships. Four of 12 miRNAs significantly elevated in AAMD retina (hsa-miR-155-5p, hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-let-7b-5p hsa-let-7d-5p) also showed strong pairing capacity (TarBase 7.1 context++ score 150) with miRNA target transcripts encoded by AAMD-associated SNPs resident in HLA-DQB1 (rs1063355, hsa-miR-155-5p) and TGFBR1 (rs868, hsa-let-7). Three of the 12 miRNAs overexpressed in AAMD retina are inducible by NFkB and have high affinity targets in the complement factor H (CFH) mRNA 3' UTR. We used ENSEMBL to identify polymorphic regions in the CFH mRNA 3' UTR with the capacity to disrupt miRNA-mRNA pairing. Two variants (rs766666504 and rs459598) existed in DNA sequence encoding the seed region of hsa

  18. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE CLOCK 3111T/C SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Renee Ozburn; Kush ePurohit; Parekh, Puja K.; Kaplan, Gabrielle N.; Edgardo eFalcon; Shibani eMukherjee; Cates, Hannah M.; Colleen A McClung

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disruptions are prominently associated with Bipolar Disorder (BD). Circadian rhythms are regulated by the molecular clock, a family of proteins that function together in a transcriptional-translational feedback loop. The CLOCK protein is a key transcription factor of this feedback loop, and previous studies have found that manipulations of the Clock gene are sufficient to produce manic-like behavior in mice (Roybal et al., 2007). The Clock 3111T/C single-nucleotide polymorphi...

  19. Identification and association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain3 (CAPN3 gene with carcass traits in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hua-Rui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3 gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99 and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken, China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW, breast muscle weight (BMW, and leg muscle weight (LMW. Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT were associated with BW, CW (P P Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s. Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery in Bovine Pituitary Gland Using RNA-Seq Technology.

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    Chandra Shekhar Pareek

    Full Text Available Examination of bovine pituitary gland transcriptome by strand-specific RNA-seq allows detection of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within potential candidate genes (CGs or QTLs regions as well as to understand the genomics variations that contribute to economic trait. Here we report a breed-specific model to successfully perform the detection of SNPs in the pituitary gland of young growing bulls representing Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds at three developmental ages viz., six months, nine months, and twelve months. A total of 18 bovine pituitary gland polyA transcriptome libraries were prepared and sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. Sequenced FastQ databases of all 18 young bulls were submitted to NCBI-SRA database with NCBI-SRA accession numbers SRS1296732. For the investigated young bulls, a total of 113,882,3098 raw paired-end reads with a length of 156 bases were obtained, resulting in an approximately 63 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 515.38, 215.39, and 408.04 million paired-end reads were obtained for Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA read alignments showed 93.04%, 94.39%, and 83.46% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Constructed breed-specific SNP-db of three cattle breeds yielded at 13,775,885 SNPs. On an average 765,326 breed-specific SNPs per young bull were identified. Using two stringent filtering parameters, i.e., a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy ≥ 90% and a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy = 100%, SNP-db records were trimmed to construct a highly reliable SNP-db. This resulted in a reduction of 95,7% and 96,4% cut-off mark of constructed raw SNP-db. Finally, SNP discoveries using RNA-Seq data were validated by KASP™ SNP genotyping assay. The comprehensive QTLs/CGs analysis

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery in Bovine Pituitary Gland Using RNA-Seq Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Smoczyński, Rafał; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Dziuba, Piotr; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Sikora, Marcin; Walendzik, Paulina; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Pierzchała, Mariusz; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogluszka, Magdalena; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Czarnik, Urszula; Fraser, Leyland; Sobiech, Przemysław; Wąsowicz, Krzysztof; Gelfand, Brian; Feng, Yaping; Kumar, Dibyendu

    2016-01-01

    Examination of bovine pituitary gland transcriptome by strand-specific RNA-seq allows detection of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within potential candidate genes (CGs) or QTLs regions as well as to understand the genomics variations that contribute to economic trait. Here we report a breed-specific model to successfully perform the detection of SNPs in the pituitary gland of young growing bulls representing Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF), Polish Red, and Hereford breeds at three developmental ages viz., six months, nine months, and twelve months. A total of 18 bovine pituitary gland polyA transcriptome libraries were prepared and sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. Sequenced FastQ databases of all 18 young bulls were submitted to NCBI-SRA database with NCBI-SRA accession numbers SRS1296732. For the investigated young bulls, a total of 113,882,3098 raw paired-end reads with a length of 156 bases were obtained, resulting in an approximately 63 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 515.38, 215.39, and 408.04 million paired-end reads were obtained for Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA) read alignments showed 93.04%, 94.39%, and 83.46% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Constructed breed-specific SNP-db of three cattle breeds yielded at 13,775,885 SNPs. On an average 765,326 breed-specific SNPs per young bull were identified. Using two stringent filtering parameters, i.e., a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy ≥ 90% and a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy = 100%, SNP-db records were trimmed to construct a highly reliable SNP-db. This resulted in a reduction of 95,7% and 96,4% cut-off mark of constructed raw SNP-db. Finally, SNP discoveries using RNA-Seq data were validated by KASP™ SNP genotyping assay. The comprehensive QTLs/CGs analysis of 76 QTLs

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Chang, S.; Kampman, E.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

  3. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism rs2479106 and PCOS in Caucasian patients with PCOS or hirsutism as referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette B; Brusgaard, Klaus; Andersen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women. A recent study found association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCOS in a cohort of Han Chinese women.......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women. A recent study found association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCOS in a cohort of Han Chinese women....

  4. Lack of Association of OPRM1 and ABCB1 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Oxycodone Response in Postoperative Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Stine T; Enggaard, Thomas P; Mikkelsen, Soeren

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to search for an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphisms A118G in OPRM1 and C3435T and G2677T/A in ABCB1 and the analgesic effect of intravenous oxycodone in postoperative pain. Methods: There were 268 patients with postoperative pain after......, primarily, thyroidectomy. At given times during the first 24 hours postoperatively, their pain was rated at rest and during activity according to a numeric rating scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain) and calculated as pain time area under the curve(0-24 hours). A negative answer in a final...

  5. Analysis of Horse Myostatin Gene and Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Breeds of Different Morphological Types

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Dall'Olio; Luca Fontanesi; Leonardo Nanni Costa; Marco Tassinari; Laura Minieri; Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T > C and GQ183900:g.156T > C, the latter loc...

  6. Melon Transcriptome Characterization: Simple Sequence Repeats and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Discovery for High Throughput Genotyping across the Species

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    José Miguel Blanca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Melon ( L. ranks among the highest-valued fruit crops worldwide. Some genomic tools are available for this crop, including a Sanger transcriptome. We report the generation of 689,054 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs from two 454 sequencing runs, using normalized and nonnormalized complementary DNA (cDNA libraries prepared from four genotypes belonging to the two subspecies and the main commercial types. 454 ESTs were combined with the Sanger available ESTs and de novo assembled into 53,252 unigenes. Over 63% of the unigenes were functionally annotated with Gene Ontology (GO terms and 21% had known orthologs of (L. Heynh. Annotation distribution followed similar tendencies than that reported for , suggesting that the dataset represents a fairly complete melon transcriptome. Furthermore, we identified a set of 3298 unigenes with microsatellite motifs and 14,417 sequences with single nucleotide variants of which 11,655 single nucleotide polymorphism met criteria for use with high-throughput genotyping platforms, and 453 could be detected as cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS. A set of markers were validated, 90% of them being polymorphic in a number of variable accessions. This transcriptome provides an invaluable new tool for biological research, more so when it includes transcripts not described previously. It is being used for genome annotation and has provided a large collection of markers that will allow speeding up the process of breeding new melon varieties.

  7. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of some immune response genes in a population sample from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Léa Campos de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha -308 G/A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Risk of Sperm Abnormalities in Iranian Males

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    Maryam Khademi Bami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Signaling molecules such as cytokines regulate spermatogenesis during the maturation of germ cells and sperm apoptosis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα is one of the most-documented cytokines that is involved in spermatogenesis. We investigated the association of the TNFα -308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphism with sperm abnormalities in Iranian males. Materials and Methods This case-control study included 180 infertile men who re- ferred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility and 100 healthy normospermic controls. Infertile men were classified into four groups of azoospermia (n=91, oligospermia (n=26, teratospermia (n=30 and asthenoteratospermia (n=33. After sperm analysis, DNA was extracted from blood and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was carried out for the genotyping of TNFα- 308 G/A. Results The A allele was significantly associated with sperm abnormality in our population [(P<0.001, odds ratios (OR 95% confidence interval (CI=2.31]. In addition, the A allele was also associated with azoospermia (P<0.001, OR (95% CI=2.484, oligospermia (P=0.005, OR (95% CI=2.51 and teratospemia (P<0.001, OR (95% CI=3.385 but not with asthenoteratospermia (P=0.623. Conclusion Our data suggest that this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP maybe associated with the risk of sperm abnormality in infertile men of Iranian origin.

  9. A non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in IFNAR1 affects susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Smith, D K; Lu, L; Poon, V K M; Ng, F; Chen, D-Q; Huang, J-D; Yuen, K-Y; Cao, K-Y; Zheng, B-J

    2009-01-01

    The type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) receptor 1 (IFNAR1) mediates the potent antiviral and immuno-regulatory effects of IFN-alpha/beta that are believed to be pivotal to eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. IFNAR1 promoter polymorphisms (at -568/-77) have been shown to be associated with susceptibility to chronic HBV infection; however, whether these markers are genetic determinants of HBV infection remains unknown. The functional significance of promoter -568/-77 polymorphisms was assessed by mutagenesis and luciferase assays. Sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 328 chronic HBV patients, 130 spontaneous resolvers and 148 healthy blood donors identified other polymorphism at IFNAR1 open reading frame. IFNAR1 expression levels in peripheral blood cells were detected by flow cytometry. We found that the -568/-77 promoter variants were unlikely to affect transcription levels. A C/G single nucleotide polymorphism, in strong linkage disequilibrium with the promoter polymorphisms, was found in the coding sequence of IFNAR1 (nt19158). This resulted in a nonsynonymous substitution in the extracellular region of IFNAR1 protein and correlated with susceptibility to chronic HBV infection. Bioinformatic analysis suggested decreased stability of the IFNAR1 protein. Chronic HBV patients with the 19158C/C genotype (Leu141) exhibited higher IFNAR1 protein expression levels in peripheral blood monocytes than those with the 19158G/G genotype (Val141). In conclusion, IFNAR1 19158C/G polymorphism is primarily associated with susceptibility to chronic HBV infection.

  10. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and DNA methylation markers associated with central obesity and regulation of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Milagro, Fermín I; Cuervo, Marta; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    Visceral fat is strongly associated with the development of specific obesity-related metabolic alterations. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms seem to be involved in the development of obesity and visceral adiposity. The aims of this review are to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to central obesity and to summarize the main findings on DNA methylation and obesity. A search of the MEDLINE database was conducted to identify genome-wide association studies, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, and gene-diet interaction studies related to central obesity, and, in addition, studies that analyzed DNA methylation in relation to body weight regulation. A total of 8 genome-wide association studies and 9 meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies reported numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms to be associated with central obesity. Ten studies analyzed gene-diet interactions and central obesity, while 2 epigenome-wide association studies analyzed DNA methylation patterns and obesity. Nine studies investigated the relationship between DNA methylation and weight loss, excess body weight, or adiposity outcomes. Given the development of new sequencing and omics technologies, significantly more knowledge on genomics and epigenomics of obesity and body fat distribution will emerge in the near future. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based concurrent screening of 24-chromosome aneuploidy and unbalanced translocations in preimplantation human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, Nathan R; Northrop, Lesley E; Kasabwala, Khushabu; Su, Jing; Levy, Brynn; Scott, Richard T

    2011-04-01

    To develop, validate, and apply a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray-based method for simultaneous preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of unbalanced inheritance of rearranged chromosomes and 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening. Prospective clinical research study. Academic reproductive medicine center. Eighteen couples carrying a balanced reciprocal or Robertsonian chromosomal rearrangement. PGD on blastocyst trophectoderm biopsy specimens. Aneuploidy, implantation, pregnancy, and delivery rates after SNP microarray-based aneuploidy and translocation screening. Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray was capable of detecting translocation-associated imbalances as small as 9.0 megabases. In the 12 transfers performed, sustained implantation occurred for 9 (45%) of 20 balanced-normal and euploid embryos replaced. The clinical pregnancy rate in patients receiving a transfer was 75% with six singleton deliveries and three ongoing singleton pregnancies thus far. Significantly fewer embryos were eligible for transfer with the incorporation of simultaneous 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening. Arrested embryos were also significantly more likely to possess unbalanced chromosomes when compared with developmentally competent blastocysts. This SNP microarray-based method provides the first opportunity to improve outcomes through comprehensive identification of euploid embryos from translocation carrier couples. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. VCS: Tool for Visualizing Copy Number Variation and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism

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    HyoYoung Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variation (CNV or single nucleotide phlyorphism (SNP is useful genetic resource to aid in understanding complex phenotypes or deseases susceptibility. Although thousands of CNVs and SNPs are currently avaliable in the public databases, they are somewhat difficult to use for analyses without visualization tools. We developed a web-based tool called the VCS (visualization of CNV or SNP to visualize the CNV or SNP detected. The VCS tool can assist to easily interpret a biological meaning from the numerical value of CNV and SNP. The VCS provides six visualization tools: i the enrichment of genome contents in CNV; ii the physical distribution of CNV or SNP on chromosomes; iii the distribution of log2 ratio of CNVs with criteria of interested; iv the number of CNV or SNP per binning unit; v the distribution of homozygosity of SNP genotype; and vi cytomap of genes within CNV or SNP region.

  13. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Growth Hormone Gene and Their Association with Growth Traits in Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky

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    Changxu Tian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH has been considered as a candidate gene for growth traits in fish. In this study, polymorphisms of the GH gene were evaluated for associations with growth traits in 282 Siniperca chuatsi individuals. Using directly sequencing, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in GH gene, with two mutations in intron 4 (g.4940A>C, g.4948A>T, one mutation in exon 5 (g.5045T>C and one in intron 5 (g.5234T>G. Notably, three of them were significantly associated with growth performance, particularly for g.4940A>C which was highly correlated with all the four growth traits. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these SNPs in GH gene could influence growth performance of S.chuatsi and could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS in this species.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism-specific regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by multiple miRNAs targeting the coding exon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, Tyler; Warren, Christopher; Yang, Jay

    2014-05-01

    Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) work with exquisite specificity and are able to distinguish a target from a non-target based on a single nucleotide mismatch in the core nucleotide domain. We questioned whether miRNA regulation of gene expression could occur in a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific manner, manifesting as a post-transcriptional control of expression of genetic polymorphisms. In our recent study of the functional consequences of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 SNPs, we discovered that expression of a coding exon SNP in the pro-domain of the protein resulted in a profound decrease in the secreted protein. This missense SNP results in the N38S amino acid change and a loss of an N-glycosylation site. A systematic study demonstrated that the loss of secreted protein was due not to the loss of an N-glycosylation site, but rather an SNP-specific targeting by miR-671-3p and miR-657. Bioinformatics analysis identified 41 SNP-specific miRNA targeting MMP-9 SNPs, mostly in the coding exon and an extension of the analysis to chromosome 20, where the MMP-9 gene is located, suggesting that SNP-specific miRNAs targeting the coding exon are prevalent. This selective post-transcriptional regulation of a target messenger RNA harboring genetic polymorphisms by miRNAs offers an SNP-dependent post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, allowing for polymorphic-specific differential gene regulation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms are related to upregulation of constitutive IL-10 production and susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Shirleide; Marques, Cintia Rodrigues; Silva, Thiago Magalhães; Costa, Ryan Santos; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Barnes, Kathleen Carole; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a strong risk factor for gastric cancer, likely due to the extensive inflammation in the stomach mucosa caused by these bacteria. Many studies have reported an association between IL10 polymorphisms, the risk of gastric cancer, and IL-10 production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between IL10 genetic variants, Helicobacter pylori infection, and IL-10 production by peripheral blood leukocytes in children. We genotyped a total of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL10 in 1259 children aged 4-11 years living in a poor urban area in Salvador, Brazil, using TaqMan probe based, 5' nuclease assay minor groove binder chemistry. Association tests were performed by logistic regression for Helicobacter pylori infection and linear regression for IL-10 spontaneous production (whole-blood cultures) including sex, age, and principal components for informative ancestry markers as covariates, using PLINK. Our results shown that IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1800896 (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.11-2.39), rs3024491 (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.14-2.57), rs1878672 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.19-2.68), and rs3024496 (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.05-2.08) were positively associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with spontaneous production of IL-10 in culture, of which three (rs1800896 and rs1878672, p = .04; rs3024491, p = .01) were strongly associated with infection by Helicobacter pylori. Our results indicate that IL10 variants rs1800896, rs3024491, rs1878672, and rs3024496 are more consistently associated with the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG by inducing increased production of IL-10. Further studies are underway to elucidate the role of additional genetic variants and to investigate their impact on the occurrence of gastric cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. ERCC1 and XRCC1 but not XPA single nucleotide polymorphisms correlate with response to chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liang Chen,1 Mei-Mei Liu,1 Hui Liu,1 Dan Lu,2 Xiao-Dan Zhao,3 Xue-Jing Yang4 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Department of Oncology, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, 4Nursing Department, Harbin Chest Hospital, Harbin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Our study aimed to investigate the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms of ERCC1/XRCC1/XPA genes and postoperative chemotherapy efficacy and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma. Our study included 108 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 100 healthy participants. ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487/XPA rs1800975 gene polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Then the chemotherapy efficacy and toxic effects of the patients were assessed. The genotype and allele frequency of ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487 in the case group were significantly different from that in the control group (all P<0.05. The patients with AA + GA in ERCC1 rs11615 had an increased risk of endometrial carcinoma than those with GG, and the risk of endometrial carcinoma for patients with AA + GA was also higher in comparison with patients with GG genotype in XRCC1 rs25487 (all P<0.05. GG on both ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487 had a higher effective rate of chemotherapy than GA + AA (all P<0.05. ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487 gene polymorphisms were linked with toxic effects in liver, kidney, and nervous system. ERCC1 rs11615/XRCC1 rs25487, muscular invasion, and tumor stage were independent risk factors for the prognosis of endometrial carcinoma (all P<0.05. However, no significant associations were observed between XPA rs1800975 polymorphism and chemotherapy efficacy and prognosis of endometrial carcinoma (all P>0.05. These results indicated that ERCC1 and XRCC1 but not XPA polymorphisms correlate with response to chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma. Keywords: ERCC1, XRCC1, XPA, single nucleotide

  17. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Microarray Ploidy Analysis of Paraffin-Embedded Products of Conception in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Budinetz, Tara; Sueldo, Carolina; Anspach, Erica; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Nulsen, John C

    2015-07-01

    To compare the analysis of chromosome number from paraffin-embedded products of conception using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray with the recommended screening for the evaluation of couples presenting with recurrent pregnancy loss who do not have previous fetal cytogenetic data. We performed a retrospective cohort study including all women who presented for a new evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss over a 2-year period (January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013). All participants had at least two documented first-trimester losses and both the recommended screening tests and SNP microarray performed on at least one paraffin-embedded products of conception sample. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray identifies all 24 chromosomes (22 autosomes, X, and Y). Forty-two women with a total of 178 losses were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded products of conception from 62 losses were sent for SNP microarray. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray successfully diagnosed fetal chromosome number in 71% (44/62) of samples, of which 43% (19/44) were euploid and 57% (25/44) were noneuploid. Seven of 42 (17%) participants had abnormalities on recurrent pregnancy loss screening. The per-person detection rate for a cause of pregnancy loss was significantly higher in the SNP microarray (0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.64) compared with recurrent pregnancy loss evaluation (0.17; 95% CI 0.08-0.31) (P=.002). Participants with one or more euploid loss identified on paraffin-embedded products of conception were significantly more likely to have an abnormality on recurrent pregnancy loss screening than those with only noneuploid results (P=.028). The significance remained when controlling for age, number of losses, number of samples, and total pregnancies. These results suggest that SNP microarray testing of paraffin-embedded products of conception is a valuable tool for the evaluation of recurrent pregnancy loss in patients without prior fetal

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with P2X7R function regulate the onset of gouty arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Tao

    Full Text Available Gout is an inflammatory disease that is caused by the increased production of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β stimulated by monosodium urate (MSU crystals. However, some hyperuricemia patients, even gouty patients with tophi in the joints, never experience gout attack, which indicates that pathogenic pathways other than MSU participate in the secretion of IL-1β in the pathogenesis of acute gouty arthritis. The ATP-P2X7R-IL-1β axis may be one of these pathways.This study examines the role of Adenosine triphosphate (ATP in the pathogenesis of gout and the association of ATP receptor (P2X7R function with single nucleotide polymorphisms and gout arthritis.Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP loci of P2X7R in Chinese people were screened to compare the frequencies of different alleles and genotype distribution of selective SNPs in 117 gouty patients and 95 hyperuricemia patients. Peripheral white blood cells were purified from the peripheral blood of 43 randomly selected gout patients and 36 hyperuricemia patients from the total group. Cells were cultured with MSU or MSU + ATP, and supernatants were collected for the detection of IL-1β concentrations using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.1. Eight SNP loci, including rs1653624, rs10160951, rs1718119, rs7958316, rs16950860, rs208294, rs17525809 and rs2230912, were screened and detected, and rs1653624, rs7958316 and rs17525809 were associated with gout arthritis. 2. IL-1β concentrations in supernatants after MSU + ATP stimulation were significantly higher in gouty patients than in the hyperuricemia group [(131.08 ± 176.11 pg/ml vs. (50.84 ± 86.10 pg/ml]; Patients (including gout and hyperuricemia carrying the susceptibility genotype AA or AT of rs1653624 exhibited significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β than patients carrying the non-susceptibility genotype TT [(104.20 ± 164.25 pg/ml vs. (21.90 ± 12.14 pg/ml]; However, no differences were found with MSU stimulation alone

  19. Confirmation of an Association Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the VDR Gene With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Related Disease in South African Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kresfelder, T. L.; Janssen, R.; Bont, L.; Venter, M.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. Disease severity has been linked to host immune responses and polymorphisms in genes associated with innate immunity. A large-scale genetics study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in children in

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B and low density lipoprotein receptor genes affect response to antihypertensive treatment

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    Kahan Thomas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia has been associated with hypertension. The present study explored if polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins in lipid metabolism could be used as predictors for the individual response to antihypertensive treatment. Methods Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in genes related to lipid metabolism were analysed by a microarray based minisequencing system in DNA samples from ninety-seven hypertensive subjects randomised to treatment with either 150 mg of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker irbesartan or 50 mg of the β1-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol for twelve weeks. Results The reduction in blood pressure was similar in both treatment groups. The SNP C711T in the apolipoprotein B gene was associated with the blood pressure response to irbesartan with an average reduction of 19 mmHg in the individuals carrying the C-allele, but not to atenolol. The C16730T polymorphism in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene predicted the change in systolic blood pressure in the atenolol group with an average reduction of 14 mmHg in the individuals carrying the C-allele. Conclusions Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins in the lipid metabolism are associated with the response to antihypertensive treatment in a drug specific pattern. These results highlight the potential use of pharmacogenetics as a guide for individualised antihypertensive treatment, and also the role of lipids in blood pressure control.

  1. Exploiting the Repetitive Fraction of the Wheat Genome for High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery and Genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Cubizolles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for more than 80% of the wheat genome. Although they represent a major obstacle for genomic studies, TEs are also a source of polymorphism and consequently of molecular markers such as insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP markers. Insertion site-based polymorphisms have been found to be a great source of genome-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in the hexaploid wheat ( L. genome. Here, we report on the development of a high-throughput SNP discovery approach based on sequence capture of ISBP markers. By applying this approach to the reference sequence of chromosome 3B from hexaploid wheat, we designed 39,077 SNPs that are evenly distributed along the chromosome. We demonstrate that these SNPs can be efficiently scored with the KASPar (Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction genotyping technology. Finally, through genetic diversity and genome-wide association studies, we also demonstrate that ISBP-derived SNPs can be used in marker-assisted breeding programs.

  2. Identification of rheumatoid arthritis biomarkers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype blocks: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Saad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetics of autoimmune diseases represent a growing domain with surpassing biomarker results with rapid progress. The exact cause of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is unknown, but it is thought to have both a genetic and an environmental bases. Genetic biomarkers are capable of changing the supervision of RA by allowing not only the detection of susceptible individuals, but also early diagnosis, evaluation of disease severity, selection of therapy, and monitoring of response to therapy. This review is concerned with not only the genetic biomarkers of RA but also the methods of identifying them. Many of the identified genetic biomarkers of RA were identified in populations of European and Asian ancestries. The study of additional human populations may yield novel results. Most of the researchers in the field of identifying RA biomarkers use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP approaches to express the significance of their results. Although, haplotype block methods are expected to play a complementary role in the future of that field.

  3. Non-invasive prenatal detection of trisomy 13 using a single nucleotide polymorphism- and informatics-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Hall

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine how a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP- and informatics-based non-invasive prenatal aneuploidy test performs in detecting trisomy 13. METHODS: Seventeen trisomy 13 and 51 age-matched euploid samples, randomly selected from a larger cohort, were analyzed. Cell-free DNA was isolated from maternal plasma, amplified in a single multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay that interrogated 19,488 SNPs covering chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and sequenced. Analysis and copy number identification involved a Bayesian-based maximum likelihood statistical method that generated chromosome- and sample-specific calculated accuracies. RESULTS: Of the samples that passed a stringent DNA quality threshold (94.1%, the algorithm correctly identified 15/15 trisomy 13 and 49/49 euploid samples, for 320/320 correct copy number calls. CONCLUSIONS: This informatics- and SNP-based method accurately detects trisomy 13-affected fetuses non-invasively and with high calculated accuracy.

  4. METABOLIC PARAMETERS CONCENTRATIONS IN BLOOD SERUM OF CZECH PIED BULLS DEPENDING ON SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM OF LEPTIN GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to test hypothesis, that the leptin gene single nucleotide polymorphism (C/T giving missense mutation (Arg25Cys has an effect on concentration of blood serum total cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyrate and urea in cattle. The experiment were performed in 58 Czech Pied bulls at 240 ± 9 days of age, which were divided in three experimental groups depending on different leptin genotypes (CC, n=28; CT, n=21; TT, n=9. Resulting genotypes in the exon 2 were CC (48.3%, CT (36.2%, and TT (15.5%. There were no differences in serum total cholesterol, urea, beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations among the genotypes. Based on our results we may assume that analysed SNP of leptin gene have no effect on nutritional status and energy balance in fattened cattle.

  5. Association of the intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10865331 (2p15) with ankylosing spondylitis in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alejandra; Szczypiorska, Magdalena; Juanola, Xavier; Bartolomé, Nerea; Gratacós, Jordi; Zarco, Pedro; Collantes, Eduardo; Artieda, Marta; Martínez, Antonio; Tejedor, Diego; Mulero, Juan

    2010-11-01

    A recent genome-wide association study has identified 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), rs10865331 (2p15) and rs2242944 (21q22). We assessed the association of these SNP with AS in a Spanish population. Four hundred fifty-six patients with AS fulfilling the modified New York Criteria and 300 healthy donors were analyzed. Result. SNP rs10865331 (allele A: p = 0.039; genotype: p = 0.016) was significantly associated with AS, while no association was found for rs2242944. This is the first study that replicates in an independent cohort the association of the intergenic SNP rs10865331 with susceptibility to AS.

  6. The Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism rs510432 in ATG5 Gene and the Development of Atopic March in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Iemets

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the association between single-nucleotide polymorphism rs510432 in gene ATG5 and the development of atopic march in children, to find out the probability of clinical manifestation and the features of the clinical course of atopic diseases in individuals with different allelic variants of polymorphism. Methods. Genotyping assay of polymorphism rs510432 in gene ATG5 was performed in children with atopic diseases and apparently healthy children using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. The minor T allele of rs510432 in ATG5 gene was significantly more often found in patients with atopic diseases than in apparently healthy children (χ2 = 6.36; р < 0.05. The results of logistic regression demonstrated that the risk of atopic diseases in children with minor genotype is 2.4 times higher than in carriers of major genotype. The average values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 are significantly lower in asthma patients with minor genotype than in thereof with major genotype (Q = 2.71; р < 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of allelic variants of rs510432 polymorphism of the gene ATG5 depending on the severity of bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis in children. Conclusions. Children with minor TT genotype of gene ATG5 polymorphism had an increased risk of atopic diseases, which is 72 %. In patients with bronchial asthma, minor TT genotype of gene ATG5 polymorphism has been associated with reduced FEV1. Rs510432 polymorphism of the gene ATG5 should be used to predict the development of atopic diseases in children.

  7. Makeup of the genetic correlation between milk production traits using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Binsbergen, R; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L

    2012-04-01

    The correlated responses between traits may differ depending on the makeup of genetic covariances, and may differ from the predictions of polygenic covariances. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the makeup of the genetic covariances between the well-studied traits: milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and their percentages in more detail. Phenotypic records of 1,737 heifers of research farms in 4 different countries were used after homogenizing and adjusting for management effects. All cows had a genotype for 37,590 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A bayesian stochastic search variable selection model was used to estimate the SNP effects for each trait. About 0.5 to 1.0% of the SNP had a significant effect on 1 or more traits; however, the SNP without a significant effect explained most of the genetic variances and covariances of the traits. Single nucleotide polymorphism correlations differed from the polygenic correlations, but only 10 regions were found with an effect on multiple traits; in 1 of these regions the DGAT1 gene was previously reported with an effect on multiple traits. This region explained up to 41% of the variances of 4 traits and explained a major part of the correlation between fat yield and fat percentage and contributes to asymmetry in correlated response between fat yield and fat percentage. Overall, for the traits in this study, the infinitesimal model is expected to be sufficient for the estimation of the variances and covariances. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of triploid, molar, and vanishing twin pregnancies by a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based noninvasive prenatal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnow, Kirsten J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Ryan, Allison; Kırkızlar, Eser; Stosic, Melissa; Hall, Megan P; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Demko, Zachary; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Gross, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine the ability of single-nucleotide polymorphism-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) to identify triploid, unrecognized twin, and vanishing twin pregnancies. The study included 30,795 consecutive reported clinical cases received for NIPT for fetal whole-chromosome aneuploidies; known multiple gestations were excluded. Cell-free DNA was isolated from maternal blood samples, amplified via 19,488-plex polymerase chain reaction, and sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed to determine fetal chromosome copy number and to identify the presence of additional fetal haplotypes. Additional fetal haplotypes, indicative of fetal triploidy, vanishing twin, or undetected twin pregnancy, were identified in 130 (0.42%) cases. Clinical confirmation (karyotype for singleton pregnancies, ultrasound for multifetal pregnancies) was available for 58.5% (76/130) of cases. Of the 76 cases with confirmation, 42.1% were vanishing twin, 48.7% were viable twin, 5.3% were diandric triploids, and 3.9% were nontriploid pregnancies that lacked evidence of co-twin demise. One pregnancy had other indications suggesting triploidy but lacked karyotype confirmation. Of the 5 vanishing twin cases with a known date of demise, 100% of losses occurred in the first trimester; up to 8 weeks elapsed between loss and detection by NIPT. This single-nucleotide polymorphism-based NIPT successfully identified vanished twin, previously unrecognized twin, and triploid pregnancies. As vanishing twins are more likely to be aneuploid, and undetected residual cell-free DNA could bias NIPT results, the ability of this method to identify additional fetal haplotypes is expected to result in fewer false-positive calls and prevent incorrect fetal sex calls. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. RET single nucleotide polymorphism in Indonesians with sporadic Hirschsprung’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saryono

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The tyrosine kinase receptor RET, which is the protein product of the RET gene, is involved in the development of the mammalian nervous system that causes Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR. RETs are cell surface molecules that are expressed in cells derived from the neural crest. The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the RET gene in HSCR in the Yogyakarta population. Genomic DNA was extracted from surgically removed bowel tissues of 54 unrelated HSCR patients. Exon 2 of the RET gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Molecular results were compared with clinical performance of Hirschsprung patients. RET polymorphism was detected in exon 2 in all of the 54 Indonesian HSCR patients. The allelic distribution of the c135GàA polymorphism in the RET exon 2 indicated that the A allele was more frequent in patients than in control individuals (chi-square test, p= 0.001. Thus the RET variant allele A is over-represented in patients affected with the HSCR phenotype. Polymorphism of exon 2 of the RET gene was found in sporadic Hirschsprung’s disease in the Yogyakarta population, which suggests that the RET gene plays important roles in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  10. RET single nucleotide polymorphism in Indonesians with sporadic Hirschsprung’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saryono Saryono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tyrosine kinase receptor RET, which is the protein product of the RET gene, is involved in the development of the mammalian nervous system that causes Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR. RETs are cell surface molecules that are expressed in cells derived from the neural crest. The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the RET gene in HSCR in the Yogyakarta population. Genomic DNA was extracted from surgically removed bowel tissues of 54 unrelated HSCR patients. Exon 2 of the RET gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Molecular results were compared with clinical performance of Hirschsprung patients. RET polymorphism was detected in exon 2 in all of the 54 Indonesian HSCR patients. The allelic distribution of the c135GàA polymorphism in the RET exon 2 indicated that the A allele was more frequent in patients than in control individuals (chi-square test, p= 0.001. Thus the RET variant allele A is over-represented in patients affected with the HSCR phenotype. Polymorphism of exon 2 of the RET gene was found in sporadic Hirschsprung’s disease in the Yogyakarta population, which suggests that the RET gene plays important roles in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  11. Identifying the similarities and differences between single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNPa analysis and karyotyping in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigo de Noronha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To standardize the single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNPa method in acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes, and to identify the similarities and differ- ences between the results of this method and karyotyping. Methods: Twenty-two patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia and three with myelodysplastic syndromes were studied. The G-banding karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis (CytoScan(r HD were performed using cells from bone marrow, DNA extracted from mononuclear cells from bone marrow and buccal cells (BC. Results: The mean age of the patients studied was 54 years old, and the median age was 55 years (range: 28-93. Twelve (48% were male and 13 (52% female. Ten patients showed abnormal karyotypes (40.0%, 11 normal (44.0% and four had no mitosis (16.0%. Regarding the results of bone marrow single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis: 17 were abnor- mal (68.0% and eight were normal (32.0%. Comparing the two methods, karyotyping identified a total of 17 alterations (8 deletions/losses, 7 trissomies/gains, and 2 translocations and single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis identified a total of 42 alterations (17 losses, 16 gains and 9 copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity. Conclusion: It is possible to standardize single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis in acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes and compare the results with the abnormalities detected by karyotyping. Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis increased the detection rate of abnormalities compared to karyotyping and also identified a new set of abnormalities that deserve further investigation in future studies.

  12. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and mRNA expression for melatonin synthesis rate-limiting enzyme in recurrent depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecki, Piotr; Szemraj, Janusz; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Gałecka, Elzbieta; Florkowski, Antoni; Lewiński, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewińska, Małgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Depressive disorder (DD) is characterised by disturbances in blood melatonin concentration. It is well known that melatonin is involved in the control of circadian rhythms, sleep included. The use of melatonin and its analogues has been found to be effective in depression therapy. Melatonin synthesis is a multistage process, where the last stage is catalysed by acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT), the reported rate-limiting melatonin synthesis enzyme. Taking into account the significance of genetic factors in depression development, the gene for ASMT may become an interesting focus for studies in patients with recurrent DD. The goal of the study was to evaluate two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4446909; rs5989681) of the ASMT gene, as well as mRNA expression for ASMT in recurrent DD-affected patients. We genotyped two polymorphisms in a group of 181 recurrent DD patients and in 149 control subjects. The study was performed using the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The distribution of genotypes in both studied SNPs in the ASMT gene differed significantly between DD and healthy subjects. The presence of AA genotype of rs4446909 polymorphism and of GG genotype of rs5989681 polymorphism was associated with lower risk for having recurrent DD. In turn, patients with depression were characterised by reduced mRNA expression for ASMT. In addition, ASMT transcript level in both recurrent DD patients and in healthy subjects depended significantly on genotype distributions in both polymorphisms. In conclusion, our results suggest the ASMT gene as a susceptibility gene for recurrent DD.

  13. Genetic Risk Conferred from Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Towards Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    sufficient β-cell activity) but still incurs bouts of insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia. Study Limitations As previously mentioned, this...polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

  14. Three novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine LHX3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    ) in the four Chinese bovine breeds. Significant statistical differences in genotypic frequencies for exon II and its flanking region of the LHX3 gene implied that the polymorphic locus was significantly associated with cattle breeds by the χ2-test ...

  15. Using PCR-RFLP Technology to Teach Single Nucleotide Polymorphism for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Xu, Xiaofeng; Guan, Xingying; Bai, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicated that the aberrant gene expression of peroxiredoxin-6 (prdx6) was found in various kinds of cancers. Because of its biochemical function and gene expression pattern in cancer cells, the association between genetic polymorphism of Prdx6 and cancer onset is interesting. In this report, we have developed and implemented a…

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1035130C>T) in the interleukin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interleukin 18 receptor 1 (IL18R1) gene encodes a potent cytokine receptor that is critical for IL18 binding and subsequent signal transduction. This gene is a member of the IL1 receptor family that resides in a cluster of genes on human chromosome 2. Several polymorphisms have been shown to exist on this gene ...

  17. A multiplex assay with 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms for human identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Phillips, Chris; Børsting, Claus

    2006-01-01

    A total of 52 SNPs reported to be polymorphic in European, Asian and African populations were selected. Of these, 42 were from the distal regions of each autosome (except chromosome 19). Nearly all selected SNPs were located at least 100 kb distant from known genes and commonly used STRs. We esta...

  18. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity and the influence of two single-nucleotide promoter polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Heeringa, Peter; Giesen, Joyce E H M; Theunissen, Ruud T; Jacobs, Heinz; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    2003-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) catalyses the formation of hypochlorous acid and is involved in many (patho)physiological processes. The present study was designed to determine the effect of two MPO promoter polymorphisms (463G/A and 129G/A) on enzyme activity. In 243 healthy controls, genotypes were

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TP53 region and susceptibility to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schildkraut, Joellen M; Goode, Ellen L; Clyde, Merlise A

    2009-01-01

    The p53 protein is critical for multiple cellular functions including cell growth and DNA repair. We assessed whether polymorphisms in the region encoding TP53 were associated with risk of invasive ovarian cancer. The study population includes a total of 5,206 invasive ovarian cancer cases (2,829...

  20. Significant association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase single nucleotide polymorphisms with prostate cancer susceptibility in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Chin; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Tsai, Ru-Yin; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Wang, Rou-Fen; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Bau, Da-Tian; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2010-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and is a major health problem worldwide. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays an important role in folate metabolism and is also an important source of DNA methylation and DNA synthesis (nucleotide synthesis). To assess the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphisms in MTHFR and lifestyle factors with prostate cancer in Taiwan, we investigated two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), analyzed the association of specific genotypes with prostate cancer susceptibility, and discussed their joint effects with individual habits on prostate cancer risk. In total, 218 patients with prostate cancer and 436 healthy controls recruited from the China Medical Hospital in central Taiwan were genotyped for these polymorphisms with prostate cancer susceptibility. We found the MTHFR C677T but not the A1298C genotype was differently distributed between the prostate cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T conferred a significantly (p=0.0011) decreased risk of prostate cancer. As for the A1298C polymorphism, there was no difference in distribution between the prostate cancer and control groups. Gene interactions with smoking were significant for MTHFR C677T polymorphism. The MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes in association with smoking conferred a decreased risk of 0.501 (95% confidence interval=0.344-0.731) for prostate cancer. Our results provide the first evidence that the C allele of MTHFR C677T may be associated with the development of prostate cancer and may be a novel useful marker for primary prevention and anticancer intervention.

  1. Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7251246 in ITPKC is associated with susceptibility and coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Chang Kuo

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is a multi-systemic vasculitis that preferentially affects children. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase C (ITPKC has been identified to be an important polymorphism in the risk of KD. This study was conducted to comprehensively investigate the associations between all tagging SNPs of ITPKC in the risk of KD in a Taiwanese population. A total of 950 subjects (381 KD patients and 569 controls were recruited. Seven tagging SNPs (rs11673492, rs7257602, rs7251246, rs890934, rs10420685, rs2607420, rs2290692 were selected for TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Clinical data of coronary artery lesions (CAL and aneurysms were collected for analysis. A significant association was found between rs7251246 in ITPKC and CAL formation. Haplotype analysis for ITPKC polymorphisms also confirmed this association in the patients with CAL and aneurysm formation. This is the first study to identify that SNP rs7251246 in ITPKC is associated with the severity of KD.

  2. Identification of Pyrus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and evaluation for genetic mapping in European pear and interspecific Pyrus hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Montanari

    Full Text Available We have used new generation sequencing (NGS technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers from three European pear (Pyrus communis L. cultivars and subsequently developed a subset of 1096 pear SNPs into high throughput markers by combining them with the set of 7692 apple SNPs on the IRSC apple Infinium® II 8K array. We then evaluated this apple and pear Infinium® II 9K SNP array for large-scale genotyping in pear across several species, using both pear and apple SNPs. The segregating populations employed for array validation included a segregating population of European pear ('Old Home'×'Louise Bon Jersey' and four interspecific breeding families derived from Asian (P. pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd. and European pear pedigrees. In total, we mapped 857 polymorphic pear markers to construct the first SNP-based genetic maps for pear, comprising 78% of the total pear SNPs included in the array. In addition, 1031 SNP markers derived from apple (13% of the total apple SNPs included in the array were polymorphic and were mapped in one or more of the pear populations. These results are the first to demonstrate SNP transferability across the genera Malus and Pyrus. Our construction of high density SNP-based and gene-based genetic maps in pear represents an important step towards the identification of chromosomal regions associated with a range of horticultural characters, such as pest and disease resistance, orchard yield and fruit quality.

  3. Study on Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Murine Double Minute 2 and Susceptibility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in murine double minute 2 (MDM2 and susceptibility and biological behavior of hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC. Methods: MDM2 (rs2279744 site polymorphism in peripheral blood from 166 patients with HCC and 157 healthy controls were detected by SYBR GREEN PCR method and the relationship between MDM2 polymorphism and susceptibility and biological behavior of HCC was analyzed by comparing the differences of genotypes in two populations. Results: There was no statistical significance between two groups in terms of MDM2 allele distribution in research population (P = 0.753. The risk of HCC onset in individuals with GG+ TG genotype was 1.698 times of those with TT genotype in case group (95%CI = 1.027 -2.808. MDM2 SNP was associated with HBV infection and the degree of tumor differentiation (P< 0.05. The incidence of alleles in experimental group (T, 0.49; G, 0.51 was very different from that in control group (T, 0.59; G, 0.41 (P = 0.015. The incidence of GG genotype in patients with HCC (22.29% was significantly higher than those without HCC (13.38%. Compared with TT genotype, G allele or GG genotype had more correlation with HCC onset. Conclusion: Compared with TT genotype, MDM2 promoter SNP309 G allele or GG genotype is more associated with HCC onset in Chinese population.

  4. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of glycogen synthase gene of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and its glycogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2017-02-01

    Glycogen is important not only for the energy supplementary of oysters, but also for human consumption. High glycogen content can improve the stress survival of oyster. A key enzyme in glycogenesis is glycogen synthase that is encoded by glycogen synthase gene GYS. In this study, the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in coding regions of Crassostrea gigas GYS (Cg-GYS) and individual glycogen content was investigated with 321 individuals from five full-sib families. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) procedure was combined with sequencing to confirm individual SNP genotypes of Cg-GYS. Least-square analysis of variance was performed to assess the relationship of variation in glycogen content of C. gigas with single SNP genotype and SNP haplotype. As a consequence, six SNPs were found in coding regions to be significantly associated with glycogen content ( P haplotypes due to linkage disequilibrium. Furthermore, the most effective haplotype H2 (GAGGAT) had extremely significant relationship with high glycogen content ( P < 0.0001). These findings revealed the potential influence of Cg-GYS polymorphism on the glycogen content and provided molecular biological information for the selective breeding of good quality traits of C. gigas.

  5. A single nucleotide polymorphism melt curve assay employing an intercalating dye probe fluorescence resonance energy transfer for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Micah D; Ballantyne, Jack

    2009-08-01

    The characterization and use of DNA sequence polymorphisms are an important aspect of forensic analysis. A number of approaches are being explored for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, but current detection methods are subject to limitations that adversely impact their utility for forensic analysis. We have developed a novel method for genotyping both single and multiple SNPs that uses an intercalating dye and a probe labeled with a single fluorophore to affect a fluorescence energy transfer. Melting curve analysis is then used to distinguish true alleles from mismatched alleles. We term the new method dye probe fluorescence resonance energy transfer (dpFRET). In the current work, development proceeded at first with synthetic DNA template testing to establish proof of concept for the chemistry involved, followed by the design of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genomic DNA assays to demonstrate potential forensic applications. The loci chosen for testing included both nuclear (MHC DRB) and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b) genes. A preliminary assessment of the sensitivity limits of the technology indicated that dpFRET was capable of accurately genotyping DNA from one single diploid cell equivalent. This technology could also potentially impact a wide range of nonforensic disciplines to aid in discovery, screening, and association of DNA sequence polymorphisms.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism in Egyptian cattle insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2014-12-01

    It is concluded that the IGFBP-3/HaeIII polymorphism may be utilized as a good marker for genetic differentiation between cattle animals for different body functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, immunity and energy balance. The nucleotide sequences of Egyptian cattle IGFBP-3 A and C alleles were submitted to GenBank with the accession numbers KF899893 and KF899894, respectively.

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphism profiling across the methotrexate pathway in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Prabha; Culverhouse, Robert; Marsh, Sharon; Ahluwalia, Ranjeet; Shannon, William D; Eisen, Seth; McLeod, Howard L

    2004-07-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Polymorphisms occur in several genes encoding key enzymes in the folic acid pathway, which is influenced by MTX, but have not been evaluated in patients with RA. The effect of race on allele frequency has also not been evaluated. In this study, the allele frequencies of polymorphisms in six key enzymes in the MTX-folate pathway in patients with RA and healthy controls, including several common racial groups were studied. European- and African-American patients with RA and European and African healthy controls were genotyped for 22 genetic loci in six genes in the MTX cellular pathway. Differences in genotype distributions between the different racial groups were evaluated using chi(2) tests. Allele frequencies were significantly different (p racial differences exist between the allele frequencies of several polymorphisms in enzymes in the MTX-folate pathway in patients with RA and healthy controls. Whether such differences contribute to a differential response to MTX in patients with RA deserves to be investigated.

  8. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA repair gene and susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Quan; Tian, Yuwei; Li, Ke; Jiang, Qingfeng; Xue, Huanzhou; Yang, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to assess the XRCC4 genes polymorphism and development of pancreatic cancer. A case-control study including 248 cases and 496 controls was conducted in a Chinese population. Genotypes of XRCC4 rs2075685, rs10040363, rs963248 and rs1805377 were determined using Polymerase Chain Reaction combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Pancreatic cancer cases were more likely to have a history of diabetes, a higher BMI, family history of cancer and a habit of alcohol drinking when compared with control. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that individuals carrying TT genotype of XRCC4 rs2075685 was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer when compared with GG genotype, and the OR (95% CI) was 1.62 (1.04-2.52). Individuals with GT+TT genotype of XRCC4 rs2075685 were significantly associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in those with ever tobacco smoking habit, and the OR (95% CI) was 1.77 (1.07-2.98). In conclusion, our results suggest that XRCC4 rs2075685 polymorphism plays an important role in the risk of pancreatic cancer in a Chinese population, especially in tobacco smokers.

  9. Interactions between single nucleotide polymorphism of SERPINA1 gene and smoking in association with COPD: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng XW

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaowei Deng,1 Cun-hua Yuan,1 De Chang2 1Health Medical Center, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: SERPINA1 gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, while smoking is a known risk factor for COPD. Little is known on the effect of SERPINA1 gene and its interaction with smoking in the Chinese population. In this study, the effect of SERPINA1 gene polymorphisms on COPD risk and its interaction with smoking status has been investigated.Method: A total of 120 COPD patients and 481 healthy controls were recruited at The Armed Police Corps Hospital. Data on demographic variables, smoking status, history of occupational dust exposure, and allergies were collected. Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphism’s (SNP rs1243160, rs2854254, and rs8004738 was performed in all participants.Results: SNP rs8004738 genotype was associated with a significantly higher risk for COPD (odds ratio (OR =1.835, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.002–3.360, whereas SNPs rs1243160 and rs2854254 did not exhibit such an association. Smoking habit also significantly increased the risk for COPD (OR =2.306, 95% CI: 1.537–3.459. On stepwise logistic regression analysis, advanced age, smoking, and SNP rs8004738 variant were associated with increased risk for COPD, while female gender and higher educational status decreased the risk. On additive interaction analysis, a significant interactive effect of SNP rs8004738 and smoking was observed in this population (relative excess risk due to interaction =0.478; attributable proportion due to interaction (AP =0.123; S=1.197.Conclusion: SNP rs8004738 of SERPINA1 gene significantly interacted with smoking status and was associated with a higher risk for COPD in the Chinese population. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, single nucleotide polymorphism

  10. Association study in Alzheimer’s disease of single nucleotide polymorphisms implicated with coffee consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Junji Yamamoto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence from animal and in vitro models of the protective effects of caffeine in Alzheimer’s disease. The suggested mechanisms through which caffeine may protect neurons against Alzheimer’s disease pathology include the facilitation of beta-amyloid clearance, upregulation of cholinergic transmission, and increased neuronal plasticity and survival. Epidemiological studies support that Alzheimer’s disease patients consume smaller amounts of coffee beverages throughout their lives as compared to age-matched cognitively healthy individuals. Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether the negative association between Alzheimer’s disease and coffee consumption may be influenced by a common genetic predisposition, given the fact that the pattern of coffee consumption is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. Method We conducted an in silico search addressing the association between genetic polymorphisms related to coffee consumption and the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. We further investigated the interactions between genes located in regions bearing these polymorphisms. Results Our analysis revealed no evidence for a genetic association (nor interaction between related proteins involving coffee consumption and Alzheimer’s disease. Discussion The negative association between Alzheimer’s disease and coffee consumption suggested by epidemiological studies is most likely due to environmental factors that are not necessarily regulated by genetic background.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine MHC region of Japanese Black cattle are associated with bovine leukemia virus proviral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Sasaki, Shinji; Meripet, Polat; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Aida, Yoko

    2017-04-04

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma that has spread worldwide and causes serious problems for the cattle industry. The BLV proviral load, which represents the BLV genome integrated into host genome, is a useful index for estimating disease progression and transmission risk. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle. The study examined 93 cattle with a high proviral load and 266 with a low proviral load. Three SNPs showed a significant association with proviral load. One SNP was detected in the CNTN3 gene on chromosome 22, and two (which were not in linkage disequilibrium) were detected in the bovine major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 23. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex region affect proviral load. This is the first report to detect SNPs associated with BLV proviral load in Japanese Black cattle using whole genome association study, and understanding host factors may provide important clues for controlling the spread of BLV in Japanese Black cattle.

  12. Association study of interleukin-1 family and interleukin-6 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms in recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, S; Yousefi, H; Mohammadzadeh, M; Bidoki, A Z; Firouze Moqadam, I; Farhadi, E; Amirzargar, A A; Rezaei, N

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common painful, ulcerative oral inflammatory disorder with unknown aetiology. Immune system and aberrant cytokine cascade deemed to be critical in outbreaks of RAS ulcers. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 are the most potent pro-inflammatory cytokines. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1 and IL-6 genes can affect the secretion of these cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between RAS and IL-6 and IL-1 in Iranian subjects with minor RAS. Genomic DNA was obtained from 64 Iranian patients with RAS. IL-1α C -889 T, IL-1β C -511 T, IL-1β C +3962 T, IL-1R C pst-I 1970 T, IL-1Ra C Mspa-I11100 T, IL-6 C -174 G and IL-6 A nt +565 G polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). The frequency of C -174 C genotype in the patients group was significantly different from the healthy control. No other significant differences were found in genotype and alleles frequencies between the two groups. These results indicate that certain SNPs of IL-6 gene at position -174 which located in promoter have association with predisposition of individuals to RAS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs1044925 and the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease and Ischemic Stroke

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    Dong-Feng Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to clarify the association between the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1044925 and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD and ischemic stroke (IS in the Guangxi Han population. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to determine the genotypes of the ACAT-1 SNP rs1044925 in 1730 unrelated subjects (CAD, 587; IS, 555; and healthy controls; 588. The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs1044925 were significantly different between the CAD patients and controls (p = 0.015 and borderline different between the IS patients and controls (p = 0.05. The AC/CC genotypes and C allele were associated with a decreased risk of CAD and IS (CAD: p = 0.014 for AC/CC vs. AA, p = 0.022 for C vs. A; IS: p = 0.014 for AC/CC vs. AA; p = 0.017 for C vs. A. The AC/CC genotypes in the healthy controls, but not in CAD or IS patients, were associated with an increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration. The present study shows that the C allele carriers of ACAT-1 rs1044925 were associated with an increased serum HDL-C level in the healthy controls and decreased risk in CAD and IS patients.

  14. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot

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    Diego Robledo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species.

  15. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Diego; Fernández, Carlos; Hermida, Miguel; Sciara, Andrés; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Caamaño, Rubén; Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species. PMID:26901189

  16. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in leptin receptor gene with knee osteoarthritis in the Ningxia Hui population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Hao-Hui; Hao, Shao-Wen; Sun, Shou-Xuan; Yang, Xiao-Chun; Yu, Bo; Jin, Qun-Hua

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the association between primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A668G) of leptin receptor gene (LEPR) in the Ningxia Hui population. A case-control association study has been adopted in this thesis. The polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis were performed to investigate the SNP of A668G site within LEPR from 148 patients with knee OA and 155 controls (asymptomatic and radiographically negative) with matched age and gender among Ningxia Hui population. In addition, genotypes of LEPR were verified by direct sequence analysis on PCR products. The result indicates that allele and genotype frequencies (P=0.024 and 0.008, respectively) in LEPR SNP A668G were significantly different in the knee OA patients group and control group, and in the knee OA patients group, the serum levels of leptin decreased significantly (Pleptin receptor increased significantly (P<0.001) compared with control group. Therefore, LEPR SNP A668G is associated with susceptibility to knee OA, which would be used as the genetic marker in predicting the risk of knee OA and would be one of the candidate genes in early prevention and control.

  17. Association of MAP4K4 gene single nucleotide polymorphism with mastitis and milk traits in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Dinesh; Chen, Xing; Ur Rehman, Zia; Hao, Xingjie; Ullah, Farman; Dad, Rahim; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Kadariya, Ishwari; Cui, Lu; Fan, Mingxia; Zhang, Shujun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the studies presented in this Research Communication was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the MAP4K4 gene with different milk traits in dairy cows. Based on previous QTL fine mapping results on bovine chromosome 11, the MAP4K4 gene was selected as a candidate gene to evaluate its effect on somatic cell count and milk traits in ChineseHolstein cows. Milk production traits including milk yield, fat percentage, and protein percentage of each cow were collected using 305 d lactation records. Association between MAP4K4 genotype and different traits and Somatic Cell Score (SCS) was performed using General Linear Regression Model of R. Two SNPs at exon 18 (c.2061T > G and c.2196T > C) with genotype TT in both SNPs were found significantly higher for somatic SCS. We found the significant effect of exon 18 (c.2061T > G) on protein percentage, milk yield and SCS. We identified SNPs at different location of MAP4K4 gene of the cattle and several of them were significantly associated with the somatic cell score and other different milk traits. Thus, MAP4K4 gene could be a useful candidate gene for selection of dairy cattle against mastitis and the identified polymorphisms might potentially be strong genetic markers.

  18. Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within ADAM12 and Risk of Knee Osteoarthritis in a Chinese Han Population

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    Lin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Osteoarthritis (OA is a complex arthritic condition in which the genetic factor plays a major role. One of the candidate genes of is the ADAM12 gene, but no consistency has been reached till now. This study aims to investigate the potential role of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the ADAM12 gene in susceptibility to knee OA and its progression in Chinese Han population. Methods. The rs1278279, rs3740199, rs1044122, and rs1871054 polymorphisms were genotyped and compared in a population based cohort consisting of 164 OA subjects and 200 age- and gender-matched controls. Results. The SNP rs1871054 was found with increased risk of OA susceptibility in comparing the genotype frequencies between the case and control groups no matter for which model of comparison (allele level, dominant model, recessive model, and extreme genotype model. Additionally, the SNP rs1871054 was found associated with increased OA severity according to the K/L grade. Conclusion. In summary, we have identified that the rs1871054 variant within the ADAM12 gene is a risk factor for increased osteoarthritis susceptibility and severity.

  19. Provitamin A accumulation in cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots driven by a single nucleotide polymorphism in a phytoene synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Ralf; Arango, Jacobo; Bär, Cornelia; Salazar, Bertha; Al-Babili, Salim; Beltrán, Jesús; Chavarriaga, Paul; Ceballos, Hernan; Tohme, Joe; Beyer, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is an important staple crop, especially in the arid tropics. Because roots of commercial cassava cultivars contain a limited amount of provitamin A carotenoids, both conventional breeding and genetic modification are being applied to increase their production and accumulation to fight vitamin A deficiency disorders. We show here that an allelic polymorphism in one of the two expressed phytoene synthase (PSY) genes is capable of enhancing the flux of carbon through carotenogenesis, thus leading to the accumulation of colored provitamin A carotenoids in storage roots. A single nucleotide polymorphism present only in yellow-rooted cultivars cosegregates with colored roots in a breeding pedigree. The resulting amino acid exchange in a highly conserved region of PSY provides increased catalytic activity in vitro and is able to increase carotenoid production in recombinant yeast and Escherichia coli cells. Consequently, cassava plants overexpressing a PSY transgene produce yellow-fleshed, high-carotenoid roots. This newly characterized PSY allele provides means to improve cassava provitamin A content in cassava roots through both breeding and genetic modification.

  20. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene of foodborne Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Caamaño-Antelo, S; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of this work was the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene of foodborne Bacillus spp. that may be useful for typing purposes. These species include, among others, Bacillus cereus, an important pathogenic species involved in food poisoning, and Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus, which are causative agents of food spoilage described as responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks. With this purpose in mind, 52 Bacillus strains isolated from culture collections and fresh and processed food were considered. SNP type "Y" at sites 212 and 476 appeared in the majority of B. licheniformis studied strains. SNP type "R" at site 278 was detected in many strains of the B. subtilis/Bacillus amyloliquefaciens group, while polymorphism "Y" at site 173 was characteristic of the majority of strains of B. cereus/Bacillus thuringiensis group. The analysis of SNPs provided more intra-specific information than phylogenetic analysis in the cases of B. cereus and B. subtilis. Moreover, this study describes novel SNPs that should be considered when designing 16S rRNA-based primers and probes for multiplex-PCR, Real-Time PCR and microarray systems for foodborne Bacillus spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Empirical Comparison of Simple Sequence Repeats and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Assessment of Maize Diversity and Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Martha T.; Warburton, Marilyn L.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2007-01-01

    While Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are extremely useful genetic markers, recent advances in technology have produced a shift toward use of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The different mutational properties of these two classes of markers result in differences in heterozygosities and allele frequencies that may have implications for their use in assessing relatedness and evaluation of genetic diversity. We compared analyses based on 89 SSRs (primarily dinucleotide repeats) to analyses based on 847 SNPs in individuals from the same 259 inbred maize lines, which had been chosen to represent the diversity available among current and historic lines used in breeding. The SSRs performed better at clustering germplasm into populations than did a set of 847 SNPs or 554 SNP haplotypes, and SSRs provided more resolution in measuring genetic distance based on allele-sharing. Except for closely related pairs of individuals, measures of distance based on SSRs were only weakly correlated with measures of distance based on SNPs. Our results suggest that 1) large numbers of SNP loci will be required to replace highly polymorphic SSRs in studies of diversity and relatedness and 2) relatedness among highly-diverged maize lines is difficult to measure accurately regardless of the marker system. PMID:18159250

  2. A Caenorhabditis elegans wild type defies the temperature-size rule owing to a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3.

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    Jan E Kammenga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key question in biology is why most ectotherms mature at a larger size at lower temperatures, a phenomenon known as the temperature-size rule. Since temperature affects virtually all processes in a living organism, current theories to explain this phenomenon are diverse and complex and assert often from opposing assumptions. Although widely studied, the molecular genetic control of the temperature-size rule is unknown. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans wild-type N2 complied with the temperature-size rule, whereas wild-type CB4856 defied it. Using a candidate gene approach based on an N2 x CB4856 recombinant inbred panel in combination with mutant analysis, complementation, and transgenic studies, we show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3 leads to mutation F96L in the encoded calpain-like protease. This mutation attenuates the ability of CB4856 to grow larger at low temperature. Homology modelling predicts that F96L reduces TRA-3 activity by destabilizing the DII-A domain. The data show that size adaptation of ectotherms to temperature changes may be less complex than previously thought because a subtle wild-type polymorphism modulates the temperature responsiveness of body size. These findings provide a novel step toward the molecular understanding of the temperature-size rule, which has puzzled biologists for decades.

  3. Analysis of horse myostatin gene and identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in breeds of different morphological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Fontanesi, Luca; Nanni Costa, Leonardo; Tassinari, Marco; Minieri, Laura; Falaschini, Adalberto

    2010-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif) were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type) than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed). The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds.

  4. Analysis of Horse Myostatin Gene and Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Breeds of Different Morphological Types

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    Stefania Dall'Olio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN is a negative modulator of muscle mass. We characterized the horse (Equus caballus MSTN gene and identified and analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in breeds of different morphological types. Sequencing of coding, untranslated, intronic, and regulatory regions of MSTN gene in 12 horses from 10 breeds revealed seven SNPs: two in the promoter, four in intron 1, and one in intron 2. The SNPs of the promoter (GQ183900:g.26T>C and GQ183900:g.156T>C, the latter located within a conserved TATA-box like motif were screened in 396 horses from 16 breeds. The g.26C and the g.156C alleles presented higher frequency in heavy (brachymorphic type than in light breeds (dolichomorphic type such as Italian Trotter breed. The significant difference of allele frequencies for the SNPs at the promoter and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA on haplotypes indicates that these polymorphisms could be associated with variability of morphology traits in horse breeds.

  5. Genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in dystrobrevin binding protein 1 gene with schizophrenia in a Malaysian population

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    Grace Kang Ning Tan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1 gene is pivotal in regulating the glutamatergic system. Genetic variants of the DTNBP1 affect cognition and thus may be particularly relevant to schizophrenia. We therefore evaluated the association of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with schizophrenia in a Malaysian population (171 cases; 171 controls. Associations between these six SNPs and schizophrenia were tested in two stages. Association signals with p 0.05 in stage 1 were followed by genotyping the SNPs in a replication phase (stage 2. Genotyping was performed with sequenced specific primer (PCR-SSP and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. In our sample, we found significant associations between rs2619522 (allele p = 0.002, OR = 1.902, 95%CI = 1.266 – 2.859; genotype p = 0.002 and rs2619528 (allele p = 0.008, OR = 1.606, 95%CI = 1.130 – 2.281; genotype p = 6.18 × 10−5 and schizophrenia. Given that these two SNPs may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, further studies on the other DTNBP1 variants are warranted.

  6. Single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from de-novo assembly of the pomegranate transcriptome reveal germplasm genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Sharabi Schwager, Michal; Harel-Beja, Rotem; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Holland, Doron

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate is a valuable crop that is grown commercially in many parts of the world. Wild species have been reported from India, Turkmenistan and Socotra. Pomegranate fruit has a variety of health-beneficial qualities. However, despite this crop's importance, only moderate effort has been invested in studying its biochemical or physiological properties or in establishing genomic and genetic infrastructures. In this study, we reconstructed a transcriptome from two phenotypically different accessions using 454-GS-FLX Titanium technology. These data were used to explore the functional annotation of 45,187 fully annotated contigs. We further compiled a genetic-variation resource of 7,155 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and 6,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A subset of 480 SNPs was sampled to investigate the genetic structure of the broad pomegranate germplasm collection at the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), which includes accessions from different geographical areas worldwide. This subset of SNPs was found to be polymorphic, with 10.7% loci with minor allele frequencies of (MAFpomegranate collection into two major groups of accessions: one from India, China and Iran, composed of mainly unknown country origin and which was more of an admixture than the other major group, composed of accessions mainly from the Mediterranean basin, Central Asia and California. This study establishes a high-throughput transcriptome and genetic-marker infrastructure. Moreover, it sheds new light on the genetic interrelations between pomegranate species worldwide and more accurately defines their genetic nature.

  7. Previously Unidentified Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in HIV/AIDS Cases Associate with Clinical Parameters and Disease Progression

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    Vladimir V. Anokhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic background of an individual plays an important role in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. Identifying previously unknown or uncharacterized single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that associate with disease progression may reveal important therapeutic targets and provide a greater understanding of disease pathogenesis. In the present study, we employed ultra-high multiplex PCR on an Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform to sequence 23 innate immune genes from 94 individuals with HIV/AIDS. This data was used to identify potential associations of SNPs with clinical parameters and disease progression. SNPs that associated with an increased viral load were identified in the genes for the interleukin 15 receptor (IL15RA, toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7, tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5, and two killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL3. Additionally, SNPs that associated with progression from HIV infection to AIDS were identified in two 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase genes (OAS2 and OAS3. In contrast, other SNPs identified in OAS2 and OAS3 genes, as well as in the TRIM5 and KIR2DS4 genes, were associated with a slower progression of disease. Taken together, our data demonstrates the utility of ultra-high multiplex PCR in identifying polymorphisms of potential clinical significance and further,identifies SNPs that may play a role in HIV pathogenesis.

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the GJB2 and GJB6 Genes Are Associated with Autosomal Recessive Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss

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    Ana Paula Grillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are important markers in many studies that link DNA sequence variations to phenotypic changes; such studies are expected to advance the understanding of human physiology and elucidate the molecular basis of diseases. The DFNB1 locus, which contains the GJB2 and GJB6 genes, plays a key role in nonsyndromic hearing loss. Previous studies have identified important mutations in this locus, but the contribution of SNPs in the genes has not yet been much investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of nine polymorphisms located within the DFNB1 locus with the occurrence of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL. The SNPs rs3751385 (C/T, rs7994748 (C/T, rs7329857 (C/T, rs7987302 (G/A, rs7322538 (G/A, rs9315400 (C/T, rs877098 (C/T, rs945369 (A/C, and rs7333214 (T/G were genotyped in 122 deaf patients and 132 healthy controls using allele-specific PCR. There were statistically significant differences between patients and controls, in terms of allelic frequencies in the SNPs rs3751385, rs7994748, rs7329857, rs7987302, rs945369, and rs7333214 (P<0.05. No significant differences between the two groups were observed for rs7322538, rs9315400, and rs877098. Our results suggest that SNPs present in the GJB2 and GJB6 genes may have an influence on ARNSHL in humans.

  9. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage and the Risk of Recurrent Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarny, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Dominik; Toma, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr; Orzechowska, Agata; Bobińska, Kinga; Bielecka-Kowalska, Anna; Szemraj, Janusz; Berk, Michael; Anderson, George; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background Depressive disorder, including recurrent type (rDD), is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory pathways, which may induce DNA damage. This thesis is supported by the presence of increased levels of DNA damage in depressed patients. Such DNA damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. BER efficiency may be influenced by polymorphisms in BER-related genes. Therefore, we genotyped nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes encoding BER proteins. Material/Methods Using TaqMan, we selected and genotyped the following SNPs: c.-441G>A (rs174538) of FEN1, c.2285T>C (rs1136410) of PARP1, c.580C>T (rs1799782) and c.1196A>G (rs25487) of XRCC1, c.*83A>C (rs4796030) and c.*50C>T (rs1052536) of LIG3, c.-7C>T (rs20579) of LIG1, and c.-468T>G (rs1760944) and c.444T>G (rs1130409) of APEX1 in 599 samples (288 rDD patients and 311 controls). Results We found a strong correlation between rDD and both SNPs of LIG3, their haplotypes, as well as a weaker association with the c.-468T>G of APEXI which diminished after Nyholt correction. Polymorphisms of LIG3 were also associated with early onset versus late onset depression, whereas the c.-468T>G polymorphism showed the opposite association. Conclusions The SNPs of genes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage may modulate rDD risk. Since this is an exploratory study, the results should to be treated with caution and further work needs to be done to elucidate the exact involvement of DNA damage and repair mechanisms in the development of this disease. PMID:27866211

  10. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms of Mx gene in different strains of commercial broiler, layer and native chickens

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    sedighe malekshahdehi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza is a contagious viral disease affecting the respiratory, digestive and nervous system of birds belong to orthomyxovirus family. In the chicken Mx gene, type of amino acid at position 631 determines the antiviral activity against influenza and vesicular stomatitis virus. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 2032, responsible for the variation of amino acid at position 631 (Ser to Asn of the Mx protein, has been demonstrated to be responsible for positive or negative antiviral activity of Mx proteins., The allele A and G at position 2032 corresponds to the positive and negative antiviral activity, respectively. In order to identify gene polymorphism at Mx locus, 250 blood samples randomly were collected from Sari, Shiraz, Mashhad native fowls breeding station , commercial broiler and layer flocks. DNA was extracted and a fragment with the length of 299 bp from the exon 13 of Mx locus was amplified by a specific primer pairs. PCR-RFLP method was used to identify of polymorphism in coding sequence of the Mx gene using Hpy8I restriction enzyme. The frequency of alleles were estimated A (0.692 and G (0.308 in Sari, A (0.577 and G (0.423 in Shiraz, A (0.604 and G (0.396 in Mashhad, A (0.46 and G (0.54 in commercial broiler and A (0.86 and G (0.14 in layer strain, repectively. According to the observed polymorphism at position 631 of Mx protein and its important role in susceptibility to influenza disease it may be possible to use this marker gene in breeding programs.

  11. Assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms in screening 52 DNA repair and cell cycle control genes in Fanconi anemia patients

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    Petrović Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with bone marrow failure, birth defects and cancer susceptibility. Apart from the disease- causing mutations in FANC genes, the identification of specific DNA variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in other candidate genes may lead to a better clinical description of this condition enabling individualized treatment with improvement of the prognosis. In this study, we have assessed 95 SNPs located in 52 key genes involved in base excision repair (BER, nucleotide excision repair (NER, mismatch repair (MMR, double strand break (DSB repair and cell cycle control using a DNA repair chip (Asper Biotech, Estonia which includes most of the common variants for the candidate genes. The SNP genotyping was performed in five FA-D2 patients and in one FA-A patient. The polymorphisms studied were synonymous (n=10, nonsynonymous (missense (n=52 and in non-coding regions of the genome (introns and 5 ‘and 3’ untranslated regions (UTR (n=33. Polymorphisms found at the homozygous state are selected for further analysis. Our results have shown a significant inter-individual variability among patients in the type and the frequency of SNPs and also elucidate the need for further studies of polymorphisms located in ATM, APEX APE 1, XRCC1, ERCC2, MSH3, PARP4, NBS1, BARD1, CDKN1B, TP53 and TP53BP1 which may be of great importance for better clinical description of FA. In addition, the present report recommends the use of SNPs as predictive and prognostic genetic markers to individualize therapy of FA patients. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173046

  12. Possible association between SNAP-25 single nucleotide polymorphisms and alterations of categorical fluency and functional MRI parameters in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Franca Rosa; Agliardi, Cristina; Sironi, Manuela; Arosio, Beatrice; Calabrese, Elena; Zanzottera, Milena; Bolognesi, Elisabetta; Ricci, Cristian; Costa, Andrea Saul; Galimberti, Daniela; Griffanti, Ludovica; Bianchi, Anna; Savazzi, Federica; Mari, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Baglio, Francesca; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is an age-regulated vesicular SNARE protein involved in the exocytosis of neurotransmitters from synapses, a process that is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Changes in SNAP-25 levels are suggested to contribute to age-related decline of cognitive function, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNAP-25 gene are present in neuropsychiatric conditions and play a role in determining IQ phenotypes. To verify a possible role of SNAP-25 in AD, we analyzed five gene polymorphisms in patients with AD (n = 607), replicating the study in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 148) and in two groups of age-matched healthy controls (HC1: n = 615 and HC2: n = 310). Results showed that the intronic rs363050 (A) and rs363043 (T) alleles, as well as the rs363050/rs363043 A-T haplotype are significantly more frequent in AD and aMCI and are associated with pathological scores of categorical fluency in AD. Notably, functional MRI analyses indicated that SNAP-25 genotypes correlate with a significantly decreased brain activity in the cingulate cortex and in the frontal (middle and superior gyri) and the temporo-parietal (angular gyrus) area. SNAP-25 polymorphisms may be associated with AD and correlate with alterations in categorical fluency and a reduced localized brain activity. SNAP-25 polymorphisms could be used as surrogate markers for the diagnosis of AD and of cognitive deficit; these SNPs might also have a possible predictive role in the natural history of AD.

  13. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage and the Risk of Recurrent Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarny, Piotr; Kwiatkowski, Dominik; Toma, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr; Orzechowska, Agata; Bobińska, Kinga; Bielecka-Kowalska, Anna; Szemraj, Janusz; Berk, Michael; Anderson, George; Śliwiński, Tomasz

    2016-11-20

    BACKGROUND Depressive disorder, including recurrent type (rDD), is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory pathways, which may induce DNA damage. This thesis is supported by the presence of increased levels of DNA damage in depressed patients. Such DNA damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. BER efficiency may be influenced by polymorphisms in BER-related genes. Therefore, we genotyped nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes encoding BER proteins. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using TaqMan, we selected and genotyped the following SNPs: c.-441G>A (rs174538) of FEN1, c.2285T>C (rs1136410) of PARP1, c.580C>T (rs1799782) and c.1196A>G (rs25487) of XRCC1, c.*83A>C (rs4796030) and c.*50C>T (rs1052536) of LIG3, c.-7C>T (rs20579) of LIG1, and c.-468T>G (rs1760944) and c.444T>G (rs1130409) of APEX1 in 599 samples (288 rDD patients and 311 controls). RESULTS We found a strong correlation between rDD and both SNPs of LIG3, their haplotypes, as well as a weaker association with the c.-468T>G of APEXI which diminished after Nyholt correction. Polymorphisms of LIG3 were also associated with early onset versus late onset depression, whereas the c.-468T>G polymorphism showed the opposite association. CONCLUSIONS The SNPs of genes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage may modulate rDD risk. Since this is an exploratory study, the results should to be treated with caution and further work needs to be done to elucidate the exact involvement of DNA damage and repair mechanisms in the development of this disease.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of NR3C1 gene and recurrent depressive disorder in population of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałecka, Elżbieta; Szemraj, Janusz; Bieńkiewicz, Małgorzata; Majsterek, Ireneusz; Przybyłowska-Sygut, Karolina; Gałecki, Piotr; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Depressive disorder is a disease characterized by disturbances in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Abnormalities include the increased level of glucocorticoids (GC) and changes in sensitivity to these hormones. The changes are related to glucocorticoid receptors gene (NR3C1) variants. The NR3C1 gene is suggested to be a candidate gene affecting depressive disorder risk and management. The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms within the NR3C1 gene and their role in the susceptibility to recurrent depressive disorder (rDD). 181 depressive patients and 149 healthy ethnically matched controls were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Statistical significance between rDD patients and controls was observed for the allele and genotype frequencies at three loci: BclI, N363S, and ER22/23EK. The presence of C allele, CC, and GC genotype of BclI polymorphism, G allele and GA genotype for N363S and ER22/23EK variants respectively were associated with increased rDD risk. Two haplotypes indicated higher susceptibility for rDD, while haplotype GAG played a protective role with OR(dis) 0.29 [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.13-0.64]. Data generated from this study support the earlier results that genetic variants of the NR3C1 gene are associated with rDD and suggest further consideration on the possible involvement of these variants in etiology of the disease.

  15. Pulmonary cachexia, systemic inflammatory profile, and the interleukin 1beta -511 single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Roelinka; Grimble, Robert F; Howell, W Martin; Shale, Dennis J; Creutzberg, Eva C; Wouters, Emiel F; Schols, Annemie M

    2005-11-01

    Cachexia is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is thought to be linked to an enhanced systemic inflammatory response. We investigated differences in the systemic inflammatory profile and polymorphisms in related inflammatory genes in COPD patients. A cross-sectional study was performed in 99 patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages II-IV), who were stratified by cachexia based on fat-free mass index (FFMI; in kg/m2: leptin, and urinary pseudouridine (as a marker of cellular protein breakdown) were measured. Fat mass, leptin, and pseudouridine were significantly different (P COPD patients, who are characterized by an elevated systemic inflammatory response, cachexia is not discriminatory for the extent of increase in inflammatory status. This study, however, indicates a potential influence of genetic predisposition on the cachexia process.

  16. Fitness of Toxoplasma gondii is not related to DHFR single-nucleotide polymorphism during congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, François; Eudes, Nathalie; de Monbrison, Frédérique; Wallon, Martine; Picot, Stéphane

    2004-09-01

    Factors that regulate the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii in humans are poorly understood. When acquired during pregnancy, toxoplasmosis can be disastrous, leading to fetal loss or conversely to subclinical disease. In congenitally infected infants, evolution is highly unpredictable. Genotype based virulence patterns have been described in mice, but in humans this classification does not correlate with the gravity of the disease. Mutations on DHFR-TS loci have recently been reported to confer T. gondii fitness cost. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the virulence of the parasite, as measured by clinical outcome in the fetus or newborn, fitness, as measured by parasitic load in amniotic fluid, and allelic polymorphism in DHFR. Six cases of severe congenital toxoplasmosis and 23 cases of mild congenital infections were included in the study. Quantitative PCR was performed to evaluate total T. gondii DNA load in amniotic fluid and detection of mutations was carried out with a LightCycler using hybridisation probes. Parasitic load was significantly higher in severe infections than in mild diseases. Among isolates from severe or non-severe cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, no polymorphism could be detected at loci 36, 83 or 245 of the DHFR gene. The virulent RH strain presented the same melting temperature as the non-virulent PRU strain for codons 36, 83 and 245. Only mutated clones, M2M3 and M2M4 with allelic replacement at these positions, displayed different profiles allowing a clear distinction between wild and mutant types. We concluded that the DHFR gene mutations we investigated do not regulate T. gondii fitness in humans.

  17. p16 gene silencing along with p53 single-nucleotide polymorphism and risk of esophageal cancer in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mandakini; Sharma, Santanu Kumar; Sekhon, Gaganpreet Singh; Mahanta, Jagadish; Phukan, Rup Kumar; Jalan, Bimal Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The high incidence of esophageal cancer in Northeast India and the unique ethnic background and dietary habits provide a great opportunity to study the molecular genetics behind esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in this part of the region. We hypothesized that in addition to currently known environmental risk factors for esophageal cancer, genetic and epigenetic factors are also involved in esophageal carcinogenesis in Northeast India. Therefore, in this study, we explored the possible association between the two important G1 cell cycle regulatory genes p16 and p53 and environmental risk factors and risk of esophageal carcinogenesis. A total of 100 newly diagnosed esophageal cancer cases along with equal number of age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were included in this study. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the p16 promoter methylation status. Single-nucleotide polymorphism at codon 72 of p53 gene was assessed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Aberrant methylation of p16 gene was seen in 81% of esophageal cancer cases. Hypermethylation of p16 gene was not found in healthy controls. p53 Pro/Pro genotype was found to be a risk genotype in Northeast India compared with Arg/Pro and Arg/Arg. p53 variant/polymorphism was significantly associated with esophageal cancer risk in the study population under all three genetic models, namely, dominant model (Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro vs Arg/Arg odds ratio = 2.25, confidence interval = 1.19-4.26; p = 0.012), recessive model (Arg/Arg + Arg/Pro vs Pro/Pro odds ratio = 2.35, confidence interval = 1.24-4.44; p = 0.008), and homozygous model (Pro/Pro vs Arg/Arg odds ratio = 3.33, confidence interval = 1.54-7.20; p = 0.002). However, p53 variant/polymorphism was not statistically associated with esophageal cancer risk under the heterozygous model (Pro/Pro vs Arg/Pro). In the case-only analysis based on p16

  18. In Silico Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) in Human β-Globin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Mohammed; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Khan, Wajahatullah; Warsy, Arjumand S.; Elrobh, Mohamed; Khan, Zahid; Amri, Abdullah Al; Bazzi, Mohammad D.

    2011-01-01

    Single amino acid substitutions in the globin chain are the most common forms of genetic variations that produce hemoglobinopathies- the most widespread inherited disorders worldwide. Several hemoglobinopathies result from homozygosity or compound heterozygosity to beta-globin (HBB) gene mutations, such as that producing sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS), HbC, HbD and HbE. Several of these mutations are deleterious and result in moderate to severe hemolytic anemia, with associated complications, requiring lifelong care and management. Even though many hemoglobinopathies result from single amino acid changes producing similar structural abnormalities, there are functional differences in the generated variants. Using in silico methods, we examined the genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the HBB gene. Using a sequence homology-based Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) server we have searched for the SNPs, which showed that 200 (80%) non-synonymous polymorphism were found to be deleterious. The structure-based method via PolyPhen server indicated that 135 (40%) non-synonymous polymorphism may modify protein function and structure. The Pupa Suite software showed that the SNPs will have a phenotypic consequence on the structure and function of the altered protein. Structure analysis was performed on the key mutations that occur in the native protein coded by the HBB gene that causes hemoglobinopathies such as: HbC (E→K), HbD (E→Q), HbE (E→K) and HbS (E→V). Atomic Non-Local Environment Assessment (ANOLEA), Yet Another Scientific Artificial Reality Application (YASARA), CHARMM-GUI webserver for macromolecular dynamics and mechanics, and Normal Mode Analysis, Deformation and Refinement (NOMAD-Ref) of Gromacs server were used to perform molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization calculations on β-Chain residue of the HBB gene before and after mutation. Furthermore, in the native and altered protein models, amino acid residues

  19. In silico analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in human β-globin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alanazi

    Full Text Available Single amino acid substitutions in the globin chain are the most common forms of genetic variations that produce hemoglobinopathies--the most widespread inherited disorders worldwide. Several hemoglobinopathies result from homozygosity or compound heterozygosity to beta-globin (HBB gene mutations, such as that producing sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS, HbC, HbD and HbE. Several of these mutations are deleterious and result in moderate to severe hemolytic anemia, with associated complications, requiring lifelong care and management. Even though many hemoglobinopathies result from single amino acid changes producing similar structural abnormalities, there are functional differences in the generated variants. Using in silico methods, we examined the genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the HBB gene. Using a sequence homology-based Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT server we have searched for the SNPs, which showed that 200 (80% non-synonymous polymorphism were found to be deleterious. The structure-based method via PolyPhen server indicated that 135 (40% non-synonymous polymorphism may modify protein function and structure. The Pupa Suite software showed that the SNPs will have a phenotypic consequence on the structure and function of the altered protein. Structure analysis was performed on the key mutations that occur in the native protein coded by the HBB gene that causes hemoglobinopathies such as: HbC (E→K, HbD (E→Q, HbE (E→K and HbS (E→V. Atomic Non-Local Environment Assessment (ANOLEA, Yet Another Scientific Artificial Reality Application (YASARA, CHARMM-GUI webserver for macromolecular dynamics and mechanics, and Normal Mode Analysis, Deformation and Refinement (NOMAD-Ref of Gromacs server were used to perform molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization calculations on β-Chain residue of the HBB gene before and after mutation. Furthermore, in the native and altered protein models, amino acid

  20. ASSOCIATION OF SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS IN THE LEPR CANDIDATE GENE WITH CARCASS TRAITS OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kováčik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leptin and leptin receptor genetic variants are associated with obese phenotypes in humans and mice and are expected to influence fat deposition in pigs. This study aimed to investigate the associations of LEPR polymorphism with carcass traits (half carcass weight, lean meat percentage, back-fat thickness, MLT area - musculus longisimus thoracis and evaluation of genotypic values, additive values and dominance deviations. To identify the genotypes of LEPR candidate genes, we used biological material obtained from sows (55 and boars (51 of hybrid combination Large White x Landrace after reaching the slaughter weight. We identified three genotypes using restriction endonuclease HpaII in a group of 106 pigs. The AA genotype was the dominant one (42.45%, AB heterozygotes constituted 39.62%, while the BB genotype was the lowest (17.93%. Analyzing the half carcass weight the highest value detected was the highest in the dominant AA homozygotes together with the highest genotypic value (GAA = 0.3649. The pork genotype AA presented the highest back-fat thickness, A high correlation between the additive genetic effect of the A allele and back-fat thickness (0.8183 has been observed while the effect of the allelic dominance was relatively low (0.1907. Based on our results we may conclude that there is an inverse and antagonistic relationship between the quality of the half carcass weight together with the back-fat thickness and the lean meat marker.

  1. Rhabdomyolysis After Out-of-Water Exercise in an Elite Adolescent Water Polo Player Carrying the IL-6 174C Allele Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Ben Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Yamin, Chen; Dror, Nitzan; Nemet, Dan

    2015-12-01

    We present an adolescent elite water polo player who despite a genetic predisposition to develop exercise-induced severe muscle damage due to carrying the IL-6 174C allele single-nucleotide polymorphism, developed acute rhabdomyolysis only after a vigorous out-of-water training, suggesting that water polo training may be more suitable for genetically predisposed athletes.

  2. Typing of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms using ribonuclease cleavage of DNA/RNA chimeric single-base extension primers and detection by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Børsting, Claus

    2005-01-01

    /ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The cleaved SBE products were detected in the 2000-5500 m/z range, and the noncleaved SBE products were detected in the 5500-10 000 m/z range. The method was validated by typing 17 Y chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 100 males with a 17-plex SBE package...

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in specific candidate genes are associated with phenotypic differences in days open for first lactation in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, a candidate gene approach identified 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with genetic merit for reproductive traits and 26 associated with genetic merit for production in dairy bulls. We evaluated association of the 77 SNPs with days open (DO) for first lactation in a pop...

  4. Impact of IL28B-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Liver Histopathology in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 2 and 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rembeck, Karolina; Alsiö, Asa; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2012-01-01

    Recently, several genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to IL28B predict spontaneous clearance of HCV infection as well as outcome following peginterferon and ribavirin therapy among HCV genotype 1 infected patients. The present stu...

  5. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the LOXL1 gene and its relationship to pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Georgia; Lu, Minyan; Stoddard, Paul; Sammel, Mary D; Romero, Roberto; Strauss, Jerome F; Matthews, Catherine A

    2009-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes, the 2 conditions which have in common weakening of the tensile strength of tissues, are thought to be caused, in part, by abnormal extracellular matrix synthesis and/or catabolism. We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (NT_010194(LOXL1):g.45008784A>C) in the promoter of the LOXL1 gene, which is essential for elastin synthesis. Promoter studies showed that the minor "C'' allele had significantly greater activity than the major "A'' allele. Case-control studies examined the association of the alleles of this single nucleotide polymorphism with pelvic organ prolapse and preterm premature rupture of membranes. When comparing allele frequencies and genotypes in pelvic organ prolapse cases versus controls, no significant associations were found. A case-control study conducted in African American neonates also found no significant associations between the promoter alleles and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We conclude that a functional single nucleotide polymorphism exists in the promoter region of the LOXL1 gene. Association studies suggest that the promoter single nucleotide polymorphism does not contribute significantly to risk of pelvic organ prolapse or preterm premature rupture of membranes.

  6. QualitySNP: a pipeline for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions in EST data from diploid and polyploid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; Vosman, B.; Voorrips, R.E.; Linden, van der C.G.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background - Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are important tools in studying complex genetic traits and genome evolution. Computational strategies for SNP discovery make use of the large number of sequences present in public databases (in most cases as expressed sequence tags (ESTs)) and are

  7. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children…

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding toll-like receptors 7, 8 and 9 in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, C; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Jacobsen, Rasmus Sleimann

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicate a role for toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to investigate the risk of SLE and typical clinical and serological manifestations of SLE potentially conferred by selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  9. Correlations between clinical normal tissue radiosensitivity and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ATM, XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX, SOD2, and TGF-B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsner, Jan; Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Overgaard, Marie

    in biological pathways suspected to underlie phenotypes of interest. These variants can be either common alterations like single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs, or rare variants in potential susceptibility loci like ATM. In parallel, we are using microarray analysis on normal fibroblasts isolated from patients...

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in insulin resistance, weight regulation, lipid metabolism and inflammation in relation to metabolic syndrome: an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Povel, C.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Onland-Moret, N.; Dolle, M.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Schouw, van der Y.T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mechanisms involved in metabolic syndrome (MetS) development include insulin resistance, weight regulation, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Aim of this study is to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in these mechanisms with MetS. Methods: In

  11. Exploration of pathomechanisms triggered by a single-nucleotide polymorphism in titin's I-band: the cardiomyopathy-linked mutation T2580I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogomolovas, J.; Fleming, J.R.; Anderson, B.R.; Williams, R.; Lange, S.; Simon, B.; Khan, M.M.; Rudolf, R.; Franke, B.; Bullard, B.; Rigden, D.J.; Granzier, H.; Labeit, S.; Mayans, O.

    2016-01-01

    Missense single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mSNPs) in titin are emerging as a main causative factor of heart failure. However, distinguishing between benign and disease-causing mSNPs is a substantial challenge. Here, we research the question of whether a single mSNP in a generic domain of titin can

  12. Transcriptome profiling and validation of gene based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sorghum genotypes with contrasting responses to cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Hayes, Chad; Emendack, Yves; Xin, Zhanguo; Burke, John

    2015-12-09

    Sorghum is a versatile cereal crop, with excellent heat and drought tolerance. However, it is susceptible to early-season cold stress (12-15 °C) which limits stand-establishment and seedling growth. To gain further insights on the molecular mechanism of cold tolerance in sorghum we performed transcriptome profiling between known cold sensitive and tolerant sorghum lines using RNA sequencing technology under control and cold stress treatments. Here we report on the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between contrasting sorghum genotypes, HongkeZi (cold tolerant) and BTx623 (cold sensitive) under cool and control temperatures using RNAseq approach to elucidate the molecular basis of sorghum response to cold stress. Furthermore, we validated bi-allelic variants in the form of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) between the cold susceptible and tolerant lines of sorghum. An analysis of transcriptome profile showed that in response to cold, a total of 1910 DEGs were detected under cold and control temperatures in both genotypes. We identified a subset of genes under cold stress for downstream analysis, including transcription factors that exhibit differential abundance between the sensitive and tolerant genotypes. We identified transcription factors including Dehydration-responsive element-binding factors, C-repeat binding factors, and Ethylene responsive transcription factors as significantly upregulated during cold stress in cold tolerant HKZ. Additionally, specific genes such as plant cytochromes, glutathione s-transferases, and heat shock proteins were found differentially regulated under cold stress between cold tolerant and susceptible genotype of sorghum. A total of 41,603 SNP were identified between the cold sensitive and tolerant genotypes with minimum read of four. Approximately 89 % of the 114 SNP sites selected for evaluation were validated using endpoint genotyping technology. A new strategy which involved an integrated analysis of

  13. Direct genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms in methyl metabolism genes using probe-free high-resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lasse S; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2008-05-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) shows great promise for high-throughput, rapid genotyping of individual polymorphic loci. We have developed HRM assays for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in several key genes that are involved in methyl metabolism and may directly or indirectly affect the methylation status of the DNA. The SNPs are in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T and A1298C), methionine synthetase (MTR; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase; A2756G), and DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b; C46359T and C31721T) loci. The choice of short amplicons led to greater melting temperature (Tm) differences between the two homozygous genotypes, which allowed accurate genotyping without the use of probes or spiking with control DNA. In the case of MTHFR, there is a second rarer SNP (rs4846051) close to the A1298C SNP that may result in inaccurate genotyping. We masked this second SNP by placing the primer over it and choosing a base at the polymorphic position that was equally mismatched to both alleles. The HRM assays were done on HRM capable real-time PCR machines rather than stand-alone HRM machines. Monitoring the amplification allows ready identification of samples that may give rise to aberrant melting curves because of PCR abnormalities. We show that samples amplifying markedly late can give rise to shifted melting curves without alteration of shapes and potentially lead to misclassification of genotypes. In conclusion, rapid and high-throughput SNP analysis can be done with probe-free HRM if sufficient attention is paid to amplicon design and quality control to omit aberrantly amplifying samples.

  14. Correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms of NADPH oxidase p22phox gene and ischemic stroke in Shanghai Han population

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    Wei XU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This paper aims to investigate the distribution of genotypes and alleles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase p22phox -930A/G, 242C/T and -675A/T, so as to evaluate the association between three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and risk of atherosclerotic ischemic stroke in permanent resident population of Han nationality living in Shanghai area. Methods The genotypes and allele frequencies of NADPH oxidase p22phox subunit -930A/G, 242C/T and -675A/T were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 205 patients with ischemic stroke and 136 healthy controls. Results In patients with ischemic stroke, the results of PCR-RFLP in variant genetic loci were different. For -930A/G, one band appeared at 268 bp of genotype AA; 2 bands appeared at 197 and 71 bp of genotype GG; 3 bands appeared at 268, 197 and 71 bp of genotype AG. For 242C/T, one band appeared at 348 bp of genotype CC; 2 bands appeared at 188 and 160 bp of genotype TT; 3 bands appeared at 348, 188 and 160 bp of genotype CT. For -675A/T, 2 bands appeared at 158 and 54 bp of genotype TT; 3 bands appeared at 212, 158 and 54 bp of genotype AT. The genotypes and allele frequency of all three SNPs of NADPH oxidase p22phox gene had no significant difference between ischemic stroke patients and healthy controls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The genetic polymorphism of NADPH oxidase p22phox gene -930A/G, 242C/T and -675A/T might have no association with ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.09.011

  15. Ultrahigh-density linkage map for cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. using a single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mor Rubinstein

    Full Text Available Genotyping arrays are tools for high-throughput genotyping, which is beneficial in constructing saturated genetic maps and therefore high-resolution mapping of complex traits. Since the report of the first cucumber genome draft, genetic maps have been constructed mainly based on simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or on combinations of SSRs and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP. In this study, we developed the first cucumber genotyping array consisting of 32,864 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. These markers cover the cucumber genome with a median interval of ~2 Kb and have expected genotype calls in parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set. The training set was validated with Fluidigm technology and showed 96% concordance with the genotype calls in the parents/F1 hybridizations. Application of the genotyping array was illustrated by constructing a 598.7 cM genetic map based on a '9930' × 'Gy14' recombinant inbred line (RIL population comprised of 11,156 SNPs. Marker collinearity between the genetic map and reference genomes of the two parents was estimated at R2 = 0.97. We also used the array-derived genetic map to investigate chromosomal rearrangements, regional recombination rate, and specific regions with segregation distortions. Finally, 82% of the linkage-map bins were polymorphic in other cucumber variants, suggesting that the array can be applied for genotyping in other lines. The genotyping array presented here, together with the genotype calls of the parents/F1 hybridizations as a training set, should be a powerful tool in future studies with high-throughput cucumber genotyping. An ultrahigh-density linkage map constructed by this genotyping array on RIL population may be invaluable for assembly improvement, and for mapping important cucumber QTLs.

  16. Combined effects of icam-1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental carcinogens on oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

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    Chiao-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, oral cancer has causally been associated with environmental carcinogens. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, a cell adhesion molecule with a key role in inflammation and immunosurveillance, was implicated in carcinogenesis by facilitating instability in the tumor environment. The current study explored the combined effect of ICAM-1 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the ICAM-1 gene from 595 patients with oral cancer and 561 non-cancer controls were analyzed by a real-time PCR. We found that the ICAM-1 rs5498 polymorphism and the TAGG or TACG haplotype of 4 ICAM-1 SNPs (rs3093030, rs5491, rs281432, and rs5498 combined were associated with oral-cancer susceptibility. Among 727 smokers, ICAM-1 polymorphisms carriers with the betel-nut chewing habit had a 27.49-36.23-fold greater risk of having oral cancer compared to ICAM-1 wild-type (WT carriers without the betel-nut chewing habit. Among 549 betel-nut chewers, ICAM-1 polymorphisms carriers who smoked had a 9.93-14.27-fold greater risk of having oral cancer compared to those who carried the WT but did not smoke. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least 1 T allele of ICAM-1 rs5491 or 1 G allele of rs281432 were at lower risk of developing an advanced clinical stage (III/IV (p<0.05, compared to those patients with AA or CC homozygotes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 rs5498 SNP and either of 2 haplotypes of 4 SNPs combined have potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis. Gene-environment interactions of ICAM-1 polymorphisms, smoking, and betel-nut chewing might alter oral-cancer susceptibility. ICAM-1 rs5491 and rs281432 may be applied as factors to predict the clinical stage in OSCC patients.

  17. The TNFSF15 gene single nucleotide polymorphism rs7848647 is associated with surgical diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Tara M; Berg, Arthur S; Hegarty, John P; Deiling, Sue; Brinton, David; Poritz, Lisa S; Koltun, Walter A

    2014-06-01

    To determine if single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TFNSF15 gene play a role in patients requiring surgery for diverticulitis. A role for a genetic predisposition in diverticulitis is suggested by its association with hereditary connective tissue disorders, youthful onset in some patients, and the observation of families with multiple affected individuals. The TNFSF15 gene has been associated with other inflammatory diseases affecting the colon such as medically refractory ulcerative colitis (UC), aggressive Crohn's disease (CD), and pouchitis after restorative proctocolectomy. In the discovery phase of this study, 21 sporadic surgical diverticulitis (SD) patients (9 female, mean age = 52 ± 5) and 5 individuals from a single family with surgically managed diverticulitis [familial diverticulitis (FD), 4 female, mean age = 51.1 ± 7] were studied. SD patients were age and sex matched with 3 separate groups of healthy, CD and UC control patients. All patients were genotyped for 5 known TNFSF15-associated SNPs. The SNP discovered to be associated with diverticulitis (rs7848647) was then confirmed in a separate test group composed of 34 additional patients (20 female, mean age 57.7 ± 2) who also underwent surgical treatment for diverticulitis. These patients were age matched to a new control cohort of patients having no history of diverticulitis (26 female). Patients were genotyped using a TaqMan assay. In the discovery phase, logistical regression on matched subjects was performed to determine an association of TNFSF SNP with diverticulitis versus the control groups. In the test phase, significance for the rs7848647 SNP was assessed by the Fischer's exact test. In the discovery phase, the TNFSF15 SNP rs7848647 was significantly associated with SD (p = 0.0003) versus all control groups studied. The risk allele for this SNP (G substituted for A) was found in all SD patients. The homozygous GG allele was found in 62% (13/21) of SD patients versus only 5% (1

  18. Correlation of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene with carotid plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiming; Cui, Min; Yin, Zegang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Jie; Zhou, Huadong

    2015-06-30

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is abundantly expressed in carotid plaques. This study investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAPP-A and the presence of carotid plaques. A total of 408 patients with carotid plaques and 493 controls were included in the study. All subjects were Southern Chinese Han. Carotid plaques were analyzed by computer tomography angiography. PAPP-A SNPs were identified by ligase detection reaction-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The PAPP-A genotypes rs3747823, rs7020782, and rs13290387 were analyzed. The rs7020782 C allele genotype correlated with an increased risk of developing carotid plaques under the dominant, recessive, and additive models (adjusted odds ratios: 2.60, 2.36, and 3.48, respectively; P ≤ 0.001). Only C allele-carrying genotypes correlated with a significantly increased risk of carotid plaque based on studies stratified by age and sex under the dominant model. rs7020782 remained significantly associated with the risk of carotid plaque calcification after adjusting for age and potential confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 1.89; 95 % confidence interval, 1.17-3.08; P = 0.010). This study found, for the first time, that the A˃C variation of rs7020782 might be an independent risk factor for carotid plaque development and calcification. The determination of such genotypes could provide a new tool for identifying individuals at high risk for carotid atherosclerosis.

  19. The single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype analysis of MDR1 in Chinese diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Xiao, Zhengrui; Yin, Guangli; Fan, Lei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Huayuan; Wu, Hanxin; Qian, Sixuan; Xu, Wei; Li, Jianyong; Miao, Kourong

    2015-07-01

    We investigated whether the MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotype variants were associated with the susceptibility to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A total of 129 DLBCL patients and 208 healthy controls from Jiangsu Han population were enrolled in this study. They were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-allele specific primers (PCR-ASP) method or DNA direct sequencing at three common loci: C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T. At locus G2677T/A, allele G and genotype GT were significantly more common in DLBCL (G: OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.08-2.02, Pc=0.03; GT: OR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.25-3.07, PcDLBCL (OR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.52-3.74, PcDLBCL group (OR=5.21, 95% CI: 2.58-10.54, PcDLBCL group (G-T: OR=3.97, 95% CI: 2.31-6.85, PcDLBCL, as well as haplotype of T-G-T, G-T in 2677-3435 and diplotype of 2677GT/3435TT, while AT at locus G2677T/A might be a protective genotype. These findings could provide evidence that the MDR1 SNPs may modify the susceptibility to DLBCL and shade new lights in disease association studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The common single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ji-Peng; Wang, Hong; Li, Chang-Zhong; Zhao, Han; You, Li; Shi, Dong-Hong; Sun, Xiu-Hua; Lv, Hong; Wang, Fei; Wen, Ze-Qing; Wang, Xie-Tong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Preeclampsia, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs2681472, as a new hypertension susceptibility genetic variant. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between preeclampsia and rs268172 in a Northern Han Chinese population. We genotyped 1218 unrelated Northern Han Chinese women, including 515 patients with preeclampsia and 703 healthy controls. No significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies between patients and controls (P = .23). When patients were divided into early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia according to gestational age of disease onset, the allele frequencies significantly differed between controls and patients with early-onset preeclampsia (P = .02). Genotype frequencies also were significantly different between controls and patients early-onset preeclampsia when data were analyzed under additive (P = .03) and dominant (P = .009) models. We replicated this association in an independent Northern Han Chinese population and observed a significant difference in the allele frequencies between patients with early-onset preeclampsia and controls (P = .011). We report that rs2681472 is associated with early-onset preeclampsia in Northern Han Chinese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. TET2, ASXL1, IDH1, and IDH2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Turkish Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the genotype distribution, allele frequency, and prognostic impact of IDH1/2, TET2, and ASXL1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs. TET2 (rs763480, ASXL1 (rs2208131, and IDH1 (rs11554137 variant homozygous genotype frequencies were found at rates of 1.5%, 9.2%, and 2.3%, respectively. No IDH2 SNP was identified. IDH1 and TET2 frequencies were 5% in essential thrombocythemia (ET and 1.7% in ET and 5% in primary myelofibrosis (PMF, respectively. ASXL1 frequencies were 8.3%-10% in MPN subgroups. The TET2 mutant allele T and ASXL1 mutant allele G had the highest frequencies with 0.272 in the PMF and 0.322 in the polycythemia vera (PV group, respectively. There was no impact of the SNPs on prognosis. IDH1 frequency in MPNs was found similar to the literature. ASXL1 frequencies were similar between ET, PV, and PMF patients. The ASXL1 and TET2 allele frequencies of the Turkish population are similar to those of the European population. The role of SNPs in MPNs might be further evaluated in larger multicenter studies.

  2. No association between a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs4141463, in the MACROD2 gene and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rozsnyai, Kinga; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Schlitt, Sabine; Freitag, Christine M; Lee, Irene; Muglia, Pierandrea; Poot, Martin; Staal, Wouter; de Jonge, Maretha V; Ophoff, Roel A; Lewis, Cathryn; Skuse, David; Mandy, Will; Vassos, Evangelos; Fossdal, Ragnheidur; Magnusson, Páll; Hreidarsson, Stefan; Saemundsen, Evald; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Collier, David

    2011-09-01

    The Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium recently reported genome-wide significant association between autism and an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism marker, rs4141463, within the MACROD2 gene. In the present study we attempted to replicate this finding using an independent case-control design of 1,170 cases with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (874 of which fulfilled narrow criteria for Autism (A)) from five centers within Europe (UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, and Iceland), and 35,307 controls. The combined sample size gave us a non-centrality parameter (NCP) of 11.9, with 93% power to detect allelic association of rs4141463 at an alpha of 0.05 with odds ratio of 0.84 (the best odds ratio estimate of the AGP Consortium data), and for the narrow diagnosis of autism, an NCP of 8.9 and power of 85%. Our case-control data were analyzed for association, stratified by each center, and the summary statistics were combined using the meta-analysis program, GWAMA. This resulted in an odds ratio (OR) of 1.03 (95% CI 0.944-1.133), with a P-value of 0.5 for ASD and OR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.88-1.11) with P-value = 0.85 for the Autism (A) sub-group. Therefore, this study does not provide support for the reported association between rs4141463 and autism. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Development of a single nucleotide polymorphism DNA microarray for the detection and genotyping of the SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xi; Geng, Peng; Wang, Quan; Cao, Boyang; Liu, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a disease that spread widely in the world during late 2002 to 2004, severely threatened public health. Although there have been no reported infections since 2004, the extremely pathogenic SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), as the causative agent of SARS, has recently been identified in animals, showing the potential for the re-emergence of this disease. Previous studies showed that 27 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations among the spike (S) gene of this virus are correlated closely with the SARS pathogenicity and epidemicity. We have developed a SNP DNA microarray in order to detect and genotype these SNPs, and to obtain related information on the pathogenicity and epidemicity of a given strain. The microarray was hybridized with PCR products amplified from cDNAs obtained from different SARS-CoV strains. We were able to detect 24 SNPs and determine the type of a given strain. The hybridization profile showed that 19 samples were detected and genotyped correctly by using our microarray, with 100% accuracy. Our microarray provides a novel method for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of SARS-CoV.

  4. Genome-wide association mapping for wood characteristics in Populus identifies an array of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; Klapšte, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Hannemann, Jan; McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; DiFazio, Stephen P; Muchero, Wellington; Ranjan, Priya; Tuskan, Gerald A; Friedmann, Michael C; Ehlting, Juergen; Cronk, Quentin C B; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2013-11-01

    Establishing links between phenotypes and molecular variants is of central importance to accelerate genetic improvement of economically important plant species. Our work represents the first genome-wide association study to the inherently complex and currently poorly understood genetic architecture of industrially relevant wood traits. Here, we employed an Illumina Infinium 34K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array that generated 29,233 high-quality SNPs in c. 3500 broad-based candidate genes within a population of 334 unrelated Populus trichocarpa individuals to establish genome-wide associations. The analysis revealed 141 significant SNPs (α ≤ 0.05) associated with 16 wood chemistry/ultrastructure traits, individually explaining 3-7% of the phenotypic variance. A large set of associations (41% of all hits) occurred in candidate genes preselected for their suggested a priori involvement with secondary growth. For example, an allelic variant in the FRA8 ortholog explained 21% of the total genetic variance in fiber length, when the trait's heritability estimate was considered. The remaining associations identified SNPs in genes not previously implicated in wood or secondary wall formation. Our findings provide unique insights into wood trait architecture and support efforts for population improvement based on desirable allelic variants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphism of prolactin gene exon two in ducks of Pekin, Mojosari and Pekin Mojosari crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin gene plays crucial role in the reproduction and egg production of birds. The objectives of this study were to characterize single nucleotide polymorphism in partial intron and coding region of duck prolactin gene. Blood samples were collected from 168 ducks consisted of 19 Pekin, 36 Mojosari, and 113 of their crossbreds collected from Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Primer pairs for the coding regions in prolactin gene were self designed based on the duck genomic sequence database (GeneBank: AB158611.1. PCR products based on DNA of prolactin gene exon two was amplified approximately 400 bp. There is one base insertion of Adenin at the position of 2001 bp intron two region of duck prolactin. Homology test based on BLAST method indicated 99% identity with duck refference (Code Access GeneBank: AB158611.1. Adenin composition in all of duck samples was higher than refference. Triplet hydrogen bonds between Guanine and Cytosin pairs was higher than those at duplet hydrogen bonds between Adenine and Thymine. All duck samples were homozigous and monomorphyc.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of spinach by single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genotyping-by-sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Shi

    Full Text Available Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., 2n = 2x = 12 is an economically important vegetable crop worldwide and one of the healthiest vegetables due to its high concentrations of nutrients and minerals. The objective of this research was to conduct genetic diversity and population structure analysis of a collection of world-wide spinach genotypes using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs markers. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS was used to discover SNPs in spinach genotypes. Three sets of spinach genotypes were used: 1 268 USDA GRIN spinach germplasm accessions originally collected from 30 countries; 2 45 commercial spinach F1 hybrids from three countries; and 3 30 US Arkansas spinach cultivars/breeding lines. The results from this study indicated that there was genetic diversity among the 343 spinach genotypes tested. Furthermore, the genetic background in improved commercial F1 hybrids and in Arkansas cultivars/lines had a different structured populations from the USDA germplasm. In addition, the genetic diversity and population structures were associated with geographic origin and germplasm from the US Arkansas breeding program had a unique genetic background. These data could provide genetic diversity information and the molecular markers for selecting parents in spinach breeding programs.

  7. Use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sameer D; Schenkel, Flavio S; Verschoor, Chris P; Karrow, Niel A

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on livestock genetic improvement in the past decades has led to commercialization of different breeds of livestock species. Breed validation has become increasingly important to assess the safety and authenticity of livestock products in global and domestic markets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in discriminating between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds. Two separate resource populations were used, including a reference population consisting of 498 Holstein and 83 Jersey bull DNA samples, and a validation population consisting of 260 Holstein and 34 Jersey cow DNA samples. Five Jersey-specific and four Holstein-specific SNPs were identified and genotyped on the reference and validation resource populations. The reference population was used to validate the breed-specific SNPs used in this study and to predict the allocation efficiencies and misclassification probabilities of different combinations of SNPs. Individual animals in the validation population were allocated to either breed based on the presence of breed-specific alleles. It was found that any combination of three breed-specific SNPs had, on average, high breed allocation efficiency of >95% and low misclassification probability of Holstein cattle breeds. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  8. Association analysis of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the RELN gene with autism in the South African population

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Jyoti Rajan

    2013-02-01

    Background: Autism (MIM209850) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a triad of impairments, namely impairment in social interaction, impaired communication skills, and restrictive and repetitive behavior. A number of family and twin studies have demonstrated that genetic factors play a pivotal role in the etiology of autistic disorder. Various reports of reduced levels of reelin protein in the brain and plasma in autistic patients highlighted the role of the reelin gene (RELN) in autism. There is no such published study on the South African (SA) population. Aims: The aim of the present study was to find the genetic association of intronic rs736707 and exonic rs362691 (single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] of the RELN gene) with autism in a SA population. Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from cheek cell swabs from autistic (136) as well as control (208) subjects. The TaqMan ® Real-Time polymerase chain reaction and genotyping assay was utilized to determine the genotypes. Results: A significant association of SNP rs736707, but not for SNP rs362691, with autism in the SA population is observed. Conclusion: There might be a possible role of RELN in autism, especially for SA populations. The present study represents the first report on genetic association studies on the RELN gene in the SA population. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  9. Artificial neural network approach for selection of susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms and construction of prediction model on childhood allergic asthma

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    Kobayashi Takeshi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening of various gene markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and correlation between these markers and development of multifactorial disease have previously been studied. Here, we propose a susceptible marker-selectable artificial neural network (ANN for predicting development of allergic disease. Results To predict development of childhood allergic asthma (CAA and select susceptible SNPs, we used an ANN with a parameter decreasing method (PDM to analyze 25 SNPs of 17 genes in 344 Japanese people, and select 10 susceptible SNPs of CAA. The accuracy of the ANN model with 10 SNPs was 97.7% for learning data and 74.4% for evaluation data. Important combinations were determined by effective combination value (ECV defined in the present paper. Effective 2-SNP or 3-SNP combinations were found to be concentrated among the 10 selected SNPs. Conclusion ANN can reliably select SNP combinations that are associated with CAA. Thus, the ANN can be used to characterize development of complex diseases caused by multiple factors. This is the first report of automatic selection of SNPs related to development of multifactorial disease from SNP data of more than 300 patients.

  10. Genome-wide association study for rotator cuff tears identifies two significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Granger, Erin K; Farnham, James M; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Teerlink, Craig C

    2016-02-01

    The precise etiology of rotator cuff disease is unknown, but prior evidence suggests a role for genetic factors. Limited data exist identifying specific genes associated with rotator cuff tearing. The purpose of this study was to identify specific genes or genetic variants associated with rotator cuff tearing by a genome-wide association study with an independent set of rotator cuff tear cases. A set of 311 full-thickness rotator cuff tear cases genotyped on the Illumina 5M single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platform were used in a genome-wide association study with 2641 genetically matched white population controls available from the Illumina iControls database. Tests of association were performed with GEMMA software at 257,558 SNPs that compose the intersection of Illumina SNP platforms and that passed general quality control metrics. SNPs were considered significant if P development of rotator cuff tearing. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of the IL4R single-nucleotide polymorphism I50V with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasolian, Fataneh; Abdollahi, Elham; Samadi, Morteza

    2014-07-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive abortions before the 20th week of gestation. There is increasing evidence to support an immunological mechanism for the occurrence of RSA. The purpose of our study was to examine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-4 receptor gene IL4R influence susceptibility to, recurrent spontaneous abortion. This is a case-control study. We recruited 200 patients with RSA (case group) using established diagnostic criteria and 200, normal individuals (control group) at the fertility and infertility center in Yazd city and Isfahan city during 2012 to 2013. We screened the I50V variant in IL-4R in patients and controls by PCR-RFLF method, and we performed an association analysis between I50V variant and RSA.the data was analyzed by spss 16 software using Chi-square test. No differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the I50V SNPs were identified between patients with RSA and healthy controls. The frequency of SNP in IL-4 receptor (I50V) in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion did not differ significantly compared with the control group. Analysis of IL4R SNP haplotypes or complex alleles suggested no dominant protection in patients with RSA.

  12. DEFLATE Compression Algorithm Corrects for Overestimation of Phylogenetic Diversity by Grantham Approach to Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Classification

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    Arran Schlosberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in speed and cost of genome sequencing are resulting in increasing numbers of novel non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs in genes known to be associated with disease. The large number of nsSNPs makes laboratory-based classification infeasible and familial co-segregation with disease is not always possible. In-silico methods for classification or triage are thus utilised. A popular tool based on multiple-species sequence alignments (MSAs and work by Grantham, Align-GVGD, has been shown to underestimate deleterious effects, particularly as sequence numbers increase. We utilised the DEFLATE compression algorithm to account for expected variation across a number of species. With the adjusted Grantham measure we derived a means of quantitatively clustering known neutral and deleterious nsSNPs from the same gene; this was then used to assign novel variants to the most appropriate cluster as a means of binary classification. Scaling of clusters allows for inter-gene comparison of variants through a single pathogenicity score. The approach improves upon the classification accuracy of Align-GVGD while correcting for sensitivity to large MSAs. Open-source code and a web server are made available at https://github.com/aschlosberg/CompressGV.

  13. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in non-invasive genetic monitoring of a wolf population

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    Fabbri Elena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs which represent the most widespread source of sequence variation in genomes, are becoming a routine application in several fields such as forensics, ecology and conservation genetics. Their use, requiring short amplifications, may allow a more efficient genotyping of degraded DNA. We provide the first application of SNP genotyping in an Italian non-invasive genetic monitoring project of the wolf. We compared three different techniques for genotyping SNPs: pyrosequencing, SNaPshot® and TaqMan® Probe Assay in Real-Time PCR. We successively genotyped nine SNPs using the TaqMan Probe Assay in 51 Italian wolves, 57 domestic dogs, 15 wolf x dog hybrids and 313 wolf scats collected in the northern Apennines. The obtained results were used to estimate genetic variability and PCR error rates in SNP genotyping protocols compared to standard microsatellite analysis. We evaluated the cost, laboratory effort and reliability of these different markers and discuss the possible future use of VeraCode, SNPlex and Fluidigm EP1 system in wild population monitoring.

  14. Genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): validation in wild and farmed American and European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, J M; Naswa, S; López, M E; Bassini, L; Correa, K; Gilbey, J; Bernatchez, L; Norris, A; Neira, R; Lhorente, J P; Schnable, P S; Newman, S; Mileham, A; Deeb, N; Di Genova, A; Maass, A

    2016-07-01

    A considerable number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are required to elucidate genotype-phenotype associations and determine the molecular basis of important traits. In this work, we carried out de novo SNP discovery accounting for both genome duplication and genetic variation from American and European salmon populations. A total of 9 736 473 nonredundant SNPs were identified across a set of 20 fish by whole-genome sequencing. After applying six bioinformatic filtering steps, 200 K SNPs were selected to develop an Affymetrix Axiom(®) myDesign Custom Array. This array was used to genotype 480 fish representing wild and farmed salmon from Europe, North America and Chile. A total of 159 099 (79.6%) SNPs were validated as high quality based on clustering properties. A total of 151 509 validated SNPs showed a unique position in the genome. When comparing these SNPs against 238 572 markers currently available in two other Atlantic salmon arrays, only 4.6% of the SNP overlapped with the panel developed in this study. This novel high-density SNP panel will be very useful for the dissection of economically and ecologically relevant traits, enhancing breeding programmes through genomic selection as well as supporting genetic studies in both wild and farmed populations of Atlantic salmon using high-resolution genomewide information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A comprehensive experiment for molecular biology: Determination of single nucleotide polymorphism in human REV3 gene using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Shao, Meng; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Zixuan; Zhou, Liping; Yan, Yongmin; Shao, Qixiang; Xu, Wenrong; Qian, Hui

    2017-07-08

    Laboratory exercise is helpful for medical students to understand the basic principles of molecular biology and to learn about the practical applications of molecular biology. We have designed a lab course on molecular biology about the determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in human REV3 gene, the product of which is a subunit of DNA polymerase ζ and SNPs in this gene are associated with altered susceptibility to cancer. This newly designed experiment is composed of three parts, including genomic DNA extraction, gene amplification by PCR, and genotyping by RFLP. By combining these activities, the students are not only able to learn a series of biotechniques in molecular biology, but also acquire the ability to link the learned knowledge with practical applications. This comprehensive experiment will help the medical students improve the conceptual understanding of SNP and the technical understanding of SNP detection. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):299-304, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism among Varicella-Zoster Virus and identification of vaccine-specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeong Seon; Won, Youn Hee; Kim, In Kyo; Ahn, Jin Hyun; Shin, Ok Sarah; Kim, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chan Hee

    2016-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a causative agent for chickenpox and zoster. Live attenuated vaccines have been developed based on Oka and MAV/06 strains. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of attenuation, complete genome sequences of vaccine and wild-type strains were compared and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was analyzed. ORF22 and ORF62 contained the highest number of SNPs. The detailed analysis of the SNPs suggested 24 potential vaccine-specific sites. All the mutational events found in vaccine-specific sites were transitional, and most of them were substitution of AT to GC pair. Interestingly, 18 of the vaccine-specific sites of the vaccine strains appeared to be genetically heterogeneous. The probability of a single genome of vaccine strain to contain all 24 vaccine-type sequences was calculated to be less than 4%. The average codon adaptation index (CAI) value of the vaccine strains was significantly lower than the CAI value of the clinical strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differentiation between wild-type and vaccines strains of varicella zoster virus (VZV) based on four single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L; Xu, S; Maple, P A C; Xu, W; Brown, K E

    2017-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection (chickenpox) results in latency and subsequent reactivation manifests as shingles. Effective attenuated vaccines (vOka) are available for prevention of both illnesses. In this study, an amplicon-based sequencing method capable of differentiating between VZV wild-type (wt) strains and vOka vaccine is described. A total of 44 vesicular fluid specimens collected from 43 patients (16 from China and 27 from the UK) with either chickenpox or shingles were investigated, of which 10 had received previous vaccination. Four sets of polymerase chain reactions were set up simultaneously with primers amplifying regions encompassing four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), '69349-106262-107252-108111'. Nucleotide sequences were generated by Sanger sequencing. All samples except one had a wt SNP profile of 'A-T-T-T'. The sample collected from a patient who received vaccine 7-10 days ago, along with VZV vaccine preparations, Zostavax and Baike-varicella gave a SNP profile 'G-C-C-C'. The results show that this method can distinguish vaccine-derived virus from wt viruses from main four clades, (clades 1-4) and should be of utility worldwide.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphism array lesions, TET2, DNMT3A, ASXL1 and CBL mutations are present in systemic mastocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Traina

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A and new molecular defects may provide new insight in the pathogenesis of systemic mastocytosis (SM. SNP-A karyotyping was applied to identify recurrent areas of loss of heterozygosity and bidirectional sequencing was performed to evaluate the mutational status of TET2, DNMT3A, ASXL1, EZH2, IDH1/IDH2 and the CBL gene family. Overall survival (OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. We studied a total of 26 patients with SM. In 67% of SM patients, SNP-A karyotyping showed new chromosomal abnormalities including uniparental disomy of 4q and 2p spanning TET2/KIT and DNMT3A. Mutations in TET2, DNMT3A, ASXL1 and CBL were found in 23%, 12%, 12%, and 4% of SM patients, respectively. No mutations were observed in EZH2 and IDH1/IDH2. Significant differences in OS were observed for SM mutated patients grouped based on the presence of combined TET2/DNMT3A/ASXL1 mutations independent of KIT (P = 0.04 and sole TET2 mutations (P<0.001. In conclusion, TET2, DNMT3A and ASXL1 mutations are also present in mastocytosis and these mutations may affect prognosis, as demonstrated by worse OS in mutated patients.

  19. Computational Analysis of Damaging Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Their Structural and Functional Impact on the Insulin Receptor

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    Zabed Mahmud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with complex disorders can create, destroy, or modify protein coding sites. Single amino acid substitutions in the insulin receptor (INSR are the most common forms of genetic variations that account for various diseases like Donohue syndrome or Leprechaunism, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and type A insulin resistance. We analyzed the deleterious nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs in INSR gene based on different computational methods. Analysis of INSR was initiated with PROVEAN followed by PolyPhen and I-Mutant servers to investigate the effects of 57 nsSNPs retrieved from database of SNP (dbSNP. A total of 18 mutations that were found to exert damaging effects on the INSR protein structure and function were chosen for further analysis. Among these mutations, our computational analysis suggested that 13 nsSNPs decreased protein stability and might have resulted in loss of function. Therefore, the probability of their involvement in disease predisposition increases. In the lack of adequate prior reports on the possible deleterious effects of nsSNPs, we have systematically analyzed and characterized the functional variants in coding region that can alter the expression and function of INSR gene. In silico characterization of nsSNPs affecting INSR gene function can aid in better understanding of genetic differences in disease susceptibility.

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in PPARGC1A Gene Associates Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

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    M. A. Alim§, Yipeng Fan§, Yan Xie, Xiaoping Wu, Dongxiao Sun*, Yi Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Qin Zhang and Lin Liu1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find out possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of PPARGC1A gene and milk production traits. In the current study, one SNP at g.85330C>T position was identified in 9th intron of PPARGC1A gene through pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNP was genotyped using MALDI-TOF MS technique in 752 individuals from the Chinese Holstein cattle breed. The frequency of C allele at position g.85330C>T was more frequent in our population (0.69, followed by the T allele (0.31. From the association results, significant differences were found between PPARGC1A genotypes in the protein concentration and protein yield. Heterozygous cows with CT genotype at the g.85330C>T locus showed the highest protein yield, with more than 4.18 kg compared with homozygous cows with TT genotype; homozygous CC cows were found at intermediate position. In case of protein percentage, homozygous cows with TT genotype were significantly greater than heterozygous CT cows, with a difference of about 0.012%; CC cows were found in lowest position. The allele substitution results demonstrated that g.85330C>T-C allele decreased protein yield (1.23kg and protein percentage (0.016%. This result clearly indicated that g.85330C>T-T allele increased protein percentage and protein yield.

  1. A single-nucleotide polymorphism causes smaller grain size and loss of seed shattering during African rice domestication.

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    Wu, Wenguang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Muhua; Meyer, Rachel S; Luo, Xiaojin; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noelle; Tan, Lubin; Zhang, Jianwei; Wu, Jianzhong; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing; Wang, Xiangkun; Wing, Rod A; Zhu, Zuofeng

    2017-05-08

    Grain size is one of the most important components of grain yield and selecting large seeds has been a main target during plant domestication. Surprisingly, the grain of African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) typically is smaller than that of its progenitor, Oryza barthii. Here we report the cloning and characterization of a quantitative trait locus, GL4, controlling the grain length on chromosome 4 in African rice, which regulates longitudinal cell elongation of the outer and inner glumes. Interestingly, GL4 also controls the seed shattering phenotype like its orthologue SH4 gene in Asian rice. Our data show that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in the GL4 gene resulted in a premature stop codon and led to small seeds and loss of seed shattering during African rice domestication. These results provide new insights into diverse domestication practices in African rice, and also pave the way for enhancing crop yield to meeting the challenge of cereal demand in West Africa.

  2. Analysis of interleukin-10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a Malaysian population.

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    Lim, Yat-Yuen; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tai, Mei-Chee; Fani, Somayeh; Chang, Kian-Meng; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Bee, Ping-Chong; Gan, Gin-Gin; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the association of two IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1800896 and rs1800871) with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk in the three major races of the Malaysian population (Malay, Chinese and Indian; 317 cases and 330 controls). Our initial screening demonstrated that rs1800871 but not rs1800896 was significantly associated with increased NHL risk in Malays (pMalay-Rec = 0.007) and Chinese only (pChinese-Rec = 0.039). Subsequent combined analysis of the Malay and Chinese revealed significant association of rs1800871 with all (ALL) NHL subtypes (pMeta-ALL-NHL-Rec = 0.001), ALL B-cell subtypes (pMeta-ALL-B-cell-Rec = 0.003), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subtype (pMeta-DLBCL-Rec = 0.002) and ALL T-cell subtypes (pMeta-ALL-T-cell-Rec = 0.031). SNP rs1800896 showed increased risk only in follicular lymphoma (FL) (pMeta-FL-Dom = 0.0004). We also detected a male-specific association of rs1800871 with increased NHL risk (pMeta-Male-ALL-NHL-Rec = 0.006) in the combined analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of IL10 promoter SNPs with NHL susceptibility in the three major races of Malaysia.

  3. Expression of the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene is regulated by oxidative stress and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

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    Ulatowski, Lynn; Dreussi, Cara; Noy, Noa; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Klein, Eric; Manor, Danny

    2012-12-15

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in most animal species. By controlling the secretion of vitamin E from the liver, the α-tocopherol transfer protein regulates whole-body distribution and levels of this vital nutrient. However, the mechanism(s) that regulates the expression of this protein is poorly understood. Here we report that transcription of the TTPA gene in immortalized human hepatocytes is induced by oxidative stress and by hypoxia, by agonists of the nuclear receptors PPARα and RXR, and by increased cAMP levels. The data show further that induction of TTPA transcription by oxidative stress is mediated by an already-present transcription factor and does not require de novo protein synthesis. Silencing of the cAMP response element-binding (CREB) transcription factor attenuated transcriptional responses of the TTPA gene to added peroxide, suggesting that CREB mediates responses of this gene to oxidative stress. Using a 1.9-kb proximal segment of the human TTPA promoter together with a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we found that single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are commonly found in healthy humans dramatically affect promoter activity. These observations suggest that oxidative stress and individual genetic makeup contribute to vitamin E homeostasis in humans. These findings may explain the variable responses to vitamin E supplementation observed in human clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic analysis using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays reveals novel microdeletions associated with premature ovarian failure.

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    McGuire, Megan M; Bowden, Wayne; Engel, Natalie J; Ahn, Hyo Won; Kovanci, Ertug; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2011-04-01

    To analyze DNA from women with premature ovarian failure (POF) for genome-wide copy-number variations (CNVs), focusing on novel autosomal microdeletions. Case-control genetic association study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. Of 89 POF patients, eight experienced primary amenorrhea and 81 exhibited secondary amenorrhea before age 40 years. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples was analyzed for CNVs using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Identification of novel CNVs in 89 POF cases, using the Database of Genomic Variants as a control population. A total of 198 autosomal CNVs were detected by SNP arrays, ranging in size from 0.1 Mb to 3.4 Mb. These CNVs (>0.1 Mb) included 17 novel microduplications and seven novel microdeletions, six of which contained the coding regions 8q24.13, 10p15-p14, 10q23.31, 10q26.3, 15q25.2, and 18q21.32. Most of the novel CNVs were derived from autosomes rather than the X chromosome. The present pilot study revealed novel microdeletions/microduplications in women with POF. Two novel microdeletions caused haploinsufficiency for SYCE1 and CPEB1, genes known to cause ovarian failure in knockout mouse models. Chromosomal microarrays may be a useful adjunct to conventional karyotyping when evaluating genomic imbalances in women with POF. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with sport performance and relative maximal oxygen uptake.

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    Li, Jiang-Hua; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Lin, Ya-Jun; Qiu, Li-Qiang; Cai, Can-Xin; Wang, Ya-Hui; Xiong, Qun; Chen, Fei; Chen, Li-Hui

    2017-11-01

    To observe the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) gene and sport performance and to analyse genotype associations of the associated SNPs with sport performance and relative maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]). Participants were selected from 685 Chinese Han male college students. The completion times of a 1000-m run and a 50-m run were used to reflect sport performance, respectively. Nineteen tagSNPs were genotyped with Polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction. Relative [Formula: see text] was directly determined with a cardiopulmonary function analyser. A significant association was found between rs2256292 and 1000-m run performance, but no significant association was found between any tagSNPs and 50-m run performance. The genotype associations of rs2256292 with 1000-m run performance and with relative [Formula: see text] were both significant under the recessive model (CC vs. CG + GG). No tagSNP in NNMT is significantly associated with 50-m run performance but rs2256292 is significantly associated with 1000-m run performance. The genotype associations of rs2256292 with sport performance are significant under recessive model, and a higher relative [Formula: see text] may be the physiological reason for minor homozygote CC carriers being of the better 1000-m runners.

  6. Evaluation of candidate genes for cholinesterase activity in farmworkers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides: association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in BCHE.

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    Howard, Timothy D; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A; Vallejos, Quirina M; Whalley, Lara E; Cui, Wei; Padilla, Stephanie; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-10-01

    Organophosphate pesticides act as cholinesterase inhibitors. For those with agricultural exposure to these chemicals, risk of potential exposure-related health effects may be modified by genetic variability in cholinesterase metabolism. Cholinesterase activity is a useful, indirect measurement of pesticide exposure, especially in high-risk individuals such as farmworkers. To understand fully the links between pesticide exposure and potential human disease, analyses must be able to consider genetic variability in pesticide metabolism. We studied participants in the Community Participatory Approach to Measuring Farmworker Pesticide Exposure (PACE3) study to determine whether cholinesterase levels are associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in pesticide metabolism. Cholinesterase levels were measured from blood samples taken from 287 PACE3 participants at up to four time points during the 2007 growing season. We performed association tests of cholinesterase levels and 256 SNPs in 30 candidate genes potentially involved in pesticide metabolism. A false discovery rate (FDR) p-value was used to account for multiple testing. Thirty-five SNPs were associated (unadjusted p effect that is independent of pesticide exposure. Common genetic variation in the BCHE gene may contribute to subtle changes in cholinesterase levels.

  7. High performance computing enabling exhaustive analysis of higher order single nucleotide polymorphism interaction in Genome Wide Association Studies.

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    Goudey, Benjamin; Abedini, Mani; Hopper, John L; Inouye, Michael; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Wagner, John; Zhou, Zeyu; Zobel, Justin; Reumann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a common approach for systematic discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are associated with a given disease. Univariate analysis approaches commonly employed may miss important SNP associations that only appear through multivariate analysis in complex diseases. However, multivariate SNP analysis is currently limited by its inherent computational complexity. In this work, we present a computational framework that harnesses supercomputers. Based on our results, we estimate a three-way interaction analysis on 1.1 million SNP GWAS data requiring over 5.8 years on the full "Avoca" IBM Blue Gene/Q installation at the Victorian Life Sciences Computation Initiative. This is hundreds of times faster than estimates for other CPU based methods and four times faster than runtimes estimated for GPU methods, indicating how the improvement in the level of hardware applied to interaction analysis may alter the types of analysis that can be performed. Furthermore, the same analysis would take under 3 months on the currently largest IBM Blue Gene/Q supercomputer "Sequoia" at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory assuming linear scaling is maintained as our results suggest. Given that the implementation used in this study can be further optimised, this runtime means it is becoming feasible to carry out exhaustive analysis of higher order interaction studies on large modern GWAS.

  8. Chosen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of enamel formation genes and dental caries in a population of Polish children.

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    Gerreth, Karolina; Zaorska, Katarzyna; Zabel, Maciej; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria; Nowicki, Michał

    2017-09-01

    It is increasingly emphasized that the influence of a host's factors in the etiology of dental caries are of most interest, particularly those concerned with genetic aspect. The aim of the study was to analyze the genotype and allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AMELX, AMBN, TUFT1, TFIP11, MMP20 and KLK4 genes and to prove their association with dental caries occurrence in a population of Polish children. The study was performed in 96 children (48 individuals with caries - "cases" and 48 free of this disease - "controls"), aged 20-42 months, chosen out of 262 individuals who had dental examination performed and attended 4 day nurseries located in Poznań (Poland). From both groups oral swab was collected for molecular evaluation. Eleven selected SNPs markers were genotyped by Sanger sequencing. Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and a standard χ2 analysis was used to test for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The association of genetic variations with caries susceptibility or resistance was assessed by the Fisher's exact test and p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Five markers were significantly associated with caries incidence in children in the study: rs17878486 in AMELX (p dental caries occurrence in Polish children.

  9. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of non-coding area in the CP gene are correlated with Parkinson's disease.

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    Zhao, Na; Xiao, Jianqiu; Zheng, Zhiyong; Fei, Guoqiang; Zhang, Feng; Jin, Lirong; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2015-04-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that ceruloplasmin (CP) dysmetabolism is correlated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the causes of decreased serum CP levels in PD patients remain to be clarified. This study aimed to explore the potential association between genetic variants of the CP gene and PD. Clinical features, serum CP levels, and the CP gene (both promoter and coding regions) were analyzed in 60 PD patients and 50 controls. A luciferase reporter system was used to investigate the function of promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). High-density comparative genomic hybridization microarrays were also used to detect large-scale copy-number variations in CP and an additional 47 genes involved in PD and/or copper/iron metabolism. The frequencies of eight SNPs (one intronic SNP and seven promoter SNPs of the CP gene) and their haplotypes were significantly different between PD patients, especially those with lowered serum CP levels, and controls. However, the luciferase reporter system revealed no significant effect of the risk haplotype on promoter activity of the CP gene. Neither these SNPs nor their haplotypes were correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr staging of PD. The results of this study suggest that common genetic variants of CP are associated with PD and further investigation is needed to explore their functions in PD.

  10. Whole Blood PCR Amplification with Pfu DNA Polymerase and Its Application in Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis.

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    Liu, Er-Ping; Wang, Yan; He, Xiao-Hui; Guan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Jin; Qin, Zheng-Hong; Sun, Wan-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Point-of-care genetic analysis may require polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to be carried out on whole blood. However, human blood contains natural inhibitors of PCR such as hemoglobin, immunoglobulin G, lactoferrin, and proteases, as well as anticoagulant agents, including EDTA and heparin that can reduce whole blood PCR efficiency. Our purpose was to develop a highly specific, direct whole blood single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis method based on allele-specific (AS) PCR that is mediated by Pfu DNA polymerase and phosphorothioate-modified AS primers. At high Mg(2+) concentrations, Pfu DNA polymerase efficiently amplified genomic DNA in a reaction solution containing up to 14% whole blood. Among the three anticoagulants tested, Pfu DNA polymerase showed the highest activity with sodium citrate. Meanwhile, Triton X-100 and betaine inhibited Pfu DNA polymerase activity in whole blood PCR, whereas trehalose had virtually no effect. These findings provided for the development of a low-cost, simple, and fast direct whole blood genotyping method that uses Pfu DNA polymerase combined with phosphorothioate AS primers for CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1(-1639) loci. With its high DNA amplification efficiency and tolerance of various blood conditions, Pfu DNA polymerase can be used in clinical laboratories to analyze SNPs in whole blood samples.

  11. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Apelin gene and diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

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    Zheng, Hui; Fan, Xiaofang; Li, Xuesong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yujuan; Zhang, Ning; Song, Yuping; Ren, Fengdong; Shen, Chunfang; Shen, Jiayi; Yang, Jialin

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the association of apelin gene (APLN) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 1966 subjects were enrolled in this study, including 168 cases (first batch), 330 cases (second batch), and 1468 nondiabetic controls. The SNPs in the HapMap-HCB of APLN were detected using Sequenom MassARRAY SNP technology and included rs2281068, rs3115757, rs2235309, and rs2235310. The related clinical characteristics with glucose metabolism were tested, including the fasting blood glucose (FPG), insulin (INS), C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A correlation between rs3115757 and rs2281068 and diabetes was observed in first batch. Thus, we compared the SNPs (rs3115757 and rs2281068) between the cases and controls after more cases were enrolled. In addition, the results showed a significant correlation between APLN rs2281068 and diabetes (pSNP rs2281068 in APLN is significantly related to diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in bone turnover-related genes in Koreans: ethnic differences in linkage disequilibrium and haplotype

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    Kim Tae-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is defined as the loss of bone mineral density that leads to bone fragility with aging. Population-based case-control studies have identified polymorphisms in many candidate genes that have been associated with bone mass maintenance or osteoporotic fracture. To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with osteoporosis, we examined the genetic variation among Koreans by analyzing 81 genes according to their function in bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling. Methods We resequenced all the exons, splice junctions and promoter regions of candidate osteoporosis genes using 24 unrelated Korean individuals. Using the common SNPs from our study and the HapMap database, a statistical analysis of deviation in heterozygosity depicted. Results We identified 942 variants, including 888 SNPs, 43 insertion/deletion polymorphisms, and 11 microsatellite markers. Of the SNPs, 557 (63% had been previously identified and 331 (37% were newly discovered in the Korean population. When compared SNPs in the Korean population with those in HapMap database, 1% (or less of SNPs in the Japanese and Chinese subpopulations and 20% of those in Caucasian and African subpopulations were significantly differentiated from the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. In addition, an analysis of the genetic diversity showed that there were no significant differences among Korean, Han Chinese and Japanese populations, but African and Caucasian populations were significantly differentiated in selected genes. Nevertheless, in the detailed analysis of genetic properties, the LD and Haplotype block patterns among the five sub-populations were substantially different from one another. Conclusion Through the resequencing of 81 osteoporosis candidate genes, 118 unknown SNPs with a minor allele frequency (MAF > 0.05 were discovered in the Korean population. In addition, using the common SNPs between our study and HapMap, an

  13. Strong association of interleukin-6 -174G/C promoter single nucleotide polymorphism with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer in ethnic Kashmiri population: A case control study.

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    Banday, Mujeeb Zafar; Balkhi, Henah Mehraj; Sameer, Aga Syed; Chowdri, Nissar A; Haq, Ehtishamul

    2017-03-01

    Chronic inflammation increases the risk of development of various cancers, including colorectal cancer. Interleukin-6 has been described as a key regulator of colorectal cancer development and is important in the process of colorectal tumorigenesis largely through the regulation of tumor-promoting inflammation. Several studies have reported the association of various polymorphisms in human interleukin-6 gene including IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism with various cancers, including colorectal cancer, but the results are mixed and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of IL-6 -174G/C promoter single nucleotide polymorphism with colorectal cancer risk and also to evaluate the modifying effects of possible IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes on different risk factors of colorectal cancer or the reciprocal effect in ethnic Kashmiri population through a case control setup. The genotype frequencies of IL-6 -174G/C promoter single nucleotide polymorphism were compared between 142 colorectal cancer patients and 184 individually matched healthy controls by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The association between the IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk was examined through conditional logistic regression models adjusted for multiple possible confounding (third) variables. The possible effect measure modification of the association between the relevant single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and colorectal cancer risk by various colorectal cancer risk factors including age, gender, and smoking status was also evaluated. Furthermore, the associations between these single nucleotide polymorphisms and various clinicopathological parameters, demographic variables, and environmental factors within the case group subjects with regard to colorectal cancer risk were also analyzed. The overall association between the IL-6 -174G/C single

  14. Financial and psychological risk attitudes associated with two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nicotine receptor (CHRNA4 gene.

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    Brian E Roe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in understanding of the neuroscience of risk taking, attention is now turning to genetic factors that may contribute to individual heterogeneity in risk attitudes. In this paper we test for genetic associations with risk attitude measures derived from both the psychology and economics literature. To develop a long-term prospective study, we first evaluate both types of risk attitudes and find that the economic and psychological measures are poorly correlated, suggesting that different genetic factors may underlie human response to risk faced in different behavioral domains. We then examine polymorphisms in a spectrum of candidate genes that affect neurotransmitter systems influencing dopamine regulation or are thought to be associated with risk attitudes or impulsive disorders. Analysis of the genotyping data identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene encoding the alpha 4 nicotine receptor (CHRNA4, rs4603829 and rs4522666 that are significantly associated with harm avoidance, a risk attitude measurement drawn from the psychology literature. Novelty seeking, another risk attitude measure from the psychology literature, is associated with several COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase SNPs while economic risk attitude measures are associated with several VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter SNPs, but the significance of these associations did not withstand statistical adjustment for multiple testing and requires larger cohorts. These exploratory results provide a starting point for understanding the genetic basis of risk attitudes by considering the range of methods available for measuring risk attitudes and by searching beyond the traditional direct focus on dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter genes.

  15. An attempt to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms contributing to possible relationships between personality traits and oxytocin-related genes.

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    Haram, Marit; Tesli, Martin; Dieset, Ingrid; Steen, Nils Eiel; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin play a central role in social behavior. Trials with intranasal oxytocin have been conducted and many indicate that the hormone facilitates affiliative behavior and trust. Intranasal oxytocin administration is suggested as a treatment option for psychiatric illnesses with altered sociability as a core symptom and the effects may be due to differences in variants of oxytocin- and vasopressin-related genes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the endogenous oxytocin system by exploring the relationship between variants in the oxytocin gene factors and personality traits closely related to trust, anxiety and social behavior. 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes coding for oxytocin (OXT), vasopressin (AVP), the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and CD38 (CD38), including polymorphisms reported earlier to be related to social phenotypes and novel SNPs, were investigated in 196 healthy subjects. Association analysis between these variants and 3 personality traits (agreeableness, neuroticism and extraversion) measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five-Factor Inventory was performed. We found 7 nominally significant associations for personality traits: agreeableness [rs857240 (AVP, p = 0.0075), rs2270463 (OXTR, p = 0.047)], neuroticism [rs3756242 (CD38, p = 0.024), rs13104011 (CD38, p = 0.024), rs6816486 (CD38, p = 0.024), rs7655635 (CD38, p = 0.034)] and extraversion [rs237878 (OXTR, p = 0.019)]. None of these associations remained significant after the Bonferroni correction (p threshold = 2.31 × 10(-4)). Our results do not contradict the hypothesis of associations between personality traits and oxytocin-related gene variants; however, there are no statistically significant associations after correcting for multiple testing, warranting replication in larger samples.

  16. Complex-disease networks of trait-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) unveiled by information theory.

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    Li, Haiquan; Lee, Younghee; Chen, James L; Rebman, Ellen; Li, Jianrong; Lussier, Yves A

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of complex-disease single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, these intragenic SNPs have not been collectively mined to unveil the genetic architecture between complex clinical traits. The authors hypothesize that biological annotations of host genes of trait-associated SNPs may reveal the biomolecular modularity across complex-disease traits and offer insights for drug repositioning. Trait-to-polymorphism (SNPs) associations confirmed in GWAS were used. A novel method to quantify trait-trait similarity anchored in Gene Ontology annotations of human proteins and information theory was developed. The results were then validated with the shortest paths of physical protein interactions between biologically similar traits. A network was constructed consisting of 280 significant intertrait similarities among 177 disease traits, which covered 1438 well-validated disease-associated SNPs. Thirty-nine percent of intertrait connections were confirmed by curators, and the following additional studies demonstrated the validity of a proportion of the remainder. On a phenotypic trait level, higher Gene Ontology similarity between proteins correlated with smaller 'shortest distance' in protein interaction networks of complexly inherited diseases (Spearman ptraits' were similar to one another, as were 'metabolic syndrome traits' (Fisher's exact test p=0.001 and 3.5×10(-7), respectively). An imputed disease network by information-anchored functional similarity from GWAS trait-associated SNPs is reported. It is also demonstrated that small shortest paths of protein interactions correlate with complex-disease function. Taken together, these findings provide the framework for investigating drug targets with unbiased functional biomolecular networks rather than worn-out single-gene and subjective canonical pathway approaches.

  17. Prediction of the damage-associated non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human MC1R gene.

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    Diego Hepp

    Full Text Available The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R is involved in the control of melanogenesis. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with variation in skin and hair color and with elevated risk for the development of melanoma. Here we used 11 computational tools based on different approaches to predict the damage-associated non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs in the coding region of the human MC1R gene. Among the 92 nsSNPs arranged according to the predictions 62% were classified as damaging in more than five tools. The classification was significantly correlated with the scores of two consensus programs. Alleles associated with the red hair color (RHC phenotype and with the risk of melanoma were examined. The R variants D84E, R142H, R151C, I155T, R160W and D294H were classified as damaging by the majority of the tools while the r variants V60L, V92M and R163Q have been predicted as neutral in most of the programs The combination of the prediction tools results in 14 nsSNPs indicated as the most damaging mutations in MC1R (L48P, R67W, H70Y, P72L, S83P, R151H, S172I, L206P, T242I, G255R, P256S, C273Y, C289R and R306H; C273Y showed to be highly damaging in SIFT, Polyphen-2, MutPred, PANTHER and PROVEAN scores. The computational analysis proved capable of identifying the potentially damaging nsSNPs in MC1R, which are candidates for further laboratory studies of the functional and pharmacological significance of the alterations in the receptor and the phenotypic outcomes.

  18. Associations between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Related Genes and Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

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    Ayaka Sasaki

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common functional disorder with distinct features of stress-related pathophysiology. A key mediator of the stress response is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH. Although some candidate genes have been identified in stress-related disorders, few studies have examined CRH-related gene polymorphisms. Therefore, we tested our hypothesis that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CRH-related genes influence the features of IBS.In total, 253 individuals (123 men and 130 women participated in this study. They comprised 111 IBS individuals and 142 healthy controls. The SNP genotypes in CRH (rs28364015 and rs6472258 and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP (rs10474485 were determined by direct sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The emotional states of the subjects were evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Self-rating Depression Scale.Direct sequencing of the rs28364015 SNP of CRH revealed no genetic variation among the study subjects. There was no difference in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of rs6472258 and rs10474485 between IBS individuals and controls. However, IBS subjects with diarrhea symptoms without the rs10474485 A allele showed a significantly higher emotional state score than carriers.These results suggest that the CRH and CRH-BP genes have no direct effect on IBS status. However, the CRH-BP SNP rs10474485 has some effect on IBS-related emotional abnormalities and resistance to psychosocial stress.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphism of SREBF-1 gene associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer in Chinese women.

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    Chun-Ping Qiu

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1 have been found in endometrial cancer (EC, suggesting that it is essential to the development of EC. Obesity and diabetes have been established as known risk factors of EC, while SREBF-1 gene polymorphisms have also been found to be associated with obesity and type II diabetes. Therefore, we hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in SREBF-1 gene may be associated with increased risk of EC.We analyzed the sequence of SREBF-1 in tissue samples from 30 EC cases and 6 benign controls using high throughput method. Based on the primary results, we selected one SNP (rs2297508 as a genetic marker to conduct a hospital-based case-control study with 139 EC cases and 129 benign controls. The samples were examined under the microscope to determine their histopathology prior to the SNP analysis using RT-PCR.Through sequence analysis, we found 10 SNPs of SREBF-1 associated with EC, including 3 new SNPs. Fourteen percent of EC showed the rs2297508 SNP with C allele, while only 7% had the C allele was present in benign controls (p = 0.027, OR = 1.983. Additionally, the C allele was associated with cancer differentiation (p<0.05 and the depth of myometrial invasion (p<0.05.Our study indicates that SNP (rs2297508 of SREBF-1 may serve as a genetic predisposition factor for the development of EC and screening of such genetic marker may be helpful in its early detection.

  20. Effect of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in acetylsalicylic acid metabolic pathway genes on platelet reactivity in patients with diabetes

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    Postula, Marek; Janicki, Piotr K.; Rosiak, Marek; Kaplon-Cieslicka, Agnieszka; Kondracka, Agnieszka; Trzepla, Ewa; Filipiak, Krzysztof J.; Kosior, Dariusz A.; Czlonkowski, Andrzej; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelet reactivity in patients on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) therapy can be influenced by physiological or pathological conditions affecting ASA pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. The mechanism of such variability in the therapeutic response to ASA, particularly in diabetic patients, is poorly understood. The rate of elimination of ASA and its metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), is likely a major factor determining drug efficacy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the selected candidate genes within the ASA metabolic pathway on the platelet reactivity and concentration of ASA and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) metabolites in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods The study cohort consisted of 287 Caucasians with T2DM who had been taking ASA tablets at the dose of 75 mg per day for at least 3 months. Platelet reactivity analyses were performed using VerifyNow Aspirin and PFA-100 assays. The measured ASA metabolite included salicylic acid (ASA), and TxA2 metabolites included serum TxB2 and urinary 11-dh-TxB2. Genotyping for the selected 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 5 genes of the ASA metabolic pathway was performed using a Sequenom iPLEX platform. Results No statistically significant association was observed between the investigated SNPs genotypes, platelet reactivity, and measured metabolites in the investigated cohort of patients. Conclusions The results of our study failed to confirm that the selected variants in the genes within the ASA metabolic pathway might contribute to platelet reactivity in a diabetic population treated with ASA. PMID:23715170

  1. Prediction of the damage-associated non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human MC1R gene.

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    Hepp, Diego; Gonçalves, Gislene Lopes; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena

    2015-01-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is involved in the control of melanogenesis. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with variation in skin and hair color and with elevated risk for the development of melanoma. Here we used 11 computational tools based on different approaches to predict the damage-associated non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in the coding region of the human MC1R gene. Among the 92 nsSNPs arranged according to the predictions 62% were classified as damaging in more than five tools. The classification was significantly correlated with the scores of two consensus programs. Alleles associated with the red hair color (RHC) phenotype and with the risk of melanoma were examined. The R variants D84E, R142H, R151C, I155T, R160W and D294H were classified as damaging by the majority of the tools while the r variants V60L, V92M and R163Q have been predicted as neutral in most of the programs The combination of the prediction tools results in 14 nsSNPs indicated as the most damaging mutations in MC1R (L48P, R67W, H70Y, P72L, S83P, R151H, S172I, L206P, T242I, G255R, P256S, C273Y, C289R and R306H); C273Y showed to be highly damaging in SIFT, Polyphen-2, MutPred, PANTHER and PROVEAN scores. The computational analysis proved capable of identifying the potentially damaging nsSNPs in MC1R, which are candidates for further laboratory studies of the functional and pharmacological significance of the alterations in the receptor and the phenotypic outcomes.

  2. Interactions between single nucleotide polymorphism of SERPINA1 gene and smoking in association with COPD: a case-control study.

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    Deng, Xiaowei; Yuan, Cun-Hua; Chang, De

    2017-01-01

    SERPINA1 gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), while smoking is a known risk factor for COPD. Little is known on the effect of SERPINA1 gene and its interaction with smoking in the Chinese population. In this study, the effect of SERPINA1 gene polymorphisms on COPD risk and its interaction with smoking status has been investigated. A total of 120 COPD patients and 481 healthy controls were recruited at The Armed Police Corps Hospital. Data on demographic variables, smoking status, history of occupational dust exposure, and allergies were collected. Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphism's (SNP) rs1243160, rs2854254, and rs8004738 was performed in all participants. SNP rs8004738 genotype was associated with a significantly higher risk for COPD (odds ratio (OR) =1.835, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.002-3.360), whereas SNPs rs1243160 and rs2854254 did not exhibit such an association. Smoking habit also significantly increased the risk for COPD (OR =2.306, 95% CI: 1.537-3.459). On stepwise logistic regression analysis, advanced age, smoking, and SNP rs8004738 variant were associated with increased risk for COPD, while female gender and higher educational status decreased the risk. On additive interaction analysis, a significant interactive effect of SNP rs8004738 and smoking was observed in this population (relative excess risk due to interaction =0.478; attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) =0.123; S=1.197). SNP rs8004738 of SERPINA1 gene significantly interacted with smoking status and was associated with a higher risk for COPD in the Chinese population.

  3. Single-nucleotide polymorphism C3435T in the ABCB1 gene is associated with opioid consumption in postoperative pain.

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    Candiotti, Keith; Yang, Zhe; Xue, Lihua; Zhang, Yanping; Rodriguez, Yiliam; Wang, Liyong; Hao, Shuangling; Gitlin, Melvin

    2013-12-01

    ABCB1 is a major determinant of opioid bioavailability; however, no previous studies have provided positive evidence of an association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1 and opioid usage in acute pain management. The aim of this study was to test the association between the functional SNP C3435T in ABCB1 and opioid consumption in postoperative pain in patients undergoing a nephrectomy. Additionally, we explored the association between C3435T and opioid side effect. C3435T was genotyped in 152 patients undergoing a nephrectomy. Opioid consumption and pain scores were evaluated as well. The effect of genotype on opioid consumption was modeled using a general linear mixed model. Based on a mixed linear model, the ABCB1 three genotypes showed a statistically significant effect on opioid consumption (F = 4.20, P = 0.017). There was a statistically significant difference in opioid consumption among the ABCB1 three genotypes in the 0-6 hours (P = 0.031, 95% confidence interval [CI] CC 14.7-24.8 mg and TT 5.2-14.6 mg) and 6-12 hours (P = 0.009, 95% CI CC 5.6-13.8 mg and TT 1.2 mg-5.1 mg) postoperative period. There were no significant statistical differences in opioid consumption among the ABCB1 three genotypes in the 12-24 hours (P = 0.302) and 24-48 hours (P = 0.763) postoperative period. The TT genotype had significantly lower levels of cumulative opioid consumption compared with the CC genotype in first 24 hours after surgery (P = 0.029). No statistically significant differences among the three genotype groups were noted for postoperative pain scores or emesis medication use in the first 24 hours after surgery. Our results demonstrate an association between the ABCB1 polymorphism (C3435T) and interindividual variations in opioid consumption in the acute postoperative period after nephrectomy. The ABCB1 polymorphism may serve as an important factor to guide acute pain therapy in postoperative patients. Wiley

  4. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism TGFβ1 R25P Correlates with Acute Toxicity during Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients

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    Smith, J. Joshua [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wasserman, Isaac [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Milgrom, Sarah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Chow, Oliver S.; Chen, Chin-Tung [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Patil, Sujata [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Garcia-Aguilar, Julio, E-mail: garciaaj@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To validate the finding of an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and toxicity during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer patients, in an independent population. Methods and Materials: The cohort consisted of 165 patients who received CRT for rectal cancer from 2006 to 2012. Prospectively recorded toxicity information, graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, was retrieved from the medical record. Additionally, a subset of 52 patients recorded their gastrointestinal symptoms weekly during CRT, using the 7-item Bowel Problems Scale. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from normal tissue in the proctectomy specimens and screened for 3 SNPs: XRCC1 R399Q, XPD K751Q, and TGFβ1 R25P. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. Results: The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy, and all patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Toxicities measured by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were closely associated with patient-reported outcomes for the patients who completed the 7-item Bowel Problems Scale. Grade ≥3 toxicity occurred during CRT in 14 patients (8%). All 14 patients had either XRCC1 R399Q or TGFβ1 R25P polymorphisms. The TGFβ1 R25P polymorphism was significantly associated with grade ≥3 toxicity (odds ratio [OR] 3.47, P=.04) and, in patients who completed the Bowel Problems Scale, with grade ≥4 toxicity (OR 5.61, P=.02). The latter finding persisted in a multivariable logistic regression model controlling for ethnicity, age, and sex (adjusted OR 1.83, P=.02). Conclusions: We have validated the correlation between the TGFβ1 R25P SNP and acute toxicity during CRT in an independent cohort using both clinician- and patient-reported toxicity. The information from our study could be used as a basis to formulate a prospective trial testing the utility of this SNP as a biomarker of acute toxicity during neoadjuvant treatment in locally

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of one-carbon metabolism and cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and liver in a Chinese population.

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    Shen-Chih Chang

    Full Text Available One-carbon metabolism (folate metabolism is considered important in carcinogenesis because of its involvement in DNA synthesis and biological methylation reactions. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in folate metabolic pathway and the risk of three GI cancers in a population-based case-control study in Taixing City, China, with 218 esophageal cancer cases, 206 stomach cancer cases, 204 liver cancer cases, and 415 healthy population controls. Study participants were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire, and blood samples were collected after the interviews. We genotyped SNPs of the MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, DNMT1, and ALDH2 genes, using PCR-RFLP, SNPlex, or TaqMan assays. To account for multiple comparisons and reduce the chances of false reports, we employed semi-Bayes (SB shrinkage analysis. After shrinkage and adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found positive associations between MTHFR rs1801133 and stomach cancer (any T versus C/C, SB odds-ratio [SBOR]: 1.79, 95% posterior limits: 1.18, 2.71 and liver cancer (SBOR: 1.51, 95% posterior limits: 0.98, 2.32. There was an inverse association between DNMT1 rs2228612 and esophageal cancer (any G versus A/A, SBOR: 0.60, 95% posterior limits: 0.39, 0.94. In addition, we detected potential heterogeneity across alcohol drinking status for ORs relating MTRR rs1801394 to esophageal (posterior homogeneity P = 0.005 and stomach cancer (posterior homogeneity P = 0.004, and ORs relating MTR rs1805087 to liver cancer (posterior homogeneity P = 0.021. Among non-alcohol drinkers, the variant allele (allele G of these two SNPs was inversely associated with the risk of these cancers; while a positive association was observed among ever-alcohol drinkers. Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism may be associated with cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and liver. Heterogeneity across alcohol consumption status of

  6. Effects of four single nucleotide polymorphisms of EZH2 on cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Ling Z

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhixin Ling,1,2,* Zonghao You,1,2,* Ling Hu,3 Lei Zhang,1,2 Yiduo Wang,1,2 Minhao Zhang,1,2 Guangyuan Zhang,1,2 Shuqiu Chen,1,2 Bin Xu,1,2 Ming Chen1,2 1Department of Urology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing, China; 2Surgical Research Center, Institute of Urology, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, China; 3Department of Nephrology, People’s Hospital of Wuxi City, Wuxi, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Although the relationship between several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the oncogene EZH2 and cancer risk has been assessed by some case–control studies, results of subsequent studies are controversial. Sample sizes from single-center studies are also limited, thereby providing unreliable findings. Hence, we conducted a comprehensive search and meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between EZH2 SNPs and cancer risk.Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search for studies focusing on EZH2 SNPs and cancer risk was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure online databases. Genotype data were extracted and examined through a meta-analysis, and pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the corresponding associations. Sensitivity analysis, publication bias assessment, and heterogeneity test were performed using STATA 12.0.Results: Twelve eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. The association of 4 SNPs, namely, rs887569, rs2302427, rs3757441, and rs41277434, in the EZH2 locus with cancer risk was evaluated. Five studies (1,794 cases and 1,878 controls indicated that rs887569 was related to a decreased cancer risk (CTTT/CC: OR =0.849, 95% CI: [0.740 to 0.973], P=0.019; TT/CCCT: OR =0.793, 95% CI: [0.654 to 0.962], P=0.019. Seven studies (2,408 cases and 2,910 controls showed that rs2302427 was linked to a decreased cancer risk (GG/CC: OR =0.562, 95% CI: [0.400 to 0.792], P

  7. Heteropolymeric triplex-based genomic assay to detect pathogens or single-nucleotide polymorphisms in human genomic samples.

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    Jasmine I Daksis

    Full Text Available Human genomic samples are complex and are considered difficult to assay directly without denaturation or PCR amplification. We report the use of a base-specific heteropolymeric triplex, formed by native duplex genomic target and an oligonucleotide third strand probe, to assay for low copy pathogen genomes present in a sample also containing human genomic duplex DNA, or to assay human genomic duplex DNA for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP, without PCR amplification. Wild-type and mutant probes are used to identify triplexes containing FVL G1691A, MTHFR C677T and CFTR mutations. The specific triplex structure forms rapidly at room temperature in solution and may be detected without a separation step. YOYO-1, a fluorescent bis-intercalator, promotes and signals the formation of the specific triplex. Genomic duplexes may be assayed homogeneously with single base pair resolution. The specific triple-stranded structures of the assay may approximate homologous recombination intermediates, which various models suggest may form in either the major or minor groove of the duplex. The bases of the stable duplex target are rendered specifically reactive to the bases of the probe because of the activity of intercalated YOYO-1, which is known to decondense duplex locally 1.3 fold. This may approximate the local decondensation effected by recombination proteins such as RecA in vivo. Our assay, while involving triplex formation, is sui generis, as it is not homopurine sequence-dependent, as are "canonical triplexes". Rather, the base pair-specific heteropolymeric triplex of the assay is conformation-dependent. The highly sensitive diagnostic assay we present allows for the direct detection of base sequence in genomic duplex samples, including those containing human genomic duplex DNA, thereby bypassing the inherent problems and cost associated with conventional PCR based diagnostic assays.

  8. Identification of field caught Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis by TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping

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    Bayoh Nabie M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis from field-collected Anopheles gambiae s.l. is often necessary in basic and applied research, and in operational control programmes. The currently accepted method involves use of standard polymerase chain reaction amplification of ribosomal DNA (rDNA from the 3' 28S to 5' intergenic spacer region of the genome, and visual confirmation of amplicons of predicted size on agarose gels, after electrophoresis. This report describes development and evaluation of an automated, quantitative PCR method based upon TaqMan™ single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping. Methods Standard PCR, and TaqMan SNP genotyping with newly designed primers and fluorophore-labeled probes hybridizing to sequences of complementary rDNA specific for either An. gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis, were conducted in three experiments involving field-collected An. gambiae s.l. from western Kenya, and defined laboratory strains. DNA extraction was from a single leg, sonicated for five minutes in buffer in wells of 96-well PCR plates. Results TaqMan SNP genotyping showed a reaction success rate, sensitivity, and species specificity comparable to that of standard PCR. In an extensive field study, only 29 of 3,041 (0.95% were determined to be hybrids by TaqMan (i.e., having rDNA sequences from both species, however, all but one were An. arabiensis by standard PCR, suggesting an acceptably low (ca. 1% error rate for TaqMan genotyping in mistakenly identifying species hybrids. Conclusion TaqMan SNP genotyping proved to be a sensitive and rapid method for identification of An. gambiae s.l. and An. arabiensis, with a high success rate, specific results, and congruence with the standard PCR method.

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in β-tubulin selected in Onchocerca volvulus following repeated ivermectin treatment: possible indication of resistance selection.

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    Nana-Djeunga, Hugues; Bourguinat, Catherine; Pion, Sébastien D S; Kamgno, Joseph; Gardon, Jacques; Njiokou, Flobert; Boussinesq, Michel; Prichard, Roger K

    2012-09-01

    The control of onchocerciasis or river blindness by mass treatment of the population with ivermectin (IVM) has been a great success until now, so that in certain foci its elimination has become feasible. However, after more than 20 years of repeated IVM mass treatment, the disease still persists in many endemic countries. Sub-optimal responses and genetic changes have been reported in Onchocerca volvulus populations under high IVM pressure but more work is needed to determine whether resistance is developing. The situation needs to be urgently clarified to preserve the achievements of onchocerciasis control programs. In this study, O. volvulus adult worms were collected from the same individuals, before IVM exposure and following three years of annual or three-monthly treatments at 150 μg/kg or 800 μg/kg. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring in the β-tubulin gene of these parasites were investigated. We found changes in genotype frequencies in O. volvulus β-tubulin gene associated with IVM treatments. The SNP at position 1545 (A/G) showed a significant increase in frequency of the less common nucleotide in the female worms following treatment. After 13 three-monthly treatments, female worm homozygotes with the less common genotype, prior to treatment, increased in frequency. The selected homozygotes, as well as heterozygotes, appeared to be less fertile (without or with very few embryonic stages in their uteri) than the wild-type homozygotes. These results provide additional evidence for genetic selection and strengthen the warning that selection for IVM resistance may be occurring in some O. volvulus populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the ST3GAL4 Gene with VWF Antigen and Factor VIII Activity.

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    Jaewoo Song

    Full Text Available VWF is extensively glycosylated with biantennary core fucosylated glycans. Most N-linked and O-linked glycans on VWF are sialylated. FVIII is also glycosylated, with a glycan structure similar to that of VWF. ST3GAL sialyltransferases catalyze the transfer of sialic acids in the α2,3 linkage to termini of N- and O-glycans. This sialic acid modification is critical for VWF synthesis and activity. We analyzed genetic and phenotypic data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study for the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ST3GAL4 gene with plasma VWF levels and FVIII activity in 12,117 subjects. We also analyzed ST3GAL4 SNPs found in 2,535 subjects of 26 ethnicities from the 1000 Genomes (1000G project for ethnic diversity, SNP imputation, and ST3GAL4 haplotypes. We identified 14 and 1,714 ST3GAL4 variants in the ARIC GWAS and 1000G databases respectively, with 46% being ethnically diverse in their allele frequencies. Among the 14 ST3GAL4 SNPs found in ARIC GWAS, the intronic rs2186717, rs7928391, and rs11220465 were associated with VWF levels and with FVIII activity after adjustment for age, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, ever-smoking status, and ABO. This study illustrates the power of next-generation sequencing in the discovery of new genetic variants and a significant ethnic diversity in the ST3GAL4 gene. We discuss potential mechanisms through which these intronic SNPs regulate ST3GAL4 biosynthesis and the activity that affects VWF and FVIII.

  11. Effects of lifestyle and single nucleotide polymorphisms on breast cancer risk: a case–control study in Japanese women

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    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle factors, including food and nutrition, physical activity, body composition and reproductive factors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk, but few studies of these factors have been performed in the Japanese population. Thus, the goals of this study were to validate the association between reported SNPs and breast cancer risk in the Japanese population and to evaluate the effects of SNP genotypes and lifestyle factors on breast cancer risk. Methods A case–control study in 472 patients and 464 controls was conducted from December 2010 to November 2011. Lifestyle was examined using a self-administered questionnaire. We analyzed 16 breast cancer-associated SNPs based on previous GWAS or candidate-gene association studies. Age or multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from logistic regression analyses. Results High BMI and current or former smoking were significantly associated with an increased breast cancer risk, while intake of meat, mushrooms, yellow and green vegetables, coffee, and green tea, current leisure-time exercise, and education were significantly associated with a decreased risk. Three SNPs were significantly associated with a breast cancer risk in multivariate analysis: rs2046210 (per allele OR = 1.37 [95% CI: 1.11-1.70]), rs3757318 (OR = 1.33[1.05-1.69]), and rs3803662 (OR = 1.28 [1.07-1.55]). In 2046210 risk allele carriers, leisure-time exercise was associated with a significantly decreased risk for breast cancer, whereas current smoking and high BMI were associated with a significantly decreased risk in non-risk allele carriers. Conclusion In Japanese women, rs2046210 and 3757318 located near the ESR1 gene are associated with a risk of breast cancer, as in other Asian women. However, our findings suggest that exercise can decrease this risk in allele carriers. PMID:24289300

  12. A Putative Association of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in GPR126 with Aggressive Periodontitis in a Japanese Population.

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    Kitagaki, Jirouta; Miyauchi, Shizuka; Asano, Yoshihiro; Imai, Atsuko; Kawai, Shinji; Michikami, Ikumi; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease causing loss of tooth-supporting periodontal tissue. Disease susceptibility to the rapidly progressive form of periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis (AgP), appears to be influenced by genetic risk factors. To identify these in a Japanese population, we performed whole exome sequencing of 41 unrelated generalized or localized AgP patients. We found that AgP is putatively associated with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs536714306 in the G-protein coupled receptor 126 gene, GPR126 [c.3086 G>A (p.Arg1029Gln)]. Since GPR126 activates the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, we performed cAMP ELISA analysis of cAMP concentrations, and found that rs536714306 impaired the signal transactivation of GPR126. Moreover, transfection of human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells with wild-type or mutant GPR126 containing rs536714306 showed that wild-type GPR126 significantly increased the mRNA expression of bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, and Runx2 genes, while mutant GPR126 had no effect on the expression of these calcification-related genes. The increase in expression of these genes was through the GPR126-induced increase of bone morphogenic protein-2, inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) 2, and ID4 expression. These data indicate that GPR126 might be important in maintaining the homeostasis of periodontal ligament tissues through regulating the cytodifferentiation of HPDL cells. The GPR126 SNP rs536714306 negatively influences this homeostasis, leading to the development of AgP, suggesting that it is a candidate genetic risk factor for AgP in the Japanese population.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PRDX3 and RPS19 and risk of HPV persistence and cervical precancer/cancer.

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    Mahboobeh Safaeian

    Full Text Available Host genetic factors might affect the risk of progression from infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV, the etiologic agent for cervical cancer, to persistent HPV infection, and hence to cervical precancer and cancer.We assessed 18,310 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 1113 genes in 416 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3/cancer cases, 356 women with persistent carcinogenic HPV infection (median persistence of 25 months and 425 randomly selected women (non-cases and non-HPV persistent from the 10,049 women from the Guanacaste, Costa Rica HPV natural history cohort. For gene and SNP associations, we computed age-adjusted odds ratio and p-trend. Three comparisons were made: 1 association with CIN3/cancer (compared CIN3/cancer cases to random controls, 2 association with persistence (compared HPV persistence to random controls, and 3 progression (compared CIN3/cancers with HPV-persistent group. Regions statistically significantly associated with CIN3/cancer included genes for peroxiredoxin 3 PRDX3, and ribosomal protein S19 RPS19. The single most significant SNPs from each gene associated with CIN3/cancer were PRDX3 rs7082598 (P(trend<0.0001, and RPS19 rs2305809 (P(trend=0.0007, respectively. Both SNPs were also associated with progression.These data suggest involvement of two genes, RSP19 and PRDX3, or other SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, with cervical cancer risk. Further investigation showed that they may be involved in both the persistence and progression transition stages. Our results require replication but, if true, suggest a role for ribosomal dysfunction, mitochondrial processes, and/or oxidative stress, or other unknown function of these genes in cervical carcinogenesis.

  14. Interactions between single nucleotide polymorphism of SERPINA1 gene and smoking in association with COPD: a case–control study

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    Deng, Xiaowei; Yuan, Cun-hua; Chang, De

    2017-01-01

    Background SERPINA1 gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), while smoking is a known risk factor for COPD. Little is known on the effect of SERPINA1 gene and its interaction with smoking in the Chinese population. In this study, the effect of SERPINA1 gene polymorphisms on COPD risk and its interaction with smoking status has been investigated. Method A total of 120 COPD patients and 481 healthy controls were recruited at The Armed Police Corps Hospital. Data on demographic variables, smoking status, history of occupational dust exposure, and allergies were collected. Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphism’s (SNP) rs1243160, rs2854254, and rs8004738 was performed in all participants. Results SNP rs8004738 genotype was associated with a significantly higher risk for COPD (odds ratio (OR) =1.835, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.002–3.360), whereas SNPs rs1243160 and rs2854254 did not exhibit such an association. Smoking habit also significantly increased the risk for COPD (OR =2.306, 95% CI: 1.537–3.459). On stepwise logistic regression analysis, advanced age, smoking, and SNP rs8004738 variant were associated with increased risk for COPD, while female gender and higher educational status decreased the risk. On additive interaction analysis, a significant interactive effect of SNP rs8004738 and smoking was observed in this population (relative excess risk due to interaction =0.478; attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) =0.123; S=1.197). Conclusion SNP rs8004738 of SERPINA1 gene significantly interacted with smoking status and was associated with a higher risk for COPD in the Chinese population. PMID:28138235

  15. SNPPhenA: a corpus for extracting ranked associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes from literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Diaz, Alberto; Taghizadeh, Nasrin; Chitsaz, Hamidreza; Chavoshinejad, Ramyar

    2017-04-07

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are among the most important types of genetic variations influencing common diseases and phenotypes. Recently, some corpora and methods have been developed with the purpose of extracting mutations and diseases from texts. However, there is no available corpus, for extracting associations from texts, that is annotated with linguistic-based negation, modality markers, neutral candidates, and confidence level of associations. In this research, different steps were presented so as to produce the SNPPhenA corpus. They include automatic Named Entity Recognition (NER) followed by the manual annotation of SNP and phenotype names, annotation of the SNP-phenotype associations and their level of confidence, as well as modality markers. Moreover, the produced corpus was annotated with negation scopes and cues as well as neutral candidates that play crucial role as far as negation and the modality phenomenon in relation to extraction tasks. The agreement between annotators was measured by Cohen's Kappa coefficient where the resulting scores indicated the reliability of the corpus. The Kappa score was 0.79 for annotating the associations and 0.80 for the confidence degree of associations. Further presented were the basic statistics of the annotated features of the corpus in addition to the results of our first experiments related to the extraction of ranked SNP-Phenotype associations. The prepared guideline documents render the corpus more convenient and facile to use. The corpus, guidelines and inter-annotator agreement analysis are available on the website of the corpus: http://nil.fdi.ucm.es/?q=node/639 . Specifying the confidence degree of SNP-phenotype associations from articles helps identify the strength of associations that could in turn assist genomics scientists in determining phenotypic plasticity and the importance of environmental factors. What is more, our first experiments with the corpus show that linguistic-based confidence

  16. Cytokine and cytokine receptor single-nucleotide polymorphisms predict risk for non-small cell lung cancer among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Alison L; Cote, Michele L; Wenzlaff, Angie S; Chen, Wei; Abrams, Judith; Land, Susan; Giroux, Craig N; Schwartz, Ann G

    2009-06-01

    Studies on the relationships between inflammatory pathway genes and lung cancer risk have not included African-Americans and have only included a handful of genes. In a population-based case-control study on 198 African-American and 744 Caucasian women, we examined the association between 70 cytokine and cytokine receptor single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in a dominant model adjusting for major risk factors for lung cancer. Separate analyses were conducted by race and by smoking history and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Caucasians. Random forest analysis was conducted by race. On logistic regression analysis, IL6 (interleukin 6), IL7R, IL15, TNF (tumor necrosis factor), and IL10 SNP were associated with risk of non-small cell lung cancer among African-Americans; IL7R and IL10 SNPs were also associated with risk of lung cancer among Caucasians. Although random forest analysis showed IL7R and IL10 SNPs as being associated with risk for lung cancer among African-Americans, it also identified TNFRSF10A SNP as an important predictor. On random forest analysis, an IL1A SNP was identified as an important predictor of lung cancer among Caucasian women. Inflammatory SNPs differentially predicted risk for NSCLC according to race, as well as based on smoking history and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Caucasian women. Pathway analysis results are presented. Inflammatory pathway genotypes may serve to define a high risk group; further exploration of these genes in minority populations is warranted.

  17. Cytokine and Cytokine Receptor Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Risk for Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Alison L.; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angie S.; Chen, Wei; Abrams, Judith; Land, Susan; Giroux, Craig N.; Schwartz, Ann G.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the relationships between inflammatory pathway genes and lung cancer risk have not included African-Americans and have only included a handful of genes. In a population-based case-control study on 198 African-American and 744 Caucasian women, we examined the association between 70 cytokine and cytokine receptor single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in a dominant model adjusting for major risk factors for lung cancer. Separate analyses were conducted by race and by smoking history and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Caucasians. Random forest analysis was conducted by race. On logistic regression analysis, IL6 (interleukin 6), IL7R, IL15, TNF (tumor necrosis factor), and IL10 SNP were associated with risk of non–small cell lung cancer among African-Americans; IL7R and IL10 SNPs were also associated with risk of lung cancer among Caucasians. Although random forest analysis showed IL7R and IL10 SNPs as being associated with risk for lung cancer among African-Americans, it also identified TNFRSF10A SNP as an important predictor. On random forest analysis, an IL1A SNP was identified as an important predictor of lung cancer among Caucasian women. Inflammatory SNPs differentially predicted risk for NSCLC according to race, as well as based on smoking history and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Caucasian women. Pathway analysis results are presented. Inflammatory pathway genotypes may serve to define a high risk group; further exploration of these genes in minority populations is warranted. PMID:19505916

  18. The combined effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, tobacco products, and ethanol on normal resting blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederblad, Lena; Thunberg, Ulf; Engström, Mats; Castro, Juan; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco and ethanol consumption are crucial factors in the development of various diseases including cancer. In this investigation, we evaluated the combined effects of a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with ethanol and tobacco products on healthy individuals. Pure nicotine, cigarette smoke extract, and Swedish snuff (snus) extract were used. The effects were examined by means of in vitro cell cycle progression and cell death of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors. After 3 days, in vitro, resting PBMCs entered the S and G2 stage in the presence of 100 µM nicotine. The PBMCs only proceeded to S stage, in the presence of 0.2% ethanol. The nicotine- and ethanol-induced normal cell cycle progression correlated to a number of SNPs in the IL12RB2, Rad 52, XRCC2, P53, CCND3, and ABCA1 genes. Certain SNPs in Caspases 8, IL12RB2, Rad 52, MMP2, and MDM2 genes appeared to significantly influence the effects of EtOH-, snus-, and snus + EtOH-induced cell death. Importantly, the highest degree of cell death was observed in the presence of smoke + EtOH. The amount of cell death under this treatment condition also correlated to specific SNPs, located in the MDM2, ABCA1, or GASC1 genes. Cigarette smoke in combination with ethanol strongly induced massive cell death. Long-term exposure to smoke and ethanol could provoke chronic inflammation, and this could be the initiation of disease including the development of cancer at various sites.

  19. The association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in CUBN and the risk of albuminuria and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Gearoid M.; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Meigs, James B.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Albuminuria is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have previously identified a missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs1801239) in the CUBN gene that is associated with albuminuria. Whether albuminuria is associated with CVD in the presence of the CUBN mutation is unknown. Methods We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 6399, mean age 47 years, 53.4% women) who underwent genotyping of rs1801239. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the association between microalbuminuria [UACR ≥ 17 mg/g (men) and ≥25 mg/g (women)] and incident CVD stratified by the presence or absence of the CUBN risk allele. We tested whether the association between microalbuminuria and CVD was altered by the presence of the risk allele with interaction testing. Results Overall, 21.1% of participants carried the risk allele. As expected, carriers of the risk (C) allele had a higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (10.7 versus 8.9%, P = 0.04). During a mean follow-up of 10.4 years, 5.6% (n = 346) of participants experienced a CVD event. Microalbuminuria was associated with an increased risk of CVD [hazards ratio (HR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14–1.88]. When stratified by risk allele carrier status, the HR for CVD was 1.95 (95% CI 1.15–3.29) among those with compared to 1.33 (95% CI 1.00–1.76) among those without the risk allele. There was no interaction between microalbuminuria and rs1801239 on CVD (Pinteraction = 0.49). Conclusions MA is associated with CVD irrespective of the presence of the CUBN risk allele. These results challenge the concept that albuminuria in the setting of this mutation is benign. PMID:24052458

  20. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes, biological process (96 genes, and cellular component (96 genes. A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea, and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis, were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome, selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%, 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%, and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9% showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  1. Multicenter cohort association study of SLC2A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Dominique C.; Ho, Lintje; Tanck, Michael W.T.; Fritsche, Lars G.; Merriam, Joanna E.; van het Slot, Ruben; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Gorgels, Theo G.M.F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Hofman, Albert; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Dean, Michael; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Allikmets, Rando; Hageman, Gregory S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older adults and has a genetically complex background. This study examines the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1) gene and AMD. SLC2A1 regulates the bioavailability of glucose in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which might influence oxidative stress–mediated AMD pathology. Methods Twenty-two SNPs spanning the SLC2A1 gene were genotyped in 375 cases and 199 controls from an initial discovery cohort (the Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Netherlands study). Replication testing was performed in The Rotterdam Study (the Netherlands) and study populations from Würzburg (Germany), the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS; United States), Columbia University (United States), and Iowa University (United States). Subsequently, a meta-analysis of SNP association was performed. Results In the discovery cohort, significant genotypic association between three SNPs (rs3754219, rs4660687, and rs841853) and AMD was found. Replication in five large independent (Caucasian) cohorts (4,860 cases and 4,004 controls) did not yield consistent association results. The genotype frequencies for these SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases among the six individual populations. Meta-analysis revealed significant heterogeneity of effect between the studies. Conclusions No overall association between SLC2A1 SNPs and AMD was demonstrated. Since the genotype frequencies for the three SLC2A1 SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases between the six cohorts, this study corroborates previous evidence that population dependent genetic risk heterogeneity in AMD exists. PMID:22509097

  2. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  3. A Long-Read Transcriptome Assembly of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Intraspecific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery

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    Hamid Ashrafi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Upland cotton ( L. has a narrow germplasm base, which constrains marker development and hampers intraspecific breeding. A pressing need exists for high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers that can be readily applied to germplasm in breeding and breeding-related research programs. Despite progress made in developing new sequencing technologies during the past decade, the cost of sequencing remains substantial when one is dealing with numerous samples and large genomes. Several strategies have been proposed to lower the cost of sequencing for multiple genotypes of large-genome species like cotton, such as transcriptome sequencing and reduced-representation DNA sequencing. This paper reports the development of a transcriptome assembly of the inbred line Texas Marker-1 (TM-1, a genetic standard for cotton, its usefulness as a reference for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq-based SNP identification, and the availability of transcriptome sequences of four other cotton cultivars. An assembly of TM-1 was made using Roche 454 transcriptome reads combined with an assembly of all available public expressed sequence tag (EST sequences of TM-1. The TM-1 assembly consists of 72,450 contigs with a total of 70 million bp. Functional predictions of the transcripts were estimated by alignment to selected protein databases. Transcriptome sequences of the five lines, including TM-1, were obtained using an Illumina Genome Analyzer-II, and the short reads were mapped to the TM-1 assembly to discover SNPs among the five lines. We identified >14,000 unfiltered allelic SNPs, of which ∼3,700 SNPs were retained for assay development after applying several rigorous filters. This paper reports availability of the reference transcriptome assembly and shows its utility in developing intraspecific SNP markers in upland cotton.

  4. An Improved Consensus Linkage Map of Barley Based on Flow-Sorted Chromosomes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

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    María Muñoz-Amatriaín

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made it easier to combine information from different mapping populations into consensus genetic maps, which provide increased marker density and genome coverage compared to individual maps. Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genotyping platform was developed and used to genotype 373 individuals in four barley ( L. mapping populations. This led to a 2943 SNP consensus genetic map with 975 unique positions. In this work, we add data from six additional populations and more individuals from one of the original populations to develop an improved consensus map from 1133 individuals. A stringent and systematic analysis of each of the 10 populations was performed to achieve uniformity. This involved reexamination of the four populations included in the previous map. As a consequence, we present a robust consensus genetic map that contains 2994 SNP loci mapped to 1163 unique positions. The map spans 1137.3 cM with an average density of one marker bin per 0.99 cM. A novel application of the genotyping platform for gene detection allowed the assignment of 2930 genes to flow-sorted chromosomes or arms, confirmed the position of 2545 SNP-mapped loci, added chromosome or arm allocations to an additional 370 SNP loci, and delineated pericentromeric regions for chromosomes 2H to 7H. Marker order has been improved and map resolution has been increased by almost 20%. These increased precision outcomes enable more optimized SNP selection for marker-assisted breeding and support association genetic analysis and map-based cloning. It will also improve the anchoring of DNA sequence scaffolds and the barley physical map to the genetic map.

  5. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Adiponectin Gene with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Their Influence on Cardiovascular Risk Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, A A; Bankar, M P; Bhoite, G M

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a genetically heterogeneous condition, characterized by insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance. The etiology of type 2 diabetes is complex, with involvement of genetic and environmental factors. The adipose tissue protein 'adiponectin' is known to increase insulin sensitivity with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The gene for adiponectin is present on chromosome 3q27, the association of number of single nucleotide polymorphisms of adiponectin gene with type 2 diabetes and its complications have been reported. In the present study the two most common SNPs +45T/G & +276G/T, and their association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular markers were studied. The significant difference in genotype frequencies of +45T/G & +276G/T was found in type 2 diabetic patients and controls, with odds ratio of 1.13 & 1.26 respectively. BMI, Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA IR, triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were increased, and HDL cholesterol level was decreased in patients carrier for +45T/G SNP than the wild type. While only decrease in the HDL cholesterol was reported in carriers for SNP +276G/T than the wild type. The logistic regression analysis revealed the positive association of SNP +45T/G with total cholesterol & LDL cholesterol. And negative association of HDL cholesterol was found with SNPs +45T/G and +276G/T. The haplotype analysis shows the alterations in means of biochemical markers in the patients having haplotype (GG) for mutant allele of SNP +45T/G and wild allele for SNP +276G/T.

  6. Detection of clonal evolution in hematopoietic malignancies by combining comparative genomic hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Luise; Stephenson, Christine F; Verkamp, Stephanie R; Johnson, Krystal R; Burnworth, Bettina; Hammock, Kelle; Brodersen, Lisa Eidenschink; de Baca, Monica E; Wells, Denise A; Loken, Michael R; Zehentner, Barbara K

    2014-12-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has become a powerful tool for analyzing hematopoietic neoplasms and identifying genome-wide copy number changes in a single assay. aCGH also has superior resolution compared with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or conventional cytogenetics. Integration of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) probes with microarray analysis allows additional identification of acquired uniparental disomy, a copy neutral aberration with known potential to contribute to tumor pathogenesis. However, a limitation of microarray analysis has been the inability to detect clonal heterogeneity in a sample. This study comprised 16 samples (acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, plasma cell neoplasm) with complex cytogenetic features and evidence of clonal evolution. We used an integrated manual peak reassignment approach combining analysis of aCGH and SNP microarray data for characterization of subclonal abnormalities. We compared array findings with results obtained from conventional cytogenetic and FISH studies. Clonal heterogeneity was detected in 13 of 16 samples by microarray on the basis of log2 values. Use of the manual peak reassignment analysis approach improved resolution of the sample's clonal composition and genetic heterogeneity in 10 of 13 (77%) patients. Moreover, in 3 patients, clonal disease progression was revealed by array analysis that was not evident by cytogenetic or FISH studies. Genetic abnormalities originating from separate clonal subpopulations can be identified and further characterized by combining aCGH and SNP hybridization results from 1 integrated microarray chip by use of the manual peak reassignment technique. Its clinical utility in comparison to conventional cytogenetic or FISH studies is demonstrated. © 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Diabetes Insipidus as an Initial Presentation of Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Diagnosis with Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Array-Based Karyotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruixue; Wang, Chun; Zhong, Xushu; Wu, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of clonal hematopoietic diseases characterized by cytopenia, dysplasia and increased risk of development to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Unfavorable cytogenetic changes such as complex karyotypes or chromosome 7 anomalies are predictive of the progression to AML and poor prognosis. Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is the result of a deficiency of arginine vasopressin, and its major causes are idiopathic, primary or secondary tumors, neurosurgery and trauma. Importantly, CDI is a rare complication of MDS. To date, only 5 cases of MDS co-occurring with CDI have been reported; 3 of 5 had cytogenetic abnormalities uncovered by metaphase cytogenetics and 3 of 5 evolved to AML. Here, we describe a 74-year-old woman who presented with CDI as her initial symptom of MDS and eventually progressed to AML. The metaphase cytogenetics, combined with the single-nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping, with superiority in resolution and detecting copy number variation, revealed a complex karyotype that included monosomy of chromosome 7, deletion of 20q, and absence of heterogeneity (AOH) in more than one chromosome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of MDS co-occurring with CDI with numerous cytogenetic abnormalities revealed by the SNP-A-based karyotyping. Our case supports that the cytogenetic abnormalities may be associated with the clinical features and the prognosis of MDS co-occurring with CDI. The SNP-A-based karyotyping is helpful in revealing more subtle cytogenetic abnormalities and unveiling their roles in the pathogenesis of MDS.

  8. Genetic control of conventional labeling through the bovine meat production chain by single nucleotide polymorphisms using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoferri, Rossana; Bongioni, Graziella; Galli, Andrea; Aleandri, Riccardo

    2006-08-01

    Since January 2002, the European Union has adopted precise guidelines aimed at protecting the safety of meat and controlling the production chain. To this purpose, the conventional traceability of livestock and meat represents the main tool, but verification of traceability requires genetic support. At present, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) represent the most innovative molecular markers in genotyping studies. The aim of this study was to verify correct labeling in a bovine meat production chain by a real-time PCR protocol based on SNP analysis. Reference hair samples from 5,000 animals were randomly collected from 22 farms. Twelve hundred meat samples were collected at different steps of the bovine meat production chain. In particular, 1,000 meat samples were collected at the slaughterhouse and 200 samples from the same animals directly at the butcher's shop. The protocol was optimized and validated by testing a set of 16 SNP markers on 95 DNA samples from bovine sires of different breeds. Thereafter, the genotyping of 2,200 samples was conducted with a set of 12 selected SNPs to verify traceability of the meat production chain at three different stages: farm, slaughterhouse, and butcher's shop. Irregularities in conventional traceability were evidenced directly in 1.87% of the samples at the slaughterhouse. This percentage increased to 3.25% when sampling was conducted at the butcher's shop. This study demonstrates that despite the precautions adopted over the meat production chain, some critical points still exist that cause the loss of a correct association between registration numbers and samples.

  9. Effects of lifestyle and single nucleotide polymorphisms on breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoo, Taeko; Taira, Naruto; Nishiyama, Keiko; Nogami, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Motoki, Takayuki; Shien, Tadahiko; Matsuoka, Junji; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Ishihara, Setsuko; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Kensuke; Ishibe, Youichi; Ogasawara, Yutaka; Komoike, Yoshifumi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2013-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including food and nutrition, physical activity, body composition and reproductive factors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with breast cancer risk, but few studies of these factors have been performed in the Japanese population. Thus, the goals of this study were to validate the association between reported SNPs and breast cancer risk in the Japanese population and to evaluate the effects of SNP genotypes and lifestyle factors on breast cancer risk. A case-control study in 472 patients and 464 controls was conducted from December 2010 to November 2011. Lifestyle was examined using a self-administered questionnaire. We analyzed 16 breast cancer-associated SNPs based on previous GWAS or candidate-gene association studies. Age or multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from logistic regression analyses. High BMI and current or former smoking were significantly associated with an increased breast cancer risk, while intake of meat, mushrooms, yellow and green vegetables, coffee, and green tea, current leisure-time exercise, and education were significantly associated with a decreased risk. Three SNPs were significantly associated with a breast cancer risk in multivariate analysis: rs2046210 (per allele OR=1.37 [95% CI: 1.11-1.70]), rs3757318 (OR=1.33[1.05-1.69]), and rs3803662 (OR=1.28 [1.07-1.55]). In 2046210 risk allele carriers, leisure-time exercise was associated with a significantly decreased risk for breast cancer, whereas current smoking and high BMI were associated with a significantly decreased risk in non-risk allele carriers. In Japanese women, rs2046210 and 3757318 located near the ESR1 gene are associated with a risk of breast cancer, as in other Asian women. However, our findings suggest that exercise can decrease this risk in allele carriers.

  10. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers confirm successful spawning of endangered pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Jennifer S.; Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Krampe, Matthew S.; Heist, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning of the federally endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is known to occur in the upper Missouri River basin, but progeny from natural reproductive events have not been observed and recruitment to juvenile or adult life stages has not been documented in recent decades. Identification of Pallid Sturgeon progeny is confounded by the fact that Shovelnose Sturgeon S. platorynchus occurs throughout the entire range of Pallid Sturgeon and the two species are essentially indistinguishable (morphometrically and meristically) during early life stages. Moreover, free embryos of sympatric Paddlefish Polyodon spathula are very similar to the two sturgeon species. In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays were employed to screen acipenseriform free embryos and larvae collected from the upper Missouri River basin in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A mitochondrial DNA SNP discriminates Paddlefish from sturgeon, and specific multilocus genotypes at two nuclear DNA SNPs occurred in 98.9% of wild adult Pallid Sturgeon but only in 3% of Shovelnose Sturgeon sampled in the upper Missouri River. Individuals identified as potential Pallid Sturgeon based on SNP genotypes were further analyzed at 19 microsatellite loci for species discrimination. Out of 1,423 free embryos collected over 3 years of sampling, 971 Paddlefish, 446 Shovelnose Sturgeon, and 6 Pallid Sturgeon were identified. Additionally, 249 Scaphirhynchus spp. benthic larvae were screened, but no Pallid Sturgeon were detected. These SNP markers provide an efficient method of screening acipenseriform early life stages for the presence of Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River basin. Detection of wild Pallid Sturgeon free embryos in the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers supports the hypothesis that the failure of wild Pallid Sturgeon to recruit to the juvenile life stage in the upper Missouri River basin is caused by early life stage mortality rather than by lack of successful spawning.

  11. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  12. Investigation of the Effects of rs137852599 Single-nucleotide Polymorphism Existence in Drug Resistance against Treatment with Enzalutamide in Individuals Diagnosed with Prostate Cancer in Isfahan Province

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    Bita Kaviani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of rs137852599 single-nucleotide polymorphism in the androgen receptor coding gene on drug resistance against treatment with Enzalutamide in individuals diagnosed with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the ARMS-PCR analysis was conducted on androgen receptor coding gene in 50 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer with drug resistance and on 50 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer without drug resistance. The statistical analyses were performed using the GeNePop server and then the results were investigated by the SISA server. Results: The allele frequencies of A and C alleles in rs137852599 were 0.78 and 0.22 for drug resistant and 0.94 and 0.06 for non-drug resistance groups. The results indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between drug resistance and rs137852599 single-nucleotide polymorphism (p = 0.020. Conclusion: The existence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms may result in drug resistance in individuals diagnosed with prostate cancer. Therefore, investigation of the existence of such polymorphisms can be effective in prescription of suitable drugs for these patients.

  13. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in TCF2 with type 2 diabetes susceptibility in a Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelong Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β, a transcription factor encoded by the transcription factor 2 gene (TCF2, plays a critical role in pancreatic cell formation and glucose homeostasis. It has been suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of TCF2 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, published results are inconsistent and inclusive. To further investigate the role of these common variants, we examined the association of TCF2 polymorphisms with the risk of T2D in a Han population in northeastern China. We genotyped five SNPs in 624 T2D patients and 630 healthy controls by using a SNaPshot method, and evaluated the T2D risk conferred by individual SNPs and haplotypes. In the single-locus analysis, we found that rs752010, rs4430796 and rs7501939 showed allelic differences between T2D patients and healthy controls, with an OR of 1.26 (95% CI 1.08-1.51, P = 0.003, an OR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.06-1.55, P = 0.001 and an OR of 1.28 (95% CI 1.10-1.61, P = 0.001, respectively. Genotype association analysis of each locus also revealed that the homozygous carriers of the at-risk allele had a significant increased T2D risk compared to homozygous carriers of the other allele (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.20-2.64 for rs752010; OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.67 for rs4430796; OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.31-2.90 for rs7501939, even after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Besides, the haplotype-based analysis demonstrated that AGT in block rs752010-rs4430796-rs7501939 was associated with about 30% increase in T2D risk (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.09-1.57, P = 0.01. Our findings suggested that TCF2 variants may be involved in T2D risk in a Han population of northeastern China. Larger studies with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to confirm the results reported in this investigation.

  14. A three-single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotype in intron 1 of OCA2 explains most human eye-color variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, David L; Montgomery, Grant W; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Le, Lien; James, Michael R; Hayward, Nicholas K; Martin, Nicholas G; Sturm, Richard A

    2007-02-01

    We have previously shown that a quantitative-trait locus linked to the OCA2 region of 15q accounts for 74% of variation in human eye color. We conducted additional genotyping to clarify the role of the OCA2 locus in the inheritance of eye color and other pigmentary traits associated with skin-cancer risk in white populations. Fifty-eight synonymous and nonsynonymous exonic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and tagging SNPs were typed in a collection of 3,839 adolescent twins, their siblings, and their parents. The highest association for blue/nonblue eye color was found with three OCA2 SNPs: rs7495174 T/C, rs6497268 G/T, and rs11855019 T/C (P values of 1.02x10(-61), 1.57x10(-96), and 4.45x10(-54), respectively) in intron 1. These three SNPs are in one major haplotype block, with TGT representing 78.4% of alleles. The TGT/TGT diplotype found in 62.2% of samples was the major genotype seen to modify eye color, with a frequency of 0.905 in blue or green compared with only 0.095 in brown eye color. This genotype was also at highest frequency in subjects with light brown hair and was more frequent in fair and medium skin types, consistent with the TGT haplotype acting as a recessive modifier of lighter pigmentary phenotypes. Homozygotes for rs11855019 C/C were predominantly without freckles and had lower mole counts. The minor population impact of the nonsynonymous coding-region polymorphisms Arg305Trp and Arg419Gln associated with nonblue eyes and the tight linkage of the major TGT haplotype within the intron 1 of OCA2 with blue eye color and lighter hair and skin tones suggest that differences within the 5' proximal regulatory control region of the OCA2 gene alter expression or messenger RNA-transcript levels and may be responsible for these associations.

  15. Association of interleukin-10 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tian-Tian; Wu, Jun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Tian-Ping; Yang, Xiao-Ke; Xiang, Nan; Fan, Yin-Guang; Pan, Hai-Feng; Wang, Bin

    2018-02-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of interleukin (IL)-10 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Chinese population. 848 SLE patients and 461 normal controls were recruited in this study. Nine SNPs in IL-10 gene (rs1518110, rs1518111, rs1554286, rs1800890, rs1800893, rs3024493, rs3024495, rs3024498 and rs6667202) were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assays on Fluidigm 192.24 system. The frequency of IL-10 rs3024498-C allele was significantly higher in patient group compared with control subjects (OR=5.118, 95% CI=1.819-14.405, P=0.002). No significant differences were detected for the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of other eight SNPs between patients with SLE and controls after Bonferroni correction (all P>0.0056). Interestingly, significant differences were detected both in the allele and genotype frequencies of rs3024498 between SLE patients with and without arthritis (P=0.002, P=0.022, respectively).There was significant difference in genotype frequency at rs3024498 between SLE patients with and without malar rash (P=0.040). And, there was significant difference in allele frequency at rs3024498 between SLE patients with and without anti-double-stranded DNA (P=0.032). Meanwhile, significant difference in genotype frequency at rs1518110 and rs1518111 were found in patients with and without lupus headache (P=0.025, P=0.038, respectively). There were significant difference in allele and genotype frequency at rs1800890 and rs6667202 between SLE patients with and without thrombocytopenia (rs1800890: P=0.016, P=0.026, respectively; rs6667202: P=0.007, P=0.007, respectively). Further, significant difference were observed both in allele frequency and in genotype distribution of rs1800893 between patients with and without tubular urine and proteinuria (tubular urine: PIL-10 rs3024498 polymorphism might contribute to SLE susceptibility and several clinical

  16. Association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms at five loci: comparison between atopic dermatitis and asthma in the Chinese Han population.

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    Hua-Yang Tang

    Full Text Available Atopic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD and asthma, are closely related to clinical phenotypes with hypersensitivity, and often share some similar genetic and pathogenic bases. Our recent GWAS identified three susceptibility gene/loci FLG (rs11204971 and rs3126085, 5q22.1 (rs10067777, rs7701890, rs13360927 and rs13361382 and 20q13.33 (rs6010620 to AD. The effect of these AD associated polymorphisms in asthma is so far unknown. To investigate whether AD relevant genetic variants is identical to asthma and reveal the differences in genetic factors between AD and asthma in Chinese Han population, seven AD associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as well as 3 other SNPs (rs7936562 and rs7124842 at 11q13.5 and rs4982958 at 14q11.2 from our previous AD GWAS were genotyped in 463 asthma patients and 985 controls using Sequenom MassArray system. We found rs4982958 at 14q11.2 was significantly associated with asthma (P = 3.04×10(-4, OR = 0.73. We also detected one significant risk haplotype GGGA from the 4 SNPs (rs10067777, rs7701890, rs13360927 and rs13361382 at 5q22.1 in AD cases (P(correction = 3.60×10(-10, OR = 1.26, and the haplotype was suggestive of risk in asthma cases in this study (P = 0.014, P(correction = 0.084, OR = 1.38. These SNPs (rs11204971, rs3126085, rs7936562, rs712484 and rs6010620 at AD susceptibility genes/loci FLG, 11q13.5 and 20q13.33 were not associated with asthma in this study. Our results further comfirmed that 14q11.2 was an important candidate locus for asthma and demonstrated that 5q22.1 might be shared by AD and asthma in Chinese Han population.

  17. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing analysis for molecular subtyping of Salmonella Tennessee isolates associated with the 2007 nationwide peanut butter outbreak in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Boxrud, David; Rankin, Shelly; Downe, Francis; Lovchik, Judith; Gibson, Jim; Erdman, Matt; Saeed, A. Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2007, a nationwide Salmonella Tennessee outbreak occurred via contaminated peanut butter. Here, we developed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-typing method for S. Tennessee to determine the clonal subtypes of S. Tennessee that were associated with the peanut butter outbreak. Methods and results One seventy-six S. Tennessee isolates from various sources, including humans, animals, food, and the environment, were analyzed by using the SNP technique. Eighty-four representativ...

  18. A Novel 7-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Clonotyping Test Allows Rapid Prediction of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Directly From Urine Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; Avagyan, Hovhannes; Billig, Mariya; Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Aprikian, Pavel; Chan, Diana; Pseunova, Julietta; Rechkina, Elena; Riddell, Kim; Scholes, Delia; Fang, Ferric C.; Johnson, James R.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. ?Escherichia coli is a highly clonal pathogen. Extraintestinal isolates belong to a limited number of genetically related groups, which often exhibit characteristic antimicrobial resistance profiles. Methods. ?We developed a rapid clonotyping method for extraintestinal E coli based on detection of the presence or absence of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 2 genes (fumC and fimH). A reference set of 2559 E coli isolates, primarily of urinary origin, was used to pred...

  19. Rational design of antisense oligonucleotides targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms for potent and allele selective suppression of mutant Huntingtin in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Michael E; Southwell, Amber L; Kordasiewicz, Holly; Watt, Andrew T; Skotte, Niels H; Doty, Crystal N; Vaid, Kuljeet; Villanueva, Erika B; Swayze, Eric E; Bennett, C Frank; Hayden, Michael R; Seth, Punit P

    2013-11-01

    Autosomal dominant diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD) are caused by a gain of function mutant protein and/or RNA. An ideal treatment for these diseases is to selectively suppress expression of the mutant allele while preserving expression of the wild-type variant. RNase H active antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) or small interfering RNAs can achieve allele selective suppression of gene expression by targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the repeat expansion. ASOs have been previously shown to discriminate single nucleotide changes in targeted RNAs with ∼5-fold selectivity. Based on RNase H enzymology, we enhanced single nucleotide discrimination by positional incorporation of chemical modifications within the oligonucleotide to limit RNase H cleavage of the non-targeted transcript. The resulting oligonucleotides demonstrate >100-fold discrimination for a single nucleotide change at an SNP site in the disease causing huntingtin mRNA, in patient cells and in a completely humanized mouse model of HD. The modified ASOs were also well tolerated after injection into the central nervous system of wild-type animals, suggesting that their tolerability profile is suitable for advancement as potential allele-selective HD therapeutics. Our findings lay the foundation for efficient allele-selective downregulation of gene expression using ASOs-an outcome with broad application to HD and other dominant genetic disorders.

  20. Fine mapping of a major locus controlling plant height using a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism map in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yankun; He, Jianbo; Yang, Li; Wang, Yu; Chen, Wenjing; Wan, Shubei; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2016-08-01

    A saturated map was constructed using SNP markers to fine-map a Brassica napus dominant locus for dwarf mutant onto a 152-kb interval of chromosome A09 containing 14 genes. Major dwarf loci in crops may play important roles in crop improvement and developmental genetics. The present study investigated and fine-mapped a Brassica napus dwarf-dominant locus BnDWF1. Plants carrying the BnDWF1 locus in populations derived from 'zhongshuang11' and Bndwf1 have deep-green leaves and dwarf architecture that differ sharply from tall plants with normal green leaves. BnDWF1, as a major locus controlling plant height, showed a very high heritability (0.91-0.95). To map this locus, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism map was constructed, and the BnDWF1 locus was mapped at an interval between single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, M19704 and M19695, on linkage group A09 of B. napus, with five co-segregating single-nucleotide polymorphism markers. Furthermore, fine mapping narrowed the interval harboring BnDWF1 to 152 kb in length in B. napus. This interval contains 14 annotated or predicted genes, seven of which are candidates responsible for the dwarf trait. This study provides an effective foundation for the study of plant height regulation and plant type breeding in B. napus.

  1. Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Moroccan Patients with Gastric Pathology: New Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in TNF-α−193 (G/A

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    A. Essadik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α gene are emerging as key determinants of gastric diseases. The TNF-α−308 (G/A and TNF-α−238 (G/A single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs are the most extensively studied. However, all these studies are conducted in Caucasian and Asian populations. Thus, for the first time in Africa, we sought to investigate whether polymorphisms in TNF-α gene were associated with the development of gastric pathology in Morocco. Two SNPs located in the promoter region (positions −308 and −238 in TNF-α gene were genotyped in 244 individuals (170 patients and 74 healthy controls. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using logistic regression analysis. The TNF-α−238 (G/A genotype was significantly associated with a high risk of gastritis and gastric cancer (GC (P=0.001 and P=0.002, resp.. Furthermore, a new polymorphism located in the promoter region at position −193 in TNF-α gene was identified. The distribution of this SNP was markedly different in patients suffering from ulcers. The association between TNF-α−193 (G/A genotype and high risk of ulcer was significant (P=0.03. These results suggest that the TNF-α−193 (G/A allele has a protective function against gastric cancer by developing ulcer.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms unravel hierarchical divergence and signatures of selection among Alaskan sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka populations

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    Habicht Christopher

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disentangling the roles of geography and ecology driving population divergence and distinguishing adaptive from neutral evolution at the molecular level have been common goals among evolutionary and conservation biologists. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP multilocus genotypes for 31 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka populations from the Kvichak River, Alaska, we assessed the relative roles of geography (discrete boundaries or continuous distance and ecology (spawning habitat and timing driving genetic divergence in this species at varying spatial scales within the drainage. We also evaluated two outlier detection methods to characterize candidate SNPs responding to environmental selection, emphasizing which mechanism(s may maintain the genetic variation of outlier loci. Results For the entire drainage, Mantel tests suggested a greater role of geographic distance on population divergence than differences in spawn timing when each variable was correlated with pairwise genetic distances. Clustering and hierarchical analyses of molecular variance indicated that the largest genetic differentiation occurred between populations from distinct lakes or subdrainages. Within one population-rich lake, however, Mantel tests suggested a greater role of spawn timing than geographic distance on population divergence when each variable was correlated with pairwise genetic distances. Variable spawn timing among populations was linked to specific spawning habitats as revealed by principal coordinate analyses. We additionally identified two outlier SNPs located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II that appeared robust to violations of demographic assumptions from an initial pool of eight candidates for selection. Conclusions First, our results suggest that geography and ecology have influenced genetic divergence between Alaskan sockeye salmon populations in a hierarchical manner depending on the spatial scale. Second

  3. Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

    2013-10-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150 d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring

  4. Rapid identification of Brucella isolates to the species level by real time PCR based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis

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    Smith Catherine J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis, caused by members of the genus Brucella, remains one of the world's major zoonotic diseases. Six species have classically been recognised within the family Brucella largely based on a combination of classical microbiology and host specificity, although more recently additional isolations of novel Brucella have been reported from various marine mammals and voles. Classical identification to species level is based on a biotyping approach that is lengthy, requires extensive and hazardous culturing and can be difficult to interpret. Here we describe a simple and rapid approach to identification of Brucella isolates to the species level based on real-time PCR analysis of species-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that were identified following a robust and extensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus. Results Seven pairs of short sequence Minor Groove Binding (MGB probes were designed corresponding to SNPs shown to possess an allele specific for each of the six classical Brucella spp and the marine mammal Brucella. Assays were optimised to identical reaction parameters in order to give a multiple outcome assay that can differentiate all the classical species and Brucella isolated from marine mammals. The scope of the assay was confirmed by testing of over 300 isolates of Brucella, all of which typed as predicted when compared to other phenotypic and genotypic approaches. The assay is sensitive being capable of detecting and differentiating down to 15 genome equivalents. We further describe the design and testing of assays based on three additional SNPs located within the 16S rRNA gene that ensure positive discrimination of Brucella from close phylogenetic relatives on the same platform. Conclusion The multiple-outcome assay described represents a new tool for the rapid, simple and unambiguous characterisation of Brucella to the species level. Furthermore, being based on a robust phylogenetic framework, the

  5. A single nucleotide polymorphism uncovers a novel function for the transcription factor Ace2 during Candida albicans hyphal development.

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    Diana M Calderón-Noreña

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major invasive fungal pathogen in humans. An important virulence factor is its ability to switch between the yeast and hyphal forms, and these filamentous forms are important in tissue penetration and invasion. A common feature for filamentous growth is the ability to inhibit cell separation after cytokinesis, although it is poorly understood how this process is regulated developmentally. In C. albicans, the formation of filaments during hyphal growth requires changes in septin ring dynamics. In this work, we studied the functional relationship between septins and the transcription factor Ace2, which controls the expression of enzymes that catalyze septum degradation. We found that alternative translation initiation produces two Ace2 isoforms. While full-length Ace2, Ace2L, influences septin dynamics in a transcription-independent manner in hyphal cells but not in yeast cells, the use of methionine-55 as the initiation codon gives rise to Ace2S, which functions as the nuclear transcription factor required for the expression of cell separation genes. Genetic evidence indicates that Ace2L influences the incorporation of the Sep7 septin to hyphal septin rings in order to avoid inappropriate activation of cell separation during filamentous growth. Interestingly, a natural single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP present in the C. albicans WO-1 background and other C. albicans commensal and clinical isolates generates a stop codon in the ninth codon of Ace2L that mimics the phenotype of cells lacking Ace2L. Finally, we report that Ace2L and Ace2S interact with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and that impairing activity of this kinase results in a defect in septin dynamics similar to that of hyphal cells lacking Ace2L. Together, our findings identify Ace2L and the NDR kinase Cbk1 as new elements of the signaling system that modify septin ring dynamics in hyphae to allow cell-chain formation, a feature that appears to have evolved in specific C

  6. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

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    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing

  7. A mixed integer linear programming model to reconstruct phylogenies from single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes under the maximum parsimony criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Phylogeny estimation from aligned haplotype sequences has attracted more and more attention in the recent years due to its importance in analysis of many fine-scale genetic data. Its application fields range from medical research, to drug discovery, to epidemiology, to population dynamics. The literature on molecular phylogenetics proposes a number of criteria for selecting a phylogeny from among plausible alternatives. Usually, such criteria can be expressed by means of objective functions, and the phylogenies that optimize them are referred to as optimal. One of the most important estimation criteria is the parsimony which states that the optimal phylogeny T∗for a set H of n haplotype sequences over a common set of variable loci is the one that satisfies the following requirements: (i) it has the shortest length and (ii) it is such that, for each pair of distinct haplotypes hi,hj∈H, the sum of the edge weights belonging to the path from hi to hj in T∗ is not smaller than the observed number of changes between hi and hj. Finding the most parsimonious phylogeny for H involves solving an optimization problem, called the Most Parsimonious Phylogeny Estimation Problem (MPPEP), which is NP-hard in many of its versions. Results In this article we investigate a recent version of the MPPEP that arises when input data consist of single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes extracted from a population of individuals on a common genomic region. Specifically, we explore the prospects for improving on the implicit enumeration strategy of implicit enumeration strategy used in previous work using a novel problem formulation and a series of strengthening valid inequalities and preliminary symmetry breaking constraints to more precisely bound the solution space and accelerate implicit enumeration of possible optimal phylogenies. We present the basic formulation and then introduce a series of provable valid constraints to reduce the solution space. We then prove

  8. Association between single nucleotide polymorphism of microRNA-146a and recurrence after liver cancer surgery

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    ZHANG Hua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of miRNA-146a rs2910164 and recurrence after liver cancer surgery. MethodsA total of 89 patients with primary liver cancer who underwent radical resection for liver cancer in Maojian Hospital of Dongfeng Medical Group were enrolled, and according to the presence or absence of postoperative recurrence, they were divided into recurrence group and non-recurrence group. The TaqMan probe method was used to determine the genotypes (G/C of miRNA-146a rs2910164. The frequency of each genotype was compared between the two groups to investigate the association between the SNP of MicroRNA-146a and recurrence after liver cancer surgery. The independent-samples t test was used for comparison of continuous data between the two groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between the two groups, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the recurrence of liver cancer. ResultsThe three genotypes of miRNA-146a G/C in non-recurrence group conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium law (P>0.05. After the surgery for liver cancer, the frequency of miRNA-146a G/C genotype showed a significant difference between the recurrence group and the non-recurrence group (χ2=9.115, P=0.010, and compared with the non-recurrence group, the recurrence group had a significantly higher frequency of miRNA-146a (rs2910164 CG genotype (χ2=4.013, P=0.039 and a significantly lower frequency of GG genotype (χ2=9.046, P=0.003. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that tumor diameter (OR=1.075, P=0.003 9 and miRNA-146a (rs2910164 CG genotype (OR=6.215, P=0.001 4 were the risk factors for recurrence after the surgery for liver cancer, and that miRNA146a(rs2910164 GG genotype was the protective factor against recurrence after the surgery for liver cancer (OR = 0.382, P=0002 5. ConclusionThe SNP of Mi

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in cutthroat trout subspecies using genome reduction, barcoding, and 454 pyro-sequencing

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    Houston Derek D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are popular sport fishes, and as such have been subjected to widespread stocking throughout western North America. Historically, stocking was done with little regard for genetic variation among populations and has resulted in genetic mixing among species and subspecies in many areas, thus putting the genetic integrity of native salmonid populations at risk and creating a need to assess the genetic constitution of native salmonid populations. Cutthroat trout is a salmonid species with pronounced geographic structure (there are 10 extant subspecies and a recent history of hybridization with introduced rainbow trout in many populations. Genetic admixture has also occurred among cutthroat trout subspecies in areas where introductions have brought two or more subspecies into contact. Consequently, management agencies have increased their efforts to evaluate the genetic composition of cutthroat trout populations to identify populations that remain uncompromised and manage them accordingly, but additional genetic markers are needed to do so effectively. Here we used genome reduction, MID-barcoding, and 454-pyrosequencing to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms that differentiate cutthroat trout subspecies and can be used as a rapid, cost-effective method to characterize the genetic composition of cutthroat trout populations. Results Thirty cutthroat and six rainbow trout individuals were subjected to genome reduction and next-generation sequencing. A total of 1,499,670 reads averaging 379 base pairs in length were generated by 454-pyrosequencing, resulting in 569,060,077 total base pairs sequenced. A total of 43,558 putative SNPs were identified, and of those, 125 SNP primers were developed that successfully amplified 96 cutthroat trout and rainbow trout individuals. These SNP loci were able to differentiate most cutthroat trout subspecies using distance methods and Structure analyses. Conclusions Genomic and

  10. Imputation Accuracy from Low to Moderate Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Chips in a Thai Multibreed Dairy Cattle Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jattawa, Danai; Elzo, Mauricio A; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of imputation from low density (LDC) to moderate density SNP chips (MDC) in a Thai Holstein-Other multibreed dairy cattle population. Dairy cattle with complete pedigree information (n = 1,244) from 145 dairy farms were genotyped with GeneSeek GGP20K (n = 570), GGP26K (n = 540) and GGP80K (n = 134) chips. After checking for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) quality, 17,779 SNP markers in common between the GGP20K, GGP26K, and GGP80K were used to represent MDC. Animals were divided into two groups, a reference group (n = 912) and a test group (n = 332). The SNP markers chosen for the test group were those located in positions corresponding to GeneSeek GGP9K (n = 7,652). The LDC to MDC genotype imputation was carried out using three different software packages, namely Beagle 3.3 (population-based algorithm), FImpute 2.2 (combined family- and population-based algorithms) and Findhap 4 (combined family- and population-based algorithms). Imputation accuracies within and across chromosomes were calculated as ratios of correctly imputed SNP markers to overall imputed SNP markers. Imputation accuracy for the three software packages ranged from 76.79% to 93.94%. FImpute had higher imputation accuracy (93.94%) than Findhap (84.64%) and Beagle (76.79%). Imputation accuracies were similar and consistent across chromosomes for FImpute, but not for Findhap and Beagle. Most chromosomes that showed either high (73%) or low (80%) imputation accuracies were the same chromosomes that had above and below average linkage disequilibrium (LD; defined here as the correlation between pairs of adjacent SNP within chromosomes less than or equal to 1 Mb apart). Results indicated that FImpute was more suitable than Findhap and Beagle for genotype imputation in this Thai multibreed population. Perhaps additional increments in imputation accuracy could be achieved by increasing the completeness of pedigree information.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping by two colour melting curve analysis using the MGB Eclipse Probe System in challenging sequence environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Yevgeniy S; Welch, Robert A; Sanders, Silvia; Mills, Alan; Kulchenko, Alena; Dempcy, Robert; Afonina, Irina A; Walburger, David K; Glaser, Cynthia L; Yadavalli, Sunita; Vermeulen, Nicolaas M J; Mahoney, Walt

    2004-03-01

    Probe and primer design for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection can be very challenging for A-T DNA-rich targets, requiring long sequences with lower specificity and stability, while G-C-rich DNA targets present limited design options to lower GC-content sequences only. We have developed the MGB Eclipse Probe System, which is composed of the following elements: MGB Eclipse probes and primers, specially developed software for the design of probes and primers, a unique set of modified bases and a Microsoft Excel macro for automated genotyping, which ably solves, in large part, this challenge. Fluorogenic MGB Eclipse probes are modified oligonucleotides containing covalently attached duplex-stabilising dihydrocyclopyrroloindole tripeptide (DPI3), the MGB ligand (MGB is a trademark of Epoch Biosciences, Bothell, WA), which has the combined properties of allowing the use of short sequences and providing great mismatch discrimination. The MGB moiety prevents probe degradation during polymerase chain reaction (PCR), allowing the researcher to use real time data; alternatively, hybridisation can be accurately measured by a post-PCR two-colour melt curve analysis. Using MGB Eclipse probes and primers containing modified bases further enhances the analysis of difficult SNP targets. G- or C-rich sequences can be refractory to analysis due to Hoogsteen base pairing. Substitution of normal G with Epoch's modified G prevents Hoogsteen base pairing, allowing both superior PCR and probe-based analysis of GC-rich targets. The use of modified A and T bases allows better stabilisation by significantly increasing the Tm of the oligonucleotides. Modified A creates A-T base pairs that have a stability slightly lower than a G-C base pair, and modified T creates T-A base pairs that have a stability about 30 per cent higher than the unmodified base pair. Together, the modified bases permit the use of short probes, providing good mismatch discrimination and primers that allow PCR

  12. Mapping a major QTL responsible for dwarf architecture in Brassica napus using a single-nucleotide polymorphism marker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yankun; Chen, Wenjing; Chu, Pu; Wan, Shubei; Yang, Mao; Wang, Mingming; Guan, Rongzhan

    2016-08-18

    Key genes related to plant type traits have played very important roles in the "green revolution" by increasing lodging resistance and elevating the harvest indices of crop cultivars. Although there have been numerous achievements in the development of dwarfism and plant type in Brassica napus breeding, exploring new materials conferring oilseed rape with efficient plant types that provide higher yields is still of significance in breeding, as well as in elucidating the mechanisms underlying plant development. Here, we report a new dwarf architecture with down-curved leaf mutant (Bndwf/dcl1) isolated from an ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS)-mutagenized B. napus line, together with its inheritance and gene mapping, and pleiotropic effects of the mapped locus on plant-type traits. We constructed a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map using a backcross population derived from the Bndwf/dcl1 mutant and the canola cultivar 'zhongshuang11' ('ZS11') and mapped the dwarf architecture with the down-curved leaf dominant locus, BnDWF/DCL1, in a 6.58-cM interval between SNP marker bins M46180 and M49962 on the linkage group (LG) C05 of B. napus. Further mapping with other materials derived from Bndwf/dcl1 narrowed the interval harbouring BnDWF/DCL1 to 175 kb in length and this interval contained 16 annotated genes. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mappings with the backcross population for plant type traits, including plant height, branching height, main raceme length and average branching interval, indicated that the mapped QTLs for plant type traits were located at the same position as the BnDWF/DCL1 locus. This study suggests that the BnDWF/DCL1 locus is a major pleiotropic locus/QTL in B. napus, which may reduce plant height, alter plant type traits and change leaf shape, and thus may lead to compact plant architecture. Accordingly, this locus may have substantial breeding potential for increasing planting density.

  13. Apoptosis-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and the Risk of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Hyland, Paula L; Cote, Michele L; Keele, Greg R; Land, Susan; Boulton, Matthew L; Schwartz, Ann G

    2014-01-01

    Germline apoptosis-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to contribute to the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, very few studies have looked specifically at apoptosis-related SNPs in a racially-stratified analysis of white and African-American women. We examined the risk of developing NSCLC associated with 98 germline SNPs in 32 apoptosis-related genes among women in a population-based case-control study from the Detroit metropolitan area. We examined 453 cases of NSCLC and 478 control subjects. We used an unconditional logistic regression with a dominant model, stratified by race, and adjusted for age, pack-years smoked, ever/never smoking status, family history of lung cancer, history of COPD, BMI and education. Our logistic regression identified 3 significant apoptosis-related SNPs in whites ( APAF-1, rs1007573; CD40 rs3765459, and CD40 rs1535045), and 7 significant SNPs ( ATM, rs1801516; BAK1, rs513349; TNF, rs1800629; TP63, rs6790167; TP63, rs7613791, TP63, rs35592567 and TP63, rs3856775 ) in African-Americans. In a downstream analysis, these SNPs were further prioritized utilizing the False Positive Report Percentage (FPRP) methodology and backwards elimination. In whites, APAF-1 ( rs1007573), CD40 ( rs3765459) and CD40 (rs1535045) were all found to be significant by FPRP. In African-Americans, TP63 SNPs rs6790167 and rs7613791 were found to have a significant FPRP. In parallel, a backward elimination procedure was used on the 3 significant SNPs in whites and 7 significant SNPs in African-Americans. This procedure identified APAF-1 rs1007573 (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.17-2.95) and CD40 rs1535045 (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.40-0.84) as significant independent predictors of risk among whites, and ATM rs1801516 (OR=24.15, 95% CI: 3.50-166.55), TNF rs1800629 (OR= 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99) and TP63 rs6790167 (OR: 2.85, 95% CI: 1.33-6.09) as significant, independent predictors in African-Americans. In whites, only SNPs APAF-1

  14. Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms and early spontaneous hepatitis B virus e antigen seroconversion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Haruki; Murakami, Jun; Inui, Ayano; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-11-06

    The disease progression following hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, the role of SNPs in chronic HBV infection in children remains unclear. Here, we investigate the association between SNPs and early spontaneous hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in children with chronic hepatitis B infection. This was a retrospective cohort study. We genotyped seven SNPs in the following genes, interleukin (IL)-10 (rs1800871 and rs1800872), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPA1 (rs3077), HLA-DPB1 (rs9277535), HLA-DQB2 (rs7453920), HLA-DQB1 (rs2856718), and IL28B (rs8099917), in patients with chronic HBV infection using PCR and sequencing. These variants were analyzed for an association with early HBeAg seroconversion in children. Of 225 Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (male/female: 105/120, median age at initial visit: 6 years; range 0-44 years), 52 achieved spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion at the age of 10 years or younger (G1: early seroconversion group), and 57 did not achieve spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion under the age of 20 years (G2: late or no seroconversion group). Of the seven SNPs, only the HLA-DPA1 SNP displayed a low p-value (P = 0.070), but not significant, to have early HBeAg seroconversion in the dominant model and in the allele model (P = 0.073) using the chi-square test. The association study found a low p-value, but not significant, to have early HBeAg seroconversion in the dominant model for HLA-DPA1 (genotype TC + TT vs. CC, P = 0.070, odds ratio: 2.016, 95% confidence interval: 0.940-4.323) using a logistic regression model. Although the HLA-DPA1 SNP did not show a statistically significant association with early HBeAg seroconversion in this study, the HLA-DPA1 SNP might increase the likelihood of achieving early spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in children.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping by two colour melting curve analysis using the MGB Eclipse™ Probe System in challenging sequence environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belousov Yevgeniy S

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Probe and primer design for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP detection can be very challenging for A-T DNA-rich targets, requiring long sequences with lower specificity and stability, while G-C-rich DNA targets present limited design options to lower GC-content sequences only. We have developed the MGB Eclipsee™ Probe System, which is composed of the following elements: MGB Eclipse probes and primers, specially developed software for the design of probes and primers, a unique set of modified bases and a Microsoft Excel macro for automated genotyping, which ably solves, in large part, this challenge. Fluorogenic MGB Eclipse probes are modified oligo-nucleotides containing covalently attached duplex-stabilising dihydrocyclopyrroloindole tripeptide (DPI3, the MGB ligand (MGB™ is a trademark of Epoch Biosciences, Bothell, WA, which has the combined properties of allowing the use of short sequences and providing great mismatch discrimination. The MGB moiety prevents probe degradation during polymerase chain reaction (PCR, allowing the researcher to use real time data; alternatively, hybridisation can be accurately measured by a post-PCR two-colour melt curve analysis. Using MGB Eclipse probes and primers containing modified bases further enhances the analysis of difficult SNP targets. G- or C-rich sequences can be refractory to analysis due to Hoogsteen base pairing. Substitution of normal G with Epoch's modified G prevents Hoogsteen base pairing, allowing both superior PCR and probe-based analysis of GC-rich targets. The use of modified A and T bases allows better stabilisation by significantly increasing the Tm of the oligonucleotides. Modified A creates A-T base pairs that have a stability slightly lower than a G-C base pair, and modified T creates T-A base pairs that have a stability about 30 per cent higher than the unmodified base pair. Together, the modified bases permit the use of short probes, providing good mismatch

  16. Compilation of a panel of informative single nucleotide polymorphisms for bovine identification in the Northern Irish cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartshorne David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal identification is pivotal in governmental agricultural policy, enabling the management of subsidy payments, movement of livestock, test scheduling and control of disease. Advances in bovine genomics have made it possible to utilise inherent genetic variability to uniquely identify individual animals by DNA profiling, much as has been achieved with humans over the past 20 years. A DNA profiling test based on bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers would offer considerable advantages over current short tandem repeat (STR based industry standard tests, in that it would be easier to analyse and interpret. In this study, a panel of 51 genome-wide SNPs were genotyped across panels of semen DNA from 6 common breeds for the purposes of ascertaining allelic frequency. For SNPs on the same chromosome, the extent of linkage disequilbrium was determined from genotype data by Expectation Maximization (EM algorithm. Minimum probabilities of unique identification were determined for each breed panel. The usefulness of this SNP panel was ascertained by comparison to the current bovine STR Stockmarks II assay. A statistically representative random sampling of bovine animals from across Northern Ireland was assembled for the purposes of determining the population allele frequency for these STR loci and subsequently, the minimal probability of unique identification they conferred in sampled bovine animals from Northern Ireland. Results 6 SNPs exhibiting a minor allele frequency of less than 0.2 in more than 3 of the breed panels were excluded. 2 Further SNPs were found to reside in coding areas of the cattle genome and were excluded from the final panel. The remaining 43 SNPs exhibited genotype frequencies which were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. SNPs on the same chromosome were observed to have no significant linkage disequilibrium/allelic association. Minimal probabilities of uniquely identifying individual animals from

  17. Correlation of chitinase 3-like 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes with uterine cervical cancer in Taiwanese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Shan Lin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationships of chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes with the development of uterine cervical cancer in Taiwanese women. The SNPs frequencies and haplotypes were also correlated with the clinicopathologic variables of cervical cancer, cancer recurrence, and patient survival.Ninety-nine patients with invasive cancer and 61 with pre-cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix were compared to 310 healthy control subjects. Three SNPs rs6691378 (-1371, G/A, rs10399805 (-247, G/A and rs4950928 (-131, C/G in the promoter region, and one SNP rs880633 (+2950, T/C in exon 5 were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction and genotyping. The results showed that the mutant homozygous genotype AA of CHI3L1 SNP rs6691378 and AA of rs10399805, and haplotypes AACC and AACT increased the risk of developing pre-cancerous lesions and invasive cancer. The patients with these risk haplotypes had higher than stage I tumors, larger tumors, and vaginal invasion. In logistic regression model, they also tended to have poor survival event [p = 0.078; odds ratio (OR: 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.89-10.08] and a higher probability of recurrence event (p = 0.081; OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 0.87-10.81. There was a significant association between the CHI3L1 risk haplotypes and probability of recurrence (p = 0.002; hazard ratio: 6.21, 95% CI: 1.90-20.41, and a marginal association between the risk haplotypes and overall survival (p = 0.051; hazard ratio: 3.76, 95% CI: 0.99-14.29 in the patients with SCC, using Cox proportional hazard model.The CHI3L1 SNPs rs6691378 and rs10399805 and CHI3L1 haplotypes all correlated with the development of cervical pre-cancerous lesions and invasive cancer. The cervical cancer patients with the CHI3L1 haplotypes AACC or AACT had poor clinicopathologic characteristics and poor recurrence and survival events. These risk haplotypes were associated with higher

  18. Species trees from consensus single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data: Testing phylogenetic approaches with simulated and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N; Aitken, Nicola C; Chuah, Aaron

    2017-11-01

    Datasets of hundreds or thousands of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) from multiple individuals per species are increasingly used to study population structure, species delimitation and shallow phylogenetics. The principal software tool to infer species or population trees from SNP data is currently the BEAST template SNAPP which uses a Bayesian coalescent analysis. However, it is computationally extremely demanding and tolerates only small amounts of missing data. We used simulated and empirical SNPs from plants (Australian Craspedia, Asteraceae, and Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) to compare species trees produced (1) by SNAPP, (2) using SVD quartets, and (3) using Bayesian and parsimony analysis with several different approaches to summarising data from multiple samples into one set of traits per species. Our aims were to explore the impact of tree topology and missing data on the results, and to test which data summarising and analyses approaches would best approximate the results obtained from SNAPP for empirical data. SVD quartets retrieved the correct topology from simulated data, as did SNAPP except in the case of a very unbalanced phylogeny. Both methods failed to retrieve the correct topology when large amounts of data were missing. Bayesian analysis of species level summary data scoring the two alleles of each SNP as independent characters and parsimony analysis of data scoring each SNP as one character produced trees with branch length distributions closest to the true trees on which SNPs were simulated. For empirical data, Bayesian inference and Dollo parsimony analysis of data scored allele-wise produced phylogenies most congruent with the results of SNAPP. In the case of study groups divergent enough for missing data to be phylogenetically informative (because of additional mutations preventing amplification of genomic fragments or bioinformatic establishment of homology), scoring of SNP data as a presence/absence matrix irrespective of allele

  19. Association between recurrent aphthous stomatitis and inheritance of a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the NOS2 gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasneh, Jumana A; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Hassan, Ahmad F; Thornhill, Martin

    2011-10-01

     Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a common ulcerative disease of the oral mucosa. Recurrent oral aphthous ulceration is also a feature of the more serious and systemic Behçet's disease. Nitric oxide is a free radical synthesized by one of a family of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes and is an important regulator of inflammation and immunity. Association of NOS3 gene polymorphisms encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase has been reported in Behçet's disease but not recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate any association between NOS2 gene polymorphisms that encode inducible nitric oxide synthase and recurrent aphthous stomatitis.  This is a case control association study. Eighty-three Jordanian recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients and 83 age, gender and ethnically matched controls were genotyped for three NOS2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs10459953, rs1060822 and rs2297518. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare the allele frequencies and genotypes.  There was a significant association between recurrent aphthous stomatitis and inheritance of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2297518 (P = 0.006). Although no direct association was demonstrated between rs10459953 or rs1060822 and recurrent aphthous stomatitis, a strong linkage disequilibrium was identified between rs1060822 and rs2297518.  Inheritence of a NOS2 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2297518 is associated with increased risk of recurrent aphthous stomatitis in a Jordanian population. Confirmatory studies in other populations and investigation of other NOS2 gene polymorphisms will enhance our understanding of the functional basis of this association and help elucidate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Development of ACRS-PCR method for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism g.66493737C/T of the equine myostanin gene (MSTN)

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Gábor; Martina Miluchová; Anna Trakovická

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin, encoded by the MSTN gene, is a member of the TGF-β super family that regulates 33 skeletal muscle development in a range of mammalian species including the horse. The aim of this work was designed of molecular-genetic method for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism  g.66493737C/T of the equine myostatine gene (MSTN) in the breeds of horses Slovak warmblood and Norik  and analysis of genotype. The SNP polymorphism C/T of the MSTN gene was studied in a group of 63 animals (50...

  1. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the calsequestrin-1 gene are associated with Graves’ ophthalmopathy and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahooti H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hooshang Lahooti,1,2 Daniele Cultrone,1,2 Senarath Edirimanne,1,2 John P Walsh,3,4 Leigh Delbridge,5,6 Patrick Cregan,1,2 Bernard Champion,1,2 Jack R Wall1,21Thyroid Research Laboratory, Sydney Medical School – Nepean Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 2Nepean Blue Mountains Local Health District, Nepean Hospital, Kingswood, NSW, 3Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, 4School of Medicine and Pharmacology, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 5Department of Surgery, Royal North Shore Hospital, 6Sydney Medical School – Northern Clinical School, The University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The eye disorder associated with Graves’ disease, called Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO, greatly reduces the quality of life in affected patients. Expression of the calsequestrin (CASQ1 protein in thyroid tissue may be the trigger for the development of eye muscle damage in patients with GO. We determined the prevalence of rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders, GO, Graves’ hyperthyroidism (GH, or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT and control subjects with no personal or family history of autoimmune thyroid disorders. Furthermore, we measured the concentration of the CASQ1 protein in normal and Graves’ thyroid tissue, correlating levels with parameters of the eye signs, CASQ1 antibody levels, and the CASQ1 gene polymorphism rs74123279 and rs2275703.Methods: High-quality genomic DNA was isolated from fresh blood samples, assayed for identification of rs74123279, rs3747673, and rs2275703 SNPs in CASQ1 gene by MassARRAY SNP analysis using iPLEX technology of SEQUENOM.Results: DNA samples from 300 patients and 106 control subjects (100 males, 306 females with GO (n=74, GH (n=130, HT (n=96 and control subjects (n=106 were genotyped for the SNPs rs74123279, rs3747673 (n=405, and rs2275703 (n=407. The

  2. Impact of donor and recipient single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL28B rs8099917 in living donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Harada

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin-28B (IL28B rs8099917 are reported to be associated with virologic clearance in interferon-and ribavirin -based treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected patients. We examined virologic response in accordance with IL28B polymorphisms in our living donor liver transplantation series under a preemptive interferon and RBV treatment approach. Adequate DNA samples from both the recipient and donor for the study of single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL28B were available from 96 cases and were the subjects of the present study. Various clinical factors related with virologic response including early virologic response (EVR and sustained virologic response (SVR were examined. Totally 51% presented with EVR and 44% achieved SVR. Presence of the major allele (TT in either the recipient or the donor corresponded to SVR of 53% and 48%. Presence of the minor allele (TG or GG corresponded to SVR of 26% and 32%. Multivariate analysis revealed that genotype of HCV or EVR, but not IL28B polymorphisms in either the recipient or donor, was an independent factor for achieving SVR. When virologic response to treatment was incorporated into analysis, the impact of IL28B polymorphism on virological clearance remained relative to other factors and was not significantly independent.

  3. Genome-wide discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in deep-sea mussels: Potential use in population genomics and cross-species application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Sun, Jin; Lv, Jia; Kayama Watanabe, Hiromi; Li, Tianqi; Zou, Weiwen; Rouse, Greg W.; Wang, Shi; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Bao, Zhenmin; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to generate genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons via a combination of genome survey sequencing and the type IIB endonuclease restriction-site associated DNA (2b-RAD) sequencing, assess the potential use of SNPs in detecting fine-sale population genetic structure and signatures of divergent selection, as well as their cross-species application in other bathymodioline mussels. Genome survey sequencing was conducted for one individual of B. platifrons. De novo assembly resulted in 781,720 sequences with a scaffold N50 of 2.9 kb. Using these sequences as a reference, 9307 genome-wide SNPs were identified by 2b-RAD for 28 B. platifrons individuals collected from a seep and a vent population. Among these SNPs, nine outliers showed significant evidence for divergent selection, and their positions in the genes or scaffolds were identified. The FST estimated based on the putative neutral SNPs was low (0.0126) indicating the two B. platifrons populations having a high genetic connectivity. However, the permutation test detected significant differences (Pgenome survey sequencing and 2b-RAD to rapidly generate genomic resources for use in fine-scale population genetic studies, and various cross-species applications.

  4. Bioinformatic Analysis of Deleterious Non-Synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (nsSNPs in the Coding Regions of Human Prion Protein Gene (PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Bamdad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are the cause of genetic variation to living organisms. Single nucleotide polymorphisms alter residues in the protein sequence. In this investigation, the relationship between prion protein gene polymorphisms and its relevance to pathogenicity was studied. Material & Method: Amino acid sequence of the main isoform from the human prion protein gene (PRNP was extracted from UniProt database and evaluated by FoldAmyloid and AmylPred servers. All non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs from SNP database (dbSNP were further analyzed by bioinformatics servers including SIFT, PolyPhen-2, I-Mutant-3.0, PANTHER, SNPs & GO, PHD-SNP, Meta-SNP, and MutPred to determine the most damaging nsSNPs. Results: The results of the first structure analyses by FoldAmyloid and AmylPerd servers implied that regions including 5-15, 174-178, 180-184, 211-217, and 240-252 were the most sensitive parts of the protein sequence to amyloidosis. Screening all nsSNPs of the main protein isoform using bioinformatic servers revealed that substitution of Aspartic acid with Valine at position 178 (ID code: rs11538766 was the most deleterious nsSNP in the protein structure. Conclusion:  Substitution of the Aspartic acid with Valine at position 178 (D178V was the most pathogenic mutation in the human prion protein gene. Analyses from the MutPred server also showed that beta-sheets’ increment in the secondary structure was the main reason behind the molecular mechanism of the prion protein aggregation.

  5. Identification and characterization of novel single nucleotide polymorphism markers for fat deposition in muscle tissue of pigs using amplified fragment length polymorphism

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    Pantaporn Supakankul

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to identify and evaluate the effective single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pigs using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP approach. Methods Sixty-four selective primer combinations were used to identify the AFLP markers in the 20 highest- and 20 lowest-intramuscular fat (IMF content phenotypes. Five AFLP fragments were converted into simple codominant SNP markers. These SNP markers were tested in terms of their association with IMF content and fatty acid (FA composition traits in 620 commercially crossbred pigs. Results The SSC7 g.4937240C>G marker showed an association with IMF content (pA marker revealed an association with palmitoleic and ω9 FA levels (pT marker showed a significant association with IMF content and FA levels of palmitoleic, eicosenoic, arachidonic, monounsaturated fatty acids, and ω9 FA levels. However, no significant association of SSC8 g.47338181G>A was observed with any IMF and FA levels in this study. Conclusion Four SNP markers (SSC7 g.4937240C>G, SSC9 g.5496647_5496662insdel, SSC10 g.71225134G>A, and SSC17 g.61976696G>T were found to be associated with IMF and/or FA content traits in commercially crossbred pigs. These findings provide evidence of the novel SNP markers as being potentially useful for selecting pigs with the desirable IMF content and FA composition.

  6. The CLOCK 3111T/C single nucleotide polymorphism and daytime fluctuations of gastric motility in healthy young women: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsue; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Motokubota, Naoko; Komai, Naho; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-10-24

    The 3111T/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) gene reportedly affects gastric motility before breakfast. It is of interest to know whether this SNP can affect the motility during the daytime. We investigated the association between the CLOCK 3111T/C SNP and several gastric motility parameters during the time period from 8:00 to 20:00 in 34 young women with scheduled meals. There were similar daytime fluctuations in gastric motility before and after the meals between the major (T/T) and minor (T/C) allele carriers. The CLOCK SNP may affect daytime gastric motility less than food stimulation.

  7. Genetic counseling for a prenatal diagnosis of structural chromosomal abnormality with high-resolution analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takashima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,add(9(p24. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing.

  8. Prediction of peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma patients receiving bortezomib and thalidomide: a genetic study based on a single nucleotide polymorphism array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Ramón; Corchete, Luis Antonio; Alcoceba, Miguel; Chillon, María Carmen; Jiménez, Cristina; Prieto, Isabel; García-Álvarez, María; Puig, Noemi; Rapado, Immaculada; Barrio, Santiago; Oriol, Albert; Blanchard, María Jesús; de la Rubia, Javier; Martínez, Rafael; Lahuerta, Juan José; González Díaz, Marcos; Mateos, María Victoria; San Miguel, Jesús Fernando; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Sarasquete, María Eugenia

    2017-12-01

    Bortezomib- and thalidomide-based therapies have significantly contributed to improved survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, treatment-induced peripheral neuropathy (TiPN) is a common adverse event associated with them. Risk factors for TiPN in MM patients include advanced age, prior neuropathy, and other drugs, but there are conflicting results about the role of genetics in predicting the risk of TiPN. Thus, we carried out a genome-wide association study based on more than 300 000 exome single nucleotide polymorphisms in 172 MM patients receiving therapy involving bortezomib and thalidomide. We compared patients developing and not developing TiPN under similar treatment conditions (GEM05MAS65, NCT00443235). The highest-ranking single nucleotide polymorphism was rs45443101, located in the PLCG2 gene, but no significant differences were found after multiple comparison correction (adjusted P = .1708). Prediction analyses, cytoband enrichment, and pathway analyses were also performed, but none yielded any significant findings. A copy number approach was also explored, but this gave no significant results either. In summary, our study did not find a consistent genetic component associated with TiPN under bortezomib and thalidomide therapies that could be used for prediction, which makes clinical judgment essential in the practical management of MM treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Characterization of two SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the porcine INSL3 gene and their exclusion as a common genetic basis of hernia inguinalis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Christoph; Täubert, Helge; Peters, Ulrike; Brenig, Bertram

    2004-02-01

    The INSL3 gene encoding Leydig cell insulin-like hormone is an important candidate gene for congenital disorders of the reproductive tract in pigs. Comparative sequencing using phenotypically hernia inguinalis affected and unaffected animals showed that the porcine gene is remarkably conserved. No polymorphisms were found in the two exons or in the intron. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the promoter region (G-224A and A-164C) of the sequenced pigs and fast screening methods were developed for large scale studies. Some significant breed differences exist for allele frequencies at both SNPs in the INSL3 gene. Screening of the two SNPs in a population of hernia inguinalis affected full and half sib piglets (n = 223) revealed that the SNPs can be excluded as a common genetic basis for this congenital disorder in this pedigree.

  10. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Sparsø, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gene encoding the alpha2 Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) is a credible biological and positional candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, and previous attempts to relate AHSG variation with type 2 diabetes and obesity in Swedish and French Caucasians have...... been largely successful. We related seven frequent AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms to a range of metabolic traits, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The polymorphisms were genotyped in 7,683 white Danish subjects using Taqman allelic...... discrimination or chip-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, providing a statistical power of >99% to replicate previous findings. Data were analyzed in case-control and haplotype settings, and quantitative metabolic traits were examined for association. Moreover...

  11. Effect of single nucleotide polymorphism Rs189037 in ATM gene on risk of lung cancer in Chinese: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence has indicated that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM gene polymorphisms are closely related to lung cancer. We aimed to explore the prognostic value of rs189037 (G>A, one of ATM single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and detect whether it involves in the risk of lung cancer in Chinese Han people.In this hospital-based matched case-control study, 852 lung cancer patients and 852 healthy controls have been put into comparison to analyze the association between rs189037 and lung cancer risk in Chinese. The single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan real-time PCR and we used SPSS software to perform the statistical analyses.Individuals carrying variant AA genotype of rs189037 had higher lung cancer risk (adjusted OR: 1.56 than those carrying GG genotype. After analyzing data respectively from different groups divided by genders and smoking status, we observed that the risk effect of AA genotype on the lung cancer was significant in females, non-smokers and female non-smokers, as well as the risk effect of GA genotype in male smokers. Compared with non-smokers carrying GG genotype, smokers carrying at least one A allele had higher risk of developing lung cancer than those with GG genotype (adjusted OR: 3.52 vs. adjusted OR: 2.53.This study suggested that rs189037 (G>A polymorphism is associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese Han population. AA genotype and A allele may be dangerous lung cancer signals in Chinese and make contribution to diagnostic and treatment value.

  12. Perception of Facial Aging and Its Relationship to Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (OXTR rs53576, CD38 rs3796863)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gross, Thomas J; Gross, Thomas F; Blauth, Susan

    2017-01-01

    ...) gene, whose product has been found to facilitate the secretion of oxytocin. This research examines whether these polymorphisms are associated with facial age discrimination. Young adults (N = 43...

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2X7 gene are associated to fracture risk and to effect of estrogen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlendorff, Stine D; Tofteng, Charlotte L; Jensen, Jens-Erik B

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purinergic P2RX7 receptor (P2RX7) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of polymorphisms in exon 13 of the P2X7 gene and the association with osteoclast apoptosis in vitro and bone...... in postmenopausal women and response to hormone replacement therapy treatment. Further, the Glu496Ala polymorphism is strongly influencing osteoclast apoptosis in vitro, which could contribute to increased fracture risk....... status in vivo. METHODS: A total of 1764 postmenopausal women were genotyped for three single nucleotide polymorphisms detected after sequencing of exon 13 of P2X7. Bone markers, bone mineral density of the hip and lumbar spine were determined at baseline and after 10 years, and vertebral fracture...... density over 10 years in hormone replacement therapy naïve women. The Ile568Asn polymorphism was however, associated with effect of hormone replacement therapy. Furthermore, the 10-year fracture incidence was significantly associated with both the Glu496Ala and the Ile568Asn. The Glu496Ala polymorphism...

  14. The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) genes with oxytocin dosing requirements and labor outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotegut, Chad A; Ngan, Emily; Garrett, Melanie E; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Ashley-Koch, Allison E; Swamy, Geeta K

    2017-09-01

    Oxytocin is a potent uterotonic agent that is widely used for induction and augmentation of labor. Oxytocin has a narrow therapeutic index and the optimal dosing for any individual woman varies widely. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) or in the gene encoding G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6), which regulates desensitization of the oxytocin receptor, could explain variation in oxytocin dosing and labor outcomes among women being induced near term. Pregnant women with a singleton gestation residing in Durham County, NC, were prospectively enrolled as part of the Healthy Pregnancy, Healthy Baby cohort study. Those women undergoing an induction of labor at 36 weeks or greater were genotyped for 18 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR and 7 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GRK6 using TaqMan assays. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between maternal genotype and maximal oxytocin infusion rate, total oxytocin dose received, and duration of labor. Logistic regression was used to test for the association of maternal genotype with mode of delivery. For each outcome, backward selection techniques were utilized to control for important confounding variables and additive genetic models were used. Race/ethnicity was included in all models because of differences in allele frequencies across populations, and Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was used. DNA was available from 482 women undergoing induction of labor at 36 weeks or greater. Eighteen haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms within OXTR and 7 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms within GRK6 were examined. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR showed nominal significance with maximal infusion rate of oxytocin, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR were associated with total oxytocin dose received. One single-nucleotide polymorphism in

  15. Effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism in miR-146a on COX-2 protein expression and lung function in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Li, Min; Zhou, Sijing; Zeng, Daxiong; Xu, Xuan; Xu, Rui; Sun, Gengyun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2910164) in the miR-146a precursor on the expression level of miR-146a, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lung tissue harvested from smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as the lung function and disease stages from the same patient population. One-hundred and sixty-eight smokers with diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were recruited. The patients were genotyped for rs2910164 polymorphism using Sanger sequencing, and their lung function/disease stages were evaluated following Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. Meanwhile, messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression levels of miR-146a and COX2 as well as PGE2 production were determined in 66 lung tissue samples collected in the patients who received surgical treatment. We confirmed that COX2 is a validated target of miR-146a in human fibroblast cells, and identified the differential expression patterns of miR-146a and COX2 in each rs2910164 genotype group. We observed a significant association between rs2910164 in miR-146a and the levels of either COX2 or PGE2 using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Consistently, we were able to demonstrate that the rs2910164 single nucleotide polymorphism has a functional effect on the baseline lung function in the study population. In the present study, the rs2910164 CC and GC genotype was found to be associated with an improved lung function and milder disease stages, at least partially, mediated by its ability to increase in COX2 expression and PGE2 production.

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D pathway associating with circulating concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and non-skeletal health outcomes: Review of genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, David A; Walton, Robert T; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

    2016-11-01

    Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in vitamin D metabolism and transport are recognised to influence vitamin D status. Syntheses of genetic association studies linking these variants to non-skeletal health outcomes are lacking. We therefore conducted a literature review to identify reports of statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 11 vitamin D pathway genes (DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, DBP, LRP2, CUB, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, VDR and RXRA) and non-bone health outcomes and circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH] 2 D). A total of 120 genetic association studies reported positive associations, of which 44 investigated determinants of circulating 25(OH)D and/or 1,25(OH) 2 D concentrations, and 76 investigated determinants of non-skeletal health outcomes. Statistically significant associations were reported for a total of 55 SNP in the 11 genes investigated. There was limited overlap between genetic determinants of vitamin D status and those associated with non-skeletal health outcomes: polymorphisms in DBP, CYP2R1 and DHCR7 were the most frequent to be reported to associate with circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D, while polymorphisms in VDR were most commonly reported to associate with non-skeletal health outcomes, among which infectious and autoimmune diseases were the most represented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 +49A/G Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Association With Visceral Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Lotfi, Pegah; Seif, Farhad; Bazmani, Ahad; Momeni, Mohammad; Ravary, Ali; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Khalilian, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several lines of evidence approve that innate and adaptive immunity play key roles in the defense against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The polymorphism within the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene alters its expression. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the polymorphism within the +49 position of the CTLA-4 gene of Iranian patients with VL in comparison with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 88 patients with c...

  18. The Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 +49A/G Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Association With Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Lotfi, Pegah; Seif, Farhad; Bazmani, Ahad; Momeni, Mohammad; Ravary, Ali; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Khalilian, Ali Reza

    2014-10-01

    Several lines of evidence approve that innate and adaptive immunity play key roles in the defense against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The polymorphism within the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene alters its expression. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the polymorphism within the +49 position of the CTLA-4 gene of Iranian patients with VL in comparison with healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study, 88 patients with clinical presentations of VL, who were seropositive for Leishmania (group 1), 86 patients without clinical presentations but seropositive (group 2), and 115 healthy controls (group 3) were assessed with respect to the CTLA-4 +49A/G polymorphism, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fra