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Sample records for high-density microarray phylochip

  1. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

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    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  2. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A cell spot microarray method for production of high density siRNA transfection microarrays

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    Mpindi John-Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput RNAi screening is widely applied in biological research, but remains expensive, infrastructure-intensive and conversion of many assays to HTS applications in microplate format is not feasible. Results Here, we describe the optimization of a miniaturized cell spot microarray (CSMA method, which facilitates utilization of the transfection microarray technique for disparate RNAi analyses. To promote rapid adaptation of the method, the concept has been tested with a panel of 92 adherent cell types, including primary human cells. We demonstrate the method in the systematic screening of 492 GPCR coding genes for impact on growth and survival of cultured human prostate cancer cells. Conclusions The CSMA method facilitates reproducible preparation of highly parallel cell microarrays for large-scale gene knockdown analyses. This will be critical towards expanding the cell based functional genetic screens to include more RNAi constructs, allow combinatorial RNAi analyses, multi-parametric phenotypic readouts or comparative analysis of many different cell types.

  4. Incorporation of gene-specific variability improves expression analysis using high-density DNA microarrays

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    Spitznagel Edward

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of data reproducibility is essential for application of microarray technology to exploration of biological pathways and disease states. Technical variability in data analysis largely depends on signal intensity. Within that context, the reproducibility of individual probe sets has not been hitherto addressed. Results We used an extraordinarily large replicate data set derived from human placental trophoblast to analyze probe-specific contribution to variability of gene expression. We found that signal variability, in addition to being signal-intensity dependant, is probe set-specific. Importantly, we developed a novel method to quantify the contribution of this probe set-specific variability. Furthermore, we devised a formula that incorporates a priori-computed, replicate-based information on probe set- and intensity-specific variability in determination of expression changes even without technical replicates. Conclusion The strategy of incorporating probe set-specific variability is superior to analysis based on arbitrary fold-change thresholds. We recommend its incorporation to any computation of gene expression changes using high-density DNA microarrays. A Java application implementing our T-score is available at http://www.sadovsky.wustl.edu/tscore.html.

  5. Genomotyping of Pseudomonas putida strains using P. putida KT2440-based high-density DNA microarrays: Implications for transcriptomics studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballerstedt, H.; Volkers, R.J.M.; Mars, A.E.; Hallsworth, J.E.; Santos, V.A.M.D.; Puchalka, J.; Duuren, J. van; Eggink, G.; Timmis, K.N.; Bont, J.A.M. de; Wery, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is the only fully sequenced P. putida strain. Thus, for transcriptomics and proteomics studies with other P. putida strains, the P. putida KT2440 genomic database serves as standard reference. The utility of KT2440 whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide microarrays for

  6. Fiber optic chemical sensors: The evolution of high- density fiber-optic DNA microarrays

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    Ferguson, Jane A.

    2001-06-01

    Sensors were developed for multianalyte monitoring, fermentation monitoring, lactate analysis, remote oxygen detection for use in bioremediation monitoring and in a fuel spill clean-up project, heavy metal analysis, and high density DNA microarrays. The major focus of this thesis involved creating and improving high-density DNA gene arrays. Fiber optic sensors are created using fluorescent indicators, polymeric supports, and optical fiber substrates. The fluorescent indicator is entrapped in a polymer layer and attached to the tip of the optical fiber. The tip of the fiber bearing the sensing layer (the distal end) is placed in the sample of interest while the other end of the fiber (the proximal end) is connected to an analysis system. Any length of fiber can be used without compromising the integrity or sensitivity of the system. A fiber optic oxygen sensor was designed incorporating an oxygen sensitive fluorescent dye and a gas permeable polymer attached to an optical fiber. The construction simplicity and ruggedness of the sensor enabled its deployment for in situ chemical oxidation and bioremediation studies. Optical fibers were also used as the substrate to detect biomolecules in solution. To monitor bioprocesses, the production of the analyte of interest must be coupled with a species that is optically measurable. For example, oxygen is consumed in many metabolic functions. The fiber optic oxygen sensor is equipped with an additional sensing layer. Upon contact with a specific biochemical in the sample, a reaction occurs in the additional sensing layer that either consumes or produces oxygen. This dual layer system was used to monitor the presence of lactate, an important metabolite for clinical and bioprocess analysis. In many biological and environmental systems, the generation of one species occurs coincidentally with the generation or consumption of another species. A multianalyte sensor was prepared that can monitor the simultaneous activity of pH, CO2

  7. Utility of the pooling approach as applied to whole genome association scans with high-density Affymetrix microarrays

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    Gray Joanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report an attempt to extend the previously successful approach of combining SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and DNA pooling (SNP-MaP employing high-density microarrays. Whereas earlier studies employed a range of Affymetrix SNP microarrays comprising from 10 K to 500 K SNPs, this most recent investigation used the 6.0 chip which displays 906,600 SNP probes and 946,000 probes for the interrogation of CNVs (copy number variations. The genotyping assay using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array is highly demanding on sample quality due to the small feature size, low redundancy, and lack of mismatch probes. Findings In the first study published so far using this microarray on pooled DNA, we found that pooled cheek swab DNA could not accurately predict real allele frequencies of the samples that comprised the pools. In contrast, the allele frequency estimates using blood DNA pools were reasonable, although inferior compared to those obtained with previously employed Affymetrix microarrays. However, it might be possible to improve performance by developing improved analysis methods. Conclusions Despite the decreasing costs of genome-wide individual genotyping, the pooling approach may have applications in very large-scale case-control association studies. In such cases, our study suggests that high-quality DNA preparations and lower density platforms should be preferred.

  8. Improving the scaling normalization for high-density oligonucleotide GeneChip expression microarrays

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    Lu Chao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normalization is an important step for microarray data analysis to minimize biological and technical variations. Choosing a suitable approach can be critical. The default method in GeneChip expression microarray uses a constant factor, the scaling factor (SF, for every gene on an array. The SF is obtained from a trimmed average signal of the array after excluding the 2% of the probe sets with the highest and the lowest values. Results Among the 76 U34A GeneChip experiments, the total signals on each array showed 25.8% variations in terms of the coefficient of variation, although all microarrays were hybridized with the same amount of biotin-labeled cRNA. The 2% of the probe sets with the highest signals that were normally excluded from SF calculation accounted for 34% to 54% of the total signals (40.7% ± 4.4%, mean ± sd. In comparison with normalization factors obtained from the median signal or from the mean of the log transformed signal, SF showed the greatest variation. The normalization factors obtained from log transformed signals showed least variation. Conclusions Eliminating 40% of the signal data during SF calculation failed to show any benefit. Normalization factors obtained with log transformed signals performed the best. Thus, it is suggested to use the mean of the logarithm transformed data for normalization, rather than the arithmetic mean of signals in GeneChip gene expression microarrays.

  9. A comprehensive hybridization model allows whole HERV transcriptome profiling using high density microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jérémie; Pérot, Philippe; Cheynet, Valérie; Oriol, Guy; Mugnier, Nathalie; Mommert, Marine; Tabone, Olivier; Textoris, Julien; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Mallet, François

    2017-04-08

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have received much attention for their implications in the etiology of many human diseases and their profound effect on evolution. Notably, recent studies have highlighted associations between HERVs expression and cancers (Yu et al., Int J Mol Med 32, 2013), autoimmunity (Balada et al., Int Rev Immunol 29:351-370, 2010) and neurological (Christensen, J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5:326-335, 2010) conditions. Their repetitive nature makes their study particularly challenging, where expression studies have largely focused on individual loci (De Parseval et al., J Virol 77:10414-10422, 2003) or general trends within families (Forsman et al., J Virol Methods 129:16-30, 2005; Seifarth et al., J Virol 79:341-352, 2005; Pichon et al., Nucleic Acids Res 34:e46, 2006). To refine our understanding of HERVs activity, we introduce here a new microarray, HERV-V3. This work was made possible by the careful detection and annotation of genomic HERV/MaLR sequences as well as the development of a new hybridization model, allowing the optimization of probe performances and the control of cross-reactions. RESULTS: HERV-V3 offers an almost complete coverage of HERVs and their ancestors (mammalian apparent LTR-retrotransposons, MaLRs) at the locus level along with four other repertoires (active LINE-1 elements, lncRNA, a selection of 1559 human genes and common infectious viruses). We demonstrate that HERV-V3 analytical performances are comparable with commercial Affymetrix arrays, and that for a selection of tissue/pathological specific loci, the patterns of expression measured on HERV-V3 is consistent with those reported in the literature. Given its large HERVs/MaLRs coverage and additional repertoires, HERV-V3 opens the door to multiple applications such as enhancers and alternative promoters identification, biomarkers identification as well as the characterization of genes and HERVs/MaLRs modulation caused by viral infection.

  10. The role of group index engineering in series-connected photonic crystal microcavities for high density sensor microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yi; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T.; Chakravarty, Swapnajit

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time

  11. Cross-recognition of a pit viper (Crotalinae) polyspecific antivenom explored through high-density peptide microarray epitope mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María

    2017-01-01

    Snakebite antivenom is a 120 years old invention based on polyclonal mixtures of antibodies purified from the blood of hyper-immunized animals. Knowledge on antibody recognition sites (epitopes) on snake venom proteins is limited, but may be used to provide molecular level explanations...... for antivenom cross-reactivity. In turn, this may help guide antivenom development by elucidating immunological biases in existing antivenoms. In this study, we have identified and characterized linear elements of B-cell epitopes from 870 pit viper venom protein sequences by employing a high......-throughput methodology based on custom designed high-density peptide microarrays. By combining data on antibody-peptide interactions with multiple sequence alignments of homologous toxin sequences and protein modelling, we have determined linear elements of antibody binding sites for snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs...

  12. The role of group index engineering in series-connected photonic crystal microcavities for high density sensor microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yi, E-mail: yzou@utexas.edu; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com [Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time.

  13. High-density rhesus macaque oligonucleotide microarray design using early-stage rhesus genome sequence information and human genome annotations

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    Magness Charles L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, few genomic reagents specific for non-human primate research have been available. To address this need, we have constructed a macaque-specific high-density oligonucleotide microarray by using highly fragmented low-pass sequence contigs from the rhesus genome project together with the detailed sequence and exon structure of the human genome. Using this method, we designed oligonucleotide probes to over 17,000 distinct rhesus/human gene orthologs and increased by four-fold the number of available genes relative to our first-generation expressed sequence tag (EST-derived array. Results We constructed a database containing 248,000 exon sequences from 23,000 human RefSeq genes and compared each human exon with its best matching sequence in the January 2005 version of the rhesus genome project list of 486,000 DNA contigs. Best matching rhesus exon sequences for each of the 23,000 human genes were then concatenated in the proper order and orientation to produce a rhesus "virtual transcriptome." Microarray probes were designed, one per gene, to the region closest to the 3' untranslated region (UTR of each rhesus virtual transcript. Each probe was compared to a composite rhesus/human transcript database to test for cross-hybridization potential yielding a final probe set representing 18,296 rhesus/human gene orthologs, including transcript variants, and over 17,000 distinct genes. We hybridized mRNA from rhesus brain and spleen to both the EST- and genome-derived microarrays. Besides four-fold greater gene coverage, the genome-derived array also showed greater mean signal intensities for genes present on both arrays. Genome-derived probes showed 99.4% identity when compared to 4,767 rhesus GenBank sequence tag site (STS sequences indicating that early stage low-pass versions of complex genomes are of sufficient quality to yield valuable functional genomic information when combined with finished genome information from

  14. Characterization of the effect of sample quality on high density oligonucleotide microarray data using progressively degraded rat liver RNA

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    Rosenzweig Barry A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interpretability of microarray data can be affected by sample quality. To systematically explore how RNA quality affects microarray assay performance, a set of rat liver RNA samples with a progressive change in RNA integrity was generated by thawing frozen tissue or by ex vivo incubation of fresh tissue over a time course. Results Incubation of tissue at 37°C for several hours had little effect on RNA integrity, but did induce changes in the transcript levels of stress response genes and immune cell markers. In contrast, thawing of tissue led to a rapid loss of RNA integrity. Probe sets identified as most sensitive to RNA degradation tended to be located more than 1000 nucleotides upstream of their transcription termini, similar to the positioning of control probe sets used to assess sample quality on Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays. Samples with RNA integrity numbers less than or equal to 7 showed a significant increase in false positives relative to undegraded liver RNA and a reduction in the detection of true positives among probe sets most sensitive to sample integrity for in silico modeled changes of 1.5-, 2-, and 4-fold. Conclusion Although moderate levels of RNA degradation are tolerated by microarrays with 3'-biased probe selection designs, in this study we identify a threshold beyond which decreased specificity and sensitivity can be observed that closely correlates with average target length. These results highlight the value of annotating microarray data with metrics that capture important aspects of sample quality.

  15. Supplementing High-Density SNP Microarrays for Additional Coverage of Disease-Related Genes: Addiction as a Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SacconePhD, Scott F [Washington University, St. Louis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Bierut, Laura J [Washington University, St. Louis; Kalivas, Peter J [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Lerman, Caryn [University of Pennsylvania; Saccone, Nancy L [Washington University, St. Louis; Uhl, George R [Johns Hopkins University; Li, Chuan-Yun [Peking University; Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Edenberg, Howard [Indiana University; Sherry, Steven [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Feolo, Michael [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Moyzis, Robert K [Johns Hopkins University; Rutter, Joni L [National Institute of Drug Abuse

    2009-01-01

    Commercial SNP microarrays now provide comprehensive and affordable coverage of the human genome. However, some diseases have biologically relevant genomic regions that may require additional coverage. Addiction, for example, is thought to be influenced by complex interactions among many relevant genes and pathways. We have assembled a list of 486 biologically relevant genes nominated by a panel of experts on addiction. We then added 424 genes that showed evidence of association with addiction phenotypes through mouse QTL mappings and gene co-expression analysis. We demonstrate that there are a substantial number of SNPs in these genes that are not well represented by commercial SNP platforms. We address this problem by introducing a publicly available SNP database for addiction. The database is annotated using numeric prioritization scores indicating the extent of biological relevance. The scores incorporate a number of factors such as SNP/gene functional properties (including synonymy and promoter regions), data from mouse systems genetics and measures of human/mouse evolutionary conservation. We then used HapMap genotyping data to determine if a SNP is tagged by a commercial microarray through linkage disequilibrium. This combination of biological prioritization scores and LD tagging annotation will enable addiction researchers to supplement commercial SNP microarrays to ensure comprehensive coverage of biologically relevant regions.

  16. A high-density transcript linkage map with 1,845 expressed genes positioned by microarray-based Single Feature Polymorphisms (SFP) in Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Technological advances are progressively increasing the application of genomics to a wider array of economically and ecologically important species. High-density maps enriched for transcribed genes facilitate the discovery of connections between genes and phenotypes. We report the construction of a high-density linkage map of expressed genes for the heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus using Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP) markers. Results SFP discovery and mapping was achieved using pseudo-testcross screening and selective mapping to simultaneously optimize linkage mapping and microarray costs. SFP genotyping was carried out by hybridizing complementary RNA prepared from 4.5 year-old trees xylem to an SFP array containing 103,000 25-mer oligonucleotide probes representing 20,726 unigenes derived from a modest size expressed sequence tags collection. An SFP-mapping microarray with 43,777 selected candidate SFP probes representing 15,698 genes was subsequently designed and used to genotype SFPs in a larger subset of the segregating population drawn by selective mapping. A total of 1,845 genes were mapped, with 884 of them ordered with high likelihood support on a framework map anchored to 180 microsatellites with average density of 1.2 cM. Using more probes per unigene increased by two-fold the likelihood of detecting segregating SFPs eventually resulting in more genes mapped. In silico validation showed that 87% of the SFPs map to the expected location on the 4.5X draft sequence of the Eucalyptus grandis genome. Conclusions The Eucalyptus 1,845 gene map is the most highly enriched map for transcriptional information for any forest tree species to date. It represents a major improvement on the number of genes previously positioned on Eucalyptus maps and provides an initial glimpse at the gene space for this global tree genome. A general protocol is proposed to build high-density transcript linkage maps in less characterized plant species by SFP genotyping

  17. Differential binding of calmodulin-related proteins to their targets revealed through high-density Arabidopsis protein microarrays

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    Popescu, Sorina C.; Popescu, George V.; Bachan, Shawn; Zhang, Zimei; Seay, Montrell; Gerstein, Mark; Snyder, Michael; Dinesh-Kumar, S. P.

    2007-01-01

    Calmodulins (CaMs) are the most ubiquitous calcium sensors in eukaryotes. A number of CaM-binding proteins have been identified through classical methods, and many proteins have been predicted to bind CaMs based on their structural homology with known targets. However, multicellular organisms typically contain many CaM-like (CML) proteins, and a global identification of their targets and specificity of interaction is lacking. In an effort to develop a platform for large-scale analysis of proteins in plants we have developed a protein microarray and used it to study the global analysis of CaM/CML interactions. An Arabidopsis thaliana expression collection containing 1,133 ORFs was generated and used to produce proteins with an optimized medium-throughput plant-based expression system. Protein microarrays were prepared and screened with several CaMs/CMLs. A large number of previously known and novel CaM/CML targets were identified, including transcription factors, receptor and intracellular protein kinases, F-box proteins, RNA-binding proteins, and proteins of unknown function. Multiple CaM/CML proteins bound many binding partners, but the majority of targets were specific to one or a few CaMs/CMLs indicating that different CaM family members function through different targets. Based on our analyses, the emergent CaM/CML interactome is more extensive than previously predicted. Our results suggest that calcium functions through distinct CaM/CML proteins to regulate a wide range of targets and cellular activities. PMID:17360592

  18. High-throughput immuno-profiling of mamba (Dendroaspis) venom toxin epitopes using high-density peptide microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a serious condition requiring medical attention and administration of antivenom. Current antivenoms are antibody preparations obtained from the plasma of animals immunised with whole venom(s) and contain antibodies against snake venom toxins, but also against other antigens....... In order to better understand the molecular interactions between antivenom antibodies and epitopes on snake venom toxins, a high-throughput immuno-profiling study on all manually curated toxins from Dendroaspis species and selected African Naja species was performed based on custom-made high......-density peptide microarrays displaying linear toxin fragments. By detection of binding for three different antivenoms and performing an alanine scan, linear elements of epitopes and the positions important for binding were identified. A strong tendency of antivenom antibodies recognizing and binding to epitopes...

  19. Gene expression analysis of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolski, Ilanit; de Luis, Alberto; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Monte, Enrique; Suárez, M Belén

    2009-10-13

    It has recently been shown that the Trichoderma fungal species used for biocontrol of plant diseases are capable of interacting with plant roots directly, behaving as symbiotic microorganisms. With a view to providing further information at transcriptomic level about the early response of Trichoderma to a host plant, we developed a high-density oligonucleotide (HDO) microarray encompassing 14,081 Expressed Sequence Tag (EST)-based transcripts from eight Trichoderma spp. and 9,121 genome-derived transcripts of T. reesei, and we have used this microarray to examine the gene expression of T. harzianum either alone or in the presence of tomato plants, chitin, or glucose. Global microarray analysis revealed 1,617 probe sets showing differential expression in T. harzianum mycelia under at least one of the culture conditions tested as compared with one another. Hierarchical clustering and heat map representation showed that the expression patterns obtained in glucose medium clustered separately from the expression patterns observed in the presence of tomato plants and chitin. Annotations using the Blast2GO suite identified 85 of the 257 transcripts whose probe sets afforded up-regulated expression in response to tomato plants. Some of these transcripts were predicted to encode proteins related to Trichoderma-host (fungus or plant) associations, such as Sm1/Elp1 protein, proteases P6281 and PRA1, enchochitinase CHIT42, or QID74 protein, although previously uncharacterized genes were also identified, including those responsible for the possible biosynthesis of nitric oxide, xenobiotic detoxification, mycelium development, or those related to the formation of infection structures in plant tissues. The effectiveness of the Trichoderma HDO microarray to detect different gene responses under different growth conditions in the fungus T. harzianum strongly indicates that this tool should be useful for further assays that include different stages of plant colonization, as well as

  20. A high-density Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT microarray for genome-wide genotyping in Eucalyptus

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    Myburg Alexander A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular marker technologies have allowed important advances in the understanding of the genetics and evolution of Eucalyptus, a genus that includes over 700 species, some of which are used worldwide in plantation forestry. Nevertheless, the average marker density achieved with current technologies remains at the level of a few hundred markers per population. Furthermore, the transferability of markers produced with most existing technology across species and pedigrees is usually very limited. High throughput, combined with wide genome coverage and high transferability are necessary to increase the resolution, speed and utility of molecular marker technology in eucalypts. We report the development of a high-density DArT genome profiling resource and demonstrate its potential for genome-wide diversity analysis and linkage mapping in several species of Eucalyptus. Findings After testing several genome complexity reduction methods we identified the PstI/TaqI method as the most effective for Eucalyptus and developed 18 genomic libraries from PstI/TaqI representations of 64 different Eucalyptus species. A total of 23,808 cloned DNA fragments were screened and 13,300 (56% were found to be polymorphic among 284 individuals. After a redundancy analysis, 6,528 markers were selected for the operational array and these were supplemented with 1,152 additional clones taken from a library made from the E. grandis tree whose genome has been sequenced. Performance validation for diversity studies revealed 4,752 polymorphic markers among 174 individuals. Additionally, 5,013 markers showed segregation when screened using six inter-specific mapping pedigrees, with an average of 2,211 polymorphic markers per pedigree and a minimum of 859 polymorphic markers that were shared between any two pedigrees. Conclusions This operational DArT array will deliver 1,000-2,000 polymorphic markers for linkage mapping in most eucalypt pedigrees

  1. Replicate high-density rat genome oligonucleotide microarrays reveal hundreds of regulated genes in the dorsal root ganglion after peripheral nerve injury.

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    Mannion James W

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rat oligonucleotide microarrays were used to detect changes in gene expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG 3 days following sciatic nerve transection (axotomy. Two comparisons were made using two sets of triplicate microarrays, naïve versus naïve and naïve versus axotomy. Results Microarray variability was assessed using the naïve versus naïve comparison. These results support use of a P 1.5-fold expression change and P 1.5-fold and P in situ hybridization verified the expression of 24 transcripts. These data showed an 83% concordance rate with the arrays; most mismatches represent genes with low expression levels reflecting limits of array sensitivity. A significant correlation was found between actual mRNA differences and relative changes between microarrays (r2 = 0.8567. Temporal patterns of individual genes regulation varied. Conclusions We identify parameters for microarray analysis which reduce error while identifying many putatively regulated genes. Functional classification of these genes suggest reorganization of cell structural components, activation of genes expressed by immune and inflammatory cells and down-regulation of genes involved in neurotransmission.

  2. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

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    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in

  3. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  4. The use of microarrays in microbial ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, G.L.; He, Z.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Zhou, J.

    2009-09-15

    Microarrays have proven to be a useful and high-throughput method to provide targeted DNA sequence information for up to many thousands of specific genetic regions in a single test. A microarray consists of multiple DNA oligonucleotide probes that, under high stringency conditions, hybridize only to specific complementary nucleic acid sequences (targets). A fluorescent signal indicates the presence and, in many cases, the abundance of genetic regions of interest. In this chapter we will look at how microarrays are used in microbial ecology, especially with the recent increase in microbial community DNA sequence data. Of particular interest to microbial ecologists, phylogenetic microarrays are used for the analysis of phylotypes in a community and functional gene arrays are used for the analysis of functional genes, and, by inference, phylotypes in environmental samples. A phylogenetic microarray that has been developed by the Andersen laboratory, the PhyloChip, will be discussed as an example of a microarray that targets the known diversity within the 16S rRNA gene to determine microbial community composition. Using multiple, confirmatory probes to increase the confidence of detection and a mismatch probe for every perfect match probe to minimize the effect of cross-hybridization by non-target regions, the PhyloChip is able to simultaneously identify any of thousands of taxa present in an environmental sample. The PhyloChip is shown to reveal greater diversity within a community than rRNA gene sequencing due to the placement of the entire gene product on the microarray compared with the analysis of up to thousands of individual molecules by traditional sequencing methods. A functional gene array that has been developed by the Zhou laboratory, the GeoChip, will be discussed as an example of a microarray that dynamically identifies functional activities of multiple members within a community. The recent version of GeoChip contains more than 24,000 50mer

  5. High density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  6. Photoionization and High Density Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, T.; Bautista, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present results of calculations using the XSTAR version 2 computer code. This code is loosely based on the XSTAR v.1 code which has been available for public use for some time. However it represents an improvement and update in several major respects, including atomic data, code structure, user interface, and improved physical description of ionization/excitation. In particular, it now is applicable to high density situations in which significant excited atomic level populations are likely to occur. We describe the computational techniques and assumptions, and present sample runs with particular emphasis on high density situations.

  7. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  8. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray...... of substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review covers the construction of carbohydrate microarrays, detection methods of carbohydrate microarrays and their applications in biological and biomedical research....

  9. 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic microarray for simultaneous identification of members of the genus Burkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönmann, Susan; Loy, Alexander; Wimmersberger, Céline; Sobek, Jens; Aquino, Catharine; Vandamme, Peter; Frey, Beat; Rehrauer, Hubert; Eberl, Leo

    2009-04-01

    For cultivation-independent and highly parallel analysis of members of the genus Burkholderia, an oligonucleotide microarray (phylochip) consisting of 131 hierarchically nested 16S rRNA gene-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed. A novel primer pair was designed for selective amplification of a 1.3 kb 16S rRNA gene fragment of Burkholderia species prior to microarray analysis. The diagnostic performance of the microarray for identification and differentiation of Burkholderia species was tested with 44 reference strains of the genera Burkholderia, Pandoraea, Ralstonia and Limnobacter. Hybridization patterns based on presence/absence of probe signals were interpreted semi-automatically using the novel likelihood-based strategy of the web-tool Phylo- Detect. Eighty-eight per cent of the reference strains were correctly identified at the species level. The evaluated microarray was applied to investigate shifts in the Burkholderia community structure in acidic forest soil upon addition of cadmium, a condition that selected for Burkholderia species. The microarray results were in agreement with those obtained from phylogenetic analysis of Burkholderia 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the same cadmiumcontaminated soil, demonstrating the value of the Burkholderia phylochip for determinative and environmental studies.

  10. Novel Protein Microarray Technology to Examine Men with Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lilja, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The authors developed a novel macro and nanoporous silicon surface for protein microarrays to facilitate high-throughput biomarker discovery, and high-density protein-chip array analyses of complex biological samples...

  11. High density harp for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.; Crist, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities

  12. High density harp for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, C.T.; Krogh, M.L.

    1993-05-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, and the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) are collaboratively developing a high density harp for the SSCL linac. This harp is designed using hybrid microcircuit (HMC) technology to obtain a higher wire density than previously available. The developed harp contains one hundred twenty-eight 33-micron-diameter carbon wires on 0.38-mm centers. The harp features an onboard broken wire detection circuit. Carbon wire preparation and attachment processes were developed. High density surface mount connectors were located. The status of high density harp development will be presented along with planned future activities

  13. High Density Digital Data Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

  14. Magnetization of High Density Hadronic Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, Constanca; da Providencia, João

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the magnetization of a high density relativistic fluid of elementary particles is studied. At very high densities, such as may be found in the interior of a neutron star, when the external magnetic field is gradually increased, the energy of the normal phase of the fluid...... in the particle fluid. For nuclear densities above 2 to 3 rho(0), where rho(0) is the equilibrium nuclear density, the resulting magnetic field turns out to be rather huge, of the order of 10(17) Gauss....

  15. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. High Density GEOSAT/GM Altimeter Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The high density Geosat/GM altimeter data south of 30 S have finally arrived. In addition, ERS-1 has completed more than 6 cycles of its 35-day repeat track. These...

  18. High density aseismic spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    After the reasons of the development of high density aseismic spent fuel racks by FRAMATOME and LEMER, a description is presented, as also the codes, standards and regulations used to design this FRAMATOME storage rack. Tests have been carried out concerning criticality, irradiation of Cadminox, corrosion of the cell, and the seismic behaviour

  19. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  20. Framatome offers new high density Cadminox racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Framatome have developed a new material called Cadminox for use in high density spent fuel storage racks. It is claimed that Cadminox will remain stable stable in pond storage when racks submerged in boronated water are irradiated by the spent fuel they contain. A brief description of the storage module is given, including the aseismic bearing device which minimises loads on pond walls, racks and fuel assemblies. (UK)

  1. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, ...... the so-called 2 flavor super-conducting phase to the ferromagnetic phase arises. The color-flavor-locked phase may be completely hidden by the FP....

  2. The car parking problem at high densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, E.; Bonadeo, H.

    1989-04-01

    The radial distribution functions of random 1-D systems of sequential hard rods have been studied in the range of very high densities. It is found that as the number of samples rejected before completion increases, anomalies in the pairwise distribution functions arise. These are discussed using analytical solutions for systems of three rods and numerical simulations with twelve rods. The probabilities of different spatial orderings with respect to the sequential order are examined.

  3. High density data recording for SSCL linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDeusen, A.L.; Crist, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and AlliedSignal Aerospace have collaboratively developed a high density data monitoring system for beam diagnostic activities. The 128 channel data system is based on a custom multi-channel high speed digitizer card for the VXI bus. The card is referred to as a Modular Input VXI (MIX) digitizer. Multiple MIX cards are used in the complete system to achieve the necessary high channel density requirements. Each MIX digitizer card also contains programmable signal conditioning, and enough local memory to complete an entire beam scan without assistance from the host processor

  4. Plasma Diagnostics in High Density Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalyov, S.; Monteiro, M. J. R.; Machida, M.; Kostryukov, A.; Besseler, E.; Biasotto, C.; Diniz, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir electric probes and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics were developed for applications in high density plasmas. These diagnostics were employed in two plasma sources: an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and an RF driven inductively coupled plasma (ICP) plasma. Langmuir probes were tested using a number of probing dimensions, probe tip materials, circuits for probe bias and filters. Then, the results were compared with the optical spectroscopy measurements. With these diagnostics, analyses of various plasma processes were performed in both reactors. For example, it has been shown that species like NH radicals generated in gas phase can have critical impact on films deposited by ECR plasmas. In the ICP source, plasmas in atomic and molecular gases were shown to have different spatial distributions, likely due to nonlocal electron heating. The low-to-high density transitions in the ICP plasma were also studied. The role of metastables is shown to be significant in Ar plasmas, in contrast to plasmas with additions of molecular gases

  5. Models for Experimental High Density Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Swoboda, Julia; Nowak, Katarzyna; Dziechciarz, Klaudia

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the effects of research on models of high density housing. The authors present urban projects for experimental high density housing estates. The design was based on research performed on 38 examples of similar housing in Poland that have been built after 2003. Some of the case studies show extreme density and that inspired the researchers to test individual virtual solutions that would answer the question: How far can we push the limits? The experimental housing projects show strengths and weaknesses of design driven only by such indexes as FAR (floor attenuation ratio - housing density) and DPH (dwellings per hectare). Although such projects are implemented, the authors believe that there are reasons for limits since high index values may be in contradiction to the optimum character of housing environment. Virtual models on virtual plots presented by the authors were oriented toward maximising the DPH index and DAI (dwellings area index) which is very often the main driver for developers. The authors also raise the question of sustainability of such solutions. The research was carried out in the URBAN model research group (Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architecture students. The models reflect architectural and urban regulations that are valid in Poland. Conclusions might be helpful for urban planners, urban designers, developers, architects and architecture students.

  6. Testing and Validation of High Density Resequencing Microarray for Broad Range Biothreat Agents Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-11

    concentration of the virus was expressed in plaque forming units (pfu). For synthetic DNA templates, the DNA concentration was used to calculate the...cells ATCC Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43985 (CDC EDL933) Nucleic acid ATCC Francisella tularensis SHU4 Nucleic acid AFIP Leptospira interrogans ATCC...2% on the nucleotide level and 0.6% on the protein level. Similar strain discrimination was obtained in case of Machupo virus strains Carvallo and

  7. Correlation test to assess low-level processing of high-density oligonucleotide microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jonas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently a number of competing techniques for low-level processing of oligonucleotide array data. The choice of technique has a profound effect on subsequent statistical analyses, but there is no method to assess whether a particular technique is appropriate for a specific data set, without reference to external data. Results We analyzed coregulation between genes in order to detect insufficient normalization between arrays, where coregulation is measured in terms of statistical correlation. In a large collection of genes, a random pair of genes should have on average zero correlation, hence allowing a correlation test. For all data sets that we evaluated, and the three most commonly used low-level processing procedures including MAS5, RMA and MBEI, the housekeeping-gene normalization failed the test. For a real clinical data set, RMA and MBEI showed significant correlation for absent genes. We also found that a second round of normalization on the probe set level improved normalization significantly throughout. Conclusion Previous evaluation of low-level processing in the literature has been limited to artificial spike-in and mixture data sets. In the absence of a known gold-standard, the correlation criterion allows us to assess the appropriateness of low-level processing of a specific data set and the success of normalization for subsets of genes.

  8. Nanotechnology for Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901

  9. Ground state of high-density matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, ED; Kolb, Edward W.; Lee, Kimyeong

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that if an upper bound to the false vacuum energy of the electroweak Higgs potential is satisfied, the true ground state of high-density matter is not nuclear matter, or even strange-quark matter, but rather a non-topological soliton where the electroweak symmetry is exact and the fermions are massless. This possibility is examined in the standard SU(3) sub C tensor product SU(2) sub L tensor product U(1) sub Y model. The bound to the false vacuum energy is satisfied only for a narrow range of the Higgs boson masses in the minimal electroweak model (within about 10 eV of its minimum allowed value of 6.6 GeV) and a somewhat wider range for electroweak models with a non-minimal Higgs sector.

  10. High Density Lipoprotein and it's Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Esin; Yilmaz, Necat; Aydin, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) levels do not predict functionality and composition of high-density lipoprotein(HDL). Traditionally, keeping levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) down and HDL-C up have been the goal of patients to prevent atherosclerosis that can lead to coronary vascular disease(CVD). People think about the HDL present in their cholesterol test, but not about its functional capability. Up to 65% of cardiovascular death cannot be prevented by putative LDL-C lowering agents. It well explains the strong interest in HDL increasing strategies. However, recent studies have questioned the good in using drugs to increase level of HDL. While raising HDL is a theoretically attractive target, the optimal approach remains uncertain. The attention has turned to the quality, rather than the quantity, of HDL-C. An alternative to elevations in HDL involves strategies to enhance HDL functionality. The situation poses an opportunity for clinical chemists to take the lead in the development and validation of such biomarkers. The best known function of HDL is the capacity to promote cellular cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells and deliver cholesterol to the liver for excretion, thereby playing a key role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The functions of HDL that have recently attracted attention include anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. High antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HDL are associated with protection from CVD.This review addresses the current state of knowledge regarding assays of HDL functions and their relationship to CVD. HDL as a therapeutic target is the new frontier with huge potential for positive public health implications.

  11. The Plasmodium falciparum Sexual Development Transcriptome: A Microarray Analysis using Ontology-Based Pattern Identification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Jason A; Fivelman, Quinton L; Blair, Peter L; de la Vega, Patricia; Le Roch, Karine G; Zhou, Yingyao; Carucci, Daniel J; Baker, David A; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2005-01-01

    ... a full-genome high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The interpretation of this transcriptional data was aided by applying a novel knowledge-based data-mining algorithm termed ontology-based pattern identification (OPI...

  12. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  13. High-density hybrid interconnect methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.; Zimmermann, L.; Moor, P.De; Hoof, C.Van

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The presentation gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hybrid integration and in particular the IMEC technological approaches that will be able to address future hybrid detector needs. The dense hybrid flip-chip integration of an array of detectors and its dedicated readout electronics can be achieved with a variety of solderbump techniques such as pure Indium or Indium alloys, Ph-In, Ni/PbSn, but also conducting polymers... Particularly for cooled applications or ultra-high density applications, Indium solderbump technology (electroplated or evaporated) is the method of choice. The state-of-the-art of solderbump technologies that are to a high degree independent of the underlying detector material will be presented and examples of interconnect densities between 5x1E4cm-2 and 1x1E6 cm-2 will be demonstrated. For several classes of detectors, flip-chip integration is not allowed since the detectors have to be illuminated from the top. This applies to image sensors for EUV applications such as GaN/AlGaN based detectors and to MEMS-based sensors. In such cases, the only viable interconnection method has to be through the (thinned) detector wafer followed by a solderbump-based integration. The approaches for dense and ultra-dense through-the-wafer interconnect 'vias' will be presented and wafer thinning approaches will be shown

  14. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  15. High-density oxidized porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Ahmed; Souifi, Abdelkader; Remaki, Boudjemaa; Halimaoui, Aomar; Bensahel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have studied oxidized porous silicon (OPS) properties using Fourier transform infraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy and capacitance–voltage C–V measurements. We report the first experimental determination of the optimum porosity allowing the elaboration of high-density OPS insulators. This is an important contribution to the research of thick integrated electrical insulators on porous silicon based on an optimized process ensuring dielectric quality (complete oxidation) and mechanical and chemical reliability (no residual pores or silicon crystallites). Through the measurement of the refractive indexes of the porous silicon (PS) layer before and after oxidation, one can determine the structural composition of the OPS material in silicon, air and silica. We have experimentally demonstrated that a porosity approaching 56% of the as-prepared PS layer is required to ensure a complete oxidation of PS without residual silicon crystallites and with minimum porosity. The effective dielectric constant values of OPS materials determined from capacitance–voltage C–V measurements are discussed and compared to FTIR results predictions. (paper)

  16. Microintaglio Printing for Soft Lithography-Based in Situ Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Biyani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in lithographic approaches to fabricating bio-microarrays have been extensively explored over the last two decades. However, the need for pattern flexibility, a high density, a high resolution, affordability and on-demand fabrication is promoting the development of unconventional routes for microarray fabrication. This review highlights the development and uses of a new molecular lithography approach, called “microintaglio printing technology”, for large-scale bio-microarray fabrication using a microreactor array (µRA-based chip consisting of uniformly-arranged, femtoliter-size µRA molds. In this method, a single-molecule-amplified DNA microarray pattern is self-assembled onto a µRA mold and subsequently converted into a messenger RNA or protein microarray pattern by simultaneously producing and transferring (immobilizing a messenger RNA or a protein from a µRA mold to a glass surface. Microintaglio printing allows the self-assembly and patterning of in situ-synthesized biomolecules into high-density (kilo-giga-density, ordered arrays on a chip surface with µm-order precision. This holistic aim, which is difficult to achieve using conventional printing and microarray approaches, is expected to revolutionize and reshape proteomics. This review is not written comprehensively, but rather substantively, highlighting the versatility of microintaglio printing for developing a prerequisite platform for microarray technology for the postgenomic era.

  17. Towards High-throughput Immunomics for Infectious Diseases: Use of Next-generation Peptide Microarrays for Rapid Discovery and Mapping of Antigenic Determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Carmona, Santiago; Nielsen, Morten; Schafer-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    , we developed a highly-multiplexed platform based on next-generation high-density peptide microarrays to map these specificities in Chagas Disease, an exemplar of a human infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. We designed a high-density peptide microarray containing more than...

  18. "Harshlighting" small blemishes on microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittkowski Knut M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microscopists are familiar with many blemishes that fluorescence images can have due to dust and debris, glass flaws, uneven distribution of fluids or surface coatings, etc. Microarray scans show similar artefacts, which affect the analysis, particularly when one tries to detect subtle changes. However, most blemishes are hard to find by the unaided eye, particularly in high-density oligonucleotide arrays (HDONAs. Results We present a method that harnesses the statistical power provided by having several HDONAs available, which are obtained under similar conditions except for the experimental factor. This method "harshlights" blemishes and renders them evident. We find empirically that about 25% of our chips are blemished, and we analyze the impact of masking them on screening for differentially expressed genes. Conclusion Experiments attempting to assess subtle expression changes should be carefully screened for blemishes on the chips. The proposed method provides investigators with a novel robust approach to improve the sensitivity of microarray analyses. By utilizing topological information to identify and mask blemishes prior to model based analyses, the method prevents artefacts from confounding the process of background correction, normalization, and summarization.

  19. Improved GAMMA 10 tandem mirror confinement in high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Minami, R.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Saosaki, S.; Takemura, Y.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in high density experiments after the last IAEA fusion energy conference in 2000 where we reported the production of the high density plasma through use of ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency and neutral beam injection in the anchor cells. However, the diamagnetic signal of the plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating was applied for the potential formation. Recently a high density plasma has been obtained without degradation of the diamagnetic signal and with much improved reproducibility than before. The high density plasma was attained through adjustment of the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions. The potential confinement of the plasma has been extensively studied. Dependences of the ion confinement time, ion-energy confinement time and plasma confining potential on plasma density were obtained for the first time in the high density region up to a density of 4x10 18 m -3 . (author)

  20. Fibre optic microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, David R

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial review describes how fibre optic microarrays can be used to create a variety of sensing and measurement systems. This review covers the basics of optical fibres and arrays, the different microarray architectures, and describes a multitude of applications. Such arrays enable multiplexed sensing for a variety of analytes including nucleic acids, vapours, and biomolecules. Polymer-coated fibre arrays can be used for measuring microscopic chemical phenomena, such as corrosion and localized release of biochemicals from cells. In addition, these microarrays can serve as a substrate for fundamental studies of single molecules and single cells. The review covers topics of interest to chemists, biologists, materials scientists, and engineers.

  1. Phenomenology of high density disruptions in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Bell, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of high density disruptions on TFTR, including a comparison of minor and major disruptions at high density, provide important new information regarding the nature of the disruption mechanism. Further, for the first time, an (m,n)=(1,1) 'cold bubble' precursor to high density disruptions has been experimentally observed in the electron temperature profile. The precursor to major disruptions resembles the 'vacuum bubble' model of disruptions first proposed by B.B. Kadomtsev and O.P. Pogutse (Sov. Phys. - JETP 38 (1974) 283). (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 25 refs, 3 figs

  2. DNA Microarray Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content DNA Microarray Technology Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  3. DNA Microarray Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WERNER-WASHBURNE, MARGARET; DAVIDSON, GEORGE S.

    2002-01-01

    Collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of New Mexico Biology Department resulted in the capability to train students in microarray techniques and the interpretation of data from microarray experiments. These studies provide for a better understanding of the role of stationary phase and the gene regulation involved in exit from stationary phase, which may eventually have important clinical implications. Importantly, this research trained numerous students and is the basis for three new Ph.D. projects

  4. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  5. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were assayed. ... Abiodun and Gwarzo: Association of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with haemolysis in sickle cell disease ... analyses were carried out to determine the correlation.

  6. High density UO2 powder preparation for HWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S. T.; Chang, I. S.; Choi, Y. D.; Cho, B. R.; Kwon, S. W.; Kim, B. H.; Moon, B. H.; Kim, S. D.; Phyu, K. M.; Lee, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the preparation of method high density UO 2 powder for HWR Fuel. Accordingly, it is necessary to character ize the AUC processed UO 2 powder and to search method for the preparation of high density UO 2 powder for HWR Fuel. Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can effect the producing of AUC processed UO 2 powder having sinterability. (Author)

  7. The high density effects in the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M.A.; Gay Ducati, M.B.; Ayala Filho, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    The high density effects in the Drell-Yan process (q q-bar → γ * →l + l - ) are investigated for pA collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. In particular, we use a set of nuclear parton distributions that describes the present nuclear eA and pA data in the DGLAP approach including the high density effects introduced in the perturbative Glauber-Mueller approach. (author)

  8. High-density-plasma diagnostics in magnetic-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lectures will begin by defining high density in the context of magnetic confinement fusion research and listing some alternative reactor concepts, ranging from n/sub e/ approx. 2 x 10 14 cm -3 to several orders of magnitude greater, that offer potential advantages over the main-line, n/sub e/ approx. 1 x 10 14 cm -3 , Tokamak reactor designs. The high density scalings of several major diagnostic techniques, some favorable and some disadvantageous, will be discussed. Special emphasis will be given to interferometric methods, both electronic and photographic, for which integral n/sub e/dl measurements and associated techniques are accessible with low wavelength lasers. Reactor relevant experience from higher density, smaller dimension devices exists. High density implies high β, which implies economies of scale. The specialized features of high β diagnostics will be discussed

  9. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  10. BCS Theory of Hadronic Matter at High Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providencia, Constanca

    2012-01-01

    The equilibrium between the so-called 2SC and CFL phases of strange quark matter at high densities is investigated in the framework of a simple schematic model of the NJL type. Equal densities are assumed for quarks u, d and s. The 2SC phase is here described by a color-flavor symmetric state, in...

  11. Antioxidant activity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HDL is a potent antioxidant in terms of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, ROS production and LDL oxidation. These may to some extent add to the antiatherogenic beyond reverse-cholesterol transport properties of HDL. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein; reverse cholesterol transport; apolipoprotein A1; antioxidant; in vitro.

  12. Morphodynamics of supercritical high-density turbidity currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, M.

    2012-01-01

    Seafloor and outcrop observations combined with numerical and physical experiments show that turbidity currents are likely 1) to be in a supercritical flow state and 2) to carry high sediment concentrations (being of high-density). The thesis starts with an experimental study of bedforms

  13. Fluorescent Fe K Emission from High Density Accretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel; Mendoza, Claudio; Garcia, Javier; Kallman, Timothy R.; Palmeri, Patrick; Deprince, Jerome; Quinet, Pascal

    2018-06-01

    Iron K-shell lines emitted by gas closely orbiting black holes are observed to be grossly broadened and skewed by Doppler effects and gravitational redshift. Accordingly, models for line profiles are widely used to measure the spin (i.e., the angular momentum) of astrophysical black holes. The accuracy of these spin estimates is called into question because fitting the data requires very high iron abundances, several times the solar value. Meanwhile, no plausible physical explanation has been proffered for why these black hole systems should be so iron rich. The most likely explanation for the super-solar iron abundances is a deficiency in the models, and the leading candidate cause is that current models are inapplicable at densities above 1018 cm-3. We study the effects of high densities on the atomic parameters and on the spectral models for iron ions. At high densities, Debye plasma can affect the effective atomic potential of the ions, leading to observable changes in energy levels and atomic rates with respect to the low density case. High densities also have the effec of lowering energy the atomic continuum and reducing the recombination rate coefficients. On the spectral modeling side, high densities drive level populations toward a Boltzman distribution and very large numbers of excited atomic levels, typically accounted for in theoretical spectral models, may contribute to the K-shell spectrum.

  14. Sputtered thin films for high density tape recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.T.

    This thesis describes the investigation of sputtered thin film media for high density tape recording. As discussed in Chapter 1, to meet the tremendous demand of data storage, the density of recording tape has to be increased continuously. For further increasing the bit density the key factors are:

  15. Ultra-stretchable Interconnects for high-density stretchable electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafqat, S.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Savov, A.; Joshi, S.; Dekker, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE) promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for

  16. Positron camera with high-density avalanche chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfrass, D.; Enghardt, W.; Fromm, W.D.; Wohlfarth, D.; Hennig, K.

    1988-01-01

    The results of an extensive investigation of the properties of high-density avalanche chambers (HIDAC) are presented. This study has been performed in order to optimize the layout of HIDAC detectors, since they are intended to be applied as position sensitive detectors for annihilation radiation in a positron emission tomograph being under construction. (author)

  17. Role of Lipids in Spheroidal High Density Lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorela, Timo; Catte, Andrea; Niemela, Perttu S.; Hall, Anette; Hyvonen, Marja T.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2010-01-01

    We study the structure and dynamics of spherical high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles through coarse-grained multi-microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We simulate both a lipid droplet without the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and the full HDL particle including two apoA-I molecules

  18. Role of lipids in spheroidal high density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorela, T.A.; Catte, A.; Niemelä, P.S.; Hall, A.; Hyvönen, M.T.; Marrink, S.J.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Vattulainen, I.

    2010-01-01

    We study the structure and dynamics of spherical high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles through coarse-grained multi-microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We simulate both a lipid droplet without the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and the full HDL particle including two apoA-I molecules

  19. Interfacial stick–slip transition in hydroxyapatite filled high density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    flow curves of composites and that of unfilled system remain identical. Filler addition lowers the .... Injection moulding grade high density polyethylene,. HD6070EA, was ... rheometer (Rosand Precision Ltd., UK) using version. 6⋅10 software. .... Bagley E B, Cabbot I M and West D C 1958 J. Appl. Phys. 29. 109. Blyler L L and ...

  20. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous magnet...

  1. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  2. Assessment of centrifugation using for accelerated immunological microarray analysis for blood cells investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shishkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase of incubation microarray with cell suspension is prolonged when cells are investigated. It takes from 20 to 60 min if cell sedimentation on the surface of microarray is the result of gravity . Decrease of this stage duration is possible due to centrifugation. In th is article influence of centrifugation on results of analysis is considered. Changes of morphological description of cells are estimated when they a re precipitatedwith different acceleration. Also availability of centrifugation using when it is necessary to obtain the high density of cell binding in test regions of microarray if cells concentration in sample is small is demonstrated.

  3. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.

    2005-01-01

    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  4. High-density peptide microarray exploration of the antibody response in a rabbit immunized with a neurotoxic venom fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engmark, Mikael; Jespersen, Martin Closter; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Polyvalent snakebite antivenoms derive their therapeutic success from the ability of their antibodies to neutralize venom toxins across multiple snake species. This ability results from a production process involving immunization of large mammals with a broad suite of toxins present in venoms...

  5. High density data storage principle, technology, and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Daoben

    2009-01-01

    The explosive increase in information and the miniaturization of electronic devices demand new recording technologies and materials that combine high density, fast response, long retention time and rewriting capability. As predicted, the current silicon-based computer circuits are reaching their physical limits. Further miniaturization of the electronic components and increase in data storage density are vital for the next generation of IT equipment such as ultra high-speed mobile computing, communication devices and sophisticated sensors. This original book presents a comprehensive introduction to the significant research achievements on high-density data storage from the aspects of recording mechanisms, materials and fabrication technologies, which are promising for overcoming the physical limits of current data storage systems. The book serves as an useful guide for the development of optimized materials, technologies and device structures for future information storage, and will lead readers to the fascin...

  6. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benettoni, M; Checchia, P; Cossutta, L; Furlan, M; Gonella, F; Pegoraro, M; Garola, A Rigoni; Ronchese, P; Vanini, S; Viesti, G; Bettella, G; Bonomi, G; Donzella, A; Subieta, M; Zenoni, A; Calvagno, G; Cortelazzo, G; Zanuttigh, P; Calvini, P; Squarcia, S

    2013-01-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented

  7. Operation and control of high density tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenberger, S.E.; McAlees, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The incentive for high density operation of a tokamak reactor is discussed. The plasma size required to attain ignition is determined. Ignition is found to be possible in a relatively small system provided other design criteria are met. These criteria are described and the technology developments and operating procedures required by them are outlined. The parameters for such a system and its dynamic behavior during the operating cycle are also discussed

  8. Volume generation of negative ions in high density hydrogen discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.; Karo, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric survey is made of a high-density tandem two-chamber hydrogen negative ion system. The optimum extracted negative ion current densities are sensitive to the atom concentration in the discharge and to the system scale length. For scale lengths ranging from 10 cm to 0.1 cm optimum current densities range from of order 1 to 100 mA cm -2 , respectively

  9. Apparatus and method for generating high density pulses of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Oettinger, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for the production of high density pulses of electrons using a laser energized emitter. Caesium atoms from a low pressure vapour atmosphere are absorbed on and migrate from a metallic target rapidly heated by a laser to a high temperature. Due to this heating time being short compared with the residence time of the caesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface, copious electrons are emitted which form a high current density pulse. (U.K.)

  10. Relativistic many-body theory of high density matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    A fully relativistic quantum many-body theory is applied to the study of high-density matter. The latter is identified with the zero-temperature ground state of a system of interacting baryons. In accordance with the observed short-range repulsive and long-range attractive character of the nucleon--nucleon force, baryons are described as interacting with each other via a massive scalar and a massive vector meson exchange. In the Hartree approximation, the theory yields the same result as the mean-field theory, but with additional vacuum fluctuation corrections. The resultant equation of state for neutron matter is used to determine properties of neutron stars. The relativistic exchange energy, its corresponding single-particle excitation spectrum, and its effect on the neutron matter equation of state, are calculated. The correlation energy from summing the set of ring diagrams is derived directly from the energy-momentum tensor, with renormalization carried out by adding counterterms to the original Lagrangian and subtracting purely vacuum expectation values. Terms of order g 4 lng 2 are explicitly given. Effects of scalar-vector mixing are discussed. Collective modes corresponding to macroscopic density fluctuation are investigated. Two basic modes are found, a plasma-like mode and zero sound, with the latter dominant at high density. The stability and damping of these modes are studied. Last, the effect of vacuum polarization in high-density matter is examined

  11. Operation and control of high density tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenberger, S.E.; McAlees, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The incentive for high density operation of a tokamak reactor was discussed. It is found that high density permits ignition in a relatively small, moderately elongated plasma with a moderate magnetic field strength. Under these conditions, neutron wall loadings approximately 4 MW/m 2 must be tolerated. The sensitivity analysis with respect to impurity effects shows that impurity control will most likely be necessary to achieve the desired plasma conditions. The charge exchange sputtered impurities are found to have an important effect so that maintaining a low neutral density in the plasma is critical. If it is assumed that neutral beams will be used to heat the plasma to ignition, high energy injection is required (approximately 250 keV) when heating is accompished at full density. A scenario is outlined where the ignition temperature is established at low density and then the fueling rate is increased to attain ignition. This approach may permit beams with energies being developed for use in TFTR to be successfully used to heat a high density device of the type described here to ignition

  12. Evaporation of carbon using electrons of a high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.; Camps, E.; Escobar A, L.; Garcia E, J.L.; Olea, O.

    1999-01-01

    The high density plasmas are used frequently in the preparation of thin films or surface modification, for example to nitridation. In these processes, are used mainly the ions and the neutrals which compose the plasma. However, the electrons present in the plasma are not used, except in the case of chemical reactions induced by collisions, although the electron bombardment usually get hot the work piece. Through the adequate polarization of a conductor material, it is possible to extract electrons from a high density plasma at low pressure, that could be gotten the evaporation of this material. As result of the interaction between the plasma and the electron flux with the vapor produced, this last will be ionized. In this work, it is reported the use of this novelty arrangement to prepare carbon thin films using a high density argon plasma and a high purity graphite bar as material to evaporate. It has been used substrates outside plasma and immersed in the plasma. Also it has been reported the plasma characteristics (temperature and electron density, energy and ions flux), parameters of the deposit process (deposit rate and ion/neutral rate) as well as the properties of the films obtained (IR absorption spectra and UV/Vis, elemental analysis, hardness and refractive index. (Author)

  13. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  14. Microarray Analysis of Late Response to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, M.T.; Yilmaz, R.; Eyidogan, F.; Graaff, de L.H.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays, being high-density and high-throughput, allow quantitative analyses of thousands of genes and their expression patterns in parallel. In this study, Barley1 GereChip was used to investigate transcriptome changes associated with boron (B) toxicity in a sensitive barley cultivar

  15. Seasonal dynamics of freshwater pathogens as measured by microarray at Lake Sapanca, a drinking water source in the north-eastern part of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçaalan, Reyhan; Albay, Meric; Koker, Latife; Baudart, Julia; Guillebault, Delphine; Fischer, Sabine; Weigel, Wilfried; Medlin, Linda K

    2017-12-22

    Monitoring drinking water quality is an important public health issue. Two objectives from the 4 years, six nations, EU Project μAqua were to develop hierarchically specific probes to detect and quantify pathogens in drinking water using a PCR-free microarray platform and to design a standardised water sampling program from different sources in Europe to obtain sufficient material for downstream analysis. Our phylochip contains barcodes (probes) that specifically identify freshwater pathogens that are human health risks in a taxonomic hierarchical fashion such that if species is present, the entire taxonomic hierarchy (genus, family, order, phylum, kingdom) leading to it must also be present, which avoids false positives. Molecular tools are more rapid, accurate and reliable than traditional methods, which means faster mitigation strategies with less harm to humans and the community. We present microarray results for the presence of freshwater pathogens from a Turkish lake used drinking water and inferred cyanobacterial cell equivalents from samples concentrated from 40 into 1 L in 45 min using hollow fibre filters. In two companion studies from the same samples, cyanobacterial toxins were analysed using chemical methods and those dates with highest toxin values also had highest cell equivalents as inferred from this microarray study.

  16. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta', N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S

    2010-01-01

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10 5 ) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10 1 Hz to 10 6 Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl 2 /Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl 2 /Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl 2 /Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  17. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta' , N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S [STMicroelectronics, Industial and Multi-segment Sector R and D, Catania (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10{sup 5}) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10{sup 1} Hz to 10{sup 6} Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl{sub 2}/Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  18. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839

  19. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  20. Optically Addressed Nanostructures for High Density Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-14

    beam to sub-wavelength resolutions. X. Refereed Journal Publications I. M. D. Stenner , D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a...profiles for high-density optical data storage," Optics Communications, Vol.253, pp.56-69, 2005. 5. M. D. Stenner , D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "Fast...causal information transmission in a medium with a slow group velocity," Physical Review Letters, Vol.94, February 2005. 6. M. D. Stenner , M. A

  1. Viscosity and attenuation of sound wave in high density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1985-01-01

    The penetration of low frequency sound wave into the fuel deuterium is discussed as for laser fusion. The sound velocity and the attenuation constant due to viscosity are calculated for high density (n = 10 24 -- 10 27 cm -3 , T = 10 -1 -- 10 4 eV) deuterium. The shear viscosity of free electron gas and the bulk viscosity due to ion-ion interaction mainly contribute to the attenuation of sound wave. The sound wave of the frequency below 10 10 Hz can easily penetrate through the compressed fuel deuterium of diameter 1 -- 10 3 μm. (author)

  2. Low-frequency oscillations at high density in JFT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masaki; Katagiri, Masaki; Suzuki, Norio; Fujisawa, Noboru

    1977-12-01

    Low-frequency oscillations in a plasma were measured with magnetic probes and Si surface-barrier detectors, and behaviour of the high density plasmas was studied. The plasma current profile in the phase of decreasing density after the interruption of gas input is more peaked than during gas input. The introduction of hydrogen during a discharge results in a reduction of the impurities flux. The increase of density by fast gas input is limited with a negative voltage spike. Immediately before a negative voltage spike, oscillations of m=1,2 grow, leading to the spike. (auth.)

  3. Possible new form of matter at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1974-01-01

    As a preliminary to discussion of the possibility of new forms of matter at high density, questions relating to the vacuum and vacuum excitation are considered. A quasi-classical approach to the development of abnormal nuclear states is undertaken using a Fermi gas of nucleons of uniform density. Discontinuous transitions are considered in the sigma model (tree approximation) followed by brief consideration of higher order loop diagrams. Production and detection of abnormal nuclear states are discussed in the context of high energy heavy ion collisions. Remarks are made on motivation for such research. 8 figures

  4. Characterization of composite high density polyethylene and layered zirconium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, Adan S.; Silva, Daniela F.; Mendes, Luis C.

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) (2 w%), synthesized by direct precipitation method, was used in the preparation of composite with high density polyethylene (HDPE), through extrusion processing in the molten state. Wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), stress-strain mechanical analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for ZrP, neat polymer and composite mechanical and morphologic characterization. Although there was a slight increase in the Young modulus, WAXD and SEM analysis showed that the intercalation of the HDPE matrix in the filler galleries did not occur, probably due to the insufficient lamellae spacing to intercalate the polymer chains. Then, a microcomposite was achieved. (author)

  5. Structure of high-density amorphous ice under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Loveday, J.S.; Nelmes, R.J.; Guthrie, M.; Soper, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    We report in situ neutron diffraction studies of high-density amorphous ice (HDA) at 100 K at pressures up to 2.2 GPa. We find that the compression is achieved by a strong contraction (∼20%) of the second neighbor coordination shell, so that at 2.2 GPa it closely approaches the first coordination shell, which itself remains intact in both structure and size. The hydrogen bond orientations suggest an absence of hydrogen bonding between first and second shells and that HDA has increasingly interpenetrating hydrogen bond networks under pressure

  6. Behavior of high-density spent-fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-08-01

    Included in this report is a summary of information on neutron-absorbing materials such as B 4 C in an aluminum matrix or organic binder material, stainless steel-boron and aluminum-boron alloys, and stainless steetl-clad cadmium that are used in high-density spent fuel storage racks. A list of the types of neutron-absorbing materials being used in spent fuel storage racks at domestic commercial plants is provided. Recent cases at several domestic plants where swelling of rack side plates (where the B 4 C in an aluminum matrix and B 4 C in an organic binder material were located) occurred are reviewed

  7. Enhancing DNA binding rate using optical trapping of high-density gold nanodisks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, En-Hung; Pan, Ming-Yang; Lee, Ming-Chang; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2014-01-01

    We present the dynamic study of optical trapping of fluorescent molecules using high-density gold nanodisk arrays. The gold nanodisks were fabricated by electron beam lithography with a diameter of 500 nm and a period of 1 μm. Dark-field illumination showed ∼15 times enhancement of fluorescence near edges of nanodisks. Such enhanced near-field generated an optical trapping force of ∼10 fN under 3.58 × 10 3 W/m 2 illumination intensity as calculated from the Brownian motions of 590 nm polystyrene beads. Kinetic observation of thiolated DNA modified with Cy5 dye showed different binding rates of DNA under different illumination intensity. The binding rate increased from 2.14 × 10 3 s −1 (I = 0.7 × 10 3 W/m 2 ) to 1.15 × 10 5 s −1 (I = 3.58 × 10 3 W/m 2 ). Both enhanced fluorescence and binding rate indicate that gold nanodisks efficiently improve both detection limit and interaction time for microarrays

  8. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Du

    Full Text Available Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  9. Mixing of high density solution in vertical upward flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Hosogi, Nobuyoshi; Komada, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiki

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies have been performed in order to provide fundamental data and a numerical calculation model on the mixing of boric acid solution, injected from the standby liquid control system (SLCS), under a low natural circulation flow during an ATWS in a BWR. First, fundamental experiments on the mixing of high-density solution in vertically-upward water flow have been performed by using a small apparatus. Mixing patterns observed in the experiments have been classified to two groups, i.e. complete mixing (entrainment) and incomplete mixing (entrainment). In the complete mixing, the injected high-density solution is mixed (entrained) completely into the vertically-upward water flow. From the experiments, the minimum water flow rates in which the complete mixing (entrainment) is achieved have been obtained for various solution densities and solution injection rates. Secondly, two-dimensional numerical calculations have been performed. A continuity equation for total fluid, momentum equations in two directions and a continuity equation for solute are solved by using the finite difference method for discretization method and by following the MAC method for solution procedure. The calculations have predicted nearly the minimum water flow rate in which the complete mixing is achieved, while the calculations have been performed only for one combination of the solution density and solution injection rate until now. (author)

  10. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  11. Manufacture of sintered bricks of high density from beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointud, R.; Rispal, Ch.; Le Garec, M.

    1959-01-01

    Beryllium oxide bricks of nuclear purity 100 x 100 x 50 and 100 x 100 x 100 mm of very high density (between 2.85 and 3.00) are manufactured by sintering under pressure in graphite moulds at temperatures between 1,750 and 1,850 deg. C, and under a pressure of 150 kg/cm 2 . The physico-chemical state of the saw material is of considerable importance with regard to the success of the sintering operation. In addition, a study of the sintering of a BeO mixture with 3 to 5 per cent of boron introduced in the form of boric acid, boron carbide or elementary boron shows that high densities can only be obtained by sintering under pressure. For technical reasons of manufacture, only the mixture based on boron carbide is used. The sintering is carried out in graphite moulds at 1500 deg. C under 150 kg/cm 2 pressure, and bricks can be obtained with density between 2,85 and 2,90. Laboratory studies and the industrial manufacture of various sinters are described in detail. (author) [fr

  12. Development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.; Totev, T.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities at Argonne National Laboratory have been involved in development of LEU dispersion fuel for research and test reactors from the beginning of RERTR program. This paper presents development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication for full size plate type fuel elements. A brief description of Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities where development of the technology was carried out is given. A flow diagram of the manufacturing process is presented. U-Mo powder was manufactured by the rotating electrode process. The atomization produced a U-Mo alloy powder with a relatively uniform size distribution and a nearly spherical shape. Test plates were fabricated using tungsten and depleted U-7 wt.% Mo alloy, 4043 Al and Al-2 wt% Si matrices with Al 6061 aluminum alloy for the cladding. During the development of the technology of manufacturing of full size high density LEU dispersion fuel plates special attention was paid to meet the required homogeneity, bonding, dimensions, fuel out of zone and other mechanical characteristics of the plates.

  13. A Customized DNA Microarray for Microbial Source Tracking ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is estimated that more than 160, 000 miles of rivers and streams in the United States are impaired due to the presence of waterborne pathogens. These pathogens typically originate from human and other animal fecal pollution sources; therefore, a rapid microbial source tracking (MST) method is needed to facilitate water quality assessment and impaired water remediation. We report a novel qualitative DNA microarray technology consisting of 453 probes for the detection of general fecal and host-associated bacteria, viruses, antibiotic resistance, and other environmentally relevant genetic indicators. A novel data normalization and reduction approach is also presented to help alleviate false positives often associated with high-density microarray applications. To evaluate the performance of the approach, DNA and cDNA was isolated from swine, cattle, duck, goose and gull fecal reference samples, as well as soiled poultry liter and raw municipal sewage. Based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of results, findings suggest that the novel microarray approach may be useful for pathogen detection and identification of fecal contamination in recreational waters. The ability to simultaneously detect a large collection of environmentally important genetic indicators in a single test has the potential to provide water quality managers with a wide range of information in a short period of time. Future research is warranted to measure microarray performance i

  14. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  15. A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.

  16. Automatic Calibration of High Density Electric Muscle Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Jarrod; Strohmeier, Paul; Boring, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    . (2) EMS requires time consuming, expert calibration -- confining these interaction techniques to the lab. EMS arrays have been shown to increase stimulation resolution, but as calibration complexity increases exponentially as more electrodes are used, we require heuristics or automated procedures......Electric muscle stimulation (EMS) can enable mobile force feedback, support pedestrian navigation, or confer object affordances. To date, however, EMS is limited by two interlinked problems. (1) EMS is low resolution -- achieving only coarse movements and constraining opportunities for exploration...... for successful calibration. We explore the feasibility of using electromyography (EMG) to auto-calibrate high density EMS arrays. We determine regions of muscle activity during human-performed gestures, to inform stimulation patterns for EMS-performed gestures. We report on a study which shows that auto...

  17. A high-density lipoprotein-mediated drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhong-Cheng; Ren, Kun; Liu, Xing; Tang, Zhen-Li; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2016-11-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a comparatively dense and small lipoprotein that can carry lipids as a multifunctional aggregate in plasma. Several studies have shown that increasing the levels or improving the functionality of HDL is a promising target for treating a wide variety of diseases. Among lipoproteins, HDL particles possess unique physicochemical properties, including naturally synthesized physiological components, amphipathic apolipoproteins, lipid-loading and hydrophobic agent-incorporating characteristics, specific protein-protein interactions, heterogeneity, nanoparticles, and smaller size. Recently, the feasibility and superiority of using HDL particles as drug delivery vehicles have been of great interest. In this review, we summarize the structure, constituents, biogenesis, remodeling, and reconstitution of HDL drug delivery systems, focusing on their delivery capability, characteristics, applications, manufacturing, and drug-loading and drug-targeting characteristics. Finally, the future prospects are presented regarding the clinical application and challenges of using HDL as a pharmacodelivery carrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.

    2016-01-07

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  19. High-Density Lipoproteins and the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidesuke Kaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL plays a major role in vasodilation and in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, inflammation, apoptosis, thrombosis, and infection; however, HDL is now less functional in these roles under certain conditions. This paper focuses on HDL, its anti-inflammation behavior, and the mechanisms by which HDL interacts with components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS and proteomic studies have elucidated important molecules involved in the interaction between HDL and the immune system. An understanding of these mechanisms is expected to be useful for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation due to metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, or various autoimmune diseases.

  20. Reaction of unirradiated high-density fuel with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Meyer, M.K.; Prokofiev, I.G.; Keiser, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    Excellent dispersion fuel performance requires that fuel particles remain stable and do not react significantly with the surrounding aluminum matrix. A series of high-density fuels, which contain uranium densities >12 g/cm 3 , have been fabricated into plates. As part of standard processing, all of these fuels were subjected to a blister anneal of 1 h at 485 deg. C. Changes in plate thickness were measured and evaluated. From these results, suppositions about the probable irradiation properties of these fuels have been proposed. In addition, two fuels, U-10 wt% Mo and U 2 Mo, were subjected to various heat treatments and were found to be very stable in an aluminum matrix. On the basis of the experimental data, hypotheses of the irradiation behavior of these fuels are presented. (author)

  1. High-current discharge channel contraction in high density gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutberg, Ph. G.; Bogomaz, A. A.; Pinchuk, M. E.; Budin, A. V.; Leks, A. G.; Pozubenkov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Research results for discharges at current amplitudes of 0.5-1.6 MA and current rise rate of ∼10 10 A/s are presented. The discharge is performed in the hydrogen environment at the initial pressure of 5-35 MPa. Initiation is implemented by a wire explosion. The time length of the first half-period of the discharge current is 70-150 μs. Under such conditions, discharge channel contraction is observed; the contraction is followed by soft x-ray radiation. The phenomena are discussed, which are determined by high density of the gas surrounding the discharge channel. These phenomena are increase of the current critical value, where the channel contraction begins and growth of temperature in the axis region of the channel, where the initial density of the gas increases.

  2. Diquark Bose Condensates in High Density Matter and Instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.; Shuryak, E.; Schaefer, T.; Velkovsky, M.

    1998-01-01

    Instantons lead to strong correlations between up and down quarks with spin zero and antisymmetric color wave functions. In cold and dense matter, n b >n c ≅1 fm -3 and T c ∼50 thinspthinspMeV, these pairs Bose condense, replacing the usual left-angle bar qq right-angle condensate and restoring chiral symmetry. At high density, the ground state is a color superconductor in which diquarks play the role of Cooper pairs. An interesting toy model is provided by QCD with two colors: it has a particle-antiparticle symmetry which relates left-angle bar qq right-angle and left-angle qq right-angle condensates. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  3. High-Density Near-Field Optical Disc Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Ide, Naoki; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2005-05-01

    We developed a high-density near-field optical recording disc system using a solid immersion lens. The near-field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with a numerical aperture of 1.84. The laser wavelength for recording is 405 nm. In order to realize the near-field optical recording disc, we used a phase-change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. A clear eye pattern of 112 GB capacity with 160 nm track pitch and 50 nm bit length was observed. The equivalent areal density is 80.6 Gbit/in2. The bottom bit error rate of 3 tracks-write was 4.5× 10-5. The readout power margin and the recording power margin were ± 30.4% and ± 11.2%, respectively.

  4. EVALUATION OF SOME PLUM CULTIVARS IN A HIGH DENSITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Butac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three plum cultivars bred in Romania (‘Carpatin’, ‘Centenar’ and ‘Tita’ were tested together with several standards (‘Cacanska Rodna’ and ‘Stanley’ in a high density experimental orchard established at Pitesti - Maracineni in the spring of 2009, with spacing 4 x 2.25 m. Trees were trained as spindles, grafted on ‘Saint Julian’ rootstock. In the orchard the following characteristics were evaluated: tree vigour based upon measuring of trunk-diameter, yields in kg/tree, time of fruit ripening and basic parameters of fruit quality. All Romanian varieties were characterized by earliness and large fruit, but production was relatively small. Instead, foreign varieties were characterized by high productivity in the 4th year after planting.

  5. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  6. The stability of the High-Density Z-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Nebel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-initiated High Density Z-Pinches at Los Alamos, NRL, and Karlsruhe have shown anomalously good stability. Kink modes are never seen, and sausage modes are at least delayed until late in the discharge. The success of these devices in reaching fusion conditions may depend on maintaining and understanding this anomalous stability. We have developed two numerical methods to study the stability in the regime where fluid theory is valid. While our methods are applicable to all modes, we will describe them only for the m = 0 sausage mode. The appearance of sausage modes late in the discharge and the total absence of kink modes suggest that an understanding of sausage modes is more urgent, and it is also simpler. 14 refs., 8 figs

  7. The stability of the high-density z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Nebel, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-initiated High Density Z-Pinches at Los Alamos, NRL, and Karlsruhe have shown anomalously good stability. Kink modes are never seen, and sausage modes are at least delayed until late in the discharge. The success of these devices in reaching fusion conditions may depend on maintaining and understanding this anomalous stability. We have developed two numerical methods to study the stability in the regime where fluid theory is valid. While our methods are applicable to all modes, we will describe them only for the m=0 sausage mode. The appearance of sausage modes late in the discharge and the total absence of kink modes suggest that an understanding of sausage modes is more urgent, and it is also simpler

  8. Corrosion of high-density sintered tungsten alloys. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, J.J.; Moore, B.T.

    1988-12-01

    The behaviour of four high-density sintered tungsten alloys has been evluated and compared with that of pure tungsten. Rates of corrosion during the cyclic humidity and the salt mist tests were ascertained from weight loss measurements. Insight into the corrosion mechanism was gained from the nature of the corrosion products and an examination of the corroded surfaces. In the tests, the alloy 95% W, 2.5% Ni, 1.5% Fe was the most corrosion resistant. The data showed that copper as an alloying element accelerates corrosion of tungsten alloys. Both attack on the tungsten particles and the binder phase were observed together with tungsten grain loss. 6 refs., 3 tabs.,

  9. High density high-TC ceramic superconductors by hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, S.; Chaklader, A.C.D.

    1989-01-01

    High density and high T C superconductor specimens, YBa 2 Cu 3 O x , have been produced by hot-pressing. The factors studied are the effect of hot pressing on the density, the oxygen stoichiometry, the crystal structure, and the critical temperature. Hot pressing followed by heat treatment increased the density of the specimen to 93%. The hot pressing itself did not significantly affect the oxygen content in the specimen, and although the crystal structure appeared to be orthorhombic, the specimens were not superconducting above liquid nitrogen temperature. The superconductivity was restored after head treatment in oxygen. The highest critical temperature (T C ) of the hot pressed pellets was 82K, which was slightly lower than the T C that could be obtained with the cold pressed/sintered pellets. (6 refs., 5 figs., tab.)

  10. Evaluation of the radiation resistance of high-density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.; Barletta, R.R.

    1984-03-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma irradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to provide data to help assess the adequacy of this material for use in high integrity containers (HICs). Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend tests on these materials following irradiation are presented along with results on creep during irradiation. 8 references, 9 figures, 2 tables

  11. The Pulsed High Density Experiment (PHDX) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slough, John P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Andreason, Samuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-27

    The purpose of this paper is to present the conclusions that can be drawn from the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) formation experiments conducted on the Pulsed High Density experiment (PHD) at the University of Washington. The experiment is ongoing. The experimental goal for this first stage of PHD was to generate a stable, high flux (>10 mWb), high energy (>10 KJ) target FRC. Such results would be adequate as a starting point for several later experiments. This work focuses on experimental implementation and the results of the first four month run. Difficulties were encountered due to the initial on-axis plasma ionization source. Flux trapping with this ionization source acting alone was insufficient to accomplish experimental objectives. Additional ionization methods were utilized to overcome this difficulty. A more ideal plasma source layout is suggested and will be explored during a forthcoming work.

  12. High-Density Stacked Ru Nanocrystals for Nonvolatile Memory Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Mao; Zhi-Gang, Zhang; Li-Yang, Pan; Jun, Xu; Pei-Yi, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stacked ruthenium (Ru) nanocrystals (NCs) are formed by rapid thermal annealing for the whole gate stacks and embedded in memory structure, which is compatible with conventional CMOS technology. Ru NCs with high density (3 × 10 12 cm −2 ), small size (2–4 nm) and good uniformity both in aerial distribution and morphology are formed. Attributed to the higher surface trap density, a memory window of 5.2 V is obtained with stacked Ru NCs in comparison to that of 3.5 V with single-layer samples. The stacked Ru NCs device also exhibits much better retention performance because of Coulomb blockade and vertical uniformity between stacked Ru NCs

  13. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.; Omran, Hesham; Naous, Rawan; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Fahmy, H. A. H.; Lu, W. D.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  14. High density submicron magnetoresistive random access memory (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, S.; Chen, E.; Durlam, M.; DeHerrera, M.; Slaughter, J. M.; Shi, J.; Kerszykowski, G.

    1999-04-01

    Various giant magnetoresistance material structures were patterned and studied for their potential as memory elements. The preferred memory element, based on pseudo-spin valve structures, was designed with two magnetic stacks (NiFeCo/CoFe) of different thickness with Cu as an interlayer. The difference in thickness results in dissimilar switching fields due to the shape anisotropy at deep submicron dimensions. It was found that a lower switching current can be achieved when the bits have a word line that wraps around the bit 1.5 times. Submicron memory elements integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors maintained their characteristics and no degradation to the CMOS devices was observed. Selectivity between memory elements in high-density arrays was demonstrated.

  15. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  16. Relaxation Time of High-Density Amorphous Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous water plays a fundamental role in astrophysics, cryoelectron microscopy, hydration of matter, and our understanding of anomalous liquid water properties. Yet, the characteristics of the relaxation processes taking place in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) are unknown. We here reveal that the relaxation processes in HDA at 110-135 K at 0.1-0.2 GPa are of collective and global nature, resembling the alpha relaxation in glassy material. Measured relaxation times suggest liquid-like relaxation characteristics in the vicinity of the crystallization temperature at 145 K. By carefully relaxing pressurized HDA for several hours at 135 K, we produce a state that is closer to the ideal glass state than all HDA states discussed so far in literature.

  17. High-density amorphous ice: A path-integral simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Carlos P.; Ramírez, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    Structural and thermodynamic properties of high-density amorphous (HDA) ice have been studied by path-integral molecular dynamics simulations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Interatomic interactions were modeled by using the effective q-TIP4P/F potential for flexible water. Quantum nuclear motion is found to affect several observable properties of the amorphous solid. At low temperature (T = 50 K) the molar volume of HDA ice is found to increase by 6%, and the intramolecular O-H distance rises by 1.4% due to quantum motion. Peaks in the radial distribution function of HDA ice are broadened with respect to their classical expectancy. The bulk modulus, B, is found to rise linearly with the pressure, with a slope ∂B/∂P = 7.1. Our results are compared with those derived earlier from classical and path-integral simulations of HDA ice. We discuss similarities and discrepancies with those earlier simulations.

  18. Characterization of High Density Concrete by Ultrasonic Goniometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Noor Azreen Masenwat; Nasharuddin Isa; Mohamad Haniza Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    This paper described the results of ultrasonic goniometer measurements on concrete containing hematite. Local hematite stones were used as aggregates to produce high density concrete for application in X-and gamma shielding. Concrete cube samples (150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm) containing hematite as coarse aggregates were prepared by changing mix ratio, water to cement ratio (w/ c) and types of fine aggregate. All samples were cured in water for 7 days. After 28 days of casting, the concrete cubes were then cut into small size of about 10 mm x 20 mm x 30 mm so that it can be fitted into goniometer specimen holder. From this measurement, longitudinal, shear and surface Rayleigh waves in the concrete can be determined. The measurement results are explained and discussed. (author)

  19. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  20. Preparations of high density (Th,U)O2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Ikawa, Katsuichi

    1986-07-01

    Preparations of high density and homogeneous (Th,U)O 2 pellets by a powder metallurgy method were examined. (Th,U)O 2 powders were prepared by calcining coprecipitates of ammonium uranate and thorium hydroxide derived from nitrates and mixed sols, and by calcining mixed oxalates precipitated from nitrates. (Th,U)O 2 pellets were characterized with respect to sinterability, lattice parameter, microstructure, homogeneity and stoichiometry. Sintering atmospheres had a significant effect upon all the properties of the derived pellets. The sinterability of (Th,U)O 2 was most favourable in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres for ThO 2 -rich and UO 2 -rich compositions, respectively, and can be enhanced by presence of water vapour in sintering atmospheres. In addition, highly homogeneous (Th,U)O 2 pellets with 99 % in theoretical density were derived from the sol powders. (author)

  1. Neutron shielding properties of a borated high-density glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Aly Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron shielding properties of a borated high density glass system was characterized experimentally. The total removal macroscopic cross-section of fast neutrons, slow neutrons as well as the linear attenuation coefficient of total gamma rays, primary in addition to secondary, were measured experimentally under good geometric condition to characterize the attenuation properties of (75-x B2O3-1Li2O-5MgO-5ZnO-14Na2O-xBaO glassy system. Slabs of different thicknesses from the investigated glass system were exposed to a collimated beam of neutrons emitted from 252Cf and 241Am-Be neutron sources in order to measure the attenuation properties of fast and slow neutrons as well as total gamma rays. Results confirmed that barium borate glass was suitable for practical use in the field of radiation shielding.

  2. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing

  3. Rethinking reverse cholesterol transport and dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rosales, Corina; Xu, Bingqing; Gotto, Antonio M; Pownall, Henry J

    2018-04-12

    Human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations are a negative risk factor for atherosclerosis-linked cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological attempts to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease by increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been disappointing so that recent research has shifted from HDL quantity to HDL quality, that is, functional vs dysfunctional HDL. HDL has varying degrees of dysfunction reflected in impaired reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In the context of atheroprotection, RCT occurs by 2 mechanisms: one is the well-known trans-hepatic pathway comprising macrophage free cholesterol (FC) efflux, which produces early forms of FC-rich nascent HDL (nHDL). Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase converts HDL-FC to HDL-cholesteryl ester while converting nHDL from a disc to a mature spherical HDL, which transfers its cholesteryl ester to the hepatic HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B1 for uptake, conversion to bile salts, or transfer to the intestine for excretion. Although widely cited, current evidence suggests that this is a minor pathway and that most HDL-FC and nHDL-FC rapidly transfer directly to the liver independent of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. A small fraction of plasma HDL-FC enters the trans-intestinal efflux pathway comprising direct FC transfer to the intestine. SR-B1 -/- mice, which have impaired trans-hepatic FC transport, are characterized by high plasma levels of a dysfunctional FC-rich HDL that increases plasma FC bioavailability in a way that produces whole-body hypercholesterolemia and multiple pathologies. The design of future therapeutic strategies to improve RCT will have to be formulated in the context of these dual RCT mechanisms and the role of FC bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Properties of matter at ultra-high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, B.; Chitre, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The recent discovery of pulsars and their subsequent identification with neutron stars has given a great impetus to the study of the behaviour of matter at ultra high densities. The object of these studies is to calculate the equation of state as a function of density. In this paper, the properties of electrically neutral, cold (T=0) matter at unusually high densities has been reviewed. The physics of the equation of state of such matter divides quite naturally in four density ranges. (i) At the very lowest densities the state of minimum energy is a lattice of 56 Fe atoms. This state persists upto 10 7 g/cm 3 . (ii) In the next density region the nuclei at the lattice sites become neutron rich because the high electron Fermi energy makes inverse beta decay possible. (iii) At a density 4.3 x 10 11 the nuclei become so neutron rich that the neutrons start 'dripping' out of the nuclei and form a gas. This density range is characterised by large, neutron-rich nuclei immersed in a neutron gas. (iv) At a density 2.4 x 10 14 g/cm 3 , the nuclei disappear and a fluid of uniform neutron matter with a small percentage of protons and electrons results. The above four density ranges have been discussed in detail as the equation of state is now well established upto the nuclear density 3 x 10 14 g/cm 3 . The problems of extending the equation of state beyond this density are also touched upon. (author)

  5. Pulsed high-density plasmas for advanced dry etching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banna, Samer; Agarwal, Ankur; Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Pargon, Erwine; Joubert, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Plasma etching processes at the 22 nm technology node and below will have to satisfy multiple stringent scaling requirements of microelectronics fabrication. To satisfy these requirements simultaneously, significant improvements in controlling key plasma parameters are essential. Pulsed plasmas exhibit considerable potential to meet the majority of the scaling challenges, while leveraging the broad expertise developed over the years in conventional continuous wave plasma processing. Comprehending the underlying physics and etching mechanisms in pulsed plasma operation is, however, a complex undertaking; hence the full potential of this strategy has not yet been realized. In this review paper, we first address the general potential of pulsed plasmas for plasma etching processes followed by the dynamics of pulsed plasmas in conventional high-density plasma reactors. The authors reviewed more than 30 years of academic research on pulsed plasmas for microelectronics processing, primarily for silicon and conductor etch applications, highlighting the potential benefits to date and challenges in extending the technology for mass-production. Schemes such as source pulsing, bias pulsing, synchronous pulsing, and others in conventional high-density plasma reactors used in the semiconductor industry have demonstrated greater flexibility in controlling critical plasma parameters such as ion and radical densities, ion energies, and electron temperature. Specifically, plasma pulsing allows for independent control of ion flux and neutral radicals flux to the wafer, which is key to eliminating several feature profile distortions at the nanometer scale. However, such flexibility might also introduce some difficulty in developing new etching processes based on pulsed plasmas. Therefore, the main characteristics of continuous wave plasmas and different pulsing schemes are compared to provide guidelines for implementing different schemes in advanced plasma etching processes based on

  6. The glass transition in high-density amorphous ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerting, Thomas; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Handle, Philip H; Seidl, Markus; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Böhmer, Roland

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long controversy regarding the glass transition in low-density amorphous ice (LDA). The central question is whether or not it transforms to an ultraviscous liquid state above 136 K at ambient pressure prior to crystallization. Currently, the most widespread interpretation of the experimental findings is in terms of a transformation to a superstrong liquid above 136 K. In the last decade some work has also been devoted to the study of the glass transition in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) which is in the focus of the present review. At ambient pressure HDA is metastable against both ice I and LDA, whereas at > 0.2 GPa HDA is no longer metastable against LDA, but merely against high-pressure forms of crystalline ice. The first experimental observation interpreted as the glass transition of HDA was made using in situ methods by Mishima, who reported a glass transition temperature T g of 160 K at 0.40 GPa. Soon thereafter Andersson and Inaba reported a much lower glass transition temperature of 122 K at 1.0 GPa. Based on the pressure dependence of HDA's T g measured in Innsbruck, we suggest that they were in fact probing the distinct glass transition of very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA). Very recently the glass transition in HDA was also observed at ambient pressure at 116 K. That is, LDA and HDA show two distinct glass transitions, clearly separated by about 20 K at ambient pressure. In summary, this suggests that three glass transition lines can be defined in the p-T plane for LDA, HDA, and VHDA.

  7. Propofol Anesthesia and Sleep: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie; Riedner, Brady A.; Boveroux, Pierre; Noirhomme, Quentin; Landsness, Eric C.; Brichant, Jean-Francois; Phillips, Christophe; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The electrophysiological correlates of anesthetic sedation remain poorly understood. We used high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG) and source modeling to investigate the cortical processes underlying propofol anesthesia and compare them to sleep. Design: 256-channel EEG recordings in humans during propofol anesthesia. Setting: Hospital operating room. Patients or Participants: 8 healthy subjects (4 males) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Initially, propofol induced increases in EEG power from 12–25 Hz. Loss of consciousness (LOC) was accompanied by the appearance of EEG slow waves that resembled the slow waves of NREM sleep. We compared slow waves in propofol to slow waves recorded during natural sleep and found that both populations of waves share similar cortical origins and preferentially propagate along the mesial components of the default network. However, propofol slow waves were spatially blurred compared to sleep slow waves and failed to effectively entrain spindle activity. Propofol also caused an increase in gamma (25–40 Hz) power that persisted throughout LOC. Source modeling analysis showed that this increase in gamma power originated from the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. During LOC, we found increased gamma functional connectivity between these regions compared to the wakefulness. Conclusions: Propofol anesthesia is a sleep-like state and slow waves are associated with diminished consciousness even in the presence of high gamma activity. Citation: Murphy M; Bruno MA; Riedner BA; Boveroux P; Noirhomme Q; Landsness EC; Brichant JF; Phillips C; Massimini M; Laureys S; Tononi G; Boly M. Propofol anesthesia and sleep: a high-density EEG study. SLEEP 2011;34(3):283-291. PMID:21358845

  8. DNA microarrays : a molecular cloning manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sambrook, Joseph; Bowtell, David

    2002-01-01

    .... DNA Microarrays provides authoritative, detailed instruction on the design, construction, and applications of microarrays, as well as comprehensive descriptions of the software tools and strategies...

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on polypropylene, polypropylene + high density polyethylene and polypropylene + high density polyethylene + wood flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, J.; Albano, C.; Davidson, E.; Poleo, R. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Escuela de Quimica; Gonzalez, J.; Ichazo, M. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Dept. de Mecanica, Caracas (Venezuela); Chipara, M. [Research Institute for Electrotechnics, Bucharest (Romania)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation on the mechanical properties of the composites, Polypropylene (PP), PP+high density Polyethylene (HDPE), PP+ HDPE+wood flour, where HDPE is virgin and recycled, was studied. This paper discusses the behavior of the composites after exposure to various doses of gamma irradiation (1-7 MRads) in the presence of oxygen. The dependence of mechanical properties on the integral dose for a constant dose rate of 0.48 MRads/h confirms the influence of the irradiation. Strong effects on the elongation at break and break strength is noticed. The mathematical analysis suggests for the PP+r-HDPE a bimolecular process of the elongation at break. On the order hand, for the PP+HDPE a complex process is represented for a three exponential equation. (orig.)

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on polypropylene, polypropylene + high density polyethylene and polypropylene + high density polyethylene + wood flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.; Albano, C.; Davidson, E.; Poleo, R.; Chipara, M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation on the mechanical properties of the composites, Polypropylene (PP), PP+high density Polyethylene (HDPE), PP+ HDPE+wood flour, where HDPE is virgin and recycled, was studied. This paper discusses the behavior of the composites after exposure to various doses of gamma irradiation (1-7 MRads) in the presence of oxygen. The dependence of mechanical properties on the integral dose for a constant dose rate of 0.48 MRads/h confirms the influence of the irradiation. Strong effects on the elongation at break and break strength is noticed. The mathematical analysis suggests for the PP+r-HDPE a bimolecular process of the elongation at break. On the order hand, for the PP+HDPE a complex process is represented for a three exponential equation. (orig.)

  11. Wake High-Density Electroencephalographic Spatiospectral Signatures of Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michele A.; Ramautar, Jennifer R.; Wei, Yishul; Gomez-Herrero, Germán; Stoffers, Diederick; Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Cajochen, Christian; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although daytime complaints are a defining characteristic of insomnia, most EEG studies evaluated sleep only. We used high-density electroencephalography to investigate wake resting state oscillations characteristic of insomnia disorder (ID) at a fine-grained spatiospectral resolution. Methods: A case-control assessment during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) was performed in a laboratory for human physiology. Participants (n = 94, 74 female, 21–70 y) were recruited through www.sleepregistry.nl: 51 with ID, according to DSM-5 and 43 matched controls. Exclusion criteria were any somatic, neurological or psychiatric condition. Group differences in the spectral power topographies across multiple frequencies (1.5 to 40 Hz) were evaluated using permutation-based inference with Threshold-Free Cluster-Enhancement, to correct for multiple comparisons. Results: As compared to controls, participants with ID showed less power in a narrow upper alpha band (11–12.7 Hz, peak: 11.7 Hz) over bilateral frontal and left temporal regions during EO, and more power in a broad beta frequency range (16.3–40 Hz, peak: 19 Hz) globally during EC. Source estimates suggested global rather than cortically localized group differences. Conclusions: The widespread high power in a broad beta band reported previously during sleep in insomnia is present as well during eyes closed wakefulness, suggestive of a round-the-clock hyperarousal. Low power in the upper alpha band during eyes open is consistent with low cortical inhibition and attentional filtering. The fine-grained HD-EEG findings suggest that, while more feasible than PSG, wake EEG of short duration with a few well-chosen electrodes and frequency bands, can provide valuable features of insomnia. Citation: Colombo MA, Ramautar JR, Wei Y, Gomez-Herrero G, Stoffers D, Wassing R, Benjamins JS, Tagliazucchi E, van der Werf YD, Cajochen C, Van Someren EJW. Wake high-density electroencephalographic spatiospectral

  12. Using NEG-pumping near a high density internal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Alexander; Marton, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer Subatomare Physik, OeAW (Germany); Orth, Herbert [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The universal detector PANDA will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). It will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. To ensure low background, the residual gas load in the interaction zone and in the antiproton beam-pipe has to be minimised. Most of the gas load will come from the high density internal hydrogen target. As the detector will cover almost the full solid angle, the installation of pumps near the interaction zone is impossible. Therefore the use of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes has been considered as an alternative. Two setups with NEG coated tubes have been installed at SMI as prototypes of the PANDA interaction zone. General parameters of the NEG-film, its outgassing behaviour, the pumping speed and the pumping capacity for hydrogen have been tested. The results of the studies on the PANDA-interaction region are presented.

  13. Statistical mechanics of high-density bond percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    High-density (HD) percolation describes the percolation of specific κ -clusters, which are the compact sets of sites each connected to κ nearest filled sites at least. It takes place in the classical patterns of independently distributed sites or bonds in which the ordinary percolation transition also exists. Hence, the study of series of κ -type HD percolations amounts to the description of classical clusters' structure for which κ -clusters constitute κ -cores nested one into another. Such data are needed for description of a number of physical, biological, and information properties of complex systems on random lattices, graphs, and networks. They range from magnetic properties of semiconductor alloys to anomalies in supercooled water and clustering in biological and social networks. Here we present the statistical mechanics approach to study HD bond percolation on an arbitrary graph. It is shown that the generating function for κ -clusters' size distribution can be obtained from the partition function of the specific q -state Potts-Ising model in the q →1 limit. Using this approach we find exact κ -clusters' size distributions for the Bethe lattice and Erdos-Renyi graph. The application of the method to Euclidean lattices is also discussed.

  14. Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorodila Konstandina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.

  15. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedeji, O.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1991-01-01

    We have finished the first stages of our experimental and theoretical investigations on models for energy and momentum transport and for photon-particle collision processes in a turbulent quasi-stationary high density plasma. The system is explored by beginning to determine the turbulence phenomenology associated with an ionizing shock wave. The theoretical underpinnings are explored for phonon particle collisions by determining the collisional redistribution function, using Lioville Space Green's Function, which will characterize the inelastic scattering of the radiation from one frequency to another. We have observed that a weak magnetic field tends to increase the apparent random-like behaviors in a collisional turbulent plasma. On the theoretical side, we have been able to achieve a form for the collisional redistribution function. It remains to apply these concepts to a stationary turbulent plasma in the reflected ionizing shock wave and to exercise the implications of evaluations of the collisional redistribution function for such a system when it is probed by a strong radiation source. These results are discussed in detail in the publications, which have resulted from the this effort, cited at the end of the report

  16. Irradiation testing of high density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-10-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 microplates. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U-10Mo-0.05Sn, U 2 Mo, or U 3 Si 2 . These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of 40% and 80%. Of particular interest is the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions

  17. High-field, high-density tokamak power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.; Cook, D.L.; Hay, R.D.; Kaplan, D.; Kreischer, K.; Lidskii, L.M.; Stephany, W.; Williams, J.E.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Okabayashi, M.

    1977-11-01

    A conceptual design of a compact (R 0 = 6.0 m) high power density (average P/sub f/ = 7.7 MW/m 3 ) tokamak demonstration power reactor has been developed. High magnetic field (B/sub t/ = 7.4 T) and moderate elongation (b/a = 1.6) permit operation at the high density (n(0) approximately 5 x 10 14 cm -3 ) needed for ignition in a relatively small plasma, with a spatially-averaged toroidal beta of only 4%. A unique design for the Nb 3 Sn toroidal-field magnet system reduces the stress in the high-field trunk region, and allows modularization for simpler disassembly. The modest value of toroidal beta permits a simple, modularized plasma-shaping coil system, located inside the TF coil trunk. Heating of the dense central plasma is attained by the use of ripple-assisted injection of 120-keV D 0 beams. The ripple-coil system also affords dynamic control of the plasma temperature during the burn period. A FLIBE-lithium blanket is designed especially for high-power-density operation in a high-field environment, and gives an overall tritium breeding ratio of 1.05 in the slowly pumped lithium

  18. [Residual risk: The roles of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Tanja; Kleber, Marcus; Silbernagel, Günther; Scharnagl, Hubert; März, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    In clinical trials, the reduction of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events by approximately one third. This means, that a sizeable "residual risk" remains. Besides high lipoprotein (a), disorders in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density liproteins have been implicated as effectors of the residual risk. Both lipoprotein parameters correlate inversely with each other. Therefore, the etiological contributions of triglycerides and / or of HDL for developing cardiovascular disease can hardly be estimated from either observational studies or from intervention studies. The largely disappointing results of intervention studies with inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein and in particular the available set of genetically-epidemiological studies suggest that in the last decade, the importance of HDL cholesterol has been overvalued, while the importance of triglycerides has been underestimated. High triglycerides not always atherogenic, but only if they are associated with the accumulation relatively cholesterol-enriched, incompletely catabolized remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (familial type III hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus). The normalization of the concentration of triglycerides and remnants by inhibiting the expression of apolipoprotein C3 is hence a new, promising therapeutic target. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Silicon micromachining using a high-density plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, S.A.; Ashraf, H.; Atabo, L.; Chambers, A.; Hall, S.; Hopkins, J.; Nicholls, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dry etching of Si is critical in satisfying the demands of the micromachining industry. The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) community requires etches capable of high aspect ratios, vertical profiles, good feature size control and etch uniformity along with high throughput to satisfy production requirements. Surface technology systems' (STS's) high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch tool enables a wide range of applications to be realized whilst optimizing the above parameters. Components manufactured from Si using an STS ICP include accelerometers and gyroscopes for military, automotive and domestic applications. STS's advanced silicon etch (ASE TM ) has also allowed the first generation of MEMS-based optical switches and attenuators to reach the marketplace. In addition, a specialized application for fabricating the next generation photolithography exposure masks has been optimized for 200 mm diameter wafers, to depths of ∼750 μm. Where the profile is not critical, etch rates of greater than 8 μm min -1 have been realized to replace previous methods such as wet etching. This is also the case for printer applications. Specialized applications that require etching down to pyrex or oxide often result in the loss of feature size control at the interface; this is an industry wide problem. STS have developed a technique to address this. The rapid progression of the industry has led to development of the STS ICP etch tool, as well as the process. (author)

  20. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  1. Postirradiation examination of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Strain, R.V.

    1998-01-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles, designated RERTR-2, were inserted into the Advanced Test reactor in Idaho in August 1997. These tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels, including U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru and U-10Mo-0.05Sn: the intermetallic compounds U 2 Mo and U-10Mo-0.-5Sn; the intermetallic compounds U 2 Mo and U 3 Si 2 were also included in the fuel test matrix. These fuels are included in the experiments as microplates (76 mm x 22 mm x 1.3mm outer dimensions) with a nominal fuel volume loading of 25% and irradiated at relatively low temperature (∼100 deg C). RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 were discharged from the reactor in November 1997 and July 1998, respectively at calculated peak fuel burnups of 45 and 71 at %-U 235 Both experiments are currently under examination at the Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago. This paper presents the postirradiation examination results available to date from these experiments. (author)

  2. High-density polyethylene dosimetry by transvinylene FTIR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Silverman, J.; Al-Sheikhly, M.

    1999-01-01

    and electrons. The useful dose range of 0.053 cm thick high-density polyethylene film (rho = 0.961 g cm(-3); melt index = 0.8 dg min(-1)), for irradiations by (60)Co gamma radiation and 2.0 and 0.4 MeV electron beams in deaerated atmosphere (Na gas), is about 50-10(3) kGy for FTIR transvinylene......The formation of transvinylene unsaturation, -CH=CH-, due to free-radical or cationic-initiated dehydrogenation by irradiation, is a basic reaction in polyethylene and is useful for dosimetry at high absorbed doses. The radiation-enhanced infrared absorption having a maximum at nu = 965 cm......(-l) (lambda = 10.36 mu m) is stable in air and can be measured by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The quantitative analysis is a useful means of product end-point dosimetry for radiation processing with gamma rays and electrons, where polyethylene is a component of the processed product...

  3. High Density Lipoprotein: A Therapeutic Target in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Barter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.

  4. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  5. High-Density Quantum Sensing with Dissipative First Order Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Weimer, Hendrik

    2018-04-13

    The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of N independent particles is proportional to sqrt[N]. However, interactions invariably occurring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be transformed from a nuisance into an advantage when strong interactions trigger a dissipative phase transition in an open quantum system. We demonstrate this behavior by analyzing dissipative quantum sensors based upon nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond. Using both a variational method and a numerical simulation of the master equation describing the open quantum many-body system, we establish the existence of a dissipative first order transition that can be used for quantum sensing. We investigate the properties of this phase transition for two- and three-dimensional setups, demonstrating that the transition can be observed using current experimental technology. Finally, we show that quantum sensors based on dissipative phase transitions are particularly robust against imperfections such as disorder or decoherence, with the sensitivity of the sensor not being limited by the T_{2} coherence time of the device. Our results can readily be applied to other applications in quantum sensing and quantum metrology where interactions are currently a limiting factor.

  6. High density operation on the HT-7 superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Gao

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the operation region has been studied in the HT-7 superconducting tokamak, and progress on the extension of the HT-7 ohmic discharge operation region is reported. A density corresponding to 1.2 times the Greenwald limit was achieved by RF boronization. The density limit appears to be connected to the impurity content and the edge parameters, so the best results are obtained with very clean plasmas and peaked electron density profiles. The peaking factors of electron density profiles for different current and line averaged densities were observed. The density behaviour and the fuelling efficiency for gas puffing (20-30%), pellet injection (70-80%) and molecular beam injection (40-50%) were studied. The core crash sawteeth and MHD behaviour, which were induced by an injected pellet, were observed and the events correlated with the change of current profile and reversed magnetic shear. The MARFE phenomena on HT-7 are summarized. The best correlation has been found between the total input ohmic power and the product of the edge line averaged density and Z eff . HT-7 could be easily operated in the high density region MARFE-free using RF boronization. (author)

  7. The physics of the high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Hammel, J.E.; Lewis, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    The fiber-initiated High-Density Z-Pinch (HDZP) is a novel concept in which fusion plasma could be produced by applying 2 MV along a thin filament of frozen deuterium, 20-30 μm in diameter, 5-10 cm long. The megamp-range currents that result would ohmically heat the fiber to fusion temperatures in 100 ns while maintaining nearly constant radius. The plasma pressure would be held stably by the self-magnetic field for many radial sound transit times during the current-rise phase while, in the case of D-T, a significant fraction of the fiber undergoes thermonuclear fusion. This paper presents results of Los Alamos HDZP studies. Existing and new experiments are described. A succession of theoretical studies, including 1D self-similar and numerical studies of the hot plasma phase, 1D and 2D numerical studies of the cold startup phase, and 3D numerical studies of stability in the hot regime, are then presented. 9 refs., 4 figs

  8. High-density housing that works for all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Arif

    2010-03-15

    In an urbanising world, the way people fit into cities is vastly important - socially, economically, environmentally, even psychologically. So density, or the number of people living in a given area, is central to urban design and planning. Both governments and markets tend to get density wrong, leading to overcrowding, urban sprawl or often both. A case in point are the high-rise buildings springing up throughtout urban Asia - perceived as key features of that widely touted concept, the 'world-class city'. While some may offer a viable solution to land pressures and density requirements, many built to house evicted or resettled 'slum' dwellers are a social and economic nightmare - inconveniently sited, overcrowded and costly. New evidence from Karachi, Pakistan, reveals a real alternative. Poor people can create liveable high-density settlements as long as community control, the right technical assistance and flexible designs are in place. A city is surely 'world-class' only when it is cosmopolitan – built to serve all, including the poorest.

  9. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 \\upmu m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detector wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered aluminum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97 %.

  10. High-Density Quantum Sensing with Dissipative First Order Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Weimer, Hendrik

    2018-04-01

    The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of N independent particles is proportional to √{N }. However, interactions invariably occurring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be transformed from a nuisance into an advantage when strong interactions trigger a dissipative phase transition in an open quantum system. We demonstrate this behavior by analyzing dissipative quantum sensors based upon nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamond. Using both a variational method and a numerical simulation of the master equation describing the open quantum many-body system, we establish the existence of a dissipative first order transition that can be used for quantum sensing. We investigate the properties of this phase transition for two- and three-dimensional setups, demonstrating that the transition can be observed using current experimental technology. Finally, we show that quantum sensors based on dissipative phase transitions are particularly robust against imperfections such as disorder or decoherence, with the sensitivity of the sensor not being limited by the T2 coherence time of the device. Our results can readily be applied to other applications in quantum sensing and quantum metrology where interactions are currently a limiting factor.

  11. LTCC magnetic components for high density power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebourgeois, Richard; Labouré, Eric; Lembeye, Yves; Ferrieux, Jean-Paul

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with multilayer magnetic components for power electronics application and specifically for high frequency switching. New formulations based on nickel-zinc-copper spinel ferrites were developed for high power and high frequency applications. These ferrites can be sintered at low temperature (around 900°C) which makes them compatible with the LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) technology. Metallic parts of silver or gold can be fully integrated inside the ferrite while guaranteeing the integrity of both the ferrite and the metal. To make inductors or transformers with the required properties, it is mandatory to have nonmagnetic parts between the turns of the winding. Then it is essential to find a dielectric material, which can be co-sintered both with the ferrite and the metal. We will present the solution we found to this problem and we will describe the results we obtained for a multilayer co-sintered transformer. We will see that these new components have good performance compared with the state of the art and are very promising for developing high density switching mode power supplies.

  12. Properties of recycled high density polyethylene and coffee dregs composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Piedade Cestari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE-R and coffee dregs (COFD were elaborated. The blends were made at the proportions of 100-0, 90-10, 80-20, 70-30, 60-40, 50-50 and 40-60% polymer-filler ratio. The materials were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TGA, and compressive resistance test. The compounding was done using a two-stage co-kneader system extruder, and then cylindrical specimens were injection molded. All composites had a fine dispersion of the COFD into the polymeric matrix. The composites degraded in two steps. The first one was in a temperature lower than the neat HDPE, but higher than the average processing temperature of the polymer. The melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of the composites resulted similar to the neat HDPE ones. The compressive moduli of the composites resulted similar to the neat polymer one. The results show that these composites have interesting properties as a building material.

  13. Acrolein impairs the cholesterol transport functions of high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Alexandra C; Holme, Rebecca L; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Silverstein, Roy L; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.

  14. Irradiation testing of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 'microplates'. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U10Mo-0.05Sn, U2Mo, or U 3 Si 2 . These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of approximately 40 and 80 at.% U 235 . Of particular interest are the extent of reaction of the fuel and matrix phases and the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions. (author)

  15. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measure- ment of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 µ m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detec- tor wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered alu- minum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97%.

  16. Inelastic neutron scattering from high-density fcc 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; Eckert, J.; Shirane, G.

    1978-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations in high-density crystals of fcc 4 He have been measured along high-symmetry directions by the neutron-inelastic-scattering technique. A recent study of the lattice dynamics of fcc 4 He by Eckert et al. has been extended to cover the fcc phase diagram at pressures below 5 kbar. Molar volumes of 9.03, 9.43, and 9.97 cm 3 /mole have been studied in the temperature range from near the melting curve to near the fcc-hcp transition line. The phonon dispersion relations are in good agreement with a first-order self-consistent phonon theory calculation by Goldman. The observed phonon-group line shapes at large energy and momentum transfers show evidence for multiphonon scattering in agreement with calculations by Glyde. Eckert et al. reported extremely large anharmonic isochoric temperature shifts of the phonon energies. The present work studied the shifts as a function of molar volume and temperature. Mode-Grueneisen-parameter dispersion curves have been measured using the present data and earlier measurements at lower density in the fcc phase by Traylor et al. Macroscopic Grueneisen parameters have been calculated from the phonon density of states obtained from the data

  17. The infant mirror neuron system studied with high density EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Pär

    2008-01-01

    The mirror neuron system has been suggested to play a role in many social capabilities such as action understanding, imitation, language and empathy. These are all capabilities that develop during infancy and childhood, but the human mirror neuron system has been poorly studied using neurophysiological measures. This study measured the brain activity of 6-month-old infants and adults using a high-density EEG net with the aim of identifying mirror neuron activity. The subjects viewed both goal-directed movements and non-goal-directed movements. An independent component analysis was used to extract the sources of cognitive processes. The desynchronization of the mu rhythm in adults has been shown to be a marker for activation of the mirror neuron system and was used as a criterion to categorize independent components between subjects. The results showed significant mu desynchronization in the adult group and significantly higher ERP activation in both adults and 6-month-olds for the goal-directed action observation condition. This study demonstrate that infants as young as 6 months display mirror neuron activity and is the first to present a direct ERP measure of the mirror neuron system in infants.

  18. High-Density Stretchable Electrode Grids for Chronic Neural Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Khodagholy, Dion; Dielacher, Bernd; Stauffer, Flurin; Renz, Aline F; Buzsáki, György; Vörös, János

    2018-04-01

    Electrical interfacing with neural tissue is key to advancing diagnosis and therapies for neurological disorders, as well as providing detailed information about neural signals. A challenge for creating long-term stable interfaces between electronics and neural tissue is the huge mechanical mismatch between the systems. So far, materials and fabrication processes have restricted the development of soft electrode grids able to combine high performance, long-term stability, and high electrode density, aspects all essential for neural interfacing. Here, this challenge is addressed by developing a soft, high-density, stretchable electrode grid based on an inert, high-performance composite material comprising gold-coated titanium dioxide nanowires embedded in a silicone matrix. The developed grid can resolve high spatiotemporal neural signals from the surface of the cortex in freely moving rats with stable neural recording quality and preserved electrode signal coherence during 3 months of implantation. Due to its flexible and stretchable nature, it is possible to minimize the size of the craniotomy required for placement, further reducing the level of invasiveness. The material and device technology presented herein have potential for a wide range of emerging biomedical applications. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Using NEG-pumping near a high density internal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.; Orth, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Stefan Meyer Institut (SMI) is part of the international PANDA collaboration. The universal detector will be constructed at the future high-energy antiproton storage ring HESR at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, GSI/Darmstadt). PANDA will use antiproton beams (1.5 to 15 GeV/c) for hadron physics in the charmonium region. SMI contributes to major parts of the PANDA detector like the hydrogen cluster-jet target and the vacuum system of the antiproton - target interaction zone. To ensure low background, the residual gas load in the interaction zone and in the antiproton beam-pipe has to be minimized. Most of the gas load, of course will come from the high density internal hydrogen target. Since the PANDA detector will cover almost the full solid angle, the installation of pumps near the interaction zone is impossible. Therefore, the use of NEG (non-evaporative-getter) coated beam pipes has been considered as an alternative. Two setups with NEG coated tubes have been installed at SMI as prototypes of the PANDA interaction zone. The outgassing behavior, the pumping speed and the pumping capacity for hydrogen have been tested. The status of the studies of the interaction region will be presented. (author)

  20. Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

  1. Ultra-high Density SNParray in Neuroblastoma Molecular Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge M. Ambros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for applying tumor genomic data for determining patient prognosis and thus for treatment allocation. MYCN status, i.e. amplified vs. non-amplified, was one of the very first biomarkers in oncology to discriminate aggressive from less aggressive or even favorable clinical courses of neuroblastoma. However, MYCN amplification is by far not the only genetic change associated with unfavorable clinical courses: so called segmental chromosomal aberrations, i.e. gains or losses of chromosomal fragments, can also indicate tumor aggressiveness. The clinical use of these genomic aberrations has, however, been hampered for many years by methodical and interpretational problems. Only after reaching worldwide consensus on markers, methodology, and data interpretation, information on SCAs has recently been implemented in clinical studies. Now, a number of collaborative studies within COG, GPOH and SIOPEN use genomic information to stratify therapy for patients with localized and metastatic disease. Recently, new types of DNA based aberrations influencing the clinical behavior of neuroblastomas have been described. Deletions or mutations of genes like ATRX and a phenomenon referred to as chromothripsis are all assumed to correlate with an unfavorable clinical behavior. However, these genomic aberrations need to be scrutinized in larger studies applying the most appropriate techniques. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays have proven successful in deciphering genomic aberrations of cancer cells; these techniques, however, are usually not applied in the daily routine. Here, we present an ultra-high density (UHD SNParray technique which is, because of its high specificity and sensitivity and the combined copy number and allele information, highly appropriate for the genomic diagnosis of neuroblastoma and other malignancies.

  2. High density microelectronics package using low temperature cofirable ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, S.-L.; Hsi, C.-S.; Chen, L.-S.; Lin, W. K.

    1997-01-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC) is a relative new thick film process and has many engineering and manufacturing advantages over both the sequential thick film process and high temperature cofired ceramic modules. Because of low firing temperature, low sheet resistance metal conductors, commercial thick film resistors, and thick film capacitors can be buried in or printed on the substrates. A 3-D multilayer ceramic substrate can be prepared via laminating and co-firing process. The packing density of the LTCC substrates can be increased by this 3-D packing technology. At Kaohsiung Polytechnic Institute (KPI), a LTCC substrate system has been developed for high density packaging applications, which had buried surface capacitors and resistors. The developed cordierite-glass ceramic substrate, which has similar thermal expansion as silicon chip, is a promising material for microelectronic packaging. When the substrates were sintered at temperatures between 850-900 degree centigrade, a relative density higher than 96 % can be obtained. The substrate had a dielectric constant between 5.5 and 6.5. Ruthenium-based resistor pastes were used for resistors purposes. The resistors fabricated in/on the LTCC substrates were strongly depended on the microstructures developed in the resistor films. Surface resistors were laser trimmed in order to obtain specific values for the resistors. Material with composition Pb(Fe 2/3 W 1/3 ) x (Fe l/2 Nb l/2 ) y Ti 2 O 3 was used as dielectric material of the capacitor in the substrate. The material can be sintered at temperatures between 850-930 degree centigrade, and has dielectric constant as high as 26000. After cofiring, good adhesion between dielectric and substrate layers was obtained. Combing the buried resistors and capacitors together with the lamination of LTCC layer, a 3-dimensional multilayered ceramic package was fabricated. (author)

  3. Ignition and burn in contaminated DT fuel at high densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasley, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations have been performed to quantify the effect of contamination upon the ignition threshold in DT at high densities. A detailed thermonuclear burn model, with multi-group multispecies ions, is incorporated alongside a multigroup diffusion approximation for thermal radiation transport. The code used is the research version of the HYADES 1D code. Acceptable levels of contamination are identified for a range of contaminant ion species. A range of different contaminant spatial distribution within the fuel are explored: i) in which the contamination is uniformly distributed throughout the fuel; ii) in which the impurity ions are confined to the hotspot, or iii) where contamination is restricted to a particular region of the hotspot (either centrally, near the surface, or at an intermediate location). Initially the fuel has a constant density with the hotspot located centrally. The overall radius of the fuel is chosen to be sufficiently large that it has no significant effect upon the success or failure of ignition. The evolution of the system is then simulated until ignition either establishes widespread thermonuclear burning, or a failure to ignite is observed. The critical ρr for ignition is found by iteration on the hotspot radius. We show that varying the spatial distribution of the contaminant within the ignition spot has little effect, so long as the total mass of contaminant is held the same. As expected, high-Z contamination is far more detrimental than that by low-Z ions. Discussion of the findings in the context of re-entrant cone-guided fast ignition is presented, in addition to a theoretical interpretation of the results.

  4. Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-01-01

    In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of 125 I]HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with [ 125 I]HDL 3 and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL 3 binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation

  5. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  6. High density microelectronics package using low temperature cofirable ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, S -L; Hsi, C -S; Chen, L -S; Lin, W K [Kaoshiung Polytechnic Institute Ta-Hsu, Kaoshiung (China)

    1998-12-31

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC) is a relative new thick film process and has many engineering and manufacturing advantages over both the sequential thick film process and high temperature cofired ceramic modules. Because of low firing temperature, low sheet resistance metal conductors, commercial thick film resistors, and thick film capacitors can be buried in or printed on the substrates. A 3-D multilayer ceramic substrate can be prepared via laminating and co-firing process. The packing density of the LTCC substrates can be increased by this 3-D packing technology. At Kaohsiung Polytechnic Institute (KPI), a LTCC substrate system has been developed for high density packaging applications, which had buried surface capacitors and resistors. The developed cordierite-glass ceramic substrate, which has similar thermal expansion as silicon chip, is a promising material for microelectronic packaging. When the substrates were sintered at temperatures between 850-900 degree centigrade, a relative density higher than 96 % can be obtained. The substrate had a dielectric constant between 5.5 and 6.5. Ruthenium-based resistor pastes were used for resistors purposes. The resistors fabricated in/on the LTCC substrates were strongly depended on the microstructures developed in the resistor films. Surface resistors were laser trimmed in order to obtain specific values for the resistors. Material with composition Pb(Fe{sub 2/3}W{sub 1/3}){sub x}(Fe{sub l/2}Nb{sub l/2}){sub y}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used as dielectric material of the capacitor in the substrate. The material can be sintered at temperatures between 850-930 degree centigrade, and has dielectric constant as high as 26000. After cofiring, good adhesion between dielectric and substrate layers was obtained. Combing the buried resistors and capacitors together with the lamination of LTCC layer, a 3-dimensional multilayered ceramic package was fabricated. (author)

  7. Renewable carbohydrates are a potential high-density hydrogen carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival [Biological Systems Engineering Department, 210-A Seitz Hall, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Sciences (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The possibility of using renewable biomass carbohydrates as a potential high-density hydrogen carrier is discussed here. Gravimetric density of polysaccharides is 14.8 H{sub 2} mass% where water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H{sub 2} mass% without water recycling; volumetric densities of polysaccharides are >100 kg of H{sup 2}/m{sup 3}. Renewable carbohydrates (e.g., cellulosic materials and starch) are less expensive based on GJ than are other hydrogen carriers, such as hydrocarbons, biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and ammonia. Biotransformation of carbohydrates to hydrogen by cell-free synthetic (enzymatic) pathway biotransformation (SyPaB) has numerous advantages, such as high product yield (12 H{sub 2}/glucose unit), 100% selectivity, high energy conversion efficiency (122%, based on combustion energy), high-purity hydrogen generated, mild reaction conditions, low-cost of bioreactor, few safety concerns, and nearly no toxicity hazards. Although SyPaB may suffer from current low reaction rates, numerous approaches for accelerating hydrogen production rates are proposed and discussed. Potential applications of carbohydrate-based hydrogen/electricity generation would include hydrogen bioreactors, home-size electricity generators, sugar batteries for portable electronics, sugar-powered passenger vehicles, and so on. Developments in thermostable enzymes as standardized building blocks for cell-free SyPaB projects, use of stable and low-cost biomimetic NAD cofactors, and accelerating reaction rates are among the top research and development priorities. International collaborations are urgently needed to solve the above obstacles within a short time. (author)

  8. Pharmacologic management of isolated low high-density lipoprotein syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Bermúdez, Fernando; Arraiz, Nailet; Acosta, Luis; Finol, Freddy; Pabón, María Rebeca; Amell, Anilsa; Reyna, Nadia; Hidalgo, Joaquin; Kendall, Paúl; Manuel, Velasco; Hernández, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is a heterogeneous group of lipoproteins exhibiting a variety of properties like prostacyclin production stimulation, decrease in platelet aggregation, endothelial cell apoptosis inhibition, and low-density lipoprotein oxidation blockade. Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse relation between HDL cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk. Low HDL cholesterol is associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, peripheral artery disease, and postangioplasty restenosis. In contrast, high HDL levels are associated with longevity and protection against atherosclerotic disease development. Given the evolving epidemic of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of low HDL will continue to rise. In the United States, low HDL is present in 35% of men, 15% of women, and approximately 63% of patients with coronary artery disease. Data extracted from the Framingham study highlight that 1-mg increase in HDL levels decreases by 2% to 3% the risk of cardiovascular disease. There is no doubt regarding clinical importance about isolated low HDL, but relatively few clinicians consider a direct therapeutic intervention of this dyslipidemia. In this sense, lifestyle measures should be the first-line strategy to manage low HDL levels. On the other hand, pharmacologic options include niacin, fibrates, and statins. Fibrates appear to reduce risk preferentially in patients with low HDL with metabolic syndrome, whereas statins reduce risk across all levels of HDL. Torcetrapib, a cholesteryl esters transfer protein inhibitor, represented a hope to raise this lipoprotein; however, all clinical trials on this drug had ceased after ILLUMINATE, RADIANCE and ERASE trials had recorded an increase in mortality, rates of myocardial infarction, angina, and heart failure. In the near future, drugs as beta-glucans, Apo-A1 mimetic peptides, and ACAT inhibitors, are the new promises to treat this

  9. Neutron shielding properties of a new high-density concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorente, A.; Gallego, E.; Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Mendez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The neutron shielding properties of a new high-density concrete (commercially available under the name Hormirad TM , developed in Spain by the company CT-RAD) have been characterized both experimentally and by Monte Carlo calculations. The shielding properties of this concrete against photons were previously studied and the material is being used to build bunkers, mazes and doors in medical accelerator facilities with good overall results. In this work, the objective was to characterize the material behaviour against neutrons, as well as to test alternative mixings including boron compounds in an effort to improve neutron shielding efficiency. With that purpose, Hormirad TM slabs of different thicknesses were exposed to an 241 Am-Be neutron source under controlled conditions in the neutron measurements laboratory of the Nuclear Engineering Department at UPM. The original mix, which includes a high fraction of magnetite, was then modified by adding different proportions of anhydrous borax (Na 2 B 4 O 7 ). In order to have a reference against common concrete used to shield medical accelerator facilities, the same experiment was repeated with ordinary (HA-25) concrete slabs. In parallel to the experiments, Monte Carlo calculations of the experiments were performed with MCNP5. The experimental results agree reasonably well with the Monte Carlo calculations. Therefore, the first and equilibrium tenth-value layers have been determined for the different types of concrete tested. The results show an advantageous behaviour of the Hormirad TM concrete, in terms of neutron attenuation against real thickness of the shielding. Borated concretes seem less practical since they did not show better neutron attenuation with respect to real thickness and their structural properties are worse. The neutron attenuation properties of Hormirad TM for typical neutron spectra in clinical LINAC accelerators rooms have been also characterized by Monte Carlo calculation. (author)

  10. Deposition and characterisation of copper for high density interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCusker, N.

    1999-09-01

    Copper has been deposited by sputtering and investigated for application as high density interconnects, with a view to maximising its performance and reliability. A sputter deposition process using gettering has been developed, which produces consistently pure, low resistivity films. A relationship between film thickness and resistivity has been explained by studying the grain growth process in copper films using atomic force microscopy. The Maydas-Shatzkes model has been used to separate the contributions of grain boundary and surface scattering to thin film resistivity, in copper and gold. Stress and texture in copper film have been studied. Annealing has been used to promote grain growth and texture development. Electromigration has been studied in copper and aluminium interconnects using a multi-line accelerated test set-up. A difference in failure distributions and void morphologies has been explained by an entirely different damage mechanism. The importance of surface/interface migration in electromigration damage of copper lines has been established and explained using a grain boundary-grooving model. A tantalum overlayer was found to extend the lifetime of copper lines. A composite sputtering target has been used to deposit copper/zirconium alloy films. The composition of the alloys was studied by Rutherford backscattering, Auger and secondary neutral mass spectrometry. The alloy films had an improved electromigration lifetime. A surface controlled mechanism is proposed to explain the advantage. A metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor technique is used to investigate barrier reliability. Tungsten is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier for copper, up to 700 deg. C. (author)

  11. Modelling high density phenomena in hydrogen fibre Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    The application of hydrogen fibre Z-pinches to the study of the radiative collapse phenomenon is studied computationally. Two areas of difficulty, the formation of a fully ionized pinch from a cryogenic fibre and the processes leading to collapse termination, are addressed in detail. A zero-D model based on the energy equation highlights the importance of particle end losses and changes in the Coulomb logarithm upon collapse initiation and termination. A 1-D Lagrangian resistive MHD code shows the importance of the changing radial profile shapes, particularly in delaying collapse termination. A 1-D, three fluid MHD code is developed to model the ionization of the fibre by thermal conduction from a high temperature surface corona to the cold core. Rate equations for collisional ionization, 3-body recombination and equilibration are solved in tandem with fluid equations for the electrons, ions and neutrals. Continuum lowering is found to assist ionization at the corona-core interface. The high density plasma phenomena responsible for radiative collapse termination are identified as the self-trapping of radiation and free electron degeneracy. A radiation transport model and computational analogues for the effects of degeneracy upon the equation of state, transport coefficients and opacity are implemented in the 1-D, single fluid model. As opacity increases the emergent spectrum is observed to become increasingly Planckian and a fall off in radiative cooling at small radii and low frequencies occurs giving rise to collapse termination. Electron degeneracy terminates radiative collapse by supplementing the radial pressure gradient until the electromagnetic pinch force is balanced. Collapse termination is found to be a hybrid process of opacity and degeneracy effects across a wide range of line densities with opacity dominant at large line densities but with electron degeneracy becoming increasingly important at lower line densities. (author)

  12. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to

  13. ArrayPitope: Automated Analysis of Amino Acid Substitutions for Peptide Microarray-Based Antibody Epitope Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skjødt; Østerbye, Thomas; Marcatili, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    -reactivity. B cell epitopes are typically classified as either linear epitopes, i.e. short consecutive segments from the protein sequence or conformational epitopes adapted through native protein folding. Recent advances in high-density peptide microarrays enable high-throughput, high-resolution identification...

  14. Evaluating the microbial diversity of an in vitro model of the human large intestine by phylogenetic microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Maathuis, A.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Venema, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.

    2010-01-01

    A high-density phylogenetic microarray targeting small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) sequences of over 1000 microbial phylotypes of the human gastrointestinal tract, the HITChip, was used to assess the impact of faecal inoculum preparation and operation conditions on an in vitro model of the human large

  15. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  16. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfini, V Pericoli [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Barbato, E [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Buratti, P [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2005-12-15

    A tokamak plasma with internal transport barriers (ITBs) is the best candidate for a steady ITER operation, since the high energy confinement allows working at plasma currents (I{sub p}) lower than the reference scenario. To build and sustain an ITB at the ITER high density ({>=}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) and largely dominant electron (e{sup -}) heating is not trivial in most existing tokamaks. FTU can instead meet both requests, thanks to its radiofrequency heating systems, lower hybrid (LH, up to 1.9 MW) and electron cyclotron (EC up to 1.2 MW). By the combined use of them, ITBs are obtained up to peak densities n{sub e0} > 1.3 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}, with central e{sup -} temperatures T{sub e0} {approx} 5.5 keV, and are sustained for as long as the heating pulse is applied (>35 confinement times, {tau}{sub E}). At n{sub e0} {approx} 0.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} T{sub e0} can be larger than 11 keV. Almost full current drive (CD) and an overall good steadiness is attained within about one {tau}{sub E}, 20 times faster than the ohmic current relaxation time. The ITB extends over a central region with an almost flat or slightly reversed q profile and q{sub min} {approx} 1.3 that is fully sustained by off-axis lower hybrid current drive. Consequent to this is the beneficial good alignment of the bootstrap current, generated by the ITB large pressure gradients, with the LH driven current. Reflectometry shows a clear change in the turbulence close to the ITB radius, consistent with the reduced e{sup -} transport. Ions (i{sup +}) are significantly heated via collisions, but thermal equilibrium with electrons cannot be attained since the e{sup -}-i{sup +} equipartition time is always 4-5 times longer than {tau}{sub E}. No degradation of the overall ion transport, rather a reduction of the i{sup +} heat diffusivity, is observed inside the ITB. The global confinement has been improved up to 1.6 times over the scaling predictions. The ITB radius can be controlled by adjusting the

  17. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  18. High density plasma heating in the Tokamak à configuration variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curchod, L.

    2011-04-01

    The Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) is a medium size magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion experiment designed for the study of the plasma performances as a function of its shape. It is equipped with a high power and highly flexible electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) system. Up to 3 MW of 2 nd harmonic EC power in ordinary (O 2 ) or extraordinary (X 2 ) polarization can be injected from TCV low-field side via six independently steerable launchers. In addition, up to 1.5 MW of 3 rd harmonic EC power (X 3 ) can be launched along the EC resonance from the top of TCV vacuum vessel. At high density, standard ECH and ECCD are prevented by the appearance of a cutoff layer screening the access to the EC resonance at the plasma center. As a consequence, less than 50% of TCV density operational domain is accessible to X 2 and X 3 ECH. The electron Bernstein waves (EBW) have been proposed to overcome this limitation. EBW is an electrostatic mode propagating beyond the plasma cutoff without upper density limit. Since it cannot propagate in vacuum, it has to be excited by mode conversion of EC waves in the plasma. Efficient electron Bernstein waves heating (EBH) and current drive (EBCD) were previously performed in several fusion devices, in particular in the W7-AS stellarator and in the MAST spherical tokamak. In TCV, the conditions for an efficient O-X-B mode conversion (i.e. a steep density gradient at the O 2 plasma cutoff) are met at the edge of high confinement (H-mode) plasmas characterized by the appearance of a pedestal in the electron temperature and density profiles. TCV experiments have demonstrated the first EBW coupling to overdense plasmas in a medium aspect-ratio tokamak via O-X-B mode conversion. This thesis work focuses on several aspects of ECH and EBH in low and high density plasmas. Firstly, the experimental optimum angles for the O-X-B mode conversion is successfully compared to the full-wave mode conversion calculation

  19. Polyadenylation state microarray (PASTA) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Traude H; Preiss, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotic mRNAs terminate in a poly(A) tail that serves important roles in mRNA utilization. In the cytoplasm, the poly(A) tail promotes both mRNA stability and translation, and these functions are frequently regulated through changes in tail length. To identify the scope of poly(A) tail length control in a transcriptome, we developed the polyadenylation state microarray (PASTA) method. It involves the purification of mRNA based on poly(A) tail length using thermal elution from poly(U) sepharose, followed by microarray analysis of the resulting fractions. In this chapter we detail our PASTA approach and describe some methods for bulk and mRNA-specific poly(A) tail length measurements of use to monitor the procedure and independently verify the microarray data.

  20. Compensated readout for high-density MOS-gated memristor crossbar array

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Leakage current is one of the main challenges facing high-density MOS-gated memristor arrays. In this study, we show that leakage current ruins the memory readout process for high-density arrays, and analyze the tradeoff between the array density and its power consumption. We propose a novel readout technique and its underlying circuitry, which is able to compensate for the transistor leakage-current effect in the high-density gated memristor array.

  1. Towards high-density matter with relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, Shoji.

    1990-04-01

    Recent progress in nucleus-nucleus collisions at BNL and CERN suggests a hint that the formation of high-density nuclear matter could be possible with relativistic heavy-ion beams. What is the maximum density that can be achieved by heavy-ion collisions? Are there data which show evidence or hints on the formation of high density matter? Why is the research of high-density interesting? How about the future possibilities on this subject? These points are discussed. (author)

  2. High Channel Count, High Density Microphone Arrays for Wind Tunnel Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation (IC2) proposes the development of high channel count, high density, reduced cost per channel, directional microphone...

  3. Identification and mapping of linear antibody epitopes in human serum albumin using high-density Peptide arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajla Bruntse Hansen

    Full Text Available We have recently developed a high-density photolithographic, peptide array technology with a theoretical upper limit of 2 million different peptides per array of 2 cm(2. Here, we have used this to perform complete and exhaustive analyses of linear B cell epitopes of a medium sized protein target using human serum albumin (HSA as an example. All possible overlapping 15-mers from HSA were synthesized and probed with a commercially available polyclonal rabbit anti-HSA antibody preparation. To allow for identification of even the weakest epitopes and at the same time perform a detailed characterization of key residues involved in antibody binding, the array also included complete single substitution scans (i.e. including each of the 20 common amino acids at each position of each 15-mer peptide. As specificity controls, all possible 15-mer peptides from bovine serum albumin (BSA and from rabbit serum albumin (RSA were included as well. The resulting layout contained more than 200.000 peptide fields and could be synthesized in a single array on a microscope slide. More than 20 linear epitope candidates were identified and characterized at high resolution i.e. identifying which amino acids in which positions were needed, or not needed, for antibody interaction. As expected, moderate cross-reaction with some peptides in BSA was identified whereas no cross-reaction was observed with peptides from RSA. We conclude that high-density peptide microarrays are a very powerful methodology to identify and characterize linear antibody epitopes, and should advance detailed description of individual specificities at the single antibody level as well as serologic analysis at the proteome-wide level.

  4. Identification and mapping of linear antibody epitopes in human serum albumin using high-density Peptide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lajla Bruntse; Buus, Soren; Schafer-Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We have recently developed a high-density photolithographic, peptide array technology with a theoretical upper limit of 2 million different peptides per array of 2 cm(2). Here, we have used this to perform complete and exhaustive analyses of linear B cell epitopes of a medium sized protein target using human serum albumin (HSA) as an example. All possible overlapping 15-mers from HSA were synthesized and probed with a commercially available polyclonal rabbit anti-HSA antibody preparation. To allow for identification of even the weakest epitopes and at the same time perform a detailed characterization of key residues involved in antibody binding, the array also included complete single substitution scans (i.e. including each of the 20 common amino acids) at each position of each 15-mer peptide. As specificity controls, all possible 15-mer peptides from bovine serum albumin (BSA) and from rabbit serum albumin (RSA) were included as well. The resulting layout contained more than 200.000 peptide fields and could be synthesized in a single array on a microscope slide. More than 20 linear epitope candidates were identified and characterized at high resolution i.e. identifying which amino acids in which positions were needed, or not needed, for antibody interaction. As expected, moderate cross-reaction with some peptides in BSA was identified whereas no cross-reaction was observed with peptides from RSA. We conclude that high-density peptide microarrays are a very powerful methodology to identify and characterize linear antibody epitopes, and should advance detailed description of individual specificities at the single antibody level as well as serologic analysis at the proteome-wide level.

  5. Direct calibration of PICKY-designed microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Pamela C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few microarrays have been quantitatively calibrated to identify optimal hybridization conditions because it is difficult to precisely determine the hybridization characteristics of a microarray using biologically variable cDNA samples. Results Using synthesized samples with known concentrations of specific oligonucleotides, a series of microarray experiments was conducted to evaluate microarrays designed by PICKY, an oligo microarray design software tool, and to test a direct microarray calibration method based on the PICKY-predicted, thermodynamically closest nontarget information. The complete set of microarray experiment results is archived in the GEO database with series accession number GSE14717. Additional data files and Perl programs described in this paper can be obtained from the website http://www.complex.iastate.edu under the PICKY Download area. Conclusion PICKY-designed microarray probes are highly reliable over a wide range of hybridization temperatures and sample concentrations. The microarray calibration method reported here allows researchers to experimentally optimize their hybridization conditions. Because this method is straightforward, uses existing microarrays and relatively inexpensive synthesized samples, it can be used by any lab that uses microarrays designed by PICKY. In addition, other microarrays can be reanalyzed by PICKY to obtain the thermodynamically closest nontarget information for calibration.

  6. Current Knowledge on Microarray Technology - An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This paper reviews basics and updates of each microarray technology and serves to .... through protein microarrays. Protein microarrays also known as protein chips are nothing but grids that ... conditioned media, patient sera, plasma and urine. Clontech ... based antibody arrays) is similar to membrane-based antibody ...

  7. Diagnostic and analytical applications of protein microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufva, Hans Martin; Christensen, C.B.V.

    2005-01-01

    DNA microarrays have changed the field of biomedical sciences over the past 10 years. For several reasons, antibody and other protein microarrays have not developed at the same rate. However, protein and antibody arrays have emerged as a powerful tool to complement DNA microarrays during the post...

  8. Low voltage electroosmotic pump for high density integration into microfabricated fluidic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuck, F.C.A.; Staufer, U.

    2011-01-01

    A low voltage electroosmotic (eo) pump suitable for high density integration into microfabricated fluidic systems has been developed. The high density integration of the eo pump required a small footprint as well as a specific on-chip design to ventilate the electrolyzed gases emerging at the

  9. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) gene expression oligo microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenart, Stéphane; Ndong, Yves-Placide Assoumou; Duarte, Jorge; Rivière, Nathalie; Wilmer, Jeroen; van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Lucau, Anca; Cariou, Emmanuelle; Neutelings, Godfrey; Gutierrez, Laurent; Chabbert, Brigitte; Guillot, Xavier; Tavernier, Reynald; Hawkins, Simon; Thomasset, Brigitte

    2010-10-21

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars) and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars) used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K) fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples). A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well as between two contrasted flax varieties

  10. Development and validation of a flax (Linum usitatissimum L. gene expression oligo microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Laurent

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. has been cultivated for around 9,000 years and is therefore one of the oldest cultivated species. Today, flax is still grown for its oil (oil-flax or linseed cultivars and its cellulose-rich fibres (fibre-flax cultivars used for high-value linen garments and composite materials. Despite the wide industrial use of flax-derived products, and our actual understanding of the regulation of both wood fibre production and oil biosynthesis more information must be acquired in both domains. Recent advances in genomics are now providing opportunities to improve our fundamental knowledge of these complex processes. In this paper we report the development and validation of a high-density oligo microarray platform dedicated to gene expression analyses in flax. Results Nine different RNA samples obtained from flax inner- and outer-stems, seeds, leaves and roots were used to generate a collection of 1,066,481 ESTs by massive parallel pyrosequencing. Sequences were assembled into 59,626 unigenes and 48,021 sequences were selected for oligo design and high-density microarray (Nimblegen 385K fabrication with eight, non-overlapping 25-mers oligos per unigene. 18 independent experiments were used to evaluate the hybridization quality, precision, specificity and accuracy and all results confirmed the high technical quality of our microarray platform. Cross-validation of microarray data was carried out using quantitative qRT-PCR. Nine target genes were selected on the basis of microarray results and reflected the whole range of fold change (both up-regulated and down-regulated genes in different samples. A statistically significant positive correlation was obtained comparing expression levels for each target gene across all biological replicates both in qRT-PCR and microarray results. Further experiments illustrated the capacity of our arrays to detect differential gene expression in a variety of flax tissues as well

  11. Genome-wide transcription analyses in rice using tiling microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Xiangfeng; Stolc, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    . We report here a full-genome transcription analysis of the indica rice subspecies using high-density oligonucleotide tiling microarrays. Our results provided expression data support for the existence of 35,970 (81.9%) annotated gene models and identified 5,464 unique transcribed intergenic regions...... that share similar compositional properties with the annotated exons and have significant homology to other plant proteins. Elucidating and mapping of all transcribed regions revealed an association between global transcription and cytological chromosome features, and an overall similarity of transcriptional......Sequencing and computational annotation revealed several features, including high gene numbers, unusual composition of the predicted genes and a large number of genes lacking homology to known genes, that distinguish the rice (Oryza sativa) genome from that of other fully sequenced model species...

  12. Harshlight: a "corrective make-up" program for microarray chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittkowski Knut M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microscopists are familiar with many blemishes that fluorescence images can have due to dust and debris, glass flaws, uneven distribution of fluids or surface coatings, etc. Microarray scans do show similar artifacts, which might affect subsequent analysis. Although all but the starkest blemishes are hard to find by the unaided eye, particularly in high-density oligonucleotide arrays (HDONAs, few tools are available to help with the detection of those defects. Results We develop a novel tool, Harshlight, for the automatic detection and masking of blemishes in HDONA microarray chips. Harshlight uses a combination of statistic and image processing methods to identify three different types of defects: localized blemishes affecting a few probes, diffuse defects affecting larger areas, and extended defects which may invalidate an entire chip. Conclusion We demonstrate the use of Harshlight can materially improve analysis of HDONA chips, especially for experiments with subtle changes between samples. For the widely used MAS5 algorithm, we show that compact blemishes cause an average of 8 gene expression values per chip to change by more than 50%, two of them by more than twofold; our masking algorithm restores about two thirds of this damage. Large-scale artifacts are successfully detected and eliminated.

  13. Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars and High Density Behaviour of Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M.

    1999-01-01

    We study the influence of a high density behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy on a kaon condensation in neutron stars. We find that the symmetry energy typical for several realistic nuclear potentials, which decreases at high densities, inhibits kaon condensation for weaker kaon-nucleon couplings at any density. There exists a threshold coupling above which the kaon condensate forms at densities exceeding some critical value. This is in contrast to the case of rising symmetry energy, as e.g. for relativistic mean field models, when the kaon condensate can form for any coupling at a sufficiently high density. Properties of the condensate are also different in both cases. (author)

  14. Kaon Condensation in Neutron Stars and High Density Behaviour of Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, S.; Kutschera, M.

    1999-04-01

    We study the influence of a high density behaviour of the nuclear symmetry energy on a kaon condensation in neutron stars. We find that the symmetry energy typical for several realistic nuclear potentials, which decreases at high densities, inhibits kaon condensation for weaker kaon-nucleon couplings at any density. There exists a threshold coupling above which the kaon condensate forms at densities exceeding some critical value. This is in contrast to the case of rising symmetry energy, as e.g. for relativistic mean field models, when the kaon condensate can form for any coupling at a sufficiently high density. Properties of the condensate are also different in both cases

  15. Improvements in gastric diagnosis by using high density contrast media with low viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toischer, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    In a retrospective clinical study, 150 unselected double contrast examinations of the stomach using conventional contrast media (100 g/100 ml barium sulphate) were compared with a similar number of examinations using a high density contrast medium of flow viscosity (250 g/100 ml barium sulphate). The high density contrast medium was distinctly better for demonstrating detail of the gastric mucosa. The uneveness of coating and instability of the older high density contrast media was observed in 15.5% of cases and, in no instance, did this make it impossible to reach a diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  16. The high density and high βpol disruption mechanism on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; Manickam, J.; McGuire, K.M.; Monticello, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Park, W.; Taylor, G.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of disruptions on TFTR have been extended to include high density disruptions as well as the high β pol disruptions. The data strongly suggests that the (m,n)=(1,1) mode plays an important role in both types of disruptions. Further, for the first time, it is unambiguously shown, using a fast electron cyclotron emission (ECE) instrument for the electron temperature profile measurements, that the (m,n)=(1,1) precursor to the high density disruptions has a 'cold bubble' structure. The precursor to the major disruption at high density resembles the 'vacuum bubble' model of disruptions first proposed by Kadomtsev and Pogutse. (author) 2 refs., 2 figs

  17. Expression profiling on high-density DNA grids to detect novel targets in dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmann, M.

    2000-10-01

    Gene expression analyzes on a large scale using DNA microarrays is a novel approach to study transcription of thousands of genes in parallel. By comparing gene expression profiles of different cell-types and of cells in different activation, novel regulatory networks will be identified that are unique to a cell-type and hence, important in its biological function. Among the differentially expressed genes many novel drug targets will be found. The Genetic department of the Novartis Research Institute was following this approach to identify novel genes, which are critical in the antigen presenting function of DCs and could become promising drug targets. Drugs that modulate effector functions of DCs towards induction of energy or tolerance in T-cells could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. By using specific robotics equipment high-density cDNA grids on nylon membranes have been produced for hybridizations with various radioactive labeled DNA probes. By our format, based on 384 well plates and limited by the resolution power of our current image analysis software, 27.648 cDNA clones, bacterial colonies or pure DNA, were spotted on one filter. For RNA profiling, we generated filters containing a collection of genes expressed in peripheral blood DCs or monocytes and characterized by oligonucleotide fingerprinting (ONF) as being differentially expressed. The gene collection contained many unknown genes. Sequence analysis of to date 18.000 cDNA clones led to an estimate of 5.000 non-redundant genes being represented in the collection. 10 % of them are either completely unknown or homologous to rare ESTs (expressed sequence tags) in the public EST database. These clones occurred predominantly in small fingerprint clusters and were therefore assumed to be rarely expressed in DCs or monocytes. Some of those genes may become novel drug targets if their expression is DC specific or induced by external stimuli driving DCs into

  18. Assessing the functional properties of high-density lipoproteins : an emerging concept in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triolo, Michela; Annema, Wijtske; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Although plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol correlate inversely with the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, results from recent epidemiological, genetic and pharmacological intervention studies resulted in a shift of concept. Rather than HDL

  19. Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein increases the antiatherogenic potential of high density lipoproteins in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress

  20. High-density lipoproteins and adrenal steroidogenesis : A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenwerf, Edward; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Links, Thera P.; Kema, Ido P.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    BACKGROUND: Cholesterol trafficked within plasma lipoproteins, in particular high-density lipoproteins (HDL), may represent an important source of cholesterol that is required for adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on a urinary gas chromatography method, compromised adrenal function has been suggested

  1. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  2. Evaluating Approaches to Rendering Braille Text on a High-Density Pin Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash, Valerie S; Russomanno, Alexander; Gillespie, R Brent; OModhrain, Sile

    2017-10-13

    Refreshable displays for tactile graphics are typically composed of pins that have smaller diameters and spacing than standard braille dots. We investigated configurations of high-density pins to form braille text on such displays using non-refreshable stimuli produced with a 3D printer. Normal dot braille (diameter 1.5 mm) was compared to high-density dot braille (diameter 0.75 mm) wherein each normal dot was rendered by high-density simulated pins alone or in a cluster of pins configured in a diamond, X, or square; and to "blobs" that could result from covering normal braille and high-density multi-pin configurations with a thin membrane. Twelve blind participants read MNREAD sentences displayed in these conditions. For high-density simulated pins, single pins were as quickly and easily read as normal braille, but diamond, X, and square multi-pin configurations were slower and/or harder to read than normal braille. We therefore conclude that as long as center-to-center dot spacing and dot placement is maintained, the dot diameter may be open to variability for rendering braille on a high density tactile display.

  3. Clinical significance of diminution of high-density areas in basal cisterns following acute aneurysmal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Takeda, Rihei; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Sato, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Hidetoshi

    1983-01-01

    We analyzed the sequential changes in the high density in basal cisterns in the acute stage of aneurysmal bleeding. We could recognize Group 3 (clot or thick layer), according to Fisher's classification, in 66.3% of the intracranial aneurysms at admission (83 cases). In the early stage of an intracranial aneurysm, a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was detected in all the patients on CT. We evaluated 40 cases of Group 3 sequentially on CT. This investigation showed that 55% of the Grade I--Ii group, 27.3% of the Grade III group, and 11.1% of the Grade IV--V group changed to Group 2(thin or diffuse pattern) in approximately 20 hours on the average. As for the correlation between the high density in basal cisterns and the neurological condition (Hunt and Hess), we found a neurological improvement in the decreased-high-density group. The unchanged- high-density group showed deterioration. Compared with the decreased-high-density group, the unchanged group showed a greater increase in the CVI (Cerebro Ventricular Index). RI ( 111 In) cisternography also showed a disturbance of the CSF circulation. To lower the vasospasm it is important to decrease the high density in an early stage by carrying out CSF. It was considered to be prognostic when a CT scan was performed within 24 hours after SAH. (author)

  4. Potential formation and confinement in high density plasma on the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.

    2002-01-01

    After the attainment of doubling of the density due to the potential confinement, GAMMA 10 experiments have been directed to realization of a high density plasma and also to study dependence of the confining potential and confinement time on the plasma density. These problems are important to understand the physics of potential formation in tandem mirrors and also for the development of a tandem mirror reactor. We reported high density plasma production by using an ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency in the last IAEA Conference. However, the diamagnetic signal of the high density plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) was applied due to some instabilities. Recently, the high density plasma production was much improved by adjusting the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions, which enabled us to produce a high density plasma without degradation of the diamagnetic signal with ECRH and also to study the density dependence. In this paper we report production of a high density plasma and dependence of the confining potential and the confinement time on the density. (author)

  5. Design, construction and validation of a Plasmodium vivax microarray for the transcriptome profiling of clinical isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Boopathi, Pon Arunachalam

    2016-10-09

    High density oligonucleotide microarrays have been used on Plasmodium vivax field isolates to estimate whole genome expression. However, no microarray platform has been experimentally optimized for studying the transcriptome of field isolates. In the present study, we adopted both bioinformatics and experimental testing approaches to select best optimized probes suitable for detecting parasite transcripts from field samples and included them in designing a custom 15K P. vivax microarray. This microarray has long oligonucleotide probes (60 mer) that were in-situ synthesized onto glass slides using Agilent SurePrint technology and has been developed into an 8X15K format (8 identical arrays on a single slide). Probes in this array were experimentally validated and represents 4180 P. vivax genes in sense orientation, of which 1219 genes have also probes in antisense orientation. Validation of the 15K array by using field samples (n =14) has shown 99% of parasite transcript detection from any of the samples. Correlation analysis between duplicate probes (n = 85) present in the arrays showed perfect correlation (r(2) = 0.98) indicating the reproducibility. Multiple probes representing the same gene exhibited similar kind of expression pattern across the samples (positive correlation, r >= 0.6). Comparison of hybridization data with the previous studies and quantitative real-time PCR experiments were performed to highlight the microarray validation procedure. This array is unique in its design, and results indicate that the array is sensitive and reproducible. Hence, this microarray could be a valuable functional genomics tool to generate reliable expression data from P. vivax field isolates. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Design, construction and validation of a Plasmodium vivax microarray for the transcriptome profiling of clinical isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Boopathi, Pon Arunachalam; Subudhi, Amit; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Mugasimangalam, Raja Chinnadurai; Kochar, Sanjay Kumar; Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar; Das, Ashis

    2016-01-01

    High density oligonucleotide microarrays have been used on Plasmodium vivax field isolates to estimate whole genome expression. However, no microarray platform has been experimentally optimized for studying the transcriptome of field isolates. In the present study, we adopted both bioinformatics and experimental testing approaches to select best optimized probes suitable for detecting parasite transcripts from field samples and included them in designing a custom 15K P. vivax microarray. This microarray has long oligonucleotide probes (60 mer) that were in-situ synthesized onto glass slides using Agilent SurePrint technology and has been developed into an 8X15K format (8 identical arrays on a single slide). Probes in this array were experimentally validated and represents 4180 P. vivax genes in sense orientation, of which 1219 genes have also probes in antisense orientation. Validation of the 15K array by using field samples (n =14) has shown 99% of parasite transcript detection from any of the samples. Correlation analysis between duplicate probes (n = 85) present in the arrays showed perfect correlation (r(2) = 0.98) indicating the reproducibility. Multiple probes representing the same gene exhibited similar kind of expression pattern across the samples (positive correlation, r >= 0.6). Comparison of hybridization data with the previous studies and quantitative real-time PCR experiments were performed to highlight the microarray validation procedure. This array is unique in its design, and results indicate that the array is sensitive and reproducible. Hence, this microarray could be a valuable functional genomics tool to generate reliable expression data from P. vivax field isolates. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Assessment of a direct hybridization microarray strategy for comprehensive monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkec, Aydin; Lucas, Stuart J; Karacanli, Burçin; Baykut, Aykut; Yuksel, Hakki

    2016-03-01

    Detection of GMO material in crop and food samples is the primary step in GMO monitoring and regulation, with the increasing number of GM events in the world market requiring detection solutions with high multiplexing capacity. In this study, we test the suitability of a high-density oligonucleotide microarray platform for direct, quantitative detection of GMOs found in the Turkish feed market. We tested 1830 different 60nt probes designed to cover the GM cassettes from 12 different GM cultivars (3 soya, 9 maize), as well as plant species-specific and contamination controls, and developed a data analysis method aiming to provide maximum throughput and sensitivity. The system was able specifically to identify each cultivar, and in 10/12 cases was sensitive enough to detect GMO DNA at concentrations of ⩽1%. These GMOs could also be quantified using the microarray, as their fluorescence signals increased linearly with GMO concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A pilot study of transcription unit analysis in rice using oligonucleotide tiling-path microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolc, Viktor; Li, Lei; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2005-01-01

    As the international efforts to sequence the rice genome are completed, an immediate challenge and opportunity is to comprehensively and accurately define all transcription units in the rice genome. Here we describe a strategy of using high-density oligonucleotide tiling-path microarrays to map...... transcription of the japonica rice genome. In a pilot experiment to test this approach, one array representing the reverse strand of the last 11.2 Mb sequence of chromosome 10 was analyzed in detail based on a mathematical model developed in this study. Analysis of the array data detected 77% of the reference...... gene models in a mixture of four RNA populations. Moreover, significant transcriptional activities were found in many of the previously annotated intergenic regions. These preliminary results demonstrate the utility of genome tiling microarrays in evaluating annotated rice gene models...

  9. Advanced microarray technologies for clinical diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, Anke

    2011-01-01

    DNA microarrays become increasingly important in the field of clinical diagnostics. These microarrays, also called DNA chips, are small solid substrates, typically having a maximum surface area of a few cm2, onto which many spots are arrayed in a pre-determined pattern. Each of these spots contains

  10. Identification of Common Bacterial Antigenic Markers From Bovine Digital Dermatitis Lesions Using Meta-Transcriptomics in Combination With High-Density Peptide-Microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin W.; Marcatili, Paoli; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious cause of lameness in dairy cattle, and a major contributing factor to welfare problems and economic losses in the dairy cattle industry worldwide. DD is a disease that involves chronic dermal inflammatory processes and destruction...... of collagenous and connective tissues. Multiple Treponema species, many of which are not-yet-cultivable, are strongly implicated in disease progression. Despite the economic and welfare importance of this disease, no effective vaccine is available; and there is presently very little knowledge concerning...... animal. Future studies will show if these proteins represent candidates for the development of novel biomarkers or vaccines...

  11. Identification of common bacterial antigenic markers from bovine digital dermatitis lesions using meta-transcriptomics in combination with high-density peptide-microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Marcatili, Paolo; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    Bovine digital dermatitis (DD) is the most important infectious cause of lameness in dairy cattle, and a major contributing factor to welfare problems and economic losses in the dairy cattle industry worldwide. DD is a disease that involves chronic dermal inflammatory processes and destruction...... of collagenous and connective tissues. Multiple Treponema species, many of which are not-yet-cultivable, are strongly implicated in disease progression. Despite the economic and welfare importance of this disease, no effective vaccine is available; and there is presently very little knowledge concerning...... animal. Future studies will show if these proteins represent candidates for the development of novel biomarkers or vaccines....

  12. Prevention of hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats by exercise training: effects on gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues determined by high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Michele; Gregersen, Soeren; Kruhoeffer, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    , blood samples, soleus muscle, liver, visceral fat (epididymal fat pads), and islet tissue were collected. Gene expression was quantified with Affymetrix RG-U34A array (16 chips). Exercise training ameliorates the development of hyperglycemia and reduces plasma free fatty acid and the level of glucagon...

  13. Rare copy number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity revealed in ameloblastomas by high-density whole-genome microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Duarte, Alessandra Pires; Villacis, Rolando A; Guimarães, Bruna V A; Duarte, Luiz Cláudio Pires; Rogatto, Sílvia R; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri

    2017-05-01

    Ameloblastoma (unicystic, UA, or multicystic, MA) is a rare tumor associated with bone destruction and facial deformity. Its malignant counterpart is the ameloblastic carcinoma (AC). The BRAFV600E mutation is highly prevalent in all these tumors subtypes and cannot account for their different clinical behaviors. We assessed copy number alterations (CNAs) and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) in UA (n = 2), MA (n = 3), and AC (n = 1) using the CytoScan HD Array (Affymetrix) and the BRAFV600E status. RT-qPCR was applied in four selected genes (B4GALT1, BAG1, PKD1L2, and PPP2R5A) covered by rare alterations, also including three MA and four normal oral tissues. Fifty-seven CNAs and cnLOH were observed in the ameloblastomas and six CNAs in the AC. Seven of the CNAs were rare (six in UA and one in MA), four of them encompassing genes (gains of 7q11.21, 1q32.3, and 9p21.1 and loss of 16q23.2). We found positive correlation between rare CNA gene dosage and the expression of B4GALT1, BAG1, PKD1L2, and PPP2R5A. The AC and 1 UA were BRAF wild-type; however, this UA showed rare genomic alterations encompassing genes associated with RAF/MAPK activation. Ameloblastomas show rare CNAs and cnLOH, presenting a specific genomic profile with no overlapping of the rare alterations among UA, MA, and AC. These genomic changes might play a role in tumor evolution and in BRAFV600E-negative tumors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Rare copy number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity revealed in ameloblastomas by high-density whole-genome microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Duarte, Alessandra Pires; Villacis, Rolando A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ameloblastoma (unicystic, UA, or multicystic, MA) is a rare tumor associated with bone destruction and facial deformity. Its malignant counterpart is the ameloblastic carcinoma (AC). The BRAFV600E mutation is highly prevalent in all these tumors subtypes and cannot account for their d...

  15. A robotics platform for automated batch fabrication of high density, microfluidics-based DNA microarrays, with applications to single cell, multiplex assays of secreted proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Habib; Sutherland, Alex; Shin, Young Shik; Hwang, Kiwook; Qin, Lidong; Krom, Russell-John; Heath, James R.

    2011-09-01

    Microfluidics flow-patterning has been utilized for the construction of chip-scale miniaturized DNA and protein barcode arrays. Such arrays have been used for specific clinical and fundamental investigations in which many proteins are assayed from single cells or other small sample sizes. However, flow-patterned arrays are hand-prepared, and so are impractical for broad applications. We describe an integrated robotics/microfluidics platform for the automated preparation of such arrays, and we apply it to the batch fabrication of up to eighteen chips of flow-patterned DNA barcodes. The resulting substrates are comparable in quality with hand-made arrays and exhibit excellent substrate-to-substrate consistency. We demonstrate the utility and reproducibility of robotics-patterned barcodes by utilizing two flow-patterned chips for highly parallel assays of a panel of secreted proteins from single macrophage cells.

  16. A robotics platform for automated batch fabrication of high density, microfluidics-based DNA microarrays, with applications to single cell, multiplex assays of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Habib; Sutherland, Alex; Shin, Young Shik; Hwang, Kiwook; Qin, Lidong; Krom, Russell-John; Heath, James R

    2011-09-01

    Microfluidics flow-patterning has been utilized for the construction of chip-scale miniaturized DNA and protein barcode arrays. Such arrays have been used for specific clinical and fundamental investigations in which many proteins are assayed from single cells or other small sample sizes. However, flow-patterned arrays are hand-prepared, and so are impractical for broad applications. We describe an integrated robotics/microfluidics platform for the automated preparation of such arrays, and we apply it to the batch fabrication of up to eighteen chips of flow-patterned DNA barcodes. The resulting substrates are comparable in quality with hand-made arrays and exhibit excellent substrate-to-substrate consistency. We demonstrate the utility and reproducibility of robotics-patterned barcodes by utilizing two flow-patterned chips for highly parallel assays of a panel of secreted proteins from single macrophage cells. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  17. Chromosomal microarrays testing in children with developmental disabilities and congenital anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Lay-Son

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical use of microarray-based techniques for the analysis of many developmental disorders has emerged during the last decade. Thus, chromosomal microarray has been positioned as a first-tier test. This study reports the first experience in a Chilean cohort. METHODS: Chilean patients with developmental disabilities and congenital anomalies were studied with a high-density microarray (CytoScan(tm HD Array, Affymetrix, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA. Patients had previous cytogenetic studies with either a normal result or a poorly characterized anomaly. RESULTS: This study tested 40 patients selected by two or more criteria, including: major congenital anomalies, facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Copy number variants (CNVs were found in 72.5% of patients, while a pathogenic CNV was found in 25% of patients and a CNV of uncertain clinical significance was found in 2.5% of patients. CONCLUSION: Chromosomal microarray analysis is a useful and powerful tool for diagnosis of developmental diseases, by allowing accurate diagnosis, improving the diagnosis rate, and discovering new etiologies. The higher cost is a limitation for widespread use in this setting.

  18. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  19. Liver lipase and high-density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein changes after incubation of human serum with rat liver lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, P H; Scheek, L M; Jansen, H

    1983-05-16

    Human sera were incubated with rat liver lipase after inactivation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and the changes in serum lipoprotein composition were measured. In the presence of liver lipase serum triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed. The main changes in the concentrations of these lipids were found in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. Subfractionation of high-density lipoprotein by rate-zonal ultracentrifugation showed a prominent decrease in all constituents of high-density lipoprotein2, a smaller decrease in the 'light' high-density lipoprotein3 and an increase in the 'heavy' high-density lipoprotein3. These data support a concept in which liver lipase is involved in high-density lipoprotein2 phospholipid and triacylglycerol catabolism and suggest that as a result of this action high-density lipoprotein2 is converted into high-density lipoprotein3.

  20. The EADGENE Microarray Data Analysis Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Jaffrézic, Florence; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2007-01-01

    Microarray analyses have become an important tool in animal genomics. While their use is becoming widespread, there is still a lot of ongoing research regarding the analysis of microarray data. In the context of a European Network of Excellence, 31 researchers representing 14 research groups from...... 10 countries performed and discussed the statistical analyses of real and simulated 2-colour microarray data that were distributed among participants. The real data consisted of 48 microarrays from a disease challenge experiment in dairy cattle, while the simulated data consisted of 10 microarrays...... statistical weights, to omitting a large number of spots or omitting entire slides. Surprisingly, these very different approaches gave quite similar results when applied to the simulated data, although not all participating groups analysed both real and simulated data. The workshop was very successful...

  1. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  2. A novel method for the fabrication of a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for fabricating a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array (MEA chip. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and thermal chemical vapor deposition. The device was characterized using electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and potential transient measurements. Through-silicon vias (TSVs were fabricated and partially filled with polycrystalline silicon to allow electrical connection from the high-density electrodes to a stimulator microchip. In response to the demand for higher resolution implants, we have developed a unique process to obtain a high-density electrode array by making the microelectrodes smaller in size and designing new ways of routing the electrodes to current sources. Keywords: Microelectrode array, Neural implant, Carbon nanotubes, Through-silicon via interconnects, Microfabrication

  3. High-Density Chemical Intercalation of Zero-Valent Copper into Bi 2 Se 3 Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Koski, Kristie J.; Cha, Judy J.; Reed, Bryan W.; Wessells, Colin D.; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    A major goal of intercalation chemistry is to intercalate high densities of guest species without disrupting the host lattice. Many intercalant concentrations, however, are limited by the charge of the guest species. Here we have developed a general solution-based chemical method for intercalating extraordinarily high densities of zero-valent copper metal into layered Bi 2Se 3 nanoribbons. Up to 60 atom % copper (Cu 7.5Bi 2Se 3) can be intercalated with no disruption to the host lattice using a solution disproportionation redox reaction. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Reprocessing ability of high density fuels for research and test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.; Belieres, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a new high density fuel is becoming a key issue for Research Reactors operators. Such a new fuel should be a Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) fuel with a high density, to improve present in core performances. It must be compatible with the reprocessing in an industrial plant to provide a steady back-end solution. Within the framework of a work group CEA/CERCA/COGEMA on new fuel development for Research Reactors, COGEMA has performed an evaluation of the reprocessing ability of some fuel dispersants selected as good candidates. The results will allow US to classify these fuel dispersants from a reprocessing ability point of view. (author)

  5. Slow crack growth in post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Yang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study of slow crack growth behavior of post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene blended with virgin high-density polyethylene copolymer has been done. The study has been performed under constant load and in baths of distilled water at 40, 60, 80°C. The specimen used is notched with side grooves. The test results of crack growth have been analyzed using linear fracture mechanics and the rate process theory. The results show that the resistance to crack growth increases ...

  6. High-Density Chemical Intercalation of Zero-Valent Copper into Bi 2 Se 3 Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Koski, Kristie J.

    2012-05-09

    A major goal of intercalation chemistry is to intercalate high densities of guest species without disrupting the host lattice. Many intercalant concentrations, however, are limited by the charge of the guest species. Here we have developed a general solution-based chemical method for intercalating extraordinarily high densities of zero-valent copper metal into layered Bi 2Se 3 nanoribbons. Up to 60 atom % copper (Cu 7.5Bi 2Se 3) can be intercalated with no disruption to the host lattice using a solution disproportionation redox reaction. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Properties of high-density matter in the electroweak symmetric phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, D.; Goyal, A.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the bulk properties of matter at high densities and finite temperatures in the phase where electroweak symmetry is exact and fermions are massless, by taking the strong interactions into account perturbatively to lowest order in the quark-gluon chromodynamic coupling constant α c . We also discuss the possibility of a phase transition of strange quark matter into this high-density matter in the electroweak symmetric phase at densities likely to be present in the core of dense neutron stars or collapsing stars. Finally, we study the properties of finite-size chunks of this matter by taking surface effects into account and give an estimate of the surface tension

  8. MARS: Microarray analysis, retrieval, and storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheideler Marcel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis has become a widely used technique for the study of gene-expression patterns on a genomic scale. As more and more laboratories are adopting microarray technology, there is a need for powerful and easy to use microarray databases facilitating array fabrication, labeling, hybridization, and data analysis. The wealth of data generated by this high throughput approach renders adequate database and analysis tools crucial for the pursuit of insights into the transcriptomic behavior of cells. Results MARS (Microarray Analysis and Retrieval System provides a comprehensive MIAME supportive suite for storing, retrieving, and analyzing multi color microarray data. The system comprises a laboratory information management system (LIMS, a quality control management, as well as a sophisticated user management system. MARS is fully integrated into an analytical pipeline of microarray image analysis, normalization, gene expression clustering, and mapping of gene expression data onto biological pathways. The incorporation of ontologies and the use of MAGE-ML enables an export of studies stored in MARS to public repositories and other databases accepting these documents. Conclusion We have developed an integrated system tailored to serve the specific needs of microarray based research projects using a unique fusion of Web based and standalone applications connected to the latest J2EE application server technology. The presented system is freely available for academic and non-profit institutions. More information can be found at http://genome.tugraz.at.

  9. Annotating breast cancer microarray samples using ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfang; Li, Xin; Yoon, Victoria; Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the most common cancer among women, breast cancer results from the accumulation of mutations in essential genes. Recent advance in high-throughput gene expression microarray technology has inspired researchers to use the technology to assist breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment prediction. However, the high dimensionality of microarray experiments and public access of data from many experiments have caused inconsistencies which initiated the development of controlled terminologies and ontologies for annotating microarray experiments, such as the standard microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) ontology (MO). In this paper, we developed BCM-CO, an ontology tailored specifically for indexing clinical annotations of breast cancer microarray samples from the NCI Thesaurus. Our research showed that the coverage of NCI Thesaurus is very limited with respect to i) terms used by researchers to describe breast cancer histology (covering 22 out of 48 histology terms); ii) breast cancer cell lines (covering one out of 12 cell lines); and iii) classes corresponding to the breast cancer grading and staging. By incorporating a wider range of those terms into BCM-CO, we were able to indexed breast cancer microarray samples from GEO using BCM-CO and MGED ontology and developed a prototype system with web interface that allows the retrieval of microarray data based on the ontology annotations. PMID:18999108

  10. Simulation of microarray data with realistic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmussola Antti

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technologies have become common tools in biological research. As a result, a need for effective computational methods for data analysis has emerged. Numerous different algorithms have been proposed for analyzing the data. However, an objective evaluation of the proposed algorithms is not possible due to the lack of biological ground truth information. To overcome this fundamental problem, the use of simulated microarray data for algorithm validation has been proposed. Results We present a microarray simulation model which can be used to validate different kinds of data analysis algorithms. The proposed model is unique in the sense that it includes all the steps that affect the quality of real microarray data. These steps include the simulation of biological ground truth data, applying biological and measurement technology specific error models, and finally simulating the microarray slide manufacturing and hybridization. After all these steps are taken into account, the simulated data has realistic biological and statistical characteristics. The applicability of the proposed model is demonstrated by several examples. Conclusion The proposed microarray simulation model is modular and can be used in different kinds of applications. It includes several error models that have been proposed earlier and it can be used with different types of input data. The model can be used to simulate both spotted two-channel and oligonucleotide based single-channel microarrays. All this makes the model a valuable tool for example in validation of data analysis algorithms.

  11. Radioactive cDNA microarray in neurospsychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Shin, Kyung Ho; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Meyoung Kon

    2003-01-01

    Microarray technology allows the simultaneous analysis of gene expression patterns of thousands of genes, in a systematic fashion, under a similar set of experimental conditions, thus making the data highly comparable. In some cases arrays are used simply as a primary screen leading to downstream molecular characterization of individual gene candidates. In other cases, the goal of expression profiling is to begin to identify complex regulatory networks underlying developmental processes and disease states. Microarrays were originally used with cell lines or other simple model systems. More recently, microarrays have been used in the analysis of more complex biological tissues including neural systems and the brain. The application of cDNA arrays in neuropsychiatry has lagged behind other fields for a number of reasons. These include a requirement for a large amount of input probe RNA in fluorescent-glass based array systems and the cellular complexity introduced by multicellular brain and neural tissues. An additional factor that impacts the general use of microarrays in neuropsychiatry is the lack of availability of sequenced clone sets from model systems. While human cDNA clones have been widely available, high quality rat, mouse, and drosophilae, among others are just becoming widely available. A final factor in the application of cDNA microarrays in neuropsychiatry is cost of commercial arrays. As academic microarray facilitates become more commonplace custom made arrays will become more widely available at a lower cost allowing more widespread applications. In summary, microarray technology is rapidly having an impact on many areas of biomedical research. Radioisotope-nylon based microarrays offer alternatives that may in some cases be more sensitive, flexible, inexpensive, and universal as compared to other array formats, such as fluorescent-glass arrays. In some situations of limited RNA or exotic species, radioactive membrane microarrays may be the most

  12. Radioactive cDNA microarray in neurospsychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Shin, Kyung Ho; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Meyoung Kon [Korea University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-01

    Microarray technology allows the simultaneous analysis of gene expression patterns of thousands of genes, in a systematic fashion, under a similar set of experimental conditions, thus making the data highly comparable. In some cases arrays are used simply as a primary screen leading to downstream molecular characterization of individual gene candidates. In other cases, the goal of expression profiling is to begin to identify complex regulatory networks underlying developmental processes and disease states. Microarrays were originally used with cell lines or other simple model systems. More recently, microarrays have been used in the analysis of more complex biological tissues including neural systems and the brain. The application of cDNA arrays in neuropsychiatry has lagged behind other fields for a number of reasons. These include a requirement for a large amount of input probe RNA in fluorescent-glass based array systems and the cellular complexity introduced by multicellular brain and neural tissues. An additional factor that impacts the general use of microarrays in neuropsychiatry is the lack of availability of sequenced clone sets from model systems. While human cDNA clones have been widely available, high quality rat, mouse, and drosophilae, among others are just becoming widely available. A final factor in the application of cDNA microarrays in neuropsychiatry is cost of commercial arrays. As academic microarray facilitates become more commonplace custom made arrays will become more widely available at a lower cost allowing more widespread applications. In summary, microarray technology is rapidly having an impact on many areas of biomedical research. Radioisotope-nylon based microarrays offer alternatives that may in some cases be more sensitive, flexible, inexpensive, and universal as compared to other array formats, such as fluorescent-glass arrays. In some situations of limited RNA or exotic species, radioactive membrane microarrays may be the most

  13. Metric learning for DNA microarray data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Masao; Seto, Masao

    2009-01-01

    In many microarray studies, gene set selection is an important preliminary step for subsequent main task such as tumor classification, cancer subtype identification, etc. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using metric learning as an alternative to gene set selection. We develop a simple metric learning algorithm aiming to use it for microarray data analysis. Exploiting a property of the algorithm, we introduce a novel approach for extending the metric learning to be adaptive. We apply the algorithm to previously studied microarray data on malignant lymphoma subtype identification.

  14. Magnetic force microscopy of thin film media for high density magnetic recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porthun, Steffen; Porthun, S.; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses various aspect of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) for use in the field of high density magnetic recording. After an introduction of the most important magnetic imaging techniques, an overview is given of the operation and theory of MFM. The developments in instrumentation, MFM

  15. A case of thalamic hemorrhage presenting high density on CT in a long time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Takeda, Yoshio; Sugai, Yukio; Umetsu, Akemi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    We presented a thalamic hemorrhage in a 29-year-old woman with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy showing a high density lesion at least for 50 days on CT. From beginning of the illness, this condition was considered to continue for 3 months by chronic bleeding or recurrent hemorrhage. (author)

  16. Genetic analysis of long-lived families reveals novel variants influencing high density-lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feitosa, Mary F; Wojczynski, Mary K; Straka, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) have an inverse relationship to the risks of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and have also been associated with longevity. We sought to identify novel loci for HDL that could potentially provide new insights...

  17. Electrical and mechanical properties of highly elongated high density polyethylene as cryogenic insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Katsumi; Park, Dae-Hee; Miyata, Kiyomi; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Itoh, Minoru; Ichihara, Syouji.

    1989-01-01

    Electrical and mechanical properties of highly elongated high density polyethylene were investigated in the temperature range between 4.2 K and 400 K from a viewpoint of electrical insulation at low temperature and the following properties have been clarified. (1) The electrical conductivity of samples decreases with increasing draw ratio, and also decreases at cryogenic temperature. (2) Breakdown strength of highly elongated sample is similar to that of non-elongated sample. It is nearby temperature independent below 300 K but at higher temperature it falls steeply. (3) Mechanical breakdown stress and elastic modulus of high density polyethylene increase with increasing draw ratio. Their values at liquid nitrogen temperature are much higher than that at room temperature. On the other hand, strains decreases at liquid nitrogen temperature. (4) Break of the sample develops in the direction of 45deg from the direction of stress both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. (5) The characteristic of mechanical breakdown at liquid nitrogen temperature can be explained by a brittleness fracture process. (6) Toughness of high density polyethylene increases with increasing draw ratio until draw ratio of 5, and it decreased, and increase at higher draw ratio. However at extremely high draw ratio of 10 it again increases. These findings clearly indicate that highly elongated high density polyethylene has good electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic temperature and can be used as the insulating materials at cryogenic temperature. (author)

  18. Residual gas entering high density hydrogen plasma: rarefaction due to rapid heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. den Harder,; D.C. Schram,; W. J. Goedheer,; de Blank, H. J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; van Rooij, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of background molecular hydrogen with magnetized (0.4 T) high density (1–5 × 10 20  m −3 ) low temperature (∼3 eV) hydrogen plasma was inferred from the Fulcher band emission in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI. In the plasma center,

  19. Value of information to improve daily operations in high-density logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Behdani, Behzad; Bloemhof, Jacqueline

    2018-01-01

    Agro-food logistics is increasingly challenged to ensure that a wide variety of high-quality products are always available at retail stores. This paper discusses high-density logistics issues caused by more frequent and smaller orders from retailers. Through a case study of the distribution process

  20. Turbulence at the transition to the high density H-mode in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Baumel, S.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a new improved confinement regime was found in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator (Renner H. et al 1989 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 31 1579). The discovery of this high density high confinement mode (HDH-mode) was facilitated by the installation of divertor modules. In this paper,...

  1. High-density EEG coherence analysis using functional units applied to mental fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caat, Michael ten; Lorist, Monicque M.; Bezdan, Eniko; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2008-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) coherence provides a quantitative measure of functional brain connectivity which is calculated between pairs of signals as a function of frequency. Without hypotheses, traditional coherence analysis would be cumbersome for high-density EEG which employs a large number of

  2. Usefulness of multi-plane dynamic subtraction CT (MPDS-CT) for intracranial high density lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Ryo; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    We present a new CT technique using the high speed CT scanner in detection and evaluation of temporal and spatial contrast enhancement of intracranial high density lesions. A multi-plane dynamic subtraction CT (MPDS-CT) was performed in 21 patients with intracranial high density lesions. These lesions consisted of 10 brain tumors, 7 intracerebral hemorrhages and 4 vascular malformations (2 untreated, 2 post-embolization). Baseline study was first performed, and 5 sequential planes of covering total high density lesions were selected. After obtaining the 5 sequential CT images as mask images, three series of multi-plane dynamic CT were performed for the same 5 planes with an intravenous bolus injection of contrast medium. MPDS-CT images were reconstructed by subtracting dynamic CT images from the mask ones. MPDS-CT were compared with conventional contrast-enhanced CT. MPDS-CT images showed the definite contrast enhancement of high density brain tumors and vascular malformations which were not clearly identified on conventional contrast-enhanced CT images because of calcified or hemorrhagic lesions and embolic materials, enabling us to eliminate enhanced abnormalities with non-enhanced areas such as unusual intracerebral hemorrhages. MPDS-CT will provide us further accurate and objective information and will be greatly helpful for interpreting pathophysiologic condition. (author).

  3. Should we change our lipid management strategies to focus on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rana, Jamal S.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering, patients continue to be at significant risk of cardiovascular events. Assessment of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) provides a measure of cholesterol contained in all atherogenic particles. In the

  4. Application of Inkjet Printing in High-Density Pixelated RGB Quantum Dot-Hybrid LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Haverinen, Hanna; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2012-01-01

    to fabricate high-density, pixelated (quarter video graphics array (QVGA) format), monochromatic and RGB quantum dots light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs), where inkjet printing is used to deposit the light-emitting layer of QDs. It shows some of the factors

  5. Los Alamos compact toroid, fast-liner, and high-density Z-pinch programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, A.R.; Hammel, J.E.

    1981-03-01

    The Compact Toroid (CT) and High Density Z-Pinch (HDZP) are two of the plasma configurations presently being studied at Los Alamos. The purpose of these two programs, plus the recently terminated (May 1979) Fast Liner (FL) program, is summarized in this section along with a brief description of the experimental facilities. The remaining sections summarize the recent results and the experimental status.

  6. THE GRAFTING OF MALEIC-ANHYDRIDE ON HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE IN AN EXTRUDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on high density polyethylene in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder has been studied. As the reaction kinetics appear to be affected by mass transfer, good micro mixing in the extruder is important. Due to the competing mechanisms of increasing mixing and

  7. High-density lipoprotein modulates glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drew, Brian G; Duffy, Stephen J; Formosa, Melissa F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and aspects of the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that HDL modulates glucose metabolism via elevation of plasma insulin and through activation of the key metabolic regulatory enzyme, AMP...

  8. Self-consistency condition and high-density virial theorem in relativistic many-particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, G.; Canuto, V.; Datta, B.

    1976-01-01

    In order for the thermodynamic and kinetic definitions of the chemical potential and the pressure to lead to identical results a nontrivial self-consistency criterion has to be satisfied. This, in turn, leads to a virial-like theorem in the high-density limit

  9. Scaling of energy confinement and poloidal beta in high density tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Schüller, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    A semi-empirical analysis of the heat balance of ohmically heated, high density Tokamak plasmas, shows that the observed heat transport can be explained by neoclassical (plateau) ion heat conduction in the central part of the plasma. Experimental values for Te, ß¿e, and tEe and the variation of

  10. Collision frequency of Lennard–Jones fluids at high densities by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed classical molecular dynamics simulation of transport coefficients and collision frequencies at high densities in rare gases are presented in this paper with a view to investigate the likely cause of discrepancy between theory and experiments. The results, when compared with experiments, showed an ...

  11. The biological properties of iron oxide core high-density lipoprotein in experimental atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skajaa, Torjus; Cormode, David P.; Jarzyna, Peter A.; Delshad, Amanda; Blachford, Courtney; Barazza, Alessandra; Fisher, Edward A.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Lipoproteins are a family of plasma nanoparticles responsible for the transportation of lipids throughout the body. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), the smallest of the lipoprotein family, measures 7-13 nm in diameter and consists of a cholesteryl ester and triglyceride core that is covered with a

  12. Nanocrystal core high-density lipoproteins: a multimodality contrast agent platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cormode, David P.; Skajaa, Torjus; van Schooneveld, Matti M.; Koole, Rolf; Jarzyna, Peter; Lobatto, Mark E.; Calcagno, Claudia; Barazza, Alessandra; Gordon, Ronald E.; Zanzonico, Pat; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2008-01-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) is an important natural nanoparticle that may be modified for biomedical imaging purposes. Here we developed a novel technique to create unique multimodality HDL mimicking nanoparticles by incorporation of gold, iron oxide, or quantum dot nanocrystals for computed

  13. Identifying dielectric and resistive electrode losses in high-density capacitors at radio frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Liu, J.; Klee, M.; Keur, W.; Mauczock, R.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2008-01-01

    A regression-based technique is presented which distinguishes the dielectric loss from the resistive loss of high density planar capacitors in a very wide bandwidth of 0.1–8 GHz. Moreover, the procedure yields useful results if the capacitor deviates from a lumped element model and indicates when

  14. Guidelines for etching silicon MEMS structures using fluorine high-density plasmas at cryogenic temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Meint J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gilde, M.J.; Roelofs, Gerard; Sasserath, Jay N.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    This paper presents guidelines for the deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of silicon MEMS structures, employing SF6/O2-based high-density plasmas at cryogenic temperatures. Procedures of how to tune the equipment for optimal results with respect to etch rate and profile control are described. Profile

  15. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  16. Neutron star models with realistic high-density equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.C.; Johnson, M.B.; Bethe, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    We calculate neutron star models using four realistic high-density models of the equation of state. We conclude that the maximum mass of a neutron star is unlikely to exceed 2 M/sub sun/. All of the realistic models are consistent with current estimates of the moment of inertia of the Crab pulsar

  17. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  18. Structure and properties of simple molecular systems at very high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSar, R.

    1989-01-01

    The use of computer simulations in the study of molecular systems at very high density is reviewed. Applications to the thermodynamics of dense fluid nitrogen and phase transitions in solid oxygen are presented. The effects of changes in the atomic electronic structure on the equation of state of very dense helium are discussed. 19 refs., 2 figs

  19. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact...

  20. Interplay between spin polarization and color superconductivity in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2013-01-01

    Here, it is suggested that a four-point interaction of the tensor type may lead to spin polarization in quark matter at high density. It is found that the two-flavor superconducting phase and the spin polarized phase correspond to distinct local minima of a certain generalized thermodynamical pot...

  1. Effect of resin variables on the creep behavior of high density hardwood composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Tang; Jianhua Pu; C.Y Hse

    1993-01-01

    The flexural creep behavior of oriented strandboards (OSB) fabricated with mixed high, density hardwood flakes was investigated. Three types of adhesives, liquid phenolic-formaldehyde (LPF), melamine modified urea-formaldehyde (MUF), and LPF (face)/MUF (core) were chosen in this investigation. The resin contents (RC) used were 3.5 percent and 5.0 percent. The flakes...

  2. Production of an economic high-density concrete for shielding megavoltage radiotherapy rooms and nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Maheri, M. R.; Haji-pour, A.; Yousefnia, H.; Zolghadri, S.

    2007-01-01

    In megavoltage radiotherapy rooms, ordinary concrete is usually used due to its low construction costs, although higher density concrete are sometimes used, as well. The use of high-density concrete decreases the required thickness of the concrete barrier; hence, its disadvantage is its high cost. In a nuclear reactor, neutron radiation is the most difficult to shield. A method for production of economic high-density concrete witt, appropriate engineering properties would be very useful. Materials and Methods: Galena (Pb S) mineral was used to produce of a high-density concrete. Galena can be found in many parts of Iran. Two types of concrete mixes were produced. The water-to-concrete (w/c) ratios of the reference and galena concrete mixes were 0.53 and 0.25, respectively. To measure the gamma radiation attenuation of Galena concrete samples, they were exposed to a narrow beam of gamma rays emitted from a cobalt-60 therapy unit. Results: The Galena mineral used in this study had a density of 7400 kg/m 3 . The concrete samples had a density of 4800 kg/m 3 . The measured half value layer thickness of the Galena concrete samples for cobalt 60 gamma rays was much less than that of ordinary concrete (2.6 cm compared to 6.0 cm). Furthermore, the galena concrete samples had significantly higher compressive strength (500 kg/cm 2 compared to 300 kg/cm 2 ). Conclusion: The Galena concrete samples made in our laboratories had showed good shielding/engineering properties in comparison with all samples made by using high-density materials other than depleted uranium. Based on the preliminary results, Galena concrete is maybe a suitable option where high-density concrete is required in megavoltage radiotherapy rooms as well as nuclear reactors

  3. Strategies for comparing gene expression profiles from different microarray platforms: application to a case-control experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severgnini, Marco; Bicciato, Silvio; Mangano, Eleonora; Scarlatti, Francesca; Mezzelani, Alessandra; Mattioli, Michela; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Peano, Clelia; Bonnal, Raoul; Viti, Federica; Milanesi, Luciano; De Bellis, Gianluca; Battaglia, Cristina

    2006-06-01

    Meta-analysis of microarray data is increasingly important, considering both the availability of multiple platforms using disparate technologies and the accumulation in public repositories of data sets from different laboratories. We addressed the issue of comparing gene expression profiles from two microarray platforms by devising a standardized investigative strategy. We tested this procedure by studying MDA-MB-231 cells, which undergo apoptosis on treatment with resveratrol. Gene expression profiles were obtained using high-density, short-oligonucleotide, single-color microarray platforms: GeneChip (Affymetrix) and CodeLink (Amersham). Interplatform analyses were carried out on 8414 common transcripts represented on both platforms, as identified by LocusLink ID, representing 70.8% and 88.6% of annotated GeneChip and CodeLink features, respectively. We identified 105 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) on CodeLink and 42 DEGs on GeneChip. Among them, only 9 DEGs were commonly identified by both platforms. Multiple analyses (BLAST alignment of probes with target sequences, gene ontology, literature mining, and quantitative real-time PCR) permitted us to investigate the factors contributing to the generation of platform-dependent results in single-color microarray experiments. An effective approach to cross-platform comparison involves microarrays of similar technologies, samples prepared by identical methods, and a standardized battery of bioinformatic and statistical analyses.

  4. Gene Expression and Microarray Investigation of Dendrobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood glucose > 16.7 mmol/L were used as the model group and treated with Dendrobium mixture. (DEN ... Keywords: Diabetes, Gene expression, Dendrobium mixture, Microarray testing ..... homeostasis in airway smooth muscle. Am J.

  5. SLIMarray: Lightweight software for microarray facility management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzolf Bruz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray core facilities are commonplace in biological research organizations, and need systems for accurately tracking various logistical aspects of their operation. Although these different needs could be handled separately, an integrated management system provides benefits in organization, automation and reduction in errors. Results We present SLIMarray (System for Lab Information Management of Microarrays, an open source, modular database web application capable of managing microarray inventories, sample processing and usage charges. The software allows modular configuration and is well suited for further development, providing users the flexibility to adapt it to their needs. SLIMarray Lite, a version of the software that is especially easy to install and run, is also available. Conclusion SLIMarray addresses the previously unmet need for free and open source software for managing the logistics of a microarray core facility.

  6. Cross-platform comparison of SYBR® Green real-time PCR with TaqMan PCR, microarrays and other gene expression measurement technologies evaluated in the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dial Stacey L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC project evaluated the inter- and intra-platform reproducibility of seven microarray platforms and three quantitative gene expression assays in profiling the expression of two commercially available Reference RNA samples (Nat Biotechnol 24:1115-22, 2006. The tested microarrays were the platforms from Affymetrix, Agilent Technologies, Applied Biosystems, GE Healthcare, Illumina, Eppendorf and the National Cancer Institute, and quantitative gene expression assays included TaqMan® Gene Expression PCR Assay, Standardized (Sta RT-PCR™ and QuantiGene®. The data showed great consistency in gene expression measurements across different microarray platforms, different technologies and test sites. However, SYBR® Green real-time PCR, another common technique utilized by half of all real-time PCR users for gene expression measurement, was not addressed in the MAQC study. In the present study, we compared the performance of SYBR Green PCR with TaqMan PCR, microarrays and other quantitative technologies using the same two Reference RNA samples as the MAQC project. We assessed SYBR Green real-time PCR using commercially available RT2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays from SuperArray, containing primer pairs that have been experimentally validated to ensure gene-specificity and high amplification efficiency. Results The SYBR Green PCR Arrays exhibit good reproducibility among different users, PCR instruments and test sites. In addition, the SYBR Green PCR Arrays have the highest concordance with TaqMan PCR, and a high level of concordance with other quantitative methods and microarrays that were evaluated in this study in terms of fold-change correlation and overlap of lists of differentially expressed genes. Conclusion These data demonstrate that SYBR Green real-time PCR delivers highly comparable results in gene expression measurement with TaqMan PCR and other high-density microarrays.

  7. PATMA: parser of archival tissue microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Roszkowiak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue microarrays are commonly used in modern pathology for cancer tissue evaluation, as it is a very potent technique. Tissue microarray slides are often scanned to perform computer-aided histopathological analysis of the tissue cores. For processing the image, splitting the whole virtual slide into images of individual cores is required. The only way to distinguish cores corresponding to specimens in the tissue microarray is through their arrangement. Unfortunately, distinguishing the correct order of cores is not a trivial task as they are not labelled directly on the slide. The main aim of this study was to create a procedure capable of automatically finding and extracting cores from archival images of the tissue microarrays. This software supports the work of scientists who want to perform further image processing on single cores. The proposed method is an efficient and fast procedure, working in fully automatic or semi-automatic mode. A total of 89% of punches were correctly extracted with automatic selection. With an addition of manual correction, it is possible to fully prepare the whole slide image for extraction in 2 min per tissue microarray. The proposed technique requires minimum skill and time to parse big array of cores from tissue microarray whole slide image into individual core images.

  8. High density plasma productions by hydrogen storage electrode in the Tohoku University Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utoh, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Takenaga, M.; Ogawa, M.; Shinde, J.; Iwazaki, K.; Shinto, K.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Nishimura, K.; Inagaki, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the Tohoku University Heliac (TU-Heliac), the influence of a radial electric field on improved modes has been investigated by an electrode biasing. In both positive and negative biasing experiments by the stainless steel (SUS) electrode (cold-electron or ion collection), the improvement of plasma confinement was clearly observed. Furthermore, by negative biasing with a hot cathode (electron injection), the radial electric fields can be actively controlled as a consequence of the control of the electrode current I E . By using the electrode made of a hydrogen storage metal, for example Titanium (Ti) or Vanadium (V), the following possibility can be expected: (1) ions accelerated from the positive biased electrode allow the simulation for the orbit loss of high-energy particles, (2) the electrons/neutral- particles injected from the negative biased electrode provide the production of the high- density plasma, if hydrogen are successfully stored in the electrode. In this present work, several methods were tried as the treatment for hydrogen storage. In the case of the Ti electrode biased positively after the treatment, the improvement of plasma confinement was observed in He plasma, which were same as the experimental results of the SUS electrode. However, in the electron density profiles inside the electrode position there was difference between the biased plasma by the Ti electrode and that by the SUS electrode. In some of Ar discharges biased negatively with the Ti electrode after the treatment, the electron density and the line intensity of H α increased about 10 times of those before biasing. This phenomenon has not been observed in the Ar plasma biased by the SUS electrode. This result suggested that the Ti electrode injected electrons/neutral-hydrogen into the plasma. This high-density plasma productions were observed only 1 ∼ 3 times in the one treatment for hydrogen storage. By using a Vanadium (V) electrode, productions of the high-density plasma

  9. Application of broad-spectrum resequencing microarray for genotyping rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Berthet, Nicolas; Dissard, Gabriel; Holmes, Edward C; Delmas, Olivier; Larrous, Florence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Dickinson, Philip; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A; Old, Iain G; Kong, Katherine; Kennedy, Giulia C; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Cole, Stewart T; Caro, Valérie; Gessain, Antoine; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-09-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. To this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (RMA), termed PathogenID, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. We focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family Rhabdoviridae. We demonstrate that this approach has the potential to identify both known and related viruses for which precise sequence information is unavailable. In particular, we demonstrate that a strategy based on consensus sequence determination for analysis of RMA output data enabled successful detection of viruses exhibiting up to 26% nucleotide divergence with the closest sequence tiled on the array. Using clinical specimens obtained from rabid patients and animals, this method also shows a high species level concordance with standard reference assays, indicating that it is amenable for the development of diagnostic assays. Finally, 12 animal rhabdoviruses which were currently unclassified, unassigned, or assigned as tentative species within the family Rhabdoviridae were successfully detected. These new data allowed an unprecedented phylogenetic analysis of 106 rhabdoviruses and further suggest that the principles and methodology developed here may be used for the broad-spectrum surveillance and the broader-scale investigation of biodiversity in the viral world.

  10. Application of Broad-Spectrum Resequencing Microarray for Genotyping Rhabdoviruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Berthet, Nicolas; Dissard, Gabriel; Holmes, Edward C.; Delmas, Olivier; Larrous, Florence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Dickinson, Philip; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A.; Old, Iain G.; Kong, Katherine; Kennedy, Giulia C.; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Cole, Stewart T.; Caro, Valérie; Gessain, Antoine; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. To this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (RMA), termed PathogenID, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. We focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family Rhabdoviridae. We demonstrate that this approach has the potential to identify both known and related viruses for which precise sequence information is unavailable. In particular, we demonstrate that a strategy based on consensus sequence determination for analysis of RMA output data enabled successful detection of viruses exhibiting up to 26% nucleotide divergence with the closest sequence tiled on the array. Using clinical specimens obtained from rabid patients and animals, this method also shows a high species level concordance with standard reference assays, indicating that it is amenable for the development of diagnostic assays. Finally, 12 animal rhabdoviruses which were currently unclassified, unassigned, or assigned as tentative species within the family Rhabdoviridae were successfully detected. These new data allowed an unprecedented phylogenetic analysis of 106 rhabdoviruses and further suggest that the principles and methodology developed here may be used for the broad-spectrum surveillance and the broader-scale investigation of biodiversity in the viral world. PMID:20610710

  11. Workshop on High Power ICH Antenna Designs for High Density Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, R. E.

    1990-02-01

    A workshop in high power ICH antenna designs for high density tokamaks was held to: (1) review the data base relevant to the high power heating of high density tokamaks; (2) identify the important issues which need to be addressed in order to ensure the success of the ICRF programs on CIT and Alcator C-MOD; and (3) recommend approaches for resolving the issues in a timely realistic manner. Some specific performance goals for the antenna system define a successful design effort. Simply stated these goals are: couple the specified power per antenna into the desired ion species; produce no more than an acceptable level of RF auxiliary power induced impurities; and have a mechanical structure which safely survives the thermal, mechanical and radiation stresses in the relevant environment. These goals are intimately coupled and difficult tradeoffs between scientific and engineering constraints have to be made.

  12. Workshop on high power ICH antenna designs for high density tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop in high power ICH antenna designs for high density tokamaks was held in Boulder, Colorado on January 31 through February 2, 1990. The purposes of the workshop were to: (1) review the data base relevant to the high power heating of high density tokamaks; (2) identify the important issues which need to be addressed in order to ensure the success of the ICRF programs on CIT and Alcator C-MOD; and (3) recommend approaches for resolving the issues in a timely realistic manner. Some specific performance goals for the antenna system define a successful design effort. Simply stated these goals are: couple the specified power per antenna into the desired ion species; produce no more than an acceptable level of rf auxiliary power induced impurities; and have a mechanical structure which safely survives the thermal, mechanical and radiation stresses in the relevant environment. These goals are intimately coupled and difficult tradeoffs between scientific and engineering constraints have to be made

  13. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  14. High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2004-09-01

    We developed a high density near field optical recording disc system with a solid immersion lens and two laser sources. In order to realize the near field optical recording, we used a phase change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. The near field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with numerical aperture of 1.84. The clear eye pattern of 90.2 GB capacity (160nm track pitch and 62 nm per bit) was observed. The jitter using a limit equalizer was 10.0 % without cross-talk. The bit error rate using an adaptive PRML with 8 taps was 3.7e-6 without cross-talk. We confirmed that the near field optical disc system is a promising technology for a next generation high density optical disc system.

  15. Evaluation of electrical crosstalk in high-density photodiode arrays for X-ray imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Fan; Juntunen, Mikko; Hietanen, Iiro

    2009-01-01

    Electrical crosstalk is one of the important parameters in the photodiode array detector for X-ray imaging applications, and it becomes more important when the density of the photodiode array becomes higher. This paper presents the design of the high-density photodiode array with 250 μm pitch and 50 μm gap. The electrical crosstalk of the demonstrated samples is evaluated and compared with different electrode configurations: cathode bias mode and anode bias mode. The measurement results show good electrical crosstalk, ∼0.23%, in cathode bias mode regardless of the bias voltage, and slightly decreased or increased electrical crosstalk in anode bias mode. Moreover, the quantum efficiency is also evaluated from the same samples, and it behaves similar to the electrical crosstalk. Finally, some design guidance of the high-density photodiode array is given based on the discussion.

  16. ChemicalVia: a CERN-patented technology for use in high-density circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    High-density multilayer printed circuits such as those pictured here are found in miniaturized modern equipment from video cameras to mobile phones. Adjacent layers in these circuits are electrically connected by microvias, consisting of a small-diameter hole (usually 50 µm) with a thin metal-deposited surface covering their cylindrical walls to ensure local conductivity between the two layers. ChemicalVia is a new method, patented by CERN, to make microvias on high-density multilayer printed circuits using chemicals rather than complex laser, plasma or photoimaging technology. The process is compatible with all standard printed-circuit assembly lines, and has the advantages of low initial investment and reduced manufacturing costs. http://www.cern.ch/ttdatabase

  17. Density measurements of small amounts of high-density solids by a floatation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Shiba, Koreyuki

    1984-09-01

    A floatation method for determining the density of small amounts of high-density solids is described. The use of a float combined with an appropriate floatation liquid allows us to measure the density of high-density substances in small amounts. Using the sample of 0.1 g in weight, the floatation liquid of 3.0 g cm -3 in density and the float of 1.5 g cm -3 in apparent density, the sample densities of 5, 10 and 20 g cm -3 are determined to an accuracy better than +-0.002, +-0.01 and +-0.05 g cm -3 , respectively that correspond to about +-1 x 10 -5 cm 3 in volume. By means of appropriate degassing treatments, the densities of (Th,U)O 2 pellets of --0.1 g in weight and --9.55 g cm -3 in density were determined with an accuracy better than +-0.05 %. (author)

  18. High density lipoproteins as indicators of endothelial dysfunction in children with diadetes type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova S.M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the level of blood high density lipoproteins (HDL in the groups of children with different course of diadetes type I in order to find out the dependence of course and complications of diabetes on that level. Materials and methods: Blood high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were investigated in children and adolescents with diadetes type I, depending on the duration of diadetes type I, age, stage of sexual development, the stage of diabetic nephropathy and levels of plasma endothelin-1 (E-1. Results: Decrease in HDL level with increasing duration of diadetes type I in prepubertate patients, higher indices of HDL cholesterol were determined in girls, especially with impaired puberty. HDL cholesterol was higher in diabetic nephropathy at the stage of proteinuria and high level of blood endothelin-1. Conclusion: The revealed changes were considered to cause deregulation of vascular endothelium as a manifestation of the initial stages of endothelial dysfunction

  19. Equation-of-state for fluids at high densities-hydrogen isotope measurements and thermodynamic derivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, D.H.; Mills, R.L.; Bronson, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogen isotopes play an important role in energy technologies, in particular, the compression to high densities for initiation of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy. At high densities the properties of the compressed hydrogen isotopes depart drastically from ideal thermodynamic predictions. The measurement of accurate data including the author's own recent measurements of n-H 2 and n-D 2 in the range 75 to 300 K and 0.2 to 2.0 GPa (2 to 20 kbar) is reviewed. An equation-of-state of the Benedict type is fit to these data with a double-process least-squares computer program. The results are reviewed and compared with existing data and with a variety of theoretical work reported for fluid hydrogens. A new heuristic correlation is presented for simplicity in predicting volumes and sound velocity at high pressures. 9 figures, 1 table

  20. The use of high-density concretes in radiotherapy treatment room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, A.; Silva, A.X.

    2007-01-01

    With the modernization of radiotherapic centers, medical linear accelerators are largely replacing 60 Co teletherapy units. In many cases, the same vault housing the 60 Co teletherapy unit is reused for the linear accelerator and, when space is at a premium, high-density concrete (3.0-5.0 g/cm 3 ) is employed to provide shielding against the primary, scatter and leakage radiation. This work presents a study based on Monte Carlo simulations of transmission of some clinical photon spectra (of 4-10 MV accelerators) through some types of high-density concretes, normally used in the construction of radiotherapy bunkers. From the simulations, the initial and subsequent tenth-value layers (TVL) for these materials, taking into account realistic clinical photon spectra, are presented, for primary radiation

  1. High-density 3D graphene-based monolith and related materials, methods, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Kucheyev, Sergei; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Shin, Swanee; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-03-21

    A composition comprising at least one high-density graphene-based monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and having a density of at least 0.1 g/cm.sup.3. Also provided is a method comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising a suspension and at least one catalyst, said suspension selected from a graphene oxide (GO) suspension and a carbon nanotube suspension; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, said drying step is substantially free of supercritical drying and freeze drying; and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a high-density graphene-based monolith. Exceptional combinations of properties are achieved including high conductive and mechanical properties.

  2. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-01-01

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4 He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4 He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth

  3. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-01

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  4. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  5. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 3 - April 16-17, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-density component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the third storm event, April 16-17. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry and cloud chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar and rawindsonde data from the network. 4 references, 76 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Thermal Experimental Analysis for Dielectric Characterization of High Density Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Thabet Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nanoparticles in controlling physical properties of polymeric nanocomposite materials leads us to study effects of these nanoparticles on electric and dielectric properties of polymers in industry In this research, the dielectric behaviour of High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE nanocomposites materials that filled with nanoparticles of clay or fumed silica has been investigated at various frequencies (10 Hz-1 kHz and temperatures (20-60°C. Dielectric spectroscopy has been used to characterize ionic conduction, then, the effects of nanoparticles concentration on the dielectric losses and capacitive charge of the new nanocomposites can be stated. Capacitive charge and loss tangent in high density polyethylene nanocomposites are measured by dielectric spectroscopy. Different dielectric behaviour has been observed depending on type and concentration of nanoparticles under variant thermal conditions.

  7. High density FTA plates serve as efficient long-term sample storage for HLA genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, V; Arndt, K; Schwarzelt, C; Boehme, I; Giani, A S; Schmidt, A H; Ehninger, G; Wassmuth, R

    2014-02-01

    Storage of dried blood spots (DBS) on high-density FTA(®) plates could constitute an appealing alternative to frozen storage. However, it remains controversial whether DBS are suitable for high-resolution sequencing of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. Therefore, we extracted DNA from DBS that had been stored for up to 4 years, using six different methods. We identified those extraction methods that recovered sufficient high-quality DNA for reliable high-resolution HLA sequencing. Further, we confirmed that frozen whole blood samples that had been stored for several years can be transferred to filter paper without compromising HLA genotyping upon extraction. Concluding, DNA derived from high-density FTA(®) plates is suitable for high-resolution HLA sequencing, provided that appropriate extraction protocols are employed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fueling with edge recycling to high-density in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A.W., E-mail: leonard@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Elder, J.D. [University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies, Toronto, Canada M3H 5T6 (Canada); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Groebner, R.J.; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Pedestal fueling through edge recycling is examined with the interpretive OEDGE code for high-density discharges in DIII-D. A high current, high-density discharge is found to have a similar radial ion flux profile through the pedestal to a lower current, lower density discharge. The higher density discharge, however, has a greater density gradient indicating a pedestal particle diffusion coefficient that scales near linear with 1/I{sub p}. The time dependence of density profile is taken into account in the analysis of a discharge with low frequency ELMs. The time-dependent analysis indicates that the inferred neutral ionization source is inadequate to account for the increase in the density profile between ELMs, implying an inward density convection, or density pinch, near the top of the pedestal.

  9. High density high performance plasma with internal diffusion barrier in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Kobayashi, M.; Miyazawa, J.

    2008-10-01

    A attractive high density plasma operational regime, namely an internal diffusion barrier (IDB), has been discovered in the intrinsic helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device (LHD). The IDB which enables core plasma to access a high density/high pressure regime has been developed. It is revealed that the IDB is reproducibly formed by pellet fueling in the magnetic configurations shifted outward in major radius. Attainable central plasma density exceeds 1x10 21 m -3 . Central pressure reaches 1.5 times atmospheric pressure and the central β value becomes fairly high even at high magnetic field, i.e. β(0)=5.5% at B t =2.57 T. (author)

  10. Implosion characteristics of deuterium--tritium pellets surrounded by high-density shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, G.S.

    1976-09-01

    The effect of high-density shells on deuterium-tritium pellets imploded by laser energy deposition or other means is investigated. Attention is centered on the inner parts of the pellet where hydrodynamics is the dominant mechanism. The implosions can then be characterized by a pressure boundary condition. Numerical solutions of the implosions are carried out over a wide range of parameters both for solid pellets and pellets with a central void

  11. Rheo-optical Raman study of microscopic deformation in high-density polyethylene under hot drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Kida, Takumitsu; Hiejima, Yusuke; Nitta, Koh-hei

    2015-01-01

    In situ observation of the microscopic structural changes in high-density polyethylene during hot drawing was performed by incorporating a temperature-controlled tensile machine into a Raman spectroscopy apparatus. It was found that the load sharing and molecular orientation during elongation drastically changed at 50°C. The microscopic stress of the crystalline chains decreased with increasing temperature and diminished around 50°C. Moreover, the orientation of the crystalline chains was gre...

  12. The speed of passionate love, as a subliminal prime: A high-density electrical neuroimaging stud

    OpenAIRE

    Cacioppo Stephanie; Grafton Scott T.; Bianchi-Demicheli F

    2012-01-01

    In line with the psychological model of self expansion recent neuroimaging evidence shows an overlap between the brain network mediating passionate love and that involved in self representation. Nevertheless little remains known about the temporal dynamics of these brain areas. To address this question we recorded brain activity from 20 healthy participants using high density electrophysiological recordings while participants were performing a cognitive priming paradigm known to activate the ...

  13. Single-Step Fabrication of High-Density Microdroplet Arrays of Low-Surface-Tension Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenqian; Li, Linxian; Du, Xin; Welle, Alexander; Levkin, Pavel A

    2016-04-01

    A facile approach for surface patterning that enables single-step fabrication of high-density arrays of low-surface-tension organic-liquid microdroplets is described. This approach enables miniaturized and parallel high-throughput screenings in organic solvents, formation of homogeneous arrays of hydrophobic nanoparticles, polymer micropads of specific shapes, and polymer microlens arrays. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High-Density Renewable Fuels Based on the Selective Dimerization of Pinenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    RJ-5, significant ring strain contributing to a high heat of combustion (Table 1). Bulk agricultural waste products, such as cellulose and lignin , are...compact structures and reactive olefin functionalities, these molecules have sig- nificant potential as feedstocks for high-density renewable fuels.2b,7...potential to have heating values exceeding that of JP-10. Given the favorable potential net heat of combustion for these pinene dimers, reactivity

  15. Cooling of high-density and power electronics by means of heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbeling, L.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes how heat pipes can be used for cooling modern electronic equipment, with numerous advantages over air-cooled systems. A brief review of heat-pipe properties is given, with a detailed description of a functioning prototype. This is a single-width CAMAC unit containing high-density electronic circuits cooled by three heat pipes, and allowing a dissipation of over 120 W instead of the normal maximum of 20 W. (orig.)

  16. High-density lipoproteins inhibit urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Scanu Anna; Luisetto Roberto; Oliviero Francesca; Gruaz Lyssia; Sfriso Paolo; Burger Danielle; Punzi Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal induced inflammation—that is gouty inflammation in vivo. Methods Air pouches raised on the backs of mice were injected with MSU crystals or tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the presence or absence of HDL and/or interleukin (IL) 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra) for 3 h. Leucocyte count and neutrophil percentage in pouch fluids were measured using a haemocytometer an...

  17. High Density Silver Nanowire Arrays using Self-ordered Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Young-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    High density silver nanowire arrays were synthesized through the self-ordered Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) template. The pore size in the AAO membrane was confirmed by processing the widening porosity with a honeycomb structure with cross sections of 20nm, 50nm, and 100nm, by SEM. Pore numbers by unit area were consistent; only pore size changed. The synthesized silver nanowire, which was crystallized, was dense in the cross sections of the amorphous AAO membrane. The synthesized silver nanowi...

  18. Practical high-density shielding materials for medical linear accelerator rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    High-energy linear accelerators are replacing lower energy units in radiation therapy centers. Radiation protection requirements necessitate expensive reconstruction of existing treatment rooms to accommodate these new machines. We describe two shielding materials: one made by embedding small pieces of scrap steel in cement, and the other made with cast iron in cement. Both materials produce high-density barriers at low cost using standard construction methods

  19. Banks-Casher-type relation for the BCS gap at high density

    OpenAIRE

    Kanazawa, Takuya; Wettig, Tilo; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We derive a new Banks-Casher-type relation which relates the density of complex Dirac eigenvalues at the origin to the BCS gap of quarks at high density. Our relation is applicable to QCD and QCD-like theories without a sign problem, such as two-color QCD and adjoint QCD with baryon chemical potential, and QCD with isospin chemical potential. It provides us with a method to measure the BCS gap through the Dirac spectrum on the lattice.

  20. Detection of an electron beam in a high density plasma via an electrostatic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, Stephen; Yoo, Jongsoo; Zweben, Stewart; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao

    2017-10-01

    The perturbation in floating potential by an electron beam is detected by a 1D floating potential probe array to evaluate the use of an electron beam for magnetic field line mapping in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) plasma. The MRX plasma is relatively high density (1013 cm-3) and low temperature (5 eV). Beam electrons are emitted from a tungsten filament and are accelerated by a 200 V potential across the sheath. They stream along the magnetic field lines towards the probe array. The spatial electron beam density profile is assumed to be a Gaussian along the radial axis of MRX and the effective beam width is determined from the radial profile of the floating potential. The magnitude of the perturbation is in agreement with theoretical predictions and the location of the perturbation is also in agreement with field line mapping. In addition, no significant broadening of the electron beam is observed after propagation for tens of centimeters through the high density plasma. These results demonstrate that this method of field line mapping is, in principle, feasible in high density plasmas. This work is supported by the DOE Contract No. DE-AC0209CH11466.

  1. Effect of mix proportion of high density concrete on compressive strength, density and radiation absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Azreen Masenwat; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani; Ismail Mustapha; Nasharuddin Isa; Mohamad Haniza Mahmud; Mohammad Shahrizan Samsu

    2014-01-01

    To prevent radiation leaks at nuclear reactors, high-density concrete is used as an absorbent material for radiation from spreading into the environment. High-density concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate (usually high-density minerals) and water. In this research, hematite stone is used because of its mineral density higher than the granite used in conventional concrete mixing. Mix concrete in this study were divided into part 1 and part 2. In part 1, the concrete mixture is designed with the same ratio of 1: 2: 4 but differentiated in terms of water-cement ratio (0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80 ). Whereas, in part 2, the concrete mixture is designed to vary the ratio of 1: 1: 2, 1: 1.5: 3, 1: 2: 3, 1: 3: 6, 1: 2: 6 with water-cement ratio (0.7, 0.8, 0.85, 0.9). In each section, the division has also performed in a mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. Then, the physical characteristics of the density and the compressive strength of the mixture of part 1 and part 2 is measured. Comparisons were also made in terms of absorption of radiation by Cs-137 and Co-60 source for each mix. This paper describes and discusses the relationship between the concrete mixture ratio, the relationship with the water-cement ratio, compressive strength, density, different mixture of sand and fine sand hematite. (author)

  2. Low-enriched uranium high-density target project. Compendium report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, George; Brown, M. Alex; Jerden, James L.; Gelis, Artem V.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley; Youker, Amanda; Hebden, Andrew; Solbrekken, G; Allen, C; Robertson., D; El-Gizawy, Sherif; Govindarajan, Srisharan; Hoyer, Annemarie; Makarewicz, Philip; Harris, Jacob; Graybill, Brian; Gunn, Andy; Berlin, James; Bryan, Chris; Sherman, Steven; Hobbs, Randy; Griffin, F. P.; Chandler, David; Hurt, C. J.; Williams, Paul; Creasy, John; Tjader, Barak; McFall, Danielle; Longmire, Hollie

    2016-09-01

    At present, most 99Mo is produced in research, test, or isotope production reactors by irradiation of highly enriched uranium targets. To achieve the denser form of uranium needed for switching from high to low enriched uranium (LEU), targets in the form of a metal foil (~125-150 µm thick) are being developed. The LEU High Density Target Project successfully demonstrated several iterations of an LEU-fission-based Mo-99 technology that has the potential to provide the world’s supply of Mo-99, should major producers choose to utilize the technology. Over 50 annular high density targets have been successfully tested, and the assembly and disassembly of targets have been improved and optimized. Two target front-end processes (acidic and electrochemical) have been scaled up and demonstrated to allow for the high-density target technology to mate up to the existing producer technology for target processing. In the event that a new target processing line is started, the chemical processing of the targets is greatly simplified. Extensive modeling and safety analysis has been conducted, and the target has been qualified to be inserted into the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which is considered above and beyond the requirements for the typical use of this target due to high fluence and irradiation duration.

  3. Synthesis of high density aviation fuel with cyclopentanol derived from lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xueru; Li, Ning; Li, Guangyi; Wang, Wentao; Yang, Jinfan; Cong, Yu; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Tao

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, renewable high density aviation fuels were synthesized at high overall yield (95.6%) by the Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol which can be derived from lignocellulose, followed by the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). The solvent-free Guerbet reaction of cyclopentanol was carried out under the co-catalysis of solid bases and Raney metals. Among the investigated catalyst systems, the combinations of magnesium-aluminium hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT) and Raney Ni (or Raney Co) exhibited the best performances. Over them, high carbon yield (96.7%) of C10 and C15 oxygenates was achieved. The Guerbet reaction products were further hydrodeoxygenated to bi(cyclopentane) and tri(cyclopentane) over a series of Ni catalysts. These alkanes have high densities (0.86 g mL-1 and 0.91 g mL-1) and can be used as high density aviation fuels or additives to bio-jet fuel. Among the investigated HDO catalysts, the 35 wt.% Ni-SiO2-DP prepared by deposition-precipitation method exhibited the highest activity.

  4. Seismic and structural analysis of high density/consolidated spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.J.; Biddle, J.R.; Bennett, S.M.; Schechter, C.B.; Harstead, G.A.; Kopecky, B.

    1995-01-01

    In many nuclear power plants, existing storage racks are being replaced with high-density racks to accommodate the increasing inventory of spent fuel. In the hypothetical design considered here, the high-density arrangement of fuel assemblies, or consolidated fuel canisters, is accomplished through the use of borated stainless steel (BSS) plates acting as neutron absorbers. The high-density fuel racks are simply supported by the pool floor with no structural connections to adjacent racks or to the pool walls or floor. Therefore, the racks are free standing and may slide and tip. Several time history, nonlinear, seismic analyses are required to account for variations in the coefficient of friction, rack loading configuration, ad the type of the seismic event. This paper presents several of the mathematical models usually used. The models include features to allow sliding and tipping of the racks and to represent the hydrodynamic coupling which can occur between fuel assemblies and rack cells, between adjacent racks, and between the racks and the reinforced concrete walls. A detailed model representing a single rack is used to evaluate the 3-D loading effects. This model is a controlling case for the stress analysis. A 2-D multi-rack model representing a row of racks between the spent fuel pool walls is used to evaluate the change in gaps between racks. The racks are analyzed for the fuel loading conditions of consolidated, full, empty, and half-loaded with fuel assemblies

  5. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Jikun [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Chen Laigao [BioImaging Center of Emphasis, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth RD, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Sandison, George A [School of Health Sciences, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Liang Yun [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical School, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Xu, Lisa X [School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2040 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  6. Genetic search for an optimal power flow solution from a high density cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarnath, R.V. [Hi-Tech College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Ramana, N.V. [JNTU College of Engineering, Jagityala (India)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposed a novel method to solve optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The method is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) search from a High Density Cluster (GAHDC). The algorithm of the proposed method includes 3 stages, notably (1) a suboptimal solution is obtained via a conventional analytical method, (2) a high density cluster, which consists of other suboptimal data points from the first stage, is formed using a density-based cluster algorithm, and (3) a genetic algorithm based search is carried out for the exact optimal solution from a low population sized, high density cluster. The final optimal solution thoroughly satisfies the well defined fitness function. A standard IEEE 30-bus test system was considered for the simulation study. Numerical results were presented and compared with the results of other approaches. It was concluded that although there is not much difference in numerical values, the proposed method has the advantage of minimal computational effort and reduced CPU time. As such, the method would be suitable for online applications such as the present Optimal Power Flow problem. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Departure mechanisms for host search on high-density patches by the Meteorus pulchricornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sheng; Feng, Sufang; Meng, Ling; Li, Baoping

    2014-01-01

    Less attention has been paid to the parasitoid-host system in which the host occurs in considerably high density with a hierarchical patch structure in studies on time allocation strategies of parasitoids. This study used the parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the Oriental leafworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as the parasitoids-host model system to investigate patch-leaving mechanisms as affected by the high-host density, hierarchical patch structure, and foraging behaviors on both former and current patches. The results showed that three out of eight covariates tested had significant effects on the patch-leaving tendency, including the host density, ovipositor insertion, and host rejection on the current patch. The parasitoid paid more visits to the patch with high-density hosts. While the patch with higher host densities decreased the leaving tendency, the spatial distribution of hosts examined had no effect on the leaving tendency. Both oviposition and host rejection decreased the patch-leaving tendency. The variables associated with the former patch, such as the host density and number of ovipositor insertions, however, did not have an effect on the leaving tendency. Our study suggested that M. pulchricornis females may use an incremental mechanism to exploit high-density patches to the fullest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in the presence of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jikun; Chen Laigao; Sandison, George A; Liang Yun; Xu, Lisa X

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of reducing x-ray CT high-density artefacts generated by metal objects when abundant bone structures are present in the region of interest. This method has an advantage over previously proposed methods since it heavily suppresses the metal artefacts without introducing extra bone artefacts. The method of suppression requires that bone pixels are isolated and segmented by thresholding. Then artificial CT numbers are assigned to the bone pixels so that their projection profiles are smooth and thus can be properly simulated by a polynomial interpolation. The projection profile of the metal object is then removed to fully suppress the artefacts. The resulting processed profile is fed to a reconstruction routine and the previously preserved bone pixels added back. The new method utilizes two important features of the CT image with metal artefacts: (a) metal and bone pixels are not severely affected by the high-density artefacts and (b) the high-density artefacts can be located in specific projection channels in the profile domain, although they are spread out in the image domain. This suppression method solves the problem of CT image artefacts arising from metal objects in the body. It has the potential to greatly improve diagnostic CT imaging in the presence of these objects and treatment planning that utilizes CT for patients with metal applicators (e.g., brachytherapy for cervix cancer and prostate cryotherapy)

  9. Generalization of DNA microarray dispersion properties: microarray equivalent of t-distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Jaroslav P; Kim, Seon-Young; Xu, Jun

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: DNA microarrays are a powerful technology that can provide a wealth of gene expression data for disease studies, drug development, and a wide scope of other investigations. Because of the large volume and inherent variability of DNA microarray data, many new statistical methods have...

  10. Evaluation of an analytic linear Boltzmann transport equation solver for high-density inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, S. A. M.; Ansbacher, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada) and Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Acuros external beam (Acuros XB) is a novel dose calculation algorithm implemented through the ECLIPSE treatment planning system. The algorithm finds a deterministic solution to the linear Boltzmann transport equation, the same equation commonly solved stochastically by Monte Carlo methods. This work is an evaluation of Acuros XB, by comparison with Monte Carlo, for dose calculation applications involving high-density materials. Existing non-Monte Carlo clinical dose calculation algorithms, such as the analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA), do not accurately model dose perturbations due to increased electron scatter within high-density volumes. Methods: Acuros XB, AAA, and EGSnrc based Monte Carlo are used to calculate dose distributions from 18 MV and 6 MV photon beams delivered to a cubic water phantom containing a rectangular high density (4.0-8.0 g/cm{sup 3}) volume at its center. The algorithms are also used to recalculate a clinical prostate treatment plan involving a unilateral hip prosthesis, originally evaluated using AAA. These results are compared graphically and numerically using gamma-index analysis. Radio-chromic film measurements are presented to augment Monte Carlo and Acuros XB dose perturbation data. Results: Using a 2% and 1 mm gamma-analysis, between 91.3% and 96.8% of Acuros XB dose voxels containing greater than 50% the normalized dose were in agreement with Monte Carlo data for virtual phantoms involving 18 MV and 6 MV photons, stainless steel and titanium alloy implants and for on-axis and oblique field delivery. A similar gamma-analysis of AAA against Monte Carlo data showed between 80.8% and 87.3% agreement. Comparing Acuros XB and AAA evaluations of a clinical prostate patient plan involving a unilateral hip prosthesis, Acuros XB showed good overall agreement with Monte Carlo while AAA underestimated dose on the upstream medial surface of the prosthesis due to electron scatter from the high-density material. Film measurements

  11. Nanotechnology: moving from microarrays toward nanoarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Microarrays are important tools for high-throughput analysis of biomolecules. The use of microarrays for parallel screening of nucleic acid and protein profiles has become an industry standard. A few limitations of microarrays are the requirement for relatively large sample volumes and elongated incubation time, as well as the limit of detection. In addition, traditional microarrays make use of bulky instrumentation for the detection, and sample amplification and labeling are quite laborious, which increase analysis cost and delays the time for obtaining results. These problems limit microarray techniques from point-of-care and field applications. One strategy for overcoming these problems is to develop nanoarrays, particularly electronics-based nanoarrays. With further miniaturization, higher sensitivity, and simplified sample preparation, nanoarrays could potentially be employed for biomolecular analysis in personal healthcare and monitoring of trace pathogens. In this chapter, it is intended to introduce the concept and advantage of nanotechnology and then describe current methods and protocols for novel nanoarrays in three aspects: (1) label-free nucleic acids analysis using nanoarrays, (2) nanoarrays for protein detection by conventional optical fluorescence microscopy as well as by novel label-free methods such as atomic force microscopy, and (3) nanoarray for enzymatic-based assay. These nanoarrays will have significant applications in drug discovery, medical diagnosis, genetic testing, environmental monitoring, and food safety inspection.

  12. Integrative missing value estimation for microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Li, Haifeng; Waterman, Michael S; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine

    2006-10-12

    Missing value estimation is an important preprocessing step in microarray analysis. Although several methods have been developed to solve this problem, their performance is unsatisfactory for datasets with high rates of missing data, high measurement noise, or limited numbers of samples. In fact, more than 80% of the time-series datasets in Stanford Microarray Database contain less than eight samples. We present the integrative Missing Value Estimation method (iMISS) by incorporating information from multiple reference microarray datasets to improve missing value estimation. For each gene with missing data, we derive a consistent neighbor-gene list by taking reference data sets into consideration. To determine whether the given reference data sets are sufficiently informative for integration, we use a submatrix imputation approach. Our experiments showed that iMISS can significantly and consistently improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art Local Least Square (LLS) imputation algorithm by up to 15% improvement in our benchmark tests. We demonstrated that the order-statistics-based integrative imputation algorithms can achieve significant improvements over the state-of-the-art missing value estimation approaches such as LLS and is especially good for imputing microarray datasets with a limited number of samples, high rates of missing data, or very noisy measurements. With the rapid accumulation of microarray datasets, the performance of our approach can be further improved by incorporating larger and more appropriate reference datasets.

  13. Integrative missing value estimation for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xianghong

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Missing value estimation is an important preprocessing step in microarray analysis. Although several methods have been developed to solve this problem, their performance is unsatisfactory for datasets with high rates of missing data, high measurement noise, or limited numbers of samples. In fact, more than 80% of the time-series datasets in Stanford Microarray Database contain less than eight samples. Results We present the integrative Missing Value Estimation method (iMISS by incorporating information from multiple reference microarray datasets to improve missing value estimation. For each gene with missing data, we derive a consistent neighbor-gene list by taking reference data sets into consideration. To determine whether the given reference data sets are sufficiently informative for integration, we use a submatrix imputation approach. Our experiments showed that iMISS can significantly and consistently improve the accuracy of the state-of-the-art Local Least Square (LLS imputation algorithm by up to 15% improvement in our benchmark tests. Conclusion We demonstrated that the order-statistics-based integrative imputation algorithms can achieve significant improvements over the state-of-the-art missing value estimation approaches such as LLS and is especially good for imputing microarray datasets with a limited number of samples, high rates of missing data, or very noisy measurements. With the rapid accumulation of microarray datasets, the performance of our approach can be further improved by incorporating larger and more appropriate reference datasets.

  14. Comparison of global brain gene expression profiles between inbred long-sleep and inbred short-sleep mice by high-density gene array hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Ehringer, M; Yang, F; Sikela, J M

    2001-06-01

    Inbred long-sleep (ILS) and short-sleep (ISS) mice show significant central nervous system-mediated differences in sleep time for sedative dose of ethanol and are frequently used as a rodent model for ethanol sensitivity. In this study, we have used complementary DNA (cDNA) array hybridization methodology to identify genes that are differentially expressed between the brains of ILS and ISS mice. To carry out this analysis, we used both the gene discovery array (GDA) and the Mouse GEM 1 Microarray. GDA consists of 18,378 nonredundant mouse cDNA clones on a single nylon filter. Complex probes were prepared from total brain mRNA of ILS or ISS mice by using reverse transcription and 33P labeling. The labeled probes were hybridized in parallel to the gene array filters. Data from GDA experiments were analyzed with SQL-Plus and Oracle 8. The GEM microarray includes 8,730 sequence-verified clones on a glass chip. Two fluorescently labeled probes were used to hybridize a microarray simultaneously. Data from GEM experiments were analyzed by using the GEMTools software package (Incyte). Differentially expressed genes identified from each method were confirmed by relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 41 genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) display significant expression level differences between brains of ILS and ISS mice after GDA, GEM1 hybridization, and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation. Among them, 18 clones were expressed higher in ILS mice, and 23 clones were expressed higher in ISS mice. The individual gene or EST's function and mapping information have been analyzed. This study identified 41 genes that are differentially expressed between brains of ILS and ISS mice. Some of them may have biological relevance in mediation of phenotypic variation between ILS and ISS mice for ethanol sensitivity. This study also demonstrates that parallel gene expression comparison with high-density cDNA arrays is a rapid and

  15. Discovering biological progression underlying microarray samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Qiu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In biological systems that undergo processes such as differentiation, a clear concept of progression exists. We present a novel computational approach, called Sample Progression Discovery (SPD, to discover patterns of biological progression underlying microarray gene expression data. SPD assumes that individual samples of a microarray dataset are related by an unknown biological process (i.e., differentiation, development, cell cycle, disease progression, and that each sample represents one unknown point along the progression of that process. SPD aims to organize the samples in a manner that reveals the underlying progression and to simultaneously identify subsets of genes that are responsible for that progression. We demonstrate the performance of SPD on a variety of microarray datasets that were generated by sampling a biological process at different points along its progression, without providing SPD any information of the underlying process. When applied to a cell cycle time series microarray dataset, SPD was not provided any prior knowledge of samples' time order or of which genes are cell-cycle regulated, yet SPD recovered the correct time order and identified many genes that have been associated with the cell cycle. When applied to B-cell differentiation data, SPD recovered the correct order of stages of normal B-cell differentiation and the linkage between preB-ALL tumor cells with their cell origin preB. When applied to mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation data, SPD uncovered a landscape of ESC differentiation into various lineages and genes that represent both generic and lineage specific processes. When applied to a prostate cancer microarray dataset, SPD identified gene modules that reflect a progression consistent with disease stages. SPD may be best viewed as a novel tool for synthesizing biological hypotheses because it provides a likely biological progression underlying a microarray dataset and, perhaps more importantly, the

  16. Use of a high density lead glass tubing projection chamber in positron emission tomography and in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.; Guerra, A.D.; Habel, R.; Mulera, T.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schwartz, G.

    1985-10-01

    We describe the principle of operation of a high density Projection Chamber, in which the converter/radiator and drift field shaping structures are combined in the form of high density (5 to 6 g/cm 3 ) lead glass tubing. The main applications of this type of detector to Medical Physics (Positron Emission Tomography) and High Energy Physics (Electromagnetic Calorimetry) are discussed

  17. Combined analysis of six lipoprotein lipase genetic variants on triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittrup, Hans H; Andersen, Rolf V; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Genetic variants in lipoprotein lipase may affect triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  18. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...... for tissue engineering and drug screening applications....... cell differentiation into tissue-specifi c lineages. The use of 3D biomaterial microarrays can, if optimized correctly, result in a more than 1000-fold reduction in biomaterials and cells consumption when engineering optimal materials combinations, which makes these miniaturized systems very attractive...

  19. Development and application of a microarray meter tool to optimize microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouse Richard JD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful microarray experimentation requires a complex interplay between the slide chemistry, the printing pins, the nucleic acid probes and targets, and the hybridization milieu. Optimization of these parameters and a careful evaluation of emerging slide chemistries are a prerequisite to any large scale array fabrication effort. We have developed a 'microarray meter' tool which assesses the inherent variations associated with microarray measurement prior to embarking on large scale projects. Findings The microarray meter consists of nucleic acid targets (reference and dynamic range control and probe components. Different plate designs containing identical probe material were formulated to accommodate different robotic and pin designs. We examined the variability in probe quality and quantity (as judged by the amount of DNA printed and remaining post-hybridization using three robots equipped with capillary printing pins. Discussion The generation of microarray data with minimal variation requires consistent quality control of the (DNA microarray manufacturing and experimental processes. Spot reproducibility is a measure primarily of the variations associated with printing. The microarray meter assesses array quality by measuring the DNA content for every feature. It provides a post-hybridization analysis of array quality by scoring probe performance using three metrics, a a measure of variability in the signal intensities, b a measure of the signal dynamic range and c a measure of variability of the spot morphologies.

  20. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, M.; Lal, S.; Uniyal, S.; Goswami, A.K. Prakash. P.

    2016-11-01

    High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L.) production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C).Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3) was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3). Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree) and total yield (59.87 kg/tree) was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF) was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner. (Author)

  1. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L. plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhubala Thakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L. production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C.Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3 was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3. Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree and total yield (59.87 kg/tree was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner.

  2. A study of HANARO core conversion using high density U-Mo fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, B.C.; Park, S.J.; Kim, H.; Kim, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, HANARO is using 3.15gU/cc U3Si/Al as a driver fuel. HANARO has seven vertical irradiation holes in the core region. Three of them including a central trap are located in the inner region of the core and mainly being used for material irradiation tests. Four of them are located in the reflector tank but cooled by primary coolant. They are used for fuel irradiation tests or radioisotope development tests. For minimum core modification using high density U-Mo fuels, no dimension change is assumed in the current fuel rods and the cladding thickness remains the same in this study. The high density U-Mo fuel will have up to about twice the linear uranium loading of a current HANARO driver fuel. Using this high density fuel 8 fuel sites can be replaced with irradiation sites. Three kinds of conceptual cores are considered using 5 gU/cc U-7Mo/Al and 16 gU/cc U-7Mo. The increase of the linear heat generation rate due to the decrease of total fuel length can be overcome by more uniform radial and axial power distribution using different uranium densities and different fuel meat diameters are introduced into those cores. The new core has 4.54 times larger surface-to-volume ratio than the reference core. The core uranium loading, linear heat generation rate, excess reactivity, and control rod worth as well as the neutron spectra are analysed for each core. (author)

  3. Hydrological impact of high-density small dams in a humid catchment, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Lei, H.; Yang, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Jiulong River basin is a humid catchment with a drainage area of 14,741 km2; however, it has over 1000 hydropower stations within it. Such catchment with high-density small dams is scarce in China. Yet few is known about the impact of high-density small dams on streamflow changes. To what extent the large number of dams alters the hydrologic patterns is a fundamental scientific issue for water resources management, flood control, and aquatic ecological environment protection. Firstly, trend and change point analyses are applied to determine the characteristics of inter-annual streamflow. Based on the detected change point, the study period is divided into two study periods, the ``natural'' and ``disturbed'' periods. Then, a geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM) and the fixing-changing method are adopted to evaluate the relative contributions of climate variations and damming to the changes in streamflow at each temporal scale (i.e., from daily, monthly to annual). Based on the simulated natural streamflow, the impact of dam construction on hydrologic alteration and aquatic ecological environment will be evaluated. The hydrologic signatures that will be investigated include flood peak, seasonality of streamflow, and the inter-annual variability of streamflow. In particular, the impacts of damming on aquatic ecological environment will be investigated using eco-flow metrics and indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHA) which contains 33 individual streamflow statistics that are closely related to aquatic ecosystem. The results of this study expect to provide a reference for reservoir operation considering both ecological and economic benefits of such operations in the catchment with high-density dams.

  4. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A.; Yudin, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  5. Nuclear matter at high density: Phase transitions, multiquark states, and supernova outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Nadyozhin, D. K.; Rasinkova, T. L.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Trusov, M. A., E-mail: trusov@itep.ru; Yudin, A. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    Phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon matter is discussed for various regimes of temperature and baryon number density. For small and medium densities, the phase transition is accurately described in the framework of the Field Correlation Method, whereas at high density predictions are less certain and leave room for the phenomenological models. We study formation of multiquark states (MQS) at zero temperature and high density. Relevant MQS components of the nuclear matter can be described using a previously developed formalism of the quark compound bags (QCB). Partialwave analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering indicates the existence of 6QS which manifest themselves as poles of P matrix. In the framework of the QCB model, we formulate a self-consistent system of coupled equations for the nucleon and 6QS propagators in nuclear matter and the G matrix. The approach provides a link between high-density nuclear matter with the MQS components and the cumulative effect observed in reactions on the nuclei, which requires the admixture of MQS in the wave functions of nuclei kinematically. 6QS determines the natural scale of the density for a possible phase transition into theMQS phase of nuclear matter. Such a phase transition can lead to dynamic instability of newly born protoneutron stars and dramatically affect the dynamics of supernovae. Numerical simulations show that the phase transition may be a good remedy for the triggering supernova explosions in the spherically symmetric supernovamodels. A specific signature of the phase transition is an additional neutrino peak in the neutrino light curve. For a Galactic core-collapse supernova, such a peak could be resolved by the present neutrino detectors. The possibility of extracting the parameters of the phase of transition from observation of the neutrino signal is discussed also.

  6. High triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis: A potential link among inflammation, oxidative status, and dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López, Patricia; López-Mejías, Raquel; Alonso-Castro, Sara; Abal, Francisco; Ballina-García, Francisco J; González-Gay, Miguel Á; Suárez, Ana

    The interactions between inflammation and lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are poorly understood. The lipid profile study in RA has been biased toward lipoprotein levels, whereas those of triglycerides (TGs) and lipoprotein functionality have been underestimated. Since recent findings suggest a role for TG and TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) on inflammation, we aimed to evaluate a combined lipid profile characterized by high TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (TG high HDL low ) in RA. Lipid profiles were analyzed in 113 RA patients, 113 healthy controls, and 27 dyslipemic subjects. Levels of inflammatory mediators, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, and total antioxidant capacity were quantified in serum. PON1-rs662 status was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The TG high HDL low profile was detected in 29/113 RA patients. Although no differences in prevalence compared with healthy controls or dyslipemic subjects were observed, this profile was associated with increased tumor necrosis factor α (P = .004), monocyte chemotactic protein (P = .004), interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (P = .018), and leptin (P < .001) serum levels in RA, where decreased PON1 activity and total antioxidant capacity were found. TG high HDL low prevalence was lower among anti-TNFα-treated patients (P = .004). When RA patients were stratified by PON1-rs662 status, these associations remained in the low-activity genotype (QQ). Finally, a poor clinical response on TNFα blockade was related to an increasing prevalence of the TG high HDL low profile over treatment (P = .021) and higher TRL levels at baseline (P = .042). The TG high HDL low profile is associated with systemic inflammation, decreased PON1 activity, and poor clinical outcome on TNFα blockade in RA, suggesting a role of TRL and HDL dysfunction as the missing link between inflammation and lipid profile. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. Cylindrical implosion to measure the radiative properties of high density and temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yan; Rose, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Cylindrical implosion is of great interest because of its excellent diagnostic access. The authors present one-dimensional numerical simulations to explore the plasma conditions that may be achieved. Combined with the numerical data, the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in those targets are estimated. The authors found that it is possible to achieve a high density and temperature plasma with a relatively low temperature and density gradient using a cylindrical implosion directly-driven by a high-power laser

  8. High density, uniformly distributed W/UO2 for use in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Barnes, Marvin W.; Hone, Lance; Cook, Steven

    2017-04-01

    An inexpensive, quick method has been developed to obtain uniform distributions of UO2 particles in a tungsten matrix utilizing 0.5 wt percent low density polyethylene. Powders were sintered in a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) furnace at 1600 °C, 1700 °C, 1750 °C, 1800 °C and 1850 °C using a modified sintering profile. This resulted in a uniform distribution of UO2 particles in a tungsten matrix with high densities, reaching 99.46% of theoretical for the sample sintered at 1850 °C. The powder process is described and the results of this study are given below.

  9. PRODUCTION OF HIGH DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD USING MELAMINE-UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming to evaluate the effects of board density and melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin onthe properties of particleboard for semi-structural applications. The boards were manufactured with nominal density of 0.65 g/cm³and 0.90 g/cm³ using urea-formaldehyde resin as control and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. The results showed a better dimensionallystability and mechanical properties of the boards manufactured with higher density and MUF resin content. The fine furnish usedfor external layer of particleboard in the industrial process, could be used for high density homogeneous board to semi-strucuturaluses, such as flooring applications.

  10. High-Density Near-Field Readout Using Diamond Solid Immersion Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Schaich, Thomas J.; van Oerle, Bart M.; Godfried, Herman P.; Kriele, Paul A. C.; Houwman, Evert P.; Nelissen, Wim H. M.; Pels, Gert J.; Spaaij, Paul G. M.

    2006-02-01

    We investigated high-density near-field readout using a diamond solid immersion lens (SIL). A synthetic single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond provides a high refractive index and a high transmission for a wide wavelength range. Since the refractive index at a wavelength of 405 nm is 2.458, we could design a solid immersion lens with an effective numerical aperture of 2.34. Using the diamond SIL, we observed the eye pattern of a 150-GB-capacity (104.3 Gbit/in.2) disk with a track pitch of 130 nm and a bit length of 47.6 nm.

  11. Radiative recombination process of high density excitons in CdS crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dneprovskij, V.S.; Klimov, V.I.; Martynenko, E.D.; Stadnik, V.A.

    1983-11-01

    The behaviour of the P-, E-, L- and Q-lines of luminescence in CdS is compared with calculated results for the processes of exciton-exciton scattering, exciton-electron scattering, annihilation of equilibrium electron-hole fluid (EHF), annihilation of electron-hole plasma (processes of amplification and reabsorption are taken into account). The comparison permitted to determine parameters of high density exciton gas and EHF. Spectral-kinetic properties of generation are investigated, and amplification factor in CdS is estimated.

  12. High-density EMG e-textile systems for the control of active prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farina, Dario; Lorrain, Thomas; Negro, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Myoelectric control of active prostheses requires electrode systems that are easy to apply for daily repositioning of the electrodes by the user. In this study we propose the use of Smart Fabric and Interactive Textile (SFIT) systems as an alternative solution for recording high-density EMG signa...... classified with linear discriminant analysis. The average classification accuracy for the nine tasks was 89.1 1.9 %. These results show that SFIT systems can be used as an effective way for muscle-machine interfacing....

  13. Analysis and Environmental Fate of Air Force Distillate and High Density Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    728.1 128 0.8 Toluenc 751.3 92 0.6 XTHDCPD 1049.6 136 66.8 NTHDCPD 1079.2 136 1.5HNN 1509.6 186 20.1 JP-1O XTHDCPD 1050.3 136 96.8 ITHDCPD 1079.6 136 1,5...deionized water and the salts listed below. Blanks of both waters were routinely extracted and analyzed for possible 4.nterferences. MNN PXTX XTHDCPD ...through 13; complete data summaries for the distillate fuels may be found in Appendix C. All com- ponents of the high density fuels except XTHDCPD of

  14. In vitro experiments for the development of a high density (HD) barium sulfate contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro experiments with the high-density (HD) barium meal Falibaryt HD are described. Several charges of BaSO 4 were tested together with certain additives influencing dispersion, stability of the suspension, flowability, surface tension etc. Particle size spectra were measured by the manufacturer, VEB Fahlberg-List. With a simple PVC test plate containing several grooves simulating small details (areae gastricae) the diagnostic capabilities of the HD contrast medium were evaluated in an in vitro test. The developed barium meal Falibaryt HD is in its physical and chemical parameters comparable with Prontobario-HD, one of the best HD barium meals. (author)

  15. High-Density Livestock Production and Molecularly Characterized MRSA Infections in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A.; Shopsin, Bo; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Nachman, Keeve E.; Curriero, Frank C.; Rose, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: European studies suggest that living near high-density livestock production increases the risk of sequence type (ST) 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated associations between livestock production and human infection by other strain types. Objectives: We evaluated associations between MRSA molecular subgroups and high-density livestock production. Methods: We conducted a yearlong 2012 prospective study on a stratified random sample of patients with culture-confirmed MRSA infection; we oversampled patients from the Geisinger Health System with exposure to high-density livestock production in Pennsylvania. Isolates were characterized using S. aureus protein A (spa) typing and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and scn genes. We compared patients with one of two specific MRSA strains with patients with all other strains of MRSA isolates, using logistic regression that accounted for the sampling design, for two different exposure models: one based on the location of the animals (livestock model) and the other on crop field application of manure (crop field model). Results: Of 196 MRSA isolates, we identified 30 spa types, 47 PVL-negative and 15 scn-negative isolates, and no ST398 MRSA. Compared with quartiles 1–3 combined, the highest quartiles of swine livestock and dairy/veal crop field exposures were positively associated with community-onset-PVL-negative MRSA (CO-PVL-negative MRSA vs. all other MRSA), with adjusted odds ratios of 4.24 (95% CI: 1.60, 11.25) and 4.88 (95% CI: 1.40, 17.00), respectively. The association with CO-PVL-negative MRSA infection increased across quartiles of dairy/veal livestock exposure (trend p = 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that other MRSA strains, beyond ST398, may be involved in livestock-associated MRSA infection in the United States. Citation: Casey JA, Shopsin B, Cosgrove SE, Nachman KE, Curriero FC, Rose HR, Schwartz BS

  16. Preparation of high density (8 to 9) uranium oxide UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichner, C.; Ertaud, A.; Ortel, Y.; Stohr, J.; Vautrey, L.

    1948-10-01

    This report describes the process elaborated for the preparation of high density UO 2 . The thermal decomposition of uranium peroxide leads to UO 3 which is reduced by an hydrogen flow to obtain UO 2 . A UO 2 powder of good quality is obtained for temperatures below 650 deg. C. The powder is pulverized to obtain an homogeneous grain size and compressed inside a die to make pellets. Pellets are sintered up to 1600 deg. C in a reducing atmosphere and following a temperature rise law of 150 deg. C/hour. The equipment used (furnaces, gases purifier, control equipment, power supplies, thermoregulation systems) is described at the end. (J.S.)

  17. Triton-3He relative and differential flows and the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Gaochan; Li, Baoan; Chen, Liewen

    2010-01-01

    Using a transport model coupled with a phase-space coalescence after-burner we study the triton- 3 He relative and differential transverse flows in semi-central 132 Sn + 124 Sn reactions at a beam energy of 400 MeV/nucleon. We find that the triton- 3 He pairs carry interesting information about the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The t- 3 He relative flow can be used as a particularly powerful probe of the high-density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy. (author)

  18. Neutrino hierarchy from CP-blind observables with high density magnetized detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Rigolin, S.; Migliozzi, P.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Terranova, F.

    2008-01-01

    High density magnetized detectors are well suited to exploit the outstanding purity and intensities of novel neutrino sources like neutrino factories and beta beams. They can also provide independent measurements of leptonic mixing parameters through the observation of atmospheric muon-neutrinos. In this paper, we discuss the combination of these observables from a multi-kT iron detector and a high energy beta beam; in particular, we demonstrate that even with moderate detector granularities the neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined for θ 13 values greater than 4 . (orig.)

  19. Accident Analysis of High Density Storage Rack for Fresh Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, K. J.; Lee, M. J.; Jin, H. U.; Park, J. H.; Shin, S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recently KONES and KNF have developed the so called suspension-type High Density Storage Rack (HDSR) for fresh fuel assemblies. The USNRC OT position paper specifies that the design of the rack must ensure the functional integrity of the fuel racks under all credible fuel assembly drop events. In this context the functional integrity means the criticality safety. That is to say, the drop events must not bring any danger to the criticality safety of HDSR. This paper shows the results of the analysis carried out to demonstrate the regulatory compliance of the proposed racks under postulated accidental drop events

  20. Emissions from heavy current carrying high density plasma and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi

    1987-06-01

    Workshop on ''Emissions from heavy current carrying high density plasma and diagnostics'' was held at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University on 3. and 4. December 1986 under a collaborating research Program. The workshop was attended by 43 researchers from 19 labolatories. A total of 22 papers were submitted and are presented in these proceedings. The largest group of papers was that on soft X-ray emission. It seems this topic is a foremost interest for groups which engaged in research of the Z pinch and the plasma focus. A variety of problems in pinched dense plasmas, namely spectroscopy, diagnostics, pinch dynamics, and related engineering aspects were also discussed. (author)

  1. Broadband infrared photoluminescence in silicon nanowires with high density stacking faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Zhihong; Lu, Xiaoxiang; Su, Zhihua; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Dunwei; Jian, Jie; Lee, Joon Hwan; Wang, Haiyan; Yu, Qingkai; Bao, Jiming

    2015-02-07

    Making silicon an efficient light-emitting material is an important goal of silicon photonics. Here we report the observation of broadband sub-bandgap photoluminescence in silicon nanowires with a high density of stacking faults. The photoluminescence becomes stronger and exhibits a blue shift under higher laser powers. The super-linear dependence on excitation intensity indicates a strong competition between radiative and defect-related non-radiative channels, and the spectral blue shift is ascribed to the band filling effect in the heterostructures of wurtzite silicon and cubic silicon created by stacking faults.

  2. Study and application of high-density concrete in radiation-shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chongming; Ding Dexin; Xiao Xuefu; Wang Shaolin; Lin Xingjun; Shen Yuanyuan

    2008-01-01

    According to the demand for research and construction project, a series of systematic experiments and studies on shielding γ-ray radiation concrete with the density of 4.60 t/m 3 were made in such aspects as mix ratio design, construction technology, uniformly shielding etc. Such issues as uniformity in the construction and compactness were solved. The ray test method for uniformly shielding concrete was presented and some technical steps for this high-density concrete used in the process of test design or construction were summed up. A series of tests and practical applications show that this technology of mix ratio design and construction is feasible. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of AMPX-KENO benchmark calculations for high-density spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.E.; Gurley, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The AMPX-KENO computer code package is commonly used to evaluate criticality in high-density spent fuel storage rack designs. Consequently, it is important to know the reliability that can be placed on such calculations and whether or not the results are conservative. This paper evaluates a series of AMPX-KENO calculations which have been made on selected critical experiments. The results are compared with similar analyses reported in the literature by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and BandW. 8 refs

  4. Novel technique of making thin target foil of high density material via rolling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, C. K.; Rohilla, Aman; Singh, R. P.; Singh, Gurjot; Chamoli, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The conventional rolling method fails to yield good quality thin foils of thicknesses less than 2 mg/cm2 for high density materials with Z ≥ 70 (e.g. gold, lead). A special and improved technique has been developed to obtain such low thickness good quality gold foils by rolling method. Using this technique thin gold foils of thickness in the range of 0.850-2.5 mg/cm2 were obtained in the present work. By making use of alcohol during rolling, foils of thickness 1 mg/cm2 can be obtained in shorter time with less effort.

  5. Massively multiplexed microbial identification using resequencing DNA microarrays for outbreak investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, T. A.; Ansumana, R.; Jimmy, D. H.; Bangura, U.; Malanoski, A. P.; Lin, B.; Stenger, D. A.

    2011-06-01

    Multiplexed microbial diagnostic assays are a promising method for detection and identification of pathogens causing syndromes characterized by nonspecific symptoms in which traditional differential diagnosis is difficult. Also such assays can play an important role in outbreak investigations and environmental screening for intentional or accidental release of biothreat agents, which requires simultaneous testing for hundreds of potential pathogens. The resequencing pathogen microarray (RPM) is an emerging technological platform, relying on a combination of massively multiplex PCR and high-density DNA microarrays for rapid detection and high-resolution identification of hundreds of infectious agents simultaneously. The RPM diagnostic system was deployed in Sierra Leone, West Africa in collaboration with Njala University and Mercy Hospital Research Laboratory located in Bo. We used the RPM-Flu microarray designed for broad-range detection of human respiratory pathogens, to investigate a suspected outbreak of avian influenza in a number of poultry farms in which significant mortality of chickens was observed. The microarray results were additionally confirmed by influenza specific real-time PCR. The results of the study excluded the possibility that the outbreak was caused by influenza, but implicated Klebsiella pneumoniae as a possible pathogen. The outcome of this feasibility study confirms that application of broad-spectrum detection platforms for outbreak investigation in low-resource locations is possible and allows for rapid discovery of the responsible agents, even in cases when different agents are suspected. This strategy enables quick and cost effective detection of low probability events such as outbreak of a rare disease or intentional release of a biothreat agent.

  6. Design and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jean; Mehlen, André; Vetter, Guillaume; Yatskou, Mikalai; Muller, Arnaud; Chalmel, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier; Friederich, Evelyne; Vallar, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Actichip is a powerful alternative to commercial high density microarrays for cytoskeleton gene profiling in normal or pathological samples. Actichip is available upon request. PMID:17727702

  7. Microarray Я US: a user-friendly graphical interface to Bioconductor tools that enables accurate microarray data analysis and expedites comprehensive functional analysis of microarray results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yilin; Guo, Ling; Li, Meng; Chen, Yi-Bu

    2012-06-08

    Microarray data analysis presents a significant challenge to researchers who are unable to use the powerful Bioconductor and its numerous tools due to their lack of knowledge of R language. Among the few existing software programs that offer a graphic user interface to Bioconductor packages, none have implemented a comprehensive strategy to address the accuracy and reliability issue of microarray data analysis due to the well known probe design problems associated with many widely used microarray chips. There is also a lack of tools that would expedite the functional analysis of microarray results. We present Microarray Я US, an R-based graphical user interface that implements over a dozen popular Bioconductor packages to offer researchers a streamlined workflow for routine differential microarray expression data analysis without the need to learn R language. In order to enable a more accurate analysis and interpretation of microarray data, we incorporated the latest custom probe re-definition and re-annotation for Affymetrix and Illumina chips. A versatile microarray results output utility tool was also implemented for easy and fast generation of input files for over 20 of the most widely used functional analysis software programs. Coupled with a well-designed user interface, Microarray Я US leverages cutting edge Bioconductor packages for researchers with no knowledge in R language. It also enables a more reliable and accurate microarray data analysis and expedites downstream functional analysis of microarray results.

  8. Collision frequency of Lennard-Jones fluids at high densities by equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebayo, G.A.; Anusionwu, B.C.; Njah, A.N.; Adeniran, O.J.; Mathew, B.; Sunmonu, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Arising from the inability of theoretical calculations to give accurate descriptions of (shear) viscosity in rare gases at high densities, we investigated the likely cause of discrepancy between theory and experiments. Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed to calculate transport coefficients and collision frequency of rare gases at high densities and different temperatures using a Lennard-Jones modelled pair potential. The results, when compared with experiments show an underestimation of the viscosity calculated through the Green-Kubo formalism, but in agreement with some other calculations performed by other groups. In the present work the origin of the underestimation is considered. Analyses of the transport coefficients show a very high collision frequency which suggests an atom may spend much less time in the neighbourhood of the fields of force of another atom and that the distribution in the systems studied adjusts itself to a nearly Maxwellian type which resulted in a locally and temporarily slowly varying temperature. We show that the time spent in the fields of force is so small compared with relaxation time thereby leading to a possible reduction in local velocity auto-correlation between atoms. (author)

  9. Novel changes in discoidal high density lipoprotein morphology: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catte, Andrea; Patterson, James C; Jones, Martin K; Jerome, W Gray; Bashtovyy, Denys; Su, Zhengchang; Gu, Feifei; Chen, Jianguo; Aliste, Marcela P; Harvey, Stephen C; Li, Ling; Weinstein, Gilbert; Segrest, Jere P

    2006-06-15

    ApoA-I is a uniquely flexible lipid-scavenging protein capable of incorporating phospholipids into stable particles. Here we report molecular dynamics simulations on a series of progressively smaller discoidal high density lipoprotein particles produced by incremental removal of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine via four different pathways. The starting model contained 160 palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholines and a belt of two antiparallel amphipathic helical lipid-associating domains of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. The results are particularly compelling. After a few nanoseconds of molecular dynamics simulation, independent of the starting particle and method of size reduction, all simulated double belts of the four lipidated apoA-I particles have helical domains that impressively approximate the x-ray crystal structure of lipid-free apoA-I, particularly between residues 88 and 186. These results provide atomic resolution models for two of the particles produced by in vitro reconstitution of nascent high density lipoprotein particles. These particles, measuring 95 angstroms and 78 angstroms by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, correspond in composition and in size/shape (by negative stain electron microscopy) to the simulated particles with molar ratios of 100:2 and 50:2, respectively. The lipids of the 100:2 particle family form minimal surfaces at their monolayer-monolayer interface, whereas the 50:2 particle family displays a lipid pocket capable of binding a dynamic range of phospholipid molecules.

  10. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Han, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heat-map. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  11. Chemical influence on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of high-density bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, E.; Romero, E.; Lioret, A. [Technical Univ. of Catalonia UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Musso, G. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    In radioactive waste disposal schemes, during the operational period of clay barriers, solute transport an d thermal gradients may alter the solute concentration of pore water. These induced changes have important consequences on hydro-mechanical properties and microstructural alterations (mineral composition and pore size distribution changes) of the clay barrier. Chemically induced changes originated by different imbibition fluids and soil mineral compositions have been a subject with a long research tradition. These researches have been mainly focused on the behaviour of reconstituted soils starting from slurry and saturated wit h saline solutions at elevated concentrations, where hydro-mechanical changes (soil compressibility and water permeability changes) are clearly detected. In contrast, available information concerning the response of high-density clays subjected to chemically induced actions with a wide range of pore solution concentrations is very limited in spite of its practical relevance to environmental geotechnics. This situation has been caused, at least in part, by the difficulties in detecting important hydro-mechanical changes when clays with low water storage capacity have been used. Nevertheless, this paper will demonstrate that even in the case of high-density fabrics, considerable changes can be observed when high-activity clays (bentonites) are imbibed with different pore fluid compositions. (authors)

  12. Neutron star evolution and the structure of matter at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyeur, Madeleine.

    1981-09-01

    The structure and properties of neutron stars are determined by the state of cold nuclear matter at high density. In order to investigate the behavior of matter inside neutron stars, observables sensitive to their internal structure have to be calculated and confronted to observations. The thermal radiation of neutron stars seems to be a good candidate to be such observable. It can be shown that the neutrino luminosity of neutron stars, responsible for their cooling in the early stages of their evolution is strongly dependent on possible phase transitions to superfluid nucleons, to pion condensation or to quark matter. The specific heat of matter is also not the same in the various phases expected at high density and is particularly sensitive to the nucleon superfluidity. At present, both the theoretical estimates and the observations of the thermal properties of neutron stars are still quite preliminary. In particular, large uncertainties due to possible reheating mechanisms and magnetic field effects make the theoretical interpretation of the steady radiation of pulsars quite difficult

  13. Alternative reproductive tactics and inverse size-assortment in a high-density fish spawning aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkarey, Rucha; Zambre, Amod; Isvaran, Kavita; Arthur, Rohan

    2017-02-28

    At high densities, terrestrial and marine species often employ alternate reproductive tactics (ARTs) to maximize reproductive benefits. We describe ARTs in a high-density and unfished spawning aggregation of the squaretail grouper (Plectropomus areolatus) in Lakshadweep, India. As previously reported for this species, territorial males engage in pair-courtship, which is associated with a pair-spawning tactic. Here, we document a previously unreported school-courtship tactic; where territorial males court multiple females in mid-water schools, which appears to culminate in a unique 'school-spawning' tactic. Courtship tactics were conditional on body size, local mate density and habitat, likely associated with changing trade-offs between potential mating opportunities and intra-sexual competition. Counter-intuitively, the aggregation showed a habitat-specific inverse size-assortment: large males courted small females on the reef slope while small males courted equal-sized or larger females on the shelf. These patterns remained stable across two years of observation at high, unfished densities. These unique density-dependent behaviours may disappear from this aggregation as overall densities decline due to increasing commercial fishing pressure, with potentially large consequences for demographics and fitness.

  14. An Ultra-High-Density, Transcript-Based, Genetic Map of Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truco, Maria José; Ashrafi, Hamid; Kozik, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Hans; Bowers, John; Wo, Sebastian Reyes Chin; Stoffel, Kevin; Xu, Huaqin; Hill, Theresa; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    We have generated an ultra-high-density genetic map for lettuce, an economically important member of the Compositae, consisting of 12,842 unigenes (13,943 markers) mapped in 3696 genetic bins distributed over nine chromosomal linkage groups. Genomic DNA was hybridized to a custom Affymetrix oligonucleotide array containing 6.4 million features representing 35,628 unigenes of Lactuca spp. Segregation of single-position polymorphisms was analyzed using 213 F7:8 recombinant inbred lines that had been generated by crossing cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola acc. US96UC23, the wild progenitor species of L. sativa. The high level of replication of each allele in the recombinant inbred lines was exploited to identify single-position polymorphisms that were assigned to parental haplotypes. Marker information has been made available using GBrowse to facilitate access to the map. This map has been anchored to the previously published integrated map of lettuce providing candidate genes for multiple phenotypes. The high density of markers achieved in this ultradense map allowed syntenic studies between lettuce and Vitis vinifera as well as other plant species. PMID:23550116

  15. An Ultra-High-Density, Transcript-Based, Genetic Map of Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truco, Maria José; Ashrafi, Hamid; Kozik, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Hans; Bowers, John; Wo, Sebastian Reyes Chin; Stoffel, Kevin; Xu, Huaqin; Hill, Theresa; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W

    2013-04-09

    We have generated an ultra-high-density genetic map for lettuce, an economically important member of the Compositae, consisting of 12,842 unigenes (13,943 markers) mapped in 3696 genetic bins distributed over nine chromosomal linkage groups. Genomic DNA was hybridized to a custom Affymetrix oligonucleotide array containing 6.4 million features representing 35,628 unigenes of Lactuca spp. Segregation of single-position polymorphisms was analyzed using 213 F 7:8 recombinant inbred lines that had been generated by crossing cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola acc. US96UC23, the wild progenitor species of L. sativa The high level of replication of each allele in the recombinant inbred lines was exploited to identify single-position polymorphisms that were assigned to parental haplotypes. Marker information has been made available using GBrowse to facilitate access to the map. This map has been anchored to the previously published integrated map of lettuce providing candidate genes for multiple phenotypes. The high density of markers achieved in this ultradense map allowed syntenic studies between lettuce and Vitis vinifera as well as other plant species. Copyright © 2013 Truco et al.

  16. X-ray CT high-density artefact suppression in cryosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jikun; Sandison, George A; Chen Laigao; Liang Yun; Xu, Lisa X

    2002-01-01

    Advantages of x-ray CT for imaging guidance of cryosurgery include 3D visualization of frozen and unfrozen tissue and calibration of temperature in the tissue water-ice interface (0-10 deg. C) to Hounsfield units. However, use of x-ray CT images and their thermal calibration can be compromised by the cryoprobes generating high-density streak artefacts. A new subtraction technique for artefact suppression is proposed and tested in prostate cryosurgery simulations. By subtracting the measured CT x-ray projection profile without cryoprobes from the profile with cryoprobes plus iceballs, one obtains the combined profile of the cryoprobes and a low value background. Polynomial interpolation to obtain the background profile allows its addition to the original profile without probes. The result may then be fed to a conventional filtered back-projection routine to reconstruct the probe-free image. Finally the cryoprobe pixels in the originally constructed image with probes and iceballs are added back to the probe-free image to get the final artefact-suppressed image. The major advantage of this subtraction technique is that it can successfully suppress the high-density artefacts in bone-abundant body regions such as the pelvis. X-ray CT images of cryoprobe arrays in a homogeneous gelatin phantom and the pelvic region of an anthropomorphic Rando phantom containing a human skeleton were generated. After suppression, cryoprobe metal artefact streaks are reduced and visualization of the positions and dimensions of the cryoprobes are well preserved. (note)

  17. Qualification of high-density fuel manufacturing for research reactors at CNEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelfang, P.; Alvarez, L.; Boero, N.; Calabrese, R.; De La Fuente, M.; Echenique, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Pasqualini, E.; Ruggirello, G.; Taboada, H. [CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    CNEA, the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina, is at the present a qualified supplier of uranium oxide fuel for research reactors. A new objective in this field is to develop and qualify the manufacturing of LEU high-density fuel for this type of reactors. According with the international trend Silicide fuel and U-xMo fuel are included in our program as the most suitable options. The facilities to complete the qualification of high-density MTR fuels, like the manufacturing plant installations, the reactor, the pool side fuel examination station and the hot cells are fully operational and equipped to perform all the activities required within the program. The programs for both type of fuels include similar activities: development and set up of the fuel material manufacturing technology, set up of fuel plate manufacturing, fabrication and irradiation of miniplates, fabrication and irradiation of full scale fuel elements, post-irradiation examination and feedback for manufacturing improvements. For silicide fuels most of these steps have already been completed. For U-xMo fuel the activities also include the development of alternative ways to obtain U-xMo powder, feasibility studies for large-scale manufacturing and the economical assessment. Set up of U-xMo fuel plate manufacturing is also well advanced and the fabrication of the first full scale prototype is foreseen during this year. (author)

  18. Essential elements of the high density H-mode on W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, K.; Burhenn, R.; Grigull, P.

    2003-01-01

    The High Density H-Mode (HDH), discovered during the run-in phase of W7-AS divertor operation/1-3/, rapidly became the workhorse of the divertor program, combining optimal core behavior along with edge parameters necessary for successful operation of an Island Divertor. Its unique properties of high energy confinement along with low impurity retention and radiation localized at the edge under ELM-free steady-state conditions at high densities (to 4 x 10 20 m -3 ) and heating powers (to 1.7 MWm -3 ) make the HDH H-mode ideal for a reactor scenario, given it can be extended to higher temperatures in a larger machine. Hence, considerable effort has been invested to understand the nature of the HDH-mode in order to be able to extrapolate to next generation devices. To this end the present paper reports on experiments where two globally-similar ELM-free H-modes are compared: the classic quiescent H-mode H* where both impurity and density control are a severe problem and the HDH-mode with its contrasting steady-state behavior. Through modeling of the temporal behavior of laser-ablated aluminum spectral lines, as well as that of background impurities, it is concluded that a principle difference between the two H-modes is that of enhanced impurity diffusion in the edge gradient region of the HDH-mode. However, no direct indicators of enhanced diffusion have yet been identified. (orig.)

  19. High-density equation of state for helium and its application to bubbles in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.

    1980-06-01

    Helium, produced by transmutations or injected, causes bubble formation in solids at elevated temperatures. For small bubbles, the gas pressure required to balance the surface tension reaches values which far exceed those obtainable in experiments to measure the equation of state for helium gas. Therefore, empirical gas laws cannot be considered applicable to the fluid-like densities existing in small bubbles. In order to remedy this situation, an equation of state for helium was developed from the theory of the liquid state. At very low densities, this theoretically derived equation of state agrees with experimental results. For high densities, however, gas pressures are predicted which are significantly higher than those derived from the ideal gas law, but also significantly lower than pressures obtained with the van der Waals law. When applied to equilibrium bubbles in solids, it is found that the high-density equation of state leads to less bubble swelling than the van der Waals law, but more than the ideal gas law. Furthermore, the number of helium atoms in equilibrium bubbles is nearly independent of temperature

  20. Holographic memory for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Claire

    2002-09-01

    As computers and the internet become faster and faster, more and more information is transmitted, received, and stored everyday. The demand for high density and fast access time data storage is pushing scientists and engineers to explore all possible approaches including magnetic, mechanical, optical, etc. Optical data storage has already demonstrated its potential in the competition against other storage technologies. CD and DVD are showing their advantages in the computer and entertainment market. What motivated the use of optical waves to store and access information is the same as the motivation for optical communication. Light or an optical wave has an enormous capacity (or bandwidth) to carry information because of its short wavelength and parallel nature. In optical storage, there are two types of mechanism, namely localized and holographic memories. What gives the holographic data storage an advantage over localized bit storage is the natural ability to read the stored information in parallel, therefore, meeting the demand for fast access. Another unique feature that makes the holographic data storage attractive is that it is capable of performing associative recall at an incomparable speed. Therefore, volume holographic memory is particularly suitable for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition. In this paper, we review previous works on volume holographic memories and discuss the challenges for this technology to become a reality.

  1. Progress in long sustainment and high density experiments with potential confinement on GAMMA 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Hirata, M.

    2001-01-01

    The improvement of potential confinement reported in the last IAEA meeting was attained by axisymmetrization of heating pattern of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). It was experimentally shown that the axisymmetrization of ECRH really produced axisymmetric potential profile. GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in longer sustainment and high density operation of potential confinement. Experiments for long sustainment of potential confinement were carried out in order to study problems of steady state operation of a tandem mirror reactor. A confining potential was sustained for 150 ms by sequentially injecting two (ECRH) powers in the plug region. It was difficult before to increase the central cell density higher than about 2.5x10 12 cm -3 with and/or without potential confinement due to some density limiting mechanism. In order to overcome this problem, a new higher frequency ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) system (RF3: 36-76 MHz) has been installed. A higher density plasma has been produced with RF3. In addition to RF3, neutral beam injection (NBI) in the anchor cell became effective by reducing neutral gas from beam injectors. Potential confinement experiments have advanced to higher central cell densities up to 4x10 12 cm -3 with RF3 and NBI. A 20% density increase due to the potential confinement was obtained in the high density experiments. (author)

  2. Edge operational space for high density/high confinement ELMY H-modes in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, R.; Saibene, G.; Loarte, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses how the proximity to the L-H threshold affects the confinement of ELMy H-modes at high density. The largest reduction in confinement at high density is observed at the transition from the Type I to the Type III ELMy regime. At medium plasma triangularity, δ≅0.3 (where δ is the average triangularity at the separatrix), JET experiments show that by increasing the margin above the L-H threshold power and maintaining the edge temperature above the critical temperature for the transition to Type III ELMs, it is possible to avoid the degradation of the pedestal pressure with density, normally observed at lower power. As a result, the range of achievable densities (both in the core and in the pedestal) is increased. At high power above the L-H threshold power the core density was equal to the Greenwald limit with H97≅0.9. There is evidence that a mixed regime of Type I and Type II ELMs has been obtained at this intermediate triangularity, possibly as a result of this increase in density. At higher triangularity, δ≅0.5, the power required to achieve similar results is lower. (author)

  3. In situ neutron diffraction studies of high density amorphous ice under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Stefan; Straessle, Th; Saitta, A M; Rousse, G; Hamel, G; Nelmes, R J; Loveday, J S; Guthrie, M

    2005-01-01

    We review recent in situ neutron diffraction studies on the structural pressure dependence and the recrystallization of dense amorphous ices up to 2 GPa. Progress in high pressure techniques and data analysis methods allows the reliable determination of all three partial structure factors of amorphous ice under pressure. The strong pressure dependence of the g OO (r) correlation function shows that the isothermal compression of high density amorphous ice (HDA) at 100 K is achieved by a contraction (∼ 20%) of the second-neighbour coordination shell leading to a strong increase in coordination. The g DD (r) and g OD (r) structure factors are, in contrast, only weakly sensitive to pressure. These data allow a comparison with structural features of the recently reported 'very high density amorphous ice' (VHDA) which indicates that VHDA at ambient pressure is very similar to compressed HDA, at least up to the second-neighbour shell. The recrystallization of HDA has been investigated in the range 0.3-2 GPa. It is shown that hydrogen-disordered phases are produced which normally grow only from the liquid, such as ice XII, and in particular ice IV. These findings are in good agreement with results on quench-recovered samples

  4. Passive fire protection in high density village (case study, Bustaman Semarang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukawi, Sukawi; Wahyu Firmandhani, Satriya; Hardiman, Gagoek

    2017-12-01

    Fire hazard is the disaster that always has an unpredictable process of coming. When it comes, its level scope and the magnitude of the effects cannot be predicted. Dense settlements especially in big cities, among others Bustaman Kampong Semarang never escape from physical problems such as flooding and wildfire. If both are compared in dense settlements scope, so that, wild fire is the most potentially catastrophic. It is necessary to do a research on passive fire protection in a village of high density city such as Bustaman. Qualitative research was conducted using descriptive method to conduct observations and interviews in the Bustaman. Bustaman as a high density village, with narrow roads and dense rows of houses. The terraced buildings are also encountered, and found many buildings use combustible material. That environmental conditions can facilitate the propagation of flames in case of fire. To improve the established Bustaman's environment, in terms of the application of passive fire protection systems, it is recommended to utilize the road as the dividing buildings. Need to build the separation wall fireproof in every each series in several units of too long buildings and attempted open space procurement that separates rows of buildings that are too long, and also the replacement of combustible material with a material that is more incombustible.

  5. Hydrogen retention properties of co-deposition under high-density plasmas in TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokitani, M.; Miyamoto, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, N.; Sakamoto, M.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; TRIAM Group,; Nagata, S.; Tsuchiya, B.

    2007-01-01

    Retention of hydrogen in co-deposits formed under high-density plasma discharge in TRIAM-1M was studied. In order to quantify the retained hydrogen, material probe experiments were performed under the high-density (n at e ∼10 19 m -3 ) discharges. After the exposure to the plasma, the quantitative analysis of deposition, hydrogen retention, and microscopic modification of specimens were performed by means of ion beam analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The co-deposits mainly consisted of Mo. The deposition rate of Mo was about ten times higher than that of the low-density discharge case. The hydrogen concentrations (H/Mo) retained in the co-deposits were 0.06-0.17, which was much higher than that in bulk-Mo and almost equal to the low-density case. These results indicate that as long as the co-deposition layers are continuously formed, strong wall pumping in TRIAM-1M is maintained during the discharges

  6. Improving the circular economy via hydrothermal processing of high-density waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer Pedersen, Thomas; Conti, Federica

    2017-10-01

    Rising environmental concerns on climate changes are causing an increasing attention on circular economies. The plastic economy, in particular, is in focus due to the accelerating consumption of plastics, mainly derived from virgin feedstock, combined with the lack of plastic recycling strategies. This work presents a novel outlook on the potential of using supercritical hydrothermal processing of waste plastic fractions for tertiary recycling. The study investigates hydrothermal processing of nine different, high-density types of plastics into original resin monomers and other value-added chemical compounds. The outlook presents conversion yields, carbon balances, and chemical details on the products obtained. It is found that all the investigated resins are prone to hydrothermal treatment, and that high yields of monomers and high value compounds (up to nearly 100%), suitable for chemicals and fuels applications, can be obtained. For instance, for polycarbonate, styrene-butadiene, poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene terephthalate), and poly(butylene terephthalate), original monomeric compounds can be reclaimed for manufacturing new resins. The promising results presented demonstrate that hydrothermal processing of high-density plastics is a prospective technology for increasing the circularity of the plastic economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on the Weaving Behavior of High Density Bidirectional Pedestrian Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weaving area may be the critical risk place in the subway transfer station. When improving service level of the weaving area, the characteristic of pedestrian weaving behavior should be systemically discussed. This paper described the mechanism of weaving behavior on high density pedestrian which was analyzed by the collection data of controlled experiment. Different weaving behaviors were contrasted due to different volumes in the bidirectional passageway. Video analysis was conducted to extract pedestrian moving behavior and calibrate the movement data with SIMI Motion. Influence of the high density weaving pedestrian was studied based on the statistical results (e.g., velocity, walking distance, and journey time. Furthermore, the quantitative method by speed analysis was announced to discriminate the conflict point. The scopes of weaving area and impact area at different pedestrian volumes were revealed to analyze the pedestrian turning angle. The paper concluded that walking pedestrians are significantly influenced by the weaving conflict and trend to turn the moving direction to avoid the conflict in weaving area; the ratio of stable weaving area and impact area is 2 to 3. The conclusions do provide a method to evaluate the transfer station safety and a facility layout guidance to improve the capacity.

  8. Evolutionary Agroecology: the potential for cooperative, high density, weed-suppressing cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jacob; Andersen, Sven B; Wille, Wibke K-M; Griepentrog, Hans W; Olsen, Jannie M

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total crop yield but reduce plants' individual fitness. In other words, plant breeding should be based on group selection. We explore this approach in relation to crop-weed competition, and argue that it should be possible to develop high density cereals that can utilize their initial size advantage over weeds to suppress them much better than under current practices, thus reducing or eliminating the need for chemical or mechanical weed control. We emphasize the role of density in applying group selection to crops: it is competition among individuals that generates the 'Tragedy of the Commons', providing opportunities to improve plant production by selecting for attributes that natural selection would not favor. When there is competition for light, natural selection of individuals favors a defensive strategy of 'shade avoidance', but a collective, offensive 'shading' strategy could increase weed suppression and yield in the high density, high uniformity cropping systems we envision.

  9. Localized Electrochemiluminescence from Nanoneedle Electrodes for Very-high-density Electrochemical Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2017-09-28

    In this paper, localized electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was visualized from nanoneedle electrodes that achieved very-high-density electrochemical sensing. The localized luminescence at the nanometer-sized tip observed was ascribed to enhanced mass transfer of the luminescence probe at the tip than on the planar surface surrounding the tip, which provided higher luminescence at the tip. The size of the luminescence spots was restricted to 15 μm permitting the electrochemical analysis with a density over 4 × 103 spots/mm2. The positive correlation between the luminescence intensity at the tips and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide supported the quantitative ECL analysis using nanoneedle electrodes. The further modification of glucose oxidase at the electrode surface conceptually demonstrated that the concentration of glucose ranging from 0.5 to 5 mM could be quantified using the luminescence at the tips, which could be further applied for the detection of multiple molecules in the complex biosystem. This successful localized ECL offers a specific strategy for the development of very-high-density electrochemical arrays without the complicated chip design.

  10. High-density biosynthetic fuels: the intersection of heterogeneous catalysis and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Meylemans, Heather A; Gough, Raina V; Quintana, Roxanne L; Garrison, Michael D; Bruno, Thomas J

    2014-05-28

    Biosynthetic valencene, premnaspirodiene, and natural caryophyllene were hydrogenated and evaluated as high performance fuels. The parent sesquiterpenes were then isomerized to complex mixtures of hydrocarbons with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Nafion SAC-13. High density fuels with net heats of combustion ranging from 133-141 000 Btu gal(-1), or up to 13% higher than commercial jet fuel could be generated by this approach. The products of caryophyllene isomerization were primarily tricyclic hydrocarbons which after hydrogenation increased the fuel density by 6%. The isomerization of valencene and premnaspirodiene also generated a variety of sesquiterpenes, but in both cases the dominant product was δ-selinene. Ab initio calculations were conducted to determine the total electronic energies for the reactants and products. In all cases the results were in excellent agreement with the experimental distribution of isomers. The cetane numbers for the sesquiterpane fuels ranged from 20-32 and were highly dependent on the isomer distribution. Specific distillation cuts may have the potential to act as high density diesel fuels, while use of these hydrocarbons as additives to jet fuel will increase the range and/or time of flight of aircraft. In addition to the ability to generate high performance renewable fuels, the powerful combination of metabolic engineering and heterogeneous catalysis will allow for the preparation of a variety of sesquiterpenes with potential for pharmaceutical, flavor, and fragrance applications.

  11. Investigations on the transport and metabolism of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in African green monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorci-Thomas, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolic fate of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters was studied in African green monkeys to determine the significance of the lipid transfer reaction on the catabolism of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters. A method of doubly labeling both moieties of lipoprotein cholesteryl esters with [ 3 He]cholesteryl oleate and cholesteryl [ 14 C]oleate was developed for the purpose of studying plasma cholesteryl ester metabolism in vivo. In these studies the total plasma [ 3 He]cholesterol turnover resulted in production rates, which ranged from 10-17 mg/kg day, similar to previously reported values in African green monkeys and in normal lipoproteinemic humans. In contrast to the production rates calculated from the decay of plasma 3 He-radioactivity, the production rates calculated from lipoproteins labeled with cholesteryl [ 14 C]oleate were approximately 2-3 times greater. In addition to these studies, a plasma cholesteryl ester transacylation activity was demonstrated in vitro when HDL containing doubly labeled cholesteryl esters were incubated with fresh plasma. These results demonstrated that high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters undergo transacylation in vitro, resulting in release and reesterification of free [ 3 H]cholesterol

  12. Simultaneous realization of high density edge transport barrier and improved L-mode on CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Takashi; Okamura, Shoichi; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2008-10-01

    An edge transport barrier (ETB) formation and an improved L-mode (IL mode) have been simultaneously realized in high density region (n-bar e - 1.2x10 20 m -3 ) on Compact Helical System (CHS). When the ETB is formed during the IL mode, the density reduction in the edge region is suppressed by the barrier formation. As a result of the continuous increasing of the temperature by the IL mode, the stored energy during the combined mode increased up to the maximum stored energy (W p - 9.4 kJ) recorded in CHS experiments. The plasma pressure in the peripheral region increases up to three times larger than that of the L-mode, and the large edge plasma pressure gradient is formed accompanying the pedestal structure. That is caused by the anomalous transport reduction that is confirmed from the sharp drop of the density fluctuation in the edge region. The neutral particle reduction in the peripheral region and the metallic impurity accumulation in the core plasma are simultaneously observed during the high density ETB formation. (author)

  13. Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes obtained by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousinho, A. P.; Mansano, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    Patterned growth of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition represents an assembly approach to place and orient nanotubes at a stage as early as when they are synthesized. In this work, the carbon nanotubes were obtained at room temperature by High Density Plasmas Chemical Vapor Deposition (HDPCVD) system. This CVD system uses a new concept of plasma generation, where a planar coil coupled to an RF system for plasma generation was used with an electrostatic shield for plasma densification. In this mode, high density plasmas are obtained. We also report the patterned growth of carbon nanotubes on full 4-in Si wafers, using pure methane plasmas and iron as precursor material (seed). Photolithography processes were used to pattern the regions on the silicon wafers. The carbon nanotubes were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy, the spectra showed very single-walled carbon nanotubes axial vibration modes around 1590 cm-1 and radial breathing modes (RBM) around 120-400 cm-1, confirming that high quality of the carbon nanotubes obtained in this work. The carbon nanotubes were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy too. The results showed that is possible obtain high-aligned carbon nanotubes with patterned growth on a silicon wafer with high reproducibility and control.

  14. Effects of welding parameters on friction stir spot welding of high density polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Mustafa Kemal; Yukler, Ahmet Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic illustration of the cross section of a friction stir spot weld and (b) Geometry of the weld bonded area, x: nugget thickness and y: the thickness of the upper sheet. Highlights: → Welding parameters affect the FSSW nugget formation and the strength of the joint. → Melting of polyethylene occurred in the vicinity of the tool pin. → The joint that fractures with a pull nugget failure mode has a higher strength. -- Abstract: Friction stir spot welding parameters affect the weld strength of thermoplastics, such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets. The effects of the welding parameters on static strength of friction stir spot welds of high density polyethylene sheets were investigated. For maximizing the weld strength, the selection of welding parameters is very important. In lap-shear tests two fracture modes were observed; cross nugget failure and pull nugget failure. The tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth and dwell time were determined to be important in the joint formation and its strength. The joint which had a better strength fails with a pull nugget failure morphology. Weld cross section image analysis of the joints were done with a video spectral comparator. The plunge rate of the tool was determined to have a negligible effect on friction stir spot welding.

  15. Principles of gene microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    The development of several gene expression profiling methods, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), differential display, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), and gene microarray, together with the sequencing of the human genome, has provided an opportunity to monitor and investigate the complex cascade of molecular events leading to tumor development and progression. The availability of such large amounts of information has shifted the attention of scientists towards a nonreductionist approach to biological phenomena. High throughput technologies can be used to follow changing patterns of gene expression over time. Among them, gene microarray has become prominent because it is easier to use, does not require large-scale DNA sequencing, and allows for the parallel quantification of thousands of genes from multiple samples. Gene microarray technology is rapidly spreading worldwide and has the potential to drastically change the therapeutic approach to patients affected with tumor. Therefore, it is of paramount importance for both researchers and clinicians to know the principles underlying the analysis of the huge amount of data generated with microarray technology.

  16. Detection of selected plant viruses by microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    HRABÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this master thesis was the simultaneous detection of four selected plant viruses ? Apple mosaic virus, Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prune harf virus, by microarrays. The intermediate step in the process of the detection was optimizing of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  17. LNA-modified isothermal oligonucleotide microarray for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... the advent of DNA microarray techniques (Lee et al. 2007). ... atoms of ribose to form a bicyclic ribosyl structure. It is the .... 532 nm and emission at 570 nm. The signal ..... sis and validation using real-time PCR. Nucleic Acids ...

  18. Gene Expression Analysis Using Agilent DNA Microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Hybridization of labeled cDNA to microarrays is an intuitively simple and a vastly underestimated process. If it is not performed, optimized, and standardized with the same attention to detail as e.g., RNA amplification, information may be overlooked or even lost. Careful balancing of the amount ...

  19. Microarrays (DNA Chips) for the Classroom Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Betsy; Sussman, Michael; BonDurant, Sandra Splinter; Nienhuis, James; Krysan, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We have developed and optimized the necessary laboratory materials to make DNA microarray technology accessible to all high school students at a fraction of both cost and data size. The primary component is a DNA chip/array that students "print" by hand and then analyze using research tools that have been adapted for classroom use. The…

  20. Comparing transformation methods for DNA microarray data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thygesen, Helene H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: When DNA microarray data are used for gene clustering, genotype/phenotype correlation studies, or tissue classification the signal intensities are usually transformed and normalized in several steps in order to improve comparability and signal/noise ratio. These steps may include

  1. Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kochzius

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection.This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S, cytochrome b (cyt b, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of "DNA barcoding" and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the "position of label" effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90% renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology.Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products.

  2. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  3. Microarray BASICA: Background Adjustment, Segmentation, Image Compression and Analysis of Microarray Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hua

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents microarray BASICA: an integrated image processing tool for background adjustment, segmentation, image compression, and analysis of cDNA microarray images. BASICA uses a fast Mann-Whitney test-based algorithm to segment cDNA microarray images, and performs postprocessing to eliminate the segmentation irregularities. The segmentation results, along with the foreground and background intensities obtained with the background adjustment, are then used for independent compression of the foreground and background. We introduce a new distortion measurement for cDNA microarray image compression and devise a coding scheme by modifying the embedded block coding with optimized truncation (EBCOT algorithm (Taubman, 2000 to achieve optimal rate-distortion performance in lossy coding while still maintaining outstanding lossless compression performance. Experimental results show that the bit rate required to ensure sufficiently accurate gene expression measurement varies and depends on the quality of cDNA microarray images. For homogeneously hybridized cDNA microarray images, BASICA is able to provide from a bit rate as low as 5 bpp the gene expression data that are 99% in agreement with those of the original 32 bpp images.

  4. UPD detection using homozygosity profiling with a SNP genotyping microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenhausen, Peter; Schwartz, Stuart; Risheg, Hiba; Keitges, Elisabeth; Gadi, Inder; Burnside, Rachel D; Jaswaney, Vikram; Pappas, John; Pasion, Romela; Friedman, Kenneth; Tepperberg, James

    2011-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based chromosome microarrays provide both a high-density whole genome analysis of copy number and genotype. In the past 21 months we have analyzed over 13,000 samples primarily referred for developmental delay using the Affymetrix SNP/CN 6.0 version array platform. In addition to copy number, we have focused on the relative distribution of allele homozygosity (HZ) throughout the genome to confirm a strong association of uniparental disomy (UPD) with regions of isoallelism found in most confirmed cases of UPD. We sought to determine whether a long contiguous stretch of HZ (LCSH) greater than a threshold value found only in a single chromosome would correlate with UPD of that chromosome. Nine confirmed UPD cases were retrospectively analyzed with the array in the study, each showing the anticipated LCSH with the smallest 13.5 Mb in length. This length is well above the average longest run of HZ in a set of control patients and was then set as the prospective threshold for reporting possible UPD correlation. Ninety-two cases qualified at that threshold, 46 of those had molecular UPD testing and 29 were positive. Including retrospective cases, 16 showed complete HZ across the chromosome, consistent with total isoUPD. The average size LCSH in the 19 cases that were not completely HZ was 46.3 Mb with a range of 13.5-127.8 Mb. Three patients showed only segmental UPD. Both the size and location of the LCSH are relevant to correlation with UPD. Further studies will continue to delineate an optimal threshold for LCSH/UPD correlation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Study of short haul high-density V/STOL transportation systems, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    The relative advantages of STOL aircraft concepts were examined by simulating the operations of a short haul high-density intercity STOL system set in two arenas, the California corridor and the Chicago-Detroit-Cleveland triangle, during the 1980 time period. The study was constrained to the use of three aircraft concepts designated as the deflected slipstream turboprop, externally blown flap, and augmentor wing turbofan configurations. The projected demographic, economic, travel demand, and travel characteristics of the representative arenas were identified. The STOL airline operating scenarios were then formulated and through the use of the aerospace modal split simulation program, the traveler modal choices involving alternative STOL concepts were estimated in the context of the total transportation environment for 1980. System combinations that presented the best potential for economic return and traveler acceptance were then identified for each STOL concept.

  6. High-density lipoproteins potentiate α1-antitrypsin therapy in elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan-Antonio; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Louedec, Liliane; Ho-Tin-Noé, Benoit; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Nicoletti, Antonino; Levoye, Angelique; Plantier, Laurent; Meilhac, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Several studies report that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) can carry α1-antitrypsin (AAT; an elastase inhibitor). We aimed to determine whether injection of exogenous HDL, enriched or not in AAT, may have protective effects against pulmonary emphysema. After tracheal instillation of saline or elastase, mice were randomly treated intravenously with saline, human plasma HDL (75 mg apolipoprotein A1/kg), HDL-AAT (75 mg apolipoprotein A1-3.75 mg AAT/kg), or AAT alone (3.75 mg/kg) at 2, 24, 48, and 72 hours. We have shown that HDL-AAT reached the lung and prevented the development of pulmonary emphysema by 59.3% at 3 weeks (alveoli mean chord length, 22.9 ± 2.8 μm versus 30.7 ± 4.5 μm; P pulmonary emphysema than AAT alone, and may represent a significant development for the management of emphysema associated with AAT deficiency.

  7. Formation and disintegration of high-density nuclear matter in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Matsuoka, Kazuo; Sano, Mitsuo

    1976-01-01

    The formation of high-density nuclear matter which may be expected to be attained in high-energy heavy-ion collisions and the subsequent disintegration of dense matter are investigated by means of the hydrodynamics. Head-on collisions of identical nuclei are considered in the nonrelativistic approximation. The compressed density cannot exceed 4 times of the normal one so long as the freedom of only nucleons is considered, and can become higher than 4 times when other freedoms such as the productions of mesons and also nucleon isobars are additionally taken into account. The angular distributions for ejected particles predominate both forwards and backwards at low collision energies, corresponding to the formation of nuclear density less than 2 times of the normal density and become isotropic at the point of 2 times of the normal one. As the collision energy increases further, lateral ejection is intensified gradually. (auth.)

  8. Changes in mechanical properties due to gamma irradiation of high-density polyethylene (HDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Cota

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental analysis of the effect of dose and dose rate parameters during gamma irradiation of high-density polyethylene (HDPE samples. Considerations concerning the influence of these parameters on HDPE mechanical strength properties as a result of the predominance of oxidative degradation or of cross-linking are presented. The experimental results show an improvement of HDPE mechanical strength as dose increases, indicating the predominance of cross-linking over oxidative degradation and that lower doses are necessary to obtain a similar change in resistance parameters when radiation is applied at lower dose rates, showing that gamma radiation affects the HDPE in a more efficient way at lower dose rates.

  9. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team

    2016-10-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  10. Is the bulk mode conversion important in high density helicon plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isayama, Shogo; Hada, Tohru [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Kohen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Shinohara, Shunjiro [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Tanikawa, Takao [Research Institute of Science and Technology, Tokai University 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    In a high-density helicon plasma production process, a contribution of Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) wave for surface power deposition is widely accepted. The TG wave can be excited either due to an abrupt density gradient near the plasma edge (surface conversion) or due to linear mode conversion from the helicon wave in a density gradient in the bulk region (bulk mode conversion). By numerically solving the boundary value problem of linear coupling between the helicon and the TG waves in a background with density gradient, we show that the efficiency of the bulk mode conversion strongly depends on the dissipation included in the plasma, and the bulk mode conversion is important when the dissipation is small. Also, by performing FDTD simulation, we show the time evolution of energy flux associated with the helicon and the TG waves.

  11. Ultra-High Density Holographic Memory Module with Solid-State Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Vladimir B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's terrestrial. space, and deep-space missions require technology that allows storing. retrieving, and processing a large volume of information. Holographic memory offers high-density data storage with parallel access and high throughput. Several methods exist for data multiplexing based on the fundamental principles of volume hologram selectivity. We recently demonstrated that a spatial (amplitude-phase) encoding of the reference wave (SERW) looks promising as a way to increase the storage density. The SERW hologram offers a method other than traditional methods of selectivity, such as spatial de-correlation between recorded and reconstruction fields, In this report we present the experimental results of the SERW-hologram memory module with solid-state architecture, which is of particular interest for space operations.

  12. High density, uniformly distributed W/UO{sub 2} for use in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Dennis S., E-mail: dr.dennis.tucker@nasa.gov [EM32, MSFC, Al 35812 (United States); Barnes, Marvin W. [EM32, MSFC, Al 35812 (United States); Hone, Lance; Cook, Steven [Center for Space Nuclear Research, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    An inexpensive, quick method has been developed to obtain uniform distributions of UO{sub 2} particles in a tungsten matrix utilizing 0.5 wt percent low density polyethylene. Powders were sintered in a Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) furnace at 1600 °C, 1700 °C, 1750 °C, 1800 °C and 1850 °C using a modified sintering profile. This resulted in a uniform distribution of UO{sub 2} particles in a tungsten matrix with high densities, reaching 99.46% of theoretical for the sample sintered at 1850 °C. The powder process is described and the results of this study are given below.

  13. Enhancement of high density polyethylene high integrity containers at a low level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.E.; Wong, O.P.

    1989-01-01

    High integrity containers (HIC) made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) have been used for disposal in South Carolina since the late seventies. With the recent definitive position taken by the NRC on the suitability of these containers for disposal, alternative means of assuring the structural integrity of the containers for the long term became necessary. The authors' company has developed an utilized reinforced concrete caissons at the Hanford, Washington site as an additional barrier and structural element to assure the long term high integrity function of the current HDPE HIC's also known as Poly HIC's on the market. This paper outlines the background of the HIC's in question, the NRC positions and ruling, and presents technical bases for the applicability of appropriately designed concrete overpacks to augment the structural integrity of HIC's

  14. Radicals mediated magnetism in Ar plasma treated high-density polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendáč, M.; Čižmár, E.; Kažiková, V.; Orendáčová, A.; Řezníčková, A.; Kolská, Z.; Švorčík, V.

    2018-05-01

    Electron-spin resonance of high-density polyethylene treated by Ar plasma at 300 K was performed in X-band at temperatures from 2.1 K to 290 K. The observed spectra suggest presence of allyl radicals, whereas the central peak may be attributed to polyenyl radicals or dangled bonds. Pronounced narrowing of the resonance line observed above glassy temperature of polyethylene may be ascribed to thermally activated motional effect with the activation energy Ea /kB = 160 K. The absence of strong exchange interactions is suggested by negligible exchange narrowing found at 2.1 K. The suggestion is supported by the analysis of the temperature dependence of the intensity at low temperatures, which is explicable assuming the coexistence of non-interacting radicals and S = 1/2 dimers with a distribution of antiferromagnetic couplings varying from 2 K to nominally 25 K.

  15. Effect of Strain Rate on Microscopic Deformation Behavior of High-density Polyethylene under Uniaxial Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Takumitsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic deformation behaviors such as the load sharing and the molecular orientation of high-density polyethylene under uniaxial stretching at various strain rates were investigated by using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. The chains within crystalline phase began to orient toward the stretching direction beyond the yielding region and the orientation behavior was not affected by the strain rate. While the stretching stress along the crystalline chains was also not affected by the strain rate, the peak shifts of the Raman bands at 1130, 1418, 1440 and 1460 cm-1, which are sensitive to the interchain interactions obviously, depended on the strain rate; the higher strain rates lead to the stronger stretching stress or negative pressure on the crystalline and amorphous chains. These effects of the strain rate on the microscopic deformation was associated with the cavitation and the void formation leading to the release of the internal pressure.

  16. Novel high-density packaging of solid state diode pumped eye-safe laser for LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Kim; Torgerson, Justin; McNeil, Laine; Maine, Patrick; Patterson, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has proven to be a useful research tool for material analysis for decades. However, because of the amount of energy required in a few nanosecond pulse to generate a stable and reliable LIBS signal, the lasers are often large and inefficient, relegating their implementation to research facilities, factory floors, and assembly lines. Small portable LIBS systems are now possible without having to compromise on energy needs by leveraging off of advances in high-density packaging of electronics, opto-mechanics, and highly efficient laser resonator architecture. This paper explores the integration of these techniques to achieve a mJ class eye-safe LIBS laser source, while retaining a small, light-weight package suitable for handheld systems.

  17. Analysis of waste compounds of Gauzama Crinita and high density PET reinforced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, Javier; Ramos, Victor; Hernandez, Yuri; Montoya, Eduardo; Lopez, Alcides; Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima; Acevedo, Moises

    2013-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of gamma radiation in a high density polyethylene and wood waste white Bolaina (Guazuma crinita) compounds from Pucallpa region are presented. Samples were mixed with maleic anhydride and extruded at a temperature between 170 and 200 °C, yielding small cylindrical pellets; were subsequently pressed through thermic process between 180 and 200 °C, in a time range between 15 to 20 minutes. The produced samples were exposed to gamma radiation between 50 and 300 kGy, and then subjected to mechanical testing of hardness and roughness. It was observed that the hardness and the roughness increases in direct proportion to the increase of the dose of gamma radiation, but the samples subjected to doses in the range of 100 to 150 kGy, had a slight inverse behavior. (authors).

  18. Process for obtaining sintered conglomerates with a high density of rare earth oxides and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasto, A.E.

    1974-01-01

    The invention concerns a method to produce agglomerates of actinide and rare earth oxides possessing a cubic-monoclinic transformation in order to obtain high densities close to the theoretical density, and the articles produced by the method. The process is based on the use of a rare earth or actinide oxide, in particular Eu 2 O 3 , with a cubic-monoclinic phase transformation, the oxide being sintered by hot compression at a temperature 50 deg C to 100 deg C above the transformation temperature. The sintered agglomerates obtained can have a purity of at least 99.9% and a density of practically 100%. These agglomerates are suitable in particular for the formation of nuclear reactor control rods [fr

  19. Wet self-cleaning of superhydrophobic microfiber adhesives formed from high density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongho; Fearing, Ronald S

    2012-10-30

    Biologically inspired adhesives developed for switchable and controllable adhesion often require repetitive uses in general, dirty, environments. Superhydrophobic microstructures on the lotus leaf lead to exceptional self-cleaning of dirt particles on nonadhesive surfaces with water droplets. This paper describes the self-cleaning properties of a hard-polymer-based adhesive formed with high-aspect-ratio microfibers from high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The microfiber adhesive shows almost complete wet self-cleaning of dirt particles with water droplets, recovering 98% of the adhesion of the pristine microfiber adhesives. The low contact angle hysteresis indicates that the surface of microfiber adhesives is superhydrophobic. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal a design parameter, length, which can control the adhesion without affecting the superhydrophobicity. The results suggest some properties of biologically inspired adhesives can be controlled independently by adjusting design parameters.

  20. High-Density Liquid-State Machine Circuitry for Time-Series Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Josep L; Alomar, Miquel L; Morro, Antoni; Oliver, Antoni; Canals, Vincent

    2016-08-01

    Spiking neural networks (SNN) are the last neural network generation that try to mimic the real behavior of biological neurons. Although most research in this area is done through software applications, it is in hardware implementations in which the intrinsic parallelism of these computing systems are more efficiently exploited. Liquid state machines (LSM) have arisen as a strategic technique to implement recurrent designs of SNN with a simple learning methodology. In this work, we show a new low-cost methodology to implement high-density LSM by using Boolean gates. The proposed method is based on the use of probabilistic computing concepts to reduce hardware requirements, thus considerably increasing the neuron count per chip. The result is a highly functional system that is applied to high-speed time series forecasting.

  1. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yong; Wu, Qinglin

    2010-05-01

    High-melting-temperature poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was successfully introduced into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre-prepared PET/high density polyethylene (HDPE) microfibrillar blends (MFBs) in the second extrusion at the temperature for processing HDPE. Addition of 25% in situ formed PET microfibers obviously increased the mechanical properties of HDPE, and more significant enhancement by the in situ formed recycled PET microfibers was observed for the recycled HDPE. Adding 2% E-GMA improved the compatibility between matrix and microfibers in MFBs, resulting further enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent addition of 40% wood flour did not influence the size and morphology of PET microfibers, and improved the comprehensive mechanical properties of MFBs. The wood flour increased the crystallinity level of HDPE in the compatibilized MFB in which PET phase did not crystallize. The storage modulus of MFB was greatly improved by wood flour. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Neutrino flavor conversions in high-density astrophysical and cosmological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviano, Ninetta

    2014-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of the neutrino flavor conversions in high-density environments: the supernovae and the the Early Universe. Remarkably, these represent the only two cases in which neutrinos themselves contribute to the ''background medium'' for their propagation, making their oscillations a non-linear phenomenon. In particular, in the dense supernova core, the neutrino-neutrino interactions can lead in some situations to surprising and counterintuitive collective phenomena, when the entire neutrino system oscillates coherently as a single collective mode. In this context, we have shown that during the early SN accretion phase (post-bounce times 10 -3 ) in order to suppress the sterile neutrino production and to find a better agreement between the cosmological and laboratory hints. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and on the Cosmic Microwave Background from data measured by the Planck experiment.

  3. Preparation and characterization of high density polyethylene and residual fibre of Attalea funifera Mart (piacava) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrela, Sara P.; Guimaraes, Danilo H.; Jose, Nadia M.; Carvalho, Gleidson G.P.; Carvalho, Ricardo F.

    2009-01-01

    The use of natural fiber reinforcement thermoplastic polymer is continuously increasing. This fact is manly due to its advantages as low cost, availability, recyclability, low energy demand and then environmental appeal if compared to synthetics fibers. The composites were prepared in different fiber volume ratios (5%, 10% and 20%) mixed with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and heated at 190 deg C. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate thermal stability. The composites structure was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry. Fiber and residue of piassava (Attalea funifera Mart) chemical composition were determined by Van Soest Method. The results indicate that thermo stability of the composites of HDPE prepared with fiber volume ratios up to 20% is only slightly lowered. (author)

  4. Effect of high density lipoproteins on permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, A.N.; Popov, V.A.; Nagornev, V.A.; Pleskov, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of high density lipoproteins (HDL) on the permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins (LDL) after intravenous administration of human HDL and human ( 125 I)LDL to normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Evaluation of radioactivity in plasma and aorta has shown that the administration of a large dose of HDL decreased the aorta permeability rate for ( 125 I)LDL on an average by 19% in normal rabbits, and by 45% in rabbits with moderate hypercholesterolemia. A historadiographic study showed that HDL also decreased the vessel wall permeability to ( 125 I)LDL in normal and particularly in hypercholesterolemic animals. The suggestion was made that HDL at very high molar concentration can hamper LDL transportation through the intact endothelial layer into the intima due to the ability of HDL to compete with LDL in sites of low affinity on the surface of endothelial cells. (author)

  5. Development of low enrichment technologies for high density fuels and for isotope production targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, Horacio; Gonzalez, Alfredo G.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than twenty years ago, CNEA has carried out RERTR activities. Main goals are to convert the RA 6 reactor core from HEU to LEU, to get a comprehensive understanding of U-Mo/Al compounds phase formation in dispersed and monolithic fuels, to develop possible solutions to VHD dispersed and monolithic fuels technical problems, and to optimize techniques to recover U from silicide scrap samples. The future plans include: 1) Completion the RA 6 reactor conversion to LEU; 2) Qualification by irradiation of the promising solutions found for the high density fuels; 3) Irradiation of mini plates and full scale fuel assemblies at the RA 3 reactor and at higher flux and temperature reactors; 4) Optimization of LEU target and radiochemical techniques for radioisotope production. (author) [es

  6. Porous Au-Ag Nanospheres with High-Density and Highly Accessible Hotspots for SERS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Bai, Yaocai; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhongbo; Fan, Qikui; Zheng, Haoquan; Yin, Yadong; Gao, Chuanbo

    2016-06-08

    Colloidal plasmonic metal nanoparticles have enabled surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for a variety of analytical applications. While great efforts have been made to create hotspots for amplifying Raman signals, it remains a great challenge to ensure their high density and accessibility for improved sensitivity of the analysis. Here we report a dealloying process for the fabrication of porous Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles containing abundant inherent hotspots, which were encased in ultrathin hollow silica shells so that the need of conventional organic capping ligands for stabilization is eliminated, producing colloidal plasmonic nanoparticles with clean surface and thus high accessibility of the hotspots. As a result, these novel nanostructures show excellent SERS activity with an enhancement factor of ∼1.3 × 10(7) on a single particle basis (off-resonant condition), promising high applicability in many SERS-based analytical and biomedical applications.

  7. Los Alamos Compact Toroid, fast liner, and High-Density Z-Pinch programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Hammel, J.E.; Sherwood, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The compact Toroid and High Density Z-Pinch are two of the plasma configurations presently being studied at Los Alamos. This paper summarizes these two programs along with the recently terminated Fast Liner Program. Included in this discussion is an analysis of compact Toroid formation techniques showing the tearing and reconnection of the fields that separate the spheromak from the radial fields of the coaxial source, and the final equilibrium state of the elongated FRC in the theta-pinch coil. In addition the typical dimensions of the geometry of the Fast Liner experiments are delineated Z-pinch and electrode assembly is displayed as is a graphic of the temporal behavior of the current required for radial equilibrium. Spheromak is examined in terms of formation, gross stability, and equilibrium and field reversed configuration is discussed in terms of gross stability, equilibrium, and confinement scaling

  8. On the use of High-density rock in rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, H. F.

    2005-01-01

    Natural rock with high density is widely used in the Scandinavian countries. However, the use of natural rock with density higher than 2:9t=m3 is ordinarily associated with some kind of problem solving, e.g. where normal density stones have to be replaced with heavier stones without increasing th...... on stability from the increased density is overestimated by conventional armour stability formulae in case of steep slopes. The infuence of the density depends on the slope angle and the type of armour units....... the construction volume or layer thickness. Most common design formulae do not give a clear conclusion on the in°uence of the rock density on the stability. The present paper presents results of small and large scale model tests in which is used rock with different densities. It is shown that the positive effect...

  9. Characteristics of recycled and electron beam irradiated high density polyethylene samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Gabriel, Leandro; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.; Moura, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Polymers modification by irradiation is a well-known process that allows degradation and cross-linking in concurrent events; this last is expected when an increase of mechanical properties is required. Actually, the interest of recycling and reuse of polymeric material is linked to the increase of plastics ending up in waste streams. Therefore, these both irradiation and recycling process may be conducted to allow a new use to this material that would be discarded by an improvement of its mechanical properties. In this work, the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) matrix has been recycled five times from original substrate. The electron beam irradiation process was applied from 50 kGy to 200 kGy in both original and recycled samples; in this way, mechanical properties and thermal characteristics were evaluated. The results of applied process and material characterization are discussed. (author)

  10. Preparation and characterisation of high-density ionic liquids incorporating halobismuthate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousens, Nico E A; Taylor Kearney, Leah J; Clough, Matthew T; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Palgrave, Robert G; Perkin, Susan

    2014-07-28

    A range of ionic liquids containing dialkylimidazolium cations and halobismuthate anions ([BiBr(x)Cl(y)I(z)](-) and [Bi2Br(x)Cl(y)I(z)](-)) were synthesised by combining dialkylimidazolium halide ionic liquids with bismuth(III) halide salts. The majority were room temperature liquids, all with very high densities. The neat ionic liquids and their mixtures with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide were characterised using Densitometry, Viscometry, NMR Spectroscopy, Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ESI), Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (LSIMS), Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), to establish their speciation and suitability for high-temperature applications.

  11. Design of highly oriented (HOR) media for extremely high density recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, C.H.; Wang, J.P.; Chong, T.C.; Low, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties and recording performance of highly oriented (HOR) longitudinal media are systematically studied via micromagnetic simulation. It was found that highly oriented longitudinal media could be achieved by controlling the anisotropy axes distribution. The effect of anisotropy constant, saturated magnetization and exchange coupling constants on the hysteresis loops are presented. It was further found that highly oriented media show an ultra-low transition noise. Another interesting observation made was that increasing M s for the HOR media decreases the coercivity, which suggests practical usage of this media with current head field. A 500 Gbit/in 2 recording media is simulated to support the application of the highly oriented longitudinal media for ultra high density recording

  12. Low- and high-density nuclear equation of state and the hyperon puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Giuseppe; Sedrakian, Armen [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-07-01

    The measurements of the unusually high mass of the millisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230 (1.97 ± 0.04 M {sub CircleDot}) imposes a strong constraint on the nuclear Equation of State (EoS), in particular for what concerns the finite density behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. In my talk I first discuss a model for the low-density part of the EoS, based on chiral one-pion exchange. I consider a self-consistent approach at finite temperature and density and show that even in a fully-relativistic theory the one-pion exchange contribution is dominated by a contact interaction. Then, a relativistic mean-field approach is used to discuss the high-density part of the EoS, including the presence of hyperons. In the latter, a density dependent parametrization is used and a parameter study on the hyperon-scalar meson coupling is performed.

  13. High Density Interconnect Microstrip Patch Antenna for 5G Base Stations with Integrated Filtering Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The elementary radiator of a planar array for next generation millimeter-wave (mm-wave 5G base stations is described. The antenna is designed for high density interconnect (HDI manufacturing for yielding a compact, densely-interconnected, and highly-integrable stacked structure. The layout of the single element is determined by directly optimizing key radiation features of the whole planar arrangement according to specific application-driven requirements. In addition, thanks to the exploitation of a spline-shaped modelling of the radiator, suitable performance in terms of impedance matching, realized gain, half-power beamwidth (HPBW, polarization purity, and inter-element isolation are achieved within the 28-GHz pass-band. Moreover, integrated out-of-band filtering capabilities are obtained in selected and wide non-contiguous stop-bands without additional circuitry.

  14. Study of the photo-detection efficiency of FBK High-Density silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappalà, G.; Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Ferri, A.; Gola, A.; Paternoster, G.; Zorzi, N.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a study of the factors contributing to the Photo-Detection Efficiency of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs): Quantum Efficiency, Triggering Probability and Fill Factor. Two different SiPM High-Density technologies are tested, NUV-HD, based on n-on-p junction, and RGB-HD, based on p-on-n junction, developed at FBK, Trento. The quantum efficiency was measured on photodiodes produced along with the SiPMs. The triggering probability, as a function of wavelength and bias voltage, was measured on circular Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) with 100% fill factor. Square SPADs, having the same layout of single SiPM cells, were studied to measure the effective fill factor and compare it to the nominal value. The comparison of the circular and square SPADs allows to get the transition region size between the effective active area of the cell and the one defined by the layout.

  15. High-Density Signal Interface Electromagnetic Radiation Prediction for Electromagnetic Compatibility Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    Radiated power calculation approaches for practical scenarios of incomplete high- density interface characterization information and incomplete incident power information are presented. The suggested approaches build upon a method that characterizes power losses through the definition of power loss constant matrices. Potential radiated power estimates include using total power loss information, partial radiated power loss information, worst case analysis, and statistical bounding analysis. A method is also proposed to calculate radiated power when incident power information is not fully known for non-periodic signals at the interface. Incident data signals are modeled from a two-state Markov chain where bit state probabilities are derived. The total spectrum for windowed signals is postulated as the superposition of spectra from individual pulses in a data sequence. Statistical bounding methods are proposed as a basis for the radiated power calculation due to the statistical calculation complexity to find a radiated power probability density function.

  16. How Well Does BODIPY-Cholesteryl Ester Mimic Unlabeled Cholesteryl Esters in High Density Lipoprotein Particles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karilainen, Topi; Vuorela, Timo; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2015-01-01

    We compare the behavior of unlabeled and BODIPY-labeled cholesteryl ester (CE) in high density lipoprotein by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We find through replica exchange umbrella sampling and unbiased molecular dynamics simulations that BODIPY labeling has no significant effect...... on the partitioning of CE between HDL and the water phase. However, BODIPY-CE was observed to diffuse more slowly and locate itself closer to the HDL-water interface than CE due to the BODIPY probe that is constrained to the surface region, and because the CE body in BODIPY-CE prefers to align itself away from...... the HDL surface. The implications as to the suitability of BODIPY to explore lipoprotein properties are discussed....

  17. SERODS: a new medium for high-density optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stokes, David L.

    1998-10-01

    A new optical dada storage technology based on the surface- enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect has been developed for high-density optical memory and three-dimensional data storage. With the surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) technology, the molecular interactions between the optical layer molecules and the nanostructured metal substrate are modified by the writing laser, changing their SERS properties to encode information as bits. Since the SERS properties are extremely sensitive to molecular nano- environments, very small 'spectrochemical holes' approaching the diffraction limit can be produced for the writing process. The SERODS device uses a reading laser to induce the SERS emission of molecules on the disk and a photometric detector tuned to the frequency of the RAMAN spectrum to retrieve the stored information. The results illustrate that SERODS is capable of three-dimensional data storage and has the potential to achieve higher storage density than currently available optical data storage systems.

  18. Bipolar one diode-one resistor integration for high-density resistive memory applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingtao; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Wang, Ming; Xie, Hongwei; Zhang, Kangwei; Huo, Zongliang; Liu, Ming

    2013-06-07

    Different from conventional unipolar-type 1D-1R RRAM devices, a bipolar-type 1D-1R memory device concept is proposed and successfully demonstrated by the integration of Ni/TiOx/Ti diode and Pt/HfO2/Cu bipolar RRAM cell to suppress the undesired sneak current in a cross-point array. The bipolar 1D-1R memory device not only achieves self-compliance resistive switching characteristics by the reverse bias current of the Ni/TiOx/Ti diode, but also exhibits excellent bipolar resistive switching characteristics such as uniform switching, satisfactory data retention, and excellent scalability, which give it high potentiality for high-density integrated nonvolatile memory applications.

  19. New high density MTR fuel. The CEA-CERCA-COGEMA development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Durand, J.P.; Gay, A.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a new generation of LEU, high in density and with reprocessing capacities MTR fuel, is a key issue to provide reactor operators with a smooth operation which is necessary for a long term development of Nuclear Energy. In the RRFM'98 meeting, a joint contribution of CEA, CERCA and COGEMA presented a technical classification of the potential candidates uranium alloys. In this paper this MTR working group presents the development program of a new high density fuel. This program is composed of three main steps: Basic Data analysis and collection, Plate Tests (Irradiation and Post Irradiation Examinations) and Lead Test Assemblies (Irradiation and Post Irradiation Examinations). The goal to be reached is to make this new fuel available before the end of the present US return policy. (author)

  20. Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Biochar Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk biochar was utilized to reinforce high-density polyethylene (HDPE and to prepare biochar/plastic composites (BPC by the extrusion method. Morphologies, non-isothermal crystallization behavior, and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The SEM (scanning electron microscope showed that HDPE was embedded into the holes of the rice husk biochar. The DSC (differential scanning calorimeter showed that biochar could reduce the crystallization rate and the higher the content of rice husk biochar, the slower the crystallization rate. Significantly, the bending and tensile strength of BPC could reach 53.7 and 20 MPa, far beyond WPC (wood plastic composites. With the increase of filler content, BPC were still stronger than WPC, although the impact strength of BPC and WPC all showed a general decline in the trend. The strong interaction was achieved by the utilization of rice husk biochar to reinforce HDPE.

  1. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  2. The constraints of high density production of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Minh T. T.; Hansen, Benni W.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    studied and aquaculture relevant calanoid Acartia tonsa. A simple model was developed to evaluate the influence of individual egg production, egg predation, crowding effects and tank design on the egg harvest. At high densities from 500 to 3500 ind L−1, there was no difference in food ingestion and egg...... cannibalism. However, the copepods showed lower food consumption and egg cannibalism compared to the ecologically relevant densities of 20–100 ind L−1. Model calculations demonstrate that maximum egg harvest is the result of a subtle balance between water mixing and tank depth: a shallow, non-mixed tank...... will allow the eggs to settle and escape cannibalism but at the same time prevent the algal food staying suspended, and full utilization of the egg production potential depends on the fine tuning of these parameters...

  3. Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase Grey, Julia N; Kent, Vivien T; Hill, Russell A

    2013-01-01

    Populations of large carnivores can persist in mountainous environments following extensive land use change and the conversion of suitable habitat for agriculture and human habitation in lower lying areas of their range. The significance of these populations is poorly understood, however, and little attention has focussed on why certain mountainous areas can hold high densities of large carnivores and what the conservation implications of such populations might be. Here we use the leopard (Panthera pardus) population in the western Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, as a model system and show that montane habitats can support high numbers of leopards. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis recorded the highest density of leopards reported outside of state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This density represents a temporally high local abundance of leopards and we explore the explanations for this alongside some of the potential conservation implications.

  4. Evidence of a high density population of harvested leopards in a montane environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia N Chase Grey

    Full Text Available Populations of large carnivores can persist in mountainous environments following extensive land use change and the conversion of suitable habitat for agriculture and human habitation in lower lying areas of their range. The significance of these populations is poorly understood, however, and little attention has focussed on why certain mountainous areas can hold high densities of large carnivores and what the conservation implications of such populations might be. Here we use the leopard (Panthera pardus population in the western Soutpansberg Mountains, South Africa, as a model system and show that montane habitats can support high numbers of leopards. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR analysis recorded the highest density of leopards reported outside of state-protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa. This density represents a temporally high local abundance of leopards and we explore the explanations for this alongside some of the potential conservation implications.

  5. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 1 - April 8-9, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-densiy component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the first storm event, April 8-9. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar data from the network. 4 references, 72 figures, 5 tables.

  6. The Role of High-Density Lipoproteins in Diabetes and Its Vascular Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan K. P. Wong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost 600 million people are predicted to have diabetes mellitus (DM by 2035. Diabetic patients suffer from increased rates of microvascular and macrovascular complications, associated with dyslipidaemia, impaired angiogenic responses to ischaemia, accelerated atherosclerosis, and inflammation. Despite recent treatment advances, many diabetic patients remain refractory to current approaches, highlighting the need for alternative agents. There is emerging evidence that high-density lipoproteins (HDL are able to rescue diabetes-related vascular complications through diverse mechanisms. Such protective functions of HDL, however, can be rendered dysfunctional within the pathological milieu of DM, triggering the development of vascular complications. HDL-modifying therapies remain controversial as many have had limited benefits on cardiovascular risk, although more recent trials are showing promise. This review will discuss the latest data from epidemiological, clinical, and pre-clinical studies demonstrating various roles for HDL in diabetes and its vascular complications that have the potential to facilitate its successful translation.

  7. Simulation of ionization effects for high-density positron drivers in future plasma wakefield experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhwiler, D.L.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Cary, J.R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has been proposed as a potential energy doubler for present or future electron-positron colliders. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have shown that the self-fields of the required electron beam driver can tunnel ionize neutral Li, leading to plasma wake dynamics differing significantly from that of a preionized plasma. It has also been shown, for the case of a preionized plasma, that the plasma wake of a positron driver differs strongly from that of an electron driver. We will present new PIC simulations, using the OOPIC code, showing the effects of tunneling ionization on the plasma wake generated by high-density positron drivers. The results will be compared to previous work on electron drivers with tunneling ionization and positron drivers without ionization. Parameters relevant to the energy doubler and the upcoming E-164x experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will be considered

  8. Enhancement of in vitro high-density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation by physical, chemical, and biological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Natarajan, K; Rajeshkannan, V; Perumal, P

    2014-11-01

    Partially degraded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was collected from plastic waste dump yard for biodegradation using fungi. Of various fungi screened, strain MF12 was found efficient in degrading HDPE by weight loss and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometric analysis. Strain MF12 was selected as efficient HDPE degraders for further studies, and their growth medium composition was optimized. Among those different media used, basal minimal medium (BMM) was suitable for the HDPE degradation by strain MF12. Strain MF12 was subjected to 28S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Aspergillus terreus MF12. HDPE degradation was carried out using combinatorial physical and chemical treatments in conjunction to biological treatment. The high level of HDPE degradation was observed in ultraviolet (UV) and KMnO4/HCl with A. terreus MF12 treatment, i.e., FT10. The abiotic physical and chemical factors enhance the biodegradation of HDPE using A. terreus MF12.

  9. Changes in mechanical properties due to gamma irradiation of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota, S.S.; Vasconcelos, V.; Senne Junior, M.; Carvalho, L.L.; Rezende, D.B.; Correa, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental analysis of the effect of dose and dose rate parameters during gamma irradiation of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) samples. Considerations concerning the influence of these parameters on HDPE mechanical strength properties as a result of the predominance of oxidative degradation or of cross-linking are presented. The experimental results show an improvement of HDPE mechanical strength as dose increases, indicating the predominance of cross-linking over oxidative degradation and that lower doses are necessary to obtain a similar change in resistance parameters when radiation is applied at lower dose rates, showing that gamma radiation affects the HDPE in a more efficient way at lower dose rates. (author)

  10. Characteristics of heat shrinkable high density polyethylene crosslinked by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang

    2001-01-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the crosslinking of high density polyethylene (HDPE) was investigated for the purpose of obtaining a suitable formulation for heat shrinkable materials. In this study the HDPE specimens were prepared by blending with cross linking agents and pressed into a 0.2 mm sheet at 180 .deg. C. γ-irradiation was conducted at 40 to 100 kGy in nitrogen. The heat shrinkable property and thermal mechanical property of the HDPE sheets have been investigated. It was found that the degree of crosslinking of the irradiated HDPE samples were increased with irradiation dose. Compared with the HDPE containing triallylisocyanurate, the HDPE containing trimethlol propane triacrylate shows a slight increase in crosslinking density. The heat transformation and dimension change of HDPE decreased with increasing radiation dose. The heat shrinkage of the samples increased with increasing annealing temperatures. The thermal resistance of HDPE increased upon the crosslinking of HDPE

  11. Natural rubber/high density polyethylene/ground rubber composites vulcanized by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, N.A.; Abou zeid, M.M.; Khalil, A.M.; El Miligy, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was blended mechanically with 50 phr high density polyethylene (HDPE). the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of NR/HDPE blend and its composites with different contents of ground tire rubber (GTR) before and after exposure to gamma irradiation to various doses up to 250 kGy were studied. Also, the change in structure morphology of irradiated NR/HDPE blend as well as NR/HDPE/GTR composites was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the substitution of a part of virgin NR with GTR decreases the mechanical and physical properties but not to the extent of deterioration . However, it was found that the mechanical and physical properties were improved after gamma irradiation . Composite of NR/GTR/HDPE (75/25/50) showed good properties. Scanning electron microscope showed homogeneity between the irradiated composites ingredients.

  12. Characteristics of recycled and electron beam irradiated high density polyethylene samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Gabriel, Leandro; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.; Moura, Eduardo, E-mail: jrcardoso@ipen.br, E-mail: lgabriell@gmail.com, E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymers modification by irradiation is a well-known process that allows degradation and cross-linking in concurrent events; this last is expected when an increase of mechanical properties is required. Actually, the interest of recycling and reuse of polymeric material is linked to the increase of plastics ending up in waste streams. Therefore, these both irradiation and recycling process may be conducted to allow a new use to this material that would be discarded by an improvement of its mechanical properties. In this work, the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) matrix has been recycled five times from original substrate. The electron beam irradiation process was applied from 50 kGy to 200 kGy in both original and recycled samples; in this way, mechanical properties and thermal characteristics were evaluated. The results of applied process and material characterization are discussed. (author)

  13. Thermal properties of silica-filled high density polyethylene composites compatibilized with glut palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Dalina; Ismail, Hanafi; Othman, Nadras; Hamid, Zuratul Ain Abdul

    2017-07-01

    A study of thermal properties resulting from the utilization of Glut Palmitate (GP) on the silica filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was carried out. The composites with the incorporation of GP at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 phr were prepared by using an internal mixer at the temperature 180 °C and the rotor speed of 50 rpm. The thermal behaviours of the composites were then investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the crystallinity and the thermal stability of the composites increased with the incorporation of GP. The highest crystallinity contents and decomposition temperatures were observed at the 1 phr GP loading.

  14. Communication: Disorder-suppressed vibrational relaxation in vapor-deposited high-density amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalit, Andrey; Perakis, Fivos; Hamm, Peter

    2014-04-01

    We apply two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to differentiate between the two polyamorphous forms of glassy water, low-density (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous ices, that were obtained by slow vapor deposition at 80 and 11 K, respectively. Both the vibrational lifetime and the bandwidth of the 1-2 transition of the isolated OD stretch vibration of HDO in H2O exhibit characteristic differences when comparing hexagonal (Ih), LDA, and HDA ices, which we attribute to the different local structures - in particular the presence of interstitial waters in HDA ice - that cause different delocalization lengths of intermolecular phonon degrees of freedom. Moreover, temperature dependent measurements show that the vibrational lifetime closely follows the structural transition between HDA and LDA phases.

  15. Peptides Displayed as High Density Brush Polymers Resist Proteolysis and Retain Bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy for rendering peptides resistant to proteolysis by formulating them as high-density brush polymers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by polymerizing well-established cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and showing that the resulting polymers are not only resistant to proteolysis but also maintain their ability to enter cells. The scope of this design concept is explored by studying the proteolytic resistance of brush polymers composed of peptides that are substrates for either thrombin or a metalloprotease. Finally, we demonstrate that the proteolytic susceptibility of peptide brush polymers can be tuned by adjusting the density of the polymer brush and offer in silico models to rationalize this finding. We contend that this strategy offers a plausible method of preparing peptides for in vivo use, where rapid digestion by proteases has traditionally restricted their utility. PMID:25314576

  16. Exothermic reaction induced by high-density current in metals: Possible nuclear origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufour, J. [Laboratoire des sciences nucleaires, CNAM 2, rue Conte 75141, Cedex 03 Paris (France)]. E-mail: dufourj@cnam.fr; Murat, D.; Dufour, X.; Foos, J. [Laboratoire des sciences nucleaires, CNAM 2, rue Conte 75141, Cedex 03 Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    Since 1989, many experimenters worked on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR). They face both an experimental and a theoretical dilemma: how to design simple and convincing experiments in a complex system and if the phenomenon has a nuclear origin, why do they observe no radiation. A rather simple water mass flow calorimeter was designed to study this phenomenon under different experimental conditions. First results indicate that a high-density current induced an exothermic reaction in a hydrogen processed palladium wire. A working hypothesis is presented to solve the theoretical dilemma. This working hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance. We underline that a working hypothesis is not a theory presented to explain the phenomenon; this is just a conceptual scheme to drive the authors to build experiments. (author)

  17. Exothermic reaction induced by high-density current in metals: Possible nuclear origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, J.; Murat, D.; Dufour, X.; Foos, J.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1989, many experimenters worked on low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR). They face both an experimental and a theoretical dilemma: how to design simple and convincing experiments in a complex system and if the phenomenon has a nuclear origin, why do they observe no radiation. A rather simple water mass flow calorimeter was designed to study this phenomenon under different experimental conditions. First results indicate that a high-density current induced an exothermic reaction in a hydrogen processed palladium wire. A working hypothesis is presented to solve the theoretical dilemma. This working hypothesis is based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance. We underline that a working hypothesis is not a theory presented to explain the phenomenon; this is just a conceptual scheme to drive the authors to build experiments. (author)

  18. Temperature dependence study of positronium formation in high density polyethylene by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, F.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy has been used to study the formation of positronium in high density polyethylene as a function of temperature over the range 30 K-350 K. It is observed that the thermal history of the sample, while having no influence on the positronium lifetime, has a strong effect on the formation of positronium. A hysteresis is seen in the positronium formation probability in cooling and heating cycles. This is explained on a two channel formation model, the first channel being through ''blob'' formation and the second through the pick-up of shallow trapped electrons. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Some evidence for the high density phase of excitons in CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckmann, I.; May, V.; Voigt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Reflection spectra without and with additional pumping are measured in CdS at 1.8 and 77 K, respectively, starting from very low pump intensities. At low pump intensities a special behaviour of the reflection minimum is found indicating the importance of an exciton dead layer. The experimental spectra up to the highest pump intensities can be fitted very well taking into account spatial dispersion, exciton dead layer, and density dependent excitonic parameters. Polarizability, damping, and layer thickness change continuously in the whole range of excitation intensities. On the other side, the transverse dielectric function of a high density gas of interacting 1s excitons is calculated. A comparison between theoretically and experimentally obtained excitonic parameters at different densities shows good agreement. Hence, the importance of many-exciton interaction for the reflection spectra up to vanishing at highest pump intensities is concluded. (author)

  20. Remarks on saturation of energy confinement in high density regime on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Shigeru; Murakami, Sadayoshi

    2003-01-01

    A study on energy confinement times in currentless helical plasmas has indicated a preferable density dependence like τ E ∝ n-bar e 0.5-0.6 . However, saturation of energy confinement time has been often observed during the density ramping-up phase by gas puffing in NBI heated plasmas in LHD. The power balance analysis indicates that the thermal diffusivity is improved by the increase in local density while the global energy confinement time loses the dependence on the density. The flat or hollow density profile, which is distinguished in the density-ramping phase, promotes a broad heat power deposition. This change explains the apparent contradiction between the density dependence of the thermal diffusivity and the global energy confinement time. This result suggests that central heating can maintain a favorable density dependence of the energy confinement time in the high density regime. (author)

  1. Chapter 7: High-Density H-Mode Operation in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, Joerg Karl; Lang, Peter Thomas; Mertens, Vitus

    2003-01-01

    Recent results are reported on the maximum achievable H-mode density and the behavior of pedestal density and central density peaking as this limit is approached. The maximum achievable H-mode density roughly scales as the Greenwald density, though a dependence on B t is clearly observed. In contrast to the stiff temperature profiles, the density profiles seem to allow more shape variation and especially with high-field-side pellet-injection, strongly peaked profiles with good confinement have been achieved. Also, spontaneous density peaking at high densities is observed in ASDEX Upgrade, which is related to the generally observed large time constants for the density profile equilibration. The equilibrated density profile shapes depend strongly on the heat-flux profile in the sense that central heating leads to significantly flatter profiles

  2. High Density Radiation Shielding Concretes for Hot Cells of 99mTc Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, K.

    2006-01-01

    High density concrete [more than 3.6 ton/m 3 (3.6x10 3 kg/m 3 )] was prepared to be used as a radiation shielding concrete (RSC) for hot-cells in gel technetium project at inshas to attenuate gamma radiation emitted from radioactive sources. different types of concrete were prepared by mixing local mineral aggregates mainly gravel and ilmenite . iron shots were added to the concrete mixture proportion as partial replacement of heavy aggregates to increase its density. the physical properties of prepared concrete in both plastic and hardened phases were investigated. compressive strength and radiation attenuation of gamma rays were determined. Results showed that ilmenite concrete mixed with iron shots had the highest density suitable to be use as RSC according to the chinese hot cell design requirements. Recommendations to avoid some technical problems of manufacturing radiation shielding concrete were maintained

  3. COPING WITH CROWDING IN HIGH-DENSITY KAMPUNG HOUSING OF JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evawani Ellisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to draw attention to the architecture of kampung  housing, as an attempt to identify those circumstances under which people live in the context of limited space. A kampung housing is a dense non-formally planned cluster of residential dwellings in urban area, which are packed together in a contiguous area created by a large number of migrants. We tried to determine the way in which the spaces are arranged into a place to live, which implies a certain dynamic of survivability among the kampung’s inhabitants. The research methodology is conducted with questionnaire surveys, interviews, and detailed observations of daily life cycles, dwelling elements, and the pattern of domestic space arrangements. The study revealed that the characteristics of particular high-density settings have been adapted so that kampung inhabitants devised a particular set of rules and behavioral strategies to cope and support themselves in crowded situations.

  4. Impurity screening in high density plasmas in tokamaks with a limiter configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, C.; Zanino, R.

    1992-01-01

    Impurity screening in high density plasmas in tokamaks with a limiter configuration is investigated by means of a simple semi-analytical model. An iterative scheme is devised, in order to determine self-consistently the values of scrape-off layer thickness, edge electron density and temperature, and main plasma contamination parameter Z eff , as a function of given average electron density and temperature in the main plasma and given input power. The model is applied to the poloidal limiter case of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade, and results are compared with experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the trends is found, emphasizing the importance of a high edge plasma density for obtaining a clean main plasma in limiter tokamaks. (orig.)

  5. Ultra-High Density Electron Beams for Beam Radiation and Beam Plasma Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Scott; Frigola, Pedro; Gibson, David J; Hartemann, Fred V; Jacob, Jeremy S; Lim, Jae; Musumeci, Pietro; Rosenzweig, James E; Travish, Gil; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    Current and future applications of high brightness electron beams, which include advanced accelerators such as the plasma wake-field accelerator (PWFA) and beam-radiation interactions such as inverse-Compton scattering (ICS), require both transverse and longitudinal beam sizes on the order of tens of microns. Ultra-high density beams may be produced at moderate energy (50 MeV) by compression and subsequent strong focusing of low emittance, photoinjector sources. We describe the implementation of this method used at LLNL's PLEIADES ICS x-ray source in which the photoinjector-generated beam has been compressed to 300 fsec duration using the velocity bunching technique and focused to 20 μm rms size using an extremely high gradient, permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) focusing system.

  6. Preparing high-density polymer brushes by mechanically assisted polymer assembly (MAPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan

    2001-03-01

    We introduce a novel method of modifying the surface properties of materials. This technique, called MAPA (="mechanically assisted polymer assembly"), is based on: 1) chemically attaching polymerization initiators to the surface of an elastomeric network that has been previously stretched by a certain length, Δx, and 2) growing end-anchored macromolecules using surface initiated ("grafting from") atom transfer living radical polymerization. After the polymerization, the strain is removed from the substrate, which returns to its original size causing the grafted macromolecules to stretch away from the substrate and form a dense polymer brush. We demonstrate the feasibility of the MAPA method by preparing high-density polymer brushes of poly(acryl amide), PAAm. We show that, as expected, the grafting density of the PAAm brushes can be increased by increasing Δx. We demonstrate that polymer brushes with extremely high grafting densities can be successfully prepared by MAPA.

  7. ORDEM 3.0 and the Risk of High-Density Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark; Anz-Meador, Philip

    2014-01-01

    NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model was designed to calculate orbital debris fluxes on spacecraft in order to assess collision risk. The newest of these models, ORDEM 3.0, has a number of features not present in previous models. One of the most important is that the populations and fluxes are now broken out into material density groups. Previous models concentrated on debris size alone, but a particle’s mass and density also determine the amount of damage it can cause. ORDEM 3.0 includes a high-density component, primarily consisting of iron/steel particles that drive much of the risk to spacecraft. This paper will outline the methods that were used to separate and identify the different densities of debris, and how these new densities affect the overall debris flux and risk.

  8. Behavior of a plasma in a high-density gas-embedded Z-pinch configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlachter, J.S.

    1982-05-01

    The theoretical analysis of a high density Z-pinch (HDZP) begins with an examination of the steady state energy balance between ohmic heating and bremsstrahlung radiation losses for a plasma column in pressure equilibrium. The model is then expanded to include the time-varying internal energy and results in a quasi-equilibrium prescription for the load current through a constant radius plasma channel. This set of current waveforms is useful in the design of experimental systems. The behavior of a plasma for physically realizable conditions is first examined by allowing adiabatic changes in the column radius. A more complete model is then developed by incorporating inertial effects into the momentum equation, and the resultant global MHD computational model is compared with more sophisticated, and costly, one- and two-dimensional computer simulations. These comparisons demonstrate the advantages of the global MHD description over previously developed zero-dimensional models

  9. Conversion of Mixed Plastic Wastes (High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene) into Liquid Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaw Su Su Hmwe; Tint Tint Kywe; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2010-12-01

    In this study, mixed plastic wastes were converted into liquid fuels. Mixed plastic wastes used were high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). The pyrolysis of mixed plastic waste to liquid fuel was carried out with and without prepared zeolite catalyst.The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This catalyst was pre-treated for activation. The experiments were carried out at temperature range of 350-410C.Physical properties (density, kinematic, viscosity,refractive index)of prepared liquid fuel samples were measured. From this study, yields of liquid fuel and gas fuel were found to be 41-64% and 15-35% respectively. As for by products, char was obtained as the yield percentages from 9 to 14% and wax (yield% - 1 to 14) was formed during pyrolysis.

  10. Symmetry and illumination uniformity requirements for high density laser-driven implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, W.C.; Lindl, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    As laser capabilities increase, implosions will be performed to achieve high densities. Criteria are discussed for formation of a low-density corona, preheated supersonically, which increases the tolerance of high convergence implosions to non-uniform illumination by utilizing thermal smoothing. We compare optimized double shell target designs without and with atmosphere production. Two significant penalties are incurred with atmosphere production using 1 μm laser light. First, a large initial shock at the ablation surface limits the pulse shaping flexibility, and degrades implosion performance. Second, the mass and heat capacity of the atmosphere reduce the energy delivered to the ablation surface and the driving pressures obtained for a given input energy. Improvement is possible using 2 μm light for the initial phase of the implosion. We present results of 2-D simulations which evaluate combined symmetry and stability requirements. At l = 8, the improvement produced in the example is a factor of 10, giving tolerance of 10 percent

  11. High-density self-contained microfluidic KOALA kits for use by everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guckenberger, David J; Berthier, Erwin; Beebe, David J

    2015-04-01

    Cell-based assays are essential tools used by research labs in a wide range of fields, including cell biology, toxicology, and natural product discovery labs. However, in some situations, the need for cell-based assays does not justify the costs of maintaining cell culture facilities and retaining skilled staff. The kit-on-a-lid assay (KOALA) technology enables accessible low-cost and prepackageable microfluidic platforms that can be operated with minimal infrastructure or training. Here, we demonstrate and characterize high-density KOALA methods for high-throughput applications, achieving an assay density comparable to that of a 384-well plate and usability by hand with no liquid-handling equipment. We show the potential for high-content screening and complex assays such as quantitative immunochemistry assays requiring multiple steps and reagents. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy using a high-density porous polyethylene-coated tear drain tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushker, Neelam; Khurana, Saurbhi; Shrey, Dinesh; Bajaj, Mandeep S; Chawla, Bhavna; Chandra, Mahesh

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the outcome of conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy using a high-density porous polyethylene (HDPP)-coated tear drain tube. Patients with epiphora due to a proximal lacrimal system block were included in a prospective interventional case study. A total of 22 eyes were treated with lacrimal bypass surgery using the HDPP-coated tube. On follow-up (12-41 months), 21 eyes had a patent well-positioned tube with subjective relief of epiphora. In one eye, a loose sleeve was noted during surgery. The tube dislodged postoperatively and was removed. A high success rate with only a few minor complications is achievable using a HDPP-coated tear drain tube for lacrimal bypass surgery. Long-term follow-up is required to look for tube blockage due to conjunctival or nasal mucosal overgrowth.

  13. Method and device for secure, high-density tritium bonded with carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertsching, Alan Kevin; Trantor, Troy Joseph; Ebner, Matthias Anthony; Norby, Brad Curtis

    2016-04-05

    A method and device for producing secure, high-density tritium bonded with carbon. A substrate comprising carbon is provided. A precursor is intercalated between carbon in the substrate. The precursor intercalated in the substrate is irradiated until at least a portion of the precursor, preferably a majority of the precursor, is transmutated into tritium and bonds with carbon of the substrate forming bonded tritium. The resulting bonded tritium, tritium bonded with carbon, produces electrons via beta decay. The substrate is preferably a substrate from the list of substrates consisting of highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite, carbon fibers, carbon nanotunes, buckministerfullerenes, and combinations thereof. The precursor is preferably boron-10, more preferably lithium-6. Preferably, thermal neutrons are used to irradiate the precursor. The resulting bonded tritium is preferably used to generate electricity either directly or indirectly.

  14. Shock-induced decomposition of a high density glass (ZF6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianming; Liu, Xun; Li, Jiabo; Li, Jun; Cao, Xiuxia

    2011-07-01

    The dynamic high-pressure behavior of a high density glass (ZF6) was investigated in this study. The Hugoniot data, shock temperature (TH) and release sound velocity (C) of ZF6 were measured by a time-resolved multi-channel pyrometer in the shock pressure (PH) range of 50-170 GPa. The Hugoniot data is in accord with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) shock Hugoniot data and shows a good linearity over 21 GPa. Polymorphic phase transitions were identified by the kinks in the measured TH-PH and C-PH relationships. The onset pressures of the transformations are ˜75 and ˜128 GPa, respectively. A thermodynamic calculation suggests that the phase transition at 75 GPa is its disproportionation to massicot (high pressure phase of PbO) and melted silica while the transition at 128 GPa is from the melting of massicot.

  15. Electric anisotropy in high density polyethylene + carbon black composites induced by mechanical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigueras-Santiago, E; Hernandez-Lopez, S; Camacho-Lopez, M A; Lara-Sanjuan, O, E-mail: eviguerass@uaemex.m [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, UAEM. Paseo Colon esq. con Paseo Tollocan, s/n. C.P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High density polyethylene + carbon black composites with electrical anisotropy was studied. Electrical anisotropy was induced by uniaxial mechanical deformation and injection moulding. We show that anisotropy depends on the carbon black concentration and percentage deformation. Resistivity had the highest anisotropy resistivity around the percolation threshold. Perpendicular resistivity showed two magnitude orders higher than parallel resistivity for injected samples, whereas resistivity showed an inverse behaviour for 100% tensile samples. Both directions were set respect to the deformation axe. Anisotropy could be explained in terms of the molecular deformation (alignment) of the polymer chains as a response of the deformation process originating a redistribution of the carbon black particles in both directions. Alignment of the polymer chains was evidenced by polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Impact of a high density GPS network on the operational forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faccani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System Zenith Total Delay (GPS ZTD can provide information about the water vapour in atmosphere. Its assimilation into the analysis used to initialize a model can then improve the weather forecast, giving the right amount of moisture and reducing the model spinup. In the last year, an high density GPS network has been created on the Basilicata region (south of Italy by the Italian Space Agency in the framework of a national project named MAGIC2. MAGIC2 is the Italian follow on of the EC project MAGIC has. Daily operational data assimilation experiments are performed since December 2003. The results show that the assimilation of GPS ZTD improves the forecast especially during the transition from winter to spring even if a no very high model resolution (9km is used.

  17. Development of nanocomposites employing high-density polyethylene and organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessa, Tathiane C. Rodrigues F.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.; Pita, Vitor J.R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare nanocomposites of high-density polyethylene and montmorillonite organoclay by polymer melt intercalation, employing different processing parameters. Effective clay incorporation into polyethylene matrix was observed. The nanocomposites were structurally characterized. Intercalated nanocomposites were obtained from different process parameters, employing polyethylene resin and montmorillonite organoclays. The XRD results and other analysis showed that the processing parameters affect the organoclay delamination. The polyethylene nanocomposite presented the better performance using twin screw extruder, at 90 rpm. The purpose of characterization of polyethylene/organoclay nanocomposite by low-field NMR showed that this technique was important to understand changes in the molecular mobility of polyethylene when organoclay was incorporated. (author)

  18. Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites with Basalt Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Basalt fibers (BFs were surface-treated with a vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent to improve the mechanical properties of wood fiber-reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE composites. Basalt fibers were characterized with SEM and FT-IR. The effects of the basalt fiber content and apparent morphology on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were investigated in this paper. The results show that the BF coated with the vinyl triethoxy silane coupling agent resulted in an improvement in mechanical properties due to the increased interfacial compatibility between the BF and HDPE. The flexural strength and impact properties significantly increased with 4 wt.% modified basalt fibers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6441

  19. Qualification of high density aluminide fuels for the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeckmans de West-Meerbeeck, Andre; Gubel, Pol; Ponsard, Bernard; Pin, Thomas; Falgoux, Jean Louis

    2005-01-01

    The BR2 operation still relies on the use of 90..93% enriched HEU aluminide fuel. The availability of a limited batch of 73% enriched HEU from reprocessed BR2 uranium in Dounreay justified 10 years ago the qualification and use of this material. After some preliminary test irradiations, various batches of fuel elements were fabricated by the UKAEA-Dounreay and successfully irradiated. Due to their lower 235 U content (0.050 g 235 U/cm 2 ), these elements were always irradiated together with standard 90...93% HEU fuel elements. A mixed-core strategy was developed at this occasion for an optimal utilization, and was reported during the 4th RRFM conference (March 19-21, 2000, Colmar, France). The availability of a new batch of fresh 73% HEU material was the occasion, a few years ago, to initiate the development, fabrication and qualification of a new high density fuel element. An order was placed with CERCA to assess the optimal fabrication methods and tooling required to meet as far as possible the existing BR2 standard specifications and 235 U content (0.060 g 235 U/cm 2 ). This development phase has been already reported during the 7th RRFM conference (March 9-12, 2003, Aix-en-Provence, France). Afterwards, six lead test fuel elements were ordered for qualification by irradiation. The neutronic properties of the fuel elements were adjusted and optimized. After a short summary of the main results of the development program, this paper describes the nuclear characteristics of the high density fuel elements and comments on the nuclear follow-up of the lead test fuel elements during their irradiation for five cycles in the BR2 reactor and the return of experience for CERCA. (author)

  20. Regional reductions in sleep electroencephalography power in obstructive sleep apnea: a high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie G; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2014-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with significant alterations in neuronal integrity resulting from either hypoxemia and/or sleep loss. A large body of imaging research supports reductions in gray matter volume, alterations in white matter integrity and resting state activity, and functional abnormalities in response to cognitive challenge in various brain regions in patients with OSA. In this study, we used high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG), a functional imaging tool that could potentially be used during routine clinical care, to examine the regional distribution of neural activity in a non-clinical sample of untreated men and women with moderate/severe OSA. Sleep was recorded with 256-channel EEG in relatively healthy subjects with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 10, as well as age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls selected from a research population initially recruited for a study on sleep and meditation. Sleep laboratory. Nine subjects with AHI > 10 and nine matched controls. N/A. Topographic analysis of hdEEG data revealed a broadband reduction in EEG power in a circumscribed region overlying the parietal cortex in OSA subjects. This parietal reduction in neural activity was present, to some extent, across all frequency bands in all stages and episodes of nonrapid eye movement sleep. This investigation suggests that regional deficits in electroencephalography (EEG) power generation may be a useful clinical marker for neural disruption in obstructive sleep apnea, and that high-density EEG may have the sensitivity to detect pathological cortical changes early in the disease process.

  1. Automated detection and labeling of high-density EEG electrodes from structural MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marco; Liu, Quanying; Brem, Silvia; Wenderoth, Nicole; Mantini, Dante

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Accurate knowledge about the positions of electrodes in electroencephalography (EEG) is very important for precise source localizations. Direct detection of electrodes from magnetic resonance (MR) images is particularly interesting, as it is possible to avoid errors of co-registration between electrode and head coordinate systems. In this study, we propose an automated MR-based method for electrode detection and labeling, particularly tailored to high-density montages. Approach. Anatomical MR images were processed to create an electrode-enhanced image in individual space. Image processing included intensity non-uniformity correction, background noise and goggles artifact removal. Next, we defined a search volume around the head where electrode positions were detected. Electrodes were identified as local maxima in the search volume and registered to the Montreal Neurological Institute standard space using an affine transformation. This allowed the matching of the detected points with the specific EEG montage template, as well as their labeling. Matching and labeling were performed by the coherent point drift method. Our method was assessed on 8 MR images collected in subjects wearing a 256-channel EEG net, using the displacement with respect to manually selected electrodes as performance metric. Main results. Average displacement achieved by our method was significantly lower compared to alternative techniques, such as the photogrammetry technique. The maximum displacement was for more than 99% of the electrodes lower than 1 cm, which is typically considered an acceptable upper limit for errors in electrode positioning. Our method showed robustness and reliability, even in suboptimal conditions, such as in the case of net rotation, imprecisely gathered wires, electrode detachment from the head, and MR image ghosting. Significance. We showed that our method provides objective, repeatable and precise estimates of EEG electrode coordinates. We hope our work

  2. A new quasi-stationary, very high density plasma regime on the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenicke, R; Baeumel, S; Baldzuhn, J; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Ehmler, H; Endler, M; Erckmann, V; Feng, Y; Gadelmeier, F; Geiger, J; Giannone, L; Grigull, P; Hartfuss, H J; Hartmann, D; Hildebrandt, D; Hirsch, M; Holzhauer, E; Kick, M; Kisslinger, J; Klinger, T; Klose, S; Knauer, J; Koenig, R; Kuehner, G; Laqua, H; Maassberg, H; McCormick, K; Narayanan, R; Niedermeyer, H; Pasch, E; Ruhs, N; Rust, N; Saffert, J; Sardei, F; Schneider, F; Schubert, M; Speth, E; Wagner, F; Weller, A; Wenzel, U; Werner, A; Wuersching, E

    2002-01-01

    Stellarators have the intrinsic property of steady state operation. However, on present-day stellarators the pulse length is usually not only limited due to technical reasons, but also by physical problems. Lack of density control and a subsequent radiation collapse terminate the discharges quite often at high densities. To improve the control of the plasma-wall interaction, the island divertor concept was developed for optimized stellarators. To test this divertor concept on W7-AS, all limiters were removed and replaced by ten divertor modules. In subsequent divertor experiments a promising new plasma operational regime has been discovered which is termed 'high density H-mode' (HDH-mode). During the transition into that regime a clear reduction of ELM-like events and turbulent fluctuations is observed. The HDH-mode combines good energy confinement with very low impurity confinement resulting in low core radiation, but high edge-localized radiation. Consequently, stationary discharges at densities of typically 2x10 20 m -3 can be performed within the accessible pulse length of about 1 s. At densities above 3x10 20 m -3 a controlled transition from attached to partially detached plasmas is observed. The still edge-localized radiation reaches 90% of the heating power so that the power load onto the divertor target plates is further reduced. At a lower toroidal field of 0.9 T average β-values could be raised from earlier 2% to more than 3% in magnetic field configurations with rather smooth flux surfaces at the plasma boundary. The recently obtained results render excellent prospects for W7-X, the larger superconducting successor experiment of W7-AS

  3. Unsupervised neural spike sorting for high-density microelectrode arrays with convolutive independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibig, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas; Zeck, Günther

    2016-09-15

    Unsupervised identification of action potentials in multi-channel extracellular recordings, in particular from high-density microelectrode arrays with thousands of sensors, is an unresolved problem. While independent component analysis (ICA) achieves rapid unsupervised sorting, it ignores the convolutive structure of extracellular data, thus limiting the unmixing to a subset of neurons. Here we present a spike sorting algorithm based on convolutive ICA (cICA) to retrieve a larger number of accurately sorted neurons than with instantaneous ICA while accounting for signal overlaps. Spike sorting was applied to datasets with varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR: 3-12) and 27% spike overlaps, sampled at either 11.5 or 23kHz on 4365 electrodes. We demonstrate how the instantaneity assumption in ICA-based algorithms has to be relaxed in order to improve the spike sorting performance for high-density microelectrode array recordings. Reformulating the convolutive mixture as an instantaneous mixture by modeling several delayed samples jointly is necessary to increase signal-to-noise ratio. Our results emphasize that different cICA algorithms are not equivalent. Spike sorting performance was assessed with ground-truth data generated from experimentally derived templates. The presented spike sorter was able to extract ≈90% of the true spike trains with an error rate below 2%. It was superior to two alternative (c)ICA methods (≈80% accurately sorted neurons) and comparable to a supervised sorting. Our new algorithm represents a fast solution to overcome the current bottleneck in spike sorting of large datasets generated by simultaneous recording with thousands of electrodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Human islet viability and function is maintained during high density shipment in silicone rubber membrane vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Pepper, Andrew R; Lopez, Boris G; Pawlick, Rena; Kin, Tatsuya; O’Gorman, Doug; Mueller, Kathryn R; Gruessner, Angelika C; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Karatzas, Theodore; Szot, Greg L; Posselt, Andrew M; Stock, Peter G; Wilson, John R; Shapiro, AM; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    The shipment of human islets from processing centers to distant laboratories is beneficial for both research and clinical applications. The maintenance of islet viability and function in transit is critically important. Gas-permeable silicone rubber membrane (SRM) vessels reduce the risk of hypoxia-induced death or dysfunction during high-density islet culture or shipment. SRM vessels may offer additional advantages: they are cost-effective (fewer flasks, less labor needed), safer (lower contamination risk), and simpler (culture vessel can also be used for shipment). Human islets(IE) were isolated from two manufacturing centers and shipped in 10cm2 surface area SRM vessels in temperature and pressure controlled containers to a distant center following at least two days of culture (n = 6). Three conditions were examined: low density (LD), high density (HD), and a micro centrifuge tube negative control (NC). LD was designed to mimic the standard culture density for human islet preparations (200 IE/cm2), while HD was designed to have a 20-fold higher tissue density, which would enable the culture of an entire human isolation in 1–3 vessels. Upon receipt, islets were assessed for viability, measured by oxygen consumption rate normalized to DNA content (OCR/DNA), and quantity, measured by DNA, and, when possible, potency and function with dynamic glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) measurements and transplants in immunodeficient B6 rag mice. Post-shipment OCR/DNA was not reduced in HD versus LD, and was substantially reduced in the NC condition. HD islets exhibited normal function post-shipment. Based on the data we conclude that entire islet isolations (up to 400,000 IE) may be shipped using a single, larger SRM vessel with no negative effect on viability and ex vivo and in vivo function. PMID:25131090

  5. Advances and highlights of the CNEA qualification program as high density fuel manufacturer for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelfang, P.; Alvarez, L.; Boero, N.; Calabrese, R.; Echenique, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Pasqualini, E.; Ruggirello, G.; Taboada, H. [Unidad de Actividad Combustibles Nucleares Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNE4), Avda. del Libertador, 8250 C1429BNO Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    One of the main objectives of CNEA regarding the fuel for research reactors is the development and qualification of the manufacturing of LEU high-density fuels. The qualification programs for both types of fuels, Silicide fuel and U- x Mo fuel, are similar. They include the following activities: development and set up of the fissile compound manufacturing technology, set up of fuel plate manufacturing, fabrication and irradiation of mini plates and plates, design and fabrication of fuel assembly prototypes for irradiation, post-irradiation examination and feedback for manufacturing improvements. This paper describes the different activities performed within each program during the last year and the main advances and achievements of the programs within this period. The main achievements may be summarized in the following activities: Continuation of the irradiation of the first silicide fuel element in the R A3. Completion of the manufacturing of the second silicide fuel element, licensing and beginning of its irradiation in the R A3. Development of the HMD Process to manufacture U-Mo powder (pUMA project). Set up of fuel plates manufacturing at industrial level using U-Mo powder. Preliminary studies and the design for the irradiation of mini plates, plates and full scale fuel elements with U-Mo and 7 g U/cm{sup 3}. PIE destructive studies for the P-04 silicide fuel prototype (accurate burnup determination through chemical analysis, metallography and SEM of samples from the irradiated fuel plates). Improvement and development of new characterization techniques for high density fuel plates quality control including US testing and densitometric analysis of X-ray examinations. The results obtained in this period are encouraging and also allow to foresee a wider participation of CNEA in the international effort to qualify U-Mo as a new material for the manufacturing of research reactor fuels. (author)

  6. Advances and highlights of the CNEA qualification program as high density fuel manufacturer for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Alvarez, L.; Boero, N.; Calabrese, R.; Echenique, P.; Markiewicz, M.; Pasqualini, E.; Ruggirello, G.; Taboada, H.

    2002-01-01

    One of the main objectives of CNEA regarding the fuel for research reactors is the development and qualification of the manufacturing of LEU high-density fuels. The qualification programs for both types of fuels, Silicide fuel and U- x Mo fuel, are similar. They include the following activities: development and set up of the fissile compound manufacturing technology, set up of fuel plate manufacturing, fabrication and irradiation of mini plates and plates, design and fabrication of fuel assembly prototypes for irradiation, post-irradiation examination and feedback for manufacturing improvements. This paper describes the different activities performed within each program during the last year and the main advances and achievements of the programs within this period. The main achievements may be summarized in the following activities: Continuation of the irradiation of the first silicide fuel element in the R A3. Completion of the manufacturing of the second silicide fuel element, licensing and beginning of its irradiation in the R A3. Development of the HMD Process to manufacture U-Mo powder (pUMA project). Set up of fuel plates manufacturing at industrial level using U-Mo powder. Preliminary studies and the design for the irradiation of mini plates, plates and full scale fuel elements with U-Mo and 7 g U/cm 3 . PIE destructive studies for the P-04 silicide fuel prototype (accurate burnup determination through chemical analysis, metallography and SEM of samples from the irradiated fuel plates). Improvement and development of new characterization techniques for high density fuel plates quality control including US testing and densitometric analysis of X-ray examinations. The results obtained in this period are encouraging and also allow to foresee a wider participation of CNEA in the international effort to qualify U-Mo as a new material for the manufacturing of research reactor fuels. (author)

  7. Trypanosome lytic factor, an antimicrobial high-density lipoprotein, ameliorates Leishmania infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Samanovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system.

  8. A Novel Bioreactor for High Density Cultivation of Diverse Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jacob R; Shieh, Wen K; Sales, Christopher M

    2015-12-25

    A novel reactor design, coined a high density bioreactor (HDBR), is presented for the cultivation and study of high density microbial communities. Past studies have evaluated the performance of the reactor for the removal of COD(1) and nitrogen species(2-4) by heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria, respectively. The HDBR design eliminates the requirement for external flocculation/sedimentation processes while still yielding effluent containing low suspended solids. In this study, the HDBR is applied as a photobioreactor (PBR) in order to characterize the nitrogen removal characteristics of an algae-based photosynthetic microbial community. As previously reported for this HDBR design, a stable biomass zone was established with a clear delineation between the biologically active portion of the reactor and the recycling reactor fluid, which resulted in a low suspended solid effluent. The algal community in the HDBR was observed to remove 18.4% of total nitrogen species in the influent. Varying NH4(+) and NO3(-) concentrations in the feed did not have an effect on NH4(+) removal (n=44, p=0.993 and n=44, p=0.610 respectively) while NH4(+) feed concentration was found to be negatively related with NO3(-) removal (n=44, p=0.000) and NO3(-) feed concentration was found to be positively correlated with NO3(-) removal (n=44, p=0.000). Consistent removal of NH4(+), combined with the accumulation of oxidized nitrogen species at high NH4(+) fluxes indicates the presence of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria within the microbial community.

  9. Comparison of low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingkui; Jiang, Honghui; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Wang, Lulu; Xia, Lei

    2017-08-02

    The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS. We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups. Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.

  10. High-density amorphous ice: nucleation of nanosized low-density amorphous ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonauer, Christina M.; Seidl-Nigsch, Markus; Loerting, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the crystallization temperature of different forms of expanded high-density amorphous ice (eHDA) was scrutinized. Crystallization at pressures 0.05-0.30 GPa was followed using volumetry and powder x-ray diffraction. eHDA samples were prepared via isothermal decompression of very high-density amorphous ice at 140 K to different end pressures between 0.07-0.30 GPa (eHDA0.07-0.3). At 0.05-0.17 GPa the crystallization line T x (p) of all eHDA variants is the same. At pressures  >0.17 GPa, all eHDA samples decompressed to pressures  <0.20 GPa exhibit significantly lower T x values than eHDA0.2 and eHDA0.3. We rationalize our findings with the presence of nanoscaled low-density amorphous ice (LDA) seeds that nucleate in eHDA when it is decompressed to pressures  <0.20 GPa at 140 K. Below ~0.17 GPa, these nanosized LDA domains are latent within the HDA matrix, exhibiting no effect on T x of eHDA<0.2. Upon heating at pressures  ⩾0.17 GPa, these nanosized LDA nuclei transform to ice IX nuclei. They are favored sites for crystallization and, hence, lower T x . By comparing crystallization experiments of bulk LDA with the ones involving nanosized LDA we are able to estimate the Laplace pressure and radius of ~0.3-0.8 nm for the nanodomains of LDA. The nucleation of LDA in eHDA revealed here is evidence for the first-order-like nature of the HDA  →  LDA transition, supporting water’s liquid-liquid transition scenarios.

  11. Development and characterization of a high density SNP genotyping assay for cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi K Matukumalli

    Full Text Available The success of genome-wide association (GWA studies for the detection of sequence variation affecting complex traits in human has spurred interest in the use of large-scale high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL and for marker-assisted selection in model and agricultural species. A cost-effective and efficient approach for the development of a custom genotyping assay interrogating 54,001 SNP loci to support GWA applications in cattle is described. A novel algorithm for achieving a compressed inter-marker interval distribution proved remarkably successful, with median interval of 37 kb and maximum predicted gap of <350 kb. The assay was tested on a panel of 576 animals from 21 cattle breeds and six outgroup species and revealed that from 39,765 to 46,492 SNP are polymorphic within individual breeds (average minor allele frequency (MAF ranging from 0.24 to 0.27. The assay also identified 79 putative copy number variants in cattle. Utility for GWA was demonstrated by localizing known variation for coat color and the presence/absence of horns to their correct genomic locations. The combination of SNP selection and the novel spacing algorithm allows an efficient approach for the development of high-density genotyping platforms in species having full or even moderate quality draft sequence. Aspects of the approach can be exploited in species which lack an available genome sequence. The BovineSNP50 assay described here is commercially available from Illumina and provides a robust platform for mapping disease genes and QTL in cattle.

  12. Growth of High-Density Zinc Oxide Nanorods on Porous Silicon by Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izni Rusli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of high-density zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods on porous silicon (PS substrates at growth temperatures of 600–1000 °C by a simple thermal evaporation of zinc (Zn powder in the presence of oxygen (O2 gas was systematically investigated. The high-density growth of ZnO nanorods with (0002 orientation over a large area was attributed to the rough surface of PS, which provides appropriate planes to promote deposition of Zn or ZnOx seeds as nucleation sites for the subsequent growth of ZnO nanorods. The geometrical morphologies of ZnO nanorods are determined by the ZnOx seed structures, i.e., cluster or layer structures. The flower-like hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 600 °C seem to be generated from the sparsely distributed ZnOx nanoclusters. Vertically aligned hexagonal-faceted ZnO nanorods grown at 800 °C may be inferred from the formation of dense arrays of ZnOx clusters. The formation of disordered ZnO nanorods formed at 1000 °C may due to the formation of a ZnOx seed layer. The growth mechanism involved has been described by a combination of self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS and vapor-solid (VS mechanism. The results suggest that for a more precise study on the growth of ZnO nanostructures involving the introduction of seeds, the initial seed structures must be taken into account given their significant effects.

  13. Verification of the high density after contrast enhancement in the 2nd week in cerebroischemic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, T; Kanno, T; Sano, H; Katada, Kazuhiro; Futimoto, K [Fujita Gakuen Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-12-01

    To determine the indication, it is necessary to make clear the relation among the Stage (time and course), the Strength, the Pathogenesis, and the Effects of the operation in these diseases (SSPE relation). In this report, we focused on the High Density of CT after the contrast enhancement in the cases of ischemic lesions (the High Density was named ''Ribbon H. D.''). Seventeen cases of Ribbon H. D. in fresh infarctions were verified concerning the time of the appearance of the H. D., the features of its location and nature, and the histological findings. The results were as follows: The Ribbon H. D. appeared in the early stage of infarctions, and had its peak density at the end of the 2nd week after the onset. The Ribbon H. D. was mostly located along the cortical line, showing a ribbon-like band. The Ribbon H. D. did not appear in the sharply demarcated coagulation necrosis in the early stage or in the defined Low Density (L. D.) in the late stage of infarctions. Although the Ribbon H. D. shows the extravasation of contrast media, it does not necessarily show the existence of the hemorrhagic infarction. Some part of the Ribbon H. D. changes to a well-defined L. D. and the rest of the part becomes relative isodensity in the late stage. This change corresponds to the change in the incomplete necrosis which is afterwards divided into a resolution with a cystic cavity and the glial replacement in the late stage. In conclusion, it is possible to understand that the Ribbon H. D. corresponds to the lesion of an incomplete necrosis, with neovascularization, in the early stage of infarctions. Therefore, in addition to the present indication of a by-pass operation (TIA, RIND), this incomplete necrosis (Ribbon H. D.), its surrounding area and just before the appearance of the Ribbon H. D. might be another indication of the operation.

  14. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subedi BH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bishnu H Subedi,1,2 Parag H Joshi,1 Steven R Jones,1 Seth S Martin,1 Michael J Blaha,1 Erin D Michos1 1Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, lipids, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, therapy

  15. EFFECT OF ACCELERATED WEATHERING ON TENSILE PROPERTIES OF KENAF REINFORCED HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar A.H.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Umar A.H1, Zainudin E.S1,2 and Sapuan S.M.1,21Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing EngineeringFaculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra MalaysiaSelangor, Malaysia.2Biocomposite LaboratoryInstitute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product (INTROPUniversiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.Email: umarhanan@yahoo.com ABSTRACTIn this study, a high-density polyethylene composite reinforced with kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L. bast fibres (K-HDPE was fabricated and tested for durability with regard to weather elements. The material consists of 40% (by weight fibres and 60% matrix. Other additives, such as ultraviolet (UV stabiliser and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (MaPE as a coupling agent were added to the composite material. The biocomposite was subjected to 1000 hours (h of accelerated weathering tests, which consisted of heat, moisture and UV light, intended to imitate the outdoor environment. The tensile properties of the K-HDPE composite were recorded after 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 h of exposure to the accelerated weathering. Compared with neat high-density polyethylene (HDPE, the K-HDPE composite has 22.7% lower tensile strength when produced but displays a less rapid rate of strength deterioration under weathering (After 1000 h of exposure the tensile strength of K-HDPE drops 29.4%, whereas, for neat HDPE, it falls rapidly by 36%. Due to better stiffness, the Young’s modulus of the K-HDPE composite is much higher than that of neat HDPE. The fibres on the surface of the K-HDPE composite gradually start to whiten after 200 h of exposure and become completely white after 600 h of exposure. For neat HDPE, micro-cracking on the surface can be observed after 200 h of exposure and the stress-strain curve obtained from the tensile test indicates its increase in brittleness proportional to the amount of weathering time.

  16. Thermal and mechanical properties of injection molded recycled high density polyethylene blends with virgin isotactic polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Recycled high density polyethylene and isotactic polypropylene blends have been prepared by melt compounding. ► Thermal study showed that iPP is not well dispersed into the rHDPE matrix. ► Tensile testing shows that there is strong correlation between the thermal properties and the tensile behavior of rHDPE/ipp blends. - Abstract: Polymer blending has become an important field in polymer research and especially in the area of recycling. In this research the target was to reduce the polymer waste problem. Therefore, recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE) and virgin isotactic polypropylene (vPP) blends containing upto 30 wt% of vPP have been prepared by melt compounding method using injection molding at 220 °C. The thermal properties, thermal degradation and the mechanical properties of the polymer blends were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile testing method. DSC study shows that in all the blends there are two melting peaks, one around the melting temperature of rHDPE and another one around the melting point of vPP, indicating that vPP is not well dispersed into the rHDPE matrix. The changes in the heat of fusion for the rHDPE/iPP polymer blends versus vPP content suggests that incorporating vPP affects the crystallinity of the system. TGA analysis of the polymer blends shows that parts of rHDPE with 95/5 upto 80/20 of vPP are mostly stable composition which brings about valuable stabilization to the rHDPE. Tensile testing shows that there is strong correlation between the thermal properties and the tensile behavior of rHDPE/vpp blends

  17. Curcumin chemosensitizes 5-fluorouracil resistant MMR-deficient human colon cancer cells in high density cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC remains a clinical challenge, as more than 15% of patients are resistant to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and tumor recurrence rates can be as high as 50-60%. Cancer stem cells (CSC are capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies that permits regeneration of original tumors. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of 5-FU and plant polyphenol (curcumin in context of DNA mismatch repair (MMR status and CSC activity in 3D cultures of CRC cells. METHODS: High density 3D cultures of CRC cell lines HCT116, HCT116+ch3 (complemented with chromosome 3 and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemo-resistant derivative clones (HCT116R, HCT116+ch3R were treated with 5-FU either without or with curcumin in time- and dose-dependent assays. RESULTS: Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the effect of 5-FU on HCT116R and HCR116+ch3R cells, in contrast to 5-FU alone as evidenced by increased disintegration of colonospheres, enhanced apoptosis and by inhibiting their growth. Curcumin and/or 5-FU strongly affected MMR-deficient CRC cells in high density cultures, however MMR-proficient CRC cells were more sensitive. These effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU were further supported by its ability to effectively suppress CSC pools as evidenced by decreased number of CSC marker positive cells, highlighting the suitability of this 3D culture model for evaluating CSC marker expression in a close to vivo setting. CONCLUSION: Our results illustrate novel and previously unrecognized effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitization to 5-FU-based chemotherapy on DNA MMR-deficient and their chemo-resistant counterparts by targeting the CSC sub-population. (246 words in abstract.

  18. Curcumin chemosensitizes 5-fluorouracil resistant MMR-deficient human colon cancer cells in high density cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Buhrmann, Constanze; Kraehe, Patricia; Shayan, Parviz; Lueders, Cora; Goel, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a clinical challenge, as more than 15% of patients are resistant to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapeutic regimens, and tumor recurrence rates can be as high as 50-60%. Cancer stem cells (CSC) are capable of surviving conventional chemotherapies that permits regeneration of original tumors. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of 5-FU and plant polyphenol (curcumin) in context of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status and CSC activity in 3D cultures of CRC cells. High density 3D cultures of CRC cell lines HCT116, HCT116+ch3 (complemented with chromosome 3) and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemo-resistant derivative clones (HCT116R, HCT116+ch3R) were treated with 5-FU either without or with curcumin in time- and dose-dependent assays. Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly enhanced the effect of 5-FU on HCT116R and HCR116+ch3R cells, in contrast to 5-FU alone as evidenced by increased disintegration of colonospheres, enhanced apoptosis and by inhibiting their growth. Curcumin and/or 5-FU strongly affected MMR-deficient CRC cells in high density cultures, however MMR-proficient CRC cells were more sensitive. These effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU were further supported by its ability to effectively suppress CSC pools as evidenced by decreased number of CSC marker positive cells, highlighting the suitability of this 3D culture model for evaluating CSC marker expression in a close to vivo setting. Our results illustrate novel and previously unrecognized effects of curcumin in enhancing chemosensitization to 5-FU-based chemotherapy on DNA MMR-deficient and their chemo-resistant counterparts by targeting the CSC sub-population. (246 words in abstract).

  19. Role of Hepatic Lipase and Endothelial Lipase in High-Density Lipoprotein-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) constitutes a key part of the atheroprotective properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) are negative regulators of plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although overexpression of EL decreases overall

  20. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....