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Sample records for high-coercivity sintered ndfeb

  1. Study of high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, G. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Xi' an Institute of Technology, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Gao, R.W. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)]. E-mail: gaorwbox@sdu.edu.cn; Sun, Y. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Han, G.B. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, B. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Baotou Rare Earth Research Institute, Batou 014030 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using an advanced processing method including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling and rubber isotropic press. The effects of Dy, Ga and Co addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been investigated. By adopting a suitable component ratio and adjusting proper technological parameters, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with hard magnetic properties of {sub j} H {sub c}=25.6 kOe, B {sub r}=13.2 kG and (BH){sub max}=39.9 MGOe. The temperature coefficient of coercivity of the magnets (between 20 and 150 deg. C) is -0.53% deg. C. The magnetic properties at high temperature satisfy the needs of permanent magnet motors.

  2. Study of high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, G.; Gao, R.W.; Sun, Y.; Han, G.B.; Wang, B.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using an advanced processing method including strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling and rubber isotropic press. The effects of Dy, Ga and Co addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been investigated. By adopting a suitable component ratio and adjusting proper technological parameters, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with hard magnetic properties of j H c =25.6 kOe, B r =13.2 kG and (BH) max =39.9 MGOe. The temperature coefficient of coercivity of the magnets (between 20 and 150 deg. C) is -0.53% deg. C. The magnetic properties at high temperature satisfy the needs of permanent magnet motors

  3. The preparation of sintered NdFeB magnet with high-coercivity and high temperature-stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, G H; Chen, R J; Ding, Y; Guo, S; Lee, Don; Yan, A R, E-mail: yangh@nimte.ac.cn [Zhejiang province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, 315201 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The NdFeB magnets with high intrinsic coercivity have been produced by using the conventional powder metallurgy method (including SC, HD and JM) of sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of grain boundary phases on the microstructure and magnetic properties of as-sintered and annealed magnets have been tried to investigate. Also the Curie temperature of the magnets was studied. By adopting suitable component ratio of some heavy rare-earth atoms and some micro-quantity additives, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with magnetic properties of {sub j}H{sub c}=36.3kOe, B{sub r}=11.7kGs and (BH){sub max}=34.0MGOe. The temperature coefficient of residual magnetic flux of the magnets (between 20 and 200 deg. C) is -0.113%/deg. C, while the temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity -0.355%/deg. C. The Curie temperature of the magnets is about 342 deg. C.

  4. The preparation of sintered NdFeB magnet with high-coercivity and high temperature-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, G H; Chen, R J; Ding, Y; Guo, S; Lee, Don; Yan, A R

    2011-01-01

    The NdFeB magnets with high intrinsic coercivity have been produced by using the conventional powder metallurgy method (including SC, HD and JM) of sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of grain boundary phases on the microstructure and magnetic properties of as-sintered and annealed magnets have been tried to investigate. Also the Curie temperature of the magnets was studied. By adopting suitable component ratio of some heavy rare-earth atoms and some micro-quantity additives, we have prepared high-coercivity sintered NdFeB magnets with magnetic properties of j H c =36.3kOe, B r =11.7kGs and (BH) max =34.0MGOe. The temperature coefficient of residual magnetic flux of the magnets (between 20 and 200 deg. C) is -0.113%/deg. C, while the temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity -0.355%/deg. C. The Curie temperature of the magnets is about 342 deg. C.

  5. High coercivity, anisotropic, heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B by Flash Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Elinor; Sheridan, Richard; Zhou, Wei; Grasso, Salvatore; Walton, Allan; Reece, Michael J

    2017-09-11

    In the drive to reduce the critical Heavy Rare Earth (HRE) content of magnets for green technologies, HRE-free Nd-Fe-B has become an attractive option. HRE is added to Nd-Fe-B to enhance the high temperature performance of the magnets. To produce similar high temperature properties without HRE, a crystallographically textured nanoscale grain structure is ideal; and this conventionally requires expensive "die upset" processing routes. Here, a Flash Spark Plasma Sintering (FSPS) process has been applied to a Dy-free Nd 30.0 Fe 61.8 Co 5.8 Ga 0.6 Al 0.1 B 0.9 melt spun powder (MQU-F, neo Magnequench). Rapid sinter-forging of a green compact to near theoretical density was achieved during the 10 s process, and therefore represents a quick and efficient means of producing die-upset Nd-Fe-B material. The microstructure of the FSPS samples was investigated by SEM and TEM imaging, and the observations were used to guide the optimisation of the process. The most optimal sample is compared directly to commercially die-upset forged (MQIII-F) material made from the same MQU-F powder. It is shown that the grain size of the FSPS material is halved in comparison to the MQIII-F material, leading to a 14% increase in coercivity (1438 kA m -1 ) and matched remanence (1.16 T) giving a BH max of 230 kJ m -3 .

  6. Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets fabrication by using atomized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, R; Sugimoto, S; Matsuura, M; Tezuka, N; Une, Y; Sagawa, M

    2011-01-01

    Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets are required to achieve high coercivity for improvement of their thermal stability. Dy is added to increase coercivity, however, this element decrease magnetization and energy products. Therefore, Dy-lean Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets with high coercivity are strongly demanded. To increase coercivity, it is necessary that microstructure of sintered magnets is consisted of both fine main phase particles and homogeneously distributed Nd-rich phases around the main phase. To meet those requirements, Nd-Fe-B atomized powders were applied to the fabrication process of sintered magnets. Comparing with the case of using strip casting (SC) alloys, jet-milled powders from atomized powders show homogeneous distribution of Nd-rich phase. After optimized thermal treatment, coercivities of sintered magnets from atomized powders and SC alloys reach 1050 kA·m-1 and 1220 kA·m-1, respectively. This difference in coercivity was due to initial oxygen concentration of starting materials. Consequently, Nd-rich phases became oxides with high melting points, and did not melt and spread during sintering and annealing.

  7. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  8. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-01-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB. - Highlights: • The same thick Al, SiC and SiC/Al films are deposited on NdFeB by magnetron sputtering. • 510 nm SiC/Al bilayer films can improve the corrosion resistance of the NdFeB evidently. • Al buffer layer improves effectively the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. • SiC/Al bilayer films do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  9. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Li, Heqin, E-mail: lhqjs@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Bai, Peiwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB. - Highlights: • The same thick Al, SiC and SiC/Al films are deposited on NdFeB by magnetron sputtering. • 510 nm SiC/Al bilayer films can improve the corrosion resistance of the NdFeB evidently. • Al buffer layer improves effectively the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. • SiC/Al bilayer films do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  10. Magnetic viscosity and coercivity mechanisms in sintered and melt spun NdFeB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, R.; Bingham, D.; Day, R.K.; Dunlop, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic viscosity parameters kT/q(=Sv) of sintered and melt spun NdFeB vary with internal field. During initial magnetization of thermally demagnetized specimens signifiant viscosity occurs with melt spun NdFeB but is negligible with sintered NdFeB. Differences in mechanisms of magnetization account for this behaviour

  11. High-coercivity Nd-Fe-B magnets obtained with the electrophoretic deposition of submicron TbF3 followed by the grain-boundary diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderžnik, Marko; Korent, Matic; Žagar Soderžnik, Kristina; Katter, Matthias; Üstüner, Kaan; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-01-01

    Using a grain-boundary diffusion process (GBDP) involving the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of submicron TbF 3 powder, we substantially increased the coercivity of sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The experiments used magnets with low heavy-rare-earth (HRE) content (HRE = 1.2 wt%) and a coercivity of 790 kA/m (at 75 °C). After experiencing optimized conditions at 875 °C for 10 h and subsequent annealing at 500 °C for 1 h, the coercivity was increased to 1536 kA/m (at 75 °C). This value is 1.94 times higher than that for a sintered magnet, without post-sintering heat treatment. Furthermore, a vibration test revealed satisfactory adhesion of the TbF 3 powder to the surface of the magnet with no detected reduction in coercivity. Using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) with an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), we confirmed the formation of various secondary intergranular phases and the core-shell-type microstructure, which increases the coercivity. The Tb content in the magnet, exposed to the EPD-based GBDP, was controlled by inductively coupled plasma optical electron spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The additional Tb detected in the magnet due to the described technology was only 0.12 wt%.

  12. Multi-phase EBSD mapping and local texture analysis in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, T.G., E-mail: t.woodcock@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Gutfleisch, O. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    A combination of electron backscatter diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been used to identify the crystal structure and composition of all the phases present in commercially available NdFeB sintered magnets and to map their spatial distribution. The Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and NdO grains were shown to have low defect densities. The fcc Nd-rich and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains had intra-grain misorientation angles of up to 14{sup o}, which was shown to be due to defects. Large numbers ({approx}100) of data points for each phase were used to study texture in the NdO, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phases. The Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains exhibited a <0 0 1> fibre texture. The Nd oxide phases showed no strong texture, which implied that no strongly preferred orientation relationships between those phases and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B exist. The result was shown to be valid for optimally annealed samples exhibiting high coercivity and as-sintered samples exhibiting low coercivity.

  13. The analysis of adhesion failure between Ni-coating and sintered NdFeB substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengxiu, Y; Yong, D; Zhenlun, S, E-mail: yanghengxiu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 315201 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Ni-coating was widely used to protect the sintered NdFeB magnet from corrosion by Watt electro-deposition solution. However, the protection failure always occurs due to poor adhesion strength between Ni-coating and NdFeB substrate. In present work, the adhesion strength of the Ni-coating on NdFeB substrate was measured by vertical tensile method to strip Ni-coating from NdFeB substrate. The results revealed that the adhesion failure was occurred in the side of the NdFeB substrate due to a weak zone sometimes shown cracks located inside of NdFeB substrate, rather than in the interface between Ni-coating and NdFeB substrate. Comparing with cross section morphology of NdFeB magnet after pretreatment, it is concluded that the crack could be formed during the electro-deposition process. The effect of the pH value of bath on adhesion strength indicated that the crack could be induced due to electrochemical hydrogenation of NdFeB substrate during electro-deposition.

  14. Study of the magnetic microstructure of high-coercivity sintered SmCo5 permanent magnets with the conventional Bitter pattern technique and the colloid-SEM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, Witold

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic microstructure of high-coercivity sintered SmCo 5 permanent magnets was studied with the conventional Bitter pattern technique, and also for the first time with the colloid-scanning electron microscopy (colloid-SEM) method. Both techniques were supported by digital image acquisition, enhancement and analysis. Thanks to this, it was possible to obtain high-contrast and clear images of the magnetic microstructure and to analyze them in detail, and consequently also to achieve improvements over earlier results. In the thermally demagnetized state the grains were composed of magnetic domains. On the surface perpendicular to the alignment axis, the main domains forming a maze pattern and surface reverse spikes were observed. Investigations on the surface parallel to the alignment axis, especially by the colloid-SEM technique, provided a detailed insight into the orientation of grains. The alignment of grains was good, but certainly not perfect; there were also strongly misaligned grains, although generally very rare. In most cases the domain structures within grains were independent of their neighbors, but in some cases (not so rare) the domain walls were observed to continue through the grain boundaries, indicating significant magnetostatic interaction between neighboring grains. Studies of the behavior of the magnetic microstructure under the influence of an external magnetic field, performed for the first time on the surface parallel to the alignment axis (with the conventional Bitter pattern method), showed that the domain walls move easily within the grains and that the magnetization reversal mechanism is mainly related to the nucleation and growth of reverse domains, i.e. that sintered SmCo 5 magnets are nucleation-dominated systems. Groupwise magnetization reversal of adjacent magnetically coupled grains was observed, an unfavorable effect for high-coercivity magnets. Images obtained by the colloid-SEM technique and the conventional Bitter pattern

  15. Effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.P.; Liu, W.Q.; Huang, Y.L.; Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    Sintered NdFeB-based permanent magnets were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and a conventional method to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties. The experimental results showed that sintered NdFeB magnet prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS NdFeB) possesses a better mechanical properties compared to the conventionally sintered one, of which the maximum value of bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively. The effects of sintering temperature on bending strength and Vickers hardness were investigated. It was shown that the bending strength firstly increases to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of sintering temperature in a certain range. The investigations of microstructures and mechanical properties indicated that the unique sintering mechanism in the SPS process is responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of SPS NdFeB. Furthermore, the relations between the mechanical properties and relevant microstructure have been analyzed based on the experimental fact. - Highlights: • Studied the sintering temperature effect on strengthening mechanism of NdFeB magnet firstly. • It showed that sintering temperature may effectively affect the mechanical properties. • The maximum bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively

  16. Effects of sintering temperature on the mechanical properties of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.P., E-mail: wgp@jxnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Communication Electronics, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Huang, Y.L.; Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Sintered NdFeB-based permanent magnets were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and a conventional method to investigate the mechanical and magnetic properties. The experimental results showed that sintered NdFeB magnet prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS NdFeB) possesses a better mechanical properties compared to the conventionally sintered one, of which the maximum value of bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively. The effects of sintering temperature on bending strength and Vickers hardness were investigated. It was shown that the bending strength firstly increases to the maximum value and then decreases with the increase of sintering temperature in a certain range. The investigations of microstructures and mechanical properties indicated that the unique sintering mechanism in the SPS process is responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of SPS NdFeB. Furthermore, the relations between the mechanical properties and relevant microstructure have been analyzed based on the experimental fact. - Highlights: • Studied the sintering temperature effect on strengthening mechanism of NdFeB magnet firstly. • It showed that sintering temperature may effectively affect the mechanical properties. • The maximum bending strength and Vickers hardness was 402.3 MPa and 778.1 MPa, respectively.

  17. The Effect of Nano-TiC Addition on Sintered Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mural, Zorjana; Kollo, Lauri; Xia, Manlong

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. TiC nanoparticles were added to sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a specific aim to improve the Curie temperature and thermal stability. A standard powder metallurgy route was adopted to prepare the magnets....... It was found that introducing nano-TiC prior to jet milling was effective as the nanoparticles dispersed in the final alloy, concentcalcrating in the neodymium-rich phase of the magnets. Magnets with optimal properties were obtained with the addition of 1 wt% TiC nanoparticles. The hysteresis loop...

  18. Magnetic properties of sintered high energy sm-co and nd-fe-b magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talijan Nadežda M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of permanent magnetic materials based on intermetallic compounds of Sm-Co and Nd-Fe-B are in direct dependence on the microstructure. In the first part of this paper, having in mind the importance of the regime of sintering and heat treatment to obtain the optimal magnetic structure, yet another approach in defining the most adequate technological parameters of the sintering process for applied heat treatment conditions was made. The goal of these investigations was to use the correlation that exists between sintering conditions (temperature and time and intensity of the diffraction peak of the (111 plane of the SmCo5 phase to optimize. In the second part a brief overview of high energy magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B is presented with special emphasis to the current research and development of high remanent nanocomposite magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B alloys with a reduced Nd content. Part of experimental results gained during research of the sintering process of SmCo5 magnetic materials were realized and published earlier. The scientific meeting devoted to the 60th anniversary of Frankel’s theory of sintering was an opportunity to show once more the importance and role of sintering in optimization of the magnetic microstructure of sintered Sm Co5 magnetic materials.

  19. Impulse Magnetization of Nd-Fe-B Sintered Magnets for Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Przybylski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetization of large Nd-Fe-B sintered permanent magnets is still challenging. This type of permanent magnet is electrically conductive, so impulse magnetization causes a flow of eddy currents which prevent magnetization of the whole volume of the magnet. The paper deals with the impulse magnetization of sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets and shows a method for the determination of suitable parameters for the supply system. The necessary magnetic field strength for magnetization of the magnet to saturation was determined. The optimal magnetizing fixture supply voltage for magnetization to saturation was determined from simulations in PSpice software, finite element analyses in Maxwell 15 and measurements. Measurements of magnetic induction on the surface of the Nd-Fe-B magnet are also presented to ensure that a magnet with 70 mm diameter and 20 mm in height is fully saturated.

  20. Technological parameter effect on properties of sintered hard-magnetic type Nd-Fe-B materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegaev, V.S.; Stepanova, G.I.; Gudim, Z.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of each technological operation on manufacturing hard magnets from Nd-Fe-B alloys on properties of sintered permanent magnets is studied. It is noted that violation of the metting regime can result in burn-up of boron and rare earths, and violation of the grinding mode-formation of nonmagnetic powder fractions, etc. Special attention is paid to material protection against oxidation by introducing passivating additions and creating of particular conditions for alloy sintering and heat treatment

  1. Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process Recycling of NdFeB sintered magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Manlong; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Bahl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered...

  2. Improvement of the microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB permant magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, F.; Rozendaal, E.; Sagawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    A correlation between sintered NdFeB process, microstructure of the products at each step of the process and magnetic properties has been established. To increase (BH) max of sintered NdFeB magnets, the total rare-earth content in the alloy has to be decreased and to keep coercivity as high as possible, the unavoidable oxygen pick-up has to be substantially reduced. The composition improvements tend to create a high sensitivity to form abnormal grain growth which can potentially occur during the sintering operation. Special attention has been given to characterising, understanding the mechanisms and solving this defect which could affect the magnetic properties. In addition, the composition and each step of the process have been optimised to improve magnetic properties, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the NdFeB permanent magnets. These collaborative studies have resulted in a significant improvement of both remanence and coercivity of the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets, covering a wide coercivity range from 800 to 2500 kA/m (10 to 35 kOe) with respective associated energy products of 400 to 270 kJ/m3 (52 to 35 MGOe). (orig.)

  3. Hard magnetic property and δM(H) plot for sintered NdFeB magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, R.W.; Zhang, D.H.; Li, W.; Li, X.M.; Zhang, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The hard magnetic properties and the interactions between the grains for sintered Nd 16 Fe 73 Co 5 B 6 magnets are investigated by using δM(H) plot technique. The results show that the δM(H) plot of NdFeB sintered magnet can explain the effects of the microstructure (size, shape and orientation of the grains) and the intergrain interactions on the hard magnetic properties of the magnet. However, the value of δM(H) is positive when the applied field is not strong enough, which means that the common δM(H) plot theory is not completely consistent with the sintered NdFeB magnet

  4. Laboratory scale fabrication of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Daniel; Beneduce Neto, Flavio; Landgraf, Fernando Jose Gomes; Neiva, Augusto Camara; Romero, Sergio; Missell, Frank Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B sauntered magnets produced from 1 kg of alloy caste in vacuum induction furnace. The fabrication viability of these magnets, with properties similar to the commercial magnets, and the influence of particle size in the energy product, through the effect on the H k field, is confirmed

  5. Magnetic microstructure and magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.L., E-mail: hyl1019_lin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Wang, Y.; Hou, Y.H.; Wang, Y.L.; Wu, Y.; Ma, S.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian, Y.; Xia, W.X. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong2014@sina.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique using melt-spun ribbons as starting materials. A distinct two-zone structure with coarse grain zone and fine grain zone was formed in the SPSed magnets. Multi-domain particle in coarse grain zone and exchange interaction domain for fine grain zone were observed. Intergranular non-magnetic phase was favorable to improve the coercivity due to the enhancement of domain wall pinning effects and increased exchange-decouple. The remanent polarization of 0.83 T, coercivity of 1516 kA/m, and maximum energy product of 118 kJ/m{sup 3} are obtained for an isotropic magnet. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering technique. • Multi-domain particle and exchange interaction domain were observed. • Magnetic microstructure and their relation to the properties were investigated.

  6. Magnetic viscosity, susceptibility and fluctuation fields in sintered NdFeB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomka, G.J.; Bissell, P.R.; O'Grady, K.; Chantrell, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic viscosity and irreversible susceptibility of a sample of anisotropic sintered NdFeB have been measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The fluctuation field as a function of local field is found to decrease with increasing demagnetizing field with a dip at the coercivity. This behavior is compared with an existing computer model based on a non-interacting system of fine, uniaxial, randomly oriented particles

  7. The effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mural, Zorjana; Kollo, Lauri; Xia, Manlong; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Bez, Henrique Neves; Link, Joosep; Veinthal, Renno

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. TiC nanoparticles were added to sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a specific aim to improve the Curie temperature and thermal stability. A standard powder metallurgy route was adopted to prepare the magnets. It was found that introducing nano-TiC prior to jet milling was effective as the nanoparticles dispersed in the final alloy, concentcalcrating in the neodymium-rich phase of the magnets. Magnets with optimal properties were obtained with the addition of 1 wt% TiC nanoparticles. The hysteresis loop for such magnets showed an improved shape and VSM analysis a coercivity value of 1188 kA/m, a remanence value of 0.96 T and a maximum energy product of 132 kJ/m 3 . The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets were 373 K and 623 K respectively. - Highlights: • Improvement of thermal stability of Nd-Fe-B magnets by introducing nano-TiC prior sintering is proposed. • The mechanism relies on nano-TiC particles behaving as grain growth inhibitors between thin RE-rich phase regions. • The concentration of up to 1 wt% of nano-TiC appears to increase coercivity without a significant decrease in remanence. • The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets are 373 K and 623 K respectively.

  8. The effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mural, Zorjana, E-mail: zorjana.mural@ttu.ee [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Kollo, Lauri [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Xia, Manlong; Bahl, Christian R.H. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Abrahamsen, Asger Bech [Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bez, Henrique Neves [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Link, Joosep [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Veinthal, Renno [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-05-01

    This paper addresses the effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. TiC nanoparticles were added to sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a specific aim to improve the Curie temperature and thermal stability. A standard powder metallurgy route was adopted to prepare the magnets. It was found that introducing nano-TiC prior to jet milling was effective as the nanoparticles dispersed in the final alloy, concentcalcrating in the neodymium-rich phase of the magnets. Magnets with optimal properties were obtained with the addition of 1 wt% TiC nanoparticles. The hysteresis loop for such magnets showed an improved shape and VSM analysis a coercivity value of 1188 kA/m, a remanence value of 0.96 T and a maximum energy product of 132 kJ/m{sup 3}. The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets were 373 K and 623 K respectively. - Highlights: • Improvement of thermal stability of Nd-Fe-B magnets by introducing nano-TiC prior sintering is proposed. • The mechanism relies on nano-TiC particles behaving as grain growth inhibitors between thin RE-rich phase regions. • The concentration of up to 1 wt% of nano-TiC appears to increase coercivity without a significant decrease in remanence. • The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets are 373 K and 623 K respectively.

  9. The influence of carbon and oxygen on the magnetic characteristics of press-less sintered NdFeB magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Manlong; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Bahl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The Pressless Process (PLP) was adopted to manufacture NdFeB sintered magnets, where the investigations on carbon and oxygen residues from heptane milling liquid media and graphite crucibles used for sintering were quantified to evaluate the influence on the magnetic characteristics. The carbon...

  10. Influences of Laser Spot Welding on Magnetic Property of a Sintered NdFeB Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohua Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding has been considered as a promising method to join sintered NdFeB permanent magnets thanks to its high precision and productivity. However, the influences of laser welding on the magnetic property of NdFeB are still not clear. In the present paper, the effects of laser power on the remanence (Br were experimentally investigated in laser spot welding of a NdFeB magnet (N48H. Results show that the Br decreased with the increase of laser power. For the same welding parameters, the Br of magnets, that were magnetized before welding, were much lower than that of magnets that were magnetized after welding. The decrease in Br of magnets after laser welding resulted from the changes in microstructures and, in turn, the deterioration of magnetic properties in the nugget and the heat affected zone (HAZ in a laser weld. It is recommended that the dimensions of nuggets and HAZ in laser welds of a NdFeB permanent magnet should be as small as possible, and the magnets should be welded before being magnetized in order to achieve a better magnetic performance in practical engineering applications.

  11. Production of NdFeB powders by HDDR from sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasi, S.R.; Rodrigues, D.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Campos, M.F. de

    2010-01-01

    The production of NdFeB powders by the HDDR process from metallic alloys has been widely investigated. Different HD and DR conditions have been used to induce anisotropy and to improve the intrinsic coercivity of the obtained powders. The purpose of this study is to apply the HDDR process in the reprocessing of NdFeB sintered magnet scraps. There were investigated different processing conditions as temperature and time of desorption and recombination (DR). The results of X ray diffraction show the formation of the magnetic phase Nd 2 Fe 14 B in all the investigated conditions. Magnetic measurements by vibrating sample magnetometer indicate that powders with intrinsic coercivity up to 790 kA/m were obtained. (author)

  12. Technique for recovering rare-earth metals from spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets without external heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Sasai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To selectively recover rare-earth metals with higher purity from spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets without external heating, we investigated the mechano-chemical treatment of spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet powder with a reaction solution of HCl and (COOH2 at room temperature. The results of various experiments showed that the mechano-chemical treatment with HCl and (COOH2 is very effective for recovering the rare-earth metals contained in spent sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet powder; the recovery rate and purity of the rare-earth metals were 95.3 and 95.0 mass%, respectively, under optimal conditions ([HCl] = 0.2 mol/dm3 and [(COOH2] = 0.25 mol/dm3.

  13. Coercivity degradation caused by inhomogeneous grain boundaries in sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hansheng; Yun, Fan; Qu, Jiangtao; Li, Yingfei; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Fang, Ruhao; Ye, Zhixiao; Ringer, Simon P.; Zheng, Rongkun

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative correlation between intrinsic coercivity and grain boundaries in three dimensions is critical to further improve the performance of sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. Here, we quantitatively reveal the local composition variation across and especially along grain boundaries using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography. We also estimate the saturation magnetization, magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant, and exchange stiffness of the grain boundaries on the basis of the experimentally determined structure and composition. Finally, using micromagnetic simulations, we quantify the intrinsic coercivity degradation caused by inhomogeneous grain boundaries. This approach can be applied to other magnetic materials for the analysis and optimization of magnetic properties.

  14. Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process recycling of NdFeB sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Manlong; Abrahamsen, Asger B.; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Veluri, Badrinath; Søegaard, Allan I.; Bøjsøe, Poul

    2017-11-01

    A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold. Coercivities up to 534 kA/m were obtained in porous samples based on powder size d 100 μm. The coercivity reached Hci = 957 kA/m being 86% of the original N48M material without addition of rare earth elements.

  15. Coercivity of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets produced by the spark plasma sintering method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Saito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Nd-Cu alloy powder addition on the microstructures and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets produced by the spark plasma sintering (SPS method were investigated. The addition of a small amount of Nd-Cu alloy powder, up to 2%, significantly increased the coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnets without deteriorating the crystallographic alignment of the Nd2Fe14B phase. The Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnet with 2% Nd-Cu alloy powder had the same remanence value as the Nd-Fe-B hot-deformed magnet without Nd-Cu alloy powder addition, but the magnet with 2% Nd-Cu alloy powder exhibited higher coercivity and a higher maximum energy product than the magnet without Nd-Cu alloy powder addition.

  16. Angular dependence of coercivity in isotropically aligned Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Sumitani, Kazushi; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Tamura, Ryuji; Osamura, Kozo

    2018-05-01

    In order to understand the coercivity mechanism in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets, the angular dependence of the coercivity of an isotropically aligned Nd15Co1.0B6Febal. sintered magnet was investigated through magnetization measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. These results are compared with the angular dependence calculated under the assumption that the magnetization reversal of each grain follows the Kondorskii law or, in other words, the 1/cos θ law for isotropic alignment distributions. The calculated angular dependence of the coercivity agrees very well with the experiment for magnetic fields applied between angles of 0 and 60°, and it is expected that the magnetization reversal occurs in each grain individually followed the 1/cos θ law. In contrast, this agreement between calculation and experiment is not found for anisotropic Nd-Fe-B samples. This implies that the coercivity of the aligned magnets depends upon the de-pinning of the domain walls from pinning sites. When the de-pinning occurs, it is expected that the domain walls are displaced through several grains at once.

  17. Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd–Fe–B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žagar, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.zagar@ijs.si; Kocjan, Andraž; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured Nd–Fe–B-type materials produced by melt-spinning (MS) are used in a variety of applications in the electronics, automotive, and sensor industries. The very rapid MS process leads to flake-like powders with metastable, nanoscale, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains. These powders are then formed into net-shaped, isotropic, polymer-bonded magnets, or they are hot formed into fully dense, metallic magnets that are isotropic and anisotropic. These fully dense magnets are usually produced with a conventional hot press without the inclusion of additives prior to the hot pressing. As a result, their properties, particularly the coercivity (H{sub ci}), are insufficient at automotive-relevant temperatures of 100–150 °C since the material H{sub ci} has a large temperature coefficient. In this study, we instead add a thin layer of DyF{sub 3} to the melt-spun ribbons prior to their hot consolidation in order to enhance the coercivity through a diffusion-based, partial substitution of the Nd by Dy. This is accomplished by applying extremely rapid, spark-plasma sintering to minimize any growth of the nanoscale Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains during consolidation. The result is a very high-coercivity magnet with drastically reduced amounts of heavy rare earths that is suitable for high-temperature applications. This work clearly demonstrates how rapidly formed, metastable states can provide us with properties that are unobtainable with conventional techniques. - Highlights: • We produced high coercivity magnets with drastically reduced amounts of HRE. • Microstructural analysis was conducted of the “free” and “wheel” side of Dy-treated Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B ribbons. • Dy-diffusion mechanism into ribbons depending on processing parameters is shown.

  18. The influence of carbon and oxygen on the magnetic characteristics of press-less sintered NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, M.; Abrahamsen, A.B.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Veluri, B.; Søegaard, A.I.; Bøjsøe, P.; Millot, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Pressless Process (PLP) was adopted to manufacture NdFeB sintered magnets, where the investigations on carbon and oxygen residues from heptane milling liquid media and graphite crucibles used for sintering were quantified to evaluate the influence on the magnetic characteristics. The carbon and oxygen content in the magnets produced from wet ball milling of strip cast flakes was found to be of the order 10 4 ppm and 4·10 4 ppm respectively, which resulted in soft magnetic behavior. However using jet milling the carbon and oxygen concentration were decreased by an order of magnitude resulting in coercivity of up to 829 kA/m. Thus the influence of the carbon from the graphite crucibles is small. - Highlights: • It is found that the carbon from graphite crucibles will not influence the NdFeB. • The carbon from heptane mixed with NdFeB powder will react with the NdFeB, which breaks the magnetic properties of NdFeB. • Pressless process works well with graphite crucibles, without worrying that carbon has damage on magnets.

  19. The influence of carbon and oxygen on the magnetic characteristics of press-less sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, M., E-mail: maxi@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, DTU Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Abrahamsen, A.B. [Department of Wind Energy, DTU Risø campus, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Bahl, C.R.H. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, DTU Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Veluri, B.; Søegaard, A.I. [Grundfos A/S, DK-8850 Bjerringbro (Denmark); Bøjsøe, P. [Holm Magnetics APS, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Millot, S. [FJ Industries A/S, 5863 Ferritslev (Denmark)

    2017-01-15

    The Pressless Process (PLP) was adopted to manufacture NdFeB sintered magnets, where the investigations on carbon and oxygen residues from heptane milling liquid media and graphite crucibles used for sintering were quantified to evaluate the influence on the magnetic characteristics. The carbon and oxygen content in the magnets produced from wet ball milling of strip cast flakes was found to be of the order 10{sup 4} ppm and 4·10{sup 4} ppm respectively, which resulted in soft magnetic behavior. However using jet milling the carbon and oxygen concentration were decreased by an order of magnitude resulting in coercivity of up to 829 kA/m. Thus the influence of the carbon from the graphite crucibles is small. - Highlights: • It is found that the carbon from graphite crucibles will not influence the NdFeB. • The carbon from heptane mixed with NdFeB powder will react with the NdFeB, which breaks the magnetic properties of NdFeB. • Pressless process works well with graphite crucibles, without worrying that carbon has damage on magnets.

  20. Effects of Dy and Nb on the magnetic properties and corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.Q.; Wen, Y.H.; Yan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dy and Nb were added into the sintered NdFeB magnets with the aim of improving their magnetic properties and corrosion resistance. It was found that intrinsic coercivity of magnets is promoted whilst remanence is reduced as a result of Dy addition. Simultaneous addition of Dy and Nb not only gives rise to greatly improved coercivity, but also suppresses the undesirable effect of Dy on the remanence. The optimum magnetic properties were achieved when 1.0% Dy and 1.5% Nb were incorporated. Moreover, corrosion resistance of NdFeB magnets improves with the increase in the content of Dy and Nb

  1. Production of NdFeB powders by HDDR from sintered magnets; Obtencao de pos de NdFeB por HDDR a partir de imas sinterizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janasi, S.R.; Rodrigues, D.; Landgraf, F.J.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Metalurgia e Materiais Ceramicos; Silva, B.F.A. da; Takiishi, H [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Campos, M.F. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The production of NdFeB powders by the HDDR process from metallic alloys has been widely investigated. Different HD and DR conditions have been used to induce anisotropy and to improve the intrinsic coercivity of the obtained powders. The purpose of this study is to apply the HDDR process in the reprocessing of NdFeB sintered magnet scraps. There were investigated different processing conditions as temperature and time of desorption and recombination (DR). The results of X ray diffraction show the formation of the magnetic phase Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B in all the investigated conditions. Magnetic measurements by vibrating sample magnetometer indicate that powders with intrinsic coercivity up to 790 kA/m were obtained. (author)

  2. Anisotropic powder from sintered NdFeB magnets by the HDDR processing route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, R.S.; Sillitoe, R.; Zakotnik, M.; Harris, I.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Williams, A.J., E-mail: a.j.williams@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Sintered NdFeB-based scrap magnets were recovered and processed using the HD and HDDR routes. The effects of varying the HDDR processing temperature were investigated (over the range 835-930 deg. C). The disproportion was carried out with a pressure ramp to a maximum of 1000 mbar hydrogen pressure with a 1 h hold time at each step and the optimum recombination conditions were set at 100 mbar with a 20 min hold time. Anisotropic NdFeB powder was produced in all cases with the best magnetic properties achieved at a processing temperature of 880 deg. C, producing powder with a remanence of 1.10({+-}0.02) T and an intrinsic coercivity of 800 ({+-}16) kA m{sup -1} and giving a (BH){sub max} of 129({+-}2.5) kJ m{sup -3}. - Highlights: > Production of anisotropic permanent magnet powder from scrap NdFeB magnets by HDDR. > Reaction pressure increases with increasing processing temperature. > Best magnetic properties achieved by processing at 880 deg. C.

  3. Anisotropic powder from sintered NdFeB magnets by the HDDR processing route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, R.S.; Sillitoe, R.; Zakotnik, M.; Harris, I.R.; Williams, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sintered NdFeB-based scrap magnets were recovered and processed using the HD and HDDR routes. The effects of varying the HDDR processing temperature were investigated (over the range 835-930 deg. C). The disproportion was carried out with a pressure ramp to a maximum of 1000 mbar hydrogen pressure with a 1 h hold time at each step and the optimum recombination conditions were set at 100 mbar with a 20 min hold time. Anisotropic NdFeB powder was produced in all cases with the best magnetic properties achieved at a processing temperature of 880 deg. C, producing powder with a remanence of 1.10(±0.02) T and an intrinsic coercivity of 800 (±16) kA m -1 and giving a (BH) max of 129(±2.5) kJ m -3 . - Highlights: → Production of anisotropic permanent magnet powder from scrap NdFeB magnets by HDDR. → Reaction pressure increases with increasing processing temperature. → Best magnetic properties achieved by processing at 880 deg. C.

  4. Coercivity enhancement in Nd-Fe-B sintered permanent magnet by Dy nanoparticles doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.Q., E-mail: liuweiqiang77@hotmail.co [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Sun, H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yi, X.F. [Anhui Earth-panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd., Anhui 231500 (China); Liu, X.C.; Zhang, D.T. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhang, J.X. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2010-07-02

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with a small amount of Dysprosium (Dy) nanoparticles doping were prepared by conventional sintered method, and the microstructure and magnetic properties of the magnets were studied. Investigation shows that the coercivity rises gradually, while the remanence decreases simultaneously with increased Dy doping amount. As a result, the magnet with 1.5 wt.% Dy exhibits optimal magnetic properties. Further investigation presumed that Dy is enriched as (Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase in the surface region of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix grains indicated by the enhancement of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy field of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase. As a result, the magnet doped with a small amount of Dy nanoparticles possesses remarkably enhanced coercivity without sacrificing its magnetization noticeably.

  5. Micromagnetic simulation of anisotropic grain boundary diffusion for sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Zhou, Q.; Zhao, L. Z.; Wang, Q. X.; Zhong, X. C.; Liu, Z. W.

    2018-04-01

    A systematic investigation on the anisotropic grain boundary diffusion in sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets is carried out by micromagnetic simulation. The results indicate that the critical reason for the anisotropic diffusion effect is not the difference in the amount of Dy diffused along different directions but the macroscopic demagnetizing field. The diffusion parallel to the easy axis from both pole surfaces of the magnet can increase the nucleation fields in the two major regions with large macroscopic demagnetizing fields, where the reverse domains can nucleate easily. As a consequence, the grain boundary diffusion along the directions parallel to the easy axis from two pole surfaces is more effective to improve the coercivity of the magnets than that along other directions. It is also found that, to enhance the coercivity, only a limited diffusion depth is required. The present result is in good agreement with the recent experimental findings.

  6. Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet prepared by mechanically activated disproportionation and desorption-recombination in-situ sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoya, Liu; Yuping, Li; Lianxi, Hu

    2013-01-01

    The process of mechanically activated disproportionation and desorption-recombination in-situ sintering was proposed to synthesize highly densified nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet, and its validity was demonstrated by experimental investigation with the use of a Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 (atomic ratio) alloy. Firstly, the as-cast alloy was disproportionated by mechanical milling in hydrogen, with the starting micron-sized Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase decomposed into an intimate mixture of nano-structured NdH 2.7 , Fe 2 B and α-Fe phases. The as-disproportionated alloy powders were compacted by cold pressing and then subjected to desorption-recombination in-situ sintering. The microstructure of both the as-disproportionated and the subsequently sintered samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron transmission microscopy, respectively. The magnetic properties of the sintered samples were measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that, by vacuum sintering, not only was the powder compact consolidated, but also the as-disproportionated microstucture transformed into nanocrystalline Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase via the well-known desorption-recombination reaction, thus giving rise to nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet. In the present study, the optimal sintering parameters were found to be 780 °C×30 min. In this case, the coercivity, the remanence, and maximum energy product of the magnet sample achieved 0.8 T, 635.3 kA/m, and 106.3 kJ/m 3 , respectively. - Highlights: ► Nano-structured disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. ► Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. ► Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets by desorption-recombination in-situ sintering under vacuum. ► Magnetic properties significantly improved by relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase. ► The effects of sintering parameters on magnetic properties and the underlying

  7. Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet prepared by mechanically activated disproportionation and desorption-recombination in-situ sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoya, Liu; Yuping, Li [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lianxi, Hu, E-mail: hulx@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-03-15

    The process of mechanically activated disproportionation and desorption-recombination in-situ sintering was proposed to synthesize highly densified nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet, and its validity was demonstrated by experimental investigation with the use of a Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} (atomic ratio) alloy. Firstly, the as-cast alloy was disproportionated by mechanical milling in hydrogen, with the starting micron-sized Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase decomposed into an intimate mixture of nano-structured NdH{sub 2.7}, Fe{sub 2}B and {alpha}-Fe phases. The as-disproportionated alloy powders were compacted by cold pressing and then subjected to desorption-recombination in-situ sintering. The microstructure of both the as-disproportionated and the subsequently sintered samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron transmission microscopy, respectively. The magnetic properties of the sintered samples were measured by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that, by vacuum sintering, not only was the powder compact consolidated, but also the as-disproportionated microstucture transformed into nanocrystalline Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase via the well-known desorption-recombination reaction, thus giving rise to nanocrystalline NdFeB magnet. In the present study, the optimal sintering parameters were found to be 780 Degree-Sign C Multiplication-Sign 30 min. In this case, the coercivity, the remanence, and maximum energy product of the magnet sample achieved 0.8 T, 635.3 kA/m, and 106.3 kJ/m{sup 3}, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-structured disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets by desorption-recombination in-situ sintering under vacuum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties significantly

  8. Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd-Fe-B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Kristina; Kocjan, Andraž; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured Nd-Fe-B-type materials produced by melt-spinning (MS) are used in a variety of applications in the electronics, automotive, and sensor industries. The very rapid MS process leads to flake-like powders with metastable, nanoscale, Nd2Fe14B grains. These powders are then formed into net-shaped, isotropic, polymer-bonded magnets, or they are hot formed into fully dense, metallic magnets that are isotropic and anisotropic. These fully dense magnets are usually produced with a conventional hot press without the inclusion of additives prior to the hot pressing. As a result, their properties, particularly the coercivity (Hci), are insufficient at automotive-relevant temperatures of 100-150 °C since the material Hci has a large temperature coefficient. In this study, we instead add a thin layer of DyF3 to the melt-spun ribbons prior to their hot consolidation in order to enhance the coercivity through a diffusion-based, partial substitution of the Nd by Dy. This is accomplished by applying extremely rapid, spark-plasma sintering to minimize any growth of the nanoscale Nd2Fe14B grains during consolidation. The result is a very high-coercivity magnet with drastically reduced amounts of heavy rare earths that is suitable for high-temperature applications. This work clearly demonstrates how rapidly formed, metastable states can provide us with properties that are unobtainable with conventional techniques.

  9. Design and fabrication of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a low temperature coefficient of intrinsic coercivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X.G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the temperature coefficients of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, the influencing factors on temperature coefficients, especially the reversible temperature coefficient β of intrinsic coercivity Hcj, were analyzed. The results showed that the absolute value of β decreased with increasing Hcj and also the ratio of microstructure parameter c to Neff, indicating that the increase of magnetocrystalline anisotropy field HA and c/Neff can effectively decrease the absolute value of β. On the basis of this analysis, a sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet with a low temperature coefficient of Hcj was fabricated through composition design, and the value of β was only -0.385%/ºC in the temperature interval of 20-150ºC.

  10. Micromagnetic simulation of the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujisaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the micromagnetic simulation study about the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets. A multigrain object with a large number of meshes is introduced to analyze such anisotropic grain boundaries and the simulation is performed by combining the finite element method and the parallel computing. When the grain boundary phase parallel to the c-plane is less ferromagnetic the process of the magnetization reversal changes and the coercivity of the multigrain object increases. The simulations with various magnetic properties of the grain boundary phases are executed to search for the way to enhance the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets.

  11. A preparation method and effects of Al–Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jingwu; Lin, Min; Xia, Qingping

    2012-01-01

    A 50 μm Al–Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets was prepared through dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating at 300 °C. The morphology and composition of the Al–Cr coating were investigated with scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al–Cr coating was analyzed by normal salt spray, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties were measured with a hysteresis loop tracer. The results show that the Al–Cr coating forms an overlapping structure and Al flakes lie nearly parallel to the substrate, which improves the anticorrosion and increases normal salt spray test from 10 to 100 h. The corrosion potential of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al–Cr coating moves positively from −0.67 to −0.48 V, which is in accordance with Nyquist and Bode plots. The Al–Cr coating has little influence on the magnetic properties of the NdFeB sintered magnets. - Highlights: ► The Al–Cr coating can be prepared by dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating. ► The coating morphology shows to be an intense overlapping structure. ► The barrier effect combines with passivation and cathodic protection. ► The anticorrosion abilities improve while magnetic properties change little. ► Compared with other surface treatments, this method is convenient and low cost.

  12. A preparation method and effects of Al-Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jingwu [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lin, Min, E-mail: linm@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering Chinese Academy of Science, 519 Road Zhuangshi, District Zhenghai, Ningbo 315201, People' s Republic of China (China); Xia, Qingping [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2012-11-15

    A 50 {mu}m Al-Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets was prepared through dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating at 300 Degree-Sign C. The morphology and composition of the Al-Cr coating were investigated with scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al-Cr coating was analyzed by normal salt spray, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties were measured with a hysteresis loop tracer. The results show that the Al-Cr coating forms an overlapping structure and Al flakes lie nearly parallel to the substrate, which improves the anticorrosion and increases normal salt spray test from 10 to 100 h. The corrosion potential of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al-Cr coating moves positively from -0.67 to -0.48 V, which is in accordance with Nyquist and Bode plots. The Al-Cr coating has little influence on the magnetic properties of the NdFeB sintered magnets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Al-Cr coating can be prepared by dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating morphology shows to be an intense overlapping structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The barrier effect combines with passivation and cathodic protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anticorrosion abilities improve while magnetic properties change little. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared with other surface treatments, this method is convenient and low cost.

  13. Effect of crystal alignment on the remanence of sintered NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.; Ma, B.M.; Sankar, S.G.; Wallace, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    Nd 15.4 Fe 77.8 B 6.8 magnets of various degrees of crystal alignment have been prepared by the conventional powder metallurgy technique. The alignment of these magnets have been determined by x-ray diffraction and fitting the standard deviation of a Gaussian distribution for the relative intensity versus the angle between the normals of (hkl) and the tetragonal c axis. The standard deviation is a good indicator for crystal alignment. An aligning field of 8 kOe is found to be essential to obtain a well-aligned NdFeB magnet. The remanence of sintered magnets is directly affected by the crystal alignment. Furthermore, the effect of crystal alignment on the remanence follows the theoretical prediction of the Stoner--Wohlfarth model. Below the spin reorientation temperature, the effect of crystal alignment on the shape of hysteresis loop becomes more significant. The remanences extrapolated from first and second quadrant of the hysteresis loops have been found to be consistent with the prediction of Stoner--Wohlfarth model

  14. On the cooling rate of strip cast ingots for sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.Q. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: mse_yanmi@dial.zju.edu.cn; Wu, J.M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, W. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, X.G. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ying, H.G. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-04-30

    Effects of the cooling rate of strip cast ingots on magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. It is found that the magnetic properties greatly depend on wheel speed due to different alloy microstructures, which affect readily the particle size distribution of powders obtained after the subsequent jet milling. At higher cooling rate, interlamellar spacing between Nd-rich platelets of the alloy was small, resulting in a lower saturated magnetization due to increased amounts of small particles after jet milling. With further decreasing cooling rate, the resultant larger interlamellar spacing led to too large particle sizes as well as a more irregular shape; thus deteriorated the magnetic properties of the final magnet. A model was developed to disclose the effects of particle sizes on the magnetic alignment process. In the current investigation, optimum magnetic properties of the final magnets were obtained with a cooling rate of 2.6 m/s for preparing the strip. The magnets made by conventionally cast ingot technique exhibited the lowest magnetic properties because of the slowest cooling rate.

  15. Corrosion properties of aluminium coatings deposited on sintered NdFeB by ion-beam-assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shoudong; Yang Hengxiu; Li Jinlong; Huang Feng [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China); Song Zhenlun, E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Pure Al coatings were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering to protect sintered NdFeB magnets. The effects of Ar{sup +} ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) on the structure and the corrosion behaviour of Al coatings were investigated. The Al coating prepared by DC magnetron sputtering with IBAD (IBAD-Al-coating) had fewer voids than the coating without IBAD (Al-coating). The corrosion behaviour of the Al-coated NdFeB specimens was investigated by potentiodynamic polarisation, a neutral salt spray (NSS) test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The pitting corrosion of the Al coatings always began at the voids of the grain boundaries. Bombardment by the Ar{sup +} ion-beams effectively improved the corrosion resistance of the IBAD-Al-coating.

  16. The influence of carbon and oxygen on the magnetic characteristics of press-less sintered NdFeB magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, M.; Abrahamsen, A. B.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Veluri, B.; Søegaard, A. I.; Bøjsøe, P.; Millot, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Pressless Process (PLP) was adopted to manufacture NdFeB sintered magnets, where the investigations on carbon and oxygen residues from heptane milling liquid media and graphite crucibles used for sintering were quantified to evaluate the influence on the magnetic characteristics. The carbon and oxygen content in the magnets produced from wet ball milling of strip cast flakes was found to be of the order 104 ppm and 4·104 ppm respectively, which resulted in soft magnetic behavior. However using jet milling the carbon and oxygen concentration were decreased by an order of magnitude resulting in coercivity of up to 829 kA/m. Thus the influence of the carbon from the graphite crucibles is small.

  17. Effect of Stabilization Heat Treatment on Time-Dependent Polarization Losses in Sintered Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some companies in the motor and generator industry utilizing sintered NdFeB magnets have adopted pre-ageing heat treatment in order to improve the stability of the magnets. The parameters of this stabilization heat treatment are based mainly on assumptions rather than on any published research results. In this work, the effects of pre-ageing treatment on the time-dependent polarization losses of two different types of commercial sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. The material showing the squarer J(H curve did not benefit from the pre-ageing treatment, since it seems to be stable under a certain critical temperature. In contrast, a stabilizing effect was observed in the material showing rounder J(H curve. After the stabilization heat treatment, the polarization of the magnets was found to be at lower level, but unchanged over a certain period of time. The length of this period depends on the temperature and the duration of the pre-ageing treatment. In addition, our analysis reveals that the stabilization heat treatment performed in an open circuit condition does not stabilize the magnet uniformly.

  18. Grain boundary engineering in sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets for efficient utilization of heavy rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewe, Konrad

    2016-10-18

    The first part of the thesis investigates the diffusion of rare-earth (RE) elements in commercial sintered Nd-Fe-B based permanent magnets. A strong temperature dependence of the diffusion distance and resulting change in magnetic properties were found. A maximum increase in coercivity of ∼+350 kA/m using a Dy diffusion source occurred at the optimum annealing temperature of 900 C. After annealing for 6 h at this temperature, a Dy diffusion distance of about 4 mm has been observed with a scanning Hall probe. Consequently, the maximum thickness of grain boundary diffusion processed magnets with homogeneous properties is also only a few mm. The microstructural changes in the magnets after diffusion were investigated by electron microscopy coupled with electron probe microanalysis. It was found that the diffusion of Dy into sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets occurs along the grain boundary phases, which is in accordance with previous studies. A partial melting of the Nd-Fe-B grains during the annealing process lead to the formation of so - called (Nd,Dy)-Fe-B shells at the outer part of the grains. These shells are μm thick at the immediate surface of the magnet and become thinner with increasing diffusion distance towards the center of the bulk. With scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron probe analysis a Dy content of about 1 at.% was found in a shell located about 1.5 mm away from the surface of the magnet. The evaluation of diffusion speeds of Dy and other RE (Tb, Ce, Gd) in Nd-Fe-B magnets showed that Tb diffuses significantly faster than Dy, and Ce slightly slower than Dy, which is attributed to differences in the respective phase diagrams. The addition of Gd to the grain boundaries has an adverse effect on coercivity. Exemplary of the heavy rare earth element Tb, the nano - scale elemental distribution around the grain boundaries after the diffusion process was visualized with high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy

  19. Microstructure characteristic and excellent corrosion protection properties of sealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating for sintered NdFeB magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaokui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li Qing, E-mail: liqingd@swu.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Shiyan; Liu Fang; Wang Shaoyin; Zhang Haixiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-04-09

    In this paper, a protective sealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating (SCC) was prepared on sintered NdFeB magnet by electrodeposition and sol-gel combined technique. For a comparison, unsealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating (UCC) was also studied. The surface morphologies of composite coating were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructure of composite coatings and structure of sealing layer were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, respectively. The anticorrosive properties of composite coatings in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The results of corrosion tests showed that due to the blocking effect of sealing layer, SCC could suppress the corrosion process by holding back the transfer or diffusion of corrosive medium, and therefore showed the excellent corrosion protection properties for sintered NdFeB magnet.

  20. Multi-layered electroless Ni-P coatings on powder-sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong; Ng, Alice; Yi Jianzhang; Chen Xingfu

    2006-01-01

    This paper has shown a successful protective coating scheme for powder-sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet using multi-layered electroless nickel (EN) deposition. A low-phosphorus nickel layer is plated with an alkaline EN solution first, followed by a high-phosphorus nickel layer plated with an acidic solution. An additional topcoat by medium-phosphorus nickel on the high-phosphorus coating is also explored. It is shown that the high-phosphorus nickel layer coated in acidic solution provides the best corrosion protection because of its dense amorphous structure. The medium phosphorus topcoat is also dense and is able to provide reasonable corrosion resistance. The low-phosphorus layer itself does not have enough corrosion resistance; its main role is to provide an intermediate coating on the powder-sintered magnet. X-ray diffraction measurement shows that the low-phosphorus coating consists of nano-crystallines, and the high- and the medium-phosphorus coatings are dominated by amorphous structure. Microscopic observation and scratch test on these composite coatings demonstrate good adhesion between the magnet and the coatings. Remanence and coercivity of the plated magnet decrease with the applied coatings, but measured values are still very attractive for practical applications among known hard magnets

  1. Coercivity enhancement of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets by chemical bath deposition of TbCl{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuai, E-mail: gshuai@nimte.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ding, Guangfei; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Lee, Don [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) and the grain boundary diffusion method were combined to diffuse the heavy rare earth for obtain the thick magnets with high coercivity and low heavy rare earth. The jet mill powders were soaked into the alcohol solution of 0.2 wt. % TbCl{sub 3}. A thin layer of TbCl{sub 3} was wrapped to the surface of (PrNd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powder particles. The coercivity of magnet is increased from 11.89 kOe to 14.72 kOe without significant reduction of remanence after grain boundary diffusion in the sintering and the annealing processes. The temperature coefficients of the remanence and the coercivity are improved by the substitution of PrNd by Tb in the surface of grains. The highly accelerated temperature/humidity stress test (HAST) results indicate that the CBD magnet has poor corrosion resistance, attributing to the present of Cl atoms in the grain boundaries.

  2. Relation between Nd2Fe14B grain alignment and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Hoshijima, Jun; Ishii, Rintaro

    2013-01-01

    It was found that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grain alignment improves. Because of this phenomenon, studies looked at the relation between this alignment and the coercive force decrease ratio. In experiments, it was expected that the coercive force of perfectly aligned magnet reached 0.7 of coercive force in istotropically aligned magnet. When it is postulated that the coercive force is determined by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, coercive force increases as the alignment improves and it becomes difficult to explain our experimental data. On the other hand, when the coercive force is determined by magnetic domain wall motion, the coercive force decreases as the alignment improves and the coercive force of the perfectly aligned magnet reaches 1/√(2) of the isotropically aligned magnet. This tendency and value was very close to our data. It strongly suggests that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets is determined by the domain wall motion. - Highlights: ► Coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as grains alignment improves. ► Coercive force decrease ratio reaches −30% at the perfect aligned magnet. ►These experimental results are different from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. ► The magnetic domain wall motion could explain this coercive force decrease ratio

  3. Relation between Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain alignment and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp [Hitachi Metals Ltd., NEOMAX Division, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Hoshijima, Jun; Ishii, Rintaro [Hitachi Metals Ltd., NEOMAX Division, 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto-cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    It was found that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain alignment improves. Because of this phenomenon, studies looked at the relation between this alignment and the coercive force decrease ratio. In experiments, it was expected that the coercive force of perfectly aligned magnet reached 0.7 of coercive force in istotropically aligned magnet. When it is postulated that the coercive force is determined by the Stoner–Wohlfarth model, coercive force increases as the alignment improves and it becomes difficult to explain our experimental data. On the other hand, when the coercive force is determined by magnetic domain wall motion, the coercive force decreases as the alignment improves and the coercive force of the perfectly aligned magnet reaches 1/√(2) of the isotropically aligned magnet. This tendency and value was very close to our data. It strongly suggests that the coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets is determined by the domain wall motion. - Highlights: ► Coercive force of NdFeB sintered magnets decreases as grains alignment improves. ► Coercive force decrease ratio reaches −30% at the perfect aligned magnet. ►These experimental results are different from the Stoner–Wohlfarth model. ► The magnetic domain wall motion could explain this coercive force decrease ratio.

  4. Microstructural and electrochemical characterization of Ni/Ti/sub 2/N composite coating for sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Ahmad, A.; Deen, K.M.; Ahmad, R.

    2009-01-01

    Sintered NdFeB magnets have complex microstructure that makes them susceptible to corrosion in humid or moist environments. The paper presents the anticorrosion characteristics of a novel Ni/Ti/sub 2/N composite coating applied through electrodeposition and cathodic arc physical vapour deposition (CAPVD) to sintered NdFeB permanent magnets. The performance of composite coating was evaluated in simulated marine environment with the help of dc polarization techniques. The rate of coating degradation was also determined by employing ac electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coating morphology and surface chemistry were studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for identification of component phases in the coating-substrate system. The results showed that the composite coating provided an adequately improved corrosion protection to the sintered NdFeB magnets in the simulated marine environment compared to the earlier reported ceramic and metallic coatings. The composite coating did not damage the magnetic properties of coating-substrate system that remained at par with the ceramic and nickel coating having copper interlayer. (author)

  5. Effect Of DyMn Alloy-Powder Addition On Microstructure And Magnetic Properties Of NdFeB Sintered Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M.-W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Micostructural change and corresponding effect on coercivity of a NdFeB sintered magnet mixed with small amount of DyMn powder was investigated. In the sintered magnet mixed with the DyMn alloy-powder Dy-rich shell was formed at outer layer of the main grains, while Mn was mostly concentrated at Nd-rich triple junction phase (TJP, lowering melting temperature of the Nd-rich phase that eventually improved the microstructural characteristics of the gain boundary phase. The coercivity of a magnet increased more than 3.5 kOe by the mixing of the DyMn alloy-powder.

  6. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Xiao, Q.F.; Mei, D.D.; Zhong, Z.C.; Tong, Y.X.; Zheng, Y.F.; Li, L.

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the “coral reef” like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 µm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO 2 and a few amorphous Fe 2 O 3 and Nd 2 O 3 . The amorphous SiO 2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees. - Highlights: • Amorphous SiO 2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation. • The coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance. • The corrosion resistance could be enhanced by one order of magnitude. • The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples.

  7. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.L., E-mail: jlxu@nchu.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Xiao, Q.F.; Mei, D.D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong2014@sina.com [The Institute for Rare Earth Magnetic Materials and Devices, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Tong, Y.X. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, L. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the “coral reef” like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 µm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO{sub 2} and a few amorphous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees. - Highlights: • Amorphous SiO{sub 2} coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation. • The coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance. • The corrosion resistance could be enhanced by one order of magnitude. • The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples.

  8. Effect of microstructure changes on magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered Nd-Fe-B powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the SPS method was applied for low RE content (8,5% at. and high RE content (13,5 % at. MQ powders. The powders were sintered in a wide range of temperature, for 5 min., under pressure of 35 MPa. The low RE content grade, densified reluctantly and gained the density close to the theoretical value only for 850 °C. The coercivity decreased gradually with increasing sintering temperature. On the other hand, the densification of the higher RE content grade powder occurred much easier and the coercivity, close to the theoretical value, was achieved already at 650 °C. The coercivity of this material also decreased with increasing sintering temperature. Microstructural studies revealed that the SPS sintering process leads to partial decomposition of the Nd2Fe14B phase. The proportion of the RE-rich and iron phases increases parallel to the increasing sintering temperature. On the basis of the current results one can conclude that fabrication of high density MQ powders based magnets by the SPS method is possible, however the powders having higher RE content should be used for this purpose and the sintering temperature as low as possible, related to density, should be kept.

  9. Progress of sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by the diffusion of non-rare earth elements and their alloy compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Meng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the coercivity (HC and corrosivity of sintered NdFeB magnets are closely related to the components and microstructure of their intergranular phase.The traditional smelting NdFeB magnets with adding heavy rare earth elements can modify intergranular phase to improve the HC and corrosion resistance of magnets.However,it makes the additives be homogenously distributed on the main phase,and causes magnetic decrease and cost increase.With the addition of non-rare earth materials into grain boundary,the microstructure of intergranular phase as well as its electrochemical potential and wettability can be optimized.As a result,the amount of heavy rare earth elements and cost of magnets could be reduced whilst the HC and corrosion resistance of magnets can be improved.This paper summarized the research on regulating the components and the microstructure of intergranular phase in sintered NdFeB magnets by non-rare earth metals and compounds,and its influence on coercivity and corrosion resistance.

  10. Study of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet with high performance of Hcj (kOe + (BHmax (MGOe > 75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ping Hu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet of extremely high performance. The intrinsic coercivity Hcj is as high as 35.2 kOe (2803kA/m together with the maximum energy product (BHmax of 40.4 MGOe (321.6kJ/m3. These values result in Hcj (kOe + (BHmax (MGOe > 75. Between 293 K (20ºC and 473 K (200ºC, the temperature coefficients of remanence and intrinsic coercivity are αBr = −0.122 %/°C and αHcj = −0.403%/°C, respectively. A maximum operating temperature of 503 K (230ºC is obtained when permeance coefficient Pc = −B/H = 2. Grain boundary diffusion (GBD technique on magnet surface has been developed to increase Hcj by 3.6 kOe without significantly decrease of Br and (BHmax. The intrinsic coercivity of the GBD treated magnet Hcj(C has a linear relationship with that of the untreated magnet Hcj(B between 200 K and 473 K (in unit of kOe: Hcj(C = 1.03Hcj(B + 2.38. The enhancement of Hcj by GBD treatment has contributions not only from the improvement of microstructure but also from the increase of Ha in the grain surface layer. It is also found that GBD treatment brings no deterioration in corrosion resistance of untreated magnet.

  11. Application of spark plasma sintering for fabricating Nd-Fe-B composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Ivashutenko, A. S.; Lomakina, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Constant magnets are applied in such fields as electric equipment and electric generators with fixed rotor. Rare earth metal neodymium is well known as promising material. Production of magnets by sintering three elements (neodymium, iron and boron) is one the most promising methods. But there are difficulties in choosing the right temperature for sintering and further processing. Structure and properties of the product, consisted of rare earth metals, was analyzed. X-ray analysis of the resulting product and the finished constant magnet was performed. Vickers microhardness was obtained.

  12. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.L.; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C.

    2014-01-01

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H 2 SO 4 solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H 2 SO 4 solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates

  13. Effect of titania particles on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy resin coatings on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.L., E-mail: jlxu@nchu.edu.cn; Huang, Z.X.; Luo, J.M.; Zhong, Z.C., E-mail: zzhong.2006@yahoo.com.cn

    2014-04-15

    The nanometer titania particles enhanced epoxy resin composite coatings were prepared on the sintered NdFeB permanent magnets by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. The effects of titania particle concentrations on the microstructure and properties of the epoxy coatings were investigated by surface and cross-sectional morphologies observation, surface roughness and microhardness measurement, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution immersion test, neutral salt spray test and magnetic properties measurement. The results showed that the thickness of epoxy coatings with and without the titania particles addition was about 40 μm. The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy matrix if the titania particles concentration was lower than 40 g/l. With increasing titania particle concentrations, the number of the particles embedded in the epoxy matrix increased and the surface roughness and microhardness of the composite coatings increased. At the same time, the weight loss of the coated samples immersed in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution decreased and the neutral salt spray time of the coated samples prolonged. It could be concluded that the titania particles did not change the thickness of the epoxy coatings and did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates, but could greatly improve the microhardness and corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. - Highlights: • The titania particles enhanced epoxy resin coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB by cathodic electrophoretic deposition. • The titania particles could be uniformly dispersed and embedded in the epoxy resin matrix. • With increasing titania concentrations, the surface roughness and the microhardness of composite coatings increased. • The addition of titania particles greatly improved the corrosion resistance of the epoxy coatings. • The composition coatings did not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB substrates.

  14. Angular dependence of coercivity derived from alignment dependence of coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Matsuura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results of the alignment dependence of the coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets showed that the angle of magnetization reversal for anisotropically aligned magnets was bigger than that obtained from the theoretical results calculated using the postulation that every grain independently reverses its magnetization direction following the 1/cos θ law. The angles of reversed magnetization (θ1 for Nd13.48Co0.55B5.76Febal. with alignment α=0.95 and for Nd12.75Dy0.84B5.81Co0.55Febal. with α=0.96 were 30° and 36°, respectively, which were very similar to that of an ideal magnet with a Gaussian distribution (σ=31° and 44°, respectively of the grain alignment. In this model, we postulated that every grain independently reversed according to the 1/cos θ law. The calculation results for the angular dependence of the coercivity using the values θ1=ω1(0°=30°, σ=31° and θ1=ω1(0°=36°, σ=44° could qualitatively and convincingly explain the observed angular dependence of the coercivity of Nd14.2B6.2Co1.0Febal. and Nd14.2Dy0.3B6.2Co1.0Febal.. It is speculated that the magnetic domain wall is pinned at grains tilted away from the easy magnetization direction, and when the magnetic domain wall de-pins from the tilted grains, the magnetic domain wall jumps through several grains. We suggest that the coercive force of the aligned magnet behaves like a low-aligned magnet owing to the magnetization reversal of the crust of the grains induced by the pinning and subsequent jumping of the magnetic domain wall.

  15. Angular dependence of coercivity derived from alignment dependence of coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Sumitani, Kazushi; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Tamura, Ryuji; Osamura, Kozo

    2018-01-01

    Experimental results of the alignment dependence of the coercivity in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets showed that the angle of magnetization reversal for anisotropically aligned magnets was bigger than that obtained from the theoretical results calculated using the postulation that every grain independently reverses its magnetization direction following the 1/cos θ law. The angles of reversed magnetization (θ1) for Nd13.48Co0.55B5.76Febal. with alignment α=0.95 and for Nd12.75Dy0.84B5.81Co0.55Febal. with α=0.96 were 30° and 36°, respectively, which were very similar to that of an ideal magnet with a Gaussian distribution (σ=31° and 44°, respectively) of the grain alignment. In this model, we postulated that every grain independently reversed according to the 1/cos θ law. The calculation results for the angular dependence of the coercivity using the values θ1=ω1(0°)=30°, σ=31° and θ1=ω1(0°)=36°, σ=44° could qualitatively and convincingly explain the observed angular dependence of the coercivity of Nd14.2B6.2Co1.0Febal. and Nd14.2Dy0.3B6.2Co1.0Febal.. It is speculated that the magnetic domain wall is pinned at grains tilted away from the easy magnetization direction, and when the magnetic domain wall de-pins from the tilted grains, the magnetic domain wall jumps through several grains. We suggest that the coercive force of the aligned magnet behaves like a low-aligned magnet owing to the magnetization reversal of the crust of the grains induced by the pinning and subsequent jumping of the magnetic domain wall.

  16. Laboratory scale fabrication of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets; Fabricacao de imas sinterizados de Nd-Fe-B em escala piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Daniel; Beneduce Neto, Flavio; Landgraf, Fernando Jose Gomes; Neiva, Augusto Camara; Romero, Sergio; Missell, Frank Patrick

    1993-12-31

    Results are presented on magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B sauntered magnets produced from 1 kg of alloy caste in vacuum induction furnace. The fabrication viability of these magnets, with properties similar to the commercial magnets, and the influence of particle size in the energy product, through the effect on the H{sub k} field, is confirmed 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Microstructure and property evolution of isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets fabricated from nanocrystalline ribbons by spark plasma sintering and hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z W; Huang, H Y; Yu, H Y; Zhong, X C; Zeng, D C [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gao, X X; Zhu, J, E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-01-19

    Isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS+HD (hot deformation), respectively, using melt-spun ribbons as the starting materials. Spark plasma sintered magnets sintered at low temperatures (<700 {sup 0}C) almost maintained the uniform fine grain structure inherited from rapid quenching. At higher temperatures, due to the local high-temperature field caused by the spark plasma discharge, the grain growth occurred at the initial particle surfaces and the coarse grain zones formed in the vicinity of the particle boundaries. Since the interior of the particles maintained the fine grain structure, a distinct two-zone structure was formed in the spark plasma sintered magnets. The SPS temperature and pressure have important effects on the widths of coarse and fine grain zones, as well as the grain sizes in two zones. The changes in grain structure led to variations in the magnetic properties. By employing low SPS temperature and high pressure, high-density magnets with negligible coarse grain zone and an excellent combination of magnetic properties can be obtained. An anisotropic magnet with a maximum energy product of {approx}30 MG Oe was produced by the SPS+HD process. HD at 750 {sup 0}C did not lead to obvious grain growth and the two-zone structure still existed in the hot deformed magnets. Intergranular exchange coupling was demonstrated in the spark plasma sintered magnets and was enhanced by the HD process, which reduced the coercivity. Good temperature stability was manifested by low temperature coefficients of remanence and coercivity. The results indicated that nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets without significant grain growth and with excellent properties could be obtained by SPS and HD processes.

  18. Preparation and characterization of amorphous SiO2 coatings deposited by mirco-arc oxidation on sintered NdFeB permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. L.; Xiao, Q. F.; Mei, D. D.; Zhong, Z. C.; Tong, Y. X.; Zheng, Y. F.; Li, L.

    2017-03-01

    Amorphous SiO2 coatings were prepared on sintered NdFeB magnets by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in silicate solution. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, element and phase composition, corrosion resistance and magnetic properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and physical properties measurements system (PPMS). The results showed that the surface morphologies of the coatings exhibited the "coral reef" like structure, different from the typical MAO porous structure. With increasing the voltages, the thickness of the coatings increased from 12.72 to 19.90 μm, the content of Si element increased, while the contents of Fe, Nd and P elements decreased. The coatings were mainly composed of amorphous SiO2 and a few amorphous Fe2O3 and Nd2O3. The amorphous SiO2 coatings presented excellent thermal shock resistance, while the thermal shock resistance decreased with increasing the voltages. The corrosion resistance of the coatings increased with increasing the voltages, and it could be enhanced by one order of magnitude compared to the uncoated NdFeB magnets. The MAO coatings slightly decreased the magnetic properties of the NdFeB samples in different degrees.

  19. Improved HDDR processing route for production of anisotropic powder from sintered NdFeB type magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, R.S.; Williams, A.J.; Harris, I.R.; Walton, A., E-mail: a.walton@bham.ac.uk

    2014-01-15

    The hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) process has been investigated as a possible means of producing bonded magnets from used NdFeB-type sintered magnets with compositions, Nd{sub 13.4}Dy{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.7}Nb{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 78.5}B{sub 6.3} and Nd{sub 12.5}Dy{sub 1.8}Al{sub 0.9}Nb{sub 0.6}Co{sub 5.0}Fe{sub 72.8}B{sub 6.4} (atomic%). It has been shown that by increasing the processing temperature, an increase in the equilibrium pressure for disproportionation and in the overall reaction time was observed. The magnetic properties of the lower Dy content magnet were affected significantly by the change in processing temperature with a peak in properties observed at 880 °C producing magnetic powder with a remanence of 1.08 (±0.02) T, a coercivity of 840 (±17) kA m{sup −1}, and a maximum energy product of 175 (±2.5) kJ m{sup −3}. Further work on magnets with a significantly higher Dy content has shown that simultaneous processing of sintered magnets with varying compositions can be achieved by increasing the hydrogen pressure, however a range of magnetic properties are produced depending on the initial compositions of the samples in the input feed. - Highlights: • Reduced oxidation during the HDDR processing in this work compared to the previous paper resulted in a powder with a higher coercivity. • Increasing the hydrogen pressure for disproportionation allowed for Dy, Co rich NdFeB compositions to be processed. • Mixed compositions (which will be typical from “real scrap”) can be processed simultaneously in the same equipment. • Mixed feeds produced lower magnetic properties due to overprocessing of the low Dy content compositions.

  20. Normal and abnormal grain growth in fine-grained Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets prepared from He jet milled powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, F., E-mail: f.bittner@ifw-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Woodcock, T.G. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Schultz, L. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, PO Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Schwöbel, C. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Materialwissenschaft, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Gutfleisch, O. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Materialwissenschaft, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fraunhofer ISC, Projektgruppe für Werkstoffkreisläufe und Ressourcenstrategie IWKS, Rodenbacher Chaussee 4, 63457 Hanau (Germany); Zickler, G.A.; Fidler, J. [Technische Universität Wien, Institute of Solid State Physics, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Üstüner, K.; Katter, M. [Vacuumschmelze GmbH & Co. KG, 63412 Hanau (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Fine-grained, heavy rare earth free Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets were prepared from He jet milled powders with an average particle size of 1.5 µm by low temperature sintering at 920 °C or 980 °C. A coercivity of >1600 kA/m was achieved for an average grain size of 1.68 µm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the distribution and composition of intergranular and grain boundary junction phases was similar to that in conventionally processed magnets. Microstructural analysis on different length scales revealed the occurrence of abnormal grain growth, which is unexpected for sintering temperatures below 1000 °C. A larger area fraction of abnormal grains was observed in the sample sintered at 920 °C compared to that sintered at 980 °C. Microtexture investigation showed a better crystallographic alignment of the abnormal grains compared to the fine-grained matrix, which is explained by a size dependent alignment of the powder particles during magnetic field alignment prior to sintering. Slightly larger particles in the initial powder show a better alignment and will act as nucleation sites for abnormal grain growth. Magneto-optical Kerr investigations confirmed the lower switching field of the abnormal grains compared to the fine-grained matrix. The demagnetisation curve of the sample sintered at 920 °C showed reduced rectangularity and this was attributed to a cooperative effect of the larger fraction of abnormal grains with low switching field and, as a minor effect, a reduced degree of crystallographic texture in this sample compared to the material sintered at 980 °C, which did not show the reduced rectangularity of the demagnetisation curve. - Highlights: • He Jet milling to reduce Nd-Fe-B grain size and to enhance coercivity. • Normal and abnormal grain growth observed for low temperature sintering. • Well oriented abnormal grown grains explained by size dependent field alignment. • Poor rectangularity is caused by low nucleation field of

  1. Normal and abnormal grain growth in fine-grained Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets prepared from He jet milled powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, F.; Woodcock, T.G.; Schultz, L.; Schwöbel, C.; Gutfleisch, O.; Zickler, G.A.; Fidler, J.; Üstüner, K.; Katter, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fine-grained, heavy rare earth free Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets were prepared from He jet milled powders with an average particle size of 1.5 µm by low temperature sintering at 920 °C or 980 °C. A coercivity of >1600 kA/m was achieved for an average grain size of 1.68 µm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the distribution and composition of intergranular and grain boundary junction phases was similar to that in conventionally processed magnets. Microstructural analysis on different length scales revealed the occurrence of abnormal grain growth, which is unexpected for sintering temperatures below 1000 °C. A larger area fraction of abnormal grains was observed in the sample sintered at 920 °C compared to that sintered at 980 °C. Microtexture investigation showed a better crystallographic alignment of the abnormal grains compared to the fine-grained matrix, which is explained by a size dependent alignment of the powder particles during magnetic field alignment prior to sintering. Slightly larger particles in the initial powder show a better alignment and will act as nucleation sites for abnormal grain growth. Magneto-optical Kerr investigations confirmed the lower switching field of the abnormal grains compared to the fine-grained matrix. The demagnetisation curve of the sample sintered at 920 °C showed reduced rectangularity and this was attributed to a cooperative effect of the larger fraction of abnormal grains with low switching field and, as a minor effect, a reduced degree of crystallographic texture in this sample compared to the material sintered at 980 °C, which did not show the reduced rectangularity of the demagnetisation curve. - Highlights: • He Jet milling to reduce Nd-Fe-B grain size and to enhance coercivity. • Normal and abnormal grain growth observed for low temperature sintering. • Well oriented abnormal grown grains explained by size dependent field alignment. • Poor rectangularity is caused by low nucleation field of

  2. Improvement of the magnetic property, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Beibei; Li, Xiangbin; Liang, Xiaolin [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yan, Gaolin, E-mail: gaolinyan@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Chen, Kan; Yan, Aru [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-05-01

    To improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets simultaneously, the Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} (at%) powders with low melting point were introduced into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. Additionally, the magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of the sintered magnets with different amounts of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}, the coercivity was significantly increased from 12.72 to 21.75 kOe. As indicated by the microstructure analysis, a well-developed core-shell structure was formed in the magnets with the addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}. The improvement of magnetic properties could be attributed to the refined and uniform matrix phase, continuous grain boundaries and a (Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hardening shell surrounding the matrix phase grains. With the addition of 0–4 wt% Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powder, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the magnets could be improved from −0.117 to −0.108%/°C and −0.74 to −0.66%/°C in the range of 20–100 °C, respectively. Additionally, the irreversible loss of magnetic flux (hirr) decreased sharply as Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powder was added. The results of temperature-dependent magnetic properties suggest that, the thermal stability of the magnets was effectively improved with the intergranular addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy. Also, the corrosion resistance was found to be improved through small addition of Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} powders This was partly due to the stability enhancement of the (Pr, Nd)-rich intergranular phase by Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20}. - Highlights: • We successfully introduced the Dy{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. • The magnetic properties and thermal stability of the Nd-Fe-B magnets were improved. • The corrosion resistance of the Nd-Fe-B magnets were improved.

  3. Effect of grain alignment distribution on magnetic properties in (MM, Nd)-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoqiang; Yue, Ming; Zhu, Minggang; Liu, Weiqiang; Li, Yuqing; Xi, Longlong; Li, Jiajie; Zhang, Jiuxing; Li, Wei

    2018-03-01

    H cj of (MM x Nd1-x )-Fe-B sintered magnets decreases distinctly with x increasing when misch metal (MM) content (x) ranges from 0.3 to 1. Practical application is taken into consideration so that the (MM0.6Nd0.4)-Fe-B components are chosen to analyze the changes in behavior of the magnetic properties. Both Magnet II and Magnet III belong to (MM0.6Nd0.4)-Fe-B sintered magnets, however, it should be noted that Magnet II is prepared by the single alloying method (SAM) and Magnet III is prepared by the double main phase alloy method (DMPAM). Core-shell structures of the magnets prepared by DMPAM can result in the higher H cj and lower knee-point coercivity (H k) compared with that by SAM. Furthermore, for Magnet II, the abnormal grain growth contributes to a better grain alignment and smaller distribution coefficient (σ) defined as the degree of grain alignment, which will enforce a higher tendency of the H cj decreasing and H k increasing. The expression of their normalized coercivity h(σ) is deduced by combining Gao’s starting field model with Kronmüller’s nucleation mechanism. Based on the overall h(σ) ~ σ curve, the best desirable h(σ) value is calculated when σ  =  0.09. Theoretically, for Magnet III, the resultant larger σ should be attributed to the more uniform grain alignment. In addition, the deviations of grain size distributions on the c-plane become more remarkable with more MM concentrates, which can be presented by SEM images. Meanwhile, by means of the pole figures, it is also verified that the grain alignment distribution becomes much more diverse with x increasing. Therefore, it can be predicted whether the grain alignment distribution is significant for H k and H cj of (MM x Nd1-x )-Fe-B sintered magnets (x  ≠  0.6) prepared by SAM/DMPAM or not.

  4. Effect of low-melting point phases on the microstructure and properties of spark plasma sintered and hot deformed Nd-Fe-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Xueliang; Lin, Ye; Shield, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    The effect of adding a low melting point Pr-Cu-Al alloy during spark plasma sintering of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B ribbons is investigated. Regions of coarse grains were reduced and overall grain refinement was observed after the addition of Pr68Cu25Al7, leading to an enhancement of coercivity from 12.7 kOe to 20.4 kOe. Hot deformation of the samples in the spark plasma sintering system resulted in the formation of platelet-like grains, producing crystallographic alignment and magnetic anisotropy. The hot deformation process improved the remanence and energy product but reduced the coercivity. The decrease of coercivity resulted from grain growth and aggregation of Pr and Nd elements at triple-junction phases.

  5. Effect of Partial Substitution of Neodymium with Praseodymium on the Magnetic and Process Properties of Sintered Magnets of Type NdFeB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormidontov, N. A.; Dormidontov, A. G.; Lileev, A. S.; Kamynin, A. V.; Lukin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of substitution of neodymium with praseodymium in sintered magnets of type NdFeB on their magnetic and process properties in the concentration range of [Pr] = 0 - 13 wt.% is studied. The special features of milling of the alloys, sintering processes and heat treatments in the production of magnets containing praseodymium are discussed. Hysteresis characteristics of B r ≥ 1.2 T, H cJ ≥ 1200 kA/m, H cb ≥ 880 kA/m, H k ≥ 960 kA/m, and BH max ≥ 280 kJ/m3 are obtained for magnets with composition (in wt.%) 33 Nd, 10 Pr, 1.5 (Ti + Al + Cu), 1.3 B, the remainder Fe.

  6. 烧结钕铁硼添加合金元素的研究进展%Progress of Sintered NdFeB Magnets with Addition Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 周磊; 程星华; 张昕; 喻晓军; 李波

    2011-01-01

    磁性能优越的烧结钕铁硼永磁材料已成为永磁产业的支柱.过去的二十多年里钕铁硼已经在硬盘驱动器的VCM、电动机、信号发生器、手机和MRI等多种器件中得到广泛应用.在未来,由于汽车和电子应用领域对节能电动机的需求,使得电动机市场有望进一步扩展.因此,研究团队致力于钕铁硼磁性能的提高,从而推进电动机市场的快速发展.本文对近些年来通过添加合金元素来改善钕铁硼磁性能的一些研究成果进行了综述,最后,对添加合金元素改善钕铁硼磁体性能进行了总结.%Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance, were the key materials in permanent magnet industry. In the past two decades, Nd-Fe-B magnets have a wide application, such as, VCM [voice core motor] in hard disc drive, motors, generators, mobile phone, MRI, etc. Motor market is expected to expand in future because of strong energy saving requirements from the automobile and electric appliances markets. Therefore, many groups have spent much effort to improve magnetic property of Nd-Fe-B magnets, which are helping for the rapid growth of the motor market. The research results of the effect of addition alloy elements on the magnetic properties and microstructural features of sintered NdFeB have been introduced in this paper. Finally, an overview how to improve the performance with addition element was outlined.

  7. Highly coercive thin-film nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sorge, K.D.; Sui, Y.; Daniil, M.; Gao, L.; Yan, M.L.; Liou, S.-H.; Kirby, R.D.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The processing, structure, and magnetism of highly coercive Sm-Co and FePt thin-film nanostructures are investigated. The structures include 1:5 based Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets, particulate FePt:C thin films, and FePt nanotubes. As in other systems, the coercivity depends on texture and imperfections, but there are some additional features. A specific coercivity mechanism in particulate media is a discrete pinning mode intermediate between Stoner-Wohlfarth rotation and ordinary domain-wall pinning. This mechanism yields a coercivity maximum for intermediate intergranular exchange and explains the occurrence of coercivities of 5 T in particulate Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets

  8. Corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of pulse electrodeposited Ni-TiO{sub 2} composite coating for sintered NdFeB magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qing, E-mail: liqingd@swu.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Yang Xiaokui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Liang; Wang Juping; Chen Bo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2009-08-12

    Ni-TiO{sub 2} composite coating which was prepared under pulse current conditions was successfully performed on sintered NdFeB magnet. As a comparison, pure nickel coating was also prepared. The phase structure, the surface morphology, the chemical composition, the anti-corrosion performance of the coatings for magnets, the microhardness and the wearing resistance performance of the coatings were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical technique, Vickers hardness tester and ball-on-disc tribometer, respectively. The results revealed that Ni-TiO{sub 2} composite coating provided excellent anti-corrosion performance for the magnets, and showed higher microhardness and better anti-wear performance.

  9. Corrosion behaviour of sintered NdFeB coated with Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayers by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Shoudong; Yang Hengxiu; Huang Feng; Xie Tingting [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China); Song Zhenlun, E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayers were deposited on sintered NdFeB magnets to improve the corrosion resistance. The amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were used to periodically interrupt the columnar growth of the Al layers. The structure of the multilayers was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that the columnar structure was effectively inhibited in the multilayers. Subsequent corrosion testing by potentiodynamic polarization in 3.5 wt.% NaCl and neutral salt spray test (NSS) revealed that the Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multilayers had much better corrosion resistance than the Al single layer. Furthermore, for multilayers with similar thickness, the corrosion resistance was improved as the period decreased.

  10. Magnetism in grain-boundary phase of a NdFeB sintered magnet studied by spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohashi, Teruo, E-mail: teruo.kohashi.fc@hitachi.com; Motai, Kumi [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Nishiuchi, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Satoshi [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan)

    2014-06-09

    The magnetism in the grain-boundary phase of a NdFeB sintered magnet was measured by spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM). A sample magnet was fractured in the ultra-high-vacuum chamber to avoid oxidation, and its magnetizations in the exposed grain-boundary phase on the fracture surface were evaluated through the spin polarization of secondary electrons. Spin-SEM images were taken as the fracture surface was milled gradually by argon ions, and the magnetization in the grain-boundary phase was quantitatively obtained separately from that of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase. The obtained magnetization shows that the grain-boundary phase of this magnet has substantial magnetization, which was confirmed to be ferromagnetic.

  11. The effect of CuAl addition on the magnetic property, thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the sintered NdFeB magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Liang, J.; He, Y. Ch.; Li, Y. F.; Wang, G. F.; Ma, Q.; Liu, F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X. F.

    2018-05-01

    To improve the coercivity of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets, the Cu29.8Al70.2 (at.%) powders with low melting point were introduced into the Nd-Fe-B magnets. The magnetic properties, microstructure, thermal stability and corrosion behavior of the sintered magnets with different amount of Cu29.8Al70.2 (0,0.25,0.50,0.75,1.0 wt.%) were investigated. When the amount of doped Cu29.8Al70.2 was less than 0.75 wt.%, the coercivity was improved, especially that of the magnets with 0.25 wt.% Cu29.8Al70.2, markedly increased to 13.97 kOe from 12.67 kOe (without CuAl). The improvement of magnetic properties could be attributed to enhanced wettability between Nd2Fe14B phase and Nd-rich phase and decreased exchange coupling between grains, which depended on the optimization of grain boundary microstructure and their distribution by codoping Cu and Al. With the addition of 0-1.0 wt.% Cu29.8Al70.2 powders, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence and coercivity of the magnets could be also improved. The corrosion resistances was also found to be improved through small addition of Cu29.8Al70.2 powder in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical and immersion tests, which could be due to the enhancement of the Nd-rich intergranular phase by addition Cu29.8Al70.2.

  12. The corrosion mechanism of the sintered (Ce, Nd)-Fe-B magnets prepared by double main phase and single main phase approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoning; Zhu, Minggang; Zhou, Dong; Song, Liwei; Guo, Zhaohui; Li, Jia; Li, Wei

    2018-05-01

    The sintered (Ce, Nd)-Fe-B magnets were produced widely by Double Main Phase (DMP) method in China as the magnetic properties of the DMP magnets are superior to those of single main phase (SMP) magnets with the same nominal composition. In this work, the microstructure and corrosion mechanism of the sintered (Ce0.2Nd0.8)30FebalB (wt.%) magnets prepared by DMP and SMP method were studied in detail. Compared to SMP magnets, the DMP magnets have more positive corrosion potential, lower corrosion current density, larger electron transfer resistance, and lower mass loss of the free corrosion experiment in 0.5mol/l Na2SO4 aqueous solution. All of the results show that the DMP magnets have better corrosion resistance than SMP magnets. The back scattered electron images show that the crystalline grains of the DMP magnets are sphericity with a smooth surface while the SMP ones have plenty of edges and corners. Besides, the distribution of Ce/Nd is much more uneven in both magnetic phase and rare earth (Re)-rich phase of the DMP magnets than those of SMP magnets. After corrosion, DMP magnets show eroded magnetic phase and intact Re-rich phase, which indicate that galvanic corrosion of the Re-rich phase acting as the cathode appears.

  13. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of NdFeB Sintered Magnets Diffusion-Treated with Cu/Al Mixed Dyco Alloy-Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M.-W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the microstructural and magnetic property changes of DyCo, Cu + DyCo, and Al + DyCo diffusion-treated NdFeB sintered magnets. The coercivity of all diffusion treated magnet was increased at 880ºC of 1st post annealing(PA, by 6.1 kOe in Cu and 7.0 kOe in Al mixed DyCo coated magnets, whereas this increment was found to be relatively low (3.9 kOe in the magnet coated with DyCo only. The diffusivity and diffusion depth of Dy were increased in those magnets which were treated with Cu or Al mixed DyCo, mainly due to comparatively easy diffusion path provided by Cu and Al because of their solubility with Ndrich grain boundary phase. The formation of Cu/Al-rich grain boundary phase might have enhanced the diffusivity of Dy-atoms. Moreover, relatively a large number of Dy atoms reached into the magnet and mostly segregated at the interface of Nd2Fe14B and grain boundary phases covering Nd2Fe14B grains so that the core-shell type structures were developed. The formation of highly anisotropic (Nd, Dy2Fe14B phase layer, which acted as the shell in the core-shell type structure so as to prevent the reverse domain movement, was the cause of enhancing the coercivity of diffusion treated NdFeB magnets. Segregation of cobalt in Nd-rich TJP followed by the formation of Co-rich phase was beneficial for the coercivity enhancement, resulting in the stabilization of the metastable c-Nd2O3 phase.

  14. Changes of microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by doping Al-Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Junjie; Ma Tianyu; Yan Mi

    2011-01-01

    The microstructural and magnetic properties of Al 100-x Cu x (15at%≤x≤45 at%) doped Nd-Fe-B magnets were studied. The distribution and alloying effects of Cu or Al on the intergranular microstructure were investigated by thermodynamic analysis, differential scanning calorimetery and microscopy techniques. It was observed that when the Cu content of Al 100x Cu x exceeds to 25 at%, the (Pr, Nd)Cu and CuAl 2 phases form in these magnets. The formation of (Pr, Nd)Cu phase depends on the negative formation enthalpy of (Pr, Nd)Cu and the exclusive distribution of Cu in the intergranular regions. The eutectic reaction between (Pr, Nd)Cu phase and (Pr, Nd) occurs at 480 deg. C, which forms the liquid phase that dissolves the (Pr, Nd) 2 Fe 14 B surface irregularities and thus increases the quantities of (Pr, Nd)-rich phase at the grain boundaries. These changes benefit the grain boundary microstructure, especially the distribution of (Pr, Nd)-rich phase, which effectively improves the intrinsic coercivity i H c due to the decreases of exchange coupling between the (Pr, Nd) 2 Fe 14 B grains. - Highlights: → Cu/Al effects on Nd-Fe-B structure depend on their distribution/alloying behaviors. → Cu exclusively distributes in grain boundaries different from Al and has negative mixing heat with Nd. → (Pr,Nd)Cu phase besides CuAl 2 forms in grain boundaries with Cu content increase. → (Pr,Nd)Cu phases optimize microstructure and increase magnetic properties.

  15. Large-scale micromagnetic simulation of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets with Dy-rich shell structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oikawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale micromagnetic simulations have been performed using the energy minimization method on a model with structural features similar to those of Dy grain boundary diffusion (GBD-processed sintered magnets. Coercivity increases as a linear function of the anisotropy field of the Dy-rich shell, which is independent of Dy composition in the core as long as the shell thickness is greater than about 15 nm. This result shows that the Dy contained in the initial sintered magnets prior to the GBD process is not essential for enhancing coercivity. Magnetization reversal patterns indicate that coercivity is strongly influenced by domain wall pinning at the grain boundary. This observation is found to be consistent with the one-dimensional pinning theory.

  16. Boundary structure modification and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by co-doping with Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}/S powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fang [Institute for Advanced Materials& Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo, Leichen [School of Engineering Technology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Li, Ping [Institute for Advanced Materials& Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Xuzhe [School of Engineering Technology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Sui, Yanli [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Guo, Zhimeng, E-mail: guozhimengustb@163.com [Institute for Advanced Materials& Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Gao, Xuexu [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}/S co-doping on the magnetic properties and microstructure was studied in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets. With S co-doping, the coercivity increased due to grain boundary modification and Dy selective introduction. Continuous grain boundary phases were formed in the co-doped magnets with smaller grain size. The average grain size after a doping of 0.2 wt% S is 7.25 µm, which is approximately 2.37 µm smaller than that of the S-free sintered magnets(9.62 µm). The coercivity of the Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}/0.2 wt% S co-doped magnets could be increased from 20.9 to 22.8 kOe with changing the remanence and the maximum magnetic energy product slightly. S precipitates in the Nd-rich phases were hexagonal Nd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S phase. Dy avoided the Nd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S phase in the triple junction region, resulting in more available Dy atoms diffusing into the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase grains to enhance the anisotropy field. Dy-saving was achieved by forming Nd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S phase in the Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}/S co-doped magnets. - Highlights: • The average grain size of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}/S co-doped magnets is 2.37 μm smaller than that of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped magnets. • The Dy atoms avoid the Nd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S phases and more of them become available to diffuse into the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phases. • The coercivity reaches maximum when S content is 0.2 wt%, 9% higher than the 20.9 kOe coercivity of the S-free magnets.

  17. Hot deformed anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB based magnets prepared from spark plasma sintered melt spun powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y.H.; Huang, Y.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Z.W., E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • Microstructure evolution and its influence on the magnetic properties were investigated. • The increase of stray field and weakening of domain-wall pinning effects were the main reasons of the decrease of the coercivity with increasing the compression ratio. • The influences of non-uniform plastic deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. • Magnetic properties and temperature coefficient of coercivity are indeed very promising without heavy rare earth elements. -- Abstract: Anisotropic magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot deformation (HD) using melt-spun powders as the starting material. Good magnetic properties with the remanence J{sub r} > 1.32 T and maximum of energy product (BH){sub max} > 303 kJ/m{sup 3} have been obtained. The microstructure evolution during HD and its influence on the magnetic properties were investigated. The fine grain zone and coarse grain zone formed in the SPS showed different deformation behaviors. The microstructure also had an important effect on the temperature coefficients of coercivity. A strong domain-wall pinning model was valid to interpret the coercivity mechanism of the HDed magnets. The increase of stray field and weakening of domain-wall pinning effects were the main reasons of the decrease of the coercivity with increasing the compression ratio. The influences of non-uniform plastic deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. The polarization characteristics of HDed magnets were demonstrated. It was found out that the HDed magnets had better corrosion resistance than the counterpart sintered magnet.

  18. High-coercive garnet films for thermo-magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzhansky, V N; Danishevskaya, Y V; Nedviga, A S; Milyukova, H T

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using high-coercive of garnet films for thermo-magnetic recording is related with the presence of the metastable domain structure, which arises due to a significant mismatch of the lattice parameters of the film and the substrate. In the work the connection between facet crystal structure of elastically strained ferrite garnets films and the domain structure in them is established by methods of phase contrast and polarization microscopy. (paper)

  19. (SiC/AlN)2 multilayer film as an effective protective coating for sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu; Li, Heqin; Huang, Yiqin; Tang, Qiong; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2017-08-01

    SiC/AlN and (SiC/AlN)2 multilayer films with a well-arranged bilayer structure and a four-layer structure are prepared respectively on NdFeB substrates by a magnetron sputtering method. Crystal phase and microstructures of the SiC/AlN and (SiC/AlN)2 films are investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). It is observed that the surface of the (SiC/AlN)2 four-layer film is much denser and smoother than that of the SiC/AlN bilayer film. Corrosion behaviors of the NdFeB substrates coated with SiC/AlN and (SiC/AlN)2 films as well as the bare NdFeB substrate are evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curve tests. It is revealed that the lateral growth structures developed in interfaces are favorable for an enhanced corrosion resistance. Corrosion current densities of the (SiC/AlN)2 coated NdFeB measured in acid, alkali and salt solutions are 2.796  ×  10-9, 3.65  ×  10-6, and 2.912  ×  10-6 A cm-2, respectively, which are much lower than those of the bare NdFeB and the SiC/AlN coated NdFeB.

  20. Developing high coercivity in large diameter cobalt nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, A. H.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Zavašnik, J.

    2016-11-01

    Regardless of the synthetic method, developing high magnetic coercivity in ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) with large diameters has been a challenge over the past two decades. Here, we report on the synthesis of highly coercive cobalt NW arrays with diameters of 65 and 80 nm, which are embedded in porous anodic alumina templates with high-aspect-ratio pores. Using a modified electrochemical deposition method enabled us to reach room temperature coercivity and remanent ratio up to 3000 Oe and 0.70, respectively, for highly crystalline as-synthesized hcp cobalt NW arrays with a length of 8 μm. The first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis showed the presence of both soft and hard magnetic phases along the length of the resulting NWs. To develop higher coercive fields, the length of the NWs was then gradually reduced in order from bottom to top, thereby reaching NW sections governed by the hard phase. Consequently, this resulted in record high coercivities of 4200 and 3850 Oe at NW diameters of 65 and 80 nm, respectively. In this case, the FORC diagrams confirmed a significant reduction in interactions between the magnetic phases of the remaining sections of NWs. At this stage, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and dark-field transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated the formation of highly crystalline bamboo-like sections along the [0 0 2] direction during a progressive pulse-controlled electrochemical growth of NW arrays under optimized parameters. Our results both provide new insights into the growth process, crystalline characteristics and magnetic phases along the length of large diameter NW arrays and, furthermore, develop the performance of pure 3d transition magnetic NWs.

  1. Progress in sintered NdFeB magnets with Dy/Tb grain boundary diffusion%晶界扩散Dy/Tb烧结NdFeB研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 周磊; 张昕; 程星华; 林德; 喻晓军; 李波

    2011-01-01

    由于汽车和电子应用领域对节能电动机的需求,在VCM、电动机、信号发生器、手机和MRI等领域中得到广泛应用的烧结钕铁硼在电动机市场应用会进一步扩展.剩磁和矫顽力等磁性能的提高有利于烧结磁体在电动机市场快速增长.通常,烧结磁体一些性能的改善总是以牺牲其他性能为代价.而晶界扩散Dy/Tb烧结磁体与传统的同类磁体相比较,其矫顽力和剩磁可同时得以改善,本文对晶界扩散Dy/Tb钕铁硼的一些研究成果进行了综述和总结.晶界扩散Dy/Tb过程中烧结磁体晶界的成份和微观组织的变化对烧结磁体磁性能改善至为重要.%Many new applications of Nd-Fe-B magnets, such as voice coil motor (VCM) in hard disc drive, motors, generators, mobile phone, MRI, etc, are expected to expand in future because of strong energy saving requirements from the automobile and electric appliances markets. Magnetic property improvement in residual (Br) and coercive force (Hcj) helps the rapid growth of the motor market. In many instances, an improvement of some characteristics of sintered magnet is achieved but only at the expense of other characteristics. It has been found that Dy/Tb grain boundary diffusion processed Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets have improvement in both the highest remanence and cocercivity among conventional rare-earth permanent mgnets, which have been introduced in this paper. The influence of Dy/Tb grain boundary diffusion on composition and microstructure of grain boundaries phase is a key point for magnetic property improvement of sintered magnet.

  2. Coercivity enhancement of NdFeB sintered magnets by low melting point Dy{sub 32.5}Fe{sub 62}Cu{sub 5.5} alloy modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Liping; Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Pei; Jin, Jiaying; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2014-04-15

    To improve coercivity without sacrificing other magnetic performance of NdFeB sintered magnets, a low melting point Dy{sub 32.5}Fe{sub 62}Cu{sub 5.5} alloy was introduced as an intergranular additive. Magnetic properties and microstructure of the magnets with different Dy{sub 32.5}Fe{sub 62}Cu{sub 5.5} contents were studied. At the optimum addition of 3 wt%, coercivity H{sub cj} was enhanced from 12.7 to 15.2 kOe, the maximum magnetic energy product (BH){sub max} was simultaneously increased from 46.6 to 47.8 MG Oe, accompanied by a slight reduction in remanence B{sub r}. Further investigation on microstructure and grain boundary composition indicated that the enhanced H{sub cj} and (BH){sub max} could be attributed to the refined and uniform 2:14:1 phase grains, continuous grain boundaries and a (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hardening shell surrounding the 2:14:1 phase grains. - Highlights: • Low melting-point Dy{sub 32.5}Fe{sub 62}Cu{sub 5.5} alloy was introduced to NdFeB magnets. • The doped magnet exhibits enhanced coercivity and maximum energy product. • (Nd,Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell was expected to form in the surface of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains. • The continuous grain boundary layer formed between neighboring Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains.

  3. Processing and physical metallurgy of NdFeB and other R.E. magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormerod, J.

    1985-01-01

    The background to the developmetn of NdFeB-based permanent magnets is described. The processing of NdFeB permanent magnets is outlined and compared with the production of SmCo-based permanent magnets. Some metallographic observations of sintered NdFeB magnets are presented. Finally, the improvement and future development of NdFeB and related permanent magnet materials are discussed

  4. Relations microstructure - magnetic properties - squareness factor of PrFeB and NdFeB sintered magnets prepared with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perigo, Elio Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In this work, it has firstly been evaluated the preparation of Pr 16 Fe 76 B 8 sintered permanent magnets (% at.) by means of high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill. The influence of both milling speed and time has been verified. The best magnetic properties [J R = (1.02 ± 0.02) T, μ 0J H c = (1.42 ± 0.03) T and (BH) max = (200 ± 4) kJm -3 ] have been found for a permanent magnet prepared with the magnetic alloy milled during 75 minutes using a rotational milling speed of 200 rpm. In order to improve the remanence, the hydrogen decrepitation process time has been reduced from 60 minutes to 2 minutes. In this case, it has been obtained a sintered magnet with J R = (1.14 ± 0.02) T, μ 0J H c = (1.44 ± 0.03) T and (BH) max = (250 ± 5) kJm -3 due to the improvement of crystallographic alignment of the hard magnetic phase. During such investigation, a new methodology to quantify the parameter has been developed. Subsequently, for the first time, a quantitative correlation between the microstructure and the squareness factor in anisotropic sintered RE 16 Fe 76 B 8 (RE = Nd or Pr) magnets has been proposed. The presented expression utilizes the mean size, the mean elongation and the mean roundness of the hard magnetic grains as well as their respective standard deviations. The squareness factor can be improved with a microstructure with rounder grains and with a sharp grain size distribution. The grain size homogeneity is more important to enhance the squareness factor compared to grain shape homogeneity. Furthermore, it has also been verified that the annealing after sintering improves the grain shape homogeneity and the milling enhances the grain size homogeneity. Moreover, the effect of the temperature on the squareness factor of anisotropic sintered magnets has also been evaluated. Such parameter is mainly controlled by the sample's microstructure, in agreement with the proposed expression. Furthermore, a quantitative correlation between the maximum

  5. Development of NdFeB magnet through hydrogen decrepitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, S.; Farooque, M.; Haider, A.; Ahmad, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Neodymium based magnets are the powerful permanent magnet of today. This paper will discuss iron based rare earth magnets. NdFeB sintered magnet material has been developed. The magnets are produced by powder metallurgy route involving hydrogen decrepitation technique for making fine powder. After melting and casting, the NdFeB alloy is subject to hydrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen slowly absorbs into the solid alloy and makes it brittle, which upon milling becomes fine powder. Hydrogen is then removed by placing the powder at temperature around 800 deg. C under vacuum. Then the powders are pressed under isostatic conditions and sintered at temperature range of 1020-1050 deg. C. Post sintering is done at 800 deg. C and 580 deg. C followed by quenching. Energy product in the range of 8 MGOe is achieved. (author)

  6. Metal Injection Molding (MIM) of NdFeB Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig T.; Lopes L.; Wendhausen P.; Ünal N.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increased and unstable prices for Rare Earth elements there are activities to develop alternative hard magnetic materials. Reducing the amount of material necessary to produce complex sintered NdFeB magnets can also help to reduce some of the supply problem. Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is able to produce near net shape parts and can reduce the amount of finishing to achieve final geometry. Although MIM of NdFeB has been patented and published fairly soon after the development of ...

  7. Powder alignment system for anisotropic bonded NdFeB Halbach cylinders \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.Q.; Xia, Z.P.; Atallah, K.; Jewell, G.W.; Howe, D.

    2000-01-01

    A Halbach cylinder, fabricated from pre-magnetized sintered NdFeB magnet segments, is proposed for the powder aligning system during the compression or injection moulding of anisotropic bonded Halbach oriented NdFeB ring magnets. The influence of leading design parameters of the powder aligning system, viz. the number of magnet segments per pole, their axial length and radial thickness, and their clearance from the mould, is investigated by finite element analysis, and validated experimentally

  8. Improved magnetic properties and fracture strength of NdFeB by dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, M. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: mse_yanmi@dial.zju.edu.cn; Yu, L.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu, J.M. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, X.G. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2006-11-15

    Effects of the dehydrogenation of the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powders on the magnetic properties and the fracture strength of sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. It was found that the lattice parameters and the crystal phase of NdFeB changed significantly with the various hydrogen contents of the resultant HD powders due to the different degrees of dehydrogenation. The magnetic properties and fracture strength increased with decreasing hydrogen content, reaching the maximum increases of 200% for both intrinsic coercivity and bending strength, which can be ascribed to the improved microstructure of the sintered NdFeB magnets. The hydrogen remaining in the HD powders diffused out and affected drastically the grain and grain boundaries by the hydrogen out-take channel during the subsequent sintering process.

  9. Improved magnetic properties and fracture strength of NdFeB by dehydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.; Yu, L.Q.; Wu, J.M.; Cui, X.G.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the dehydrogenation of the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powders on the magnetic properties and the fracture strength of sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. It was found that the lattice parameters and the crystal phase of NdFeB changed significantly with the various hydrogen contents of the resultant HD powders due to the different degrees of dehydrogenation. The magnetic properties and fracture strength increased with decreasing hydrogen content, reaching the maximum increases of 200% for both intrinsic coercivity and bending strength, which can be ascribed to the improved microstructure of the sintered NdFeB magnets. The hydrogen remaining in the HD powders diffused out and affected drastically the grain and grain boundaries by the hydrogen out-take channel during the subsequent sintering process

  10. Coercivity enhancement of Dy-free Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets by intergranular adding Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Liping; Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn; Wu, Chen; Zhang, Pei; Liu, Xiaolian; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    High coercivity Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets serving in high-temperature environments always consume expensive and scarce heavy rare-earth Dy, which has simulated considerable interest to reduce Dy usage. In this work, coercivity of Dy-free magnets was investigated through intergranular adding eutectic Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} powders. The coercivity increases gradually up to 4 wt% Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} addition, however the remanence starts to deteriorate drastically as the addition is over 2.5 wt%. Coercivity above 18.0 kOe is obtained at the expense of a slight reduction in remanence through optimizing the addition amount and sintering conditions. The coercivity enhancement is explained through microstructural observations and elemental distribution analysis. (i) (Nd, Ho){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell forms in the outer region of 2:14:1 phase grains, strengthening the local magnetic anisotropy filed, (ii) RE-rich grain boundary phase with low Fe content is thickened, weakening the magnetic coupling between adjacent 2:14:1 phase grains, and (iii) 2:14:1 phase grains are refined upon lowering sintering temperature, reducing the microstructural defects and the stray fields aroused from neighboring grains. - Highlights: • Eutectic Ho{sub 63.4}Fe{sub 36.6} powders were intergranular added to NdFeB sintered magnets. • The doped Dy-free magnet possessed coercivity of 18.0 kOe, remanence of 13.15 kGs. • (Nd, Ho){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shell formed in the surface of the matrix grains, increasing the H{sub A}. • Thick grain boundaries with low Fe content formed, decoupling the matrix grains. • By sintered at lower temperature, the matrix phase grains were refined.

  11. Coercivity enhancement and thermal-stability improvement in the melt-spun NdFeB ribbons by grain boundary diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiajun; Yuan, Chao; Luo, Yang; Yang, Yuanfei; Hu, Bin; Yu, Dunbo; Yan, Wenlong

    2018-01-01

    Rapidly quenched NdFeB ribbons with high coercivity were obtained by Nd70Cu30 diffusion process. Samples with a high coercivity of 22.02 kOe at room temperature were obtained after grain boundary diffusion with 20 wt% Nd70Cu30 alloys. The NdCu diffusion process promoted grain growth in the ribbons, and grain boundary phases were formed with Cu segregation among NdFeB grains. Coercivity above 10 kOe at 150 °C was achieved in the bonded magnets with NdCu content over 10 wt%. The flux loss of bonded magnets was reduced by ∼32% at 120 °C after diffusion treatment with only a small amount (2 wt%) of NdCu.

  12. Comparison of properties of Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Co permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervens, W.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper permanent magnet materials on the basis of RECo and NdFeB are compared in terms of manufacturing processes, magnetic values at ambient and elevated temperatures, maximum operating temperatures and magnetization behaviour. At the present stage of development NdFeB-magnets are superior to the high coercivity RECo-magnets in their B/sub r/ - and (BH)/sub ma//sup -/ values at room temperature but are inferior to them at temperatures higher than 120 0 C

  13. Magnetic properties and microstructure study of high coercivity Au/FePt/Au trilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.K.; Yuan, F.T.; Liao, W.M.; Hsu, C.W.; Horng, Lance

    2006-01-01

    High-coercivity Au(60 nm)/FePt(δ nm)/Au(60 nm) trilayer samples were prepared by sputtering at room temperature, followed by post annealing at different temperatures. For the sample with δ=60 nm, L1 ordering transformation occurs at 500 deg. C. Coercivity (H c ) is increased with the annealing temperature in the studied range 400-800 deg. C. The H c value of the trilayer films is also varied with thickness of FePt intermediate layer (δ), from 27 kOe for δ=60 nm to a maximum value of 33.5 kOe for δ=20 nm. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the diffusion of Au atoms into the FePt L1 lattice is negligible even after a high-temperature (800 deg. C) annealing process. Furthermore, ordering parameter is almost unchanged as δ is reduced from 60 to 15 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) photos indicate that small FePt Ll particles are dispersed amid the large-grained Au. We believe that the high coercivity of the trilayer sample is attributed to the small and uniform grain sizes of the highly ordered FePt particles which have perfect phase separation with Au matrix

  14. Electrodeposition and Properties of Copper Layer on NdFeB Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the impact of the regular Ni/Cu/Ni coating on the magnetic performance of sintered NdFeB device, alkaline system of HEDP complexing agent was applied to directly electro-deposit copper layer on NdFeB matrix, then nickel layer was electrodeposited on the copper layer and Cu/Ni coating was finally obtained to replace the regular Ni/Cu/Ni coating. The influence of concentration of HEDP complexing agent on deposition course was tested by electrochemical testing; morphology of copper layer was characterized by SEM, XRD and TEM; the binding force of copper layer and the thermal reduction of magnetic of NdFeB caused by electrodeposited coating were respectively explored through the thermal cycle test and thermal demagnetization test. The results show that the concentration of HEDP has great impact on the deposition overpotential of copper. In the initial electrodepositing stage, copper particles precipitate at the grain boundaries of NdFeB magnets with a preferred (111 orientation. The copper layer is compact and has enough binding force with the NdFeB matrix to meet the requirements in SJ 1282-1977. Furthermore, the thermal demagnetization loss rate of the sintered NdFeB with the protection of Cu/Ni coating is significantly less than that with the protection of Ni/Cu/Ni coating.

  15. Hydrocyclone Separation of Hydrogen Decrepitated NdFeB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen decrepitation (HD is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaks down into a matrix phase (Nd2Fe14BHx and RE-rich grain boundary phase. The grain boundary phase in the HD powder is <2 μm in size. Recycled NdFeB material has a higher oxygen content compared to the primary source material. This additional oxygen mainly occurs at the Rare Earth (RE rich grain boundary phase (GBP, because rare earth elements oxidise rapidly when exposed to air. This higher oxygen level in the material results in a drop in density, coercivity, and remanence of sintered NdFeB magnets. The particle size of the GBP is too small to separate by sieving or conventional screening technology. In this work, an attempt has been made to separate the GBP from the matrix phase using a hydrocyclone, and to optimise the separation process. HD powder, obtained from hard disk drive (HDD scrap NdFeB sintered magnets, was used as a starting material and passed through a hydrocyclone a total number of six times. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis and sieve analysis of overflows showed the matrix phase had been directed to the underflow while the GBP was directed to the overflow. The optimum separation was achieved with three passes. Underflow and overflow samples were further analysed using an optical microscope and MagScan and matrix phase particles were found to be magnetic.

  16. Application of permanent magnets made from NdFeB powder and from mixtures of powders in DC motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slusarek, B.; Dudzikowski, I.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the influence of magnetic properties of applied permanent magnets on the characteristics of DC motors excited with these magnets. In the factory-produced DC motors, excited with sintered ferrite magnets, authors replaced ferrite magnets with the dielectromagnets from NdFeB powder and from different mixtures of NdFeB and ferrite powders. The paper shows the increase of the power of the resultant DC motors according to the powders' content

  17. High-coercivity FePt nanoparticle assemblies embedded in silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q; Purkayastha, A; Singh, A P; Li, H; Ramanath, G; Li, A; Ramanujan, R V

    2009-01-01

    The ability to process assemblies using thin film techniques in a scalable fashion would be a key to transmuting the assemblies into manufacturable devices. Here, we embed FePt nanoparticle assemblies into a silica thin film by sol-gel processing. Annealing the thin film composite at 650 deg. C transforms the chemically disordered fcc FePt phase into the fct phase, yielding magnetic coercivity values H c >630 mT. The positional order of the particles is retained due to the protection offered by the silica host. Such films with assemblies of high-coercivity magnetic particles are attractive for realizing new types of ultra-high-density data storage devices and magneto-composites.

  18. Metal Injection Molding (MIM of NdFeB Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig T.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increased and unstable prices for Rare Earth elements there are activities to develop alternative hard magnetic materials. Reducing the amount of material necessary to produce complex sintered NdFeB magnets can also help to reduce some of the supply problem. Metal Injection Molding (MIM is able to produce near net shape parts and can reduce the amount of finishing to achieve final geometry. Although MIM of NdFeB has been patented and published fairly soon after the development of the NdFeB magnets there has never been an industrial production. This could be due to the fact that MIM was very young at that time and hardly developed. Thus, the feasibility of the process needs to be revaluated. This paper presents results of our work on determining the process parameters influencing the magnetic properties of the sintered magnets as well as the shrinkage during processing. The role of binder and powder loading on the alignment of the particles as well as on the carbon and oxygen contamination was examined.

  19. Corrosion behaviour of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mummert, K.; El-Aziz, A.M.; Barkleit, G.; Schultz, L.; Rodewald, W.

    2000-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnetic alloys as well as of single phases of these alloys have been investigated in sulphuric acid at room temperature and humid air at 150 C using mass loss and electrochemical techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy were used to study the surface topography. The electrostatic surface potential was examined by scanning probe microscopy using tapping mode. A correlation between the electrostatic surface potential and the corrosion rate of these alloys was found. The higher the value of the electrostatic surface potential of the intergranular phases the higher is the corrosion sensitivity. The strength of the corrosion attack on the phases of sintered permanent magnetic alloys is as follows: Ferromagnetic phase < B-rich phase < Nd-rich phase. The differences in the chemical composition as well as in the preparation of these magnetic alloys have distinct influence on the corrosion resistance of the magnetic Nd-Fe-B alloys. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic viscosity and texture in NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.C.; Missell, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of the magnetic viscosity on texture can be used to study a model recently proposed by Givord and co-workers to describe the angular dependence of the coercive field in NdFeB magnets. We have measured the magnetic viscosity parameter S/sub v/ for samples of Magnequench (MQ) II and III as a function of magnetic field H and temperature T above room temperature. Near room temperature, S/sub v/ for MQ II is smaller than for MQ III, while for temperatures above ∼70 0 C, the opposite behavior is observed. This temperature dependence is discussed and compared with that observed in sintered NdFeB and NdDyFeB magnets

  1. Effects of buffer layer temperature on the magnetic properties of NdFeB thin film magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.B.; Cho, S.H.; Kim, H.T.; Ryu, K.S.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, K.H.; Kapustin, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of the buffer layer temperature (T b ) on the magnetic properties and microstructure of [Mo/NdFeB/Mo]-type thin films have been investigated. The Mo-buffer layer with low T b is composed of fine grains while that with high T b has coarse grains. The subsequent NdFeB layer also grows with fine or coarse grains following the buffer layer structure. The NdFeB layer grown on a low T b buffer shows high coercivity and strong perpendicular anisotropy. The best magnetic properties of i H c =1.01 MA/m (12.7 kOe), B r =1.31 T (13.1 kG) and BH max =329 kJ/m 3 (41.4 MGOe) were obtained from the film with T b =400 deg. C

  2. High coercivity in Fe-Nb-B-Dy bulk nanocrystalline magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziolkowski, Grzegorz; Chrobak, Artur; Klimontko, Joanna [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Chrobak, Dariusz; Rak, Jan [Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pulku Piechoty 1, 41-500, Chorzow (Poland); Zivotsky, Ondrej; Hendrych, Ales [Department of Physics, VSB-TU Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    The paper refers to structural and magnetic properties of the (Fe{sub 80}Nb{sub 6}B{sub 14}){sub 1-x}Dy{sub x} (x = 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, 0.16) bulk nanocrystalline alloys prepared by making use of the vacuum suction casting technique. The samples are in a form of rods with different diameters d = 1.5, 1, and 0.5 mm. The phase structure was investigated by XRD technique and reveals an occurrence of magnetically hard Dy{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B as well as other relatively soft Dy-Fe, Fe-B, and Fe phases dependently on the Dy content. The alloys show hard magnetic properties with high coercive field up to 5.5 T (for x = 0.12 and d = 0.5 mm). The observed magnetic hardening effect with the increase of cooling rate (decrease of sample diameter d) can be attributed to a formation of ultra-hard magnetic objects as well as increasing role of low dimensional microstructure. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Study of high coercive force films made by vacuum deposition of cobalt onto chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randet, Denis

    1969-01-01

    A new method to make high coercive force films, by successive evaporations of chromium and cobalt, was demonstrated in 1966 at the 'Laboratoire d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique'. This work first contains a description of the magnetic properties of these films according to the conditions of preparation. These properties, which are isotropic in the plane of the film, are then related to the crystallographic structure of chromium and cobalt, in particular through electron microscopy. It is concluded that the coercive force is essentially due to the high magneto-crystalline anisotropy of cobalt in its hexagonal phase and depends, altogether with the shape of the hysteresis loop, on the magnetostatic coupling between the grains, which varies according to their dimensions. The chromium underlayer, if its surface is free enough of oxygen contamination, induces the growth of the hexagonal phase and influences the grain size of cobalt by a sort of epitaxy. At last, the behaviour of the Co/Cr films as a magnetic recording material is briefly examined and discussed. (author) [fr

  4. Relations microstructure - magnetic properties - squareness factor of PrFeB and NdFeB sintered magnets prepared with hydrogen; Estudo das correlacoes entre microestrutura, propriedades magneticas e fator de quadratura em imas sinterizados de PrFeB e NdFeB processados com hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perigo, Elio Alberto

    2009-07-01

    In this work, it has firstly been evaluated the preparation of Pr{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} sintered permanent magnets (% at.) by means of high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill. The influence of both milling speed and time has been verified. The best magnetic properties [J{sub R} = (1.02 {+-} 0.02) T, {mu}{sub 0J}H{sub c} = (1.42 {+-} 0.03) T and (BH){sub max} = (200 {+-} 4) kJm{sup -3}] have been found for a permanent magnet prepared with the magnetic alloy milled during 75 minutes using a rotational milling speed of 200 rpm. In order to improve the remanence, the hydrogen decrepitation process time has been reduced from 60 minutes to 2 minutes. In this case, it has been obtained a sintered magnet with J{sub R} = (1.14 {+-} 0.02) T, {mu}{sub 0J}H{sub c} = (1.44 {+-} 0.03) T and (BH){sub max} = (250 {+-} 5) kJm{sup -3} due to the improvement of crystallographic alignment of the hard magnetic phase. During such investigation, a new methodology to quantify the parameter has been developed. Subsequently, for the first time, a quantitative correlation between the microstructure and the squareness factor in anisotropic sintered RE{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} (RE = Nd or Pr) magnets has been proposed. The presented expression utilizes the mean size, the mean elongation and the mean roundness of the hard magnetic grains as well as their respective standard deviations. The squareness factor can be improved with a microstructure with rounder grains and with a sharp grain size distribution. The grain size homogeneity is more important to enhance the squareness factor compared to grain shape homogeneity. Furthermore, it has also been verified that the annealing after sintering improves the grain shape homogeneity and the milling enhances the grain size homogeneity. Moreover, the effect of the temperature on the squareness factor of anisotropic sintered magnets has also been evaluated. Such parameter is mainly controlled by the sample

  5. High-coercivity minerals from North African Humid Period soil material deposited in Lake Yoa (Chad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, J.; Kroepelin, S.; Wennrich, V.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wagner, B.; Rethemeyer, J.; Karls, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Holocene is a period of fundamental climatic change in North Africa. Humid conditions during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP) have favored the formation of big lake systems. Only very few of these lakes persist until today. One of them is Lake Yoa (19°03'N/20°31'E) in the Ounianga Basin, Chad, which maintains its water level by ground water inflow. Here we present the magnetic characteristics together with proxies for lacustrine productivity and biota of a sediment core (Co1240) from Lake Yoa, retrieved in 2010 within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 - Our Way to Europe (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Magnetic properties of AHP sediments show strong indications for reductive diagenesis. An up to ~ 80 m higher lake level is documented by lacustrine deposits in the Ounianga Basin, dating to the early phase of the AHP. The higher lake level and less strong seasonality restricted deep mixing of the lake. Development of anoxic conditions consequently lead to the dissolution of iron oxides. An exception is an interval with high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, deposited between 7800 - 8120 cal yr BP. This interval post-dates the 8.2 event, which was dry in Northern Africa and probably caused a reduced vegetation cover. We propose that the latter resulted in the destabilization of soils around Lake Yoa. After the re-establishment of humid conditions, these soil materials were eroded and deposited in the lake. Magnetic minerals appear well preserved in the varved Late Holocene sequence, indicating (sub-) oxic conditions in the lake. This is surprising, because the occurrence of varves is often interpreted as an indicator for anoxic conditions of the lake water. However, the salinity of lake water rose strongly after the AHP. We therefore hypothesize that the conservation of varves and absence of benthic organisms rather relates to the high salinity than to anoxic conditions.

  6. Thermal effect on magnetic parameters of high-coercivity cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, E. F., E-mail: efchagas@fisica.ufmt.br; Ponce, A. S.; Prado, R. J.; Silva, G. M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá-MT (Brazil); Bettini, J. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 Urca. Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-07-21

    We prepared very high-coercivity cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by a combustion method and using short-time high-energy mechanical milling to increase strain and the structural defects density. The coercivity (H{sub C}) of the milled sample reached 3.75 kOe—a value almost five times higher than that obtained for the non-milled material (0.76 kOe). To investigate the effect of the temperature on the magnetic behavior of the milled sample, we performed a thermal treatment on the milled sample at 300, 400, and 600 °C for 30 and 180 min. We analyzed the changes in the magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles due to the thermal treatment using the hysteresis curves, Williamson-Hall analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The thermal treatment at 600 °C causes decreases in the microstructural strain and density of structural defects resulting in a significant decrease in H{sub C}. Furthermore, this thermal treatment increases the size of the nanoparticles and, as a consequence, there is a substantial increase in the saturation magnetization (M{sub S}). The H{sub C} of the samples treated at 600 °C for 30 and 180 min were 2.24 and 1.93 kOe, respectively, and the M{sub S} of these same samples increased from 57 emu/g to 66 and 70 emu/g, respectively. The H{sub C} and the M{sub S} are less affected by the thermal treatment at 300 and 400 °C.

  7. High coercivity Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites, prepared by chemical coprecipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsardakis, G.; Manolakis, I.; Serletis, C.; Efthimiadis, K. G.

    2008-04-01

    A series of Gd-substituted Ba hexaferrites with nominal formula (Ba1-xGdx)Oṡ5.25 Fe2O3 (x=0-0.30) were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method from nitrate precursors and heating at T =800-1200°C for 2h. The samples have been examined by x-ray diffraction, vibrating-sample magnetometer, and scanning electron microscopy methods. Gd substituted samples form single phase materials with the M-type hexaferrite structure at all heating temperatures, in the range of x ⩽0.10-0.20. The saturation magnetization (at 1.8T) varies slightly with x in most cases and, for x =0.05-0.10, it increases up to 66.7Am2/kg, exceeding the value of the unsubstituted hexaferrite. A strong enhancement of the coercivity is observed for all substituted samples, with maximum values Hc=457kA/m for the single-phase x =0.10 sample annealed at 1000°C and Hc=477kA/m for the x =0.25 sample annealed at 1100°C which contains Fe2O3 and GdFeO3 impurities. As the variation of coercivity with either substitution rate (x ) or annealing temperature is not monotonic, three different factors may account for the high coercivities that are obtained: (a) an inhibition of grain growth due to the presence of Gd, (b) a possible inherent effect on magnetocrystalline anisotropy, especially for single phase samples, and (c) a microstructural effect of secondary phases.

  8. Effect of nitrogen environment on NdFeB thin films grown by radio frequency plasma beam assisted pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, C.; Patroi, E.; Codescu, M.; Dinescu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NdFeB thin films grown by PLD, in vacuum and in nitrogen, are presented. ► Nitrogen inclusion in thin film structures is related to improved coercitivity. ► Magnetical, optical and morphological properties of the thin films are discussed. - Abstract: NdFeB is a very attractive material for applications in electrical engineering and in electronics, for high-tech devices where high coercive field and high remanence are needed. In this paper we demonstrate that the deposition of nitrogen doped NdFeB thin films by pulsed laser deposition, in the presence of a nitrogen radiofrequency plasma beam, exhibit improved magnetic properties and surface morphology, when compared to vacuum deposited NdFeB layers. A Nd:YAG pulsed laser (3ω and 4ω) was focused on a NdFeB target, in vacuum, or in the presence of a nitrogen plasma beam. Substrate temperature (RT-850 °C), nitrogen gas pressure, and radiofrequency power (75–150 W), were particularly varied. The thin films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopic-ellipsometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry.

  9. Effect of nitrogen environment on NdFeB thin films grown by radio frequency plasma beam assisted pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, C., E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor bd., Magurele, RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Patroi, E.; Codescu, M. [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrical Engineering - Advanced Research, 313 Spl. Unirii, Sector 3, RO-030138, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor bd., Magurele, RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NdFeB thin films grown by PLD, in vacuum and in nitrogen, are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen inclusion in thin film structures is related to improved coercitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetical, optical and morphological properties of the thin films are discussed. - Abstract: NdFeB is a very attractive material for applications in electrical engineering and in electronics, for high-tech devices where high coercive field and high remanence are needed. In this paper we demonstrate that the deposition of nitrogen doped NdFeB thin films by pulsed laser deposition, in the presence of a nitrogen radiofrequency plasma beam, exhibit improved magnetic properties and surface morphology, when compared to vacuum deposited NdFeB layers. A Nd:YAG pulsed laser (3{omega} and 4{omega}) was focused on a NdFeB target, in vacuum, or in the presence of a nitrogen plasma beam. Substrate temperature (RT-850 Degree-Sign C), nitrogen gas pressure, and radiofrequency power (75-150 W), were particularly varied. The thin films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopic-ellipsometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry.

  10. Corrosion of NdFeB permanent magnet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G.W.; Gao, G.; Li, Q.

    1991-01-01

    NdFeB is an important class of new magnetic materials, however corrosion resistance is a serious concern and literature on the electrochemical behavior of NdFeB is scarce. This paper reports the results of an electrochemical investigation of the corrosion behavior of sintered NdFeB magnets obtained from three manufacturers. Linear polarization (cyclic voltammetry) experiments were conducted in aqueous solutions ranging in pH from 0.7 to 13.5. A limited degree of passivation was observed in all solutions which is believed to be due to the formation of a complex Fe-Nd oxide and/or hydroxide film. The presence of a small amount of chloride ion, 10 to 100 ppm, shows only a slight effect, but higher concentrations (1000 ppm) cause a total breakdown in passivity and a dramatic increase in anodic current. The cathodic potential sweep shows an abrupt and unusual oxidation process, giving rise to an oxidation peak not commonly seen. This peak may result from dissolution of the film or preferential attack of intergranular phases

  11. NdFeB thick films prepared by tape casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, B.; Schwarzer, S.; Rahmig, A.; Toepfer, J.

    2003-01-01

    NdFeB films of thickness between 100 and 800 μm were prepared by tape casting of a slurry containing 84-95 wt% of commercial NdFeB powder (MQP-B, -Q and -S). After curing the flexible green tapes at 120 deg. C non-porous magnetic films are obtained. The remanence of the films is in the range of 350-450 mT and the coercivity is between 300 and 800 kA/m depending on the type of MQP powder used. The magnetic properties of the films are discussed in relation to film composition and type of magnetic material. For MEMS applications the thick films are magnetized with a multi-pole stripe pattern with 1 mm pole pitch. The induction at the surface of the films was measured with a Hall probe and compared to theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the films are completely magnetized regardless of the film thickness. Tape-casted NdFeB thick films are promising candidates for applications in micro-systems or actuators. Miniaturization of the magnet components is one of the key issues in the development of electromagnetic micro-systems, thus creating a need for replacement of small sintered magnets by magnetic thick film components. Other applications include encoders

  12. Plasma sprayed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.; Bauser, S.; Liu, S.; Huang, M.

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrated that the plasma spray deposition method is an alternative process for producing Nd-Fe-B magnets in addition to the two existing principal processes: the powder metallurgy process for producing sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets and the melt spinning process for bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets. Plasma spray is a potentially better process for producing magnetic parts with complicated shape, large area, thin thickness, small dimension, or unusual geometry. High intrinsic coercivity greater than 15 kOe was readily obtained for Nd 16 Dy 1 Fe 76 B 7 even in the as-deposited condition when the substrate was preheated. The plasma spray process contains only three steps: melting, crushing, and plasma spray, which is much simpler than the powder metallurgy and melt spinning processes. Without preheating the substrate, the coercivity was usually very low (∼0.1 kOe) in the as-deposited condition and it increased to 10 to >15 kOe after anneal. Evidence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy was observed in plasma sprayed Nd 15 Dy 1 Fe 77 B 7 magnets when the substrate was not preheated. It is believed that a crystal texture was developed during the plasma spray as a result of the existence of a temperature gradient in the solidifying melt

  13. Sintering prevention and phase transformation of FePt nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.; Majetich, S.A.; Kim, J.; Barmak, K.; Rollins, H.; Sides, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two approaches attempted to overcome FePt nanoparticle sintering during the transformation to the high coercivity L1 0 phase, which currently limits the use of these nanoparticles in data storage media. High-pressure treatment of dilute nanoparticle solutions failed to prevent sintering due to surfactant decomposition above 360 deg. C. By pre-annealing nanoparticle monolayers to decompose the surfactant, and then coating with an immiscible SiO 2 matrix, sintering was prevented with annealing temperatures up to 700 deg. C

  14. High coercivity Sm-Co thin films from elemental Sm/Co multilayer deposition and their microstructural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, M. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Predeep, P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Sridhara Rao, D.V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratories, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Prajapat, C.L.; Singh, M.R. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Barshilia, Harish C. [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Chowdhury, P., E-mail: pchowdhury@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Hard magnetic thin films with high coercivity were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on MgO(100) and quartz substrates. The films were grown by depositing sequentially Sm and Co layers at an elevated substrate temperature of 500 °C. Subsequent post-annealing was carried out at various temperatures in range of 500–700 °C to form Sm-Co hard magnetic thin films. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of randomly oriented SmCo{sub 5} crystallites on quartz substrate, whereas, a textured growth of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 7} with strong (110) crystalline phases was observed on MgO substrate. Microstructural analyses were carried out using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for samples grown on MgO substrate at 650 °C and inferred the presence of high density planar defects along with large grain boundaries. Further microdiffraction studies confirmed the presence of SmCo{sub 3} as an impurity phase in the films. Magnetic hysteresis measurements indicate the square hysteresis behaviors with high coercivity value of 3.1 T and 2.7 T for 650 °C annealed samples on both MgO and quartz substrates, respectively. The origin of such high coercivity value was then correlated with pinning type of spin reversal mechanism as confirmed through the analyses of demagnetization curves. The magnetic force microscopy images for films on MgO substrate, annealed at 650 °C, revealed the presence of magnetic domains with size higher than 1 µm. The formed magnetic domains lacked well defined boundaries indicating an enhanced exchange coupling between the grain clusters. - Highlights: • Ewald technique in micromagnetic simulations with periodic boundary conditions. • Effect of micromagnetic parameters on hysteresis in exchange spring magnets. • Importance of the interface exchange coupling for hard-soft nanocomposites. • Geometry dependence of the optimal soft phase size in exchange spring magnets.

  15. On the angular dependence of the coercivity of NdFeB hard magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, L.; Christoph, V.; Pastuschenko, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to test the model assumptions on hard magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB magnets, a comparison of the measured and calculated values of the magnetization and remanence coercivities H C and H R , respectively, as a function of the angle between texture axis and external field θ in Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 and (Nd 0.9 Tb 0.1 ) 16 Fe 76 B 8 is given and explained qualitatively

  16. Crystallization and atomic diffusion behavior of high coercive Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta-based permanent magnetic thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Na; Zhang, Xiao; You, Caiyin; Fu, Huarui [Xi' an University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an (China); Shen, Qianlong [Logistics University of People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin (China)

    2017-06-15

    A high coercivity of about 20.4 kOe was obtained through post-annealing the sputtered Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta-based permanent magnetic thin films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed to investigate the crystallization and atomic diffusion behaviors during post-annealing. The results show that the buffer and capping Ta layers prefered to intermix with Fe and B atoms, and Nd tends to be combined with O atoms. The preferred atomic combination caused the appearance of the soft magnetic phase of Fe-Ta-B, resulting in a kink of the second quadratic magnetic hysteresis loop. The preferred atomic diffusion and phase formation of the thin films were well explained in terms of the formation enthalpy of the various compounds. (orig.)

  17. High coercivity microcrystalline Nd-rich Nd–Fe–Co–Al–B bulk magnets prepared by direct copper mold casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.Z.; Hong, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Fang, X.G. [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Qiu, Z.G.; Zhong, X.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gao, X.S. [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Z.W., E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-06-15

    High coercivity Nd{sub 25}Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 20}Al{sub 15−x}B{sub x} (x=7–15) hard magnets were prepared by a simple process of injection casting. Different from many previous investigations on nanocomposite compositions, the magnets in this work contain hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}(FeCoAl){sub 14}B, Nd-rich, and Nd{sub 1+ε}(FeCo){sub 4}B{sub 4} phases. The magnetic properties, phase evolution, and microstructure of the as-cast and annealed magnets were investigated. As the boron content increased from 7 to 11 at%, the intrinsic coercivity H{sub cj} of the as-cast magnet increased from 816 to 1140 kA/m. The magnets annealed at 750 °C have shown more regular and smaller grains than the as-cast alloys, especially for the x=11 alloy. The high intrinsic coercivities for the annealed alloys with x=8~11 result from the presence of small-sized grains in the microstructure. The highest H{sub cj} of 1427 kA/m was obtained for the heat treated alloy with x=10. This work provides an alternative approach for preparing fully dense Nd-rich bulk hard magnets with relatively good properties. - Highlights: • 2 mm hard magnetic Nd{sub 25}Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 20}Al{sub 15−x}B{sub x} rods were prepared by direct casting. • High coercivity of 1.78 T was achieved in x=11 sample after heat treatment. • Small grains are responsible for the significant increase in H{sub C} after annealing. • Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with two different sizes lead to two-step demagnetization process.

  18. Low-energy mechanically milled τ-phase MnAl alloys with high coercivity and magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Niu, Junchao; Wang, Taolei; Xia, Kada; Xiang, Zhen; Song, Yiming; Zhang, Hong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The high cost of rare earth elements makes the use of high-performance permanent magnets commercially very expensive. MnAl magnetic material is one of the most promising Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets due to its obvious characteristics. However, the coercivity of MnAl alloys produced by melt spinning followed by appropriate treatment is relatively low. In this investigation, a high coercivity up to 5.3 kOe and saturation magnetization of ∼62 emu/g (with an applied magnetic field of 19.5 kOe) were obtained in the mechanically milled τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy. As milling time goes on, the coercivity firstly increases and then decreases, leading to the formation of knee-point coercivity, while the saturation magnetization decreases simultaneously. The structural imperfections such as disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties of τ-phase MnAl alloys processed by low-energy mechanical milling. The present results will be helpful for the development of processing protocols for the optimization of τ-phase MnAl alloys as high performance Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets. - Highlights: • Successful fabrication of pure τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy by melt spinning and low-energy ball milling processes. • High coercivity (~5.3 kOe) and magnetization (~62 emu/g) were obtained in τ-phase Mn_5_7Al_4_3 alloy. • Disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties.

  19. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite (α-Fe2O3) superstructure with high coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadic, Marin; Citakovic, Nada; Panjan, Matjaz; Stanojevic, Boban; Markovic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Đorđe; Spasojevic, Vojislav

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). ► TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. ► Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H C = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of α-Fe 2 O 3 whereas TEM shows α-Fe 2 O 3 spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M r = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M S = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H C = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T M = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface effects and exchange and dipole–dipole interactions.

  20. Low-energy mechanically milled τ-phase MnAl alloys with high coercivity and magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei, E-mail: weilu@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 Japan (Japan); Niu, Junchao; Wang, Taolei; Xia, Kada; Xiang, Zhen; Song, Yiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hong; Yoshimura, Satoru; Saito, Hitoshi [Research Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 Japan (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    The high cost of rare earth elements makes the use of high-performance permanent magnets commercially very expensive. MnAl magnetic material is one of the most promising Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets due to its obvious characteristics. However, the coercivity of MnAl alloys produced by melt spinning followed by appropriate treatment is relatively low. In this investigation, a high coercivity up to 5.3 kOe and saturation magnetization of ∼62 emu/g (with an applied magnetic field of 19.5 kOe) were obtained in the mechanically milled τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy. As milling time goes on, the coercivity firstly increases and then decreases, leading to the formation of knee-point coercivity, while the saturation magnetization decreases simultaneously. The structural imperfections such as disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties of τ-phase MnAl alloys processed by low-energy mechanical milling. The present results will be helpful for the development of processing protocols for the optimization of τ-phase MnAl alloys as high performance Rare-Earth-free permanent magnets. - Highlights: • Successful fabrication of pure τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy by melt spinning and low-energy ball milling processes. • High coercivity (~5.3 kOe) and magnetization (~62 emu/g) were obtained in τ-phase Mn{sub 57}Al{sub 43} alloy. • Disordering and defects play the most important role in the changes of magnetic properties.

  1. Application of bonded NdFeB magnet for C-Band circulator component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiantoro, T.; Idayanti, N.; Sudrajat, N.; Septiani, A.; Dedi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper bonded NdFeB permanent magnets of the crashed-ribbon type were made as an alternative for circulator magnet to improve their magnetic performance. The fabrication process is also easier than the sintered NdFeB because there had no shrinkage of product (such as sintered barium ferrite magnet), with the others advantages as follows; large freeness of product shapes, high precision of dimension and good corrosion resistance. The dimension of the samples was measured to calculate its bulk densities and the magnetic properties were characterized by Permagraph to obtain values such as; Remanence induction (Br) in kG, Coercivity value (Hcj) in kOe, the Maximum energy product (BH max) in MGOe. Whereas the surface magnetic field strength (B) was observed by the Gauss-meter. The bonded NdFeB permanent magnets revealed 6.39 kG of Br, 6.974 kOe of Hcj and 7.13 MGOe of BHmax. The circulator performance was measured using Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). The optimum values of the circulator measurement at a frequency of 5 GHz show a VSWR value of 1.062 and insertion loss of -0.463 dB. The bonded magnet could be used as component of permanent magnets on the circulator that working on C-Band at a frequency range of 4 GHz - 8 GHz.

  2. Production for high thermal stability NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.Q. [College of Physics Science and Technology, China University of Petroleum (East China), Dongying 257061, Shandong Province (China)], E-mail: iyy2000@163.com; Zhang, J.; Hu, S.Q.; Han, Z.D. [College of Physics Science and Technology, China University of Petroleum (East China), Dongying 257061, Shandong Province (China); Yan, M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-04-15

    To improve sintered NdFeB magnets' thermal stability and magnetic properties, combined addition of elements Cu and Gd was investigated. It was found that with Gd addition increase to 1.0%, the temperature coefficient {alpha} improved from -0.15 to -0.05%/deg. C (maximum working temperature 120 deg. C), but the remanence and the maximum energy product linearly decreased. With addition of Cu in Gd-containing magnets the intrinsic coercivity increased greatly, and the remanence increased also because of their density improvement, and optimum Cu content was achieved at 0.2%. Microstructure analysis showed that most of the Cu distributed at grain boundaries and led to clear and smooth morphologies. Magnets with high thermal stability {alpha}=-0.05%/deg. C and magnetic properties were obtained with addition of Gd=0.8% and Cu=0.2%.

  3. Al–Mn coating electrodeposited from ionic liquid on NdFeB magnet with high hardness and corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Jingjing; Xu, Bajin; Ling, Guoping, E-mail: linggp@zju.edu.cn

    2014-06-01

    Al–Mn coatings were electrodeposited on sintered NdFeB permanent magnet in MnCl{sub 2}–AlCl{sub 3}–1-ethyl-3-methylim-idazolium chloride (MnCl{sub 2}–AlCl{sub 3}–EMIC) ionic liquid at room temperature. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adhesion strength of the coating on NdFeB substrate was evaluated by thermal shock and scratch test. The hardness and corrosion behavior of Al–Mn coating were measured by a Knoop microhardness tester, immersion test and neutral salt spray test respectively. The results showed that the amorphous structure of the deposits was obtained at the current density of 6 mA/cm{sup 2}, while higher current densities resulted in a mixed structure of amorphous and crystalline. The Al–Mn coating showed excellent adhesion strength on NdFeB substrate with the thermal shock test over 30 cycles and L{sub c} > 80 N. The hardness of Al–Mn coating was up to 5.4 GPa. The amorphous Al–Mn coating showed an anodic sacrificial protection with a low corrosion rate for NdFeB. Meanwhile, the magnetic properties measured by an AMT-4 magnetic measurement device showed that Al–Mn coating did not deteriorate the magnetic property of NdFeB.

  4. Al–Mn coating electrodeposited from ionic liquid on NdFeB magnet with high hardness and corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jingjing; Xu, Bajin; Ling, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Al–Mn coatings were electrodeposited on sintered NdFeB permanent magnet in MnCl 2 –AlCl 3 –1-ethyl-3-methylim-idazolium chloride (MnCl 2 –AlCl 3 –EMIC) ionic liquid at room temperature. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adhesion strength of the coating on NdFeB substrate was evaluated by thermal shock and scratch test. The hardness and corrosion behavior of Al–Mn coating were measured by a Knoop microhardness tester, immersion test and neutral salt spray test respectively. The results showed that the amorphous structure of the deposits was obtained at the current density of 6 mA/cm 2 , while higher current densities resulted in a mixed structure of amorphous and crystalline. The Al–Mn coating showed excellent adhesion strength on NdFeB substrate with the thermal shock test over 30 cycles and L c > 80 N. The hardness of Al–Mn coating was up to 5.4 GPa. The amorphous Al–Mn coating showed an anodic sacrificial protection with a low corrosion rate for NdFeB. Meanwhile, the magnetic properties measured by an AMT-4 magnetic measurement device showed that Al–Mn coating did not deteriorate the magnetic property of NdFeB.

  5. Interaction domains in high performance NdFeB thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, Tom; Khlopkov, Kirill; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver [IFW Dresden, IMW, Dresden (Germany); Walther, Arno [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France); CEA Leti - MINATEC, Grenoble (France); Dempsey, Nora; Givord, Dominique [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-01

    Thick sputtered films (5-300 micron) of NdFeB have excellent hard magnetic properties which make them attractive for applications in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). A two step process consisting of triode sputtering and high temperature annealing produced films with energy densities approaching those of sintered NdFeB magnets. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) using hard magnetic tips showed that the films deposited without substrate heating and at 300 C exhibited magnetic domains typical of low anisotropy materials. These films were amorphous in the as-deposited state. The film deposited at 500 C was crystalline and displaid hard magnetic properties. This was reflected in the magnetic microstructure which showed interaction domains typical of highly textured and high magnetic anisotropy materials with a grain size below or equal to the critical single-domain particle limit. With increasing substrate temperature, the domain patterns of the annealed films became coarser, indicating higher degrees of texture.

  6. NdFeB magnets with zero temperature coefficient of induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, B.M.; Narasimhan, K.S.V.L.; Hurt, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Temperature compensation for the induction of NdFeB type magnets has been investigated. A computer assisted alloy selection method was adopted to identify composition of zero temperature coefficient of induction over -50 to 200 0 C. Selected alloys were processed into magnet by the conventional powder metallurgy method. The experimental temperature coefficient on the sintered magnet correlated with the prediction satisfactory. Holmium is an essential ingredient required for temperature compensation of NdFeB magnets. A magnet, (Nd/sub 0.23/Ho/sub 0.64/Dy/sub 0.13/)/sub 15/Fe/sub 79/B/sub 6/ with B/sub r/ of 7,700 Gauss, H/sub c/ of 7,700 Oe, H/sub ci/ of 20,600 Oe, Bh/sub max/ of 14.8 MGOe and temperature coefficient of -0.029% per 0 C over -50 to +150 was obtained

  7. Structure and Properties of Nd-Fe-B Alloy Subjected to HDDR Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Hydrogenation, Disproportionation, Desorption and Recombination (HDDR route was tested, for the Nd-Fe-B master alloy, as a prospective procedure for recycling of sintered scrap neodymium magnets. The HDDR method is based on the hydrogen induced reversal phase transformation of Nd-Fe-B alloy: Nd2Fe14B + (2±x H2 = 2NdH2±x + Fe2B + 12Fe. Microstructural observations (SEM, phase constitution studies (XRD and measurement of magnetic properties (VSM were done to investigate the HDDR transformation progress. It was observed that disproportionation reaction starts at the grain boundaries, where the Nd-rich phase is located. Average grain size was reduced and coercive material was produced as a result of the HDDR process. Obtained results are similar to literature data.

  8. 3-D laser confocal microscopy study of the oxidation of NdFeB magnets in atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, J. P.; Speight, J. D.; Sheridan, R. S.; Bradshaw, A.; Harris, I. R.; Williams, A. J.; Walton, A.

    2016-08-01

    Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets are used in a number of important applications, such as generators in gearless wind turbines, motors in electric vehicles and electronic goods (e.g.- computer hard disk drives, HDD). Hydrogen can be used as a processing gas to separate and recycle scrap sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets from end-of-life products to form a powder suitable for recycling. However, the magnets are likely to have been exposed to atmospheric conditions prior to processing, and any oxidation could lead to activation problems for the hydrogen decrepitation reaction. Many previous studies on the oxidation of NdFeB magnets have been performed at elevated temperatures; however, few studies have been formed under atmospheric conditions. In this paper a combination of 3-D laser confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assess the composition, morphology and rate of oxidation/corrosion on scrap sintered NdFeB magnets. Confocal microscopy has been employed to measure the growth of surface reaction products at room temperature, immediately after exposure to air. The results showed that there was a significant height increase at the triple junctions of the Nd-rich grain boundaries. Using Raman spectroscopy, the product was shown to consist of Nd2O3 and formed only on the Nd-rich triple junctions. The diffusion coefficient of the triple junction reaction product growth at 20 °C was determined to be approximately 4 × 10-13 cm2/sec. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than values derived from the diffusion controlled oxide growth observations at elevated temperatures in the literature. This indicates that the growth of the room temperature oxidation products are likely defect enhanced processes at the NdFeB triple junctions.

  9. Production and corrosion resistance of NdFeBZr magnets with an improved response to thermal variations during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.Q.; Zhong, X.L.; Zhang, Y.P.; Yan, Y.G.; Zhen, Y.H.; Zakotnik, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes an attempt to produce NdFeB magnets that are insensitive to the sintering temperature. It was found that addition of Zr to NdFeB magnets significantly augmented the thermal stability of this magnetic material during sintering at high temperature even at industrial scale. The best sintered magnets were produced by jet-milling the powder (to achieve an average 3.4 μm particle size), and then aligned, pressed and sintered under argon at 1100 o C for 3 h followed by appropriate heat treatment. The magnetic properties of the resulting magnets were: (BH) m =403.8 kJ m -3 (±4.7 kJ m -3 ), B r =1430 mT (±9 mT) and i H c =907 kA m -1 (±12 kA m -1 ). Large grain growth, in excess of 100 μm in the Zr-free magnets, was observed during sintering at 1100 o C. This did not occur in the presence of Zr. These observations imply that the sensitivity of this class of magnets to high sintering temperatures is greatly reduced by Zr addition. Corrosion resistance of NdFeB was therefore significantly improved by the addition of small amounts of Zr. - Research highlights: →This study describes an attempt to produce NdFeB magnets that are insensitive to the sintering temperature. → It was found that addition of Zr to NdFeB magnets significantly augmented the thermal stability of this magnetic material during sintering at high temperature; even at industrial scale. → The magnetic properties of the resulting magnets were: (BH) m =403.8 kJ m -3 (±4.7 kJ m -3 ), B r =1430 mT (±9 mT) and i H c =907 kA m -1 (±12 kA m -1 ).

  10. Properties enhancement and recoil loop characteristics for hot deformed nanocrystalline NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z. W.; Huang, Y. L.; Hu, S. L.; Zhong, X. C.; Yu, H. Y.; Gao, X. X.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS followed by HD using melt spun ribbons as the starting materials. The microstructure of SPSed and HDed magnets were analyzed. The effects of process including temperature and compression ratio on the microstructure and properties were investigated. High magnetic properties were obtained in anisotropic HDed magnets. The combination of Zn and Dy additions was successfully employed to improve the coercivity and thermal stability of the SPSed magnets. Open recoil loops were found in these magnets with Nd-rich composition and without soft magnetic phase for the first time. The relationship between the recoil loops and microstructure for SPS and HD NdFeB magnets were investigated. The investigations showed that the magnetic properties of SPS+HDed magnets are related to the extent of the aggregation of Nd-rich phase, which was formed during HD due to existence of porosity in SPSed precursor. Large local demagnetization fields induced by the Nd-rich phase aggregation leads to the open loops and significantly reduced the coercivity. By reducing the recoil loop openness, the magnetic properties of HDed NdFeB magnets were successfully improved. (author)

  11. 3-D laser confocal microscopy study of the oxidation of NdFeB magnets in atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meakin, J.P.; Speight, J.D.; Sheridan, R.S.; Bradshaw, A.; Harris, I.R.; Williams, A.J.; Walton, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Room temperature atmospheric oxidation behaviour of sintered NdFeB. • 3D laser confocal microscopy measurement of oxide phase growth. • Significant height increase of oxide phase only observed at triple points. • Raman spectroscopy identified oxide phase to be Nd 2 O 3 . • Diffusion coefficient determined to be 4 × 10 −13 cm 2 /s. - Abstract: Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets are used in a number of important applications, such as generators in gearless wind turbines, motors in electric vehicles and electronic goods (e.g.— computer hard disk drives, HDD). Hydrogen can be used as a processing gas to separate and recycle scrap sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets from end-of-life products to form a powder suitable for recycling. However, the magnets are likely to have been exposed to atmospheric conditions prior to processing, and any oxidation could lead to activation problems for the hydrogen decrepitation reaction. Many previous studies on the oxidation of NdFeB magnets have been performed at elevated temperatures; however, few studies have been formed under atmospheric conditions. In this paper a combination of 3-D laser confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assess the composition, morphology and rate of oxidation/corrosion on scrap sintered NdFeB magnets. Confocal microscopy has been employed to measure the growth of surface reaction products at room temperature, immediately after exposure to air. The results showed that there was a significant height increase at the triple junctions of the Nd-rich grain boundaries. Using Raman spectroscopy, the product was shown to consist of Nd 2 O 3 and formed only on the Nd-rich triple junctions. The diffusion coefficient of the triple junction reaction product growth at 20 °C was determined to be approximately 4 × 10 −13 cm 2 /sec. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than values derived from the diffusion controlled oxide growth observations at elevated

  12. 3-D laser confocal microscopy study of the oxidation of NdFeB magnets in atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meakin, J.P., E-mail: jxm764@bham.ac.uk; Speight, J.D.; Sheridan, R.S.; Bradshaw, A.; Harris, I.R.; Williams, A.J.; Walton, A.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Room temperature atmospheric oxidation behaviour of sintered NdFeB. • 3D laser confocal microscopy measurement of oxide phase growth. • Significant height increase of oxide phase only observed at triple points. • Raman spectroscopy identified oxide phase to be Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Diffusion coefficient determined to be 4 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}/s. - Abstract: Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets are used in a number of important applications, such as generators in gearless wind turbines, motors in electric vehicles and electronic goods (e.g.— computer hard disk drives, HDD). Hydrogen can be used as a processing gas to separate and recycle scrap sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets from end-of-life products to form a powder suitable for recycling. However, the magnets are likely to have been exposed to atmospheric conditions prior to processing, and any oxidation could lead to activation problems for the hydrogen decrepitation reaction. Many previous studies on the oxidation of NdFeB magnets have been performed at elevated temperatures; however, few studies have been formed under atmospheric conditions. In this paper a combination of 3-D laser confocal microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to assess the composition, morphology and rate of oxidation/corrosion on scrap sintered NdFeB magnets. Confocal microscopy has been employed to measure the growth of surface reaction products at room temperature, immediately after exposure to air. The results showed that there was a significant height increase at the triple junctions of the Nd-rich grain boundaries. Using Raman spectroscopy, the product was shown to consist of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and formed only on the Nd-rich triple junctions. The diffusion coefficient of the triple junction reaction product growth at 20 °C was determined to be approximately 4 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}/sec. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than values derived from the diffusion controlled oxide growth

  13. Preparation of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets from HDDR-processed powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Kenta, E-mail: k-takagi@aist.go.jp [Green Innovative Magnetic Materials Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Akada, Misaho [Magnetic Materials R& D Center, Research Associations of Magnetic Materials for High-Efficiency Motors (MagHEM), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Soda, Rikio; Ozaki, Kimihiro [Green Innovative Magnetic Materials Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    The electric-current sintering technique was used to fully densify hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination (HDDR)-processed Nd–Fe–B powder at temperatures below the grain growth temperature in order to produce high-coercive bulk magnets. However, the sintered magnets exhibited anomalous coercivity reduction that depended on sintered density. Reheating examination of the sintered magnets revealed that the reduced coercivity was increased in proportion to the heating temperature, resulting in complete recovery of coercivity. As a result, the combination of electric-current sintering and post-annealing produced sintered magnets with a coercivity of 15 kOe. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence that associated the anomalous coercivity reduction and recovery with grain boundary morphology. On the other hand, various HDDR powders with different particle sizes were sintered, and finer powders yielded lower coercivity after sintering, implying that the anomalous coercivity reduction was associated with particle surface oxides of the raw powder. - Highlights: • We conduct a sintering of HDDR-processed Nd–Fe–B powder without coercivity reduction. • Rapid current sintering allows densification of this powder without grain growth. • However, the sintered magnets show an anomalous coercivity reduction phenomenon. • It is found that post-annealing completely recovers the reduced coercivity. • The anomalous coercivity reduction would be due to surface oxide of the raw powder.

  14. Corrosion resistance of the NdFeB coated with AlN/SiC bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering under different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Lei; Li, Heqin; Shen, Jiong; Qiao, Kai; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    The AlN/SiC bilayer and SiC monolayer thin films were deposited on sintered NdFeB by RF magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. Their structures and morphologies were studied by XRD and AFM and SEM. The corrosion behaviors of AlN/SiC and SiC-coated NdFeB in 3.5 wt% NaCl, 20 wt% NaOH and 0.1 mol/L H 2 SO 4 solutions were characterized with potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results show that AlN/SiC and SiC thin films can evidently improve the corrosion resistance of NdFeB, and the AlN/SiC films have the better resistance than the SiC film. - Highlights: • SiC monolayer and AlN/SiC bilayer thin films have been prepared on NdFeB at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. • NdFeB coated with AlN/SiC bilayer films has more corrosion resistance than that coated with SiC monolayer film under different environments. • The grains of the AlN/SiC bilayer films are finer and the surface roughness is lower than that of SiC monolayer film

  15. Corrosion resistance of the NdFeB coated with AlN/SiC bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering under different environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China); Li, Heqin, E-mail: lhqjs@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China); Shen, Jiong [Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd., Anhui Lujiang 231500 (China); Qiao, Kai; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Chu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China); Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China); School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-02-01

    The AlN/SiC bilayer and SiC monolayer thin films were deposited on sintered NdFeB by RF magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. Their structures and morphologies were studied by XRD and AFM and SEM. The corrosion behaviors of AlN/SiC and SiC-coated NdFeB in 3.5 wt% NaCl, 20 wt% NaOH and 0.1 mol/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were characterized with potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results show that AlN/SiC and SiC thin films can evidently improve the corrosion resistance of NdFeB, and the AlN/SiC films have the better resistance than the SiC film. - Highlights: • SiC monolayer and AlN/SiC bilayer thin films have been prepared on NdFeB at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. • NdFeB coated with AlN/SiC bilayer films has more corrosion resistance than that coated with SiC monolayer film under different environments. • The grains of the AlN/SiC bilayer films are finer and the surface roughness is lower than that of SiC monolayer film.

  16. Effects of powder flowability on the alignment degree and magnetic properties for NdFeB sintermagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, 250100 (China); Gao, R.W. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, 250100 (China)]. E-mail: gaorwbox@sdu.edu.cn; Han, G.B. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, 250100 (China); Bai, G. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, 250100 (China); Liu, T. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, 250100 (China); Wang, B. [School of Physics and Microelectronics, Shandong University, 250100 (China); Yantai Shougang Magnetic Material CO, LTD, 265500 (China)

    2006-04-15

    The magnetic powders for sintered NdFeB magnets have been prepared by using the strip casting (SC), hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and jet milling (JM) techniques. The effects of powder flowability and addition of a lubricant on the alignment degree and the hard magnetic properties of sintered magnets have been studied. The results show that the main factor affecting powder flowability is the aggregation of magnetic particles for powders in a loose state, but it is the friction between the powder particles for powders that are in a compact state. The addition of a lubricant with suitable dose can slightly prevent the congregating of powders, obviously decrease the friction between the powder particles, improve the powder flowability, and increase the alignment degree, remanence and energy product density of sintered magnets. Mixing a suitable dose of lubricant and adopting rubber isostatic pressing (RIP) with a pulse magnetic field, we have succeeded in producing the sintered NdFeB magnet with high hard magnetic properties of B {sub r}=14.57 KG, {sub j}H {sub c}=14.43 KOe (BH){sub max}=51.3 MGOe.

  17. Effect of molybdate on phosphating of Nd-Fe-B magnets for corrosion protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis Marcelo Saliba-Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nd-Fe-B magnets are highly susceptible to corrosion and need protection against environment attack. The use of organic coatings is one of the main methods of corrosion protection of these materials. Data related to the effect of conversion coatings, such as phosphating, on corrosion performance of these magnets is still scarce. Studies about the effect of phosphating on the corrosion resistance of a commercial Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet indicated that it increases the corrosion resistance of these magnets, compared to non-phosphated magnets. In this study, the solution chemistry of a phosphating bath was altered with the addition of molybdate and its effect on the corrosion resistance of magnets investigated. Sintered magnet specimens were phosphated in solutions of 10 g/L NaH2PO4 (pH 3.8, either with or without molybdate [10-3 M MoO4(2-], to improve their corrosion resistance. The effect of phosphating time was also evaluated, and specimens were phosphated for 4 and 18 hours. To evaluate the corrosion performance of phosphated and unphosphated specimens, a corrosion test based on monitoring hydrogen evolution on the surface of the magnets was used. This technique revealed that the addition of molybdate to the phosphating solution improved the corrosion resistance of the magnets phosphated by immersion for short periods but had no beneficial effect if phosphated by immersion for longer periods.

  18. High performance hard magnetic NdFeB thick films for integration into micro-electro-mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, N. M.; Walther, A.; May, F.; Givord, D.; Khlopkov, K.; Gutfleisch, O.

    2007-01-01

    5 μm thick NdFeB films have been sputtered onto 100 mm Si substrates using high rate sputtering (18 μm/h). Films were deposited at ≤500 deg. C and then annealed at 750 deg. C for 10 min. While films deposited at temperatures up to 450 deg. C have equiaxed grains, the size of which decreases with increasing deposition temperature, the films deposited at 500 deg. C have columnar grains. The out-of-plane remanent magnetization increases with deposition temperature, reaching a maximum value of 1.4 T, while the coercivity remains constant at about 1.6 T. The maximum energy product achieved (400 kJ/m 3 ) is comparable to that of high-quality NdFeB sintered magnets

  19. Grain boundary diffusion of Dy films prepared by magnetron sputtering for sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Luo, J. M.; Guan, Y. W.; Huang, Y. L.; Chen, M.; Hou, Y. H.

    2018-05-01

    Dy films, deposited on the surface of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets by magnetron sputtering, were employed for grain boundary diffusion source. High coercivity sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were successfully prepared. Effects of sputtering power and grain boundary diffusion processes (GBDP) on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated in detail. The dense and uniform Dy films were beneficial to prepare high coercivity magnets by GBDP. The maximum coercivity value of 1189 kA m‑1 could be shown, which was an amplification of 22.3%, compared with that of as-prepared Nd–Fe–B magnet. Furthermore, the improved remanence and maximum energy product were also achieved through tuning grain boundary diffusion processes. Our results demonstrated that the formation of (Nd, Dy)2Fe14B shell surrounding Nd2Fe14B grains and fine, uniform and continuous intergranular RE-rich phases jointly contribute to the improved coercivity.

  20. Influence of annealing temperature on the Dy diffusion process in NdFeB magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng-qing; Peng, Kun; Chen, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Sintered NdFeB magnets were coated with a layer of Dy metal using electron beam evaporation method and then annealed at various temperatures to investigate the temperature dependence of Dy diffusion process in NdFeB magnets. A Dy-rich phase was observed along the grain boundaries after the grain boundary diffusion process, the diffusion coefficients of various temperatures were obtained, the diffusion coefficients of Dy along the grain boundaries at 800 °C and 900 °C were determined to be 9.8×10-8 cm2 s-1 and 2.4×10-7 cm2 s-1, respectively. The diffusion length depended on the annealing temperature and the maximum diffusion length of approximately 1.8 mm and 3.0 mm can be obtained after annealing at 800 °C and 900 °C for 8 h. Higher diffusion temperature results in the diffusion not only along the grain boundaries but also into grains and then decrease in magnetic properties. The optimum annealing conditions can be determined as 900 °C for 8 h. The coercivity was improved from 1040 kA/m to 1450 kA/m and its magnetization has no significant reduction after the grain boundary diffusion process at the optimum annealing conditions.

  1. Barkhausen jumps and magnetic viscosity in NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoBue, M.; Basso, V.; Beatrice, G.; Bertotti, C.; Durin, G.; Sasso, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    We present the analysis of Barkhausen noise measured on a Nd-Fe-B sintered sample during viscosity experiments at constant applied field H. The measured jump sizes give direct evidence that the dominant magnetization process is the reversal of a single or of a small group of grains. The Barkhausen noise average amplitude allows to evaluate the viscosity coefficient S and the related activation volume v a . We found v a 1/3 ∼ 6nm which is comparable to the domain wall width, in agreement with previous interpretations. The Barkhausen jump sizes show a power-law distribution independent of the time elapsed from the beginning of the relaxation. This fact validates the interpretation of the observed relaxations as due to thermal activation over a distribution of energy barriers

  2. Barkhausen jumps and magnetic viscosity in NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LoBue, M. [Instituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)]. E-mail: lobue@ien.it; Basso, V. [Instituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Beatrice, G. [Instituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Bertotti, C. [Instituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Durin, G. [Instituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Sasso, C.P. [Instituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2005-04-15

    We present the analysis of Barkhausen noise measured on a Nd-Fe-B sintered sample during viscosity experiments at constant applied field H. The measured jump sizes give direct evidence that the dominant magnetization process is the reversal of a single or of a small group of grains. The Barkhausen noise average amplitude allows to evaluate the viscosity coefficient S and the related activation volume v{sub a}. We found v{sub a}{sup 1/3} {approx} 6nm which is comparable to the domain wall width, in agreement with previous interpretations. The Barkhausen jump sizes show a power-law distribution independent of the time elapsed from the beginning of the relaxation. This fact validates the interpretation of the observed relaxations as due to thermal activation over a distribution of energy barriers.

  3. Effect of {gamma}-ray irradiation on the magnetic properties of NdFeB and Fe-Cr-Co permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: zhenl@hit.edu.cn; Li, G.A. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu, C.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shao, W.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The effect of {gamma}-ray irradiation on the magnetic properties of NdFeB and Fe-Cr-Co permanent magnets has been investigated. The magnetic flux loss of two kinds of magnets before and after irradiation was measured. Results show that the effect of {gamma}-ray irradiation on the magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB is not so obvious as that on Fe-Cr-Co magnet. Irradiation-induced damage from {gamma}-ray for the Fe-Cr-Co magnets was characterized for the first time. The decline of permanent magnetic properties of Fe-Cr-Co magnet induced by {gamma}-ray irradiation is reversible except for the maximum energy product (BH){sub max}. The difference of coercivity mechanism between these two kinds of permanent magnets is responsible for the different dependence of magnetic properties loss induced by {gamma}-ray irradiation.

  4. Characterization of nanocomposite NdFeB permanent magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Husin Salleh; Hussain, P.; Mohammad, M.; Abd Aziz Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    The following topics were discussed: Introduction to NdFeB magnet, grain size measurement using XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM , TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and SANS (Small-angle Neutron Scattering). The objective of the project are to analyze the structure of nano-crystallite formed in the melt spun ribbons after annealing by XRD, FESEM,TEM and SANS, to study the magnetic properties of nano-composite NdFeB melt spun ribbons and their bonded magnet and possible usage in small motor to replace the conventional NdFeB bonded magnet

  5. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) superstructure with high coercivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Citakovic, Nada [Military Academy, Generala Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Panjan, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stanojevic, Boban [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Markovic, Dragana [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Dorde [Center for Solid State Physics and New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Spasojevic, Vojislav [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas TEM shows {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M{sub r} = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M{sub S} = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T{sub M} = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface

  6. Sintering and densification; new techniques: sinter forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnubst, A.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter pressure assisted sintering methods will be described. Attention will mainly be paid to sinter forging as a die-wall free uniaxial pressure sintering technique, where large creep strains are possible. Sinter forging is an effective tool to reduce sintering temperature and time and to obtain a nearly theoretically dense ceramic. In this way grain size in tetragonal zirconia ceramics can be reduced down to 100 nm. Another important phenomenon is the reduction of the number density and size of cracks and flaws resulting in higher strength and improved reliability, which is of utmost importance for engineering ceramics. The creep deformation during sinter forging causes a rearrangement of the grains resulting in a reduction of interatomic spaces between grains, while grain boundary (glassy) phases can be removed. The toughness and in some cases the wear resistance is enhanced after sinter forging as a result of the grain-boundary-morphology improvement. (orig.)

  7. Temperature compensation of NdFeB permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Doose, C.

    1997-01-01

    Permanent magnet blocks of NdFeB have a relatively high maximum energy product. Because of its relatively low Curie temperature, however, NdFeB has a large temperature coefficient for its residual induction. The temperature coefficients of the relative magnetic fields (ΔB/B)/ΔT in the air gap of NdFeB dipole magnets were reduced from -1.1 x 10 -3 /c to less than 2 x 10 -5 /degree C under operating temperatures of ± 6 C. This was achieved passively by using 1.25-mm-thick strips of 30%-Ni-Fe alloy as flux shunts for the NdFeB blocks. The magnets with soft-steel poles and flux-return yokes were assembled and measured in a temperature-controlled environment

  8. Synthesis of core-shell hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates: Quantitative analysis of the particle structure and shape, high coercivity and low cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marin; Kopanja, Lazar; Panjan, Matjaz; Kralj, Slavko; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2017-05-01

    Hematite core-shell nanoparticles with plate-like morphology were synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal synthesis. An XRPD analysis indicates that the sample consist of single-phase α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. SEM and TEM measurements show that the hematite sample is composed of uniform core-shell nanoplates with 10-20 nm thickness, 80-100 nm landscape dimensions (aspect ratio ∼5) and 3-4 nm thickness of the surface shells. We used computational methods for the quantitative analysis of the core-shell particle structure and circularity shape descriptor for the quantitative shape analysis of the nanoparticles from TEM micrographs. The calculated results indicated that a percentage of the shell area in the nanoparticle area (share [%]) is significant. The determined values of circularity in the perpendicular and oblique perspective clearly show shape anisotropy of the nanoplates. The magnetic properties revealed the ferromagnetic-like properties at room temperature with high coercivity HC = 2340 Oe, pointing to the shape and surface effects. These results signify core-shell hematite nanoparticles' for practical applications in magnetic devices. The synthesized hematite plate-like nanoparticles exhibit low cytotoxicity levels on the human lung fibroblasts (MRC5) cell line demonstrating the safe use of these nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  9. Recent development in bonded NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, B.M.; Herchenroeder, J.W.; Smith, B.; Suda, M.; Brown, D.N.; Chen, Z.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic properties of isotropic NdFeB powders used for bonded magnets are compared. The characteristics of two newly developed powders, namely MQP-13-9 and MQP-S-9-8 were compared with respect to existing powders. The advantages of spherical powders for injection molding were highlighted. Development targets for the 180 deg. C application and NdFeB nanocomposites were also discussed

  10. NdFeB Residue to Be Recycled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ NdFeB is a permanent magnetic material with excellent performances. It is widely used in electronics and communications. Around 30% of rare earth elements (among which 90% is Nd, others are Tb and Dy) and 2-3% of Co element are contained in the material. NdFeB plays an important role in the development of our society and our economy.

  11. Isotropic and anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB-based magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering and hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.W.; Huang, Y.L.; Huang, H.Y.; Zhong, X.C.; Yu, Y.H.; Zeng, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB permanent magnets were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and SPS followed hot deformation (HD), respectively, using melt spun NdFeB ribbons with various compositions as starting materials. It is found that, based on RE-rich composition, SPSed magnets sintered at low temperatures (<700 C) almost maintained the uniform fine grain structure inherited from rapid quenching. At higher temperatures, a distinct two-zone (coarse grain and fine grain zones) structure was formed in the SPSed magnets. The SPS temperature and pressure have important effects on the grain structure, which led to the variations in the magnetic properties. By employing low SPS temperature and high pressure, high-density magnets with negligible coarse grain zone and an excellent combination of magnetic properties can be obtained. For single phase NdFeB alloy, because of the deficiency of Nd-rich phases, it is relatively difficult to consolidate micro-sized melt spun powders into high density bulk magnet, but generally a larger particle size is beneficial to achieve better magnetic properties. Anisotropic magnets with a maximum energy product of approx. equal to 38 MGOe were produced by the SPS+HD process. HD did not lead to obvious grain growth and the two-zone structure still existed in the hot deformed magnets. The results indicated that nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets without significant grain growth and with excellent properties could be obtained by SPS and HD processes. (author)

  12. Use of paired, bonded NdFeB magnets in redox magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Prabhu U; Clark, Emily A; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2005-02-15

    Bonded neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) permanent magnets in a paired configuration were successfully used to control mass transport in redox-based, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Control of fluid flow based on magnetic fields has potential for use in portable lab-on-a-chip (LOAC) and analytical devices. Bonded magnets, composed of magnetic powder and organic binder materials, are less expensive and easier to fabricate and pattern than electromagnets and sintered permanent magnets, which have been previously used in MHD studies on electrochemical systems. The ability to pattern bonded magnets near and around the electrodes is expected to allow for better control over the magnetic field distribution and solution flow. Current was generated at an 800-microm-radius platinum disk electrode in a solution of 0.06 M nitrobenzene and 0.5 M tetra-n-butylammonium hexafluorophosphate in acetonitrile. Increases in limiting current in the presence of the magnetic field, which indicate enhancement in mass transport, for sintered (210+/-14%, N = 4, where B(r) = 1.23 T and magnetic field strength is 0.55 T) and bonded (94+/-8%, N = 4, where B(r) = 0.41 T and magnetic field strength is 0.20 T) magnets, were similar to those obtained using an electromagnet with the same magnetic flux densities. The magnetic field strength and not the magnet type is important in controlling fluid flow, which is encouraging for integration of bonded permanent magnets into LOAC devices.

  13. The development of microstructure during hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination treatment of sintered neodymium-iron-boron-type magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, R.S.; Harris, I.R.; Walton, A.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of the hydrogenation disproportionation desorption and recombination (HDDR) process on scrap sintered neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) type magnets have been investigated. At each stage of the process, the microstructural changes have been studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points and then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. This process was accelerated at particle surfaces and at free surfaces produced by any cracks in the powder particles. However, the recombination reaction appeared to initiate randomly throughout the particles with no apparent preference for particle surfaces or internal cracks. During the hydrogenation of the grain boundaries and triple junctions, the disproportionation reaction was, however, affected by the much higher oxygen content of the sintered NdFeB compared with that of the as-cast NdFeB alloys. Throughout the entire HDDR reaction the oxidised triple junctions (from the sintered structure) remained unreacted and hence, remained in their original form in the fine recombined microstructure. This resulted in a very significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure and this could lend to improved consolidation in the recycled magnets. - Highlights: • Disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points. • Disproportionation then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. • Disproportionation was affected by the high oxygen content of sintered NdFeB. • Oxidised triple points remain unreacted in original form in final HDDR structure. • Significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure.

  14. The development of microstructure during hydrogenation–disproportionation–desorption–recombination treatment of sintered neodymium-iron-boron-type magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheridan, R.S.; Harris, I.R.; Walton, A., E-mail: a.walton@bham.ac.uk

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of the hydrogenation disproportionation desorption and recombination (HDDR) process on scrap sintered neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) type magnets have been investigated. At each stage of the process, the microstructural changes have been studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points and then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. This process was accelerated at particle surfaces and at free surfaces produced by any cracks in the powder particles. However, the recombination reaction appeared to initiate randomly throughout the particles with no apparent preference for particle surfaces or internal cracks. During the hydrogenation of the grain boundaries and triple junctions, the disproportionation reaction was, however, affected by the much higher oxygen content of the sintered NdFeB compared with that of the as-cast NdFeB alloys. Throughout the entire HDDR reaction the oxidised triple junctions (from the sintered structure) remained unreacted and hence, remained in their original form in the fine recombined microstructure. This resulted in a very significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure and this could lend to improved consolidation in the recycled magnets. - Highlights: • Disproportionation reaction initiates at grain boundaries and triple points. • Disproportionation then propagates towards the centre of the matrix grains. • Disproportionation was affected by the high oxygen content of sintered NdFeB. • Oxidised triple points remain unreacted in original form in final HDDR structure. • Significant reduction in the proportion of cavitation in the final microstructure.

  15. Influence of annealing temperature on the Dy diffusion process in NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Sheng-qing, E-mail: joy_hsq@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Peng, Kun, E-mail: kpeng@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Sintered NdFeB magnets were coated with a layer of Dy metal using electron beam evaporation method and then annealed at various temperatures to investigate the temperature dependence of Dy diffusion process in NdFeB magnets. A Dy-rich phase was observed along the grain boundaries after the grain boundary diffusion process, the diffusion coefficients of various temperatures were obtained, the diffusion coefficients of Dy along the grain boundaries at 800 °C and 900 °C were determined to be 9.8×10{sup −8} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} and 2.4×10{sup −7} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}, respectively. The diffusion length depended on the annealing temperature and the maximum diffusion length of approximately 1.8 mm and 3.0 mm can be obtained after annealing at 800 °C and 900 °C for 8 h. Higher diffusion temperature results in the diffusion not only along the grain boundaries but also into grains and then decrease in magnetic properties. The optimum annealing conditions can be determined as 900 °C for 8 h. The coercivity was improved from 1040 kA/m to 1450 kA/m and its magnetization has no significant reduction after the grain boundary diffusion process at the optimum annealing conditions. - Highlights: • The optimum annealing conditions can be determined as 900 °C for 8 h. • The diffusion coefficient of Dy at 900 °Care determined to be 2.4×10{sup −7} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}. • A maximum diffusion length of about 3 mm can be obtained.

  16. Soapnut extract mediated synthesis of nanoscale cobalt substituted NdFeB ferromagnetic materials and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. V. S. Jayapala; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Shameer, Syed; Rao, M. Purnachandra

    2018-04-01

    Neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) permanent magnets have high energy product with suitable magnetic and physical properties for an array of applications including power generation and motors. However, synthetic routes of NdFeB permanent magnets involve critical procedures with high energy and needs scientific skills. Herein, we report on soapnut extract mediated synthesis of nanoscale cobalt substituted NdFeB (Co-NdFeB) permanent magnetic powders (Nd: 15%, Fe: 77.5%, B: 7.5% and Co with molar ratios: 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2). A 10 ml of 10% soapnut extract was added to 90 ml of respective chemical composition and heated to 60 °C for 30 min and aged for 24 h. The dried powder was sintered at 500 °C for 1 h. The characterization of the prepared nanoscale Co-NdFeB magnetic powders was done using the techniques such as Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS for size and zeta potential measurements), X-ray diffraction (XRD) for structural determination, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) for surface morphological and elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the identification of functional groups associated and hysteresis loop studies to quantify the magnetization. The results revealed that particles were in irregular and tubular shaped and highly stable (Zeta potential: -44.4 mV) with measured size <100 nm. XRD micrographs revealed a tetragonal crystal structure and FTIR showed predominant N-H and O-H stretching indicates the involvement of these functional groups in the reduction and stabilization process of Co-NdFeB magnetic powders. Hysteresis studies signify the effect of an increase in Co concentration.

  17. The impact of processing parameters on the properties of Zn-bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelhar, Luka; Zavašnik, Janez; McGuiness, Paul; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-12-01

    We report on the effect of loading factor and pressure on the density and the magnetic properties of Zn-bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets produced by pulsed-electric-current sintering (PECS). The idea behind this study is to fabricate bonded magnets with a metallic binder in order for the bonded magnet to operate at temperatures higher than 180 °C: the current upper-limit for polymer-bonded magnets. These composites are made of hard-magnetic powder in the form of melt-spun ribbons bonded with the low-melting-point metal Zn. The binder additions were varied from 10 to 30 wt%, and pressures of 50 and 500 MPa were applied. The high-pressure mode with 20 wt% Zn resulted in a 24% increase of Jr, compared to the low-pressure mode. The magnetic measurements revealed a maximum remanence of 0.64 T for 10 wt% Zn, while the coercivity is largely unaffected by the processing conditions. The density of the composites was up to 7.0 g/cm3, corresponding to 94% of the theoretical density. Compared to commercial polymer-bonded magnets, the Zn-bonded counterparts exhibit a slightly lower Jr, but the coercivity is retained. We show that there is a minor diffusion of Zn into the Nd-Fe-B, forming a 1 μm thin transition layer, but it does not harm the magnetic properties. These metal-bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets are ideal for use in high-temperature automotive applications like under-the-hood sensors and other magnet-based devices that are close to the engine.

  18. ASPECTS REGARDING MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF STEELS FOR MAGNETS, NDFEB BASED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELANIA TĂMAŞ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental research concerning the behavior on cutting by turning of steels for magnets NdFeB based. In this context, cutting by rough turning of steels magnet neodymium and boron ferrite based were performed. Turning processing with the values of the cutting parameters recommended by European Union and Sandvik Coromant company rules, taking into account the chemical composition of the processed material and cutting tool were performed. The tables have been drawn up with different values of the cutting parameters. By comparing these data it can be concluded that steels for permanent magnets, NdFeB based have acceptable behavior, the process by rough turning. A full assessment of the optimization of the cutting by turning process of steels for permanent magnet, NdFeB base will result from subsequent experimental research that will take into account the wear of cutting tools and quality (roughness of processed surface.

  19. Harvinaisten maametallien talteenotto NdFeB -magneeteista

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Tutkielman kirjallisessa osassa käsitellään yleisesti harvinaisia maametalleja, niiden ominaisuuksia, valmistusta, käyttökohteita ja kierrätystä lopputuotteista. Harvinaisten maametallien käyttökohteista keskitytään neodyymi-rauta-boori -magneetteihin (NdFeB -magneetit) ja niiden kierrätykseen. Tutkielmassa käydään läpi erilaiset harvinaisten maametallien hydrometallurgiset ja pyrometallurgiset talteenottomenetelmät. Tutkimusprojektissa pyrittiin kehittämään NdFeB -magneettien kierrätysme...

  20. MAGNETIC VISCOSITY IN NdFeB MAGNETS

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez , J.; Missell , F.

    1988-01-01

    The relaxation of the magnetization is calculated for isotropic and anisotropic magnets. For NdFeB magnets, the dependence of Sv on texture, above room temperature, is roughly consistent with the model, while the NdDyFeB magnets show no dependence upon texture.

  1. Effects of rare earth oxide addition on NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, K.; Yokoyama, T.; Tawara, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of addition of rare-earth oxides on the magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets are studied. The addition of Dy 2 O 3 and Tb 4 O 7 leads to an increase in intrinsic coercivity. For addition of Dy 2 O 3 , the optimum conditions for powder mixing and the optimum Dy 2 O 3 particle size were determined. A mixing time of more than 10 minutes, and a Dy 2 O 3 particle size of less than 3 μm, are required to obtain a high intrinsic coercivity. EPMA measurements of NdFeBAl magnets with Dy 2 O 3 added reveal an inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix: the material is Dy-rich near grain boundaries, but Dy-poor within the matrix. The appearance of such an inhomogeneous distribution of Dy is attributed to the reduction of Dy 2 O 3 in the Nd-rich phases, followed by diffusion of the resulting Dy atoms into the matrix

  2. Magnetic Behavior of Sintered NdFeB Magnets on a Long-Term Timescale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Haavisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable polarization of permanent magnets over the lifetime of the application is an important aspect in electrical machine design. Specification of the long-term stability of magnet material is difficult, since knowledge of the phenomenon is incomplete. To be able to optimize magnet material selection, the long-term magnetic behavior of the material must also be understood. This study shows that material with a very square JH curve is stable until a certain critical operating temperature is reached. Major losses are detected as the critical temperature is exceeded. Material with a rounder JH curve does not show a well-defined critical temperature, but increasing losses over a large temperature range. The critical temperature of a material is also dependent on the field conditions. Results differ whether the tests are performed in an open or closed magnetic circuit. In open-circuit tests, the opposing field is not homogeneously distributed throughout the volume of the magnet and thus the long-term behavior is different than that in closed-circuit conditions. Open-circuit tests seem to give bigger losses than closed-circuit tests in cases where the permeance coefficient of the open-circuit sample is considered to be the average permeance coefficient, calculated according to the dimensions of the magnet.

  3. Recoil curve properties and coercive force decrease ratio in NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yutaka, E-mail: Yutaka_Matsuura@hitachi-metals.co.jp; Kitai, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Rintaro; Natsumeda, Toshimitsu; Hoshijima, Jun

    2013-11-15

    It is examined that whether a reverse domain and magnetic domain wall exist in a lower demagnetization area than the coercive force and whether the observed demagnetization ratio curve can be explained using the alignment distribution function or not. From measurements of the recoil curve in the low demagnetization field, it was confirmed that minor demagnetization occurred in every demagnetization field and magnets of every grade of coercive force. The alignment distribution of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains was also measured by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). The alignments and the coercive force decrease ratios were calculated using these alignment distributions. These data were compared against the results obtained from magnetization measurements. From EBSD data, it was found that the alignment distributions of magnets used in this experiment were close to a Gaussian distribution. It was also found that there was no difference in the alignment distribution between magnets with Dy and without Dy, even though the coercive force decrease ratios were Dy dependent. The calculated alignments using the alignment distribution functions were close to the values of magnetization measurements. However, it was found that the calculated coercive force decrease ratios were different from the results obtained from magnetization measurement. - Highlights: • Reverse magnetic domains already exist lower magnetic field than coercive force. • Demagnetization happens not only from surface but also from inside of magnets. • Calculated alignment agrees well with that of the magnetic properties measurement. • Coercive force decrease ratio could not explain from alignment distribution. • We could not find any difference with and without Dy magnets in alignment distribution.

  4. Sintering of nonstoichiometric UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susnik, D.; Holc, J.

    1983-01-01

    Activated sintering of UO 2 pellets at 1100 deg C is described. In CO 2 atmosphere is UO 2 is nonstoichiometric and pellets from active UO 2 powders sinter at 900 deg C to high density. At 1100 deg C the final sintered density is practically achieved at heating on sintering temperature. After reduction and cooling in H 2 atmosphere which is followed sintering in CO 2 the structure is identical to the structured UO 2 pellets sintered at high temperature in H 2 . Density of activated sintered UO 2 pellets is stable, even after additional sintering at 1800 deg C. (author)

  5. A preliminary electron backscattered diffraction study of sintered NdFeB-type magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, S J; Williams, A J; Davies, B E; Harris, I R

    2002-03-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to study orientation in sintered NdFeB type magnets. The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are greatly improved if a strong crystallographic texture is firstly achieved, namely, the direction of the c-axis is along the direction of magnetization. A systematic survey of sample preparation techniques showed that samples that were mechanically polished and then etched gave the most reliable EBSD data. Analyses were made using both fully automated EBSD scans and by EBSD measurements taken after manual movement of the beam. The EBSD results are presented as secondary electron SEM micrographs, orientation images and 001 pole figures. For the selection of grains investigated, the deviation of the c-axis was shown to be between 10 degrees and 30 degrees from the ideal [001]//magnetization direction. It is demonstrated that EBSD is a valuable tool for characterizing the microstructure and texture relationships and for assessing the performance of the processing routes of NdFeB magnets.

  6. Sintering of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Pointud, R.

    1955-01-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [fr

  7. Enhanced method of magnetic powder alignment for production of PLP Nd-Fe-B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A.G. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Str. S. Kovalevskoy, 18, 620137 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, Av. Mira, 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Golovnia, O.A., E-mail: golovnya@imp.uran.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Str. S. Kovalevskoy, 18, 620137 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, Av. Mira, 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Protasov, A.V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Str. S. Kovalevskoy, 18, 620137 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, Av. Mira, 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    It is demonstrated how the high degree of powder alignment in PLP magnets can be achieved by loading the powder into a container placed in a magnetic field of moderate strength. The strip-cast alloy with a composition of 30.00 Nd, 1.95 Dy, 66.42 Fe, 0.99 B, 0.54 Co, 0.1 Ga (wt%) was subjected to hydrogen decrepitation and then milled in a vibratory mill in toluene to an average particle size of 2.9 µm determined by the FSSS method. The powder was compacted in the magnetic field of 0.2 – 1.2 T to the filling density 2.6 – 3.2×10{sup 3} kg/m{sup 3}. It is shown that loading the powder into a container placed in a magnetic field enhances the degree of powder alignment in sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets produced from non-pressed powder. At the filling density less than 3.2×10{sup 3} kg/m{sup 3}, the density of magnets is high but insufficient, because of the formation of magnetostatic chains of particles, which impedes the powder compaction. The simulation by the discrete-element method qualitatively proves that the magnetostatic interaction of the chains of particles that are formed in the course of loading in the magnetic field stimulates a decrease in the density of the sintered magnets and its non-uniform distribution over the sample. As a result of the optimization of the parameters of the alignment and compaction of the powder loaded in a magnetic field, PLP magnets with B{sub r} ≥1.34 T, H{sub c} ≥950 kA/m, (BH){sub max} ≥340 kJ/m{sup 3}, and the degree of alignment exceeding 96% were produced. - Highlights: • The pressless process (PLP) in magnet production is studied. • A new method of the loading of powder in an applied DC magnetic field is suggested. • The method allows achieving higher degree of alignment in moderate magnetic field. • Density of sintered magnets is studied experimentally and via DEM simulation. • Low density is caused by the formation of magnetostatic chains of powder particles.

  8. Enhanced method of magnetic powder alignment for production of PLP Nd-Fe-B magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.G.; Golovnia, O.A.; Protasov, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    It is demonstrated how the high degree of powder alignment in PLP magnets can be achieved by loading the powder into a container placed in a magnetic field of moderate strength. The strip-cast alloy with a composition of 30.00 Nd, 1.95 Dy, 66.42 Fe, 0.99 B, 0.54 Co, 0.1 Ga (wt%) was subjected to hydrogen decrepitation and then milled in a vibratory mill in toluene to an average particle size of 2.9 µm determined by the FSSS method. The powder was compacted in the magnetic field of 0.2 – 1.2 T to the filling density 2.6 – 3.2×10 3 kg/m 3 . It is shown that loading the powder into a container placed in a magnetic field enhances the degree of powder alignment in sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets produced from non-pressed powder. At the filling density less than 3.2×10 3 kg/m 3 , the density of magnets is high but insufficient, because of the formation of magnetostatic chains of particles, which impedes the powder compaction. The simulation by the discrete-element method qualitatively proves that the magnetostatic interaction of the chains of particles that are formed in the course of loading in the magnetic field stimulates a decrease in the density of the sintered magnets and its non-uniform distribution over the sample. As a result of the optimization of the parameters of the alignment and compaction of the powder loaded in a magnetic field, PLP magnets with B r ≥1.34 T, H c ≥950 kA/m, (BH) max ≥340 kJ/m 3 , and the degree of alignment exceeding 96% were produced. - Highlights: • The pressless process (PLP) in magnet production is studied. • A new method of the loading of powder in an applied DC magnetic field is suggested. • The method allows achieving higher degree of alignment in moderate magnetic field. • Density of sintered magnets is studied experimentally and via DEM simulation. • Low density is caused by the formation of magnetostatic chains of powder particles.

  9. NdFeB permanent magnets with various Nd content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, Tomáš; Talijan, N.; Ćosović, V.; Grujić, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2008), s. 279-282 ISSN 0587-4246. [Czech and Slovak Conference on Magnetism /13./ (CSMAG'07). Košice, 09.08.2007-12.08.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : NdFeB permanent magnets * Mossbauer effect * X-ray Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.321, year: 2008

  10. Science of sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczynski, G.

    1977-01-01

    Although the methods of integration of materials by sintering, have been used since the early history of humanity, the actual understanding of the process involved came only in the last three decades. As in the most human endeavors, the art preceded theory. The comprehension of the elementary processes occuring during sintering comes from the studies of model system. Although the elementary processes occuring during sintering are today quite well understood, the problem of shrinkage of a powder compact which was at the origin of Sintering Science is still far from solved. This is due to the complexity of the internal geometry of the compacts. The recent attempts to apply statistics to this problem, seem to offer some promise

  11. Uranium dioxide. Sintering test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Description of a sintering method and of the equipment devoted to uranium dioxide powder caracterization and comparison between different samples. Determination of the curve giving specific volume versus pressure and micrographic examination of a pellet at medium pressure [fr

  12. Kinetics of UO2 sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.M.

    1962-01-01

    Detailed conclusions related to the UO 2 sintering can be drawn from investigating the kinetics of the sintering process. This report gives an thorough analysis of the the data concerned with sintering available in the literature taking into account the Jander and Arrhenius laws. This analysis completes the study of influence of the O/U ratio and the atmosphere on the sintering. Results presented are fundamentals of future theoretical and experimental work related to characterisation of the UO 2 sintering process

  13. Thermal aging of melt-spun NdFeB magnetic powder in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Balogh, Michael P.; Ellison, Nicole; Foto, Aldo; Sechan, Martin; Tessema, Misle M.; Thompson, Margarita P.

    2016-01-01

    High energy product neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets are the premier candidate for demanding electrified vehicle traction motor applications. Injection molded (IM) or compression molded (CM) magnets made using NdFeB powders are promising routes to improve motor efficiency, cost, and manufacturability. However, IM and CM NdFeB magnets are susceptible to substantial thermal aging losses at motor operating temperatures when exposed to the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used as a lubricant and cooling medium. The intrinsic coercivity H ci of NdFeB IM and CM magnets degrades by as much as 18% when aged for 1000 h in ATF at 150 °C, compared to a 3% loss when aged in air. Here we report aging studies of rapidly quenched NdFeB powder in air, ATF, and H 2 gas. Expansion of the NdFeB crystal lattice in both ATF and H 2 identified hydrogen dissociated from the ATF during aging and diffused into the primary NdFeB phase as the probable cause of the coercivity loss of IM and CM magnets. - Highlights: • Injection molded NdFeB magnets age rapidly in automatic transmission fluid (ATF). • Coercivity loss is not due to direct chemical reaction between ATF and the powder. • Chemical reaction with the binder does not play a major role in aging. • Hydrogen dissociates from ATF and diffuses into Nd 2 Fe 14 B, reducing coercivity.

  14. Stabilization of the high coercivity ε-Fe2O3 phase in the CeO2–Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantlikova, A.; Poltierova Vejpravova, J.; Bittova, B.; Burianova, S.; Niznansky, D.; Ardu, A.; Cannas, C.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the processes leading to the formation of the Fe 2 O 3 and CeO 2 nanoparticles in the SiO 2 matrix in order to stabilize the ε-Fe 2 O 3 as the major phase. The samples with two different concentrations of the Fe were prepared by sol–gel method, subsequently annealed at different temperatures up to 1100 °C, and characterized by the Mössbauer spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and magnetic measurements. The evolution of the different Fe 2 O 3 phases under various conditions of preparation was investigated, starting with the preferential appearance of the γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase for the sample with low Fe concentration and low annealing temperature and stabilization of the major ε-Fe 2 O 3 phase for high Fe concentration and high annealing temperature, coexisting with the most stable α-Fe 2 O 3 phase. A continuous increase of the particle size of the CeO 2 nanocrystals with increasing annealing temperature was also observed. - Graphical abstract: The graphical abstract displays the most important results of our work. The significant change of the phase composition due to the variation of preparation conditions is demonstrated. As a result, significant change of the magnetic properties from superparamagnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 phase with negligible coercivity to the high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 phase has been observed. Highlights: ► Research of the stabilization of the high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 in CeO 2 –Fe 2 O 3 /SiO 2 . ► Samples with two different concentrations of Fe and three annealing temperatures. ► Phase transition γ→ε→(β)→α with increasing annealing temperature and particle size. ► Elimination of the superparamagnetic phases in samples with higher content of Fe. ► Best conditions for high coercivity ε-Fe 2 O 3 —higher Fe content and T A =1100°C.

  15. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji; Kabashima, Hisayuki

    2016-01-01

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  16. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takezawa, Masaaki, E-mail: take@ele.kyutech.ac.jp; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji [Department of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Kabashima, Hisayuki [Mazda Motor Corporation,3-1, Shinchi, Fuchu-cho, Aki-gun Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  17. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li Xiaomin [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Song Zhenlun [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)], E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn

    2009-11-15

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  18. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei; Li Xiaomin; Song Zhenlun

    2009-01-01

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  19. Sintering Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Randall M.

    1996-01-01

    Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment of this subject that will be of great use to manufacturers and scientists alike. This practical guide to sintering considers the fact that while the bonding process improves strength and other engineering properties of the compacted material, inappropriate methods of control may lead to cracking, distortion, and other defects. It provides a working knowledge of sintering, and shows how to avoid problems while accounting for variables such as particle size, maximum temperature, time at that temperature, and other problems that may cause changes in processing. The book describes the fundamental atomic events that govern the transformation from particles to solid, covers all forms of the sintering process, and provides a summary of many actual production cycles. Building from the ground up, it begins with definitions and progresses to measurement techniques, easing the transition, especially for students, into advanced topics such as single-phase solid-state sintering, microstructure changes, the complications of mixed particles, and pressure-assisted sintering. German draws on some six thousand references to provide a coherent and lucid treatment of the subject, making scientific principles and practical applications accessible to both students and professionals. In the process, he also points out and avoids the pitfalls found in various competing theories, concepts, and mathematical disputes within the field. A unique opportunity to discover what sintering is all about--both in theory and in practice What is sintering? We see the end product of this thermal

  20. Morphological analysis and modelling of sintering and of sintered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernot, Jean-Paul

    1982-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of solid phase sintering of metallic powders, and aims at describing as precisely as possible the different involved matter transport mechanisms, first by using a thermodynamic approach to sintering. Sintering diagrams are also used to determine prevailing mechanisms. The microstructure of sintered materials has been studied by using image quantitative analysis, thus by using a morphological approach to sintering. Morphological parameters allow, on the one hand, the evolution of powders during sintering to be followed, and, on the other hand, sintered products to be correctly characterised. Moreover, the author reports the study of the evolution of some physical properties of sintered materials with respect to their microstructure parameters. This leads to the development of a modelling of the behaviour of these materials [fr

  1. Sintering of Synroc D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Sintering has been investigated as a method for the mineralization and densification of high-level nuclear defense waste powder. Studies have been conducted on Synroc D composite powder LS04. Optimal densification has been found to be highly dependent on the characteristics of the starting material. Powder subjected to milling, which was believed to reduce the level of agglomeration and possibly particle size, was found to densify better than powder not subjected to this milling. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical could be achieved for samples sintered at 1150 to 1200 0 C. Mineralogy was found to be as expected for Synroc D for samples sintered in a CO 2 /CO atmosphere where the Fe +2 /Fe +3 ratio was maintained at 1.0 to 5.75. In a more oxidizing, pure CO 2 atmosphere a new phase, not previously identified in Synroc D, was found

  2. Sintering of composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordia, R.K.; Scherer, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Several constitutive laws have been used in the literature to predict the response of sintering bodies under external and internal stress fields. These analyses are based on the assumptions of linear and isotropic behavior. The authors provide a critical examination of these equations and show that some of the available constitutive laws predict a negative Poisson's ratio. These laws have been used to analyze sintering of ceramic matrix composites with rigid inclusions and predict large values of the internal stresses and significant retardation of the densification of composites. Since a negative value of Poisson's ratio has never been observed in sinter - forging experiments, the authors conclude that either the stresses are small (as predicted by the constitutive laws with positive Poisson's ratio) or the basic assumption of linearity and isotropy used in all the analyses is incorrect. Finally, the authors discuss some phenomena that could be important in understanding the densification of ceramic matrix composites

  3. Thermal aging of melt-spun NdFeB magnetic powder in hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Frederick E.; Balogh, Michael P.; Ellison, Nicole; Foto, Aldo; Sechan, Martin; Tessema, Misle M.; Thompson, Margarita P.

    2016-11-01

    High energy product neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets are the premier candidate for demanding electrified vehicle traction motor applications. Injection molded (IM) or compression molded (CM) magnets made using NdFeB powders are promising routes to improve motor efficiency, cost, and manufacturability. However, IM and CM NdFeB magnets are susceptible to substantial thermal aging losses at motor operating temperatures when exposed to the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used as a lubricant and cooling medium. The intrinsic coercivity Hci of NdFeB IM and CM magnets degrades by as much as 18% when aged for 1000 h in ATF at 150 °C, compared to a 3% loss when aged in air. Here we report aging studies of rapidly quenched NdFeB powder in air, ATF, and H2 gas. Expansion of the NdFeB crystal lattice in both ATF and H2 identified hydrogen dissociated from the ATF during aging and diffused into the primary NdFeB phase as the probable cause of the coercivity loss of IM and CM magnets.

  4. Fast neutron Damage Studies on NdFeB Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S.; Spencer, J.; Wolf, Z.; Boussoufi, M.; Baldwin, A.; Pellett, D.; Volk, J.

    2005-01-01

    Many materials and electronics need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) since both accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large fluences of hadrons, leptons and gamma’s over the life of the facility. While the linacs will be superconducting, there are still many uses for NdFeB in the damping rings, injection and extraction lines and final focus. Our understanding of the situation for rare earth, permanent magnet materials was presented at the P...

  5. Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.; Kaszuwara, W.

    2002-01-01

    Zinc and resin bonded NdFeB magnets were processed. Basic magnetic parameters as well as compressive strength were evaluated versus annealing temperature and volume fraction of the bonding agent. For the zinc bonded magnets phase composition was investigated. The additional NdZn 5 phase was found in the Zn bonded magnets after annealing. Comparison of the Zn and resin bonded magnets reveals higher remanence for the former and higher coercivity for the latter. For the Zn and resin bonded magnets, 15 wt.% Zn / 370 o C and 7-10 wt.% resin were chosen as the optimal processing parameters. (author)

  6. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of NdFeB Films through Nd Surface Diffusion Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Mingang; Zhang, Kewei; Chai, Yuesheng

    2017-01-01

    Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrates and subsequently annealed for 30 min at 923 K in vacuum. It was found that the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films strongly depend on the NdFeB layer thickness. With NdFeB layer thickness increasing, both the grain size and the strain firstly reduce and then increase. When NdFeB layer thickness is 750 nm, the strain reaches the minimum value. Meanwhile, both the in-plane and per...

  7. Environmental degradation of NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Gaolin [Wuhan University, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: gaolinyan@whu.edu.cn; McGuiness, P.J. [Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Farr, J.P.G.; Harris, I.R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Elms Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-10

    A mechanism for pitting of NdFeB magnet because of differential-aeration beneath a water droplet is proposed and observations of the localised corrosions are presented. NdFeB magnets exhibit general corrosion along the grain boundaries when etched in Viella's reagent. However, localised corrosion of these magnets results in a crater-like feature when corrosion is produced in an environmental chamber, e.g. when Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} magnets are corroded in the environmental chamber at 85 deg. C, relative humidity (RH): 80%. This is attributed to the condensation of water droplets on the surface of samples and the concentration gradient of oxygen dissolved in the droplets then influencing the corrosion process. It is thought that during the process of pitting, the high concentration of H{sup +} in the center of the pit accelerates the pit development; meanwhile, the cathodic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix phase absorbs the nascent hydrogen atoms. It is believed that pits start at the Nd-rich phase and then propagate along the grain boundaries.

  8. Magnetisation reversal on surface of Nd-Fe-B magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.; Woodward, R.; Street, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Time dependent magnetisation processes on surface of isotropic and anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnets were measured using a Magneto-Optic Magnetometer (MOM) and the data were analysed by means of the constitutive equation H = H(M, M). The surface magnetic viscosity parameter Λ (or fluctuation field H f ) was obtained. The activation volume v, which represents the volume of a negative magnetisation nuclei during a magnetisation reversal process was calculated from Λ. The results are compared with those of the corresponding bulk properties obtained by analysing the data measured using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Similar to bulk materials, Λ for the surface magnetisation is nearly constant over a wide range of magnetisation for both isotropic and anisotropic Nd-Fe-B. However, the surface hysteresis loops are significantly different from the bulk materials, indicating a significant difference in the magnetisation reversal processes between the bulk and surface materials. The surface magnetisation reversal mechanism, its relation and influence to the bulk properties and therefore the performance of permanent magnet are discussed

  9. Thin films of NdFeB deposited by PLD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, C.; Scarisoreanu, N.; Moldovan, A.; Dinescu, M.; Petrescu, L.; Epureanu, G.

    2007-01-01

    Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) is a material with important magnetic properties, mostly used in permanent magnet fabrication. Thin layers of NdFeB are needed for miniaturization in electrical engineering, electronics and for high-tech devices. In this paper we applied pulsed lased deposition (PLD) in vacuum for obtaining thin films of NdFeB from stoichiometric targets. The influence of different buffer layers and of the laser parameters (wavelength and fluence) on the NdFeB structures, composition and magnetic properties have been investigated. The obtained structures were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) has been performed for specific magnetic characterization

  10. Thin films of NdFeB deposited by PLD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, C. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG 16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoreanu, N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG 16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Moldovan, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG 16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG 16, RO-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: dinescum@ifin.nipne.ro; Petrescu, L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ' Politehnica' University of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Epureanu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ' Politehnica' University of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, 060042 Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-07-31

    Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) is a material with important magnetic properties, mostly used in permanent magnet fabrication. Thin layers of NdFeB are needed for miniaturization in electrical engineering, electronics and for high-tech devices. In this paper we applied pulsed lased deposition (PLD) in vacuum for obtaining thin films of NdFeB from stoichiometric targets. The influence of different buffer layers and of the laser parameters (wavelength and fluence) on the NdFeB structures, composition and magnetic properties have been investigated. The obtained structures were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) has been performed for specific magnetic characterization.

  11. Thermal aging of melt-spun NdFeB magnetic powder in hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkerton, Frederick E., E-mail: frederick.e.pinkerton@gm.com [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48092 (United States); Balogh, Michael P.; Ellison, Nicole [Chemical and Materials Systems Laboratory, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48092 (United States); Foto, Aldo [Element Materials Technology Wixom, Inc (United States); Sechan, Martin; Tessema, Misle M.; Thompson, Margarita P. [Powertrain Materials/Fluids/AMPPD Engineering and Labs, GFL VE/PT Materials Engineering, General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI 48340 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    High energy product neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets are the premier candidate for demanding electrified vehicle traction motor applications. Injection molded (IM) or compression molded (CM) magnets made using NdFeB powders are promising routes to improve motor efficiency, cost, and manufacturability. However, IM and CM NdFeB magnets are susceptible to substantial thermal aging losses at motor operating temperatures when exposed to the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used as a lubricant and cooling medium. The intrinsic coercivity H{sub ci} of NdFeB IM and CM magnets degrades by as much as 18% when aged for 1000 h in ATF at 150 °C, compared to a 3% loss when aged in air. Here we report aging studies of rapidly quenched NdFeB powder in air, ATF, and H{sub 2} gas. Expansion of the NdFeB crystal lattice in both ATF and H{sub 2} identified hydrogen dissociated from the ATF during aging and diffused into the primary NdFeB phase as the probable cause of the coercivity loss of IM and CM magnets. - Highlights: • Injection molded NdFeB magnets age rapidly in automatic transmission fluid (ATF). • Coercivity loss is not due to direct chemical reaction between ATF and the powder. • Chemical reaction with the binder does not play a major role in aging. • Hydrogen dissociates from ATF and diffuses into Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B, reducing coercivity.

  12. Net Shape 3D Printed NdFeB Permanent Magnet

    OpenAIRE

    Jacimovic, J.; Binda, F.; Herrmann, L. G.; Greuter, F.; Genta, J.; Calvo, M.; Tomse, T.; Simon, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    For two decades, NdFeB based magnets have been a critical component in a range of electrical devices engaged in energy production and conversion. The magnet shape and the internal microstructure of the selected NdFeB grade govern their efficiency and size. However, stricter requirements on device efficiency call for better performing magnets preferably with novel functionality not achievable today. Here we use 3D metal printing by Selective Laser Melting to fabricate dense net shape permanent...

  13. Magnetic structure and microstructure of die-upset hard magnets RE13.75Fe80.25B6 (RE=Nd, Pr): A possible origin of high coercivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.; Zhu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy magnetizing experiments combined with Lorentz magnetic microscopy in Fresnel endash Foucault modes were used to characterize the magnetic structure of die-upset, high energy-product hard magnets Nd 13.75 Fe 80.25 B 6 and Pr 13.75 Fe 80.25 B 6 . Experimental observations indicate a well-aligned grain structure and quasiperiodic nonaligned open-quotes extended defectclose quotes layers transverse to press direction. The local remanence of the open-quotes defectclose quotes layers is far from saturation when the external field is removed. The layers are enriched with inclusions of approximate composition Nd 7 Fe 3 , generally with a polygonal shape, and are associated with the original ribbon interfaces. They may be responsible for a high coercivity mechanism, since the motion of reverse domains can be impeded by these layers, even when they are nucleated. Thus, a delayed nucleation of reversed domains seems to be a limiting factor for magnetization reversal and coercivity force. Both Lorentz magnetic imaging and high-resolution microscopy highlight the role of magnetocrystalline anisotropy for domain wall-grain boundary interactions and pinning. Local remanence was estimated directly from magnetic moment sensitive Foucault images. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. Analysis of physical and magnetic properties of composite NdFeB bind with polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlan; Sardjono, P.; Muljadi; Setiabudidaya, D.; Gulo, F.

    2018-03-01

    The composite magnet NdFeB has been made using magnetic powder MQP-B and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the binder. The mixing compositions of raw materials used are: 95 wt% NdFeB - 5 wt% PVA, 92.5 wt% NdFeB - 7.5 wt% PVA, 90 wt.% NdFeB - 10 wt% PVA, and 87.5 wt% NdFeB - 12.5 wt% PVA. Both raw materials are weighed according to the composition, and then mixed until homogeneous. Furthermore, pellet forming was made using dry pressing at 50 kgf/cm2 pressures and continued with drying at 100 °C and 10 mmbar for 4 hours. The characterization includes bulk density, hardness, compressive strength measurements, and magnetic properties testing. The characterization results show that the optimal composition of binder PVA is achieved at 5–7.5 wt% NdFeB composite magnet with following properties: bulk density = 5.21–5.25 g/cm3, hardness = 302.17 - 304.32 Hv, compressive strength = 25.17–3.17 kgf/cm2, magnetic flux = 1150-1170 Gauss, remanence = 70.90–74.97 emu/g or 4.7–5.0 kGauss, coercivity = 8.68–8.76 kOe, and energy product = 2.89–3.04 MgOe.

  15. Kinetical analysis of the heat treatment procedure in SmCo5 and other rare-earth transition-metal sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Marcos Flavio de; Rangel Rios, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    In the processing of all types of commercial sintered rare-earth transition-metal magnets (SmCo 5 , Sm(CoCuFeZr) z , NdFeB) a post-sintering heat treatment is included, which is responsible for large increase of the coercive field. During this post-sintering heat treatment, there are phase transformations with diffusion of the alloying elements, moving the system towards the thermodynamic equilibrium. Due to the larger size of the rare-earth atoms, the diffusion of the rare-earth atoms in the lattice of rare-earth transition-metal phases like SmCo 5 , Sm 2 (Co, Fe) 17 or Nd 2 Fe 14 B should be very slow, implying that the diffusion of the rare-earth atoms should be controlling the overall kinetics of the process. From the previous assumption, a parameter named 'diffusion length of rare-earth atoms' is introduced as a tool to study the kinetics of the heat treatment in rare-earth magnets. Detailed microstructural characterization of SmCo 5 and NdFeB magnets did not indicate significant microstructural changes between sintering and heat treatment temperatures and it was suggested that the increase of coercivity can be related to decrease of the content of lattice defects. The sintering temperature is high, close to melting temperature, and in this condition there are large amount of defects in the lattice, possibly rare-earth solute atoms. Phase diagram analysis has suggested that a possible process for the coercivity increase can be the elimination of excess rare-earth atoms, i.e. solute atoms from a supersatured matrix. The 'diffusion length of rare-earth atoms' estimated from diffusion kinetics is compatible with the diffusion length determined from microstructure. For the case of SmCo 5 , it was found that the time of heat treatment necessary is around 20 times lower if an isothermal treatment at 850 deg. C is substituted by a slow cooling from sintering temperature 1150 to 850 deg. C. These results give support for the thesis that the coercivity increase is

  16. Influence of sintering atmospheres on the aluminium sintering characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintzer, S.; Bermudez Belkys, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the aluminium powder (Al) cool compacted (at 95% from theoretical density) which was sintered at 903 K during 4 hours at different atmospheres; oxidizing (air), inert Argon (Ar), Nitrogen (N) and high vacuum. The results obtained show: a) porosity measurements; greater porosity when sintering in Ar and air. b) Metallographic and Scanning observations: many fine pores (< 1 μm) and pore lines distributed at random, at air sintering and greater pores distributed preferentially near the surface, in Ar and N atmospheres. c) Dimensional changes: tendency to contraction of the samples at N and vacuum sintering and expansion in Ar or air. d) Mechanical properties: greater strength and fluence stresses at air and N sintering. The analysis of the results is performed considering sintering modes in presence of an oxide layer and dropped inert gases. (Author)

  17. Fast Neutron Damage Studies on NdFeB Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, James; Baldwin, A; Boussoufi, Moe; Pellet, David; Volk, James T; Wolf, Zachary

    2005-01-01

    Many materials and electronics need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) where the accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large fluences of hadrons, leptons and gammas over the life of the facility. Although the linacs will be superconducting, there are still many potential uses for NdFeB in the damping rings, injection and extraction lines and final focus. Our understanding of the radiation damage situation for rare earth permanent magnet materials was presented at PAC2003 and our first measurements of fast neutron, stepped doses at the UC Davis McClellan Nuclear Reactor Center (UCD MNRC) were presented at EPAC2004 where the damage appeared proportional to the distances between the effective operating points and Hc. Here we have extended those doses and included more commercial samples together with the induced radioactivities associated with their respective dopants. Hall probe data for the external induction distributions are compared with vector magnetizatio...

  18. Fast Neutron Damage Studies on NdFeB Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.; Spencer, J.; Wolf, Z.; /SLAC; Baldwin, A.; Pellett, D.; Boussoufi, M.; /UC, Davis

    2005-05-17

    Many materials and electronics need to be tested for the radiation environment expected at linear colliders (LC) since both accelerator and detectors will be subjected to large fluences of hadrons, leptons and {gamma}'s over the life of the facility [1]. While the linacs will be superconducting, there are still many uses for NdFeB in the damping rings, injection and extraction lines and final focus. Our understanding of the situation for rare earth, permanent magnet materials was presented at PAC03 [2]. Our first measurements of fast neutron, stepped doses at the UC Davis McClellan Nuclear Reactor Center (UCD MNRC) were presented at EPAC04 [3]. We have extended the doses, included other manufacturer's samples, and measured induced radioactivities which are discussed in detail.

  19. Boric oxide or boric acid sintering aid for sintering ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to the use of liquid sintering aid in processes involving sintering of ceramic materials to produce dense, hard articles having industrial uses. Although the invention is specifically discussed in regard to compositions containing silicon carbide as the ceramic material, other sinterable carbides, for example, titanium carbide, may be utilized as the ceramic material. A liquid sintering aid for densifying ceramic material is selected from solutions of H 3 BO 3 , B 2 O 3 and mixtures of these solutions. In sintering ceramic articles, e.g. silicon carbide, a shaped green body is formed from a particulate ceramic material and a resin binder, and the green body is baked at a temperature of 500 to 1000 0 C to form a porous body. The liquid sintering aid of B 2 O 3 and/or H 3 BO 3 is then dispersed through the porous body and the treated body is sintered at a temperature of 1900 to 2200 0 C to produce the sintered ceramic article. (U.K.)

  20. Hydrothermal Cold Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoyu

    Solid state sintering transforms particle compact to a physically robust and dense polycrystalline monolith driven by reduction of surface energy and curvature. Since bulk diffusion is required for neck formation and pore elimination, sintering temperature about 2/3 of melting point is needed. It thus places limitations for materials synthesis and integration, and contributes to significant energy consumption in ceramic processing. Furthermore, since surface transport requires lower temperature than bulk processes, grain growth is often rapid and can be undesired for physical properties. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed including Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS), Hot Pressing (HP) and Field Assisted Sintering Technique (FAST), which introduce either viscous melt, external pressure or electric field to speed up densification rates at lower temperature. However, because of their inherent reliability on bulk diffusion, temperatures required are often too high for integrating polymers and non-noble metals. Reduction of sintering temperature below 400 °C would require a different densification mechanism that is based on surface transport with external forces to drive volume shrinkage. Densification method combining uniaxial pressure and solution under hydrothermal condition was first demonstrated by Kanahara's group at Kochi University in 1986 and was brought to our attention by the work of Kahari, etc, from University of Oulu on densification of Li2MoO 4 in 2015. This relatively new process showed promising ultra-low densification temperature below 300 °C, however little was known about its fundamental mechanism and scope of applications, which became the main focus of this dissertation. In this work, a uniaxial hydraulic press, a standard stainless steel 1/2 inch diameter die with heating band were utilized in densifying metal oxides. Applied pressure and sintering temperature were between 100 MPa and 700 MPa and from room temperature to 300

  1. Flash sintering of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, C. E. J.

    2016-10-01

    During flash sintering, ceramic materials can sinter to high density in a matter of seconds while subjected to electric field and elevated temperature. This process, which occurs at lower furnace temperatures and in shorter times than both conventional ceramic sintering and field-assisted methods such as spark plasma sintering, has the potential to radically reduce the power consumption required for the densification of ceramic materials. This paper reviews the experimental work on flash sintering methods carried out to date, and compares the properties of the materials obtained to those produced by conventional sintering. The flash sintering process is described for oxides of zirconium, yttrium, aluminium, tin, zinc, and titanium; silicon and boron carbide, zirconium diboride, materials for solid oxide fuel applications, ferroelectric materials, and composite materials. While experimental observations have been made on a wide range of materials, understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the onset and latter stages of flash sintering is still elusive. Elements of the proposed theories to explain the observed behaviour include extensive Joule heating throughout the material causing thermal runaway, arrested by the current limitation in the power supply, and the formation of defect avalanches which rapidly and dramatically increase the sample conductivity. Undoubtedly, the flash sintering process is affected by the electric field strength, furnace temperature and current density limit, but also by microstructural features such as the presence of second phase particles or dopants and the particle size in the starting material. While further experimental work and modelling is still required to attain a full understanding capable of predicting the success of the flash sintering process in different materials, the technique non-etheless holds great potential for exceptional control of the ceramic sintering process.

  2. Fabrication of NdFeB microstructures using a silicon molding technique for NdFeB/Ta multilayered films and NdFeB magnetic powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yonggang; Fujita, Takayuki; Uehara, Minoru; Iga, Yuki; Hashimoto, Taichi; Hao, Xiuchun; Higuchi, Kohei; Maenaka, Kazusuke

    2011-01-01

    The silicon molding technique is described for patterning of NdFeB/Ta multilayered magnetic films and NdFeB magnetic powder at the micron scale. Silicon trenches are seamlessly filled by 12-μm-thick NdFeB/Ta multilayered magnetic films with a magnetic retentivity of 1.3 T. The topography image and magnetic field distribution image are measured using an atomic force microscope and a magnetic force microscope, respectively. Using a silicon molding technique complemented by a lift-off process, NdFeB magnetic powder is utilized to fabricate magnetic microstructures. Silicon trenches as narrow as 20 μm are filled by a mixture of magnetic powder and wax powder. The B-H hysteresis loop of the patterned magnetic powder is characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer, which shows a magnetic retentivity of approximately 0.37 T. - Highlights: → We demonstrate the fabrication of micro-magnets using silicon molding processes. → NdFeB/Ta films are well filled in silicon trenches with a thickness of 12 μm. → The 12-μm-thick NdFeB/Ta magnetic film shows a retentivity of 1.3 T. → Magnetic structures as narrow as 20 μm are fabricated using NdFeB magnetic powder. → VSM measurement shows a retentivity of 0.37 T for patterned NdFeB magnetic powder.

  3. Fabrication of NdFeB microstructures using a silicon molding technique for NdFeB/Ta multilayered films and NdFeB magnetic powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yonggang, E-mail: yonggangj@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Xueyuan Road No. 37, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Fujita, Takayuki [Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Uehara, Minoru [NEOMAX Co. Ltd., 2-15-17, Egawa, Shimamoto-Cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Iga, Yuki [Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Hashimoto, Taichi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Hao, Xiuchun; Higuchi, Kohei [Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Maenaka, Kazusuke [Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The silicon molding technique is described for patterning of NdFeB/Ta multilayered magnetic films and NdFeB magnetic powder at the micron scale. Silicon trenches are seamlessly filled by 12-{mu}m-thick NdFeB/Ta multilayered magnetic films with a magnetic retentivity of 1.3 T. The topography image and magnetic field distribution image are measured using an atomic force microscope and a magnetic force microscope, respectively. Using a silicon molding technique complemented by a lift-off process, NdFeB magnetic powder is utilized to fabricate magnetic microstructures. Silicon trenches as narrow as 20 {mu}m are filled by a mixture of magnetic powder and wax powder. The B-H hysteresis loop of the patterned magnetic powder is characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer, which shows a magnetic retentivity of approximately 0.37 T. - Highlights: > We demonstrate the fabrication of micro-magnets using silicon molding processes. > NdFeB/Ta films are well filled in silicon trenches with a thickness of 12 {mu}m. > The 12-{mu}m-thick NdFeB/Ta magnetic film shows a retentivity of 1.3 T. > Magnetic structures as narrow as 20 {mu}m are fabricated using NdFeB magnetic powder. > VSM measurement shows a retentivity of 0.37 T for patterned NdFeB magnetic powder.

  4. Mechanisms of sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Ashok; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    The basic mechanisms by which the material moves during sintering have not only held a strange fascination but are also very important in determining the properties of the end product. Kuczynski's exponent method has been subsequently refined by several schools to make it increasingly reliable. There is now a fairly good understanding of mechanisms in some of the materials. However in others the issue is complicated by their basic nature. The problems of ambiguity in criterion and that of more than one mechanism being simultaneously operative have been tackled with dexterity by Ashby for drawing sintering mechanism diagrams. The method has been modified to give Relative Contribution Diagrams (RCD). These yield additional information and have been used for analysis. The main criticism against this is that it uses a very large number of rate equations and material properties, which can communicate their inaccuracies to the diagram. A case study of UO 2 was undertaken and it has been shown quantitatively that inaccuracies in a smaller number of properties only affect the diagrams to any significant extent. (auth.)

  5. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengjie; Xu, Guangqing; Liu, Jiaqin; Yi, Xiaofei; Wu, Yucheng; Chen, JingWu

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Zn coated NdFeB specimens pretreated with different technologies possess different adhesive strengths and anticorrosion properties. And the combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the best comprehensive performance. - Highlights: • Zn coated NdFeB specimens are achieved with different pretreating technologies. • Combined technology possesses the highest adhesive strength. • Combined technology possesses excellent anticorrosion property. - Abstract: Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm 2 ) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  6. Enhancement in (BHmax of PLD-made isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick film magnets deposited on Si substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increase in Nd contents of a PLD-made isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick-film magnet enabled us to enhance the thickness of the film magnet deposited on a Si substrate because the linear expansion coefficient of Nd is an intermediate value between Nd2Fe14B and Si. The large amount of Nd, however, degraded the residual magnetic polarization and (BHmax. In the study, we reduced the Nd contents of each Nd-Fe-B film by inserting a Nd or a Nd-rich Nd-Fe-B buffer layer between a Nd-Fe-B film and a Si substrate in order to suppress the mechanical destruction together with the improvement in magnetic properties. It was found that the mechanical property of a Nd-Fe-B film comprising the Nd-Fe-B buffer layer in the thickness range from 10 to 60 μm was superior than that of a sample with the Nd buffer layer. Resultantly, an average (BHmax value of Nd-Fe-B films with each Nd-Fe-B buffer layer deposited on Si substrates could be enhanced by approximately 15 kJ/m3 compared to that of non-buffer-layered films.

  7. Laser sintering of copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, Michael; Saar, Amir; Ermak, Oleg; Kotler, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Copper nanoparticle (NP) inks serve as an attractive potential replacement to silver NP inks in functional printing applications. However their tendency to rapidly oxidize has so far limited their wider use. In this work we have studied the conditions for laser sintering of Cu-NP inks in ambient conditions while avoiding oxidation. We have determined the regime for stable, low-resistivity copper (< ×3 bulk resistivity value) generation in terms of laser irradiance and exposure duration and have indicated the limits on fast processing. The role of pre-drying conditions on sintering outcome has also been studied. A method, based on spectral reflectivity measurements, was used for non-contact monitoring of the sintering process evolution. It also indicates preferred spectral regions for sintering. Finally, we illustrated how selective laser sintering can generate high-quality, fine line (<5 µm wide) and dense copper circuits. (paper)

  8. NdFeB alloy as a magnetic electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shui, J.L.; Zhang, S.L.; Wei, X.; Xiang, Y.J.; Xie, S.; Zhu, C.F.; Chen, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The search for a reliable indicator of state of charge and even the remaining energy of a lithium-ion cell is of great importance for various applications. This study was an exploratory effort to use magnetic susceptibility as the indicator. In this work, for the first time the change of ac susceptibility of cells was in situ monitored during charge-discharge process. A strong permanent magnetic material, NdFeB alloy, was investigated as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Both original and partially oxidized NdFeB powders were made into electrodes. Structural characterization was performed on the NdFeB electrodes by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. An alloy (core)-oxide (shell) structure was found for those partially oxidized samples. The electrochemical cycling of cells made of the NdFeB electrodes against lithium was measured. The first lithium intercalation capacity of a treated NdFeB can be up to about 831 mAh/g, while a rather reversible capacity of up to 352 mAh/g can be obtained. With a specially designed cell, we were able to monitor in situ the change of relative ac susceptibility during charge and/or discharge steps. A clearly monotonous relationship is found between the ac susceptibility of a cell and its depth-of-discharge (DOD). A mechanism based on skin effect and eddy current change is proposed to explain this susceptibility versus DOD relationship

  9. NdFeB alloy as a magnetic electrode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Shui, J.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Wei, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Xiang, Y.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Zhu, C.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, C.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)]. E-mail: cchchen@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-04-05

    The search for a reliable indicator of state of charge and even the remaining energy of a lithium-ion cell is of great importance for various applications. This study was an exploratory effort to use magnetic susceptibility as the indicator. In this work, for the first time the change of ac susceptibility of cells was in situ monitored during charge-discharge process. A strong permanent magnetic material, NdFeB alloy, was investigated as an anode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Both original and partially oxidized NdFeB powders were made into electrodes. Structural characterization was performed on the NdFeB electrodes by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. An alloy (core)-oxide (shell) structure was found for those partially oxidized samples. The electrochemical cycling of cells made of the NdFeB electrodes against lithium was measured. The first lithium intercalation capacity of a treated NdFeB can be up to about 831 mAh/g, while a rather reversible capacity of up to 352 mAh/g can be obtained. With a specially designed cell, we were able to monitor in situ the change of relative ac susceptibility during charge and/or discharge steps. A clearly monotonous relationship is found between the ac susceptibility of a cell and its depth-of-discharge (DOD). A mechanism based on skin effect and eddy current change is proposed to explain this susceptibility versus DOD relationship.

  10. [The cytotoxicity of N48 NdFeB magnets coated with titanium-nitride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Ming; Hou, Zhi-Ming; Chu, Ming

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of N48 NdFeB magnets coated with titanium-nitride on the growth and apoptosis of L929 mouse fibroblast cells, and to determine the material biocompatibility. The NdFeB magnets coated with titanium-nitride, bare NdFeB magnets and ordinary brackets were put into RPMI-1640 to prepare fusions. L929 mouse fibroblast cells were cultivated in the negative control liquid, positive control liquid, 100%, 50% and 25% sample fusions, respectively. The cell proliferation vitality was detected by MTT assay and the relative growth rate was calculated.Cell scatter diagrams of the negative control liquid, 100% titanium-nitride coated magnets fusion and bare magnets fusion were detected by flow cytometry Annexin V/PI double staining method. The ratios of normal cells, early apoptosis, advanced apoptosis and necrosis cells were calculated. The results were analyzed for paired t test using SPSS11.5 software package. The toxic levels of N48 NdFeB coated with titanium-nitride were ranked as 0-1. The toxic levels of bare magnets were ranked as 2. The cell scatter diagrams showed that there was no significant difference in living cell, early apoptosis and necrosis between magnets coated with titanium-nitride and control group. But there was significant difference between the bare magnets group and control group. The N48 NdFeB magnets coated with titanium-nitride have good biocompatibility.

  11. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of NdFeB Films through Nd Surface Diffusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100 substrates and subsequently annealed for 30 min at 923 K in vacuum. It was found that the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films strongly depend on the NdFeB layer thickness. With NdFeB layer thickness increasing, both the grain size and the strain firstly reduce and then increase. When NdFeB layer thickness is 750 nm, the strain reaches the minimum value. Meanwhile, both the in-plane and perpendicular coercivities firstly drastically increase and then slowly decrease with NdFeB layer thickness increasing. The highest in-plane and perpendicular coercivities can be obtained at NdFeB layer thickness of 750 nm, which are 21.2 kOe and 19.5 kOe, respectively. In addition, the high remanence ratio (remanent magnetization/saturation magnetization of 0.87 can also be achieved in Ta/Nd/NdFeB (750 nm/Nd/Ta film.

  12. Direct Iron Coating onto Nd-Fe-B Powder by Thermal Decomposition of Iron Pentacarbonyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, S; Okano, M; Tanaka, T; Sumiyama, K; Nozawa, N; Nishiuchi, T; Hirosawa, S; Ohkubo, T

    2011-01-01

    Iron-coated Nd-Fe-B composite powder was prepared by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl in an inert organic solvent in the presence of alkylamine. Though this method is based on a modified solution-phase process to synthesize highly size-controlled iron nanoparticles, it is in turn featured by a suppressed formation of iron nanoparticles to achieve an efficient iron coating solely onto the surfaces of rare-earth magnet powder. The Nd-Fe-B magnetic powder was successfully coated by iron shells whose thicknesses were of the order of submicrometer to micrometer, being tuneable by the amount of initially loaded iron pentacarbonyl in a reaction flask. The amount of the coated iron reached to more than 10 wt.% of the initial Nd-Fe-B magnetic powder, which is practically sufficient to fabricate Nd-Fe-B/α-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets.

  13. Designing a Virtual laboratory for Simulating to Production of Nanocomposite NdFeB Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Faruk Çakir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The talent figure for a permanent magnet is the multiplication of the maximum energy (BHmax. Less volume magnet is required for the production of magnet flux density if the BHmax value is higher. Mathematical functions are obtained from the data related to resiudal flux density, magnetic coercitivy, permanent magnet flux product capability, Curie temperature and density which were obtained as a result of the studies on different NdFeB alloys in the laboratory. Besides this, mathematical functions of NdFeB hard magnet’s resiudal flux density are obtained by adding elements. In this study, a virtual laboratory for producing nanocompositedNdFeB magnet has been designed. The virtual laboratory software has been used to simulate NdFeB hard magnets for industrial utilities.

  14. Methods of characterization of multiphase Nd-Fe-B melt-spun alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite permanent magnetic materials based on Nd-Fe-B alloys with a low Nd content are a new type of permanent magnetic material. The microstructure of these nanocomposite permanent magnets is composed of a mixture of magnetically soft and hard phases providing the so called exchange coupling effect. Beside the optimization process parameters, methods of characterization have a very important role in the design of an optimal magnetic matrix of multiphase melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys. Different methods and techniques of characterization were used for observation and study of the microstructure evolution during crystallization. A summary results of measurements using different methods of characterization are presented to enable a better insight into relations between the microstructure and magnetic properties of the investigated melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys. .

  15. Characterization of corrosion products from Nd-Fe-B magnets used in dental prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Dantas, Elisabeth; Oliveira, Mara C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    A special group of magnets composed mainly by Nd-Fe-B has been widely used in dental applications as retentive devices for overdentures, due to their strong force and compactness. Dental materials should present high corrosion resistance and be innocuous to human tissues, however, Nd-Fe-B magnets are highly susceptible to corrosion. This work presents results obtained in the elemental analysis of Nd-Fe-B magnets and their corrosion products. The corrosion products were analyzed in the extracts of culture medium where the magnets had been immersed for 10 days at 37 deg C. Elements B, Co, Fe, La, Nd, Dy, Pr, Sm, Ho, Yb and Lu were found in the magnet and the analysis of extract indicated that Co, Fe and Nd are released from the magnet to the extract. Toxicity was also investigated in this extract using the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay. Acknowledgements: To FAPESP and CNPq for financial support. (author)

  16. Characterization of corrosion products from Nd-Fe-B magnets used in dental prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Dantas, Elisabeth; Oliveira, Mara C.L.

    2002-01-01

    A special group of magnets composed mainly by Nd-Fe-B has been widely used in dental applications as retentive devices for overdentures, due to their strong force and compactness. Dental materials should present high corrosion resistance and be innocuous to human tissues, however, Nd-Fe-B magnets are highly susceptible to corrosion. This work presents results obtained in the elemental analysis of Nd-Fe-B magnets and their corrosion products. The corrosion products were analyzed in the extracts of culture medium where the magnets had been immersed for 10 days at 37 deg C. Elements B, Co, Fe, La, Nd, Dy, Pr, Sm, Ho, Yb and Lu were found in the magnet and the analysis of extract indicated that Co, Fe and Nd are released from the magnet to the extract. Toxicity was also investigated in this extract using the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity assay. Acknowledgements: To FAPESP and CNPq for financial support. (author)

  17. Production of pure sintered alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da; Huebner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    With the aim of optimizing the sintering parameters, the strength of a large number of alumina samples was determined which were produced under widely varying sintering conditions and with different amounts of MgO content. The strength as a function of sintering time or temperature was found to go through a maximum. With increasing time, this maximum is shifted to lower temperatures, and with decreasing temperature to longer times. Data pairs of sintering times and temperatures which yeld the strength maximum were determined. The value of the strength at the maximum remains unchanged. The strength is high (= 400 MN/m 2 , at a grain size of 3 um and a porosity of 2 per cent) and comparable to foreign aluminas produced for commercial purposes, or even higher. The increase in the sintering time from 1 h to 16 h permits a reduction of the sintering temperature from 1600 to 1450 0 C without losing strength. The practical importance of this fact for a production of sintered alumina on a large scale is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  18. NdFeB magnets for high-power motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, B.; Soell, M.; Berberich, A.

    1998-01-01

    The use of REM in electric motors especially in the case of servo drives is state of the art today. Whether permanent magnet types SmCo or NdFeB are also suitable for high power main drives has to be decided regarding criteria which apply to high power machines. In this paper operation characteristics of common electric motors and especially those of drives with controlled speed are presented. In the case of electric motors with REM, increased output power and high efficiency at the same time are to be expected in comparison to classical drives. This makes them attractive for a number of applications. However their speed range is restricted for fundamental reasons as normally weakening of field is not possible. It is to be expected that due to their advantages the use of permanent magnet motors for elevated output power also will increase. Besides other forms they can be used also as special design such as e.g. round or flat linear motors. Their power density (force density) makes them attractive for numerous applications in this form. A comparison between permanent magnet motors with superconducting motors made of bulk HTS material gives insight into the wide area of future design of electrical machines. (orig.)

  19. Influence of cooling rate on microstructure of NdFeB strip casting flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binglin Guo; Bo Li; Dongling Wang; Xiaojun Yu [Central Iron and Steel Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China); Jifan Hu [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, flakes of NdFeB cast alloys were prepared by using the strip casting technique. Microstructure and composition of phases in NdFeB SC flakes were studied by SEM and energy spectra. Especially, the influences of cooling rate on the microstructure of SC flakes were discussed, helping us to master strip casting technology. The results show that the cooling rate plays an important role in obtaining the perfect microstructure of SC flakes, which thickness is supposed not less than 0.32mm in these studies. (orig.)

  20. In-situ magnetization of NdFeB magnets for permanent magnet machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.; Eastham, T.R.; Dawson, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    In-situ magnetizers are needed to facilitate the assembly of permanent magnet machines and to remagnetize the magnets after weakening due to a fault condition. The air-core magnetizer in association with the silicon steel lamination structure of the rotor has advantages over its iron-core counterpart. This novel method has been used to magnetize the NdFeB magnets in a 30-hp permanent magnet synchronous motor. The magnetizing capability for different magnetizer geometries was investigated for the magnetization of NdFeB material. The design, testing, and operation of this magnetizer are reported in this paper

  1. Assessment of corrosion resistance of Nd-Fe-B magnets by silanization for orthodontic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, F.; Celegato, F.; Giordano, A.; Borsellino, C.; Bonaccorsi, L.; Calabrese, L.; Tiberto, P.; Cordasco, G.; Matarese, G.; Fabiano, V.; Azzerboni, B.

    2014-02-01

    Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are characterised by excellent magnetic properties. However, being extremely vulnerable to the attack of both climate and corrosive environments, their applications are limited. This paper describes how, at different thicknesses of N-propyl-trimetoxy-silane, the coating affects the magnetic force of nickel plated magnets. We also investigate if the corrosion resistance of silanized Nd-Fe-B magnets increases in mildly corrosive environments by immersing them in a synthetic saliva solution. It was found that the silanization treatment does not affect the strength of the magnetic force and provide an enhancement of the corrosion resistance of the substrate.

  2. Sinterability and microstructure evolution during sintering of ferrous powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kétner Bendo Demétrio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on ferrous powder metallurgy and presents some results of a development of a suitable masteralloy for use as an additive to iron powder for the production of sintered steels. The masteralloy was produced by melting a powder mixture containing approximately Fe + 20% Ni + 20% Mn + 20% Si + 1% C (wt%, in order to obtain a cast billet that was converted into fine powder by crushing and milling. It was observed presence of SiC in the masteralloy after melting that is undesirable in the alloy. Si element should be introduced by using ferrosilicon. Sintered alloys with distinct contents of alloying elements were prepared by mixing the masteralloy powder to plain iron powder. Samples were produced by die compaction of the powder mixtures and sintering at 1200 °C in a differential dilatometer in order to record their linear dimensional behaviour during heating up and isothermal sintering, aiming at studying the sinterability of the compacts. Microstructure development during sintering was studied by SEM, XRD and microprobe analyses.

  3. Pressless process in route of obtaining sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, A.G, E-mail: apopov@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, UB of the RAS, 18, S. Kovalevskoy, Street, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Golovnia, O.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, UB of the RAS, 18, S. Kovalevskoy, Street, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bykov, V.A. [Institute of Metallurgy, UB of the RAS, 101, Amundsena, Street, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    A short review on the pressless process (PLP) involved in the manufacture of sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet is given. Two approaches to increasing the degree of powder alignment with a high filling density ρ{sub f} in PLP-containers are proposed. (1) An increase in the pulse duration of applied magnetic field from 3.6 to 6.5 ms enhances the magnetic alignment of magnets prepared from the powder with ρ{sub f}=2.5 g/cm{sup 3} and ρ{sub f}=3 g/cm{sup 3} by 3% and 11%, respectively. (2) Addition of internal lubricants such as zinc stearate or esters reduces friction forces between the powder particles and, when the concentration of lubricants is bellow a critical concentration C{sub cr}, increases B{sub r} and (BH){sub max} by 5–7%. Simulation of the magnetic alignment of uniaxial particles demonstrates that a decrease in the coefficient of friction between the powder particles from 0.9 to 0.6 caused by the lubricant addition enhances the alignment degree. Contact dilatometry was used to study the anisotropy of densification of PLP-powders upon sintering. It has been shown that the anisotropy of the powder shrinkage is formed at the first stage of sintering at the temperature about 800 °C and is caused by the capillary action in the Nd-rich liquid. - Highlights: • A review of the pressless process for NdFeB magnets in the world and Russia is given. • Enhancement of the alignment degree by application of pulsed magnetic field is studied. • Reduction of the friction forces via addition of internal lubricants is proposed. • The simulation of the magnetic alignment of Nd–Fe–B uniaxial particles is presented. • A reason of anisotropic shrinkage of the powder at sintering is suggested.

  4. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  5. Liquid metal extraction of Nd from NdFeB magnet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanchen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-12-10

    This research involves using molten magnesium (Mg) to remove neodymium (Nd) from NdFeB magnet scrap by diffusion. The results show that liquid metal extraction of Nd may be a viable and inexpensive method for recovering the expensive rare earth element Nd for use in Mg castings.

  6. Effects of Fe fine powders doping on hot deformed NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Min; Wang, Huijie; Zheng, Jingwu; Yan, Aru

    2015-01-01

    The composite NdFeB magnets with blending melt-spun flakes and Fe fine powders were prepared by the hot-pressed and hot-deformed route. Characterizations of the hot-deformed NdFeB magnets affected by the doped Fe powders were tested. The doped Fe powders decrease the hot-deformed pressure when the strain is between 15 and 50%. XRD patterns show that the doped Fe powders have little influence on the c-axis alignment of hot-deformed NdFeB magnets in the press direction. The B r and the (BH) max get improved when the doped Fe powders are less than 3 wt%. The doped Fe of hot-deformed NdFeB magnets exists in the elongated state and the spherical state surrounded by the Nd-rich phase. With the Fe fraction increasing, the potential of magnet moves to the positive direction and the diameter of the Nyquist arc becomes larger, which indicate that the corrosion resistance improved effectively. The bending strength was enhanced by the elongated α-Fe phase embedded in the matrix 2:14:1 phase. - Highlights: • The doped Fe powders have little influence on the c-axis alignment of magnets. • The elongated Fe powders are more than the spherical Fe powders in the magnets. • The corrosion resistance is improved effectively with the increasing Fe fraction. • The bending strength is enhanced by the elongated α-Fe phase embedded in the matrix

  7. Prediction of particle orientation in simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chao-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen [Department of Mold and Die Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chien-Kung Road, Sanmin District, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan (China); You, Jr-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chang, Can-Xun [Metal Forming Technology Section, Metal Processing R and D Department, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, 1001 Kaonan Highway, Kaohsiung 81160, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-16

    The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are strongly affected by crystallographic texture which is highly associated with particle orientation. This study proposed a method for predicting the particle orientation in the simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets. The method is based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. The magnets in a cylindrical form were compressed by two flat dies in a chamber filled with argon at 750°C. Three forming speeds were taken into account in order to obtain flow stress curves used in simulations. The micrographs of the cross sections of the deformed magnets show that the particle deformation significantly increases with the compression. The phenomenon was also predicted by the proposed method. Both simulated and experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the texture of the NdFeB magnets can be increased by the simple upsetting process. The predicted particle orientations were in a good agreement with those examined in the deformed magnets. The proposed method for predicting particle orientations can also be used in other forming processes of NdFeB magnets.

  8. Investigation Procedure of Magnetic Performances of NdFeB Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calin, Marius-Daniel; Helerea, Elena; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    The permanent magnet applications based on carbon steel magnets, hard ferrites and AlNiCo magnets classes are renewed with new classes of advanced magnetic materials based on rare earth elements, the Sm-Co and NdFeB types. Performance increase of the hard magnetic materials and their use in speci......The permanent magnet applications based on carbon steel magnets, hard ferrites and AlNiCo magnets classes are renewed with new classes of advanced magnetic materials based on rare earth elements, the Sm-Co and NdFeB types. Performance increase of the hard magnetic materials and their use...... in specific applications impose also great advances in the field of magnetic measurement. New researches need to be validated in order to investigate the NdFeB permanent magnets performances, including their stability under different thermal operational regimes. In this paper a specific investigation...... procedure of magnetic performances of NdFeB permanent magnets in correlation with the range of operating temperature is proposed based on modern hysteresisgraph method and impulse magnetization technique....

  9. Prediction of particle orientation in simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chao-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chang, Can-Xun

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are strongly affected by crystallographic texture which is highly associated with particle orientation. This study proposed a method for predicting the particle orientation in the simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets. The method is based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. The magnets in a cylindrical form were compressed by two flat dies in a chamber filled with argon at 750°C. Three forming speeds were taken into account in order to obtain flow stress curves used in simulations. The micrographs of the cross sections of the deformed magnets show that the particle deformation significantly increases with the compression. The phenomenon was also predicted by the proposed method. Both simulated and experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the texture of the NdFeB magnets can be increased by the simple upsetting process. The predicted particle orientations were in a good agreement with those examined in the deformed magnets. The proposed method for predicting particle orientations can also be used in other forming processes of NdFeB magnets

  10. Influence of Demagnetization-Temperature on Magnetic Performance of Recycled Nd-Fe-B Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Stig; Bendixen, Flemming Buus; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2015-01-01

    Recycling rare earth permanent magnets is becoming an important alternative source of supply of raw materials for neodymium-iron-boron (Nd-Fe-B) permanent magnets. This article documents a recycling case-study in which isotropic binder-free magnet powder is extracted and recycled from hermeticall...

  11. Magnetic and microstructural properties of thin NdFeB based films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommer, Lars; Goll, Dagmar [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The magnetic and microstructural properties of NdFeB and NdFeB/Fe thin films and nanostructures are presented. Samples with Cr buffer and protection layer (minimum thickness: d=50 nm) have been produced by ion beam sputtering at elevated temperatures (T{sub s}=700 C) using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Films deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates show c-axis growth in out-of-plane direction down to thicknesses of the NdFeB film of d=10 nm with coercivities up to {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c}=1 T. The texture of films deposited on MgO(001) substrates is less pronounced and films below d=20 nm show no hard magnetic behavior. For comparison, films were deposited at room temperature on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO(001) followed by post-annealing in Ar atmosphere (T{sub pa}=525-650 C) leading to coercivities as high as {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c}=1.2 T but with isotropic behavior. By TEM images the grain structure of the NdFeB samples is studied. Bilayers of NdFeB (d=50 nm) and Fe (d=0-20 nm) show fully exchange coupled behavior. From the temperature dependence of the coercivity the microstructural parameters of all samples have been determined. Furthermore NdFeB periodical patterns were produced by means of electron beam lithography with dot sizes of 1000 nm and 500 nm, respectively.

  12. A Combined TEM/STEM and Micromagnetic Study of the Anisotropic Nature of Grain Boundaries and Coercivity in Nd-Fe-B Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor A. Zickler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoanalytical high resolution TEM/STEM investigation of the intergranular grain boundary phase of anisotropic sintered and rapidly quenched heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B magnet materials revealed a difference in composition for grain boundaries parallel (large Fe-content and perpendicular (low Fe content to the alignment direction. This behaviour vanishes in magnets with a high degree of misorientation. The numerical finite element micromagnetic simulations are based on the anisotropic compositional behaviour of GBs and show a decrease of the coercive field with an increasing thickness of the grain boundary layer. The magnetization reversal and expansion of reversed magnetic domains primarily start as Bloch domain wall at grain boundaries parallel to the c-axis and secondly as Néel domain wall perpendicular to the c-axis into the adjacent hard magnetic grains. The increasing misalignment of grains leads to the loss of the anisotropic compositional behaviour and therefore to an averaged value of the grain boundary composition. In this case the simulations show an increase of the coercive field compared to the anisotropic magnet. The calculated coercive field values of the investigated magnet samples are in the order of μ0HcJ=1.8 T–2.1 T for a mean grain boundary thickness of 4 nm, which agrees perfectly with the experimental data.

  13. Sintering diagrams of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, A.; Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    Ashby's method (see Acta Met., vol. 22, p. 275, 1974) of constructing sintering diagrams has been modified to obtain contribution diagrams directly from the computer. The interplay of sintering variables and mechanisms are studied and the factors that affect the participation of mechanisms in UO 2 are determined. By studying the physical properties, it emerges that the order of inaccuracies is small in most cases and do not affect the diagrams. On the other hand, even a 10% error in activation energies, which is quite plausible, would make a significant difference to the diagram. The main criticism of Ashby's approach is that the numerous properties and equations used, communicate their inaccuracies to the diagrams and make them unreliable. The present study has considerably reduced the number of factors that need to be refined to make the sintering diagrams more meaningful. (Auth.)

  14. Effect of pretreating technologies on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengjie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Xu, Guangqing, E-mail: gqxu1979@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Liu, Jiaqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Yi, Xiaofei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China); Wu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chen, JingWu [Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co. Ltd., Hefei (China); Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials, Hefei (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Materials (Earth-Panda Advance Magnetic Material Co., Ltd.), Hefei (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Zn coated NdFeB specimens pretreated with different technologies possess different adhesive strengths and anticorrosion properties. And the combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the best comprehensive performance. - Highlights: • Zn coated NdFeB specimens are achieved with different pretreating technologies. • Combined technology possesses the highest adhesive strength. • Combined technology possesses excellent anticorrosion property. - Abstract: Zinc coated NdFeB specimens were prepared with different pretreating technologies, such as polishing, pickling (50 s), sandblasting and combined technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s). Morphologies of the NdFeB substrates pretreated with different technologies were observed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer and an atomic force microscope. The tensile test was performed to measure the adhesive strength between Zn coating and NdFeB substrate. The self-corrosion behavior of the NdFeB specimen was characterized by potentiodynamic polarization curve. The anticorrosion properties of Zn coated NdFeB specimens were characterized by neutral salt spray tests. The pretreating technologies possess obvious impact on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion property of Zn coated NdFeB specimens. Combined pretreating technology of sandblasting and pickling (5 s) achieves the highest adhesive strength (25.56 MPa) and excellent anticorrosion property (average corrosion current density of 21 μA/cm{sup 2}) in the four pretreating technologies. The impacting mechanisms of the pretreating technology on the adhesive strength and anticorrosion properties are deeply discussed.

  15. Coercivity enhancement of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets with intergranular adding (Pr, Dy, Cu)−H{sub x} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yujing; Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn; Liu, Xiaolian; Liu, Pan; Jin, Jiaying; Zou, Junding; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Forming Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/(Nd, Dy){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B core–shell structure by intergranular adding Dy-containing sources into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets is effective to improve coercivity and to minimize remanence loss simultaneously. However, the excessive Dy located in the intergranular regions has nearly no hard magnetic contribution, causing its low utilization efficiency. In this work, diluted Dy powders (Pr{sub 37}Dy{sub 30}Cu{sub 33})–H{sub x} were prepared and incorporated into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets via a dual-alloy approach. The coercivity increases rapidly from 15.0 to 18.2 kOe by 21.3% with 2.0 wt% (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} addition (the equivalent Dy is only 0.32 at%). The deduced coercivity incremental ratio is 10.0 kOe per unit Dy at%. Dehydrogenation reaction of (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} occurs during sintering, which favors Dy diffusion towards the 2:14:1 phase grains as well as smoothing the grain boundaries (GBs). The enhanced local anisotropic field and the well decoupled 2:14:1 phase grains contribute to such rapid coercivity enhancement. This work suggests that adding diluted Dy hydrides is promising for fabricating high coercivity Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets with less heavy rare-earth consumption. - Highlights: • (Pr, Dy, Cu)–H{sub x} hydride powders were introduced into Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. • Rapid coercivity enhancement from 15.0 kOe to 18.2 kOe with only 0.32 at% Dy was realized. • High utilization efficiency of Dy was achieved due to its promoted diffusion process. • Wettability and mobility of grain boundary phase was improved.

  16. Phosphorus containing sintered alloys (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchnik, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus additives are considered for their effect on the properties of sintered alloys of different applications: structural, antifriction, friction, magnetic, hard, superhard, heavy etc. Data are presented on compositions and properties of phosphorus-containing materials produced by the powder metallurgy method. Phosphorus is shown to be an effective activator of sintering in some cases. When its concentration in the material is optimal it imparts the material such properties as strength, viscosity, hardness, wear resistance. Problems concerning powder metallurgy of amorphous phosphorus-containing alloys are reported

  17. Kinetics of sintering of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, N.C.; Moorthy, V.K.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of sintering of UO 2 powders derived from ADU route and calcined at different temperatures was studied. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on the calcination temperature, the density chosen and the sintering temperature range. The motive force for sintering is the excess free energy in the particle system. This exists in the powder compact in the form of surface energy and the excess lattice energy due to defects. The defects which can be eliminated at the operating temperature are responsible for the mobility and hence sintering. This concept of the motive force for sintering has been used to explain the difference in the activation energies observed in the present study. This would also explain phenomena such as attainment of limiting density, presence of optimum sintering temperature and the influence of calcination treatments on the sintering behaviour of powders. (author)

  18. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  19. High anisotropic NdFeB submicro/nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaoxin; Jin, Kunpeng; Abbas, Nadeem; Fang, Qiuli; Wang, Fang; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Yan, Aru; Liu, J. Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Hard magnetic NdFeB submicro/nanoflakes were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature (SABMLT) by specially using 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine (TOA) as solvent and surfactant, respectively. Influences of the amount of TOA and milling temperature on the crystal structure, morphology and magnetic performances of the as-prepared NdFeB powders were investigated systematically. There is significant difference on morphology between the NdFeB powders milled at room and low temperature. The NdFeB powders with flaky morphology could be obtained even with a small amount of TOA by SABMLT, which could not be achieved by surfactant-assisted ball milling at room temperature (SABMRT). The better crystallinity, better grain alignment, higher coercivity, larger saturation magnetization and remanence ratio were achieved in the samples prepared by SABMLT. Furthermore, the final NdFeB powders prepared by SABMLT possessed a lower amount of residual TOA than those prepared by SABMRT. It was demonstrated that SABMLT is a promising way to fabricate rare-earth-transition metal nanoflakes with high anisotropy for permanent magnetic materials. The effective method of preparing NdFeB flakes by lowering temperature will be also useful to fabricate flakes of other functional materials.

  20. Faceted shell structure in grain boundary diffusion-processed sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelam, U.M.R.; Ohkubo, T.; Abe, T.; Hirosawa, S.; Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp

    2014-12-25

    Graphical abstract: The grain boundary diffusion process (GBDP) using a heavy rare earth elements (HRE) such as Dy and Tb is known as an effective method to enhance the coercivity of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets without reducing remanence. This process has been industrially implemented to manufacture Nd–Fe–B based sintered magnets with high coercivity and high remanence. In this process, Dy is considered to diffuse through grain boundaries (GBs) to form (Nd{sub 1−x}Dy{sub x}){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B shells surrounding the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains and the higher anisotropy field of the Dy-rich shell is considered to suppress the nucleation of reverse domains at low magnetic field. Although there are several investigations on the microstructure of HRE GBDP Nd–Fe–B magnets, no paper addressed the origin of the asymmetric formation of HRE rich shells. Based on detailed analysis of facet planes of core/shell interfaces, we propose a mechanism of the faceted core/shell microstructure formation in the GBDP sintered magnets. We believe that this gives new insights on understanding the coercivity enhancement by the GBDP. - Highlights: • Faceting was observed at the interfaces of cores and shells. • The core/shell interfaces are sharp with an abrupt change in Dy concentration. • Meting occurs at the interfaces of metalic Nd-rich/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phases above 685 °C due to eutectic reaction. • Solidification of Dy-enriched liquid phase from 900 °C can result in the shell formation. - Abstract: Dysprosium enriched shell structure formed by the grain boundary diffusion process (GBDP) of a sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Faceted core–shell interfaces with an abrupt change in Dy concentration suggest the Dy-rich shells are formed by the solidification of the liquid phase during cooling from the GBDP temperature. The Nd-rich phases

  1. Faceted shell structure in grain boundary diffusion-processed sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seelam, U.M.R.; Ohkubo, T.; Abe, T.; Hirosawa, S.; Hono, K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The grain boundary diffusion process (GBDP) using a heavy rare earth elements (HRE) such as Dy and Tb is known as an effective method to enhance the coercivity of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets without reducing remanence. This process has been industrially implemented to manufacture Nd–Fe–B based sintered magnets with high coercivity and high remanence. In this process, Dy is considered to diffuse through grain boundaries (GBs) to form (Nd 1−x Dy x ) 2 Fe 14 B shells surrounding the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains and the higher anisotropy field of the Dy-rich shell is considered to suppress the nucleation of reverse domains at low magnetic field. Although there are several investigations on the microstructure of HRE GBDP Nd–Fe–B magnets, no paper addressed the origin of the asymmetric formation of HRE rich shells. Based on detailed analysis of facet planes of core/shell interfaces, we propose a mechanism of the faceted core/shell microstructure formation in the GBDP sintered magnets. We believe that this gives new insights on understanding the coercivity enhancement by the GBDP. - Highlights: • Faceting was observed at the interfaces of cores and shells. • The core/shell interfaces are sharp with an abrupt change in Dy concentration. • Meting occurs at the interfaces of metalic Nd-rich/Nd 2 Fe 14 B phases above 685 °C due to eutectic reaction. • Solidification of Dy-enriched liquid phase from 900 °C can result in the shell formation. - Abstract: Dysprosium enriched shell structure formed by the grain boundary diffusion process (GBDP) of a sintered Nd–Fe–B magnet was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Faceted core–shell interfaces with an abrupt change in Dy concentration suggest the Dy-rich shells are formed by the solidification of the liquid phase during cooling from the GBDP temperature. The Nd-rich phases are almost free from Dy, and

  2. Magnetic and structural properties of spark plasma sintered nanocrystalline NdFeB-powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, H., E-mail: holger.wuest@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 10 60 50, 70049 Stuttgart (Germany); Bommer, L., E-mail: lars.bommer@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Postfach 10 60 50, 70049 Stuttgart (Germany); Weissgaerber, T., E-mail: thomas.weissgaerber@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Branch Lab Dresden, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Kieback, B., E-mail: bernd.kieback@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Branch Lab Dresden, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute for Materials Science, Helmholtzstraße 7, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Near-stoichiometric NdFeB melt-spun ribbons have been subjected to spark plasma sintering varying the process temperature T{sub SPS} and pressure p{sub SPS} between 600 and 800 °C and 50–300 MPa, respectively. Produced bulk magnets were analyzed regarding microstructure and magnetic properties. For all samples the intrinsic coercivity H{sub c,J} gradually decreases with increasing sintering temperature and pressure, while residual induction B{sub r} increases simultaneously with sample density. Densities close to the theoretical limit were achieved for p{sub SPS}≥90 MPa and T{sub SPS}≥650 °C. With increasing T{sub SPS} precipitations of Nd-rich and Fe-rich phases have been observed as a result of a decomposition of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase. Under optimum sintering conditions of p{sub SPS}=300 MPa and T{sub SPS}=650 °C high-density bulk magnets with H{sub c,J}=652 kA/m, B{sub r}=0.86 T and (BH){sub max}=106 kJ/m{sup 3} have been produced. - Highlights: • Consolidation close to the theoretical density for p{sub SPS}≥90 MPa and T{sub SPS}≥650 °C. • Highest (BH){sub max} of 106 kJ/m{sup 3} for p{sub SPS}=300 MPa and T{sub SPS}=650 °C with 98% theo. • H{sub c,J} gradually decreases with increasing T{sub SPS}, while B{sub r} increases simultaneously with. • With increasing T{sub SPS}, Nd- and Fe-rich precipitations are observed. • Reduction in t{sub SPS} is economic but does not increase (BH){sub max} significantly.

  3. Master Sintering Surface: A practical approach to its construction and utilization for Spark Plasma Sintering prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouchly V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sintering is a complex thermally activated process, thus any prediction of sintering behaviour is very welcome not only for industrial purposes. Presented paper shows the possibility of densification prediction based on concept of Master Sintering Surface (MSS for pressure assisted Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. User friendly software for evaluation of the MSS is presented. The concept was used for densification prediction of alumina ceramics sintered by SPS.

  4. SINTERING OF NASCENT CALCIUM OXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the measurement of the sintering rate of CaO in a nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures of 700-1100 C. CaO prepared from ultrapure CaCO3 was compared with an impure CaO derived from limestone. Both materials yielded an initial surface area of 104 sq m/g. The rat...

  5. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.

    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering of a powder compact is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element (FE) method for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response...... to the stress field as well as the FE calculation of the stress field from the microstructural evolution is discussed. The sintering behavior of two powder compacts constrained by a rigid substrate is simulated and compared to free sintering of the same samples. Constrained sintering result in a larger number...

  6. Effect of process on the magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Liu, Y.; Gao, S.J.; Li, M.; Wang, Y.Q.; Tu, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of magnetic separation, coupling treatment, lubricating treatment, preform and biaxial molding on the density and magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet were investigated. The results demonstrate that magnetic separation separates the powders with low coercive force; coupling treatment improves the interfaces between the powders and the binders; decrease in volume fraction of the binder increases magnetic properties of the magnet; granular arrangement improves both the magnetic and mechanical properties when powders are arranged in certain size; lubricating treatment improves the formability of the magnet and preform and biaxial molding improves both density and magnetic properties greatly. Combining these methods, the density of the bonded NdFeB magnet can reach 6.52 g/cm 3 and the maximum energy product can reach 114 kJ/m 3

  7. Effect of process on the magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Liu, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)]. E-mail: liuying5536@163.com; Gao, S.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Li, M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Wang, Y.Q. [South-West Magnetic Science and Technology Developing Company, Mianyang, 621600 (China); Tu, M.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

    2006-04-15

    The effects of magnetic separation, coupling treatment, lubricating treatment, preform and biaxial molding on the density and magnetic properties of bonded NdFeB magnet were investigated. The results demonstrate that magnetic separation separates the powders with low coercive force; coupling treatment improves the interfaces between the powders and the binders; decrease in volume fraction of the binder increases magnetic properties of the magnet; granular arrangement improves both the magnetic and mechanical properties when powders are arranged in certain size; lubricating treatment improves the formability of the magnet and preform and biaxial molding improves both density and magnetic properties greatly. Combining these methods, the density of the bonded NdFeB magnet can reach 6.52 g/cm{sup 3} and the maximum energy product can reach 114 kJ/m{sup 3}.

  8. Corrosion behaviour of Nd-Fe-B magnets containing Co and Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowska, G.; Bala, H.; Szymura, S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of partial substitution of iron by Co and Cr on corrosion behaviour of Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 permanent magnets has been investigated. Small additions of Cr (1 to 4%at) are enough to ensure maximal corrosion inhibition. Greater amount of Cr into Nd-Fe-B alloy (>8%at), against expectations, practically do not affect the corrosion behaviour and additionally, considerably worsen its magnetic properties. Corrosion tests have shown a distinct effect of cobalt addition on the inhibition of both acid corrosion and the abnormal dissolution process of the Nd-Fe-Co-B magnets. Cobalt additions inhibit the atmosphere corrosion of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, especially a salt-spray environment. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. Analysis of NdFeB thin films prepared by facing target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivalingappa, L.; Mohan, S.; Ghantasala, M.K.; Sood, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present the details of our work on the deposition and characterization of NdFeB thin films. These films were prepared using facing target sputtering technique. The silicon(100) substrates were maintained at a substrate temperature of 400 to 600 deg C during deposition. Film structure, composition and magnetic properties are analyzed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Films deposited below 400 deg C were x-ray amorphous, while the onset of crystallinity was observed with the films deposited at 500 deg C. Typical film composition was Nd:Fe:B = 2.2:12.5:2. Film composition appear to be a function of deposition conditions. Oxygen has been found to be the main impurity in the films. Oxygen content in the film reduced as the substrate temperature is increased

  10. Strain-enhanced sintering of iron powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, D.R.; Torralba, J.M. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ciencias de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-02-01

    Sintering of ball-milled and un-milled Fe powders has been investigated using dilatometry, X-ray, density, and positron annihilation techniques. A considerable sintering enhancement is found in milled powders showing apparent activation energies that range between 0.44 and 0.80 eV/at. The positron annihilation results, combined with the evolution of the shrinkage rate with sintering temperature, indicate generation of lattice defects during the sintering process of milled and un-milled powders. The sintering enhancement is attributed to pipe diffusion along the core of moving dislocations in the presence of the vacancy excess produced by plastic deformation. Positron annihilation results do not reveal the presence of sintering-induced defects in un-milled powders sintered above 1200 K, the apparent activation energy being in good agreement with that for grain-boundary diffusion in {gamma}-Fe. (orig.)

  11. Microstructure, texture, and magnetic properties of backward extruded NdFeB ring magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenberger, W.; Hinz, D.; Schlaefer, D.; Schultz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Radially-oriented NdFeB ring magnets have been prepared by backward extrusion of melt-spun material. The average remanence measured in the radial direction reaches values above 1.2 T. Due to the inhomogeneity of the deformation, the magnetic properties and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed a gradual improvement of the alignment from the outer shell to regions near the inner surface of the ring. (orig.)

  12. Radiation hardness of permanent magnets of NdFeB in high energy neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchegolev, V.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic properties of NdFeB permanent magnet samples were measured before and after irradiation with conditions similar to conditions of DRIBs (phase 1) (FLNR, JINR) facility. Demagnetization of the samples after 8-day irradiation was found to be in the range of 17 to 87 %. Estimation of magnet 'life time' was made in the case of setting up these magnets on ECR ion source of DRIBs (phase 1) facility. Possible reasons of considerable demagnetization of the magnets are discussed. (author)

  13. Interaction domains in high-performance NdFeB thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, T.G. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: t.woodcock@ifw-dresden.de; Khlopkov, K. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Walther, A. [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 avenue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); CEA Leti - MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Dempsey, N.M.; Givord, D. [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 avenue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Schultz, L.; Gutfleisch, O. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The magnetic domain structure in sputtered NdFeB thick films has been imaged by magnetic force microscopy. The local texture of the films was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The average misorientation of the grains was shown to decrease with increasing substrate temperature during deposition. Interaction domains were observed and are discussed with reference (i) to the sample grain size compared to the single domain particle size and (ii) to sample texture.

  14. Effects of Fe fine powders doping on hot deformed NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Min, E-mail: linm@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology & Engineering Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Huijie [Ningbo Jinji Strong Magnetic Material Company, Ningbo 315041 (China); Zheng, Jingwu [Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Yan, Aru [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology & Engineering Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2015-04-01

    The composite NdFeB magnets with blending melt-spun flakes and Fe fine powders were prepared by the hot-pressed and hot-deformed route. Characterizations of the hot-deformed NdFeB magnets affected by the doped Fe powders were tested. The doped Fe powders decrease the hot-deformed pressure when the strain is between 15 and 50%. XRD patterns show that the doped Fe powders have little influence on the c-axis alignment of hot-deformed NdFeB magnets in the press direction. The B{sub r} and the (BH){sub max} get improved when the doped Fe powders are less than 3 wt%. The doped Fe of hot-deformed NdFeB magnets exists in the elongated state and the spherical state surrounded by the Nd-rich phase. With the Fe fraction increasing, the potential of magnet moves to the positive direction and the diameter of the Nyquist arc becomes larger, which indicate that the corrosion resistance improved effectively. The bending strength was enhanced by the elongated α-Fe phase embedded in the matrix 2:14:1 phase. - Highlights: • The doped Fe powders have little influence on the c-axis alignment of magnets. • The elongated Fe powders are more than the spherical Fe powders in the magnets. • The corrosion resistance is improved effectively with the increasing Fe fraction. • The bending strength is enhanced by the elongated α-Fe phase embedded in the matrix.

  15. Radiation Hardness of Permanent Magnets of NdFeB in High Energy Neutrons Field

    CERN Document Server

    Schegolev, V Yu

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic properties of NdFeB permanent magnet samples were measured before and after irradiation with conditions similar to conditions of DRIBs (phase 1) (FLNR, JINR) facility. Demagnetization of the samples after 8-day irradiation was found to be in the range of 17 to 87 \\%. Estimation of magnet "life tim" was made in the case of setting up these magnets on ECR ion source of DRIBs (phase 1) facility. Possible reasons of considerable demagnetization of the magnets are discussed.

  16. Radiation hardness of permanent magnets of NdFeB in high energy neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    Shchegolev, V Y

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic properties of NdFeB permanent magnet samples were measured before and after irradiation with conditions similar to conditions of DRIBs (phase 1) (FLNR, JINR) facility. Demagnetization of the samples after 8-day irradiation was found to be in the range of 17 to 87 %. Estimation of magnet 'life time' was made in the case of setting up these magnets on ECR ion source of DRIBs (phase 1) facility. Possible reasons of considerable demagnetization of the magnets are discussed.

  17. Liquid coated melt-spun Nd-Fe-B powders for bonded magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gaiffi, S.; Kirk, D.; Young, K.; Herchenroeder, J.; Berwald, T.

    1999-04-01

    The liquid coating (LC) has been employed to apply epoxy and lubricant over the surface of rapidly solidified Nd-Fe-B powder particles. The LC led to an improvement of physical and magnetic properties for the powders and magnets compared to the dry blending and the encapsulation methods. The LC powders have excellent flowability and can be used for bonded magnets requiring very close tolerances; further bonded magnets made using this powder posses higher strength.

  18. The comparative study of Nd-Fe-B magnetic materials with different Nd content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grujić, A.; Žák, Tomáš; Ćosović, V.; Stajić-Trošić, J.; Spasojević, V.; Talijan, N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 5 (2009), s. 477-480 ISSN 1842-6573 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Rapid quenched Nd-Fe-B alloy * Chemical composition * Phase composition * Magnetic properties * Performance permanent-magnets * Nanocrystalline composite * Alloys * Phase Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2009

  19. Development of a phosphating process for corrosion protection in NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Adonis Marcelo Saliba

    2001-01-01

    NdFeB magnets are important materials, which produce better energy efficiency in electrical devices, but they are rather vulnerable to corrosion. In this study, a phosphating treatment for protection against corrosion of NdFeB magnets has been investigated. Phosphating is generally used as a pretreatment in the application of protective coatings. This treatment increases the corrosion assistance in defective areas of the coating as well as improves the adhesion between coating and substrate. A commercial NdFeB magnet produced by powder metallurgy has been used and the effect of the following parameters on phosphating was studied: time of phosphating; pH of phosphating solution; anodic polarization and molybdate addition to the phosphating solution. The results showed a significant increase in the corrosion resistance of magnets phosphated in a solution concentrated between 10-20 g/L NaH 2 PO 4 , pH in the range of 3 to 4.6, acidulated preferably with H 3 PO 4 at room temperature (20±1) deg C. Conversion coatings formed at solutions of pH 3.8 showed better corrosion resistance. Phosphating times longer than 4 hours increased the magnet corrosion resistance 10 to 20 times. This resistance improves with higher immersion times. Anodic polarization of the magnet in the range 200-400 mV SCE accelerated phosphating. Results indicated that molybdate interacts preferentially with Nd rich phase of the magnet. In addition to the newly developed technology in this work for NdFeB corrosion protection, two methodologies have been introduced to facilitate electrochemical analyses: selection of samples of similar electrochemical behavior, based on the current density after 200s of constant anodic polarization; and evaluation of the corrosion protection provided by conversion coatings by monitoring of gas evolution during corrosion in acid solution. (author)

  20. Preparation and properties of isotropic Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets with sodium silicate binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.Q.; Hu, R.J.; Yue, M., E-mail: yueming@bjut.edu.cn; Yin, Y.X.; Zhang, D.T.

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: To improve the working temperature of bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets, the heat-resistant binder, sodium silicate, was used to prepare new type bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets. The three-dimensional Si-O-Si structure formed in the curing process has excellent strength; it can ensure that the bonded magnets have a certain shape and usable magnetic properties when working at 200 °C. - Highlights: • Sodium silicate enables bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets to be used for higher operation temperatures. • The sodium silicate bonded magnets exhibit usable maximum energy product of 4.057 MGOe at 200 °C. • The compressive strength of sodium silicate bonded magnets is twice bigger than that of epoxy resin bonded magnets. - Abstract: In present study, sodium silicate, a kind of heat-resistant binder, was used to prepare bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets with improved thermal stability and mechanical strength. Effect of curing temperature and curing time of the new binder to the magnetic properties, microstructure, and mechanical strength of the magnets was systematically investigated. Fracture surface morphology observation show that sodium silicate in bonded magnets could completely be cured at 175 °C for 40 min, and the magnets prepared under this condition exhibit optimal properties. They exhibit usable magnetic properties of B{sub r} of 4.66 kGs, H{sub cj} of 4.84 kOe, and (BH){sub max} of 4.06 MGOe at 200 °C. Moreover, the magnets possess high compressive strength of 63 MPa.

  1. Novel Extraction Process Of Rare Earth Elements From NdFeB Powders Via Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung K.W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline treatment of NdFeB powders in NaOH solution at various equivalent amounts of NaOH at 100°C was performed. The resultant powders were then leached in 0.5M H2SO4 solution at 25°C for 2 minutes. At 5 equivalents of NaOH, neodymium in NdFeB powders was partially transformed to neodymium hydroxide. The transformation of neodymium to neodymium hydroxide actually occurred at 10 equivalents of NaOH and was facilitated by increasing the equivalent of NaOH from 10 to 30. In addition, iron was partially transformed to magnetite during the alkaline treatment, which was also promoted at a higher equivalent of NaOH. The leaching yield of neodymium from alkaline-treated powders was increased with an increasing equivalent of NaOH up to 10; however, it slightly decreased with the equivalent NaOH of over 10. The leaching yield of iron was inversely proportional to that of rare earth elements. NdFeB powders treated at 10 equivalents of NaOH showed a maximum leaching yield of neodymium and dysprosium of 91.6% and 94.6%, respectively, and the lowest leaching yield of iron of 24.2%, resulting in the highest selective leaching efficiency of 69.4%.

  2. Binder Jetting: A Novel NdFeB Bonded Magnet Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Shafer, Christopher S.; Elliott, Amy M.; Siddel, Derek H.; McGuire, Michael A.; Springfield, Robert M.; Martin, Josh; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this research is to fabricate near-net-shape isotropic (Nd)2Fe14B-based (NdFeB) bonded magnets using a three dimensional printing process to compete with conventional injection molding techniques used for bonded magnets. Additive manufacturing minimizes the waste of critical materials and allows for the creation of complex shapes and sizes. The binder jetting process works similarly to an inkjet printer. A print-head passes over a bed of NdFeB powder and deposits a polymer binding agent to bind the layer of particles together. The bound powder is then coated with another layer of powder, building the desired shape in successive layers of bonded powder. Upon completion, the green part and surrounding powders are placed in an oven at temperatures between 100°C and 150°C for 4-6 h to cure the binder. After curing, the excess powder can be brushed away to reveal the completed "green" part. Green magnet parts were then infiltrated with a clear urethane resin to achieve the measured density of the magnet of 3.47 g/cm3 close to 46% relative to the NdFeB single crystal density of 7.6 g/cm3. Magnetic measurements indicate that there is no degradation in the magnetic properties. This study provides a new pathway for preparing near-net-shape bonded magnets for various magnetic applications.

  3. Single step preparation of NdFeB alloy by magnesiothermic reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Vinay Kant; Surendranathana, A.O.; John Berchmans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesiothermic reduction is a new approach to produce the NdFeB alloy on a commercial scale. Similar studies were conducted for the preparation of LaNi 5 and SmCo 5 using magnesium as the reductant. In the present investigation NdFeB Hard magnetic bulk materials were synthesized by metallothermic 'Reduction – Diffusion (R-D) Process' using Magnesium as a reductant. For this process oxide precursors of Nd, Fe and B were blended with flux (LiCl/CaCl 2 ) and Mg chips were sandwiched in alternate layers. Thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) was carried out to find the dissociation and decomposition temperature of the reactants. The phase analysis, structure, and elemental composition were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The infrared (IR) spectra were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The morphological features and particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The magnetic behaviour of the alloy was assessed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and vibratory sample magnetometer (VSM). From these studies it has been concluded that the NdFeB magnetic particles can be prepared using magnesium as the reductant. The process is faster and consumes very less amount of energy for the completion as compared to conventional calciothermic reduction process. Traces of MgO were detected in the alloy which increases the perpendicular anisotropy, thus increasing the coercivity of the material

  4. Role of hydrogen in Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets with DyH{sub x} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pan [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Materials for Information Technology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, Xinhua, E-mail: xinhwang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Yujing [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Novel Materials for Information Technology of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • DyH{sub 2} and DyH{sub 3} fine powder were prepared. • Effect of DyH{sub x} on the magnetic properties of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets was studied. • The effect mechanism of Dy hydrides was discussed. • The magnetic properties are greatly improved by DyH{sub 2} and DyH{sub 3} addition. - Abstract: In order to improve the coercivity of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets, DyH{sub 2} and DyH{sub 3} fine powders were prepared and used as additive for preparing Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. The effects of DyH{sub x} powders addition on the microstructures and the magnetic properties of the magnets have been investigated. It was found that hydrogen will react with oxygen of NdO{sub x} rich intergranular phases to form Nd rich phases by dysprosium hydride addition. The Nd-rich grain boundary phases are more homogenous and continuous because the volume fraction of Nd-rich grain boundary phases increases with respect to the Nd oxide phases. After desorption, fine dysprosium powders become more active and wrap matrix phases well so that the diffusion of dysprosium to the surface layer of matrix phases is convenient, so dysprosium decreases in grain boundary phases and aggregates in surface layer of matrix phases. Then, intrinsic coercivity of NdFeB sintered magnets is improved from 14.96 kOe to 20.5 kOe and 20.31 kOe by 2.0 wt.% DyH{sub 3} and 2.0 wt.% DyH{sub 2} addition, respectively. This study has shown that DyH{sub x} addition can reduce the content of oxygen in grain boundary phases. This can be an effective method for massive production.

  5. Physical and magnetic properties, microstructure of bonded magnet NdFeB prepared by using synthesis rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapedi; Sardjono, P.; Muljadi

    2016-01-01

    The magnet permanent has been made by using NdFeB (NQP-B) powder with purity 99.90% and polymer rubber with purity 90%. This research was done to determine the effect of the polymer (rubber) composition as binder in the manufacture of bonded magnet NdFeB on physical properties, microstructure and magnetic properties. Bonded magnets are magnet material made from a mixture of magnetic powder as a filler and the polymer as a matrix material or as binder to bind the magnetic particles. The NdFeB (NQP-B) powder fractions of bonded magnets NdFeB investigated were as follows: a) 97 wt.% of NdFeB (NQP-B) and 3 wt.% of rubber,b) 95wt.% of NdFeB (NQP-B) and 5 wt.% of rubber, c) 93 wt.% of NdFeB (NQP-B) and 7 wt.% of rubber, d) 91 wt.% of NdFeB (NQP-B) and 9 wt.% of rubber. Both raw materials were mixed by using mixer until homogen with total weight about 16 g for each sample, then added 0.3 ml of catalyst and mixed again and put in dies mould and compacted at pressure 30 MPa, then dried for 2 hours at room temperature. The dried samples was characterized such as: bulk density measurement and magnetic properties by using BH-curve permeagraph. The bulk density values of the sample bonded NdFeB magnets using the binder 3% wt. and 5% wt. rubber are respectively 4,70 g/cm 3 and 4.88 g/cm 3 . The result from BH- curve shows that the highest value of remanence (Br = 5.12 kGauss) is at sample with 3% wt. of rubber, but sample with 5% wt. of rubber has lowest value of remanance (Br = 4.40 kGauss). Based on the observation of the SEM photograph shown that the rubber material has been successfully covered the whole surface of the grain and fill some of the voids that are in the grain boundary. (paper)

  6. Physical and magnetic properties, microstructure of bonded magnet NdFeB prepared by using synthesis rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprapedi; Sardjono, P.; Muljadi

    2016-11-01

    The magnet permanent has been made by using NdFeB (NQP-B) powder with purity 99.90% and polymer rubber with purity 90%. This research was done to determine the effect of the polymer (rubber) composition as binder in the manufacture of bonded magnet NdFeB on physical properties, microstructure and magnetic properties. Bonded magnets are magnet material made from a mixture of magnetic powder as a filler and the polymer as a matrix material or as binder to bind the magnetic particles. The NdFeB (NQP-B) powder fractions of bonded magnets NdFeB investigated were as follows: a) 97 wt.% of NdFeB (NQP-B) and 3 wt.% of rubber,b) 95wt.% of NdFeB (NQP-B) and 5 wt.% of rubber, c) 93 wt.% of NdFeB (NQP-B) and 7 wt.% of rubber, d) 91 wt.% of NdFeB (NQP-B) and 9 wt.% of rubber. Both raw materials were mixed by using mixer until homogen with total weight about 16 g for each sample, then added 0.3 ml of catalyst and mixed again and put in dies mould and compacted at pressure 30 MPa, then dried for 2 hours at room temperature. The dried samples was characterized such as: bulk density measurement and magnetic properties by using BH-curve permeagraph. The bulk density values of the sample bonded NdFeB magnets using the binder 3% wt. and 5% wt. rubber are respectively 4,70 g/cm3 and 4.88 g/cm3. The result from BH- curve shows that the highest value of remanence (Br = 5.12 kGauss) is at sample with 3% wt. of rubber, but sample with 5% wt. of rubber has lowest value of remanance (Br = 4.40 kGauss). Based on the observation of the SEM photograph shown that the rubber material has been successfully covered the whole surface of the grain and fill some of the voids that are in the grain boundary.

  7. Microwave sintering of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the potential of microwave irradiation as an innovative energy- efficient alternative to conventional heating technologies in ceramic manufacturing is reviewed, addressing the advantages/disadvantages, while also commenting on future applications of possible commercial interest. Ceramic materials have been extensively studied and used due to several advantages they exhibit. Sintering ceramics using microwave radiation, a novel technology widely employed in various fields, can be an efficient, economic and environmentally-friendlier approach, to improve the consolidation efficiency and reduce the processing cycle-time, in order to attain substantial energy and cost savings. Microwave sintering provides efficient internal heating, as energy is supplied directly and penetrates the material. Since energy transfer occurs at a molecular level, heat is generated throughout the material, thus avoiding significant temperature gradients between the surface and the interior, which are frequently encountered at high heating rates upon conventional sintering. Thus, rapid, volumetric and uniform heating of various raw materials and secondary resources for ceramic production is possible, with limited grain coarsening, leading to accelerated densification, and uniform and fine-grained microstructures, with enhanced mechanical performance. This is particularly important for manufacturing large-size ceramic products of quality, and also for specialty ceramic materials such as bioceramics and electroceramics. Critical parameters for the process optimization, including the electromagnetic field distribution, microwave-material interaction, heat transfer mechanisms and material transformations, should be taken into consideration.

  8. Material flow analysis of NdFeB magnets for Denmark: a comprehensive waste flow sampling and analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Schibye, Peter Klausen; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Dall, Ole; Wenzel, Henrik

    2014-10-21

    Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets have become highly desirable for modern hi-tech applications. These magnets, in general, contain two key rare earth elements (REEs), i.e., neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy), which are responsible for the very high strength of these magnets, allowing for considerable size and weight reduction in modern applications. This study aims to explore the current and future potential of a secondary supply of neodymium and dysprosium from recycling of NdFeB magnets. For this purpose, material flow analysis (MFA) has been carried out to perform the detailed mapping of stocks and flows of NdFeB magnets in Denmark. A novel element of this study is the value added to the traditionally practiced MFAs at national and/or global levels by complementing them with a comprehensive sampling and elemental analysis of NdFeB magnets, taken out from a sample of 157 different products representing 18 various product types. The results show that the current amount of neodymium and dysprosium in NdFeB magnets present in the Danish waste stream is only 3 and 0.2 Mg, respectively. However, this number is estimated to increase to 175 Mg of neodymium and 11.4 Mg of dysprosium by 2035. Nevertheless, efficient recovery of these elements from a very diverse electronic waste stream remains a logistic and economic challenge.

  9. Modeling of sintering of functionally gradated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasik, M.; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01

    The functionally gradated materials (FGMs) are distinguished from isotropic materials by gradients of composition, phase distribution, porosity, and related properties. For FGMs made by powder metallurgy, sintering control is one of the most important factors. In this study sintering process of FGMs is modeled and simulated with a computer. A new modeling approach was used to formulate equation systems and the model for sintering of gradated hard metals, coupled with heat transfer and grain growth. A FEM module was developed to simulate FGM sintering in conventional, microwave and hybrid conditions, to calculate density, stress and temperature distribution. Behavior of gradated WC-Co hardmetal plate and cone specimens was simulated for various conditions, such as mean particle size, green density distribution and cobalt gradation parameter. The results show that the deformation behavior and stress history of graded powder compacts during heating, sintering and cooling could be predicted for optimization of sintering process. (author)

  10. Production of sintered alumina from powder; optimization of the sinterized parameters for the maximum mechanical resistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, J.C. da.

    1981-02-01

    Pure, sinterized alumina and the optimization of the parameters of sinterization in order to obtain the highest mechanical resistence are discussed. Test materials are sinterized from a fine powder of pure alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), α phase, at different temperatures and times, in air. The microstructures are analysed concerning porosity and grain size. Depending on the temperature or the time of sinterization, there is a maximum for the mechanical resistence. (A.R.H.) [pt

  11. Microwave sintering of hydroxyapatite-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Y.; Roy, D.M.; Cheng, J.; Roy, R.; Agrawal, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Composites of hydroxyapatite/partially stabilized zirconia (HAp/PSZ) and hydroxyapatite/silicon carbide whiskers (HAp/SiC) were sintered at 1100-1200 degrees C by microwave at 2.45 GHz. Characterization of the sintered composites was carried out by density, microstructure, phase composition, and fracture toughness measurements. The results show that although not yet fully densified, a much higher sintered density in the HAp/PSZ composite was achieved by microwave sintering than by conventional sintering at the same temperature. A relative density of 93% was achieved by 20 min. microwave processing at 1200 degrees C. Comparatively, 2 h conventional sintering of the same material at 1200 degrees C led to only 75.5% relative density. K IC of this microwave sintered HAp/PSZ of 93% density was found to be 3.88 MPa√m, which is 250% of the value for pure HAp of the same density. A further increase in K IC could be expected if full or nearly full densification was achieved. Sintering of PSZ particles in the HAp/PSZ composite was also observed in the microwave processed sample. Microwave sintering of HAp/SiC was not successful in the current study due to the oxidation of SiC in air at high temperature. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Sintering of a class F fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Biernacki; Anil K. Vazrala; H. Wayne Leimer [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The sinterability of a class F fly ash was investigated as a function of processing conditions including sintering temperature (1050-1200{sup o}C) and sintering time (0-90 min). Density, shrinkage, splitting tensile strength, water absorption and residual loss on ignition (RLOI) were evaluated as measures of sintering efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction was used to examine microstructure and phase development due to processing. The results show that premature densification can inhibit complete carbon removal and that carbon combustion is influenced by both internal and external mass transfer conditions. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of washing process on the magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B nanoparticles prepared by reduction-diffusion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Ahn, J.; Kim, D.; Ren, W. J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.; Choi, C. J.

    2017-10-01

    Nd-Fe-B nanoparticles with a particle size below 50 nm and excellent magnetic properties were obtained via a novel route which makes use of both spray drying and reduction-diffusion processes. Uniform Nd-Fe-B particles were formed by the optimization of Ca amount as a reducing agent and additional washing by milling in ethanol media. Especially, we implemented a two-step washing process which contributed to the excellent magnetic properties with high remanence and coercivity. After the removal of CaO by novel washing process, the maximum energy product (BH)max of the particles showed 22.1 MGOe. This value is superior to those reported in reduction-diffusion process. We used Henkel plot to assume the mechanism of magnetic interactions of the Nd-Fe-B nanoparticles.

  14. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niittynen, J.; Abbel, R.; Mäntysalo, M.; Perelaer, J.; Schubert, U.S.; Lupo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative

  15. Interaction domains in die-upset NdFeB magnets in dependence on the degree of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopkov, K.; Gutfleisch, O.; Schaefer, R.; Hinz, D.; Mueller, K.-H.; Schultz, L.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic domain structure of NdFeB magnets has been studied using high resolution, digitally enhanced Kerr-microscopy. Melt-spun NdFeB powder (MQU-F TM ) was hot pressed into fully dense samples and then hot deformed to axially textured magnets. Various degrees of deformation (height reduction) up to 76% have been realized. Pronounced interaction domains have been observed only in magnets, which were deformed to a degree of deformation of at least 52%. With increasing alignment of the grains the interaction domains become more and more visible and their size increases

  16. MFM study of NdFeB and NdFeB/Fe/NdFeB thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouteff, P.C.; Folks, L.; Street, R.

    1998-01-01

    Domain structures of NdFeB thin films, ranging in thickness between 1500 and 29 nm, have been studied qualitatively by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Samples were prepared using a range of sputtering conditions resulting in differences in properties such as texture, coercivity and magnetic saturation. MFM images of all the films showed extensive interaction domain structures, similar to those observed in nanocrystalline bulk NdFeB. An exchange-coupled NdFeB/Fe/NdFeB trilayer with layer thicknesses 18 nm/15 nm/18 nm, respectively, was also examined using MFM. (orig.)

  17. Effects of sintering temperature on the density and porosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    bonding) between the salt beads at all the temperatures in which sintering was performed. .... and the sintering of some covalent solids and low- stability ceramics. The entire sintering process is gen- erally considered to occur in ...

  18. First report on soapnut extract-mediated synthesis of sulphur-substituted nanoscale NdFeB permanent magnets and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayapala Rao, G. V. S.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Shameer, Syed; Arun, T.; Purnachandra Rao, M.

    2017-10-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoscale materials has its own advantages over other physical and chemical methods. Using soapnut extract as reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of inorganic nanoscale materials is novel and has not been exploited to its potential so far. Herein, we report for the first time on the effects of sulphur substitution on soapnut extract-mediated synthesis of nanoscale NdFeB (S-NdFeB) permanent magnetic powders (Nd 15%, Fe 77.5%, B 7.5% and S with molar ratios: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5). To synthesize, a 10 ml of 10% soapnut extract was added to 90 ml of respective chemical composition and heated to 60 °C for 30 min and aged for 24 h. The dried powder was sintered at 500 °C for 1 h. The characterization of the as-prepared nanoscale S-NdFeB magnetic materials was done using the techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS for size and zeta potential measurements) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)-hysteresis loop studies. The results revealed that particles were highly stable (with a negative zeta potential of 25.7 mV) with irregular and spherical shape (with measured hydrodynamic diameter 6.7 and 63.5 nm). The tetragonal structures of the formed powders were revealed by XRD micrographs. Hysteresis loop studies clearly indicate the effect of S concentration on the enhanced magnetization of the materials.

  19. Coercivity enhancement of HDDR-processed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet with the rapid hot-press consolidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, N. [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Sepehri-Amin, H. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ohkubo, T. [Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hono, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Magnetic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Nishiuchi, T. [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Hirosawa, S., E-mail: Satoshi_Hirosawa@hitachi-metals.co.j [Magnetic Materials Research Laboratory, NEOMAX Company, Hitachi Metals Ltd., Osaka 618-0013 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    High coercivity, fully dense anisotropic permanent magnets of submicron grain sizes were produced by rapid hot-press consolidation of hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR) processed Nd-Fe-Co-B powders. In the hot-press process, the coercivity of the consolidated material showed a sharp minimum prior to full densification. Thereafter, it reached a value 25% higher than that of the initial powder. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that the variation in H{sub cJ} was caused by a redistribution of Nd along the grain boundaries during hot pressing and that the high coercivity was attributable to the formation of thin, continuous Nd-rich phase along the grain boundaries.

  20. A finite difference model of the iron ore sinter process

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, J.; de Vries, T.L.; Dippenaar, B.A.; Vreugdenburg, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Iron ore fines are agglomerated to produce sinter, which is an important feed material for blast furnaces worldwide. A model of the iron ore sintering process has been developed with the objective of being representative of the sinter pot test, the standard laboratory process in which the behaviour of specific sinter feed mixtures is evaluated. The model aims to predict sinter quality, including chemical quality and physical strength, as well as key sinter process performance parameters such ...

  1. A route for recycling Nd from Nd-Fe-B magnets using Cu melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Martina; Gebert, Annett, E-mail: a.gebert@ifw-dresden.de; Stoica, Mihai; Uhlemann, Margitta; Löser, Wolfgang

    2015-10-25

    Phase evolutions in Nd-Fe-B magnet/Cu systems have been explored with regard to Nd recycling. It was demonstrated that large scale phase separation into a ferromagnetic Fe(B)-rich ingot core with α-Fe main phase and a non-magnetic (Cu,Nd)-rich ingot rim takes place upon arc melting with Cu fractions ≥ 21.5 wt.-%. The re-solidification of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnet main phase is suppressed. The rim consists of the Cu{sub 2}Nd main phase and CuNd/Cu{sub 4}Nd minority phases in which Al traces from the magnetic material are gathered. Induction melting of such Nd-Fe-B/Cu mixtures can support the separation of these phase regions with very sharp boundaries. Main features of liquid phase separation and microstructure evolution have been interpreted on the basis of Nd-Fe-Cu phase diagram data. The key advantage with respect to Nd recycling from Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet scrap is the substantial accumulation of Nd in the (Cu,Nd)-rich region of the phase separated solidified specimen, which can be easily detached from the Fe-rich part by mechanical-magnetic treatments. Such portions contained up to ∼44 wt.-% Nd (25 at.-%) in first lab-scale experiments. Nd recovery from the (Cu,Nd)-rich fractions is possible by exploiting the large chemical property differences between the reactive rare earths elements and Cu. - Highlights: • phase evolution analysis in Nd-Fe-B magnet/Cu systems with regard to Nd recycling. • Cu ≥ 21 wt.-%, large scale phase separation- Fe(B)-rich ingot core, (Cu,Nd)-rich rim. • high Nd content (∼44 wt.-%) of (Cu,Nd)-rich region, mechanical-magnetic treatments.

  2. Liquid phase sintered superconducting cermet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of making a superconducting cermet having superconducting properties with improved bulk density, low porosity and in situ stabilization. It comprises: forming a structure of a superconducting ceramic material having the formula RM 2 Cu 3 O (6.5 + x) wherein R is one or more rare earth elements capable of reacting to form a superconducting ceramic, M is one or more alkaline earth metal elements selected from barium and strontium capable of reacting to form a superconducting ceramic, x is greater than 0 and less than 0.5; and a precious metal compound in solid form selected from the class consisting of oxides, sulfides and halides of silver; and liquid phase sintering the mixture at a temperature wherein the precious metal of the precious metal compound is molten and below the melting point of the ceramic material. The liquid phase sintering is carried out for a time less than 36 hours but sufficient to improve the bulk density of the cermet

  3. Sintered-to-size FBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Schaus, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    Fabrication of sintered-to-size PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel pellets was completed for testing of proposed FBR product specifications. Approximately 6000 pellets were fabricated to two nominal diameters and two densities by cold pressing and sintering to size. Process control and correlation between test and production batches are discussed

  4. Sintering characteristics of nano-ceramic coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; Popma, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper concentrates on sintering characteristics of nano-sized ceramic SiO2 particles. The sintering process is studied as a function of temperature using a conventional furnace and using a laser beam. The underlying idea is to combine the nanoceramic sol-gel concept with inkjet technology and

  5. Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

  6. Sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a high performance polymer having low coefficient of friction, good abrasion resistance, good chemical ... In this study, we report our results on compaction and sintering behaviour of two grades of UHMWPE with reference to the powder morphology, sintering ...

  7. Mechanical characteristics of microwave sintered silicon carbide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In firing of products by conventionally sintered process, SiC grain gets oxidized producing SiO2 (∼ 32 wt%) and deteriorates the quality of the product substantially. Partially sintered silicon carbide by such a method is a useful material for a varieties of applications ranging from kiln furniture to membrane material.

  8. Recrystallization and embrittlement of sintered tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bega, N.D.; Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1982-01-01

    The recrystallization of sintered tungsten with a cellular structure of deformation is studied as related to its embrittlement. It is stated that in case of preliminary recrystallization the sintered tungsten crack resistance does not depend on the testing temperature. The tungsten crack resistance is shown to lower with an increase of the structure tendency to primary recrystallization [ru

  9. Master sintering curves of two different alumina powder compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Pouchly

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Concept of Master Sintering Curve is a strong tool for optimizing sintering schedule. The sintering behaviour can be predicted, and sintering activation energy can be calculated with the help of few dilatometric measurements. In this paper an automatic procedure was used to calculate Master Sintering Curves of two different alumina compacts. The sintering activation energies were determined as 640 kJ/mol for alumina with particle size of 240 nm, respective 770 kJ/mol for alumina with particle size of 110 nm. The possibility to predict sintering behaviour with the help of Master Sintering Curve was verified.

  10. The Influence of Sintering Temperature of Reactive Sintered (Ti, MoC-Ni Cermets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jõeleht

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium-molybdenum carbide nickel cermets ((Ti, MoC-Ni were produced using high energy milling and reactive sintering process. Compared to conventional TiC-NiMo cermet sintering the parameters for reactive sintered cermets vary since additional processes are present such as carbide synthesis. Therefore, it is essential to acquire information about the suitable sintering regime for reactive sintered cermets. One of the key parameters is the final sintering temperature when the liquid binder Ni forms the final matrix and vacancies inside the material are removed. The influence of the final sintering temperature is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the material are characterized by transverse rupture strength, hardness and fracture toughness.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7179

  11. Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)

  12. Effects of proton irradiation on electronic structure of NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.cn; Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Effects of proton irradiation on electronic structure and atomic local structure of N35EH-type NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by soft X-ray absorption spectrometry and Moessbauer spectrometry. The local coordination environment of Fe atoms changes after proton irradiation, and the average hyperfine field H{sub in} of the magnets decreases from 288.4 to 286.9 kOe. The effects of irradiation on Fe atoms local environment at different lattice sites are different. The near edge structure of Fe L{sub 3} edge is changed, indicating the density of unoccupied state of Fe 3d electrons increases after proton irradiation.

  13. Magnetic properties of ND Rich Melt-Spun ND-FE-B alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of these experimental investigations of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloy with Nd rich content in relation to Nd2Fe14B prepared by rapid quenching process for optimally selected cooling rate and heat treatment, the influence of the chosen chemical composition on magnetic properties was observed. The results of X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy phase analysis and magnetic measurement of investigated melt-spun Nd14.5Fe78.5B7 alloy are presented to bring some new information concerning the relation between their structure and magnetic properties.

  14. Highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on amorphous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, Ullrich; Melcher, Steffen; Faehler, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    Thin films with an almost perfect alignment of Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains with the c-axis (easy magnetisation direction) perpendicular to the film plane were achieved on amorphous SiN substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The texture arises due to epitaxial growth on a Ta(1 1 0) buffer deposited prior to the Nd-Fe-B film. Out-of-plane coercivity of 1.3 T and remanence to saturation magnetisation ratio around 0.95 are obtained for Nd-rich films. An analysis of the coercivity mechanism shows that the switching mechanism is nucleation dominated, independent of the Nd content

  15. Highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on amorphous substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, Ullrich E-mail: u.hannemann@ifw-dresden.de; Melcher, Steffen; Faehler, Sebastian

    2004-05-01

    Thin films with an almost perfect alignment of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with the c-axis (easy magnetisation direction) perpendicular to the film plane were achieved on amorphous SiN substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The texture arises due to epitaxial growth on a Ta(1 1 0) buffer deposited prior to the Nd-Fe-B film. Out-of-plane coercivity of 1.3 T and remanence to saturation magnetisation ratio around 0.95 are obtained for Nd-rich films. An analysis of the coercivity mechanism shows that the switching mechanism is nucleation dominated, independent of the Nd content.

  16. Two steps sintering alumina doped with niobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.B.; Hatzfeld, J.; Heck, M.; Pokorny, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, high surface area commercial alumina was doped with niobia and sintered in two steps in order to obtain dense materials with lower processing temperatures. The powders were milled and uniaxially pressed (200 MPa). The first step of sintering took place at 1100°C for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours, followed by the second step at 1350°C for 3 hours. The relative density, porosity and water absorption of the samples were determined by the Archimedes method. The crystalline phases were analyzed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the morphology of the samples after sintering, evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the use of niobia combined with the two steps sintering promotes an increase in the density of the material, even at lower sintering temperatures. (author)

  17. Sintered ceramics having controlled density and porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassfield, H.C.; DeHollander, W.R.; Nivas, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A new method was developed for sintering ceramic uranium dioxide powders, in which ammonium oxalate is admixed with the powder prior to being pressed into a cylindrical green body, so that the end-point density of the final nuclear-reactor fuel product can be controlled. When the green body is heated, the ammonium oxalate decomposes and leaves discrete porosity in the sintered body, which corresponds to the ammonium oxalate regions in the green body. Thus the end-point density of the sintered body is a function of the amount of ammonium oxalate added. The final density of the sintered product is about 90-97% of the theoretical. The addition of ammonium oxalate also allows control of the pore size and distribution throughout the fuel. The process leaves substantially no impurities in the sintered strucuture. (DN)

  18. On the sintering kinetics in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marajofsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    The fabrication process of UO 2 pellets from powders involve pressing and a sintering anneal at high temperature (1650 deg. C to 1750 deg. C) during two or more hours in a hydrogen atmosphere. An alternative method is the oxidative sintering, made at lower temperature (1000 deg. C to 1300 deg. C) in a CO 2 or CO/CO 2 atmosphere. The sintering phenomena consist in the densification of the material by a thermal treatment below the fusion point. For a compact made by pressing a powder, sintering is the process of annulation of the porosity present in the compact or pellet. Several theories describe the sintering phenomena dividing it in three stages, initial, intermediate and final: in all of them the densification is a continuous growing function of time. Nevertheless it has been experimentally reported that a reduction of the density occurs in the third step of the sintering. The phenomena has been called solarization. Solarization has been attributed to the effect of the evolved gases from additives or to the CO 2 atmosphere in oxidative sintering. Thus, it is convenient to distinguish between solarization in oxidative or reducing conditions. Reducing solarization is a consequence of the tendency towards equilibrium of intergranular pores. In oxidative sintering it occurs in the reducing anneal after the sintering and is due to the change in the lattice parameter. This work shows examples of both types of solarization and qualitative interpretation of this phenomena. Both situations show the need of strict control of the sintering and powder production conditions. (author)

  19. Isotropic and anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB bulk magnets prepared by binder-free high-velocity compaction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiangxing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Hongya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Zhiyu [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Guoqing [Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2015-09-15

    NdFeB powders were consolidated into nanocrystalline bulk magnets by a near-net-shape process of high-velocity compaction (HVC) at room temperature with no binder employed. The nanostructure can be maintained after compaction. The compacted magnets with relatively high density can inherit the coercivity of the starting powders. The mechanical strength of the HVCed magnet after heat treatment is comparable to that of the conventional bonded NdFeB magnets. The anisotropic magnet has also been prepared by hot deformation using HVCed magnet as the precursor. The remanence value along the pressing direction increased from 0.64 to 0.95 T and maximum energy product (BH){sub max} increased from 65 to 120 kJ/m{sup 3} after hot deformation. The processing–structure–properties relationships for both isotropic and anisotropic magnets are discussed. - Highlights: • HVC is a feasible binder-free approach for preparing NdFeB magnets. • The compacted magnets can inherit the coercivity of the starting powders. • The magnets post heat treatment have compression strength higher than bonded magnets. • The approach of HVC is a potential pre-process for anisotropic NdFeB bulk magnets.

  20. An environmentally friendly electro-oxidative approach to recover valuable elements from NdFeB magnet waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkatesan, P.; Sun, Z.; Sietsma, J.; Yang, Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript, we demonstrate a room temperature electrochemical process for efficiently recycling NdFeB magnet waste. First, the magnet waste was completely leached with HCl and then, in-situ electrochemical oxidation was performed to selectively oxidize Fe(II) in the leachate to Fe(III).

  1. REE Recovery from End-of-Life NdFeB Permanent Magnet Scrap : A Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Walton, A; Sheridan, R.; Güth, K.; Gauß, R.; Gutfleisch, O; Buchert, M; Steenari, B-M,; Van Gerven, T; Jones, PT; Binnemans, K

    2017-01-01

    NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2–3 years in consumer electronics to 20–30 years in wind turbines. The size of the magnets ranges from less than 1 g in small consumer electronics to about 1 kg in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid

  2. Micro-structuring of thick NdFeB films using high-power plasma etching for magnetic MEMS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yonggang; Fujita, Takayuki; Higuchi, Kohei; Maenaka, Kazusuke; Masaoka, Shingo; Uehara, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the micro-patterning of thick NdFeB magnetic films using a high-power plasma etching method. The effects of RF bias power and gas composition on the selectivity and etching rate are experimentally studied. A maximum etching rate of 60 nm min −1 is achieved with an inductively coupled plasma power of 500 W and a RF bias power of 200 W. A maximum selectivity of 0.26 between hard baked AZP4903 photoresist and NdFeB magnetic films is achieved when volumetric Cl 2 concentration is 2.5%. NdFeB micro-magnets as thick as 4.2 µm are achieved by using AZP4903 photoresist. Magnetic film as thick as 10 µm can be patterned by using SU-8 photoresist with a thickness of 100 µm as the mask. The magnetic property of patterned microstructures is characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer and the magnetic field distribution is measured using a Hall effect sensor IC. The characterization results indicate that the patterned magnetic microstructures have a high magnetic remanance of 1.0 T, which is comparable to that of the non-patterned NdFeB films.

  3. Isotropic and anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB bulk magnets prepared by binder-free high-velocity compaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Xiangxing; Liu, Zhongwu; Yu, Hongya; Xiao, Zhiyu; Zhang, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    NdFeB powders were consolidated into nanocrystalline bulk magnets by a near-net-shape process of high-velocity compaction (HVC) at room temperature with no binder employed. The nanostructure can be maintained after compaction. The compacted magnets with relatively high density can inherit the coercivity of the starting powders. The mechanical strength of the HVCed magnet after heat treatment is comparable to that of the conventional bonded NdFeB magnets. The anisotropic magnet has also been prepared by hot deformation using HVCed magnet as the precursor. The remanence value along the pressing direction increased from 0.64 to 0.95 T and maximum energy product (BH) max increased from 65 to 120 kJ/m 3 after hot deformation. The processing–structure–properties relationships for both isotropic and anisotropic magnets are discussed. - Highlights: • HVC is a feasible binder-free approach for preparing NdFeB magnets. • The compacted magnets can inherit the coercivity of the starting powders. • The magnets post heat treatment have compression strength higher than bonded magnets. • The approach of HVC is a potential pre-process for anisotropic NdFeB bulk magnets

  4. The permanent NdFeB magnets in the circuits for magnetic filters and the first technological tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel; Mucha, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2005), s. 31-39 ISSN 0301-7516 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3046004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic circuit * magnetic filter * rare earth magnets ( NdFeB ) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2005

  5. Material Flow Analysis of NdFeB magnets for Denmark: A comprehensive waste flow sampling and analysis approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Schibye, Peter Klausen; Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    2014-01-01

    for considerable size and weight reduction in modern applications. This study aims to explore the current and future potential of secondary supply of neodymium and dysprosium from recycling of NdFeB magnets. For this purpose, Material Flow Analysis (MFA) has been carried out to perform the detailed mapping...

  6. Titanium Powder Sintering in a Graphite Furnace and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhou Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent accreditation of titanium powder products for commercial aircraft applications marks a milestone in titanium powder metallurgy. Currently, powder metallurgical titanium production primarily relies on vacuum sintering. This work reported on the feasibility of powder sintering in a non-vacuum furnace and the tensile properties of the as-sintered Ti. Specifically, we investigated atmospheric sintering of commercially pure (C.P. titanium in a graphite furnace backfilled with argon and studied the effects of common contaminants (C, O, N on sintering densification of titanium. It is found that on the surface of the as-sintered titanium, a severely contaminated porous scale was formed and identified as titanium oxycarbonitride. Despite the porous surface, the sintered density in the sample interiors increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. Tensile specimens cut from different positions within a large sintered cylinder reveal different tensile properties, strongly dependent on the impurity level mainly carbon and oxygen. Depending on where the specimen is taken from the sintered compact, ultimate tensile strength varied from 300 to 580 MPa. An average tensile elongation of 5% to 7% was observed. Largely depending on the interstitial contents, the fracture modes from typical brittle intergranular fracture to typical ductile fracture.

  7. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    -1300°C, and a trend of higher fusion temperatures with increasing contents of Al-silicates and quartz was found.c) Fly ashes, bottom ashes and deposits from coal/straw co-firing were all found to consist mainly of metal-alumina and alumina-silicates. These ashes all melt in the temperature range 1000......The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction......, the biggest deviations being found for salt rich (i.e. straw derived) ashes.A simple model assuming proportionality between fly ash fusion and deposit formation was found to be capable of ranking deposition rates for the different straw derived fly ashes, whereas for the fly ashes from coal/straw co-firing...

  8. Thermodynamics and mechanisms of sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pask, J.A.

    1978-10-01

    A phenomenological overview and exploration of the thermodynamic and geometric factors play a role in the process of densification of model compact systems consisting of crystalline spheres of uniform size in regular and irregular packing that form grain boundaries at every contact point. A further assumption is the presence of isotropic surface and grain boundary energies. Although such systems are unrealistic in comparison with normal powder compacts, their potential sintering behavior can be analyzed and provided with a limiting set of behavior conditions which can be looked upon as one boundary condition. This approach is logically realistic since it is easier to understand and provide a basis for understanding the more complex real powder systems

  9. Magnetic hysteresis properties of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys prepared by centrifugal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, S.V.; Kudrevatykh, N.V.; Pushkarsky, V.I.; Markin, P.E.; Zaikov, N.K.; Tarasov, E.N.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis properties and microstructure peculiarities of melt spun Nd-Fe-B alloys (ribbons) prepared by melt quenching onto the internal surface of an iron spinning wheel at tangential speeds in the range 5-20 m/s are reported. The alloy composition was Nd-36% wt, B-1.2% wt. and Fe-remainder. It was found that the coercivity of ribbons does not practically depend on the wheel speed in applied range (18 kOe at 5 m/s and 22 kOe at 20 m/s), whereas the grain size of the basic phase (2-14-1) ste[ily decreases when the speed rises, starting from 2-3 μm for 5 m/s alloy down to the 200-300 nm for 20 m/s alloy. All ribbons have normal convex demagnetization curves, even those prepared at low wheel speeds (without peculiar step near H∝0, which usually exists on such curves for tr[itionally prepared underquenched melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys). Grinding the ribbon in a vibration mill causes the coercivity drop to 7 kOe after 120 min of treatment. However, this operation increases the powder alignment ability and, as a result, the energy product for a fully dense magnet from anisotropic powder prepared from some ribbons rises to 20-23 MGOe. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic properties of centrifugally prepared melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys and their powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, S.V.; Kudrevatykh, N.V.; Kozlov, A.I.; Markin, P.E.; Pushkarskiy, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis properties and microstructure peculiarities of melt spun Nd-Fe-B alloys (ribbons) prepared by melt quenching on to the internal surface of an iron spinning wheel at the tangential speeds in the range 5-20 m/sec are reported. The alloy composition was Nd-36% wt. B-1.2% wt. and Fe-reminder. It was found that the coercivity of ribbons does not practically depend on the wheel speed in the applied range (1430 kA/m at 5 m/sec and 1750 kA/m at 20 m/sec), whereas the grain size of the basic phase (2-14-1) steadily decreases when the speed rises, starting from 2-3 μm for 5 m sec alloy down to the 200-300 nm for 20 m/sec alloy. All ribbons have normal convex demagnetization curves, even those prepared at low wheel speeds (without peculiar step near H∝0, which usually exists on such curves for traditionally prepared underquenched melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys). Grinding the ribbons subjected to hydrogen and annealing treatments causes the coercivity drop. However, this operations increase the powder alignment ability and, as a result, the energy product for fully dense magnet from such powder rises to 160-180 kJ/m 3 . (orig.)

  11. Nd composition dependence of microstructure and magnetic properties for gradient sputtered NdFeB films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shandong; Wang Dawei; Fang Jianglin; Duh, J.-G.; Wang Yinying; Wu Yizhi; Huang Junheng; Zheng Hongjun

    2008-01-01

    NdFeB films with Nd compositions varied from 13.34 to 24.30 at% were deposited by DC gradient sputtering using targets Nd 12.5 Fe 71.5 B 16 and Nd. The hard magnetic properties, grain growth direction and magnetic domain structures were dramatically influenced by Nd composition. The samples with intermediate Nd concentrations exhibited optimal magnetic properties and microstructures, such as large squareness ratio over 0.9, large energy product up to 174 kJ/m 3 , and vertical domain structure. However, the samples with higher and lower Nd compositions showed almost isotropic loops. (0 0 l) as main X-ray diffraction peaks in the optimal Nd composition region indicated most of Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains with c-axis perpendicular to the film plane, while NdFeB grains in other region are almost random growth. The good magnetic properties can be attributed to the vertical growth of Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains

  12. Nd composition dependence of microstructure and magnetic properties for gradient sputtered NdFeB films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shandong [Department of Physics, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)], E-mail: dylsd007@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Dawei [Department of Physics, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Fang Jianglin [Center for Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Duh, J.-G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National TsingHua Universtiy, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang Yinying; Wu Yizhi; Huang Junheng; Zheng Hongjun [Department of Physics, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2008-08-15

    NdFeB films with Nd compositions varied from 13.34 to 24.30 at% were deposited by DC gradient sputtering using targets Nd{sub 12.5}Fe{sub 71.5}B{sub 16} and Nd. The hard magnetic properties, grain growth direction and magnetic domain structures were dramatically influenced by Nd composition. The samples with intermediate Nd concentrations exhibited optimal magnetic properties and microstructures, such as large squareness ratio over 0.9, large energy product up to 174 kJ/m{sup 3}, and vertical domain structure. However, the samples with higher and lower Nd compositions showed almost isotropic loops. (0 0 l) as main X-ray diffraction peaks in the optimal Nd composition region indicated most of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with c-axis perpendicular to the film plane, while NdFeB grains in other region are almost random growth. The good magnetic properties can be attributed to the vertical growth of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains.

  13. Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnet Using a Closed-Loop Acid Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Jiro; Uemura, Ryohei

    2017-08-14

    There is considerable interest in extraction of rare earth elements from NdFeB magnets to enable recycling of these elements. In practical extraction methods using wet processes, the acid waste solution discharge is a problem that must be resolved to reduce the environmental impact of the process. Here, we present an encouraging demonstration of rare earth element extraction from a NdFeB magnet using a closed-loop hydrochloric acid (HCl)-based process. The extraction method is based on corrosion of the magnet in a pretreatment stage and a subsequent ionic liquid technique for Fe extraction from the HCl solution. The rare earth elements are then precipitated using oxalic acid. Triple extraction has been conducted and the recovery ratio of the rare earth elements from the solution is approximately 50% for each extraction process, as compared to almost 100% recovery when using a one-shot extraction process without the ionic liquid but with sufficient oxalic acid. Despite its reduced extraction efficiency, the proposed method with its small number of procedures at almost room temperature is still highly advantageous in terms of both cost and environmental friendliness. This study represents an initial step towards realization of a closed-loop acid process for recycling of rare earth elements.

  14. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I. C.; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R. R.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  15. Study of Nd-Fe-B alloys with nonstoichiometric Nd content in optimal magnetic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of two rapid-quenched Nd-Fe-B alloys with nonstoichiometric Nd content in the optimized magnetic state was carried out using the X-ray diffractometry (XRD, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic phase analysis (MS, electron microscopy (TEM, high resolution TEM (HREM and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID magnetometer. The experimental results demonstrate the fundamental difference in the structure and magnetic properties of the two investigated alloys in the optimized magnetic state. The Nd-Fe-B alloy with the reduced Nd content (Nd4.5Fe77B18.5 was found to have the nanocomposite structure of Fe3B/Nd2Fe14B and partly α-Fe/Nd2Fe14B, with mean grain size below 30 nm. On the other side, the overstoichiometric Nd14Fe79B7 alloy has almost a monophase structure with the dominant content of the hard magnetic phase Nd2Fe14B (up to 95 wt. % and a mean crystallite size about 60 nm, as determined by XRD and TEM analysis. The results of magnetic measurements on SQUID magnetometer also suggest the nanocomposite structure of the Nd-low alloy and nanocrystalline decoupled structure of the Nd-rich alloy after the optimal heat treatment.

  16. Electrodeposition of amorphous Ni-P coatings onto Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.B [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cao, F.H [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn; Zhang, J.Q [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection of Metals, Institute of Metal Research, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Decorative and protective Ni-P amorphous coatings were electroplated onto NdFeB permanent magnet from an ortho-phosphorous acid contained bath. The influences of the main electroplating technological parameters including current density, bath pH, bath temperature and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} on the structure and chemical composition of Ni-P coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in conjunction with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDX). The optimized amorphous Ni-P coated NdFeB can stand for ca. 180 h against neutral 3.0 wt.% NaCl salt spray without any pitting corrosion. Meanwhile, the results also showed that large phosphorous content is the precondition for Ni-P coatings to possess the amorphous structure, but too much high phosphorous content can damage the amorphous structure due to the separation of superfluous P from Ni{sub 2}P/Ni{sub 3}P and the resultant formation of multi-phase coatings (such as Ni{sub 2}P-P)

  17. Science of sintering and its future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    Some new books published by M.Yu. Baljshin, V.A. Ivensen, V.V. Skorohod and others are characterized by the wish to give a complete approach to the problems of sintering theory. Bearing just this in mind while writing the book ''An Essay on the Generalization of Sintering Theory'' (G.V.Samsonov, M.M. Ristic with the collaborators) an idea was born: to ask the most eminent scientists in this field to present their own opinions on the theme ''The Science of Sintering and Modern Views on its Future''. There were formed 18 questions, given in the appendix to be answered. The received answers were presented in 10 chapters of this book. The fourth part of the book consists of papers of eminent scientists engaged in the field of sintering science (some of which were published here for the first time). This material is published in the book with the consent of the authors and these original contributions provide a more profound knowledge of sintering. The initial idea, that the book should have a monograph character and in which the answers would serve as some data on the latest notions of the science of sintering, was somewhat changed since the original opinions of individual scientists are given in the book and these, are sometimes very contradictory. This, in fact, gives the book a special charm because the unsolved problems in the science of sintering are most evidently stressed in this way

  18. Sintering and microstructure of ice: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, Jane R

    2007-01-01

    Sintering of ice is driven by the thermodynamic requirement to decrease surface energy. The structural morphology of ice in nature has many forms-from snowflakes to glaciers. These forms and their evolution depend critically on the balance between the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved. Ice is a crystalline material so scientific understanding and approaches from more conventional materials can be applied to ice. The early models of solid state ice sintering are based on power law models originally developed in metallurgy. For pressure sintering of ice, these are based on work on hot isostatic pressing of metals and ceramics. Recent advances in recognizing the grain boundary groove geometry between sintering ice particles require models that use new approaches in materials science. The newer models of sintering in materials science are beginning to incorporate more realistic processing conditions and microstructural complexity, and so there is much to be gained from applying these to ice in the future. The vapour pressure of ice is high, which causes it to sublime readily. The main mechanism for isothermal sintering of ice particles is by vapour diffusion; however other transport mechanisms certainly contribute. Plastic deformation with power law creep combined with recrystallization become important mechanisms in sintering with external pressure. Modern experimental techniques, low temperature scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography, are providing new insights into the evolution of microstructures in ice. Sintering in the presence of a small volume fraction of the liquid phase causes much higher bond growth rates. This may be important in natural snow which contains impurities that form a liquid phase. Knowledge of ice microstructure and sintering is beneficial in understanding mechanical behaviour in ice friction and the stability of snow slopes prone to avalanches. (topical review)

  19. Design of sintering-stable heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata

    One of the major issues in the use of metal nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysis is sintering. Sintering occurs at elevated temperatures because of increased mobility of nanoparticles, leading to their agglomeration and, as a consequence, to the deactivation of the catalyst. It is an emerging...... problem especially for the noble metals-based catalysis. These metals being expensive and scarce, it is worth developing catalyst systems which preserve their activity over time. Encapsulation of nanoparticles inside zeolites is one of the ways to prevent sintering. Entrapment of nanoparticles inside...

  20. Solidification of HLLW into sintered ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O-Oka, K.; Ohta, T.; Masuda, S.; Tsunoda, N.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated HLLW from the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai was solidified into sintered ceramics by normal sintering or hot-pressing with addition of some oxides. Among various ceramic products obtained so far, the most preferable was nepheline-type sintered solids formed with addition of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 to the simulated waste calcine. The solid shows advantageous properties in leach rate and mechanical strength, which suggest that the ceramic solids were prepared with additions of ZrO 2 or MnO 2 , and some of them showed good characteristics

  1. Effect of rigid inclusions on sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, M.N.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of recent theoretical studies on the effect of inert, rigid inclusions on the sintering of ceramic powder matrices are examined and compared with experimental data. The densification of glass matrix composites with inclusion volume fractions of ≤0.15 can be adequately explained by Scherer's theory for viscous sintering with rigid inclusions. Inclusions cause a vast reduction in the densification rates of polycrystalline matrix composites even at low inclusion volume fractions. Models put forward to explain the sintering of polycrystalline matrix composites are discussed

  2. Immobilization of Uranium Silicides in Sintered Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateos, P.; Russo, D.O.; Heredia, A.D.; Sanfilippo, M.

    2003-01-01

    High activity nuclear spent fuels vitrification by fusion is a well known technology which has industrial scale in France, England, Japan, EEUU. Borosilicates glasses are used in this process.Sintered glasses are an alternative to the immobilization task in which there is also a wide experience around the world.The available technics are: cold pressing and sintering , hot-pressing and hot isostatic pressing.This work compares Borosilicates and Iron silicates sintered glasses behaviour when different ammounts of nuclear simulated waste is added

  3. Sintering of nano crystalline o silicon carbide doping with

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sinterable silicon carbide powders were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type -SiC. Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of aluminium nitride together with carbon. Nearly 99% sintered density was obtained. The mechanism of sintering was studied by ...

  4. Feasibility of low-cost magnetic rail designs by integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets for HTS Maglev systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R. X.; Deng, Z. G.; Gou, Y. F.; Li, Y. J.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an indispensable part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems. Present PMGs are made of NdFeB magnets with excellent performance and cost much. As another permanent magnet material, the ferrite magnet is weak at magnetic energy product and coercive force, but inexpensive. So, it is a possible way to integrate the ferrite and NdFeB magnets for cutting down the cost of present PMGs. In the paper, the equivalent on magnetic field intensity between ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets was evaluated by finite element simulation. According to the calculation results, the magnetic field of the PMG integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets can be increased remarkably comparing with the pure ferrite PMG. It indicates that low-cost PMG designs by integrating the two permanent magnet materials are feasible for the practical HTS Maglev system.

  5. Two-dimensional simulation of sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Pinto, Lucio Carlos Martins; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two-dimensional simulations are directly applied to systems in which one of the dimensions is much smaller than the others, and to sections of three dimensional models. Moreover, these simulations are the first step of the analysis of more complex three-dimensional systems. In this work, two basic features of the sintering process are studied: the types of particle size distributions related to the powder production processes and the evolution of geometric parameters of the resultant microstructures during the solid-state sintering. Random packing of equal spheres is considered in the sintering simulation. The packing algorithm does not take into account the interactive forces between the particles. The used sintering algorithm causes the densification of the particle set. (author)

  6. SINTERED REFRACTORY TUNGSTEN ALLOYS. Gesinterte hochschmelzende wolframlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, R.; Sedlatschek, K.; Braun, H.

    1971-12-15

    Dependence of the melting point of the refractory metals on their positions in the periodic system - alloys of tungsten with other refractory metals - sintering of the alloys - processing of the alloys - technological properties.

  7. U3O8 microspheres sintering kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, A.L.E.

    1986-01-01

    U 3 O 8 microspheres sintering kinetics was determined using a hot-stage optical microscopy apparatus, able to reach temperature up to 1350 0 C in controlled atmospheres. The sintered material had its microstructure analysed by optical and electron microscopy. The microspheres were characterized initialy utilizing X-ray diffractometry and thermogravimetry. The equation which describes the microspheres shrinkage in function of the time was obtained using finite difference analysis X-ray diffractometry indicated hexagonal structure for the microspheres main starting material, ammonium diuranate thermogravimetric analysis showed reduction of this material to U 3 O 8 at 600 0 C. Ceramography results showed 5 hours sintered microspheres grain sizes G vary with the temperature. Sintered U 3 O 8 micrographs compared with published results for UO 2 , indicate similar homogeneity microstructural characteristics and suggest the processed micorspheres to be potentially useful as nuclear fuels. (Author) [pt

  8. Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1993-05-04

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  9. Mechanical characteristics of microwave sintered silicon carbide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sintered process, SiC grain gets oxidized producing SiO2 (∼ 32 wt%) and deteriorates the quality of the product substantially. Partially sintered .... product, could be due to oxidation of SiC, e.g. 50% weight gain of a green SiC sample ... because, the charging current is 90° advanced in phase, ideally, with respect to the ...

  10. Techniques for ceramic sintering using microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimrey, H.D.; Janney, M.A.; Becher, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of microwave energy for ceramic sintering offers exciting new possibilities for materials processing. Based on experience gathered in microwave processing associated with the heating of fusion plasmas, we have developed hardware and methods for uniformly heating ceramic parts of large volume and irregular shape to temperatures in excess of 1600 0 C, in vacuum or pressurized atmosphere. Microwave processing at 28 GHz yields enhanced densification rates with a corresponding reduction in sintering temperatures. 6 refs

  11. Performance enhancement of NdFeB nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature by using different surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaoxin; Jin, Kunpeng; Wang, Fang; Fang, Qiuli; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Yan, Aru; Liu, J. Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Hard magnetic NdFeB submicron and nanoflakes were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at room temperature (SABMRT) and low temperature (SABMLT) by using oleic acid (OA), oleylamine (OLA) and trioctylamine (TOA) as surfactant, respectively. Among the surfactants used, OA and OLA have similar effects on the morphology of the NdFeB nanoflakes milled at both room and low temperature. In the case of TOA, irregular micron-sized particles and submirco/nanoflakes were obtained for the NdFeB powders prepared by SABMRT and SABMLT, respectively. Samples prepared by SABMLT show better crystallinity and better degree of grain alignment than that prepared by SABMRT with the same surfactant. Comparing with the samples milled at RT, higher coercivity and larger remanence ratio were achieved in the NdFeB samples prepared at LT. The amounts of residual surfactants in final NdFeB powders were also calculated, which reveals that the final NdFeB powders milled at LT possess lower amount of residual surfactants than those milled at RT. It was found that lowering milling temperature of SABM would be a promising way for fabricating permanent magnetic materials with better hard magnetic properties.

  12. The demagnetising factors for bonded neodymium iron boron (NdFeB) magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.

    2000-10-01

    Both analytical and computational methods have been, for the first time, employed to study the demagnetising factors for bonded magnets. The demagnetising factors for bonded NdFeB magnets are dependent on the external shape of the bonded magnet, the shapes of magnetic particles, the magnetic loading percentage and the distributions of magnetic particles. Particularly, it has been shown that the demagnetising factor along the length of an infinitely long bonded magnet is not equal to zero but that it also depends on the shapes of the magnetic particles, magnetic loading percentage and the distribution of magnetic particles. However, the sum of the demagnetising factors along the x, y and z directions is, as expected, unity for all bonded magnets. The demagnetising factor for a fully dense magnet, which is dependent only on the external shape of the magnet, can be considered as a special case of bonded magnets in which the magnetic loading is 100%. Simplified formulae for calculating the demagnetising factors for simple shaped magnets such as cuboid, cylindroid and ellipsoid shapes were obtained and the values are in reasonable agreement with precise analytical solutions. A Lorentz ''sphere'' concept has, for the first time, been employed to calculate the demagnetising factors for hollow magnets and bonded NdFeB magnets. The simplified formulae for hollow magnets and bonded magnets were derived. Computer programmes based on the basic energy method were developed and employed to calculate the demagnetising factors for bonded magnet models, such as a one-dimensional NdFeB ribbon array, two-dimensional bonded magnets and three-dimensional bonded magnets. A finite difference method and a finite element method have been, for the first time, employed to calculate the demagnetising factors for two-dimensional bonded magnet models and the results are comparable with those obtained using the basic energy method. Procedures for calculating demagnetising curves (J vs H) for

  13. Spark Plasma Sintering of Ultracapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Curtis W. [CK Technologies, Camirillo, CA (United States); Boatner, Lynn A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tucker, Dennis [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kolopus, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, Zhongyang [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A solid-state ultracapacitor module to replace standard electrochemical batteries would achieve major performance gains and mass/volume reduction. This report summarizes a project to evaluate an alternative sintering process to produce a solid-state ultracapacitor to overcome the limitations of both the electrochemical batteries presently in use on spacecraft and of currently available electrochemical ultracapacitors. It will provide a robust energy storage device with higher reliability, wider working temperature range, longer lifetime, and less weight and volume than electrochemical batteries. As modern electronics decrease in size, more efficient and robust remote power is needed. Current state-of-the-art rechargeable batteries cannot be rapidly charged, contain harmful chemicals, and suffer from early wear-out mechanisms. Solid-state ultracapacitors are recyclable energy storage devices that offer the promise of higher power and a greater number of charge/discharge cycles than current rechargeable batteries. In addition, the theoretical energy density when compared to current electrochemical batteries indicates that a significant weight savings is possible. This is a project to develop a very high density solid-state ultracapacitor with giant permittivity and acceptable dielectric loss to overcome the energy-density barrier such that it will be a suitable replacement for batteries.

  14. Analysis of Laser Sintering Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The new, high-tech development and customization is one ofthe most important factors in promoting the country‘s economicgrowth indicators. The economic downturn in the industryrequires technology and equipment using a minimumof raw materials and providing maximum performance. Thisstatement perfectly describes the innovative, forward-looking,cost-effective laser powder sintering (SLS technology. Here,thanks to the latest engineering achievements, product surfacesare modified and improved, they gain new characteristics. SLSis viable in automobile, engineering, construction, aerospace,aircraft, printing, medical and other areas.In order to create a product which meets the standards andtechnical documentation it is necessary to use and ensure highquality of raw materials, high-end equipment, qualified personnel,the working environment with proper climatic conditions, ergonomics,etc. But all of these, the quality of the product becomesthe decisive indicators meaningless if know how to properly selectthe laser processing operation. Scanning speed, beam power,pulse frequency, protective gases, powder layer thickness – allof them are the physical and mechanical characteristics of thechange in a small range changes the quality of the product of thefuture, the field of application and performance characteristics.

  15. τ-MnAl with high coercivity and saturation magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, high purity τ-Mn54Al46 and Mn54−xAl46Cxalloys were successfully prepared using conventional arc-melting, melt-spinning, and heat treatment process. The magnetic and the structural properties were examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD, powder neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. A room temperature saturation magnetization of 650.5 kAm-1, coercivity of 0.5 T, and a maximum energy product of (BHmax = 24.7 kJm-3 were achieved for the pure Mn54Al46 powders without carbon doping. The carbon substituted Mn54−xAl46Cx, however, reveals a lower Curie temperature but similar saturation magnetization as compared to the carbon-free sample. The electronic structure of MnAl shows that the Mn atom possesses a magnetic moment of 2.454 μB which results from strong hybridization between Mn-Al and Mn-Mn. We also investigated the volume and c/a ratio dependence of the magnetic moments of Mn and Al. The results indicate that an increase in the intra-atomic exchange splitting due to the cell volume expansion, leads to a large magnetic moment for the Mn atom. The Mn magnetic moment can reach a value of 2.9 μB at a volume expansion rate of ΔV/V ≈ 20%.

  16. High-coercivity FePt sputtered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, N.H.; Hiep, V.V.; Hong, D.M.; Chau, N.; Linh, N.D.; Kurisu, M.; Anh, D.T.K.; Nakamoto, G.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 56 Pt 44 thin films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Si substrates. The substrate temperature was kept at 350 deg C. The X-ray diffraction patterns of as-deposited FePt films exhibited a disordered structure. Annealing of the films at 650-685 deg C for 1 h yielded an ordered L1 0 phase with FCT structure. The high value for coercivity H C of 17 kOe was obtained at room temperature for the 68 nm thick film annealed at 685 deg C. The hard magnetic properties as well as grain structure of the films strongly depend on the annealing conditions

  17. High coercivity rare earth-transition metal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Ferromagnetic compositions having intrinsic magnetic coercivities at room temperature of at least 1,000 Oersteds are formed by the controlled quenching of molten rare earth -transition metal alloys. Hard magnets may be inexpensively formed from the lower atomic weight lanthanide elements and iron. The preferable compositions lie within: at least one of Fe, Ni, Co (20 to 70 atomic percent); and at least one of Ce, Pr, Na, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y (80 to 30 atomic percent). (author)

  18. High coercivity rare earth-transition metal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croat, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Ferromagnetic compositions having intrinsic magnetic coercivities at room temperature of at least 1,000 Oersteds are formed by the controlled quenching of molten rare earth-transition metal alloys. Hard magnets may be inexpensively formed from the lower atomic weight lanthanide elements and iron. The preferable compositions lie within: at least one of Fe, Ni, Co; 20 - 70 atomic percent: at least one of Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Y; 80 - 30 atomic percent. (author)

  19. Studies on the Production of NdFeB Alloy by Calciothermic Reduction of Neodymium Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensri, Apisara

    2003-06-01

    Neodymium-Iron-Boron (NdFeB) is a class of permanent magnets having the highest energy product (BH max ). It has been used in various electronic devices of small size and light weight. This research is to study the preparation of Neodymium-Iron-Boron alloy by calciothermic reduction of neodymium oxide mixed with iron and iron-boron. The reduction process essentially involves the compaction of the charge mixture with calcium metal and then heating at 900-1200οC in argon atmosphere. The results show that charge blend compaction, temperature and time of reaction are important parameters of the process. It is found that at proper conditions, magnetic phase structure of Neodymium-Iron-Boron alloy can be prepared satisfactory although the alloy produced from the reduction contains higher impurities of oxygen and calcium than the alloy produced from the conventional method using Nd metal

  20. Computer-aided topological analysis of Nd-Fe-B ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, P.; Zhang, W.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional partially matrixed topological model of the Nd-Fe-B ternary phase diagram has been established based on experimental results assessed comprehensively with the aid of a computer-aided design and graphic and graphics software, AutoCAD (R10), and application programs developed in this work. Vertical sections at 5.88 at.% B, Nd:B = 1:1, Fe-Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B-Nd, Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 17/-Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 7/B/sub 6/ have been cut out from the model and the corresponding phase relationships have been analyzed. Among them, those on the Nd-rich protons of both the sections at 5.88 at.% B and Nd:B = 2:1 and those on the Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B-Nd section are given for the first time. (author)

  1. Reduction of crystallization temperature of the Nd-Fe-B thin films by Cu addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yungui; Yang Zheng; Matsumoto, M.; Morisako, A.; Takei, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nonmagnetic Cu element has been doped into the sputtered Nd-Fe-B thin films. It is found that the introduction of suitable amount of copper atoms could reduce the crystallization temperature of the 2:14:1 phase by near 100 deg. C, compared with that without Cu. For the 15 nm Nd 16 Fe 70.2 Cu 1.8 B 12 film deposited at 340 deg. C, perpendicular coercivity and remanent magnetization ratio of 350 kA/m and 0.96 have been successfully obtained. Cu addition would lead to the grain growth, but the average grain size in the films could be greatly decreased through lowering the deposition temperature. These results are compared with those found in the fabrication of FePtCu films

  2. A study on some properties of sintered stainless steel powder compacts with sintering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bang Sik; Kim, Kwan Hyu; Lee, Doh Jae; Choi, Dap Chun

    1986-01-01

    Sintered specimens for the mechanical and corrosion tests were prepared from 316L, 410L and 434L stainless steel powder compacts with green densities in the range of 6.2∼7.0g/cm 3 . The experimental variables studied were green density, sintering atmosphere, temperature and time, type of lubricant used and cooling rate after sintering operation. Mechanical properties of green compacts and sintered specimens were evaluated. The corrosion tests were performed by potentiodynamic anodic polarization technique. Mechanical properties were very sensitive to the sintering atmosphere; sintering in dissociated ammonia resulted in the strengthing but embrittlement of sintered 316L, 410L and 434L strainless steel powder compacts. Their corrosion resistance was also decreased. The tensile strength was increased with increases in sintering time and temperature while the decreases in the yield strength were observed. The tensile properties of green compacts were shown to closely related to the green density. Addition of 1% acrawax as a lubricant was appeared to be most effective for the improvement of green strength. (Author)

  3. Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1994-10-01

    Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer (μM) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 μm W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 μm W powder blends; 10μm W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W

  4. Discrimination symbol applying method for sintered nuclear fuel product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Jin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a symbol applying method for applying discrimination information such as an enrichment degree on the end face of a sintered nuclear product. Namely, discrimination symbols of information of powders are applied by a sintering aid to the end face of a molded member formed by molding nuclear fuel powders under pressure. Then, the molded product is sintered. The sintering aid comprises aluminum oxide, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide, aluminum hydride or aluminum stearate alone or in admixture. As an applying means of the sintering aid, discrimination symbols of information of powders are drawn by an isostearic acid on the end face of the molded product, and the sintering aid is sprayed thereto, or the sintering aid is applied directly, or the sintering aid is suspended in isostearic acid, and the suspension is applied with a brush. As a result, visible discrimination information can be applied to the sintered member easily. (N.H.)

  5. Big Area Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Bonded NdFeB Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Nlebedim, I C; Rios, Orlando; Post, Brian; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lowden, R R; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Fredette, Robert; Ormerod, John; Lograsso, Thomas A; Paranthaman, M Parans

    2016-10-31

    Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm 3 , and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity H ci  = 688.4 kA/m, remanence B r  = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH) max  = 43.49 kJ/m 3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

  6. Magnetic and structural properties of NdFeB thin film prepared by step annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrona, Leo K.E.B.; Sugimura, A.; Fujisaki, R.; Okuda, T.; Adachi, N.; Ohsato, H.; Sakamoto, I.; Nakanishi, A.; Motokawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    The crystallization of the amorphous phase into the tetragonal Nd 2 Fe 14 B (PHI) phase and the corresponding changes in magnetic properties have been examined by step annealing experiment using a 2 μm thick NdFeB film sample. Microstructural and magnetic analysis indicate that the film was magnetically soft as deposited with the coercivity H ciperp -1 and the remnant magnetization 4πM rperp -1 was developed and diffraction analysis showed evidence of PHI phase 002l peaks being aligned perpendicular to the film plane. At an optimum annealing temperature of 575 deg. C, the remnant magnetization of this anisotropic thin film is around 0.60 T with intrinsic coercivity of ∼1340 kA m -1 . Annealing the film sample at 200 deg. C≤T ann ≤750 deg. C showed variations in magnetic properties that were mostly due to the change in the perpendicular anisotropy. Based on 4πM sperpendicular values plotted against T ann , a dip in 4πM sperpendicular values was observed as T ann increased in the soft-to-hard magnetic characteristics transition region and rose as the hard crystalline phase started to form. The results show that the magnetic properties of the NdFeB film were slightly influenced by the presence of NdO, film surface roughening and the small increase in crystal size as a consequence of repeated heat treatment. At T ann ∼300 deg. C, the nominal saturation magnetization indicated a certain degree of weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the film sample considered to be essential in the enhancement of coercivity in crystallized films

  7. Laser sintering of metal powders on top of sintered layers under multiple-line laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Bin; Zhang Yuwen

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model for multiple-line sintering of loose powders on top of multiple sintered layers under the irradiation of a moving Gaussian laser beam is carried out. The overlaps between vertically deposited layers and adjacent lines which strengthen bonding are taken into account. The energy equation is formulated using the temperature transforming model and solved by the finite volume method. The effects of the number of the existing sintered layers, porosity and initial temperature coupled with the optimal combination laser intensity and scanning velocity are presented. The results show that the liquid pool moves slightly towards the negative scanning direction and the shape of the liquid pool becomes shallower with higher scanning velocity. A higher laser intensity is needed to achieve the required overlaps when the number of the existing sintered layers increases. Increasing porosity or initial temperature enhances the sintering process and thus less intensity is needed for the overlap requirement

  8. Effects of sintering atmosphere and initial particle size on sintering of gadolinia-doped ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Rafael Morgado

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the sintering atmosphere and initial particle size on the sintering of ceria containing 10 mol% gadolinia (GdO 1.5 ) were systematically investigated. The main physical parameter was the specific surface area of the initial powders. Nanometric powders with three different specific surface areas were utilized, 210 m 2 /g, 36,2 m 2 /g e 7,4 m 2 /g. The influence on the densification, and micro structural evolution were evaluated. The starting sintering temperature was verified to decrease with increasing on the specific surface area of raw powders. The densification was accelerated for the materials with smaller particle size. Sintering paths for crystallite growth were obtained. Master sintering curves for gadolinium-doped ceria were constructed for all initial powders. A computational program was developed for this purpose. The results for apparent activation energy showed noticeable dependence with specific surface area. In this work, the apparent activation energy for densification increased with the initial particle size of powders. The evolution of the particle size distributions on non isothermal sintering was investigated by WPPM method. It was verified that the grain growth controlling mechanism on gadolinia doped ceria is the pore drag for initial stage and beginning of intermediate stage. The effects of the sintering atmosphere on the stoichiometry deviation of ceria, densification, microstructure evolution, and electrical conductivity were analyzed. Inert, oxidizing, and reducing atmospheres were utilized on this work. Deviations on ceria stoichiometry were verified on the bulk materials. The deviation verified was dependent of the specific surface area and sintering atmosphere. Higher reduction potential atmospheres increase Ce 3+ bulk concentration after sintering. Accelerated grain growth and lower electrical conductivities were verified when reduction reactions are significantly present on sintering. (author)

  9. Master sintering curve: A practical approach to its construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouchly V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a Master Sintering Curve (MSC is a strong tool for optimizing the sintering process. However, constructing the MSC from sintering data involves complicated and time-consuming calculations. A practical method for the construction of a MSC is presented in the paper. With the help of a few dilatometric sintering experiments the newly developed software calculates the MSC and finds the optimal activation energy of a given material. The software, which also enables sintering prediction, was verified by sintering tetragonal and cubic zirconia, and alumina of two different particle sizes.

  10. Effect of calcium chloride on the preparation of NdFeB alloy powder by calciothermic reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R.K.; Verma, A.; Raina, K.K.

    1999-01-01

    The calciothermic reduction process has been identified to be one of the cost effective processes for producing NdFeB from Nd 2 O 3 . Use of CaCl 2 as slag former in calciothermic reduction is well established. This paper describes the effect of CaCl 2 on the various properties of NdFeB alloy powder prepared by calciothermic reduction. The effect of CaCl 2 on ease of disintegration of the reacted product during calcium leaching, particle size distribution, grain size, lattice parameters and residual calcium has been studied and compared with the alloy powder prepared without using calcium chloride. Addition of CaCl 2 has been found to result in easier disintegration, reduction in grain size and more uniform particle size distribution. Substantial decrease in the residual calcium in case of charge consisting of CaCl 2 was observed. The effect of lattice parameters was not found to be very significant. (author)

  11. Micro-patterning of resin-bonded NdFeB magnet for a fully integrated electromagnetic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Kai; Wu, Jin; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Chen, Di; Yang, Zhuoqing; Ding, Guifu; Lye, Sun Woh; Miao, Jianmin

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports a fully-integrated, batch-fabricated electromagnetic actuator which features micro-patterned NdFeB magnets. The entire actuator is fabricated through MEMS-compatible laminated surface micromachining technology, eliminating the requirement for further component assembly processes. The fabrication strategy allowed the entire volume of the actuator to be reduced to a small size of 2.5 × 2.5 × 2 mm3, which is one of the smallest NdFeB-based electromagnetic actuators demonstrated to date. The magnetic properties of NdFeB thin films are further investigated and optimized using different types of lithographically-defined micromolds. By altering the direction of the input current, actuating displacements of approximately ±10 μm are achieved during both the attraction and the repulsion operations. This work demonstrates the viability and compatibility of using polymer-bonded magnets for magnetic MEMS applications.

  12. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Longcai [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, P.O. Box 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)], E-mail: zhlcai2000@163.com; Wang Suyu; Wang Jiasu; Zheng Jun [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, P.O. Box 152, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  13. Characterisation of NdFeB thin films prepared on (100)Si substrates with SiO2 barrier layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.K.; Muralidhar, G.K.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a systematic study of the deposition and characterization of NdFeB films on substrates of Si(100) and of SiO2 layer thermally grown on Si(100) held at RT, 360 deg C or 440 deg C. The post-deposition annealing is performed at 600 or 800 deg C in vacuum. The films are characterised using the analytical techniques of RBS, SIMS, XRD, OM and SEM. Results indicate that SiO2 is, in deed, an excellent diffusion barrier layer till 600 deg C but becomes relatively less effective at 800 deg C. Without this barrier layer, interdiffusion at the Si-NdFeB film interface leads to formation of iron silicides, α-Fe and B exclusion from the diffusion zone, in competition with the formation of the magnetic NdFeB phase. (authors)

  14. Integrated analysis of oxide nuclear fuel sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.; Kuzmin, R.; Tenishev, A.; Timoshin, I.; Khlunov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Petrov, I.

    2011-01-01

    Dilatometric and thermal-gravimetric investigations have been carried out for the sintering process of oxide nuclear fuel in gaseous Ar - 8% H 2 atmosphere at temperatures up to 1600 0 C. The pressed compacts were fabricated under real production conditions of the OAO MSZ with application of two different technologies, so called 'dry' and 'wet' technologies. Effects of the grain size growth after the heating to different temperatures were observed. In order to investigate the effects produced by rate of heating on properties of sintered fuel pellets, the heating rates were varied from 1 to 8 0 C per minute. Time of isothermal overexposure at maximal temperature (1600 0 C) was about 8 hours. Real production conditions were imitated. The results showed that the sintering process of the fuel pellets produced by two technologies differs. The samples sintered under different heating rates were studied with application of scanning electronic microscopy analysis for determination of mean grain size. A simulation of heating profile for industrial furnaces was performed to reduce the beam cycles and estimate the effects of variation of the isothermal overexposure temperatures. Based on this data, an optimization of the sintering conditions was performed in operations terms of OAO MSZ. (authors)

  15. Sintered cobalt-rare earth intermetallic product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing novel sintered cobalt--rare earth intermetallic products which can be magnetized to form permanent magnets having stable improved magnetic properties. A cobalt--rare earth metal alloy is formed having a composition which at sintering temperature falls outside the composition covered by the single Co 5 R intermetallic phase on the rare earth richer side. The alloy contains a major amount of the Co 5 R intermetallic phase and a second solid CoR phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase. The specific cobalt and rare earth metal content of the alloy is substantially the same as that desired in the sintered product. The alloy, in particulate form, is pressed into compacts and sintered to the desired density. The sintered product is comprised of a major amount of the Co 5 R solid intermetallic phase and up to about 35 percent of the product of the second solid CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of NdFeB and NdFeB/Fe films with Mo addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urse, M; Grigoras, M; Lupu, N; Chiriac, H, E-mail: urse@phys-iasi.ro [National Institute of R and D for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi (Romania)

    2011-07-06

    The influence of the Mo addition on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B and Nd-Fe-B/Fe films was studied. The coercivity is a key parameter in the control of technical performances of Nd-Fe-B films. A small amount of about 1 at.% Mo can enhance the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B film by controlling the growth of soft and hard magnetic grains. A coercivity of 22.1 kOe, a remanence ratio, M{sub r}/M{sub s}, of 0.83 and a maximum energy product of 8 MGOe were obtained for Ta/[NdFeBMo(1at.%)(540nm)/Ta films annealed at 650{sup 0}C for 20 minutes due to Mo precipitates formed at the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase boundaries which prevent the nucleation and expansion of the magnetic domains. Simultaneous use of Mo as addition and the stratification of Nd-Fe-B-Mo films using Fe as spacer layer are important tools for the improvement of the hard magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B films. The Ta/[NdFeBMo(1at.%)(180nm)/Fe(1nm)]x3/Ta multilayer film annealed at 620{sup 0}C exhibits an increase in the coercivity from 12.1 kOe to 22.8 kOe, in the remanence ratio from 0.77 to 0.80, and in the maximum energy product from 4.5 to 7.1 MGOe in comparison with Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta film. As compared to Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta film, the Ta/[NdFeBMo(1at.%)(180nm)/Fe(1nm)]x3/Ta film presents a decrease in the crystallization temperature of about 30{sup 0}C.

  17. CRADA/NFE-15-05761 Report: Additive Manufacturing of Isotropic NdFeB Bonded Permanent Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M Parans [ORNL

    2016-07-18

    The technical objective of this technical collaboration phase I proposal is to fabricate net shape isotropic NdFeB bonded magnets utilizing additive manufacturing technologies at the ORNL MDF. The goal is to form complex shapes of thermoplastic and/or thermoset bonded magnets without expensive tooling and with minimal wasted material. Two additive manufacturing methods; the binder jet process; and big area additive manufacturing (BAAM) were used. Binder jetting produced magnets with the measured density of the magnet of 3.47 g/cm3, close to 46% relative to the NdFeB single crystal density of 7.6 g/cm3 were demonstrated. Magnetic measurements indicate that there is no degradation in the magnetic properties. In addition, BAAM was used to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: Intrinsic coercivity Hci = 8.65 kOe, Remanence Br = 5.07 kG, and energy product (BH)max = 5.47 MGOe (43.50 kJ/m3). This study provides a new pathway for preparing near-net shape bonded magnets for various magnetic applications.

  18. Magnetic properties, microstructure and corrosion behavior of (Pr,nd)12.6Fe81.3B6.1-type sintered magnets doped with (Pr,nd)30Fe62Ga8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Junjie; Zhang, Zhenyu; Liu, Ying; Jia, Zhengfeng; Huang, Baoxu; Yin, Yibin

    2016-10-01

    NdFeB sintered magnets with (Pr,Nd)30Fe62Ga8 were prepared by a binary powder blending method and their magnetic properties, microstructure and corrosion behavior were investigated. Addition of 3 wt% (Pr,Nd)30Fe62Ga8 was found to be the most effective for improving (BH)max and iHc of the magnets. The increase in both magnetic parameters was related to the alteration in microstructure. However, in other samples the occurrence of micropore and the aggregation of intergranular phases harmed the magnetic properties. Such disadvantageous microstructure features also caused higher corrosion current density, thus decreasing the corrosion resistance of the sample with higher additive content. In addition, the Ga-containing intergranular phases that are more stable than the (Pr,Nd)-rich phase formed in the additive doped magnets, leading to better corrosion resistance of the 3 wt% additives doped sample in comparison with the contrastive sample.

  19. New materials through a variety of sintering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, L.; Cyboroń, J.; Cygan, S.; Laszkiewicz-Łukasik, J.; Podsiadło, M.; Novak, P.; Holovenko, Y.

    2018-03-01

    New sintering techniques make it possible to obtain materials with special properties that are impossible to obtain by conventional sintering techniques. This issue is especially important for ceramic materials for application under extreme conditions. Following the tendency to limit critical materials in manufacturing processes, the use of W, Si, B, Co, Cr should be limited, also. One of the cheapest and widely available materials is aluminum oxide, which shows differences in phase composition, grain size, hardness, strain and fracture toughness of the same type of powder, sintered via various methods. In this paper the alumina was sintered using the conventional free sintering process, microwave sintering, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), high pressure-high temperature method (HP-HT) and High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS). Phase composition analysis, by X-ray diffraction of the alumina materials sintered using various methods, was carried out. For the conventional sintering method, compacts are composed of α-Al2O3 and θ-Al2O3. For compacts sintered using SPS, microwave and HP-HT methods, χ-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3 phases were additionally present. Mechanical and physical properties of the obtained materials were compared between the methods of sintering. On the basis of images from scanning electron microscope quantitative analysis was performed to determine the degree of grain growth of alumina after sintering.

  20. The epoxy resin variation effect on microstructure and physical properties to improve bonded NdFeB flux magnetic density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnaeni, N.; Sarjono, Priyo; Muljadi; Noer, Nasrudin

    2016-01-01

    NdFeB magnets have been fabricated from a mixture of powder NdFeB (MPQ-B+) and epoxy resins (ER) with a variation of 0% wt, 2% wt, 4% wt and 6% wt. The pellets samples were made by pressing 4 tons of the mixture powder at room temperature before curing at 100°C for 1 hour. The SEM-EDX results showed the microstructure with ER were evenly smeared the NdFeB magnetic particles due to higher percent C and lower transition metals value. Sample with 2% wt epoxy resin was able to achieve the highest density of 5.35 g/cm 3 and the highest magnetic flux of 2121 Gauss. The magnetic properties characterization using the permagraph indicates that the sample pellets with 2% wt epoxy resin has a value of remanence (Br) = 4.92 kG, coercivity (Hc) = 7.76 kOe, and energy product (Bhmax) = 4.58 MGOe. Despite low remanence value in the pellet samples, the resistance to demagnetization value was still acceptable. (paper)

  1. The epoxy resin variation effect on microstructure and physical properties to improve bonded NdFeB flux magnetic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnaeni, N.; Sarjono, Priyo; Muljadi; Noer, Nasrudin

    2016-11-01

    NdFeB magnets have been fabricated from a mixture of powder NdFeB (MPQ-B+) and epoxy resins (ER) with a variation of 0% wt, 2% wt, 4% wt and 6% wt. The pellets samples were made by pressing 4 tons of the mixture powder at room temperature before curing at 100°C for 1 hour. The SEM-EDX results showed the microstructure with ER were evenly smeared the NdFeB magnetic particles due to higher percent C and lower transition metals value. Sample with 2% wt epoxy resin was able to achieve the highest density of 5.35 g/cm3 and the highest magnetic flux of 2121 Gauss. The magnetic properties characterization using the permagraph indicates that the sample pellets with 2% wt epoxy resin has a value of remanence (Br) = 4.92 kG, coercivity (Hc) = 7.76 kOe, and energy product (Bhmax) = 4.58 MGOe. Despite low remanence value in the pellet samples, the resistance to demagnetization value was still acceptable.

  2. Effect of composition polymeric PVB binder on physical, magnetic properties and microstructure of bonded magnet NdFeB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardjono, P.; Muljadi; Suprapedi; Sinuaji, P.; Ramlan; Gulo, F.

    2017-04-01

    The bonded magnet NdFeB has been made by using the hot press method and using Poly Vinyl Butiral (PVB) as a binder. The composition of polymeric binder was varied: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 7 % of weight. Both raw materials are weighed and mixed according to the composition of PVB, then formed by hot press with a pressure 30 MPa, a temperature of 160 ° C and holding time for 30 minutes. The bulk density was measured by using Archimedes method. SEM observation was done to determine the microstructure of bonded magnet NdFeB. The flux magnetic value was measured by using a Gauss meter and the measurement of hysteresis curves was done to know value of remanence Br, coercivity Hc and energy product BHmax by using VSM. According to the characterization results show that the best composition of PVB is 2 of weight. The properties of bonded magnet NdFeB of those compositions are the bulk density around 5.66 g/cm3. Flux Magnetic value: 1862 Gauss, Br value: 5000 kGauss, Hc value: 8.49 kOe and BHmax value : 5.10 MGOe. According of SEM observation results show that the polymer matrix of PVB appears to have covered on all surface grain and filled grain boundary.

  3. Effect of Fe-Mn addition on microstructure and magnetic properties of NdFeB magnetic powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, C.; Purba, A. S.; Setiadi, E. A.; Simbolon, S.; Warman, A.; Sebayang, P.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of Fe-Mn alloy addition on microstructures and magnetic properties of NdFeB magnetic powders was investigated. Varied Fe-Mn compositions of 1, 5, and 10 wt% were mixed with commercial NdFeB type MQA powders for 15 minutes using shaker mill. The characterizations were performed by powder density, PSA, XRD, SEM, and VSM. The Fe-Mn addition increased the powder density of NdFeB/Fe-Mn powders. On the other side, particle size distribution slightly decreased as the Fe-Mn composition increases. Magnetic properties of NdFeB/Fe-Mn powders changed with the increasing of Fe-Mn content. SEM analysis showed the particle size of NdFeB/Fe-Mn powder was smaller as the Fe-Mn composition increases. It showed that NdFeB/Fe-Mn particles have different size and shape for NdFeB and Fe-Mn particles separately. The optimum magnetic properties of NdFeB/Fe-Mn powder was achieved on the 5 wt% Fe-Mn composition with remanence M r = 49.45 emu/g, coercivity H c = 2.201 kOe, and energy product, BH max = 2.15 MGOe.

  4. Influence of sintering temperature on mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered pre-alloyed Ti-6Al-4 V powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthuchamy, A.; Patel, Paridh; Rajadurai, M. [VIT Univ., Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Chaurisiya, Jitendar K. [NIT, Suratkal (India); Annamalai, A. Raja [VIT Univ., Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India). Centre for Innovative Manufacturing Research

    2018-04-01

    Spark plasma sintering provides faster heating that can create fully, or near fully, dense samples without significant grain growth. In this study, pre-alloyed Ti-6Al-4 V powder compact samples produced through field assisted sintering in a spark plasma sintering machine are compared as a function of consolidation temperature. The effect of sintering temperature on the densification mechanism, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Ti-6Al-4 V alloy compacts was investigated in detail. The compact, sintered at 1100 C, exhibited near net density, highest hardness and strength as compared to the other compacts processed at a temperature lower than 1100 C.

  5. Sintering method for nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omuta, Hirofumi; Nakabayashi, Shigetoshi.

    1997-01-01

    When sintering a compressed nuclear fuel powder in an atmosphere of a mixed gas comprising hydrogen and nitrogen, steams are added to the mixed gas to suppress the nitrogen content in sintered nuclear fuel pellets. In addition, the content of nitrogen impurities in the nuclear fuel pellets can be controlled by controlling the amount of steams to be added to the mixed gas, namely, by controlling the dew point as an index thereof. If the addition amount of steams to the mixed gas is determined by controlling the dew point as an index, the content of nitrogen impurities in the sintered nuclear fuel pellets can be controlled reliably to a specified value of 0.0075% or less. If ammonolyzed gas is used as the mixed gas, a more economical mixed gas can be obtained than in the case of forming mixed gas by mixing the hydrogen gas and the nitrogen gas. (N.H.)

  6. Electro sinter forging of titanium disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    by measuring the electrical resistance during the sintering process [5], since low electrical resistance corresponds to high density. It is, however, necessary to be aware that increased temperature, on the other hand, increases the resistance. SEM micrographs and Computed Tomography (CT) are carried out......Electro sinter forging (ESF) is a new sintering process based on the principle of electrical Joule heating. In the present work, middle frequency direct current (MFDC) was flowing through the powder compact, which was under mechanical pressure. The main parameters are the high electrical current......, up to 10 kA, and the low voltage, 1-2 V, resulting in heat generation in the powder. Figure 1 shows the experimental setup. The punches were made of a conductive material; namely a copper alloy. The die, which has to be electrically insulating, was made of alumina. The ESF process takes 3-4s...

  7. Sintered cobalt-rare earth intermetallic product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    This patent describes a sintered product having substantially stable permanent magnet properties in air at room temperature. It comprises compacted particulate cobalt--rare earth alloy consisting essentially of a Co 5 R intermetallic phase and a CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase, where R is a rare earth metal. The Co 5 R intermetallic phase is present in an amount of at least 65 percent by weight of the sintered product and the CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase is present in a positive amount having a value ranging up to about 35 percent by weight of the product. The sintered product has a density of at least 87 percent and has pores which are substantially noninterconnecting and wherein the component grains have an average size less than 30 microns

  8. Method of manufacturing sintered nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarumi, Kazutoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain composite pellets with an improved strength. Method: A core mainly composed of fuel materials is previously prepared, embedded into the central portion of a pellet, silted therearound with cladding material, and then pressmolded and sintered. For instance, a rugby-ball like core body with the maximum outer diameter of 6 mm and the height of 6 mm is made by compressive molding with uranium dioxide powder, then coating material comprising the same powder incorporated with 0.1 % by weight of SiC fibers is filled around the core body, which is molded into a composite pellet by means of pressing and then sintered at 1600 0 C, to obtain a sintered pellet of 93.5 % theoretical density. As the result of the compression test for the pellet, it showed a strength greater by 15 % than that of the similar mono-layer pellet. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Combustion of fuels with low sintering temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D

    1950-08-16

    A furnace for the combustion of low sintering temperature fuel consists of a vertical fuel shaft arranged to be charged from above and supplied with combustion air from below and containing a system of tube coils extending through the fuel bed and serving the circulation of a heat-absorbing fluid, such as water or steam. The tube-coil system has portions of different heat-absorbing capacity which are so related to the intensity of combustion in the zones of the fuel shaft in which they are located as to keep all parts of the fuel charge below sintering temperature.

  10. Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2012-03-15

    The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

  11. Current state of the Uranium dioxide sintering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.; Devyatko, Y.; Tenishev, A.; Khlunov, A.; Khomyakov, O.

    2011-01-01

    The basic approaches to the description of the ceramics sintering phenomenon are considered. It is established that diffusive sintering models incorrectly describe an intermediate stage of this process. The physical model of sintering, considering the substance plastic flow of pressing under the influence of internal stress forces and capillary forces, as the basic mechanism defining the shrinkage of sintering oxide nuclear fuel, is offered. (authors)

  12. Peculiarities of formation and sintering of fine dispersed molybdenum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamazov, R.U.; Pak, V.I.; Tsvetkov, Yu.V.; Lem, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    Pressing of fine dispersed Mo powders sintering of compacts in H 2 and vacuum is studied. It is shown that powder preannealing at 600 deg C in H 2 for 2 hours is necessary for formation of dense sintered compacts. Qualitatively choice of pressing conditions is possible when using electron-positron annihilation method. Peculiarities of compacting and sintering of fine- and coarse-dispersed powder mixtures are considered. The obtained results are discussed from the view point of sintering recrystallization mechanism

  13. Sintering of dioxide pellets in an oxidizing atmosphere (CO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.R.T.

    1992-01-01

    This work consists in the study of the sintering process of U O 2 pellets in an oxidizing atmosphere. Sintering tests were performed in an CO 2 atmosphere and the influence of temperature and time on the pellets density and microstructure were verified. The results obtained were compared to those from the conventional sintering process and its efficiency was confirmed. (author)

  14. Improving NASICON Sinterability through Crystallization under High Frequency Electrical Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya eLisenker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high frequency (HF electric fields on the crystallization and sintering rates of a lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (LAGP ion conducting ceramic was investigated. LAGP with the nominal composition Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO43 was crystallized and sintered, both conventionally and under effect of electrical field. Electrical field application, of 300V/cm at 1MHz, produced up to a 40% improvement in sintering rate of LAGP that was crystallized and sintered under the HF field. Heat sink effect of the electrodes appears to arrest thermal runaway and subsequent flash behavior. Sintered pellets were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM and EIS to compare conventionally and field sintered processes. The as-sintered structure appears largely unaffected by the field as the sintering curves tend to converge beyond initial stages of sintering. Differences in densities and microstructure after 1 hour of sintering were minor with measured sintering strains of 31% vs. 26% with and without field, respectively . Ionic conductivity of the sintered pellets was evaluated and no deterioration due to the use of HF field was noted, though capacitance of grain boundaries due to secondary phases was significantly increased.

  15. Blast furnace sinter performance improvement; Melhoria do rendimento de sinter de alto forno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ricardo Baeta; Ferreira, Antonio Marcos M.; Perez, Jose Antonio; Nobrega, Carlos A.; Madeira Filho, Nelson Santos; Silva, Jose Coutinho da; Sampaio, Silvio; Larcher, Marcos A.; Silva Filho, Jose Maximo da; Nogueira, Carlos Alberto; Ramalho Filho, Wilson; Costa, Jose Luiz Lage da; Silva, Mauro Correa da [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (CST), Serra, ES (Brazil)

    1995-07-01

    The article discusses the following issues of methodology maid and the accomplished actions aiming at the blast furnace sinter performance improvement: performance concept; performance historical evolution; problem boarding; influence factors; interpretation of the results; actions implementation; and economic benefit.

  16. Sintering behavior of LZSA glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rubem Klegues Montedo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The LZSA glass-ceramic system (Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2-Al2O 3 shows interesting properties, such as good chemical resistance, low thermal expansion, high abrasion resistance, and a low dielectric constant. However, in order to obtain a high performance material for specific applications, the sintering behavior must be better understood so that the porosity may be reduced and other properties improved. In this context, a sintering investigation for a specific LZSA glass-ceramic system composition was carried out. A 18.8Li2O-8.3ZrO2-64.2SiO2-8.7Al 2O3 glass was prepared by melting the solids, quenching the melt in water, and grinding the resulting solid in order to obtain a powder (3.68 μm average particle diameter. Subsequently, the glass powder was characterized (chemical analysis and determination of thermal properties and the sintering behavior was investigated using optical non-contact dilatometry measurements. The results showed that the crystallization process strongly reduced the sintering in the temperature interval from 785 to 940 °C, and a maximum thermal shrinkage of 15.4% was obtained with operating conditions of 1020 °C and 180 minutes.

  17. Study of ceramics sintering under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunrath Neto, A.O.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study was made on high pressure sintering of ceramics in order to obtain materials with controlled microstructure, which are not accessible by conventional methods. Some aspects with particular interest were: to achieve very low porosity, with fine grains; to produce dispersed metastable and denser phases which can act as toughening agents; the study of new possibilities for toughening enhancement. (author)

  18. Low temperature sintering of hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrel, H.

    1991-12-01

    In the lattice of uranium dioxide with hyperstoichiometric oxygen content (UO 2+x ), each additional oxygen atoms is introduced by shifting two anions from normal sites to interstitial ones, thereby creating two oxygen vacancies. The point defects then combine to form complex defects comprising several interstitials and vacancies. The group of anions (3x) in the interstitial position participate in equilibria promoting the creation of uranium vacancies thereby considerably increasing uranium self-diffusion. However, uranium grain boundaries diffusion governs densification during the first two stages of sintering of uranium dioxide with hyperstoichiometric oxygen content, i.e., up to 93% of the theoretical density. Surface diffusion and evaporation-condensation, which are considerably accentuated by the hyperstoichiometric deviation, play an active role during sintering by promoting crystalline growth during the second and third stages of sintering. U 8 O 8 can be added to adjust the stoichiometry and to form a finely porous structure and thus increase the pore area subjected to surface phenomena. The composition with an O/U ratio equal to 2.25 is found to densify the best, despite a linear growth in sintering activation energy with hyperstoichiometric oxygen content, increasing from 300 kj.mol -1 for UO 2.10 to 440 kJ.mol -1 for UO 2.25 . Seeds can be introduced to obtain original microstructures, for example the presence of large grains in small-grain matrix

  19. Deformation behavior of sintered nanocrystalline silver layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihzadeh, S.; Van Petegem, S.; Duarte, L.I.; Mokso, R.; Cervellino, A.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of porous silver layers produced under different low temperature pressure-assisted sintering conditions is characterized and linked with the mechanical behavior studied in situ during X-ray diffraction. Peak profile analysis reveals important strain recovery and hardening mechanism during cyclic deformation. The competition between both mechanisms is discussed in terms of porosity and grain size

  20. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of different additives, namely Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, up to 2 wt% was studied on the sinter- ing and .... mental distribution of the components is shown in figure 7. It shows ... Chiang Y M, Birniand D and Kingery W 1996 Physical ceram-.

  1. Laser Sintering Technology and Balling Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyar, Perihan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate the balling phenomenon which occurs typically in Selective Laser Sintering (SLS). The balling phenomenon is a typical SLS defect, and observed in laser sintered powder, significantly reduces the quality of SLS, and hinders the further development of SLS Technology. Electronic database searches were performed using Google Scholar. The keywords "laser sintering, selective laser sintering, direct metal laser melting, and balling phenomenon" were searched in title/abstract of publications, limited to December 31, 2016. The inclusion criteria were SLS, balling phenomenon, some alloys (such as Cr-Co, iron, stainless steel, and Cu-based alloys) mechanical properties, microstructure and bond strength between metal-ceramic crown, laboratory studies, full text, and in English language. A total of 100 articles were found the initial search and yielded a total of 50 studies, 30 of which did not fulfill the inclusion criteria and were therefore excluded. In addition, 20 studies were found by screening the reference list of all included publications. Finally, 40 studies were selected for this review. The method in question is regulated by powder material characteristics and the conditions of laser processing. The procedure of formation, affecting factors, and the mechanism of the balling effect are very complex.

  2. Reduction of surface erosion caused by helium blistering in sintered beryllium and sintered aluminum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to find materials with microstructures which minimize the formation of blisters. A promising class of materials appears to be sintered metal powder with small average grain sizes and low atomic number Z. Studies of the surface erosion of sintered aluminum powder (SAP 895) and of aluminum held at 400 0 C due to blistering by 100 keV helium ions have been conducted and the results are compared to those obtained earlier for room temperature irradiation. A significant reduction of the erosion rate in SAP 895 in comparison to annealed aluminum and SAP 930 is observed. In addition results on the blistering of sintered beryllium powder (type I) irradiated at room temperature and 600 0 C by 100 keV helium ions are given. These results will be compared with those reported recently for vacuum cast beryllium foil and a foil of sintered beryllium powder (type II) which was fabricated differently, than type I. For room temperature irradiation only a few blisters could be observed in sintered beryllium powder type I and type II and they are smaller in size and in number than in vacuum cast beryllium. For irradiation at 600 0 C large scale exfoliation of blisters was observed for vacuum cast beryllium but much less exfoliation was seen for sintered beryllium powder, type I, and type II. The results show a reduction in erosion rate cast beryllium, for both room temperature and 600 0 C

  3. Sintering uranium oxide using a preheating step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.J.; Nivas, Y.; Packard, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide or uranium oxide with one or more additives are heated in a kiln in a process having a preheating step, a sintering step, a reduction step, and a cooling step in a controlled atmosphere. The process is practiced to give a range of temperature and atmosphere conditions for obtaining optimum fluoride removal from the compacted pellets along with optimum sintering in a single process. The preheating step of this process is conducted in a temperature range of about 600 0 to about 900 0 C and the pellets are held for at least twenty min, and preferably about 60 min, in an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 10 to about 75 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The sintering step is conducted at a temperature in the range of about 900 0 C to 1500 0 C in the presence of an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 0.5 to about 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The reduction step reduces the oxygen to metal ratio of the pellets to a range of about 1.98 to 2.10:1 and this is accomplished by gradually cooling the pellets for about 30 to about 120 min from the temperature of the sintering step to about 1100 0 C in an atmosphere of about 10 to 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. Thereafter the pellets are cooled to about 100 0 C under a protective atmosphere, and in one preferred practice the same atmosphere used in the reduction step is used in the cooling step. The preheating, sintering and reduction steps may also be conducted with their respective atmospheres having an initial additional component of water vapor and the water vapor can comprise up to about 20 vol %

  4. The quantitative characterization of sintering of urania powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Kulkarni, U.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a unified approach towards characterization of the sintering behaviour of UO 2 powders in terms of their extrinsic properties. Empirical equations connecting the sintering index with various powder parameters have been set up. The influence of various powder parameters, either individually or as dimensionless/dimensional groups, on the sintering behaviour has been studied. The relative importance of these factors has also been analysed. A good polynomial fit has been obtained for variation of sintering index with some of the powder parameters and dimensionless/dimensional groups. The equations are expected to provide a good basis for assessing the sinterability of UO 2 powders. (Auth.)

  5. Comparative sinterability of combustion synthesized and commercial titanium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, B.W.

    1984-11-01

    The influence of various parameters on the sinterability of combustion synthesized titanium carbide was investigaged. Titanium carbide powders, prepared by the combustion synthesis process, were sintered in the temperature range 1150 to 1600 0 C. Incomplete combustion and high oxygen contents were found to be the cause of reduced shrinkage during sintering of the combustion syntheized powders when compared to the shrinkage of commercial TiC. Free carbon was shown to inhibit shrinkage. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on stoichiometry (C/Ti). With decreasing C/Ti, the rate of sintering increased. 29 references, 16 figures, 13 tables

  6. Influence of shape and thickness on the levitation force of YBaCuO bulk HTS over a NdFeB guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhongyou; Wang Jiasu; Wang Suyu; Jiang He; Zhu Min; Wang Xiaorong; Song Honghai

    2003-01-01

    Levitation forces of YBaCuO bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) with different shape and size over a NdFeB guideway were studied. Here, the concentrating magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway was 1.2 T, and the YBaCuO bulk HTSs include three cylindrical samples with different diameter and thickness and one hexagonal sample. The maximum levitation force is as high as 85.3 N at a gap of 5 mm between the bottom surface of YBaCuO bulk HTS and the top surface of the NdFeB guideway, where the applied magnetic field is about 0.8 T. The results show that the shape and the size have large influences on the levitation force of YBaCuO bulk HTSs

  7. Studies on the sintering of copper powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmasry, M.A.A.; Abadir, M.F.; Mahdy, A.N.; Elkinawy, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state sintering behavior of cylindrical compacts, (1 cm diameter and 1 cm height), made of copper powder was studied within a range of compacting pressure of 75 up to 300 MPa, sintering temperature of 600 up to to 900 degree C, and sintering time of 5 up to 60 min in a reducing atmosphere composed of H2 and N 2 gases with a volumetric ratio 3:1. The green and the sintered densities were found to to increase with the compacting pressure. Higher sintering temperature, and time favour increased sintered density. probable mechanisms during the initial stage of sintering were disclosed. It was found that low pressures cause dilation of closed pores, and vice versa. At low pressures and temperatures the surface diffusion mechanism is favoured, While high temperatures favour lattice diffusion mechanism. at high pressures, the lattice diffusion mechanism is suppressed while surface diffusion predominates. Density and hence shrinkage were also found to increase with the increase of sintering time, While its rate increases with the increase of sintering temperature. the influence of sintering conditions on the hardness of the compacts was studied. An increase in hardness, When higher compacting pressures and higher sintering temperatures were adopted, has bee obtained. 11 figs

  8. Factors Affecting the Sintering of UO2 Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hakim, E.; Afifi, Y.K.

    1999-01-01

    Sintering of UO 2 pellets is affected by many parameters such as; UO 2 powder parameters, the conditions followed for preparing the green UO 2 pellets and the sintering scheme(heating and cooling rate, soaking time and temperature). The aim of this work is to study the effect of some these parameters on the characteristics of the sintered UO 2 pellets were qualified according to the technical specifications of Candu fuel. Pressed green pellets at different pressing force (15 to 50 k N) were sintered at 1650 ±20 degree for two hours to study the effect of pressing force on the sintered pellets characteristics; visual inspection, pellet dimensions, density and shrinkage ratio. Compacted green pellets at a pressing force of 48 k N were sintered at different sintering temperature (1600± 20 degree, 1650 ±20 degree, 1700± 20 degree) for two hours to study the effect of sintering temperature on the sintered pellets characteristics. The effect of the heating rate (200,300 and 400 degree per hour) on the sintered pellets characteristics was also investigated. It was found that the pressing force used to compact the green pellets had an effect on the density of the sintered pellets. Pellets pressed at 15 k N have a density of 10.3 g/cm 3 while, those pressed at 50 k N have a density of 10.6 g/cm 3. It was observed that increasing the heating rate to 400 degree /h lead to cracked pellets

  9. Inversion defects in MgAl2O4 elaborated by pressureless sintering, pressureless sintering plus hot isostatic pressing, and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussi, A.; Granger, G. Bernard; Addad, A.; Benameur, N.; Beclin, F.; Bataille, A.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of inversion defects of Al was investigated in dense magnesium-aluminate spinel elaborated by pressureless sintering, pressureless sintering plus hot isostatic pressing, and spark plasma sintering. This study was conducted by energy electron loss spectroscopy analyses and more particularly by energy loss near edge structure investigations of the Al-L 2,3 edge. Several aspects are discussed with the purpose of understanding why charged defects dispersal reveals a special configuration.

  10. Sintering studies on iron-carbon-copper compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perianayagam Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintered Iron-Carbon-Copper parts are among the most widely used powder metallurgy product in automobile. In this paper, studies have been carried out to find out the sintering characteristics of iron-carbon-copper compacts when sintered in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of various processing parameters on the sintering characteristics were studied. The various processing parameters considered were compaction pressure, green density and sintering temperature. The sintering characteristics determined were sintered density, porosity, dimensional change, micro hardness and radial crush strength. The results obtained have been discussed on the basis of micro structural observations. The characteristics of SEM fractography were also used to determine the mechanism of fracture. The fracture energy is strongly dependent on density of the compact.

  11. Studies on in situ magnetic alignment of bonded anisotropic Nd-Fe-B alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nlebedim, I.C. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ucar, Huseyin; Hatter, Christine B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); McCallum, R.W. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McCall, Scott K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kramer, M.J. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Paranthaman, M. Parans [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Considerations for achieving high degree of alignment in polymer bonded permanent magnets are presented via the results of a study on in situ magnetic alignment of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders. Contributions from effect of the alignment temperature, alignment magnetic field and the properties of the polymer on the hard magnetic properties of the bonded magnet were considered. The thermo-rheological properties of the polymer and the response of the magnet powders to the applied magnetic field indicate that hard magnetic properties were optimized at an alignment temperature just above the melting temperature of the EVA co-polymer. This agrees with an observed correlation between the change in magnetization due to improved magnetic alignment of the anisotropic powders and the change in viscosity of the binder. Manufacturing cost can be minimized by identifying optimum alignment temperatures and magnetic field strengths. - Highlights: • Optimum alignment of anisotropic magnet powders can enable high performance bonded magnets. • The viscoelastic state of polymer binders determines the dominating coercivity mechanism. • The minimum deviation in coercivity and remanence, with magnetic field, can occur at different temperatures. • Melting characteristics of polymer binders and the change in magnetization during alignment can be correlated.

  12. Characterization of the magnetic properties of NdFeB thick films exposed to elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ryogen; Devillers, Thibaut; Givord, Dominique; Dempsey, Nora M.

    2018-05-01

    Hard magnetic films used in magnetic micro-systems may be exposed to elevated temperatures during film and system fabrication and also during use of the micro-system. In this work, we studied the influence of temperature on the magnetic properties of 10 μm thick out-of-plane textured NdFeB films fabricated by high rate triode sputtering. Out-of-plane hysteresis loops were measured in the range 300K - 650K to establish the temperature dependence of coercivity, magnetization at 7 T and remanent magnetization. Thermal demagnetization was measured and magnetization losses were recorded from 350K in films heated under zero or low (-0.1 T) external field and from 325 K for films heated under an external field of -0.5 T. The effect of thermal cycling under zero field on the remanent magnetization was also studied and it was found that cycling between room temperature and 323 K did not lead to any significant loss in remanence at room temperature, while a 4% drop is recorded when the sample is cycled between RT and 343K. Measurement of hysteresis loops at room temperature following exposure to elevated temperatures reveals that while remanent magnetisation is practically recovered in all cases, irreversible losses in coercivity occur (6.7 % following heating to 650K, and 1.3 % following heating to 343K). The relevance of these results is discussed in terms of system fabrication and use.

  13. Modeling of magnetic hystereses in soft MREs filled with NdFeB particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, K. A.; Brummund, J.; Metsch, P.; Kästner, M.; Borin, D. Yu; Linke, J. M.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we investigate the structure-property relationships of soft magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) filled with remanently magnetizable particles. The study is motivated from experimental results which indicate a large difference between the magnetization loops of soft MREs filled with NdFeB particles and the loops of such particles embedded in a comparatively stiff matrix, e.g. an epoxy resin. We present a microscale model for MREs based on a general continuum formulation of the magnetomechanical boundary value problem which is valid for finite strains. In particular, we develop an energetically consistent constitutive model for the hysteretic magnetization behavior of the magnetically hard particles. The microstructure is discretized and the problem is solved numerically in terms of a coupled nonlinear finite element approach. Since the local magnetic and mechanical fields are resolved explicitly inside the heterogeneous microstructure of the MRE, our model also accounts for interactions of particles close to each other. In order to connect the microscopic fields to effective macroscopic quantities of the MRE, a suitable computational homogenization scheme is used. Based on this modeling approach, it is demonstrated that the observable macroscopic behavior of the considered MREs results from the rotation of the embedded particles. Furthermore, the performed numerical simulations indicate that the reversion of the sample’s magnetization occurs due to a combination of particle rotations and internal domain conversion processes. All of our simulation results obtained for such materials are in a good qualitative agreement with the experiments.

  14. Crystallographic orientation analysis in HDDR process of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizawa, Rina, E-mail: 3ES15002M@s.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itakura, Masaru [Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Katayama, Nobuhiro; Morimoto, Koichiro [R& D Division, Toda Kogyo Corp., 1-4 Meijishinkai, Otake, Hiroshima 739-0652 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Over 70% of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains after the HDDR process are aligned within 30°. • The c-axis alignment of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B slightly deteriorates by the Nd-rich phase formation. • α-Fe grains possess a uniaxial and 〈1 1 3〉 oriented texture in the decomposed stage. • α-Fe is most likely to induce the texture development of recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B. - Abstract: Microstructural changes and crystallographic orientation information in the hydrogenation-decomposition-desorption-recombination (HDDR) process of Nd-Fe-B alloy were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and precession electron diffraction (PED) in order to understand the mechanism of anisotropy inducement in the HDDR process. Recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains were found to nucleate at the interfaces between NdH{sub 2} and α-Fe grains and to have a [0 0 1]-oriented texture from the beginning of the recombination reaction. The Fe grains form with alignment of one of the 〈1 1 3〉 directions at decomposed stage. This suggests that α-Fe most likely induces texture development of recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B.

  15. High-performance nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets by CAPA process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.T. [Tesla Co., Ltd., 340-1 Songsan-Ri, Yanggam-Myeon, Hwasung City, Gyeonggi-Do, 445-396 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: htkim@gotesla.com; Kim, Y.B. [Korea Research Institute Standards and Sciences, 305-600, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, J.W. [Chonbuk National University, 756-356, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, I.H. [Tesla Co., Ltd., 340-1 Songsan-Ri, Yanggam-Myeon, Hwasung City, Gyeonggi-Do, 445-396 (Korea, Republic of); Kapustin, G.A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Kim, H.S. [Chonbuk National University, 756-356, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    The anisotropic NdFeB magnets were prepared from the melt-spun isotropic powders by CAPA process. The precursor isotropic magnet shows the uniform magnetic properties according to the overall position in the magnet. In the case of the anisotropic magnet, the outer position shows higher remanence and energy product compared to the center position. The magnetic properties of the anisotropic magnet obtained from Nd{sub 14}Fe{sub 80}B{sub 6} powders are B{sub r}=15kG, {sub i}H{sub c}=4.1kOe and BH{sub max}=36MGOe. In the case of addition of Zn to Nd{sub 14}Fe{sub 80}B{sub 6} powders, the energy product increased because of the improved coercivity. The magnetic properties of the Zn-added magnet are B{sub r}=14.5kG, {sub i}H{sub c}=9.7kOe and BH{sub max}=52MGOe. The Zn addition is effective to depress Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grain growth of the interparticle regions during plastic deformation.

  16. Measurement of NdFeB permanent magnets demagnetization induced by high energy electron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temnykh, Alexander B. [Wilson Lab, Cornell University, LEPP, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)], E-mail: abt6@cornell.edu

    2008-03-11

    Demagnetization of NdFeB permanent magnets has been measured as function of radiation dose induced by high energy electrons. The magnet samples were of different intrinsic coercive forces, {approx_equal}12 and {approx_equal}20KOe, dimensions and direction of magnetization. 5 GeV electron beam from 12 GeV Cornell Synchrotron was used as a radiation source. A calorimetric technique was employed for radiation dose measurement. Results indicated that depending on the sample intrinsic coercive force, shape and direction of magnetization the radiation dose causing 1% of demagnetization of the sample varies from 0.0765{+-}0.005Mrad to 11.3{+-}3.0Mrad, i.e., by more than a factor of 100. Experimental data analysis revealed that demagnetization of the given sample induced by radiation is strongly correlated with the sample demagnetizing temperature. This correlation was approximated by an exponential function with two parameters obtained from the data fitting. The function can be used to predict the critical radiation dose for permanent magnet assemblies like undulator magnets based on its demagnetizing temperature. The latter (demagnetization temperature) can be determined at the design stage from 3-D magnetic modeling and permanent magnet material properties.

  17. Removing metal debris from thermosetting EMC powders by Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaw Yowching

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of thermosetting encapsulation molding compounds (EMCs for semiconductor packaging, metal debris are always present in the EMC powders due to the hard silica fillers in the compound. These metal debris in the EMC powders will cause circuit shortage and therefore have to be removed before molding. In this study, Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are used to remove these debris. The results show that the metal debris can be removed effectively as the rate of accumulation of the metal debris increases as time proceeds in the removing operation. The removal effectiveness of the debris is affected by both the magnetic flux density and the flow around the magnet. The wake flow behind the magnet is a relatively low speed recirculation region which facilities the attraction of metal debris in the powders. Thus, the largest amount of the accumulated EMC powders occurs downstream of the magnet. Hence, this low speed recirculation region should be better utilized to enhance the removal efficiency of the metal debris.

  18. The temperature dependence of magnetic anisotropy of Nd-Fe-B thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Hashimoto, Ryuji; Tanaka, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Kenichi; Enokido, Yasushi; Choi, Kyung-Ku; Suzuki, Takao

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B thin films with the three different compositions (#1: Nd12.6Fe81.5B5.9, #2: Nd14.6Fe78.1B7.4 and #3: Nd22.6Fe66.2B11.2) are discussed. With increasing Nd content, the c-axis orientation along the film normal is enhanced. It is found that sample #2 possesses the saturation magnetization Ms very close to that for Nd2Fe14B over a temperature range from 100 to about 300K. The magnetic anisotropy constant Ku2 for sample #2 is the highest among those samples, but smaller by about 20%, as compared to that for Nd2Fe14B. It is of interest to note that the temperature TR at which Ku1 changes its sign is lower by about 30K as compared to that previously reported for Nd2Fe14B. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear, but could be due to the presence of the minority phases of Nd-rich compounds and also a possible contribution of the magneto-elastic effect to the net magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Studies on in situ magnetic alignment of bonded anisotropic Nd-Fe-B alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nlebedim, I.C.; Ucar, Huseyin; Hatter, Christine B.; McCallum, R.W.; McCall, Scott K.; Kramer, M.J.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2017-01-01

    Considerations for achieving high degree of alignment in polymer bonded permanent magnets are presented via the results of a study on in situ magnetic alignment of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders. Contributions from effect of the alignment temperature, alignment magnetic field and the properties of the polymer on the hard magnetic properties of the bonded magnet were considered. The thermo-rheological properties of the polymer and the response of the magnet powders to the applied magnetic field indicate that hard magnetic properties were optimized at an alignment temperature just above the melting temperature of the EVA co-polymer. This agrees with an observed correlation between the change in magnetization due to improved magnetic alignment of the anisotropic powders and the change in viscosity of the binder. Manufacturing cost can be minimized by identifying optimum alignment temperatures and magnetic field strengths. - Highlights: • Optimum alignment of anisotropic magnet powders can enable high performance bonded magnets. • The viscoelastic state of polymer binders determines the dominating coercivity mechanism. • The minimum deviation in coercivity and remanence, with magnetic field, can occur at different temperatures. • Melting characteristics of polymer binders and the change in magnetization during alignment can be correlated.

  20. Magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxi; Ishida, Go; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B films with thicknesses from 100 nm to 3 nm have been investigated. All the films show excellent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness ratio of 1 in the perpendicular direction and almost zero coercivity in the in-plane direction. Of particular interest is that the initial magnetization curves sensitively depended on the film thickness. Films thicker than 15 nm show steep initial magnetization curve. Although the films have coercivities larger than 21 kOe, the films can be fully magnetized from the thermally demagnetized state with a field as small as 5 kOe. With the decrease of film thickness to 5 nm, the initial magnetization curve becomes flat. The evolution of initial magnetization curves with film thickness can be understood by the microstructure of the films. Films with thickness of 15 nm show close-packed grains without any intergranular phases. Such microstructures lead to steep initial magnetization curves. On the other hand, when the film thickness decreased to 3 nm, the film thickness became nonuniform. Such microstructure leads to flat initial magnetization curves.

  1. Metal coordination in the high-temperature leaching of roasted NdFeB magnets with the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    OpenAIRE

    Orefice, Martina; Binnemans, Koen; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Ionic liquids are largely used to leach metals from primary (ores) and secondary sources (end-of-life products). However, dry ionic liquids with a carboxylic function on the cation have not yet been used to leach metals at temperature above 100 °C and under atmospheric pressure. The ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [Hbet][Tf2N], was used in the dry state to recover neodymium, dysprosium and cobalt from NdFeB magnets and NdFeB production scrap. The magnets and the scra...

  2. Effects of proton irradiation on structure of NdFeB permanent magnets studied by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Zhen, L.; Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of proton irradiation on the structure of NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results reveal that proton irradiation has no effect on the long-range structure, but significantly affects the atomic local structure of the NdFeB magnet. The alignment degree of the magnet decreases and the internal stress of the lattice increases after proton irradiation. XAFS results show that the coordination number of Fe-Nd in the first neighboring coordination shell of the Fe atoms decreases and the disorder degree increases.

  3. Effects of proton irradiation on structure of NdFeB permanent magnets studied by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, L., E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The effects of proton irradiation on the structure of NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results reveal that proton irradiation has no effect on the long-range structure, but significantly affects the atomic local structure of the NdFeB magnet. The alignment degree of the magnet decreases and the internal stress of the lattice increases after proton irradiation. XAFS results show that the coordination number of Fe-Nd in the first neighboring coordination shell of the Fe atoms decreases and the disorder degree increases.

  4. Growth, microstructure, and hard magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B layers; Wachstum, Mikrostruktur und hartmagnetische Eigenschaften von Nd-Fe-B-Schichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, U.

    2004-07-01

    In this thesis with pulsed laser deposition Nd-Fe-B layers were deposited. The Nd-Fe-B layers were deposited both on chromium and on tantalum buffers. The layers, which were deposed on tantalum buffers, showed a strong dependence of the nicrostructure and the magnetic properties on the deposition temperature. On layers which were deposited at deposition temperatures around 630 C on the tantalum buffer, the epitactical growth of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B could be observed. Summarizingly these layers can be described as micrometer-large and parallely oriented single crystals.

  5. Reaction sintering of ceramic-metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta Filho, W.J.; Rodrigues, J.A.; Tomasi, R.; Pandolfelli, V.C.; Passos, J.F.S.S.; Folgueras, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    Reaction sintering experiments have been carried out in the system Al 2 O 3 -ZrAl 2 -Nb 2 O 5 with the objective of producing ceramic-metal composites of improved toughness. The sintering treatments have been done in the temperature range of 700 0 C to 1400 0 C under different conditions of vacuum and in air and argon atmospheres. The treated samples have been analysed by X-ray diffraction and analytical electron microscopy. The results are discussed in function of the degree of reaction, the development of microstructure and the densification. These results have shown that although an exchange reaction can occur to produce a composite, the control of the reaction to obtain a dense microstructure has not been possible yet. (author) [pt

  6. Production of sintered porous metal fluoride pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L.W.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1973-12-25

    Porous pellets characterized by a moderately reactive crust and a softer core of higher reactivity are produced by forming agglomerates containing a metal fluoride powder and a selected amount ofwater. The metal fluoride is selected to be sinterable and essentially non-reactive with gaseous fluorinating agents. The agglomerates are contacted with a gaseous fluorinating agent under controlled conditions whereby the heat generated by localized reaction of the agent and water is limited to values effccting bonding by localized sintering. Porous pellets composed of cryolite (Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/) can be used to selectively remove trace quantities of niobium pentafluoride from a feed gas consisting predominantly of uranium hexafluoride. (Official Gazette)

  7. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  8. From NdFeB magnets towards the rare-earth oxides: a recycling process consuming only oxalic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Blanpain, Bart; Van Gerven, Tom; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-01-01

    A chemical process which consumes a minimum amount of chemicals to recover rare-earth metals from NdFeB magnets was developed. The recovery of rare-earth elements from end-of-life consumer products has gained increasing interest during the last few years. Examples of valuable rare earths are neodymium and dysprosium because they are important constituents of strong permanent magnets used in several large or growing application fields (e.g. hard disk drives, wind turbines, electric vehicles, m...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES FOR DEVELOPMENT HIGH-POWER AUDIO SPEAKER DEVICES PERFORMANCE USING PERMANENT NdFeB MAGNETS SPECIAL TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin D. STĂNESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors shows the research made for improving high-power audio speaker devices performance using permanent NdFeB magnets special technology. Magnetic losses inside these audio devices are due to mechanical system frictions and to thermal effect of Joules eddy currents. In this regard, by special technology, were made conical surfaces at top plate and center pin. Analysing results obtained by modelling the magnetic circuit finite element method using electronic software package,was measured increase efficiency by over 10 %, from 1,136T to13T.

  10. Efek Waktu Wet Milling dan Suhu Annealing Terhadap Sifat Fisis, Mikrostruktur dan Magnet dari Flakes NdFeB

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahutar, Wahyu Solafide

    2015-01-01

    Had made research manufacture NdFeB magnets of flakes of wet milling process using a ball mill to the physic properties, microstructure, and magnetic properties with variations milling time is 16 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours. Powder result of mechanical milling using a ball mill and then analyzed the resulting particle size by using PSA and XRD. Then do the manufacture of test samples in the form of pellets by compaction process through print isotropy. Having obtained a sample of pelle...

  11. Investigation of coercivity mechanism in hot deformed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets by small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, M.; Manabe, A.; Shoji, T.; Kato, A.; Ono, K.; Harada, M.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic reversal behaviors of single domain sized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, with and without isolation between the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains, was clarified using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS patterns obtained arose from changes in the magnetic domains and were analyzed using the Teubner–Stray model, a phenomenological correlation length model, to quantify the periodicity and morphology of the magnetic domains. The results indicated that the magnetic reversal evolved with the magnetic domains that had similar sized grains. The grain isolation enabled us to realize the reversals of single domains

  12. The dimensional accuracy of the sintered billets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Чингиз Ариф оглы Алиев

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of assessing the impact of the behaviour stability of the components included in the compositions and process parameters of their production, on the dimensional accuracy of workpieces. It was found that by increasing the amount of oxide in the composition is greater compaction of the sintered billet in the process of heat treatment. This also increases the density of all components of the composition

  13. Spark plasma sintering of tantalum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleghi, Evan; Lin, Yen-Shan; Meyers, Marc A.; Olevsky, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    A tantalum carbide powder was consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The specimens were processed under various temperature and pressure conditions and characterized in terms of relative density, grain size, rupture strength and hardness. The results are compared to hot pressing conducted under similar settings. It is shown that high densification is accompanied by substantial grain growth. Carbon nanotubes were added to mitigate grain growth; however, while increasing specimens' rupture strength and final density, they had little effect on grain growth.

  14. Evolution of magnetic and microstructural properties of thick sputtered NdFeB films with processing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, A. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 rue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); CEA Leti - MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Khlopkov, K. [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Gutfleisch, O. [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Givord, D. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 rue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Dempsey, N.M. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 rue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: nora.dempsey@grenoble.cnrs.fr

    2007-09-15

    Ta (100 nm)/NdFeB (5 {mu}m)/Ta (100 nm) films have been deposited onto Si substrates using triode sputtering (deposition rate {approx}18 {mu}m/h). A 2-step procedure was used: deposition at temperatures up to 400 deg. C followed by ex-situ annealing at higher temperatures. Post-deposition annealing temperatures above 650 deg. C are needed to develop high values of coercivity. The duration of the annealing time is more critical in anisotropic samples deposited onto heated substrates than in isotropic samples deposited at lower temperatures. For a given set of annealing conditions (750 deg. C/10'), high heating rates ({>=}2000 deg. C/h) favour high coercivity in both isotropic and anisotropic films. The shape and size of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains depend strongly on the heating rate.

  15. Thermoelectric Coolers with Sintered Silver Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Julian; Stranz, Andrej; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication and performance of a sintered Peltier cooler (SPC) based on bismuth telluride with sintered silver interconnects are described. Miniature SPC modules with a footprint of 20 mm2 were assembled using pick-and-place pressure-assisted silver sintering at low pressure (5.5 N/mm2) and moderate temperature (250°C to 270°C). A modified flip-chip bonder combined with screen/stencil printing for paste transfer was used for the pick-and-place process, enabling high positioning accuracy, easy handling of the tiny bismuth telluride pellets, and immediate visual process control. A specific contact resistance of (1.4 ± 0.1) × 10-5 Ω cm2 was found, which is in the range of values reported for high-temperature solder interconnects of bismuth telluride pellets. The realized SPCs were evaluated from room temperature to 300°C, considerably outperforming the operating temperature range of standard commercial Peltier coolers. Temperature cycling capability was investigated from 100°C to 235°C over more than 200 h, i.e., 850 cycles, during which no degradation of module resistance or cooling performance occurred.

  16. Sintered stabilized zirconia microstructure and conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Herve.

    1981-04-01

    The elaboration of a stabilized zirconia powder which sinters at 1300 0 C and the influence of the sintered polycristal microstructure on its ionic conductivity have been studied. Among three investigated powder preparation processes, coprecipitation in an ammoniacal solution was chosen. After sintering at 1300 0 C, the pellet density was higher than 93% of the theoretical density. It even approached up to 98% TD with addition of less than 0,5 mole % Al 2 O 3 to the initial powder. The overall electrolyte conductivity and the inter and intragranular contributions have been determined by complex impedance spectroscopy. ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 solid solution conductivity was scarcely improved by Y 2 O 3 exchange with Yb 2 O 3 or Gd 2 O 3 . This conductivity greatly increases with grain size, its improvement with decreasing porosity, which has been quantified, is less sensible. Moreover, two original properties were noticed: small amounts of Al 2 O 3 and quenching greatly enhanced the overall conductivity. At temperatures below 500 0 C, grain boundaries only insured a partial migration of conductive ions. A parallel type electrical equivalent circuit suited well with this blocking effect [fr

  17. Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNPcell) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNPcell reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNPcell, suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNPcell in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1-6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNPcell analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo.

  18. New magnetic rails with double-layer Halbach structure by employing NdFeB and ferrite magnets for HTS maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruixue; Zheng, Jun; Zheng, Botian; Qian, Nan; Li, Jipeng; Deng, Zigang

    2018-01-01

    In the high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev system, the magnetic rail as an essential infrastructure is needed all along the route to carry passengers and goods to the destinations. Thus, large amount of rare earth magnetic materials are required in the magnetic rail construction. In order to decrease the dependence of magnetic rails on rare earth elements, the ferrite magnet is employed to replace part of the NdFeB magnets containing rare earth elements. Consequently, a new type rail with double-layer Halbach structure is presented, which is consisted of NdFeB and ferrite magnets. In this paper, we designed and fabricated the proposed rail, and further measured its magnetic flux density distribution and electromagnetic force interacting with HTS bulks. Experimental results indicate that, this new type rail, in double-layer Halbach structure, can achieve an equivalent distribution of magnetic flux density and levitation performance as the pure NdFeB Halbach rail, while a 10% reduction in NdFeB magnet consumption can be realized at the same time. In addition this work explores another magnetic material selection for HTS maglev applications. The dependence on rare earth element and the cost of magnetic rails can be further reduced, as the coercive force of ferrite magnets improved.

  19. Measurement of the radiation incident on ALS NdFeB permanent magnet insertion device structures and a determination of their lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, G.F.; Holmes, M.

    1997-05-01

    Measurements of the radiation incident on ALS insertion device NdFeB permanent magnet structures were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters. A plastic scintillator gamma telescope was utilized to unravel the various contributions to the integrated dose. Magnet lifetimes were calculated for various operational conditions

  20. The Creation of a Strong Magnetic Field by Means of Large Magnetic Blocks from NdFeB Magnets in Opposing Linear Halbach Arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2016), 364-373 ISSN 1226-1750 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : magnetic field * permanent magnets * NdFeB magnets * Halbach Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2016 http://komag.org/journal/

  1. Uranium dioxide sintering Kinetics and mechanisms under controlled oxygen potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, C.T. de.

    1980-06-01

    The initial, intermediate, and final sintering stages of uranium dioxide were investigated as a function of stoichiometry and temperature by following the kinetics of the sintering reaction. Stoichiometry was controlled by means of the oxygen potential of the sintering atmosphere, which was measured continuously by solid-state oxygen sensors. Included in the kinetic study were microspheres originated from UO 2 gels and UO 2 pellets produced by isostatic pressing ceramic grade powders. The microspheres sintering behavior was examined using hot-stage microscopy and a specially designed high-temperature, controlled atmosphere furnace. This same furnace was employed as part of an optical dilatometer, which was utilized in the UO 2 pellet sintering investigations. For controlling the deviations from stoichiometry during heat treatment, the oxygen partial pressure in the sintering atmosphere was varied by passing the gas through a Cu-Ti-Cu oxygen trap. The trap temperature determined the oxygen partial pressure of the outflowing mixture. Dry hydrogen was also used in some of the UO sub(2+x) sintering experiments. The determination of diametrial shrinkages and sintering indices was made utilizing high-speed microcinematography and ultra-microbalance techniques. It was observed that the oxygen potential has a substantial influence on the kinetics of the three sintering stages. The control of the sintering atmosphere oxygen partial pressure led to very fast densification of UO sub(2+x). Values in the interval 95.0 to 99.5% of theoretical density were reached in less than one minute. Uranium volume diffusion is the dominant mechanism in the initial and intermediate sintering stages. For the final stage, uranium grain boundary diffusion was found to be the main sintering mechanism. (Author) [pt

  2. Structure and performance of anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets fabricated by high-velocity compaction followed by deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Deng, X. X.; Yu, H. Y.; Guan, H. J.; Li, X. Q.; Xiao, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. W.; Greneche, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    High-velocity compaction (HVC) has been proposed as an effective approach for the fabrication of nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets. In this work, the effect of powder size on the density of HVCed magnets has been studied and the anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets were prepared by HVC followed by hot deformation (HD). It is found that a proper particle size range is beneficial to high density. The investigations on the microstructure, magnetic domain structure, and hyperfine structure, indicate that the deformed grain structure and the magnetic domain structure with uniform paramagnetic grain boundary phase give good magnetic properties of HVC + HDed magnets. These magnets also have good mechanical and anti-corrosion properties. The results indicate that HVC is not only a near-net-shape, room temperature and binder-free process but is also able to maintain uniform nanostructure and to achieve good magnetic properties in both isotropic and anisotropic magnets. As a result, HVC can be employed as an ideal alternative process for bonding or hot pressing for the conventional MQI, MQII and MQIII magnets.

  3. The Role of Annealing Temperature on Structural and Magnetic Properties of NdFeB Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanjani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present research NdFeB thin films coupled with buffer and capping layer of W were formed on Si/SiO2 substrate by means of RF magnetron sputtering. The system was annealed at vaccum at different temperatures of 450, 500, 550,. 600 and 650 °C Phase analysis was carried out by XRD and it was found that NdFeB was formed without the formation of any kind of secondary phase. The cross sectional and grain size of the thin films were measured by scanning electron microscopy. Morphological studies were performed by atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties of thin films including coercivity, saturation of magnetization and hysteresis area were evcaluated by vibrating sample magnetometer. It was found that by annealing at 400 °C the amorphous layer was formed.The highest intensity of peaks was formed at 550 °C and with an increase in temperature the intensity was declined. The grain size was increased by temperature and had an impact on the coercivity. With an increase of temperature up to 600 °C, perpendicular coercivity was increased and then by further increase of temperatute, coercivity was reduced. Based on the obtained data the temperature of 600 °C was selected as the optimum annealing temperature for reaching enhanced structural and magnetic feature.

  4. Progress of HDDR NdFeB powders modulated by the diffusion of low melting point elements and their alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu Meng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination (HDDR process is the main technique for the fabrication of anisotropic NdFeB magnetic powder.But the intrinsic coercivity (HC of HDDR magnetic powder is low.The addition of heavy rare earth element Dy could improve its HC.It was found that the added Dy is mainly distributed in the grain boundary of HDDR magnets,which regulates grain boundary phase and increases the thickness of grain boundary to improve the anisotropy field (HA and HC of the magnets.However,Dy becomes scarcer and more expensive,which limits the practical application of HDDR magnets.To reduce the dependence on heavy rare earth elements and cost,researchers replaced the heavy rare earth element Dy by low melting point elements and their alloys through grain boundary diffusion technique.During diffusion process low melting point metal exists as liquid phase that increases the diffusion coefficient of diffusion medium as well as its contact area with grain boundary phases of HDDR magnets,and benefits its diffusion along grain boundaries and regulation of grain boundary phase.The modified grain boundary in magnets improve HC.This review paper focuses on the research progress in improving HC of HDDR NdFeB magnets by low melting point elements and their alloys.

  5. Increased Efficiency of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator through Optimization of NdFeB Magnet Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    The United States is currently dependent on fossil fuels for the majority of its energy needs, which has many negative consequences such as climate change. Wind turbines present a viable alternative, with the highest energy return on investment among even fossil fuel generation. Traditional commercial wind turbines use an induction generator for energy conversion. However, induction generators require a gearbox to increase the rotational speed of the drive shaft. These gearboxes increase the overall cost of the wind turbine and account for about 35 percent of reported wind turbine failures. Direct drive permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) offer an alternative to induction generators which eliminate the need for a gearbox. Yet, PMSGs can be more expensive than induction generators at large power output due to their size and weight. To increase the efficiency of PMSGs, the geometry and configuration of NdFeB permanent magnets were investigated using finite element techniques. The optimized design of the PMSG increases flux density and minimizes cogging torque with NdFeB permanent magnets of a reduced volume. These factors serve to increase the efficiency and reduce the overall cost of the PMSG. This work is supported by a National Science Foundation IGERT fellowship and the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Iowa State University.

  6. Microwave sintering of nano size powder β-TCP bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhadi B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nano sized beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP powder was conventional sintered (CS and microwave sintered (MW, in order to obtain dense β-TCP ceramics. In this work the effect of microwave sintering conditions on the microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties of materials based on tricalcium phosphate (TCP was investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopyand XRD(X-ray diffraction and then compared with conventional sintered samples. Nano-size β-TCP powders with average grain size of 80 nm were prepared by the wet chemical precipitation method with calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. The precipitation process employed was also found to be suitable for the production of submicrometre β-TCP powder in situ. The β-TCP samples microwave (MW sintered for 15 min at 1100°C, with average grain size of 3μm, showed better densification, higher density and certainly higher hardness than samples conventionally sintered for 2 h at the same temperature. By comparing sintered and MW sintered β-TCP samples, it was concluded that MW sintered β-TCP samples have superior mechanical properties.

  7. Microwave sintering of zirconia toughened alumina at 28GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samandi, M.; Ji, H.; Miyake, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave radiation from a 10 kW, CW gyrotron operating at 28 GHz was employed to sinter 10% zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramic samples. It has been established that the use of millimetre wave radiation circumvents the difficulties encountered during the sintering of ceramics, i e. formation of hot spot, by radiation at industrially permissible frequency of 2.45GHz. Further, careful density measurement and microstructural characterisation of mm- wave and conventionally sintered samples by XRD, SEM and TEM has unequivocally demonstrated the effectiveness of mm-wave radiation for obtaining high density ceramics at lower sintering temperatures. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  8. HAp physical investigation - the effect of sintering temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Idris Besar; Rusnah Mustaffa; Cik Rohaida Che Hak

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the effect of sintering temperature on the physical properties of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp). In this study, the HAp was prepared using polymeric sponge techniques with different binder concentration. The sintering process was carried out in air for temperature ranging from 1200 degree C to 1600 degree C. Different physical properties namely density and porosity were observed at different sintering temperatures. The HAp prepared with higher PVP binder showed a slightly decreased in apparent density with increasing sintering temperature, while those HAp prepared with lower PVP showed a slightly increase in apparent density with increasing sintering temperature. The total porosity was found to be approximately constant in the whole sintering temperature range. However, closed porosity decreases with increasing sintering temperature for HAp prepared by lower binder concentration. On the other hand, the HAp prepared by higher binder concentration HAp showed increasing closed porosity with increasing sintering temperature. Other features such as the influence of sintering temperatures on grain and strut also be presented in this paper. (Author)

  9. Sintering, microstructural and dilatometric studies of combustion synthesized Synroc phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuraman, M.; Patil, K.C.; Senbagaraman, S.; Umarji, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sintering, microstructure, and linear thermal expansion properties of Synroc-B and constituent phases, viz. perovskite CaTiO 3 , zirconolite ZrTi 2 O 7 , hollandite (ideal formula BaAl2Ti 6 O 16 ) have been investigated. Synroc-B powder when pelletized and sintered at 1250 C for 2 h achieved >95% theoretical density. Sintered Synroc-B has a linear thermal expansion coefficient α of 8.72 x 10 -6 K -1 and Vicker's microhardness 9.88 GPa. The linear thermal expansion curves did not show any hysteresis indicating the absence of microcracking in the sintered bodies

  10. The electric conductivity of some forms of sintered synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susic, M.; Petrovic, V.; Ristic, M.; Petranovic, N.

    1978-01-01

    Some forms of synthetic zeolites were sintered and their electric conductivity was measured. The conductivity was observed in correlation with the conductivity of non-sintered pressed samples. Also the change in microstructural constituents in the course of the process of sintering was observed with an optical microscope. It has been found that there is a considerable change in conductivity due to sintering as well as a change in the activation energy for conduction. Also the porosity is noticeably changed. A marked affect of the nature of counter ions on the electric conductivity is shown

  11. Properties, structure and machnining capabilities sintered corundum abrasives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz.J. Niżankowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of sintered corundum abrasives used in both bonded and in the embankment of abrasive tools currently poses substantialproblems for their choice of technology to specific tasks. Therefore performed a comparative study of ownership structures and capacitiesof elected representatives machnining sintered corundum abrasives of different generations, and this is normal sintered alumina,submicrocrystalline alumina sintered and nanocrystalline alumina sintered. Were studied some properties of a set of abrasive particles,physicochemical properties and structural and mechanical and technological properties. The studies used the method of microscopicmeasurement to determine the shape of abrasive particles, the pycnometer to determine the density of abrasive, a spectrometer todetermine the chemical composition of the magnetic analyzer for determining the magnetic fraction, scanning electron microscope toanalysis of abrasive grains and a special position to designate the machining capacity abrasive grains. The results showed a significantincrease in machining capacity sintered corundum abrasives with increasing degree of fragmentation of the crystallites sintered corundum abrasives and distinctive bands in the emerging microchip. The originality of the development provides a comparative summary ofproperties of sintered corundum abrasives of different generations and functions obtained by the author making the change in value indexof machininhcapacity grit from cutting speeds for different generations of sintered corundum.

  12. Rapid laser sintering of metal nano-particles inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermak, Oleg; Zenou, Michael; Toker, Gil Bernstein; Ankri, Jonathan; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-09-23

    Fast sintering is of importance in additive metallization processes and especially on sensitive substrates. This work explores the mechanisms which set limits to the laser sintering rate of metal nano-particle inks. A comparison of sintering behavior of three different ink compositions with laser exposure times from micro-seconds to seconds reveals the dominant factor to be the organic content (OC) in the ink. With a low OC silver ink, of 2% only, sintering time falls below 100 μs with resistivity <×4 bulk silver. Still shorter exposure times result in line delamination and deformation with a similar outcome when the OC is increased.

  13. Interpretation of Frenkel’s theory of sintering considering evolution of activated pores: III. Determination of equilibrium sintering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Frenkel’s theory of liquid-phase sintering was interpreted regarding pores as the activated volume. The mathematical model established by Nikolić et al. was used to infer the equilibrium sintering time at varied sintering temperatures during the isothermal sintering of codierite glass by Giess et al. Through the calculation, the equilibrium time at 800ºC, 820ºC, 840ºC and 860ºC is inferred to be 7014.42mins, 1569.65mins, 368.92mins and 114.61mins, respectively. The equilibrium time decreases as the temperature increases. And the theoretical value is in good accordance with the experimental results. Thus, the model established by Nikolić et al. can be applied successfully to predict the equilibrium sintering time of the cordierite glass at varied temperatures during isothermal sintering.

  14. Micro-patterning of NdFeB and SmCo magnet films for integration into micro-electro-mechanical-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, A.; Marcoux, C.; Desloges, B.; Grechishkin, R.; Givord, D.; Dempsey, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    The integration of high-performance RE-TM (NdFeB and SmCo) hard magnetic films into micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) requires their patterning at the micron scale. In this paper we report on the applicability of standard micro-fabrication steps (film deposition onto topographically patterned substrates, wet etching and planarization) to the patterning of 5-8 μm thick RE-TM films. While NdFeB comprehensively fills micron-scaled trenches in patterned substrates, SmCo deposits are characterized by poor filling of the trench corners, which poses a problem for further processing by planarization. The magnetic hysteresis loops of both the NdFeB and SmCo patterned films are comparable to those of non-patterned films prepared under the same deposition/annealing conditions. A micron-scaled multipole magnetic field pattern is directly produced by the unidirectional magnetization of the patterned films. NdFeB and SmCo show similar behavior when wet etched in an amorphous state: etch rates of approximately 1.25 μm/min and vertical side walls which may be attributed to a large lateral over-etch of typically 20 μm. Chemical-mechanical-planarization (CMP) produced material removal rates of 0.5-3 μm/min for amorphous NdFeB. Ar ion etching of such films followed by the deposition of a Ta layer prior to film crystallization prevented degradation in magnetic properties compared to non-patterned films

  15. Micro-patterning of NdFeB and SmCo magnet films for integration into micro-electro-mechanical-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, A. [CEA Leti-MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Marcoux, C.; Desloges, B. [CEA Leti-MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Grechishkin, R. [Laboratory of Magnetoelectronics, Tver State University, 170000 Tver (Russian Federation); Givord, D. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Dempsey, N.M. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: nora.dempsey@grenoble.cnrs.fr

    2009-03-15

    The integration of high-performance RE-TM (NdFeB and SmCo) hard magnetic films into micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) requires their patterning at the micron scale. In this paper we report on the applicability of standard micro-fabrication steps (film deposition onto topographically patterned substrates, wet etching and planarization) to the patterning of 5-8 {mu}m thick RE-TM films. While NdFeB comprehensively fills micron-scaled trenches in patterned substrates, SmCo deposits are characterized by poor filling of the trench corners, which poses a problem for further processing by planarization. The magnetic hysteresis loops of both the NdFeB and SmCo patterned films are comparable to those of non-patterned films prepared under the same deposition/annealing conditions. A micron-scaled multipole magnetic field pattern is directly produced by the unidirectional magnetization of the patterned films. NdFeB and SmCo show similar behavior when wet etched in an amorphous state: etch rates of approximately 1.25 {mu}m/min and vertical side walls which may be attributed to a large lateral over-etch of typically 20 {mu}m. Chemical-mechanical-planarization (CMP) produced material removal rates of 0.5-3 {mu}m/min for amorphous NdFeB. Ar ion etching of such films followed by the deposition of a Ta layer prior to film crystallization prevented degradation in magnetic properties compared to non-patterned films.

  16. Improvement of the corrosion resistance on Nd-Fe-B magnet with nickel plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Honshima, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the corrosion-resistant test humidity test (80 0 C, 90%R.H.) autoclave test (120 0 C, 2atm, saturated with water vapor), salt spray test (35 0 C, 5% NaCl) performed on the sintered Nd magnet treated with nickel plating. Al ion-plating and without coating were also exposed to the corrosion test. After the specified periods of corrosion test, the permanent flux loss of the re-magnetized sample was measured. The changes in the appearance were also observed

  17. Laser Surface Treatment of Sintered Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, R.; Noelke, C.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.

    Sintered alumina ceramics are used as refractory materials for industrial aluminum furnaces. In this environment the ceramic surface is in permanent contact with molten aluminum resulting in deposition of oxidic material on its surface. Consequently, a lower volume capacity as well as thermal efficiency of the furnaces follows. To reduce oxidic adherence of the ceramic material, two laser-based surface treatment processes were investigated: a powder- based single-step laser cladding and a laser surface remelting. Main objective is to achieve an improved surface quality of the ceramic material considering the industrial requirements as a high process speed.

  18. Computer Modeling of Direct Metal Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A computational approach to modeling direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing process is presented. The primary application of the model is for determining the temperature history of parts fabricated using DMLS to evaluate residual stresses found in finished pieces and to assess manufacturing process strategies to reduce part slumping. The model utilizes MSC SINDA as a heat transfer solver with imbedded FORTRAN computer code to direct laser motion, apply laser heating as a boundary condition, and simulate the addition of metal powder layers during part fabrication. Model results are compared to available data collected during in situ DMLS part manufacture.

  19. SEM hot stage sintering of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.

    1976-06-01

    The sintering of hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide powder compacts, in the hot stage of a scanning electron microscope, was continuously monitored using 16 mm time lapse movies. From alumina microspheres placed on the surface of the compacts, shrinkage measurements were obtained. Converting shrinkage measurements into densification profiles indicates that a maximum densification rate is reached at a critical density, independent of the constant heating rates. At temperatures above 1350 0 C, the movement of the reference microspheres made shrinkage measurements impossible. It is believed the evolution of UO 3 gas from hyperstoichiometric UO 2 is the cause of this limitation

  20. Selective laser sintering in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Alida

    2013-03-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a solid freeform fabrication technique, developed by Carl Deckard for his master's thesis at the University of Texas, patented in 1989. SLS manufacturing is a technique that produces physical models through a selective solidification of a variety of fine powders. SLS technology is getting a great amount of attention in the clinical field. In this paper the characteristics features of SLS and the materials that have been developed for are reviewed together with a discussion on the principles of the above-mentioned manufacturing technique. The applications of SLS in tissue engineering, and at-large in the biomedical field, are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Powder densification maps in Selective Laser Sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourell, D.; Wohlert, M.; Harlan, N.; Beaman, J.; Das, S.

    2002-01-01

    Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is a manufacturing process in which a part is produced without the need for part-specific tooling. It competes effectively with other manufacturing processes when part geometry is complex and the production run is not large. Traditionally, this was limited to prototype production, although tooling applications are now appearing. This paper describes several applications of powder densification maps to advance solutions in direct SLS of metallic and ceramic powders. Time-dependent plasticity issues arise in pre-processing of powder to make it suitable for SLS and in post-processing of SLS parts to obtain desired density. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Amorphous Al–Mn coating on NdFeB magnets: Electrodeposition from AlCl3–EMIC–MnCl2 ionic liquid and its corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing; Xu Bajin; Ling Guoping

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous Al–Mn coating was electrodeposited on NdFeB magnets from AlCl 3 –EMIC–MnCl 2 ionic liquid with the pretreatment of anodic electrolytic etching in AlCl 3 –EMIC ionic liquid at room temperature. The microstructure, composition and phase constituents of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion resistance of the coatings was tested by means of potentiodynamic polarization and immersion test in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. The results show that anodic electrolytic etching in AlCl 3 –EMIC ionic liquid is a satisfactory pretreatment to remove the surface oxide film and favor the adhesion of the Al–Mn alloy coating to the NdFeB substrate. The amorphous Al–Mn alloy coating provides sacrificial anodic protection for NdFeB. It exhibited good corrosion resistance and significantly reduced the corrosion current density of NdFeB by three orders of magnitude at potentiodynamic polarization. - Highlights: ► Amorphous Al–Mn alloy coating was electrodeposited on NdFeB magnet from ionic liquid. ► To remove the surface oxides of NdFeB, anodic etching pretreatment is used. ► The deposited Al–Mn alloy coating shows high adhesion to the NdFeB substrate. ► Corrosion tests show that amorphous Al–Mn alloy coating is anodic coating for NdFeB magnet.

  3. Amorphous Al-Mn coating on NdFeB magnets: Electrodeposition from AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC-MnCl{sub 2} ionic liquid and its corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jing; Xu Bajin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ling Guoping, E-mail: linggp@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Amorphous Al-Mn coating was electrodeposited on NdFeB magnets from AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC-MnCl{sub 2} ionic liquid with the pretreatment of anodic electrolytic etching in AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC ionic liquid at room temperature. The microstructure, composition and phase constituents of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion resistance of the coatings was tested by means of potentiodynamic polarization and immersion test in 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. The results show that anodic electrolytic etching in AlCl{sub 3}-EMIC ionic liquid is a satisfactory pretreatment to remove the surface oxide film and favor the adhesion of the Al-Mn alloy coating to the NdFeB substrate. The amorphous Al-Mn alloy coating provides sacrificial anodic protection for NdFeB. It exhibited good corrosion resistance and significantly reduced the corrosion current density of NdFeB by three orders of magnitude at potentiodynamic polarization. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous Al-Mn alloy coating was electrodeposited on NdFeB magnet from ionic liquid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To remove the surface oxides of NdFeB, anodic etching pretreatment is used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deposited Al-Mn alloy coating shows high adhesion to the NdFeB substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion tests show that amorphous Al-Mn alloy coating is anodic coating for NdFeB magnet.

  4. Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNP cell ) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNP cell reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNP cell , suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNP cell in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1–6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNP cell analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo. - Graphical abstract: Averaged MNP uptake by glioma cells in the low and non-uniformed magnetic field reached as high as 80% of that in uniformed magnetic field, which is probably due to both heterogeneous distributions of MNPs in the non-uniformed magnetic field and high capacity of the MNP uptake by these cells. - Highlights: • Enhanced sedimentation

  5. Evaluation of effect of surface treatment on corrosion resistance of Nd-Fe-B magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Emerson Alves

    2009-01-01

    Nd-Fe-B magnets produced by powder metallurgy are highly susceptible to corrosion due to their complex microstructure and intrinsic porosity due to their fabrication process. Moreover, these magnets have excellent magnetic properties and find many applications. In the nuclear area, permanent magnets based on rare earth transition-iron-boron (Ne-Fe-B) are used in the manufacture of magnetic media (magnetic levitation) for ultra-centrifuges used for isotopic enrichment of uranium employed in nuclear reactors. In dentistry these types of magnets are used to fix total and partial prostheses on implants; in orthodontics to correct dental malocclusion and make moves; in buco-maxillo-facial surgery for setting facial prostheses of large defects of the face. In electronic equipment, they are used in scales, locks, electric motors and particularly in the manufacturing of hard drives of computers. The objective of this study is to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the magnet tested and surface treatments that could replace chromating that generates toxic residues and present high cost of processing waste with treatments that are environmentally friendly. The evaluation of the corrosion resistance was carried out through the analysis potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, monitoring of corrosion potential as a function of test time and scanning electron microscopy to try to correlate the magnet microstructure with its corrosion resistance. The results show that these magnets are highly susceptible to corrosion that occurs preferentially in the Nd-rich phase, located in the boundaries of the magnetic matrix phase (ψ). Treatment with silane, cerium, sam, Cr 6 + , tricationic phosphate followed by bath of chromium trioxide and in NaH 2 PO 4 solution for 24 hours followed by bath of zinc sulphate did not improve the corrosion resistance of the magnet. Among the treatments used, immersion in NaH 2 PO 4 solution for 24 hours pH=3.8 was the

  6. Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology & Healthy Aging Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tu, Shu-Ju [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ma, Yunn-Hwa, E-mail: yhma@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology & Healthy Aging Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNP{sub cell}) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNP{sub cell} reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNP{sub cell}, suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNP{sub cell} in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1–6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNP{sub cell} analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo. - Graphical abstract: Averaged MNP uptake by glioma cells in the low and non-uniformed magnetic field reached as high as 80% of that in uniformed magnetic field, which is probably due to both heterogeneous distributions of MNPs in the non-uniformed magnetic field and high capacity of the MNP uptake by these cells. - Highlights:

  7. Corrosion behaviour of sintered duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utrilla, M. Victoria; Urena, Alejandro; Otero, Enrique; Munez, Claudio Jose [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Duplex austenite-ferrite stainless steels were prepared by mixing austenitic (316L) and ferritic (434L) atomized powders. Although different 316L/434L ratios were prepared, present work centred its study on 50% ferrite - 50% austenite sintered steel. The powders were mixed and pressed at 700 MPa and sintered at 1250 deg. C for 30 min in vacuum. The cooling rate was 5 deg. C/min. Solution treatment was carried out to homogenize the microstructure at 1100 deg. C during 20 min. A microstructural study of the material in solution was performed, evaluating the microstructure, proportion and shape of porosity, and ferrite percentage. This last was measured by two methods, quantitative metallography and Fischer ferrito-metry. The materials were heat treated in the range of 700 to 1000 deg. C, for 10, 30 and 60 min and water quenched, to study the microstructural changes and the influence on the intergranular corrosion resistance. The method used to evaluate the sensitization to the intergranular corrosion was the electrochemical potentio-kinetic reactivation procedure (EPR). The test solution was 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0,01 M KSCN at 30 deg. C. The criterion used to evaluate the sensitization was the ratio between the maximum reactivation density (Ir) and the maximum activation density (Ia). The results of the electrochemical tests were discussed in relation with the microstructures observed at the different heat treatments. (authors)

  8. Effects of Sintering Temperature on the Density And Porosity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sintering temperature on the density and porosity of sodium chloride preforms for alu- minium foam manufacturing have been investigated. Cold pressed salt preforms were sintered at 30, 760 and 790 and di erent times ranging between 6- 18 hours in a carbolite furnace at a heating rate of 5/minute. The Results of ...

  9. Sintering of Multilayered Porous Structures: Part I-Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olevsky, Eugene; Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical analyses of shrinkage and distortion kinetics during sintering of bilayered porous structures are carried out. The developed modeling framework is based on the continuum theory of sintering; it enables the direct assessment of the cofiring process outcomes and of the impact of process...

  10. Direct metal laser sintering: a digitised metal casting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-12-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  11. Direct Metal Laser Sintering: A Digitised Metal Casting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, K. Vijay; Nandini, V. Vidyashree

    2013-01-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  12. Monitoring Sintering Burn-Through Point Using Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G. Bulnes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sintering is a complex industrial process that applies heat to fine particles of iron ore and other materials to produce sinter, a solidified porous material used in blast furnaces. The sintering process needs to be carefully adjusted, so that the combustion zone reaches the bottom of the material just before the discharge end. This is known as the burnthrough point. Many different parameters need to be finely tuned, including the speed and the quantities of the materials mixed. However, in order to achieve good results, sintering control requires precise feedback to adjust these parameters. This work presents a sensor to monitor the sintering burn-through point based on infrared thermography. The proposed procedure is based on the acquisition of infrared images at the end of the sintering process. At this position, infrared images contain the cross-section temperatures of the mixture. The objective of this work is to process this information to extract relevant features about the sintering process. The proposed procedure is based on four steps: key frame detection, region of interest detection, segmentation and feature extraction. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is very robust and reliable, providing features that can be used effectively to control the sintering process.

  13. Sintering of uranium dioxide obtained by continuous precipitation of AUC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya, C.D.; Sterba, M.E.; Russo, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Division in Bariloche Atomic Center evaluates the ceramic behaviour of UO 2 powders obtained from continuously precipitated and reduced AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Tri Carbonate). An analysis is made of powder characteristics (particle morphology and size distribution and specific area) on behaviour of UO 2 during sintering (compaction, sintering, pore and grain microstructure, etc.). 1 ref

  14. CALCIUM OXIDE SINTERING IN ATMOSPHERES CONTAINING WATER AND CARBON DIOXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of measurements of the effects of water vapor and CO2 on the sintering rate of nascent CaO, as a function of partial pressure and temperature using CaO prepared by rapid decomposition of CaCO3 and CA(OH)2. Each gas strongly catalyzed the sintering process ...

  15. Effect of sintering temperature and heating mode on consolidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ratures ranging from 570–630 ◦C. Microwave sintering at a heating rate of as high as 22◦. C/min resulted in ... The effect of heating mode and sintering temperature are discussed .... the compacts. This is attributed to the Zn evaporated from the.

  16. Magnetic properties and magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B nanoparticles synthesized by a sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Ali; Mozaffarinia, Reza; Tavoosi, Majid

    2017-12-01

    Nd-Fe-B oxide powders with various pH were prepared using chloride and nitrate precursors including NdCl3·6H2O, FeCl3·6H2O, H3BO3, Nd2O3, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, HNO3, citric acid (CA), ethylene glycol (EG) by Pechini type sol-gel method. The pH of chloride and nitrate base sols were 0 and 2.2, respectively. Mixed oxide powders were obtained by calcination and annealing the gels. These oxides by using a reduction-diffusion process under high vacuum and employing CaH2 as reducing agent at 800 °C were hated to prepare Nd2Fe14B nanoparticles. The role of pH on phase, morphologies, microstructure, and magnetic properties of the powders were investigated. The results show that with a decrease in pH, the average particle size and coercivity of Nd-Fe-B oxide powders were decreased and increased, respectively. Nd2Fe14B nanoparticles were formed successfully after reduction process. The average particle size of reduction treated products were 30 and 65 nm for powders which made of chloride and nitrate base metal salts, respectively. Final powders which made of chloride and nitrate base metal salts had a saturation magnetization of 127.7 emu/g and 122.8 emu/g while the coercivity of samples were 3.32 kOe and 1.82 kOe, respectively. The experimental results in the angular dependence of coercivity indicated that the normalized coercivity of the permanent magnets Hc(θ)/Hc(0) obeys the 1/cosθ law and intermediate between the 1/cosθ law and Stoner-Wohlfarth formula for different Nd2Fe14B magnets which made of nitrate and chloride base metal salts, respectively. Also, the results show that different Nd2Fe14B magnets which made of nitrate and chloride base metal salts had the maximum energy product of 5 and 16 MGOe, respectively. The Henkel plot showed that magnetic phases in synthesized NdFeB magnets which made of chloride and nitrate base metal salts were coupled by exchange and dipolar interactions, respectively. Different average particle size, morphology and microstructure were

  17. Microstructure evolution during pressureless sintering of bulk oxide ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Maca

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The author’s experience concerning the infl uence of the choice of different pressureless heating schedules on the fi nal microstructure of oxide ceramic materials is summarized in the paper. Alumina, ceria, strontium titanate, as well as tetragonal (3 mol% Y2O3 and cubic (8 mol% Y2O3 zirconia were cold isostatically pressed or injection moulded and pressureless sintered with different heating schedules – namely with Constant-Rate of Heating with different dwell temperatures (CRH, with Rate-Controlled Sintering (RCS and with Two-Step Sintering (TSS. It was examined whether some of these three sintering schedules, with the same fi nal density achieved, can lead to a decrease of the grain size of sintered ceramics. The results showed that only TSS (and only for selected materials brought significant decrease of the grain size.

  18. Densification of LSGM electrolytes using activated microwave sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesapragada, S. V.; Bhaduri, S. B.; Bhaduri, S.; Singh, P.

    Lanthanum gallate doped with alkaline rare earths (LSGM) powders were densified using an activated microwave sintering process for developing a dense stable electrolyte layer for applications in intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Due to heat generation in situ, the process of sintering gets activated with faster kinetics compared to a conventional sintering process. The effect of various microwave process parameters on the microstructure and phase formation was studied. The sintered pellets were characterized using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive analysis (SEM-EDAX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The density of LSGM pellets microwave sintered at 1350 °C for 20 min is greater than 95% theoretical density with a fine grained microstructure (˜2-3 μm) and without the presence of other phase(s).

  19. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Skrifvars, B J; Backman, R; Lauren, T; Uusikartano, T; Malm, H; Stenstroem, P; Vesterkvist, M [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). During 1996 the work has focused on identifying bed agglomeration mechanisms and analysing bed agglomerates in both full scale and lab scale FB reactors, as well as comparing how well the compression strength based sintering test can predict bed agglomeration in an FB furnace. (orig.)

  20. Sintering unalloyed titanium in DC electrical abnormal glow discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Seeber

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy is widely used in the manufacture of components that have complex geometry. The good dimensional control, reduction in manufacturing steps and operating costs which has favored the use of this technique for manufacturing of titanium alloys components. However, the high affinity of this material with oxygen hinders strongly the sintering process. For this, the sintering associated with plasma technology can be considered an alternative technique for the processing of this material. The strict control of sintering atmosphere performed at low pressures and the reactive species present in the plasma environment can help to improve the sintering of this material. The results presented in this paper show a good correlation between the parameters used for the compaction of the samples and the microstructure develop during the plasma sintering of samples. The microstructure of the plasma assisted samples is also affected by the particular configuration used in the plasma reactor.

  1. Sintering with a chemical reaction as applied to uranium monocarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accary, A.; Caillat, R.

    1960-01-01

    The present paper provides a survey of different investigations whose aim was the preparation and fabrication of uranium monocarbide for nuclear use. If a chemical reaction takes place in the sample during the sintering operation, it may be expected that the atom rearrangements involved in this reaction should favour the sintering process and thereby lower the temperature needed to yield a body of a given density. With this hypothesis in mind, the following methods have been studied: - Sintering of U-C mixtures; - Sintering of UO 2 -C mixtures; - Hot pressing of U-C mixtures; - Extrusion of U-C mixtures. To generalize our result, it could be said that a chemical reaction does not lead to high densification, if one depends on a simple contact between discrete particles. On the contrary, a chemical reaction can help sintering if, as our hot pressing experiments shows, the densification can be achieved prior to the reaction. (author) [fr

  2. Preliminary investigation of liquid phase sintering in ferrous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1975-04-01

    Liquid phase sintering was utilized to achieve, by a simple compaction and sintering procedure involving short times and moderate temperatures, a virtually full dense high carbon Fe:C alloy and high boron Fe:B alloy. Parameters such as powder characteristics and mixing, compacting pressure, heating program and the liquid phase fraction were found to influence the sintered density. The response of the Fe:C alloy to a heat treatment is reported along with preliminary experiments in the iron base ternary system Fe:W:C. Residual porosities observed in microstructures of certain liquid phase sintered compacts were accounted for by a proposed capillary flow of the liquid phase and a local densification competing against an overall densification. Some general recommendations are made for liquid phase sintering of powder aggregates. 15 fig., 7 tables

  3. Effect of particle size distribution on sintering of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.R.; Griffin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    To date, very little is known about the effect of the nature of the particle size distribution on sintering. It is reasonable that there should be an effect of size distribution, and theory and prior experimental work examining the effects of variations in bimodal and continuous distributions have shown marked effects on sintering. Most importantly, even with constant mean particle size, variations in distribution width, or standard deviation, have been shown to produce marked variations in microstructure and sintering rate. In the latter work, in which spherical copper powders were blended to produce lognormal distributions of constant geometric mean particle size by weight frequency, blends with larger values of geometric standard deviation, 1nσ, sintered more rapidly. The goals of the present study were to examine in more detail the effects of variations in the width of lognormal particle size distributions of tungsten powder and determine the effects of 1nσ on the microstructural evolution during sintering

  4. Powder metallurgy: Solid and liquid phase sintering of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Rex; Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Basic powder metallurgy (P/M) principles and techniques are presented in this laboratory experiment. A copper based system is used since it is relatively easy to work with and is commercially important. In addition to standard solid state sintering, small quantities of low melting metals such as tin, zinc, lead, and aluminum can be added to demonstrate liquid phase sintering and alloy formation. The Taguchi Method of experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size, pressing force, sintering temperature, and sintering time. These parameters can be easily changed to incorporate liquid phase sintering effects and some guidelines for such substitutions are presented. The experiment is typically carried out over a period of three weeks.

  5. Three-dimensional simulation of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, M J; Schmid, H -J; Peukert, W

    2009-08-01

    The viscous-flow sintering of different agglomerate particle morphologies is studied by three-dimensional computer simulations based on the concept of fractional volume of fluid. For a fundamental understanding of particle sintering characteristics, the neck growth kinetics in agglomerate chains and in doublets consisting of differently sized primary particles is investigated. Results show that different sintering contacts in agglomerates even during the first stages are not completely independent from each other, even though differences are small. The neck growth kinetics of differently sized primary particles is determined by the smaller one up to a size difference by a factor of approximately 2, whereas for larger size differences, the kinetics becomes faster. In particular, the agglomerate sintering kinetics is investigated for particle chains of different lengths and for different particle morphologies each having ten primary particles and nine initial sintering contacts. For agglomerate chains, the kinetics approximately can be normalized by using the radius of the fully coalesced sphere. In general, different agglomerate morphologies show equal kinetics during the first sintering stages, whereas during advanced stages, compact morphologies show significantly faster sintering progress than more open morphologies. Hence, the overall kinetics cannot be described by simply using constant morphology correction factors such as fractal dimension or mean coordination number which are used in common sintering models. However, for the first stages of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering, which are the most important for many particle processes, a sintering equation is presented. Although we use agglomerates consisting of spherical primary particles, our methodology can be applied to other aggregate geometries as well.

  6. The influence of green microstructure and sintering parameters on precipitation process during copper-nickel-zinc ferrites sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba, A.; Clausell, C.; Jarque, J. C.; Monzo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructural changes that occur during heat treatment of copper-nickel-zinc ferrites have been studied. The process of precipitation of the two types of crystals that occur during the sintering process has been analyzed. It is found that this process depends on dry relative density of the press specimens and on the following sintering parameters: sintering temperature, sintering time and cooling rate of the thermal cycle. Crystal precipitates characterization have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). These techniques have allowed to determine the nature of these crystals, which in this case correspond to zinc and copper oxides. It has been used two chemical reactions to explain the bulk precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution of these crystal precipitates during sintering. (Author)

  7. Feasibility study of electrophoresis deposition of DyF3 on Nd-Fe-B particles for coercivity enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of the electrophoresis deposition (EPD technique for homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the Nd-Fe-B-type particles was studied, and coercivity enhancement in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD was investigated. HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 particles were deposited with DyF3 particles by EPD. More homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the surface of Nd-Fe-B particles was made by the EPD with respect to conventional dip-coating, and this led to more active and homogeneous diffusion of Dy. More profound coercivity enhancement was achieved in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD compared to dip-coated particles.

  8. Cold compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd-Fe-B alloy powders prepared by different processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu, Lianxi, E-mail: hulx@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Erde [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase are two major effective means to improve magnetic properties. Since the matrix Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase in the starting Nd-Fe-B alloy can be disproportionated into a nano-structured mixture of NdH{sub 2.7}, Fe{sub 2}B, and {alpha}-Fe phases during mechanical milling in hydrogen. It is thus important to study the densification behavior of nanocrystalline powders to evaluate and predict the cold compactibility of powders. By comparison with the as milled as well as melt-spun Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powders, we find that the as-disproportionated Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powder exhibits the best cold compactibility. As evident from the illustration presented below, compaction parameters (representing the powder compactibility) have been determined by fitting density-pressure data with double logarithm compaction equation. Densification mechanisms involved during cold compaction process are clarified in our work by referring to microstructure observation of samples prepared by various methods. As a result, highly densified green magnet compact can be obtained by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-structured disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density-pressure data fitted well by an empirical powder compaction model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-disproportionated powder showed better compactibility than as milled and melt-spun counterparts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of physical properties on powder compactibility and densification mechanisms are clarified. - Abstract: The compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} (atomic ratio) alloy

  9. Improved room-temperature-selectivity between Nd and Fe in Nd recovery from Nd-Fe-B magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Y.; Kitagawa, J., E-mail: j-kitagawa@fit.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-higashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Ono, T.; Tsubota, M. [Physonit Inc., 6-10 Minami-Horikawa, Kaita Aki, Hiroshima 736-0044 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The sustainable society requires the recycling of rare metals. Rare earth Nd is one of rare metals, accompanying huge consumption especially in Nd-Fe-B magnets. Although the wet process using acid is in practical use in the in-plant recycle of sludge, higher selectivity between Nd and Fe at room temperature is desired. We have proposed a pretreatment of corrosion before the dissolution into HCl and the oxalic acid precipitation. The corrosion produces γ-FeOOH and a Nd hydroxide, which have high selectivity for HCl solution at room temperature. Nd can be recovered as Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}-type Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The estimated recovery-ratio of Nd reaches to 97%.

  10. Magnetic properties of melt-spun Nd-rich NdFeB alloys with Dy and Ga substitutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harland, C.L.; Davies, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a systematic investigation of the effects of Dy and Ga additions on the magnetic properties of a Nd-rich NdFeB alloy are presented and discussed. Particular attention is given to the effect of increasing Dy substitutions on the coercivity of the Nd 18 Fe 76 B 6 alloy. Substitution of 30% of the Nd by Dy resulted in a coercivity increase from 1590 to 3290 kA m -1 . However, contrary to previous suggestions, substitution of 1% of the Fe by Ga was found to have only a small influence on the magnetic properties of all the alloys in the compositional series (Nd 100-x Dy x ) 18 Fe 76 B 6 (x=0-30). (orig.)

  11. A comparative thermomagnetic study of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B alloys with different Nd content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the phase composition and magnetic properties of three types of commercial Nd-Fe-B alloys with different Nd content - low (10-12 wt%, near stoichiometric (21-25 wt% and rich (26-29 wt% caused by thermomagnetic analysis (TM were observed in regard to optimal magnetic state. Phase compositions of investigated alloys before and after TM measurement up to 800°C were compared using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray analysis. The TM measurements decompose all three materials and the main products of decomposition process α-Fe and Fe2B phase. Observed changes in structure and phase composition had direct influence on magnetic properties. Loss of magnetic properties induced by thermal decomposition is clearly illustrated on corresponding SQUID hysteresis loops.

  12. Improved room-temperature-selectivity between Nd and Fe in Nd recovery from Nd-Fe-B magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kataoka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable society requires the recycling of rare metals. Rare earth Nd is one of rare metals, accompanying huge consumption especially in Nd-Fe-B magnets. Although the wet process using acid is in practical use in the in-plant recycle of sludge, higher selectivity between Nd and Fe at room temperature is desired. We have proposed a pretreatment of corrosion before the dissolution into HCl and the oxalic acid precipitation. The corrosion produces γ-FeOOH and a Nd hydroxide, which have high selectivity for HCl solution at room temperature. Nd can be recovered as Mn2O3-type Nd2O3. The estimated recovery-ratio of Nd reaches to 97%.

  13. A novel method combining additive manufacturing and alloy infiltration for NdFeB bonded magnet fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Conner, B. S.; Chi, Miaofang; Elliott, Amy M.; Rios, Orlando; Zhou, Haidong; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, binder jetting additive manufacturing technique is employed to fabricate NdFeB isotropic bonded magnets, followed by an infiltration process with low-melting point eutectic alloys [i.e., Nd3Cu0.25Co0.75 (NdCuCo) and Pr3Cu0.25Co0.75 (PrCuCo)]. Densification and mechanical strength improvement are achieved for the as-printed porous part. Meanwhile, the intrinsic coercivity Hci is enhanced from 732 to 1345 kA/m and 1233 kA/m after diffusion of NdCuCo and PrCuCo, respectively. This study presents a novel method for fabricating complex-shaped bonded magnets with promising mechanical and magnetic properties.

  14. Microstructure and magnetic properties of highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on Ta (1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, A.R. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: a.kwon@ifw-dresden.de; Hannemann, U. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Neu, V. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Faehler, S. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Schultz, L. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr.20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    Hard magnetic Nd-Fe-B films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on a combined Cr/Ta buffer layer on single crystalline MgO(1 0 0) substrates. At suitable temperatures this system of substrate and buffers allows epitaxial growth of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase with the c-axis pointing out-of-plane. The films exhibit coercivities up to 1.3 T. The in-plane to out-of-plane remanence ratio between 560 deg. C and 600 deg. C is as low as 0.1. Using this buffer system a moderate substrate temperature of 420 deg. C is sufficient to deposit films with an out-of-plane coercivity above 1 T.

  15. Microstructure and magnetic properties of highly textured Nd-Fe-B films grown on Ta (1 0 0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, A.R.; Hannemann, U.; Neu, V.; Faehler, S.; Schultz, L.

    2005-01-01

    Hard magnetic Nd-Fe-B films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on a combined Cr/Ta buffer layer on single crystalline MgO(1 0 0) substrates. At suitable temperatures this system of substrate and buffers allows epitaxial growth of the Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase with the c-axis pointing out-of-plane. The films exhibit coercivities up to 1.3 T. The in-plane to out-of-plane remanence ratio between 560 deg. C and 600 deg. C is as low as 0.1. Using this buffer system a moderate substrate temperature of 420 deg. C is sufficient to deposit films with an out-of-plane coercivity above 1 T

  16. Feasibility study of electrophoresis deposition of DyF3 on Nd-Fe-B particles for coercivity enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. M.; Kang, M. S.; Kwon, H. W.; Lee, J. G.; Yu, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    Feasibility of the electrophoresis deposition (EPD) technique for homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the Nd-Fe-B-type particles was studied, and coercivity enhancement in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD was investigated. HDDR-treated Nd12.5Fe80.6B6.4Ga0.3Nb0.2 particles were deposited with DyF3 particles by EPD. More homogeneous and adhesive deposition of DyF3 particles on the surface of Nd-Fe-B particles was made by the EPD with respect to conventional dip-coating, and this led to more active and homogeneous diffusion of Dy. More profound coercivity enhancement was achieved in the diffusion-treated Nd-Fe-B-type particles deposited with DyF3 by EPD compared to dip-coated particles.

  17. Comparison of Ti(C,N)-based cermets processed by hot-pressing sintering and conventional pressureless sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qingzhong; Ai, Xing; Zhao, Jun; Qin, Weizhen; Wang, Yintao; Gong, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The HP sintered Ti(C,N)-based cermets exhibit high hardness with fine grain size. • The PLS sintered cermets possess high mechanical properties with low porosity. • The applied pressure can rearrange particles and contribute to grain refinement. • The heating rate can greatly affect the solid and liquid phase sintering of cermets. - Abstract: A suitable sintering method is important to obtain the Ti(C,N)-based cermets with superior properties. In this paper, Ti(C,N)-based cermets were fabricated by hot-pressing sintering (HP) and conventional pressureless sintering (PLS) technology, respectively, to investigate the influence of different sintering methods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cermets materials. The microstructure, fracture morphology, indention cracks and phase composition were observed and detected using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The transverse rupture strength (TRS), Vickers hardness (HV) and fracture toughness (K IC ) were also measured. The results reveal that all of the Ti(C,N)-based cermets exhibit core–rim microstructures with black cores, white cores and grey rims embedded into metal binder phases. The grain size of the samples fabricated by HP is much finer and the structure is more compact than those fabricated by PLS, while there exist pores in the HP sintered samples. The sintering process has no influence on the phase composition of cermets, but affects the phase content and crystallinity. The samples fabricated by PLS present higher transverse rupture strength, fracture toughness and density than samples fabricated by HP. However, the HP sintered samples possess a higher hardness

  18. Coercivity enhancement of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets by the eutectic grain boundary diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lihua; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Shoji, T.; Hono, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nd-M (M = Al, Cu, Ga, Zn, Mn) alloys with compositions close to eutectic points were investigated as diffusion sources for the grain boundary diffusion process to hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets. Coercivity enhancement was observed for most of the alloys. Among them, the sample processed with Nd 90 Al 10 exhibited the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. However, the sample processed with Nd 70 Cu 30 exhibited the highest coercivity of 0.7 T at 200 ° C. Microstructural observations using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) showed that nonferromagnetic Nd-rich intergranular phase envelops the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains after the diffusion process. Abnormal grain growth and the dissolution of Al into the Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains were observed in the sample processed with Nd 90 Al 10 , which explains its inferior thermal stability of coercivity compared to the sample processed with Nd 70 Cu 30 . The coercivity enhancement and poor thermal stability of the coercivity of the Nd 90 Al 10 diffusion-processed sample are discussed based on microstructure studies by transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Coercivity of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets is enhanced by the infiltration of various R-TM eutectic alloys. • The sample infiltrated with Nd 90 Al 10 shows the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. • At 200 °C, Nd 70 Cu 30 diffusion-processed sample possesses the highest coercivity of 0.7 T.

  19. Coercivity enhancement of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets by the eutectic grain boundary diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lihua [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T. [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Yano, M.; Kato, A.; Shoji, T. [Toyota Motor Corporation, Advanced Material Engineering Div., Susono 410-1193 (Japan); Hono, K., E-mail: kazuhiro.hono@nims.go.jp [Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials, National Institute of Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-05-05

    Nd-M (M = Al, Cu, Ga, Zn, Mn) alloys with compositions close to eutectic points were investigated as diffusion sources for the grain boundary diffusion process to hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets. Coercivity enhancement was observed for most of the alloys. Among them, the sample processed with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} exhibited the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. However, the sample processed with Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} exhibited the highest coercivity of 0.7 T at 200 {sup °}C. Microstructural observations using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) showed that nonferromagnetic Nd-rich intergranular phase envelops the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains after the diffusion process. Abnormal grain growth and the dissolution of Al into the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains were observed in the sample processed with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10}, which explains its inferior thermal stability of coercivity compared to the sample processed with Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30}. The coercivity enhancement and poor thermal stability of the coercivity of the Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} diffusion-processed sample are discussed based on microstructure studies by transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Coercivity of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets is enhanced by the infiltration of various R-TM eutectic alloys. • The sample infiltrated with Nd{sub 90}Al{sub 10} shows the highest coercivity of 2.5 T at room temperature. • At 200 °C, Nd{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} diffusion-processed sample possesses the highest coercivity of 0.7 T.

  20. Characterisation of the aqueous corrosion process in NdFeB melt spun ribbon and MQI bonded magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Stephen

    A major factor limiting the use and longevity of rare earth based magnetic materials is their susceptibility to aqueous corrosion and associated detrimental effects upon the magnetic properties of the material. This process was investigated through a combination of exposure to simulated environmental conditions and hydrogen absorption/desorption studies (HADS) in conjunction with magnetic characterisation. This study utilises NdFeB MQP-B melt-spun ribbon manufactured by Magnequench, in the form of MQI bonded magnets and also in its unbonded state as MQ powder. Specifically, it was concerned with how effective a variety of bonding media (epoxy resin,PTFE, zinc) and surface coatings (PTFE, Qsil, zinc LPPS, Dex-Cool) were at limiting the impact of aqueous corrosion in MQI bonded magnets. To characterise the effect of hydrogen absorption upon the magnetic properties of the MQP-B, hydrogen uptake was induced followed by a series of outgassing heat treatments with subsequent magnetic characterisation accompanied by HADS techniques performed after each outgas. This allowed comparisons to be made between the effects of aqueous corrosion process and hydrogen absorption upon the magnetic properties of the alloy.. This study has clearly demonstrated the link between the abundance of environmental moisture and rate of Hci losses in MQI bonded magnets. In addition to this the key mechanism responsible for the degradation of magnetic properties has been identified. These losses have been attributed to the absorption of hydrogen generated by the dissociation of water in the presence of NdFeB during the aqueous corrosion process. It has been shown that the use of a bonding media that is impermeable to water can limit the effects of aqueous corrosion by limiting water access to the Magnequench particles (MQP) and also the positive effects of the use of suitable surface coatings has been shown to be effective for the same reason..