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Sample records for high-cholesterol diet supplemented

  1. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakala, Gopala K; Wielinga, Peter Y; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Four groups of ApoE*3Leiden mice were exposed to the following diet regimens. Group 1: cholesterol-free control diet (CO). Group 2: high-dose (1.0% w/w) control cholesterol (CC). Group 3: CC supplemented chocolate A (CCA) and Group 4: CC supplemented chocolate B (CCB). Both chocolates differed in polyphenol and fiber content, CCA had a relatively high-polyphenol and low-fiber content compared to CCB. Mice fed a high-cholesterol diet showed increased plasma-cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. Both chocolate treatments, particularly CCA, further increased plasma-cholesterol and increased atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, compared to mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, both chocolate-treated groups displayed increased liver injury. Mice on high-cholesterol diet had elevated plasma levels of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and SAA, which was further increased in the CCB group. Similar effects were observed for renal inflammation markers. The two chocolate preparations showed unfavorable, but different effects on cardiometabolic health in E3L mice, which dissimilarities may be related to differences in chocolate composition. We conclude that discrepancies reported on the effects of chocolate on cardiometabolic health may at least partly be due to differences in chocolate composition. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion

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    Ting Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD supplement with perilla oil (POH for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

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    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of a multivitamin preparation supplemented with phytosterol on serum lipids and infarct size in rats fed with normal and high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although complex multivitamin products are widely used as dietary supplements to maintain health or as special medical food in certain diseases, the effects of these products were not investigated in hyperlipidemia which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, here we investigated if a preparation developed for human use containing different vitamins, minerals and trace elements enriched with phytosterol (VMTP) affects the severity of experimental hyperlipidemia as well as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed a normal or cholesterol-enriched (2% cholesterol + 0.25% cholate) diet for 12 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. From week 8, rats in both groups were fed with a VMTP preparation or placebo for 4 weeks. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured at week 0, 8 and 12. At week 12, hearts were isolated, perfused according to Langendorff and subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 120 min reperfusion to measure infarct size. Results At week 8, cholesterol-fed rats showed significantly higher serum cholesterol level as compared to normal animals, however, serum triglyceride level did not change. VMTP treatment significantly decreased serum cholesterol level in the hyperlipidemic group by week 12 without affecting triglyceride levels. However, VMTP did not show beneficial effect on infarct size. The inflammatory marker hs-CRP and the antioxidant uric acid were also not significantly different. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that treatment of hyperlipidemic subjects with a VMTP preparation reduces serum cholesterol, the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, it does not provide cardioprotection. PMID:24063587

  5. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M. van; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Scope: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and results:

  6. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M.; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ScopeDietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and resultsFour

  7. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M.; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  8. Effects of NS lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated serum cholesterol level is generally considered to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases which seriously threaten human health. The cholesterol-lowering effects of lactic acid bacteria have recently become an area of great interest and controversy for many researchers. In this study, we investigated the effects of two NS lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12, on lipid metabolism of rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The NS lactobacillus treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum NS5 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NS12 in drinking water. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, intestinal microbiota and liver mRNA expression levels related to cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high cholesterol diet, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and free fatty acids levels were decreased and apolipoprotein A-I level was increased in NS5 or NS12 strain treated rats, and with no significant change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also significantly decreased in NS lactobacillus strains treated groups. Meanwhile, the NS lactobacillus strains obviously alleviated hepatic injuries, decreased liver lipid deposition and reduced adipocyte size of high cholesterol diet fed rats. NS lactobacillus strains restored the changes in intestinal microbiota compositions, such as the increase in Bacteroides and the decrease in Clostridium. NS lactobacillus strains also regulated the mRNA expression

  9. Kefiran reduces atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.

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    Uchida, Masashi; Ishii, Itsuko; Inoue, Chika; Akisato, Yoshie; Watanabe, Kenta; Hosoyama, Saori; Toida, Toshihiko; Ariyoshi, Noritaka; Kitada, Mitsukazu

    2010-09-30

    Kefiran is an exopolysaccharide produced by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, and has been proposed to have many health-promoting properties. We investigated the antiatherogenic effect of kefiran on rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet without (control group, n = 7) or with kefiran (kefiran group, n = 8) for eight weeks. The aorta was analyzed by histochemistry and atherosclerotic lesions were quantified. Lipids and sugars in serum were measured. Foam cell formation of RAW264.7 by βVLDL derived from both groups of rabbits was also investigated. Cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids levels of serum and lipoprotein fractions were not significantly different between these groups. Atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta in the kefiran group were statistically lower than those of the control group, with marked differences in the abdominal aorta. T-lymphocytes were not detectable in the aorta of the kefiran group. Cholesterol contents in stools were almost identical in both groups. Cholesterol content in the liver of the kefiran group was statistically lower than in the control group. Galactose content of βVLDL derived from the kefiran group was higher, and the lipid peroxidation level was much lower than in the control group. RAW264.7 macrophages treated with βVLDL from the kefiran group showed a more spherical shape and accumulated statistically lower cholesterol than macrophages treated with βVLDL from the control group. Orally derived kefiran is absorbed in the blood. Kefiran prevents the onset and development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions.

  10. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

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    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage.

  11. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia.

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    Lee, Li-Chen; Wei, Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-12-17

    Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  12. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

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    Li-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  13. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

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    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (Pgarlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  14. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavon...

  15. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats.

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    Hu, Xu; Wang, Tao; Luo, Jia; Liang, Shan; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiaoli; Jin, Feng; Wang, Li

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period.

  16. Age-dependent effect of high cholesterol diets on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholesterol is an essential component of brain and nerve cells and is essential for maintaining the function of the nervous system. Epidemiological studies showed that patients suffering from anxiety disorders have higher serum cholesterol levels. In this study, we investigated the influence of high cholesterol diet on anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze in animal model and explored the relationship between cholesterol and anxiety-like behavior from the aspect of central neurochemical changes. Methods Young (3 weeks old) and adult (20 weeks old) rats were given a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. The anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test and changes of central neurochemical implicated in anxiety were measured. Results In young rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiolytic-like behavior, decreased serum corticosterone (CORT), increased hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), increased hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR). In adult rats, high cholesterol diet induced anxiety-like behavior and increase of serum CORT and decrease of hippocampal BDNF comparing with their respective control group that fed the regular diet. Discussion High cholesterol diet induced age-dependent effects on anxiety-like behavior and central neurochemical changes. High cholesterol diet might affect the central nervous system (CNS) function differently, and resulting in different behavior performance of anxiety in different age period. PMID:25179125

  17. Inulin and Fibersol-2 Combined Have Hypolipidemic Effects on High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Hamsters

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    Wen-Ching Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistant carbohydrates, inulin, and Fibersol-2, belong to soluble dietary fibers and are considered important prebiotics that maintain biological functions, including glucose homeostasis, lipid regulation, colon disease prevention, and prebiotics characteristics. However, few studies have investigated Fibersol-2 alone or in combination with inulin to assess a pooled effect on modulation of hyperlipidemia. We aimed to investigate the effects of this combined supplement (defined as InF on hamsters fed a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet, HCD to induce hyperlipidemia. A total of 40 male hamsters were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 8 per group for treatment: standard diet, vehicle (control; or vehicle or InF supplementation by oral gavage at 0, 864, 1727, or 2591 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, designated HCD, InF-1X, InF-2X, and InF-3X groups, respectively. The hypolipidemic efficacy and safety of InF supplementation was assessed by serum lipid indexes, hepatic and fecal lipid content, and histology. InF supplementation significantly improved serum levels of triacylglycerol (TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C after two-week treatment, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC levels after four-week administration. After eight-week supplementation, InF supplementation dose-dependently improved serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C; LDL-C/HDL-C ratio; and hepatic TC and TG levels. It inhibited TC absorption by feces elimination. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that this prebiotics remedy may be useful in preventing or treating hyperlipidemia.

  18. Efficacy of functional foods mixture in improving hypercholesterolemia, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers-induced by high cholesterol diet.

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    Al-Muzafar, Hessah Mohammed; Amin, Kamal Adel

    2017-10-06

    Hypercholesterolemia associated with cardiovascular diseases is a global health issue that could be alleviated by functional foods. This study aimed to explore the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on lipid profile, cardiac, inflammatory, and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers, and the possible improvement by functional foods mixture. Male albino rats weighing 100-150 g were randomly divided into four equal groups: 1st control, giving a normal diet; the 2nd received high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks, the 3rd received the high-cholesterol diet + functional foods mixture, and the 4th administered high-cholesterol diet +atorvastatin (20 mg) orally. The results showed a significant increase in lipid profile and cardiac biomarkers levels (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and homocystein), also inflammatory markers, as, tumor necrotic factor alpha and chronic reactive proteins were elevated, moreover, vascular adhesion molecule-1 and nitric oxide synthase were disturbed in high-cholesterol diet compared with normal group. While administration of atorvastatin and functional foods mixture ameliorated these alterations. Administration of functional foods mixture and atorvastatin were effective in treating hypercholesterolemia, reduce the risk of inflammation and cardiovascular biomarkers with a high safety margin. These efficiencies may be due to its active ingredient that improve the imbalance in the measured biomarkers.

  19. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

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    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  20. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  1. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. PMID:25514389

  2. Hypolipidemic activity of Phellinus rimosus against triton WR-1339 and high cholesterol diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rony, K A; Ajith, T A; Nima, N; Janardhanan, K K

    2014-03-01

    Patients with the risk for atherosclerotic disease will be targeted to reduce the existing hyperlipidemia. The hypolipidemic activity of Phellinus rimosus was studied using triton WR-1339 and high cholesterol diet (HCD) induced models. The triton induced elevated lipid profile was attenuated by P. rimosus or standard drug atorvastatin. Similarly, administration of P. rimosus along with HCD significantly decline serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, with elevating the high-density lipoprotein. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances in heart and liver significantly decreased; where as activity of enzymatic antioxidants and level of reduced glutathione were significantly increased. In both models, P. rimosus extract showed a significant ameliorative effect on the elevated atherogenic index as well as LDL/HDL-C ratio. The hypolipidemic activity of P. rimosus can be ascribed to its inhibitory effect on the liver HMG CoA reductase activity. The results suggest the possible therapeutic potential of this fungus as hypolipidemic agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EFFECT OF ASCORBIC ACID ON THE RIGHT AND LEFT CORONARY ARTERIES OF MALE RABBITS FED WITH HIGH-CHOLESTEROL DIET

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    Gholamreza Dashti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death in western countries. The beneficial effect of ascorbic acid on various organs has been reported. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of ascorbic acid on the right and left coronary arteries of male rabbits fed with high-cholesterol diet. methods: Twenty white male rabbits (mean weight: 950 g were weighed and randomly divided into two groups. For 40 days, group 1 (n=10 was given a high-cholesterol (1% diet, group 2 (n=10 was fed with a high-cholesterol diet and ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg. Then both of the groups were weighed and the animals were sacrificed. The right and left coronary arteries were dissected and then fixation, tissue processing, histological sectioning and H & E staining were carried out and sections were studied by light microscopy. The results were analyzed by using the Mann Whitney test. results: Group 2 which received ascorbic acid had no fatty streaks in their coronary arteries. Significant difference in mean weight was observed before and after the diet in both groups (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological study of the coronary arteries showed that the rabbits which received ascorbic acid diet did not develop fatty streaks. Thus ascorbic acid exerts an apparently inhibitory effect on fatty streak formation and may slow down or prevent atherosclerosis by countering the side effects of a high-fat meal.     Keywords: Ascorbic acid, cholesterol, coronary arteries.

  4. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

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    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  5. Silicon Alleviates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Apoptosis in Aged Wistar Rats Fed a High-Saturated Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, M Elvira; Sántos-López, Jorge A; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Macho-González, Adrián; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Background: Lipoapoptosis has been identified as a key event in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hence, antiapoptotic agents have been recommended as a possible effective treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Silicon, included in meat as a functional ingredient, improves lipoprotein profiles and liver antioxidant defenses in aged rats fed a high-saturated fat, high-cholesterol diet (HSHCD). However, to our knowledge, the antiapoptotic effect of this potential functional meat on the liver has never been tested. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon on NASH development and the potential antiapoptotic properties of silicon in aged rats. Methods: One-year-old male Wistar rats weighing ∼500 g were fed 3 experimental diets containing restructured pork (RP) for 8 wk: 1 ) a high-saturated fat diet, as an NAFLD control, with 16.9% total fat, 0.14 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg (control); 2 ) the HSHCD as a model of NASH, with 16.6% total fat, 16.3 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO 2 /kg [high-cholesterol diet (Chol-C)]; and 3 ) the HSHCD with silicon-supplemented RP with amounts of fat and cholesterol identical to those in the Chol-C diet, but with 750 mg SiO 2 /kg (Chol-Si). Detailed histopathological assessments were performed, and the NAFLD activity score (NAS) was calculated. Liver apoptosis and damage markers were evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Chol-C rats had a higher mean NAS (7.4) than did control rats (1.9; P silicon substantially affects NASH development in aged male Wistar rats fed an HSHCD by partially blocking apoptosis. These results suggest that silicon-enriched RP could be used as an effective nutritional strategy in preventing NASH. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Effects of Food Based Yeast on Oxidant-Antioxidant Systems in Rats fed by High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Savaş, Hasan Basri; Yüksel, Özlem; Şanlıdere Aloğlu, Hatice; Öner, Zübeyde; Demir Özer, Ezgi; Gültekin, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    In living organisms, oxidant and antioxidant systems are in a balance. In the present study, our aim was to study the effects of Cryptococcus humicola, which is a food based yeast whose cholesterol lowering activity is under investigation, on oxidant and antioxidant systems.31 adult male, Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gr were included in the study. Rats were divided into four groups based on their diets. Group 1(Control Group) was fed a normal diet, Group 2 was fed a high cholesterol di...

  7. A comparative study on the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampal CA1 area of adult and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Khair, Doaa M; El-Safti, Fatma El-Nabawia A; Nooh, Hanaa Z; El-Mehi, Abeer E

    2014-06-01

    Dementia is one of the most important problems nowadays. Aging is associated with learning and memory impairments. Diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. This work was carried out to compare the effect of high cholesterol diet on the hippocampus of adult and aged male albino rats. Twenty adult and twenty aged male rats were used in this study. According to age, the rats were randomly subdivided into balanced and high cholesterol diet fed groups. The diet was 15 g/rat/day for adult rats and 20 g/rat/day for aged rats for eight weeks. Serial coronal sections of hippocampus and blood samples were taken from each rat. For diet effect evaluation, Clinical, biochemical, histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric assessments were done. In compare to a balanced diet fed rat, examination of Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA 1) area in the hippocampus of the high cholesterol diet adult rats showed degeneration, a significant decrease of the pyramidal cells, attenuation and/or thickening of small blood vessels, apparent increase of astrocytes and apparent decrease of Nissl's granules content. Moreover, the high cholesterol diet aged rats showed aggravation of senility changes of the hippocampus together with Alzheimer like pathological changes. In conclusion, the high cholesterol diet has a significant detrimental effect on the hippocampus and aging might pronounce this effect. So, we should direct our attention to limit cholesterol intake in our food to maintain a healthy life style for a successful aging.

  8. Low-carbohydrate diets reduce lipid accumulation and arterial inflammation in guinea pigs fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jose O; DeOgburn, Ryan; Ratliff, Joseph; Su, Randy; Smyth, Joan A; Volek, Jeff S; McGrane, Mary M; Dardik, Alan; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2010-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) efficiently induce weight loss and favorably affect plasma lipids, however, the effect of LCD on atherosclerosis is still argued. To evaluate the effect of LCD on the prevention of atherosclerosis. Twenty guinea pigs were fed either a LCD or a low-fat diet (LFD) in combination with high-cholesterol (0.25g/100g) for 12 weeks. The percentage energy of macronutrient distribution was 10:65:25 for carbohydrate:fat:protein for the LCD, and 55:20:25 for the LFD. Plasma lipids were measured using colorimetric assays. Plasma and aortic oxidized (oxLDL) were quantified using ELISA methods. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in aortic homogenates using an immunoassay. H&E stained sections of aortic sinus and Schultz stained sections of carotid arteries were examined. LDL cholesterol was lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (71.9+/-34.8 vs. 81.7+/-26.9mg/dL; p=0.039). Aortic cholesterol was also lower in the LCD (4.98+/-1.3mg/g) compared to the LFD group (6.68+/-2.0mg/g); p<0.05. The Schultz staining method confirmed less aortic cholesterol accumulation in the LCD group. Plasma oxLDL did not differ between groups, however, aortic oxLDL was 61% lower in the LCD compared to the LFD group (p=0.045). There was a positive correlation (r=0.63, p=0.03) between oxLDL and cholesterol concentration in the aorta of LFD group, which was not observed in LCD group (r=-0.05, p=0.96). Inflammatory markers were reduced in guinea pigs from the LCD group (p<0.05) and they were correlated with the decreases in oxLDL in aorta. These results suggest that LCD not only decreases lipid deposition, but also prevents the accumulation of oxLDL and reduces inflammatory cytokines within the arterial wall and may prevent atherosclerosis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (Pginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (Pginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (Pginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Comparison of cardiovascular protective effects of tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, on high-cholesterol/high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanjun, Patricia; Mohamed, Suhaila; Muhammad, Kharidah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative in vivo cardiovascular protective effects of red, green, and brown tropical seaweeds, namely, Kappaphycus alvarezii (or Eucheuma cottonii), Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, in rats fed on high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCF) diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 260-300 g) on the HCF diet had significantly increased body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase levels after 16 weeks. Supplementing 5% seaweeds to HCF diet significantly reduced plasma TC (-11.4% to -18.5%), LDL-C (-22% to -49.3%), and TG (-33.7% to -36.1%) levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels (16.3-55%). Among the seaweeds, S. polycystum showed the best anti-obesity and blood GSH-Px properties, K. alvarezii showed the best antihyperlipemic and in vivo antioxidation effects, and C. lentillifera was most effective at reducing plasma TC. All seaweeds significantly reduced body weight gain, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and plasma lipid peroxidation of HCF diet rats towards the values of normal rats.

  12. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was

  13. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-03-16

    An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was more prominent in male

  14. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rejaie Salim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins

  15. Effects of +G_z exposure on gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin,and somatostatin in rabbits with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-feng XIAO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study explores the effects of +Gz exposure on the gallbladder emptying function,cholecystokinin(CCK,and somatostatin(SS in rabbits with high cholesterol diets and investigates its mechanism in the occurrence of cholecystolithiasis.Methods Twenty-four male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the high cholesterol diet(control group,n=8 and high cholesterol diet plus +Gz exposure groups.The latter was divided into the four-and six-week +Gz exposure groups(n=8 based on the exposure time.Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the CCK and SS contents of the gallbladder at the end of the experiment in the fourth and sixth weeks and to calculate the gallbladder volume and maximum emptying ratio.A microcomputer biodynamic pressure monitor was used to record the hydrostatic pressure in the gallbladder to measure its capacity.Moreover,the bile properties and formation of concretion were observed with the naked eye,and polarized light microscopy was used to observe cholesterin crystallization on the gallbladder wall.Results The gallbladder capacity increased upon +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,indicating that the maximum emptying ratio(E% decreased,the empty and residual volumes improved,and the pressure increased(P < 0.05.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the CCK contents in the experimental groups were evidently lower than that in the control group and gradually decreased(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.On the other hand,after +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,the SS contents in the experimental groups were higher than that in the control group and gradually improved(P < 0.05 as the +Gz exposure time increased.After +Gz exposure for four and six weeks,bile was turbid and sticky with cholesterol crystals and without visible concretion.Conclusions Therefore,+Gz exposure may cause abnormal gallbladder emptying functions,decrease CCK content,increase SS content,and thus cause bile stasis

  16. Effect of a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet on gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-12-01

    OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism-related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs. RESULTS The HFCD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The HFCD also increased the concentration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and decreased the concentration of taurocholic acid in bile and reduced gallbladder contractility, whereas the LFD significantly decreased the concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid in bile. Gene expression analysis revealed significant elevation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression after feeding the HFCD for 2 weeks, but the expression of other genes was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the HFCD and LFD for 2 weeks induced changes in gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs. In particular, feeding the HFCD caused an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration, an increase of hydrophobic bile acid concentration in bile, and a decrease in gallbladder sensitivity to CCK. These results suggested that similar bile acid compositional changes and gallbladder hypomotility might be evident in dogs with hyperlipidemia.

  17. Electronegative LDL is linked to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Ho, Shu-Li; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lu, Shao-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), like that of atherosclerosis, involves lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis. Recent studies suggest that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be a risk factor for NASH, but oxLDL levels were not directly measured in these studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an association between electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], a mildly oxLDL found in the blood, and the development of NASH using two animal models. Golden Syrian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 6 or 12weeks, then liver lipid and histopathology, plasma lipoprotein profile and LDL(-) levels were examined. The HFC-diet-fed hamsters and mice had similar levels of hepatic lipid but different histopathological changes, with microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and bridging fibrosis in the hamsters, but only in mild steatohepatitis with low inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice. It also resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and LDL(-) in hamsters, but only a slight increase in mice. Moreover, enlarged Kupffer cells, LDL(-) and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol were detected in the portal area of HFC-diet-fed hamsters, but not HFC-diet-fed mice. An in vitro study showed that LDL(-) from HFC-diet-fed hamsters induced TNF-α secretion in rat Kupffer cell through a LOX-1-dependent pathway. Our results strongly suggest that LDL(-) is one of the underlying causes of hepatic inflammation and plays a critical role in the development of NASH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum) on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoorechi, Vahideh; Rismanchi, Marjan; Nasrollahzadeh, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet), high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet), Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek) for 14 weeks. High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG), plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.

  19. Increased cholinergic contractions of jejunal smooth muscle caused by a high cholesterol diet are prevented by the 5-HT4 agonist – tegaserod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer Eldon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess cholesterol in bile and in blood is a major risk factor for the respective development of gallbladder disease and atherosclerosis. This lipid in excess negatively impacts the functioning of other smooth muscles, including the intestine. Serotonin is an important mediator of the contractile responses of the small intestine. Drugs targeting the serotonin receptor are used as prokinetic agents to manage intestinal motor disorders, in particular irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, tegaserod, acting on 5-HT4 receptor, ideally should obviate detrimental effects of excessive cholesterol on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. In this study we examined the effect of tegaserod on cholesterol-induced changes in the contractile responses of intestinal smooth muscle. Methods The effects of a high cholesterol (1% diet on the in vitro contractile responses of jejunal longitudinal smooth muscle from Richardson ground squirrels to the cholinergic agonist carbachol were examined in the presence or absence of tetrodrodotoxin (TTX. Two groups of animals, fed either low (0.03% or high cholesterol rat chow diet, were further divided into two subgroups and treated for 28 days with either vehicle or tegaserod. Results The high cholesterol diet increased, by nearly 2-fold, contractions of the jejunal longitudinal smooth muscle elicited by carbachol. These cholinergic contractions were mediated by muscarinic receptors since they were blocked by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, but not by the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium. Tegaserod treatment, which did not affect cholinergic contractions of tissues from low cholesterol fed animals, abrogated the increase caused by the high cholesterol diet. With low cholesterol diet TTX enhanced carbachol-evoked contractions, whereas this action potential blocker did not affect the augmented cholinergic contractions seen with tissues from animals on the high cholesterol diet. Tegaserod

  20. Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil mitigates high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdali, Nibrass Taher; Yaseen, Awny H; Said, Eman; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2017-04-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial therapeutic outcome of Rho kinase inhibitor (fasudil) against hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial and vascular injury in rabbits together with diet modification. Sixteen male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group which received standard rabbit chow, hypercholesterolemic control group, and treated groups which received cholesterol-rich rabbit chow (1.5% cholesterol) for 8 weeks. Treated groups received either fasudil (100 mg/kg/day) or rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/kg/day) starting from the ninth week for further 4 weeks with interruption of the cholesterol-rich chow. Biochemical assessment of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and myocardial oxidative/antioxidant biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH), besides biochemical assessment of serum nitric oxide (NO), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), was conducted. Serum vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and serum Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) were also evaluated along with histopathological examination of aorta specimens. Fasudil administration significantly decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and LDL and significantly increased serum HDL, with concomitant decrease in serum CK and LDH activities, NO, and restoration of serum TAC. Myocardial MDA significantly declined; SOD activity and GSH contents were restored. Serum ROCK-1 and VCAM-1 levels significantly declined as well. Vascular improvement was confirmed with histopathological examination, which revealed normal aortic intema with the absence of atheromas. Fasudil has promising anti-atherogenic activity mediated primarily via alleviation of hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and modulation of inflammatory response.

  1. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Keong Yeap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR. In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.

  2. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  3. Quercetin Prevents Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by a High-Cholesterol Diet: Role of Oxidative Stress and Bioenergetics in Hyperglycemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Castillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cardiac energy metabolism play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Hypercholesterolemia associated with bioenergetic impairment and oxidative stress has not been well characterized in the cardiac function under glycemic control deficiency conditions. This work aimed to determine the cardioprotective effects of quercetin (QUE against the damage induced by a high-cholesterol (HC diet in hyperglycemic rats, addressing intracellular antioxidant mechanisms and bioenergetics. Quercetin reduced HC-induced alterations in the lipid profile and glycemia in rats. In addition, QUE attenuated cardiac diastolic dysfunction (increased E:A ratio, prevented cardiac cholesterol accumulation, and reduced the increase in HC-induced myocyte density. Moreover, QUE reduced HC-induced oxidative stress by preventing the decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression, and antioxidant enzymatic activity. Quercetin also counteracted HC-induced bioenergetic impairment, preventing a reduction in ATP levels and alterations in PGC-1α, UCP2, and PPARγ expression. In conclusion, the mechanisms that support the cardioprotective effect of QUE in rats with HC might be mediated by the upregulation of antioxidant mechanisms and improved bioenergetics on the heart. Targeting bioenergetics with QUE can be used as a pharmacological approach to modulate structural and functional changes of the heart under hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic conditions.

  4. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Alkhamees, Osama Abdelrahman; Aleisa, Abdulaziz Mohammed; Alroujayee, Abdulaziz S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of thi...

  5. The tuber extract and flour of Dioscorea alatanormalize the blood lipid profile of rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih

    2014-08-01

    rabbits treated with high cholesterol diets.Methods:DA tuber extract and flour were administrated to the rabbits for 60 days using completely randomised design. The ration treatment are as follows: 1 Basal ration as negative control (K0, 2 Basal ration + 0.5% cholesterol, as positive control (K1, 3 Basal ration + 0.5% cholesterol + DA extract 1.8 g/100 g (KE1, 4 Basal ration + cholesterol 0.5% + DA extract 3.6 g/100 g (KE2, 5 Basal ration with 15% DA flour + 0.5% cholesterol (KT1 and 6 Basal ration with 30% DA flour + 0.5% cholesterol (KT2. The Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL cholesterol in serum were analysed at baseline, days 28, days 56 and at the end of study.Results:The administration of high cholesterol (1% ration increased blood lipid levels by 16 fold compared to that of control. The administration of 15% and 30% of DA flour could maintain blood lipid profile to normal condition, in particular at 30% substitution DA flour. However the water extract of DA can not maintain a normal blood lipids of high cholesterol treated rabbitsConclusion: Dioscorea alata flour has suggested to have anti-hyperlipidemia effect. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:23-9Key words: Dioscorea alata, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis

  6. Relative variations of gut microbiota in disordered cholesterol metabolism caused by high-cholesterol diet and host genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Tao; Shao, Shanshan; Wu, Dongming; Niu, Shaona; Zhao, Jiajun; Gao, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies performed provide mechanistic insight into effects of the microbiota on cholesterol metabolism, but less focus was given to how cholesterol impacts the gut microbiota. In this study, ApoE -/- Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and their wild-type counterparts (n = 12) were, respectively, allocated for two dietary condition groups (normal chow and high-cholesterol diet). Total 16S rDNA of fecal samples were extracted and sequenced by high-throughput sequencing to determine differences in microbiome composition. Data were collected and performed diversity analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The influence of cholesterol on gut microbiota was discussed by using cholesterol dietary treatment as exogenous cholesterol disorder factor and genetic modification as endogenous metabolic disorder factor. Relative microbial variations were compared to illustrate the causality and correlation of cholesterol and gut microbiota. It turned out comparing to genetically modified rats, exogenous cholesterol intake may play more effective role in changing gut microbiota profile, although the serum cholesterol level of genetically modified rats was even higher. Relative abundance of some representative species showed that the discrepancies due to dietary variation were more obvious, whereas some low abundance species changed because of genetic disorders. Our results partially demonstrated that gut microbiota are relatively more sensitive to dietary variation. Nevertheless, considering the important effect of bacteria in cholesterol metabolism, the influence to gut flora by "genetically caused cholesterol disorder" cannot be overlooked. Manipulation of gut microbiota might be an effective target for preventing cholesterol-related metabolic disorders. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Acute Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar Intake on Some Biochemical Risk Factors of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits Fed with a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Setorki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Metabolic changes in postprandial stage, especially after consumption of high fat meal cause atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Apple cider vinegar is an acidic juice with useful medicinal effects. In this research; we investigated acute effects of apple cider vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group, high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group, %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group. The C-Reactive Protein (CRP, low density lipoprotein (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein (HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, malondialdehyde (MDA, oxidized-LDL (OxLDL, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, nitrite, nitrate, glucose, fibrinogen triacylglycerol (TG, apolipoprotein A (ApoA1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB100 were all measured before the experiment and three hours after feeding with these treatment diets.

    Results: In high cholesterol diet fibrinogen, nitrite, glucose, OxLDL, MDA and CRP showed a significant increase compared to normal diet. Significant differences were observed between both groups of apple cider vinegar by fibrinogen in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Using 10ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant reduction in Ox-LDL, MDA and glucose in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Moreover, the consumption of 5ml apple cider vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused a significant decrease in LDL-C and TC compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. No significant difference was found between apple cider vinegar taking groups and

  8. Fermentation of soy milk via Lactobacillus plantarum improves dysregulated lipid metabolism in rats on a high cholesterol diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhye Kim

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether in vitro fermentation of soy with L. plantarum could promote its beneficial effects on lipids at the molecular and physiological levels. Rats were fed an AIN76A diet containing 50% sucrose (w/w (CTRL, a modified AIN76A diet supplemented with 1% (w/w cholesterol (CHOL, or a CHOL diet where 20% casein was replaced with soy milk (SOY or fermented soy milk (FSOY. Dietary isoflavone profiles, serum lipids, hepatic and fecal cholesterol, and tissue gene expression were examined. The FSOY diet had more aglycones than did the SOY diet. Both the SOY and FSOY groups had lower hepatic cholesterol and serum triglyceride (TG than did the CHOL group. Only FSOY reduced hepatic TG and serum free fatty acids and increased serum HDL-CHOL and fecal cholesterol. Compared to CHOL, FSOY lowered levels of the nuclear forms of SREBP-1c and SREBP-2 and expression of their target genes, including FAS, SCD1, LDLR, and HMGCR. On the other hand, FSOY elevated adipose expression levels of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein uptake (ApoE, VLDLR, and Lrp1, fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, CPT1α, LCAD, CYP4A1, UCP2, and UCP3, HDL-biogenesis (ABCA1, ApoA1, and LXRα, and adiponectin signaling (AdipoQ, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2, as well as levels of phosphorylated AMPK and ACC. SOY conferred a similar expression profile in both liver and adipose tissues but failed to reach statistical significance in many of the genes tested, unlike FSOY. Our data indicate that fermentation may be a way to enhance the beneficial effects of soy on lipid metabolism, in part via promoting a reduction of SREBP-dependent cholesterol and TG synthesis in the liver, and enhancing adiponectin signaling and PPARα-induced expression of genes involved in TG-rich lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid oxidation, and reverse cholesterol transport in adipose tissues.

  9. Exercise Does Not Protect Against Peripheral and Central Effects of a High Cholesterol Diet Given Ad Libitum in Old ApoE-/- Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Di Cataldo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim:Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE-/- mice.Methods:45-weeks old obese ApoE-/-mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access and Sedentary (SED groups. Insulin tolerance and brain imaging were performed before and after the twelve-weeks training. Tissue insulin resistance, oxidative stress and inflammation markers in plasma, aorta and brain were then assessed.Results:In EX ApoE-/- mice, no beneficial effect of exercise was observed on weight, abdominal fat, metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, or inflammation compared to SED. Despite the regular exercise training in ApoE-/- EX mice (mean of 12.5 km/week during twelve weeks, brain inflammation imaging score was significantly associated with increased blood brain barrier (BBB leakage evaluated by imaging follow-up (r²=0.87; p=0.049 with a faster evolution compared to SED ApoE-/-mice. Conclusion:We conclude that in a context of high cardio-metabolic risk, exercise does not provide any protective effect in old ApoE-/- animals under high cholesterol diet given ad libitum. Peripheral (insulin sensitivity and oxidative/inflammatory status but also central features (BBB preservation and protection against inflammation did not show any benefits of exercise. Indeed, there was a fast induction of irreversible brain damage that was more pronounced in exercise-trained ApoE-/- mice.

  10. Adzuki bean ameliorates hepatic lipogenesis and proinflammatory mediator expression in mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sera; Hong, Jihye; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a simple steatosis, in which fat accumulates more than 5% in the liver, and regarded as most common liver diseases worldwide. Because NAFLD can be developed to severe liver disease and correlated with metabolic disease, its importance is currently emphasized. Occurrence of NAFLD is strongly related to dietary patterns and lifestyles; therefore, the suggestion of physiologically beneficial food is essential. Based on these, adzuki beans containing anthocyanin, catechin, and adzukisaponin are suggested as a health-beneficial food. Moreover, the effects of adzuki beans on metabolic improvement are not well established through the in vivo studies. Therefore, this study hypothesized that adzuki beans can alleviate lipid accumulation and oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in high-cholesterol and high-fat diet-induced NALFD mice. To demonstrate its effects, 6-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were allocated into 4 groups and fed a normal diet (ND), a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (HCD), and HCD with 10% and 20% adzuki bean for 10 weeks. The result shows that fasting blood glucose, serum and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and antioxidative enzyme activity ameliorated in the adzuki bean groups (P hepatic lipogenesis, such as adiponectin, AMP-activated protein kinase α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and apolipoprotein B, as well as proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB, and caspase-3, improved in both experimental groups (P hepatic messenger RNA expression of lipogenic and inflammatory mediators in NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high-cholesterol diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2010-01-01

    The Göttingen minipig is an excellent model for studying effects of dietary high-fat intake on obesity. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and its target mRNA, CAT1, in intact young male minipigs fed either high-cholesterol or standard diet for 11 wk. Mi...... with a decrease in the expression of miRNA-122, confirming the implication of this microRNA in obesity. Gene expression levels of CAT1 did not differ between groups.......RNA-122 and CAT1 are known to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. The weight of the young minipigs was monitored once a week during the feeding period; measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were recorded at 4 time points (8, 14...

  12. Grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells of rats subjected to a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Odair; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; de Moraes, Bárbara Bueno; Pasquini, Gabriela; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Ihara, Silvia Saiuli Miki; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect liver and peripheral blood cells against cholesterol-induced injury in rats. The effects of the grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, immunohistochemistry for cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and basal and oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 using a single-cell gel (comet) assay were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n 18) were divided into three groups: group 1--negative control; group 2--cholesterol at 1 % (w/w) in their diet, treated for 5 weeks; group 3--cholesterol at 1 % in their chow, treated for 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg/d in their drinking-water in the final week only. The results indicated that the treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in group 3 compared with group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to decrease oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 in peripheral blood cells, as depicted by the tail moment results. COX-2 expression in the liver did not show statistically significant differences (P>0·05) between groups. Taken together, the present results suggest that the administration of subchronic grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells.

  13. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  14. Effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenwanthanang, Puttavee; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Phivthong-Ngam, Laddawal; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Porntadavity, Sureerut

    2011-04-12

    Curcuma comosa has been known to have potential use in cardiovascular diseases, but its immunoregulatory role in atherosclerosis development and liver toxicity has not been well studied. We therefore investigated the effects of Curcuma comosa on the expression of atherosclerosis-related cytokine genes in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. Twelve male New Zealand White rabbits were treated with 1.0% cholesterol for one month and were subsequently treated with 0.5% cholesterol either alone, or in combination with 5mg/kg/day of simvastatin or with 400mg/kg/day of Curcuma comosa powder for three months. The expression of IL-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in the isolated abdominal aorta and liver were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Liver toxicity was determined by hepatic enzyme activity. Curcuma comosa significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a stronger reduction in IL-1, MCP-1, and TNF-α expression compared to that was suppressed by simvastatin treatment. However, neither Curcuma comosa nor simvastatin affected the expression of anti-inflammation cytokines. In the liver, Curcuma comosa insignificantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and significantly increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 without altering the activity of hepatic enzymes. In contrast, simvastatin significantly increased the MCP-1 and TNF-α expressions and serum ALT level, without affecting the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we demonstrated that Curcuma comosa exerts anti-inflammatory activity in the aorta and liver without causing liver toxicity, indicating that Curcuma comosa is a potential candidate as an alternative agent in cardiovascular disease therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Short and long-term impact of lipectomy on expression profile of hepatic anabolic genes in rats: a high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bey-Leei; Chiu, Chun-Tang; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Jin-Jin; Kuo, Chiung-Yin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of the short and long-term effects of an immediate shortage of energy storage caused by lipectomy on expression profile of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese rats. The hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes, regulator and transcription factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) ten days and eight weeks after lipectomy in obese rats. Body and liver weights and serum biochemical parameters, adiponectin, leptin and insulin were determined. No significant difference was observed on the food intake between the lipectomized and sham-operated groups during the experimental period. Ten days after the operation, the lipectomized animals showed significant higher triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin levels, a lower adiponectin concentration than the sham-operated rats, along with significant higher hepatic mRNA levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis also confirmed increased levels of lipogenic enzymes in the liver of lipectomized versus sham-operated animals. The lipectomized group had a significantly lower adiponectin/leptin ratio that was positively correlated to the level of LDL (r = 0.823, Pshort term enhancement of the expression of hepatic anabolic genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was triggered that might eventually lead to the final extra weight gain. These metabolic changes could be the results of reduced circulating adiponectin that further influences the functions of insulin and hepatic HNF4α.

  16. Short and long-term impact of lipectomy on expression profile of hepatic anabolic genes in rats: a high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey-Leei Ling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the molecular basis of the short and long-term effects of an immediate shortage of energy storage caused by lipectomy on expression profile of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: The hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes, regulator and transcription factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR ten days and eight weeks after lipectomy in obese rats. Body and liver weights and serum biochemical parameters, adiponectin, leptin and insulin were determined. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed on the food intake between the lipectomized and sham-operated groups during the experimental period. Ten days after the operation, the lipectomized animals showed significant higher triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin levels, a lower adiponectin concentration than the sham-operated rats, along with significant higher hepatic mRNA levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC analysis also confirmed increased levels of lipogenic enzymes in the liver of lipectomized versus sham-operated animals. The lipectomized group had a significantly lower adiponectin/leptin ratio that was positively correlated to the level of LDL (r = 0.823, P<0.05 and negatively to glucose and insulin (r = -0.821 and -0.892 respectively, P<0.05. Eight weeks after the operation, the lipectomized animals revealed significant higher body and liver weights, weight gain, liver to body weight ratio, hepatic triacylglycerol and serum insulin level. CONCLUSIONS: In response to lipectomy a short term enhancement of the expression of hepatic anabolic genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was triggered that might eventually lead to the final extra weight gain. These

  17. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 isolated from Tibet kefir on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed on high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Xu, Nv; Xi, Aodeng; Ahmed, Zaheer; Zhang, Bin; Bai, Xiaojia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2, an isolate from Chinese traditional Tibet kefir, on cholesterol-lowering and microflora of rat in vivo. Rats were fed on cholesterol-enriched experimental diet, supplemented with lyophilized L. plantarum MA2 powder, with a dose of 10(11) cells/day per mice. The results showed that L. plantarum MA2 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides level, while there was no change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides was also decreased. However, fecal cholesterol and triglycerides was increased significantly (P MA2 increased the population of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the fecal, but it did not change the number of Escherichia coli as compared to control. Moreover, pH, moisture, and organic acids in the fecal were also measured. The present results indicate the probiotic potential of the L. plantarum MA2 strain in hypocholesterolemic effect and also increasing the probiotic count in the intestine.

  18. High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2013 Dietary Supplements Red Yeast ... to exploring complementary health products and practices in the context of rigorous ... health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  19. Neuroprotective effects of phytosterol esters against high cholesterol-induced cognitive deficits in aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xu; Wenfang, Li; Jing, Cheng; Meng, Chen; Chengcheng, Ding; Jiqu, Xu; Shuang, Rong

    2017-03-22

    Accumulating epidemiological and experimental studies have confirmed that a high-cholesterol diet is detrimental to cognitive performance in animal models. Phytosterols, a class of naturally occurring structural components in plant foods, have been demonstrated to possess cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects. Phytosterol esters (PSE) are esters of phytosterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PSE on cognitive deficit induced by a cholesterol-enriched diet in aged rats, and to explore their underlying mechanisms for these effects. Based on their Morris water maze performance, the latencies differed by <1.5 standard deviations (SDs) on days 3-5 of testing, 60 rats were chosen from 12-month-old female Sprague Dawley aged rats and were randomized into three groups, which were fed either a control diet, a high cholesterol diet (HCD) or a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with 2% PSE (HCD + PSE) for 6 months. In our study, we found that PSE treatment maintained the body weight balance, reduced the serum lipid levels, and improved the cognitive performance of aged rats in the Morris water maze test, as evaluated by shortened escape latencies. Importantly, histological and immunohistochemical results in the brain showed that PSE supplementation may have a neuroprotective effect that alleviates neuroinflammation in aged rats. This neuroprotective effect significantly inhibited degeneration, resulting in a significant increase in the number of pyramidal cells and an apparent decrease in the number of astrocytes compared to rats that were fed only a HCD. Furthermore, PSE improved cholinergic activities by restoring the acetylcholine (ACh) content and decreasing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral cortex, as well as by elevating choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that PSE can play a useful role in alleviating cognitive deficit induced by a

  20. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF CURCUMIN OR CO-ENZYME Q1-0 AND THEIR MIXTURE ON OBESE RATS FED A HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAHIN, M.I.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats by feeding diet enriched with cholesterol for two weeks. After 2 weeks of induction of hypercholesterolemia in rats and in comparison to normal rats, the results showed that incorporation of extra cholesterol in diet led to significant increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, leptin and MDA levels. On the other hand, total serum triiodothyronine (T3), liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased significantly in cholesterol fed rats. The concentration of TBARS in the liver was elevated.All previous parameters were corrected after the hypercholesterolemic rats were treated with curcumin or co-enzyme Q 1 -0 or a mixture of them dependent on the time of treatment. These findings are consistent with the concept that curcumin and co-enzyme Q 10 are antioxidant agents. The underlying mechanisms of these effects were discussed

  2. Original Article The effect of grower feed diet supplemented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a preliminary study on the effect of grower feed diet supplemented with mashed Ganoderma lucidum against some enteric zoonotic parasites of wild rock pigeons (Columba livia) in Benin City, Nigeria. The pigeons were fed ad libitum with supplemented and non-supplemented grower feed diet in sawdust-floored ...

  3. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  4. CER-001, a HDL-mimetic, stimulates the reverse lipid transport and atherosclerosis regression in high cholesterol diet-fed LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Bluteau, Alice; Cholez, Guy; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-β HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of CER-001 to perform reverse lipid transport in single dose studies as well as to regress atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice after short-term multiple-dose infusions. CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from macrophages and exhibited anti-inflammatory response similar to natural HDL. Studies with HUVEC demonstrated CER-001 at a concentration of 500 μg/mL completely suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1. Following infusion of CER-001 (10mg/kg) in C57Bl/6J mice, we observed a transient increase in the mobilization of unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles containing recombinant human apoA-I. Finally we show that cholesterol elimination was stimulated in CER-001 treated animals as demonstrated by the increased cholesterol concentration in liver and feces. In a familial hypercholesterolemia mouse model (LDL-receptor deficient mice), the infusion of CER-001 caused 17% and 32% reductions in plaque size, 17% and 23% reductions in lipid content after 5 and 10 doses given every 2 days, respectively. Also, there was an 80% reduction in macrophage content in the plaque following 5 doses, and decreased VCAM-1 expression by 16% and 22% in the plaque following 5 and 10 intravenous doses of CER-001, respectively. These data demonstrate that CER-001 rapidly enhances reverse lipid transport in the mouse, reducing vascular inflammation and promoting regression of diet-induced atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice upon a short-term multiple dose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Low Protein-Methionine-and-Lysine-Supplemented Diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing low CP diets with methionine and lysine on broiler performance, carcass measure and their immune response against Infectious Bursa Disease (IBD) virus. In Experiment 1, ten diets were formulated. Diet 1 (control diet) contained 23.0% CP and ...

  6. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia accelerating renal injury: a novel model of type 1 diabetic hamsters induced by short-term high-fat / high-cholesterol diet and low-dose streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Fu, Xin; Huang, Mingshu; Li, Rui

    2015-04-11

    Hyperlipidemia is thought to be a major risk factor for the progression of renal diseases in diabetes. Recent studies have shown that lipid profiles are commonly abnormal early on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with diabetic nephropathy. However, the early effects of triglyceride and cholesterol abnormalities on renal injury in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are not fully understood and require reliable animal models for exploration of the underlying mechanisms. Hamster models are important tools for studying lipid metabolism because of their similarity to humans in terms of lipid utilization and high susceptibility to dietary cholesterol and fat. Twenty-four male Golden Syrian hamsters (100-110 g) were rendered diabetes by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ) on consecutive 3 days at dose of 30 mg/kg, Ten days after STZ injections, hamsters with a plasma Glu concentration more than 12 mmol/L were selected as insulin deficient ones and divided into four groups (D-C, D-HF, D-HC, and D-HFHC), and fed with commercially available standard rodent chow, high-fat diet, high-cholesterol diet, high-fat and cholesterol diet respectively, for a period of four weeks. After an induction phase, a stable model of renal injury was established with the aspects of early T1DM kidney disease, These aspects were severe hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, proteinuria with mesangial matrix accumulation, upgraded creatinine clearance, significant cholesterol and triglyceride deposition, and increasing glomerular surface area, thickness of basement membrane and mesangial expansion. The mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, transforming growth factors-β, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the D-HFHC group were significantly up-regulated compared with control groups. This study presents a novel, non-transgenic, non-surgical method for induction of renal injury in hamsters, which is an important

  7. Micronutrient Supplement Use and Diet Quality in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Wiltgren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306 were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28% and vitamin C (28%. A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001. Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them.

  8. High Cholesterol in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dairy products. The body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if your child or teen has high cholesterol (too much cholesterol in the blood), he or she has a higher risk of coronary artery disease and other heart diseases. What causes high cholesterol in children and teens? Three main ...

  9. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation level to diets of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the birds were offered the same grower feed and fresh water ad libitum. Indigenous Venda hens supplemented with ascorbic acid produced chicks with improved (P<0.05) feed intake, feed conversion ratio, growth rate and live weight at 7 weeks of age. However, ascorbic acid supplementation to the diets of indigenous ...

  10. Effect of supplementation of cassava peel meal based diet with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and economic indices of broiler finishers fed soaked and sun-dried cassava peel meal (CPM) based diet. CPM was included in the diets replacing maize at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% ...

  11. Effect of low protein diets and lysine supplementation on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was to assess the effect of feeding low protein diet with or without supplemental lysine to meet NRC (1998) requirement on growth performance, carcass trait, meat composition, and meat quality of pigs. An experiment of 126 days was conducted on 21 crossbred Landrace pigs (average weight 11.72 ...

  12. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  13. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA C. THOMAZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix; 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements; 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements; and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements. Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  14. Maternal Methyl Supplemented Diets and Effects on Offspring Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J. O'Neill

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Women seeking to become pregnant and pregnant women are currently advised to consume high amounts of folic acid and other methyl donors to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. These diets can alter methylation patterns of several biomolecules, including nucleic acids and histone proteins. Limited animal model data suggests that developmental exposure to these maternal methyl supplemented (MS diets leads to beneficial epimutations. However, other rodent and humans studies have yielded opposing findings with such diets leading to promiscuous epimutations that are likely associated with negative health outcomes. Conflict exists to whether these maternal diets are preventative or exacerbate the risk for ASD in children. This review will discuss the findings to date on the potential beneficial and aversive effects of maternal MS diets. We will also consider how other factors might influence the effects of MS diets. Current data suggest that there is cause for concern as maternal MS diets may lead to epimutations that underpin various diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. Further studies are needed to explore the comprehensive effects maternal MS diets have on the offspring epigenome and subsequent overall health.

  15. Digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelar de Oliveira Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order evaluate digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with 20 ppm of ractopamine on the performance and carcass traits, 64 barrows with high genetic potential at finishing phase were allotted in a completely randomized block design with four digestible lysine levels (0.80, 0.90, 1.00, and 1.10%, eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. Initial body weight and pigs' kinship were used as criteria in the blocks formation. Diets were mainly composed of corn and soybean meal supplemented with minerals, vitamins and amino acids to meet pigs' nutritional requirements at the finishing phase, except for digestible lysine. No effect of digestible lysine levels was observed in animal performance. The digestible lysine intake increased linearly by increasing the levels of digestible lysine in the diets. Carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary levels of digestible lysine. The level of 0.80% of digestible lysine in diets supplemented with 20 ppm ractopamine meets the nutritional requirements of castrated male pigs during the finishing phase.

  16. The Efficiency of Irradiated Garlic Powder in Mitigation of Hypercholesterolemic Risk Factor in High cholesterol Fed Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the efficiency of radiation processed dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy on the average daily body gain, internal organ weights, certain hematological and biochemical parameters; including total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C), triglyceride levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. Experimental rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 g kg -1 ) with and without raw or radiation processed dried garlic powder at the above-mentioned doses for 6 weeks. Control rats were fed a casein diet (C). 20 g kg -1 dietary raw or irradiated dried garlic powder was used to supplemented cholesterol diet (Ch). It was observed that cholesterol-fed (Ch) animals had a significant increase in relative liver weight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, AST and ALT activities and a significant decrease in HDL-C level compared to the control group of rats fed on a Casein diet (C). However, when the rats were fed with a high cholesterol diet mixed with 20 g kg -1 raw (ChRG) or irradiated dried garlic powder at 10 (ChG10), 15 (ChG15), and 20 kGy (ChG20), there was a significant reduction in their relative liver weight, hemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride levels, LDL/HDL ratio, and increased HDL level and amended AST and ALT activities levels as compared with the group which was on a diet containing high cholesterol without garlic powder (Ch). No significant changes were observed in relative spleen, kidney, lung, heart and testes weights, as well as, the total plasma protein, albumin, globulin concentrations in all of treated groups. These results show that the dietary 20 g kg -1 irradiated dried garlic powder at 10, 15 and 20 kGy are beneficial in reducing plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C levels, El

  17. Performance of broiler chicken fed multicarbohydrases supplemented low energy diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Govil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multicarbohydrases supplementation on performance of broilers fed low energy diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 days old chicks were selected and randomly divided into three treatments groups (T1, T2, and T3; each group contained 25 chicks distributed in five replicates of five chicks each. T1 group (positive control was offered control ration formulated as per Bureau of Indian Standards recommendations. In T2 group (negative control ration, metabolizable energy (ME was reduced by 100 kcal/kg diet. T3 group ration was same as that of T2 except that it was supplemented with multicarbohydrases (xylanase at 50 g/ton+mannanase at 50 g/ton+amylase at 40 g/ton. Feed intake and body weight of all experimental birds were recorded weekly. Metabolic trial was conducted for 3 days at the end of experiment to know the retention of nutrients. Results: Significant improvement (p<0.01 was observed in total weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and performance index in broilers under supplementary group T3 as compared to T1 and T2 groups. Retention of crude protein and ether extract was significantly increased (p<0.05 in T3 group supplemented with multicarbohydrases as compared to other groups. Retention of dry matter, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract was comparable in all the three groups. Significantly highest dressed weight, eviscerated weight, and drawn weight (% of live body weight were observed in multicarbohydrases supplemented T3 group, however it was comparable in T1 and T2 groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the supplementation of multicarbohydrases (xylanase at 50 g/ton+mannanase at 50 g/ton+amylase at 40 g/ton in low energy diet improved overall performance of broilers.

  18. Metabolic and cardiac changes in high cholesterol-fructose-fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene N; Pedersen, Henrik D; Petersen, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley r......Introduction: High cholesterol-fructose (HCF) fed rats have previously been described as an animal model of impaired cardiac insulin signaling and decreased contractile performance. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic and cardiac effects of a HCF diet in rats. Methods: Male Sprague...

  19. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  20. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  1. Clinical observations on the effects of elemental diet supplementation during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been conducted to assess the effects of adding an elemental diet as a supplement to a standard low-roughage diet recommended to a group of patients receiving a fractionated course of abdominal irradiation. The supplement was not found to modify patient experience of radiotherapy-induced complications. (author)

  2. Ultraviolet-Visible and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques Are Important Diagnostic Tools during the Progression of Atherosclerosis: Diet Zinc Supplementation Retarded or Delayed Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K.; Moussa, Sherif A. Abdelmottaleb; AL-Mohy, Yanallah Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study, we examined whether UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques detect the progression of atherosclerosis in serum of rabbits fed on high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and HCD supplemented with zinc (HCD + Zn) compared with the control. Methods. The control rabbits group was fed on 100 g/day of normal diet. The HCD group was fed on Purina Certified Rabbit Chow supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil (100 g/day) for the same period. The HCD + Zn group was fed on normal Purina Certified Rabbit Chow plus 1.0% cholesterol and 1.0% olive oil supplemented with 470 ppm Zn for the same feeding period. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemistry in Rabbit's blood serum and blood hematology were measured in Rabbit's blood. Results. We found that the fluorescent peak of HCD shifted toward UV-visible wavelength compared with the control using fluorescent excitation of serum at 192 nm. In addition, they showed that supplementation of zinc (350 ppm) restored the fluorescent peak closely to the control. By using UV-visible spectroscopy approach, we found that the peak absorbance of HCD (about 280 nm) was higher than that of control and that zinc supplementation seemed to decrease the absorbance. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques can be applied as noninvasive techniques on a sample blood serum for diagnosing or detecting the progression of atherosclerosis. The Zn supplementation to rabbits fed on HCD delays or retards the progression of atherosclerosis. Inducing anemia in rabbits fed on HCD delays the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:24350281

  3. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  4. Prevention and Treatment of High Cholesterol (Hyperlipidemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat-free dairy products, limiting fried food, and cooking with healthy oils such as vegetable oil. Other aspects of a healthy diet include emphasizing fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish and nuts and limiting sugary foods and beverages. ...

  5. Anticholesterolemic effect of 3,4-di(OH)-phenylpropionic amides in high-cholesterol fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon-Ja; Bok, Song-Hae; Lee, Sangku; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Two amide synthetic derivatives of 3,4-di(OH)-hydrocinnamate (HC), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic (L-serine methyl ester) amide (E030) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic (L-aspartic acid) amide (E076), were investigated to compare their lipid-lowering efficacy with HC. Male rats were fed a 1 g/100 g high-cholesterol diet for 6 weeks with supplements of either clofibrate (0.02%, w/w), HC (0.025%, w/w), E030 (0.039%, w/w) or E076 (0.041%, w/w). The clofibrate supplement was used as a positive control for the lipid-lowering efficacy. The food intakes and body weight gains were not significantly different among the groups. The plasma and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in clofibrate, HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups compared to the control group. The supplementation of HC and its amide derivatives was as effective as clofibrate in increasing the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total plasma cholesterol and reducing the atherogenic index (AI). The hepatic cholesterol level in the HC and E076 groups was significantly lower than that in the clofibrate group. The hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase) and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activities were significantly lower in the all test groups than in the control group. The excretion of neutral sterol was significantly higher in the HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups compared to the control group. The plasma AST and ALT activities, indirect indexes of hepatic toxicity, were significantly lower in the HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups than in the control group. Accordingly, the current results suggest that E030 and E076, two amide synthetic derivatives of HC, are effective in lowering lipid activity

  6. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  7. Bile components and lecithin supplemented to plant based diets do not diminish diet related intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael H; Bjӧrkhem, Ingemar; Måsøval, Kjell; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2016-09-07

    The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1.8 %), bovine bile salt (1.8 %), taurine (0.4 %), lecithin (1.5 %), or a mix of supplements (suppl mix) containing taurocholate (1.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %) and lecithin (0.4 %). Two additional diets were made from the HPS diet by supplementing with: bovine bile salt (1.8 %) or the suppl mix. Body and intestinal weights were recorded, and blood, bile, intestinal tissues and digesta were sampled for evaluation of growth, nutrient metabolism and intestinal structure and function. In comparison with fish fed the HFM diet fish fed the LFM and HPS diets grew less and showed reduced plasma bile salt and cholesterol levels. Histological examination of the distal intestine showed signs of enteritis in both LFM and HPS diet groups, though more pronounced in the HPS diet group. The HPS diet reduced digesta dry matter and capacity of leucine amino peptidase in the distal intestine. None of the dietary supplements improved endpoints regarding fish performance, gut function or inflammation in the distal intestine. Some endpoints rather indicated negative effects. Dietary supplementation with bile components or lecithin in general did not improve endpoints regarding performance or gut health in Atlantic salmon, in clear contrast to what has been previously reported for rainbow trout. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify if lower levels of bile salts and cholesterol may give different and beneficial effects, or if other supplements

  8. Supplementation of protease, alone and in combination with fructooligosaccharide to low protein diet for finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Cheong, Jin Young; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, In Ho

    2017-12-01

    Effects of adding protease with or without fructooligosaccharide (FOS) to low protein diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal noxious gas emission were evaluated in 160 finishing pigs (57.70 ± 1.16 kg) in a 9-week study. Pigs were randomly divided into four dietary treatments, PC: positive control diet (15.97% crude protein (CP)); NC: negative control diet (12.94% CP); PRO: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease; PROFOS: NC supplemented with 0.05% protease and 0.1% FOS. During weeks 4-9 and weeks 0-9, gain : feed ratio was impaired (P diet compared with those fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets. Pigs fed PC, PRO and PROFOS diets had higher (P diet. Pigs fed PROFOS diet had reduced (P diets. These data indicate that reducing dietary CP concentrations impaired growth performance, decreased ATTD of CP and reduced ammonia emissions. Supplementation of protease in low CP diet improved growth performance and increased ATTD of CP. Dietary supplementation with protease and FOS in low CP diet improved growth performance, increased ATTD of CP and decreased fecal ammonia emission. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effects of a supplemented hypoproteic diet in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircescu, Gabriel; Gârneaţă, Liliana; Stancu, Simona Hildegard; Căpuşă, Cristina

    2007-05-01

    We assessed the effect of a severe hypoproteic diet supplemented with ketoanalogues (SVLPD) for 48 weeks on certain metabolic disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a prospective, open-label, parallel, randomized, controlled trial. The study took place in the Nephrology Department at the Dr Carol Davila Teaching Hospital of Nephrology, Bucharest, Romania. A total of 53 nondiabetic patients with CKD with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula), proteinuria less than 1 g/g urinary creatinine, good nutritional status, and anticipated good compliance with the diet were randomly assigned to two groups. Group I (n = 27) received the SVLPD (0.3 g/kg/d of vegetable proteins and ketoanalogues, 1 capsule for every 5 kg of ideal body weight per day). Group II (n = 26) continued a conventional low mixed protein diet (0.6 g/kg/d). Nitrogen waste products retention and calcium-phosphorus and acid-base disturbances were primary efficacy parameters, and "death" of the kidney or the patient and the estimated glomerular filtration rate were secondary efficacy parameters. The nutritional status and compliance with the diet were predefined as safety variables. There were no differences between groups in any parameter at baseline. In the SVLPD group, serum urea significantly decreased (56 +/- 7.9 mmol/L vs. 43.2 +/- 10 mmol/L), and significant improvements in serum bicarbonate (23.4 +/- 2.1 mmol/L vs. 18.1 +/- 1.5 mmol/L), serum calcium (1.10 +/- 0.17 mmol/L vs. 1.00 +/- 0.15 mmol/L at baseline), serum phosphates (1.45 +/- 0.66 mmol/L vs. 1.91 +/- 0.68 mmol/L), and calcium-phosphorus product (1.59 +/- 0.11 mmol(2)/L(2) vs. 1.91 +/- 0.10 mmol(2)/L(2)) were noted after 48 weeks. No death was registered in any group. Significantly lower percentages of patients in group I required renal replacement therapy initiation (4% vs. 27%). After 48 weeks, estimated glomerular filtration rate did not

  10. Phosphorus utilization response of pigs and broiler chickens to diets supplemented with antimicrobials and phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine McCormick

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the phosphorus (P utilization responses of pigs and broiler chickens to dietary supplementation with antimicrobials and phytase and to determine if P digestibility response to phytase is affected by supplementation with antimicrobials. Experiment 1 used 4 diets (a basal negative control formulated to contain 0.41% total P and 0.71% calcium [Ca] without added antimicrobials, basal negative control with added carbadox, basal negative control with added tylosin, or basal negative control with added virginiamycin and six 18-kg barrows in individual metabolism crates per diet. There was no effect of antimicrobials on P and Ca digestibility or retention. Carbadox supplementation increased (P < 0.05 digestibility and retention of gross energy (GE and supplementation with tylosin increased (P < 0.05 N retention relative to the basal negative control diet. Experiment 2 used eight 19-kg barrows in individual metabolism crates per treatment and 9 dietary treatments arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial of antimicrobials (none, tylosin, or virginiamycin and phytase (0, 500, or 1,500 FTU/kg. Phytase addition to the diets linearly increased (P < 0.05 apparent total tract digestibility or retention of P, Ca, nitrogen (N and GE. Supplementation with antimicrobials did not affect apparent total tract digestibility or retention of P, Ca, N or GE. There were linear effects (P < 0.01 of phytase on Ca utilization in diets that were not supplemented with antimicrobials but only tendencies (P < 0.10 in diets supplemented with tylosin or virginiamycin. Phytase linearly improved (P < 0.05 N utilization in diets supplemented with tylosin or virginiamycin but not in diets without added antimicrobials. Experiment 3 was a broiler chicken experiment with the same experimental design as Exp. 2 but feeding 8 birds per cage and 10 replicate cages per diet. Antimicrobial supplementation improved (P < 0.05 feed efficiency and

  11. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    - high fat diet that is thought to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome - a condition that is strongly associated with diabetes, obesity and heart failure. Fish oil and TTA are known to have beneficial effects for the fatty acid metabolism and have been shown to alleviate some...... expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein...... antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...

  12. Essential fatty acid supplemented diet increases renal excretion of prostaglandin E and water in essential fatty acid deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1981-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed an essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient diet for 25 weeks and then switched to an EFA-supplemented diet for 3 weeks. Control rats received the EFA-supplemented diet for 25 weeks and then the EFA-deficient diet for 3 weeks. Throughout the last 19 weeks, the rats were...

  13. Treatment Of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With A Supplemented Low Protein Diet And A Supplemented Very Low Protein Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Subhramanyam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease were inconclusive and did confuse a lot of physicians about the dietary approach to CKD management. The study design was flawed and thus compromised the results and conclusions. Re-analysis of the MDRD study however clearly showed the benefits of dietary protein restriction and also more importantly an additional benefit by ketoanalogue supplementation in delaying progression of CKD. Despite the obvious benefits of protein restriction, concern has been raised recently especially patients on very low dietary protein (very-low-protein diets; VLPDs, which could lead to deterioration in the nutritional status of CKD patients. To address this particular issue of whether a sVLPD diet induces malnutrition the present study has been taken up 132 adult patients with Stage 3 to Stage 5 (Predialysis were initiated on a protein restricted ketoanalogue supplemented diet after informed consent and the necessary Institutional Ethics Committee approvals. Based on their affordability, 92 patients randomly were assigned to the sLPD group whereby they received 0.6 G/Kg BW of dietary proteins supplemented by ketoanalogues at a dosage of one tablet per 10 Kg body weight. 40 patients received 0.3 G/Kg BW supplemented by ketoanalogues at a dose of one tablet per 5 Kg body weight. Renolog® tablets manufactured by La Renon Healthcare Ltd, Ahmebabad, India were prescribed as the ketoanalogue supplements. Renal, Metabolic, Nutritional parameters and Anthropometric analysis were done in both groups at the start of the study and at the end of 6 months of follow up. The mean blood urea in the SLPD group showed a decrease from 81.17+_ 00 mg/dl to 74.45+_30.75 mg/dl (p0.05 at the end of six months indicating an improvement in renal function . The serum creatinine also showed a decrease from 3.52+_00 mg/dl to 3.30 +_1.63 mg/dl(p>0.05 in the SLPD group and a decrease from 3.74+_00 mg/dl to 3.55+_1.67

  14. Meat quality in pigs fed diets with gradual ractopamine supplementation and nutritional adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects that gradual ractopamine supplementation in diets with nutritional adjustments on pig meat. Were used 80 finishing crossbred barrows in a randomized block design with a 2×5 factorial arrangement (two diets: with and without nutritional adjustment; five levels of ractopamine supplementation: 5-5, 10-10, 20-20, 5-10 and 10-20 ppm in the 14 initial and 14 final study days, four replicates with two animals by experimental unit. Higher shear force values (P<0.05 were obtained using the 5-5 and 10-20 ppm ractopamine supplementation plans in the diets without nutritional adjustment. With nutritionally adjusted diets, the 5-10 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan yielded higher shear force values (P<0.05. Water retention capacity was higher (P<0.05 for animals fed adjusted diets and 5-5 and 10-20 ppm of actopamine plans. In the 10-20 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan, meat pH was higher (P<0.05 for diets without nutritional adjustment, whereas in the 20-20 ppm of supplementation plan, pH was higher for adjusted diets.

  15. Are You Taking the Right Treatment for Your High Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... open('/content/cro/en/health/prescription-drugs/best-buy-drugs/evaluating-statin-drugs-to-treat--high-cholesterol-and- ... talking with your doctor How to share Best Buy Drug reports About us Less common issues: Diabetes, memory ...

  16. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation into diets with two different fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sevilay

    or without supplemental L-carnitine (0 or 50 mg/kg diet) on growth ... The cold carcass yield of quails fed the diet containing .... Temperature was kept at ...... crude fat content in breast muscle of male broilers increased significantly upon the ...

  17. Haematology and melanoma crophage centers of Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerko Ledic-Neto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation with propolis on hematology and number and area of melanomacrophage centers in spleen and kidney of tilapia. After acclimation, fish (24.7 ± 7.4 gmean weight were distributed in 6 tanks 100 L, 6 fish per tank, in triplicate, at a temperature 24.0 ± 2.8oC, with two treatments: Fish fed 2% propolis supplemented diet and fish fed non-supplemented diet. To monitor the evolution of the effects, two samples were collected: half of the fish from each treatment were used after 15 days and the other half after 21, composing two feeding times. After each feeding time, blood, spleen and kidney were collected. After twenty one days feeding on 2% propolis supplemented diet, fish showed a lower number of total leukocytes and lymphocytes and an increase in the total erythrocytes number. Fish fed supplemented diet presented an increased number of melanomacrophage centers. We observed hemosiderin in all spleen samples. Kidney showed no significant difference on the presence of melanomacrophage centers containing hemosiderin. Despite these changes, the fish health status was not affected. The results showed that propolis supplementation in the diet ofNile tilapia may be physiologically feasible.

  18. Feed efficiency of diets with different energy and protein concentrations supplemented with methionine in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the feed efficiency of quail diets containing different concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) with constant ratio and supplemented with methionine. Four hundred laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment used 5 replicates of 20 quails. Two basal diets were formulated to contain 2,800 kcal kg-1 ME and 18.7% CP (High ME-CP) and 2,600 kcal kg-1 ME and 17.3% CP (Low ME-CP). Each basal diet was supplemented with 0 and 0.12% methionine. The High ME-CP diets generated lower feed consumption but higher egg mass and feed efficiency (Pprotein efficiency ratio (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with methionine resulted the highest feed efficiency followed by the Low ME-CP supplemented with methionine, while both High ME-CP and Low ME-CP without methionine supplementation resulted the lowest feed efficiency (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with 0.12% methionine provided benefit to improve the feed efficiency in laying quails.

  19. The impact of nutritional supplement intake on diet behavior and obesity outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Anders

    Full Text Available After decades-old efforts to nudge consumers towards healthier lifestyles through dietary guidelines, diet-related diseases are on the rise. In addition, a growing share of U.S. consumers proactively chooses nutritional supplements as an alternative preventative way of maintaining good health, a $25.5 billion industry in the United States. This paper investigates possible linkages between the economics of consumer supplement choices and the relationship to important dietary and health outcomes. We use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data to estimate the impact of nutritional supplements intake on respondent's body weight outcomes, controlling for diet quality.: The focus of this article is to determine whether nutritional supplements takers differ from non-takers with regard to their health outcomes when controlling for differences in diet quality, based on individual Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 score. The analysis applies treatment effects estimators that account for the selection bias and endogeneity of self-reported behavior and diet-health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates a negative association between supplement intake and BMI but no significant effect on an individual's diet quality. Our findings suggest that individuals proactively invest into their health by taking nutritional supplements instead of improving diet quality through more nutritious food choices. Our results provide important contributions to the literature on a key food policy issue. Knowledge of the determinants of supplement demand in the context of strong diet-health trends should also be helpful to stakeholders in the U.S. produce sector in their competition over consumer market share.

  20. Egg quality of quails fed low methionine diet supplemented with betaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Dewanti, R.; Wahyuningsih, S.

    2018-03-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of betaine supplementation to low methionine diet on egg quality of quails. A total of 340 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) was divided into 4 dietary treatments with 5 replicates of 17 quails each. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design. The four dietary treatments were the low methionine diet (0.3% methionine) without betaine supplementation and the low methionine diet supplemented with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% betaine. The experimental diets were applied for 8 weeks and the egg quality traits were measured at the age of 16 and 20 weeks. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when the treatment indicated significant effect, it was continued to orthogonal polynomial test to determine the optimum level of betaine. Increasing dietary levels of betaine increased the fat content of the egg with the linear regression of y = 11.0949 + 4.1914x (R2 = 0.18). However, supplementation of betaine did not affect protein content, yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentage. It can be concluded that betaine supplementation up to 0.21% to low methionine diet only had little effect in improving the quality traits of quail eggs.

  1. Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group, or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group, respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05 effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p0.05 influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.

  2. Effects of mannan-oligosaccharides-supplemented diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... showed that feeding MOS as a replacement for antibiotic growth factor may ... activity of one or a limited number of intestinal bacteria (Gibson et al., 2004). ..... oregano essential oil and hop extract supplementation on the ...

  3. SIGNIFICANCE OF DIET AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS IN GOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Il'ina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a role of a diet and therapy with the herbal complex Urisan in patients with gout. It is noted that the agent based on herbal components may be used in addition to drug therapy and diet in seasonal hyperuricuria, hyperuricemia observed after heavy strenuous and athletic activity, meat overeating, and alcohol abuse. Urisan may be recommended in subsiding gouty inflammation as a bridge to the use of allopurinol.

  4. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  5. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  6. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High cholesterol is an important cardiovascular risk factor in all population groups in South Africa. S Afr Mea12007; 97: 708—715. The value of abnormal blood lipids and apo—lipoprotein levels to predict ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has been studied for decades, with the initial focus shifting from studying the relationship ...

  7. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to high cholesterol in adults aged 30 years and older in South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Small community studies were used to derive the prevalence by population group.

  8. The Effects of Bitter Kola Supplemented Diet on Hepatotoxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    supplemented rat chow and mercury contaminated water, group V animals were ... hepatotoxic effects of the heavy metal indirectly assessed by measurement of the serum levels of alkaline .... III vs V: Group IV vs V.P-values less than 0.05.

  9. the effect of different zinc supplemented diets on mechanical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jana

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... The mechanical properties of broiler chicken bones affected by different .... 60 chickens in each. All birds were fed diets with identical nutritional density and ... until day 42 of age. At weekly intervals (on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35.

  10. Ginger-supplemented diet ameliorates ammonium nitrate-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of ginger to repair the oxidative stress induced by ammonium nitrate. 50 male rats were divided into 5 groups; they underwent an oral treatment of ammonium nitrate and/or ginger (N mg/kg body weight + G% in diet) during 30 days. Group I served as control (C); ...

  11. The effect of Camelina sativa cake diet supplementation on sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An addition of CSC to the diet of ewes resulted in an increase in the content of volatiles, primarily fatty acids. The applied milk pasteurization had a significant effect on a further increase in the contents of volatiles. First of all furans, furanones and furfural, being the Maillard reaction products, were accumulated. Key words: ...

  12. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  13. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice Roston de; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones

  14. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Kyung Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  15. Increasing zinc levels in phytase-supplemented diets improves the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjina Akter

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... This result indicate that the Zn concentrations used in this study were not ... levels of phytase, the concentrations of Zn in the experimental diets of these studies ... combustion technique, as described by Sweeney (1989) using a LECO® ... Premix A. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. 2.0. Choline Cl. 0.9. 0.9. 0.9. 1.1. 0.9.

  16. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  17. Food intake in laboratory rats provided standard and fenbendazole-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Peter J; Swartz, Megan E; Martin, Lisa Be; Daniels, Derek

    2008-11-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common and effective treatment for pinworm infestation in laboratory animal colonies. Although many investigators have examined the potential for deleterious biologic effects of FBZ, more subtle aspects of the treatment remain untested. Accordingly, we evaluated differences in food intake when healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided a standard nonmedicated laboratory rodent chow or the same chow supplemented with FBZ. We also tested for a preference for either food type when subjects were provided a choice of the 2 diets. Data from these experiments showed no differences in food intake or body weight when rats were maintained on either standard or FBZ-supplemented chow. When the rats were given access to both the standard and FBZ-supplemented diets, they showed a clear preference for the standard diet. The preference for the standard diet indicates that the rats can discriminate between the 2 foods and may avoid the FBZ-supplemented chow when possible. Investigators conducting experiments during treatment with FBZ in which differences in food preference are relevant should be aware of these data and plan their studies accordingly.

  18. Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Mistura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 μg from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 μg [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, 200 μg folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002, 19.4% (p < 0.001 and 21.9% (p < 0.001, as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid. After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations.

  19. Effect of age, diet, and tissue type on PCr response to creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Marina Yazigi; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Otaduy, Maria Concepción García; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Arruda, Walquiria; Veiga, Raquel Ramos; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Creatine/phosphorylcreatine (PCr) responses to creatine supplementation may be modulated by age, diet, and tissue, but studies assessing this possibility are lacking. Therefore we aimed to determine whether PCr responses vary as a function of age, diet, and tissue. Fifteen children, 17 omnivorous and 14 vegetarian adults, and 18 elderly individuals ("elderly") participated in this study. Participants were given placebo and subsequently creatine (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 ) for 7 days in a single-blind fashion. PCr was measured through phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) in muscle and brain. Creatine supplementation increased muscle PCr in children ( P creatine supplementation in any group, and delta changes in brain PCr (-0.7 to +3.9%) were inferior to those in muscle PCr content (+10.3 to +27.6%; P creatine protocol (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 for 7 days) may be affected by age, diet, and tissue. Whereas creatine supplementation was able to increase muscle PCr in all groups, although to different extents, brain PCr was shown to be unresponsive overall. These findings demonstrate the need to tailor creatine protocols to optimize creatine/PCr accumulation both in muscle and in brain, enabling a better appreciation of the pleiotropic properties of creatine. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A standardized creatine supplementation protocol (0.3 g·kg -1 ·day -1 for 7 days) effectively increased muscle, but not brain, phosphorylcreatine. Older participants responded better than younger participants whereas vegetarians responded better than omnivores. Responses to supplementation are thus dependent on age, tissue, and diet. This suggests that a single "universal" protocol, originally designed for increasing muscle creatine in young individuals, may lead to heterogeneous muscle responses in different populations or even no responses in tissues other than skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Reproductive performance of breeder quails fed diets supplemented with L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Farzinpour, A; Vaziry, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on reproductive performance in breeder quails. The five treatment diets consisted of (i) negative control diet not supplemented with iron, (ii) positive control diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg of Fe 3 O 4 and (iii) experimental diets supplemented with 0.6, 6 and 60 mg/kg of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A total of 100 seven-day-old quail chicks were weighed and randomly placed to five groups of five replicate cages. Four quails (one male and three females) were raised in each cage (50 × 15 × 17 cm). Egg production, feed consumption and egg weight were recorded daily and calculated on a hen per day basis. Egg components, fertility, hatchability and day-old chicks hatched from their eggs were measured at the end of the experiment. The percentage of egg production and egg mass of the 6 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group were significantly higher than those of the control groups. Throughout the experimental period, the highest weekly egg weight was recorded for the 60 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group. Fertility was improved by diet supplemented with iron, both FeSO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs. The breeder fed Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs had the highest day-old chicks weight. The results of this study showed that Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles that were coated by L-cysteine could improve availability and utilization of iron in diet. Finally, it was proposed that Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs could be used as feed additives in quails. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  3. Vegan-vegetarian low-protein supplemented diets in pregnant CKD patients: fifteen years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attini, Rossella; Leone, Filomena; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Capizzi, Irene; Loi, Valentina; Colla, Loredana; Rossetti, Maura; Gerbino, Martina; Maxia, Stefania; Alemanno, Maria Grazia; Minelli, Fosca; Piccoli, Ettore; Versino, Elisabetta; Biolcati, Marilisa; Avagnina, Paolo; Pani, Antonello; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Todros, Tullia; Piccoli, Giorgina B

    2016-09-20

    Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15 years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or > =1 g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for comparison. January, 2000 to September, 2015: 36 on-diet pregnancies (31 singleton deliveries, 3 twin deliveries, 1 pregnancy termination, 1 miscarriage); 47 controls (42 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet is basically vegan; since occasional milk and yoghurt are allowed, we defined it vegan-vegetarian; protein intake (0.6-0.8 g/Kg/day), keto-acid supplementation, protein-unrestricted meals (1-3/week) are prescribed according to CKD stage and nutritional status. Statistical analysis was performed as implemented on SPSS. Patients and controls were similar (p: ns) at baseline with regard to age (33 vs 33.5), referral week (7 vs 9), kidney function (CKD 3-5: 48.4 % vs 64.3 %); prevalence of hypertension (51.6 % vs 40.5 %) and proteinuria >3 g/24 h (16.1 % vs 12.2 %). There were more diabetic nephropathies in on-diet patients (on diet: 31.0 % vs controls 5.3 %; p 0.007 (Fisher)) while lupus nephropathies were non-significantly higher in controls (on diet: 10.3 % vs controls 23.7 %; p 0.28 (Fisher)). The incidence of preterm delivery was similar (vegan-vegetarian supplemented diet is confirmed as a safe option in the management of pregnant CKD patients.

  4. Effect of low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids on progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneata, Liliana; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    Hypoproteic diets are most often discussed for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who do not receive dialysis. A very low-protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogues of essential amino acids (keto-diet) proved effective in ameliorating metabolic disturbances of advanced CKD and delaying the initiation of dialysis without deleterious effects on nutritional status. Several recent studies report that the keto-diet could also slow down the rate of decline in renal function, with better outcomes after the initiation of dialysis. Results of a single-center randomized controlled trial addressing the rate of CKD progression revealed a 57% slower decline in renal function with the keto-diet compared with a conventional low-protein diet (LPD). The keto-diet allowed the safe management of selected patients with stage 4-5 CKD, delaying dialysis for almost 1 year, with a major impact on patient quality of life and health expenditures. Therefore, the keto-diet could be a link in the integrated care model. Careful selection of patients, nutritional monitoring, and dietary counseling are required. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  6. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%, vitamin E (90.00% and selenium (91.98%, and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusion feed (76.00% in respect to the control group (82.00%, confidence interval of 95%. Concerning diet supplemented with selenium and diet supplemented with vitamin E, the egg yolk weight was statistically different compared with the control group (confidence interval of 95%. The yolk weight averaged 1.80 g and 1.29 g more than yolk weight in the control eggs, respectively. The egg shell weight was statistically different in diet enriched with iodine compared with the control. The egg shell weight averaged 1.48 g less per egg for the eggs enriched with iodine with 17.45% less underweight than the control eggs. Enriched eggs offer consumer a variety of value-added options for their egg purchase. Although enriched eggs may provide consumers with a specific quality attribute or healthful ingredient, they do not appear to provide quality and value in a traditional sense as defined by the standards of quality and grade.

  7. Performance and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Quails Fed on Diets Supplemented with Used Restaurant Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.; Fahmy, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing cotton seed oil (CSO) with Used Restaurant Oil (URO) in Japanese quail diets on performance, fatty acid composition of the carcass and egg and concentration of iodine metabolites. URO was added to the diets at 0, 1, 2 or 4 % at the expense of CSO (4 %) in the control diet during a 10-week trial period. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, mortality rate, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the levels of used restaurant ,oi). Replacing 25,% or 50 % of CSO with URO had no significant (p>0.05) effect on linoleic acid content of carcass and egg. In contrary, linoleic acid content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the carcass and egg of the group which fed on the diet with 4 % URO. It can be concluded that used restaurant oil can be supplemented to the Japanese quail diets at the levels of 1 % and 2 % without any determine effect on the performance and the fatty acid profile of carcass and egg. rat supplementation to broiler chicken is a long standing practice for improving the consistency and palatability of the diets; increasing the energy density of broiler meat; stimulating growth and utilization of food and energy; feed efficiency; egg size, yield, and hatch ability (Carew and Hill, 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968 and Summers and Lesson, 1979 ). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty acids and to facilitate supply and absorption of vitamins (Clarke et al, 1977). Oil may be added to poultry diets in order to meet the 1% linoleic acid requirements

  8. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  9. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2009-01-01

    the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...... up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole......, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development...

  10. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment

  11. Development of spinal deformities in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toften, H.; Jobling, M. [Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-9005 Tromsoe (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    Some individuals within populations of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fed diets supplemented with oxytetracycline (OTC) developed spinal deformations. Possible differences in feed intake and growth of spinally deformed fish relative to fish without any deformities were investigated. Amongst Atlantic salmon, 17% of the fish fed OTC-supplemented feed developed spinal fractures, whereas none of the fish receiving the basic feed did so. Despite deformation of the spinal column, the injured fish continued to feed and grow, but at lower rates than unaffected individuals. In contrast to Atlantic salmon, Arctic charr showed no signs of spinal fractures at any time during the 65-day experiment.

  12. Association of low-protein supplemented diets with fetal growth in pregnant women with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina B; Leone, Filomena; Attini, Rossella; Parisi, Silvia; Fassio, Federica; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Ferraresi, Martina; Clari, Roberta; Ghiotto, Sara; Biolcati, Marilisa; Giuffrida, Domenica; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2014-05-01

    Women affected by CKD increasingly choose to get pregnant. Experience with low-protein diets is limited. The aim of this study was to review results obtained from pregnant women with CKD on supplemented vegan-vegetarian low-protein diets. This was a single-arm, open intervention study between 2000-2012 of a low-protein diet in pregnant patients with stages 3-5 CKD or severe proteinuria (>1 g/d in the first trimester or nephrotic at any time). Stages 3-5 CKD patients who were not on low-protein diets for clinical, psychologic, or logistic reasons served as controls. The setting was the Obstetrics-Nephrology Unit dedicated to kidney diseases in pregnancy. The treated group included 24 pregnancies--21 singleton deliveries, 1 twin pregnancy, 1 abortion, and 1 miscarriage. Additionally, there were 21 controls (16 singleton deliveries, 5 miscarriages). The diet was a vegan-vegetarian low-protein diet (0.6-0.8 g/kg per day) with keto-acid supplementation and 1-3 protein-unrestricted meals allowed per week. Treated patients and controls were comparable at baseline for median age (35 versus 34 years), referral week (7 versus 8), eGFR (59 versus 54 ml/min), and hypertension (43.5% versus 33.3%); median proteinuria was higher in patients on the low-protein diet (1.96 [0.1-6.3] versus 0.3 [0.1-2.0] g/d; Pdiet group. Incidence of small for gestational age babies was significantly lower in the diet group (3/21) versus controls (7/16; chi-squared test; P=0.05). Throughout follow-up (6 months to 10 years), hospitalization rates and prevalence of children below the third percentile were similar in both groups. Vegan-vegetarian supplemented low-protein diets in pregnant women with stages 3-5 CKD may reduce the likelihood of small for gestational age babies without detrimental effects on kidney function or proteinuria in the mother.

  13. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  14. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  15. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENTS INCLUSION OF THE ENRICHED DIET ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND EGG STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Trajan Gjorgovska; Kiril Filev; Vesna Levkov; Rodne Nastova; Vasil Kostov; Srekjko Gjorgjievski; Svetlana Grigorova

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional manipulation and genetic selection for egg size and production may lead to changes in egg components. This experiment was carried out to analyze the egg structure parameters of eggs produced by Hisex Brown laying hens fed with diet with different supplements inclusion. The intensity of egg production was significantly higher in the groups fed with enriched feed with iodine (90.00%), vitamin E (90.00%) and selenium (91.98%), and significantly lower in the group fed with DHA inclusi...

  16. Reduced mortality among young endangered masked bobwhite quail fed oxytetracycline-supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of oxytetracycline-supplemented diets on mortality of young endangered masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi). Inclusion of oxytetracycline at 200 g per ton in the feed for 6 weeks resulted in a marked, significant reduction in mortality of young masked bobwhite quail raised in captivity. Including the antibiotic in feed during the first week of life reduced mortality as effectively as feeding it for a longer period.

  17. Multielement analysis by neutron activation of tissues from swine administered copper supplemented diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroube, W.B. Jr.; Cunningham, W.C.; Tanner, J.T.; Bradley, B.D.; Graber, G.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Se and Zn in tissues from swine fed copper supplemented diets. Elemental abundances of the seven elements in the kidney tissues are all within normal ranges. No trends are observed between the groups of animals which received different levels of dietary copper. Dietary copper values of 70 to 90 ppm increase liver copper abundance for certain animals. (author)

  18. The anti-inflammatory effect of kaempferol on early atherosclerosis in high cholesterol fed rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis has been widely accepted as an inflammatory disease of vascular, adhesion molecules play an important role in the early progression of it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on the inflammatory molecules such as E-selectin (E-sel), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesionmolecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in high cholesterol induced atherosclerosis rabbit models. Methods Thirty male New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were randomly divided into five groups, control group, model group, fenofibrate (12mg/kg) group and kaempferol groups (150 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg). The rabbits were fed with a normal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. Levels of blood lipids, serum tumour-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) were detected at the end of the sixth and tenth week. Malonaldehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum were also determined. Lesion areas of the aorta were measured with morphometry analysis after ten weeks. Gene expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas was determined by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). Immunohistochemical staining was employed to measure protein expression of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1. Results Model rabbits fed with ten weeks of high-cholesterol diet developed significant progression of atherosclerosis. Compared with the control, levels of blood lipids, TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA increased markedly in serum of model rabbits, while SOD levels decreased. Gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in atherosclerotic aortas increased remarkably in model group. However, comparing to the model rabbits, levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA decreased significantly and serum SOD activity increased, gene and protein expressions of E-sel, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in aortas decreased significantly with the treatment of

  19. Exploratory transcriptomic analysis in muscle tissue of broilers fed a phytase-supplemented diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeisser, J; Séon, A-A; Aureli, R; Friedel, A; Guggenbuhl, P; Duval, S; Cowieson, A J; Fru-Nji, F

    2017-06-01

    The effect of phytase on phosphorus retention, broiler (Gallus gallus) performance and bone mineralization in diets with reduced inorganic phosphate concentration is well documented. Furthermore, so-called 'extra-phosphoric' effects of phytase have been described in the literature that may be associated with changes in mineral and amino acid partitioning and requirements per se. In particular, the role of myo-inositol in phytase responses is implied but not well elucidated. It was the purpose of the experiment reported herein to explore the effect of phytase on broiler growth, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemistry and gene expression. A 5-week broiler floor pen trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a moderately phosphorus-deficient diet with 1000 U/kg of a 6-microbial phytase. Parameters measured were growth performance, phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and myo-inositol plasma concentrations, apparent ileal P digestibility, bone mineralization, breast meat weight and Pectoralis major muscle transcriptome. Supplementation of the diet with phytase improved weight gain during the starter period (18%) and the whole period (24%) compared with animals that received the control diet (p phytase. The transcriptomic analysis revealed that some differentially expressed genes (DEG) in broilers, receiving phytase in comparison with animals fed reduced phosphorus diet without phytase, were part of pathways involved in muscle development, via calmodulin/calcineurin and insulin-like growth factor. Microarray data confirmation was performed on six genes by quantitative PCR (qPCR): PI3K regulatory and catalytic subunit, Phospholipase C beta, Myocyte Enhancer Factors 2A and 2C, and calcineurin A. The results suggested that dietary supplementation with this phytase could generate low molecular weight phytate esters and indirectly myo-inositol, and could help us to understand how muscle metabolism may be affected at a gene level. Journal of Animal

  20. [Comparison of the effects of alpha-keto/ amino acid supplemented low protein diet and diabetes diet in patients with diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong-yu; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Li-jun; Huang, Song-min; Zuo, Chuan; Zhong, Hui; Chen, Feng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate if a-keto/amino acid supplemented low protein diet can slow down the progression of diabetic nephrophathy in comparison with non-supplemented diabetes diet. A prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study was conducted. Twenty three cases of type 2 diabetic nephropathy in IV stage were randomly divided into alpha-keto/amino acid supplemented diet group (trial group) and conventional diabetes diet group (control group), The treatment duration was 52 weeks. 24 h urine protein was measured at 0, 12, 20, 36 and 52 weeks. Before and after the 52 weeks treatment, all the patients received the measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), blood glucose, blood lipids, inflammatory markers, as well as nutritional status. After the treatment for 20, 36, 52 weeks, mean 24 h urine protein decreased significantly in trial groups (P keto/amino acid can reduce proteinuria more effectively, while improve renal function and nutritional status in diabetic nephropathy patients with well-toleration.

  1. Supplementation of the sow diet with chitosan oligosaccharide during late gestation and lactation affects hepatic gluconeogenesis of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Long, Cimin; Fan, Zhiyong; Xiao, Dingfu; Ruan, Zheng; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has a blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats and is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, the effect of COS on the offspring of supplemented mothers is unknown. This experiment investigates the effect of supplementing sows during gestation and lactation on the levels of plasma glucose on suckling piglets. From day 85 of gestation to day 14 of lactation, 40 pregnant sows were divided into two treatment groups and fed either a control diet or a control diet containing 30mgCOS/kg. One 14 day old piglet per pen was selected to collect plasma and tissue (8pens/diet). Performance, hepatic gluconeogenesis genes and proteins expression, amino acids contents in sow milk, hepatic glycogen and free fatty acid were determined. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with COS improved daily gain and weaning weight (Pgluconeogenesis and improved the growth rate of suckling piglets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of pine pollen supplementation in an onion diet on Frankliniella fusca reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelella, G M; Riley, D G

    2010-04-01

    A micro-cage bioassay was developed to test the effect of slash pine pollen (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) supplementation to a whole onion plant (Allium cepa L. variety Pegasus) diet on thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) reproductive parameters. Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) females were placed on two to three-leaf stage onion seedling under a treatment of either slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) pollen dusting (a pollen supplement) or no pollen treatment. Adult survival, net oviposition, and offspring produced over a series of ten 2-d intervals were recorded. From these values, l(x), l(x)m(x), and R(0) values were constructed. A trimodal distribution of oviposition was observed with the pollen supplement. Increased oviposition rates led to higher female offspring production per female and to a four-fold increase in F. fusca net reproduction on pollen-treated onions.

  3. Supplementation of diets for Santa Ines sheep with organic and inorganic zinc sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Garcia Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with objective to evaluate the effect of different zinc (Zn sources and doses in the diet for Santa Ines sheep. Forty lambs at weaning, with 18.4 kg of body weight were supplemented with three different sources of zinc (zinc oxide (ZnO, zinc amino acid and zinc proteinate and three doses of zinc (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg DM added to the basal diet. At every 28 days, animals were weighted and blood samples were collected for analyses of zinc (Zn, alkaline phosphatase and immunoglobulin G (IgG and M (IgM. At the end of experiment, liver samples were collected for determination of the hepatic zinc levels. Zinc was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while phosphatase alkaline and immunoglobulins G and M were analyzed using Laborlab and Bioclin kits, respectively. There was no effect of diets on phosphatase alkaline levels and hepatic zinc, but there was difference in the plasmatic zinc levels and IgG and IgM levels. Based on the accumulation of hepatic zinc, the estimate of the zinc bioavailability, through the regression equation, showed that supplementation with organic and inorganic sources of zinc did not differ in the diet of Santa Ines sheep.

  4. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

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    Stephen Wanyonyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6% and salt (predominantly potassium (K 20% with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet. H-fed rats showed symptoms of metabolic syndrome including increased body weight, total fat mass, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular collagen deposition, plasma triglycerides, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids along with fatty liver. Relative to these obese rats, Kappaphycus-treated rats showed normalized body weight and adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, improved heart and liver structure, and lower plasma lipids, even in presence of H diet. Kappaphycus modulated the balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut, which could serve as the potential mechanism for improved metabolic variables; this was accompanied by no damage to the gut structure. Thus, whole Kappaphycus improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters in obese rats.

  5. May Diet and Dietary Supplements Improve the Wellness of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? A Molecular Approach

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    Paolo Riccio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifactorial neurological disease, and nutrition is one of the environmental factors possibly involved in its pathogenesis. At present, the role of nutrition is unclear, and MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet. MS clinical trials based on specific diets or dietary supplements are very few and in some cases controversial. To understand how diet can influence the course of MS and improve the wellness of MS patients, it is necessary to identify the dietary molecules, their targets and the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a molecular basis for the nutritional intervention in MS by evaluating at molecular level the effect of dietary molecules on the inflammatory and autoimmune processes involved in the disease.

  6. Substitution of fishmeal with soybean meal in humpback Grouper, Cromileptes altivelis juvenile diets supplemented with phytase

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    Rachman Syah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean meal in diet on growth of humpback grouper. Fifteen cages of 1 x 1 x 1.2 m3 each stocked with 16 humpback grouper juveniles (61.3 ± 0.4 g/pc were set up randomly in seawater. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily for 112 days. The control diet contained 61.9% fishmeal (63.34% crude protein. Four isonitrogenous (48% crude protein and isocaloric (4.7 kcal/g feed diets supplemented with commercial phytase “Rhonozyme-P” at 0.075% were formulated to contain different levels (8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% soybean meal (43.65% crude protein as a partial replacement for fishmeal. These diets contained total phosphorus levels between 3.6—4.5 (±0.4 % and 0.7—1.5 (±0.04 % available phosphorus. Replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal (8 to 32% replacement was not significantly different (P>0.05 to the control diet on daily growth rate (DGR, food conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, and daily food consumption (DFC. However, the dietary levels of soybean meal significantly affected (P<0.05 whole body protein and phosphorus retention (Table 1. These data suggest that addition of phytase in diets could improve protein and phosphorus availability and reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loading in the environment. Phytase can therefore play an important role in formulating eco-friendly feed for humpback grouper. Based on P loading, supplementation of phytase enable up to 24% fishmeal replacement with soybean meal.

  7. Sunflower Meal and Supplementation of an Enzyme Complex in Layer Diets

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    WAG Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of 64- to 79-wk-old laying hens fed diets supplemented with an enzyme complex (EC and containing increasing sunflower meal (SFM levels. A total of 384 Hy-Line Brown layers were distributed according to a randomized block design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (four levels of SFM, and inclusion or not of EC, with eight replicates of six birds each unit. The levels of SFM inclusion were 0, 8, 16 and 24%, utilized in two distinct diets. Diets were calculated to meet all the nutritional requirements of birds, except for the nutrients that would be made available by the nutritional matrix of the enzyme complex, with or without utilization of EC. The parameters analyzed were feed intake (g/bird/day, egg production (%/bird/day, egg weight, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, body weight gain, egg components (yolk, albumen and eggshell and the economic efficiency index (EEI. There was no interaction between EC addition and the SFM levels in the diet. The addition of EC in the diets of laying hens did not affect egg productive or components parameters. The increase in the SFM levels in the diet presented quadratic effect on egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs, with calculated optimal sunflower meal inclusion levels of 6.72% and 5.83%, respectively, for each parameter. The best economic efficiency per dozen eggs was obtained with the diet with 16.0% SFM and EC inclusion, whereas per egg mass with the diet with of 24.0% SFM and no EC addition.

  8. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  9. Supplementation of diets for weaned piglets withL-Valine and L-Glutamine+ L-Glutamic acid

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    Naiara Diedrich Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of diets for weaned piglets with L-valine and L-glutamine + L-glutamic acid on performance, frequency of diarrhea, organ weight, digesta pH, intestinal morphology, and economic viability. Seventy-two piglets with a live weight of 7.53 ± 0.84 kg and 24 days of age were used. The animals were submitted to the following four treatments from 24 to 46 days of age: diet not supplemented with amino acids (control diet, CD; diet supplemented with glutamine + glutamic acid (GD; diet supplemented with glutamine + glutamic acid + valine (GVD, and diet supplemented with valine (VD. Two sequential phases (pre-initial I and pre-initial II with a duration of 12 and 11 days, respectively, were established. A completely randomized design, consisting of six repetitions and three pigs per experimental unit, was used. Nine days after weaning, at 32 days of age, a piglet per pen was slaughtered for the evaluation of organ weight, digesta pH and intestinal morphology. All animals received a single diet from days 47 to 65. No effects on performance were observed during the pre-initial phases I and II; however, when the whole study period was considered (24 to 65 days of age, piglets fed GVD consumed less feed and exhibited better feed conversion than animals of the VD group. With respect to morphometric parameters, GD provided a greater ileal crypt depth than CD and VD. There was an economic advantage of diets supplemented with L-valine and L-glutamine + L-glutamic acid, validating their use in diets for weaned piglets until 46 days of age.

  10. IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF SUCKLING LAMBS BY SUPPLEMENTATION THEIR DIETS WITH SOME NUTRIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SALEH, S.A.; SALEH, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-two newly born lambs were randomly divided into four similar groups; their weights were recorded at birth then every two weeks. Lambs in the groups were left to suckle their mothers, in addition to one of the experimental diets (as creep feeding). First group (G1) fed diet without any supplemental nutrients and served as a control diet, second group (G2) fed the same control diet with muscle injection of 2 ml vitamins AD 3 E for two days consecutively per twice weeks, third group (G3) fed diet contained 0.5% mineral mixture and fourth group (G4) fed diet contained 0.5% mineral mixture and muscle injection with 2 ml vitamins AD 3 E for two days consecutive per twice weeks. The concentrate feed mixture was offered daily started at 7 th days of age until weaning. Blood samples were taken at 7, 40 and 70 days of age. The results showed that the averages daily body weight gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher significantly in G3 and G4 than G1 and G2. The highest means of serum total proteins, albumin and globulin were recorded in G3 and G4 followed by G1 and G2. Means of serum glucose were significantly decreased with age while means of serum urea-N were increased. Blood serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, serum cholesterol and T3 were not affected by treatments. It is concluded that minerals mixture have better effect than vitamins AD 3 E when added to creep feeding diets. So, it improved growth of suckling lambs without any side effects on physiological body function of lambs

  11. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

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    Cátia Lira do Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  12. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  13. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

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    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  14. Psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets rich in soybean or coconut oil: hypocholesterolemic effect in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of psyllium husk fiber supplementation to the diets of soybean and coconut oil on serum lipids in normolipidemic humans. A 28-day study was divided into four 7-day experimental periods. Dietary periods were soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fiber (SO + PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fiber (CO + PF), and were arranged to a randomized cross over design. Ten subjects consumed controlled diet containing 30% fat calories (20% from test oils and 10% from controlled diet) and 20 g per day of psyllium during fiber supplementation periods. SO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with SO diet (P < 0.001). CO + PF diet significantly reduced serum cholesterol compared with CO diet (P < 0.014). Hypocholesterolemic response was greater with SO + PF compared with CO + PF (0.36 mmol 1(-1) vs 0.31 mmol 1(-1)). Reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B were parallel to reductions of serum cholesterol. SO diet decreased, while CO diet increased serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apo B. Very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo A-1 were unaffected by psyllium fiber and saturation of fat. Reduction of serum cholesterol was due to reduction of LDL cholesterol. Psyllium fiber supplementation lowered serum cholesterol regardless of saturation level of dietary fat.

  15. Effect of immobilized lipase supplementation of diets on the performance of the Japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Taleb, A.M.; Ezzat, I.E.; Saleh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, lipase was immobilized onto two different supports, agarose and gelatin. Some physico-chemical properties of the free and immobilized lipase such as optimum temperature, optimum ph and storage stability were studied. Storage of the enzymes for 2 months showed that the free enzyme lost its activity, while the immobilized on the gelatin showed better resistance towards ph and temperature variations than that immobilized onto agarose. Four experiments were conducted to test the effect of the immobilized lipase supplementation on the productive performance of the Japanese quails. During the first 3 weeks, the addition of lipase to poultry diets caused an increase in the body weight gain of birds than the enzyme-free diet. An obvious improvement in quail day egg production during the laying period was observed with the groups fed on a diet supplemented with 3000 and 2000 I U of immobilized lipase per kilogram feed. Blood cholesterol was not affected with lipase addition, while total lipids were significantly increased. Significant reduction was also observed in thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) as compared with the control group

  16. Influence of diets supplemented with vitamins C and E on pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Jaqueline Inês Alves; Ono, Eduardo Akifumi; de Menezes, Glauber Cruz; Brasil, Elenice Martins; Roubach, Rodrigo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmão

    2007-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of diets supplemented with 500, 800, 1200 mg kg-1 of vitamin C (ascorbic acid or AA) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol or alpha-T) on the physiological responses of pirarucu fed for 2 months. Weight and mortality were not affected by dietary vitamin type or their concentrations. Significant increase (p<0.05) on the red blood cells count was obtained on treatments with 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 and on the hemoglobin concentration on treatment with 500 mg alpha-T kg-1 relatively to control. Mean corpuscular volume presented a significant decrease (p<0.05) on treatment with 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 when compared to control. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was significantly high (p<0.05) on treatment with 500 mg alpha-T kg-1. Only in vitamin C treatments, we noticed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the number of leucocytes relative to control. All fish in the vitamin-supplemented treatments, except 500 mg AA kg-1, had high total protein values compared to control. Fish treated with 800 or 1200 mg alpha-T kg-1 also showed increases in plasma glucose concentrations. Our results suggest that 800 and 1200 mg AA kg-1 are probably the most suitable concentrations for pirarucu diets, although high vitamin E diets are not necessary for quantitative leucocyte increases for this species.

  17. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  18. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

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    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  19. Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed on diets supplemented with glycerin from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Bensimon Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of diets supplemented with glycerin as an alternative ingredient to corn on the performance and carcass characteristics of Santa Inês confined lambs. The study involved 27 lambs aged 90 days, having an average initial weight of 26.33 ± 0.15 kg. Lambs were randomly distributed into a control group and groups with diets containing 15 and 30% glycerin in the total feed. Diet was formulated with 40% roughage and 60% concentrate. The experimental design was completely randomized, and the production performance and carcass characteristics were analyzed by analysis of variance, and the subjective carcass characteristics, by general linear models. The daily average gain was 0.21, 0.24 and 0.23 kg/day; feeding conversion was 6.39, 5.73 and 5.92 kg of diet/kg BW for control animals, and those fed with 15 or 30% glycerin, respectively, without treatment differences. Lambs were slaughtered, weighing 34 to 36 kg, and average weight of the cold carcass and commercial carcass yield were evaluated. The results were, respectively, 15.97 kg and 49.18%, for control, 15.96 kg and 48.31% for animals fed with 15% glycerin, and 15.79 kg and 47.87% for those treated with 30% glycerin, with no treatment effects. Meat tenderness and cooking loss averages were not affected by diets, with 5.07 kg and 40.45%, 5.10 kg and 40.81%, and 5.27 kg and 39.04%, respectively, for control, and those fed with 15 or 30% glycerin. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that up to 30% of medium purity glycerin in the dry matter of the diet can be used to replace corn, without any negative effect on lamb performance or carcass characteristics.

  20. Hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative potential of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna) added vanilla chocolate milk in high cholesterol fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Abdul Hussain, Shaik; Kumar, Anuj; Kapila, Suman; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas

    2016-03-15

    Atherosclerosis is associated with coronary artery disease and occurs in developing as well as developed countries. In the present investigation, hypolipidaemic and anti-oxidative properties of encapsulated herb (Terminalia arjuna, 1.8%) added vanilla chocolate dairy drink was evaluated in high cholesterol fed Wistar rats for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, a significant decrease in the body weight gain by rats receiving the encapsulated herb extract was noted as compared to high cholesterol fed rats. Administration of microencapsulated herb showed a statistically significant decrease in organ weights (epididymal fat and liver). Moreover, a significant decrease in serum lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherogenic index was observed with encapsulated Terminalia arjuna extract in high cholesterol fed group. Increases in reduced glutathione and decreases in TBARS levels were also reported in both liver and red blood cell lysates with encapsulated herb supplementation. The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Supplementation of extract of Lafoensia pacari in the diet of semi heavy laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Janaina da Silva; Stringhini, José Henrique; Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso da; Arhnold, Emmanuel; Noleto, Raiana Almeida; Carvalho, Fabyola Barros de

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. It was intended to evaluate the supplementation of Lafoensia pacari standardized in tannins extract in the diet of laying hens on the performance, internal and external quality of eggs and metabolism of the feed nutrients. A total of 168 Isa Brown laying hens, aged 24 weeks, with the mean weight of 2.6 kg and the mean posture rate of 87% were used during 4 periods of 28 days each. The treatments consisted of Halquinol performance-enhancing antibiotic, Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) pre...

  2. Pollution and respiratory disease: can diet or supplements help? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyand, T; Hurst, J R; Beckles, M; Caplin, M E

    2018-05-02

    Pollution is known to cause and exacerbate a number of chronic respiratory diseases. The World Health Organisation has placed air pollution as the world's largest environmental health risk factor. There has been recent publicity about the role for diet and anti-oxidants in mitigating the effects of pollution, and this review assesses the evidence for alterations in diet, including vitamin supplementation in abrogating the effects of pollution on asthma and other chronic respiratory diseases. We found evidence to suggest that carotenoids, vitamin D and vitamin E help protect against pollution damage which can trigger asthma, COPD and lung cancer initiation. Vitamin C, curcumin, choline and omega-3 fatty acids may also play a role. The Mediterranean diet appears to be of benefit in patients with airways disease and there appears to be a beneficial effect in smokers however there is no direct evidence regarding protecting against air pollution. More studies investigating the effects of nutrition on rapidly rising air pollution are urgently required. However it is very difficult to design such studies due to the confounding factors of diet, obesity, co-morbid illness, medication and environmental exposure.

  3. The effect of supplementing sow and piglet diets with different forms of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Kétilim Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chelated iron supplementation on gestating and lactating sows and on their suckling and weaned piglets. Reproductive traits, piglet performance, hematological parameters, and the iron concentrations in colostrum, milk, and stillborn livers were measured. Ninety-six sows were subjected to one of three treatment groups. Group T1 comprised pregnant and lactating sows treated with diets supplemented with inorganic iron (551 mg Fe/kg and suckling piglets administered 200 mg of injectable iron dextran. Group T2 was the same as T1, except that sows after 84 days of gestation, lactating sows, and suckling piglets were fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron, and suckling piglets were administered injectable iron dextran. Group T3 was the same as T2 but without injectable iron dextran for suckling piglets. During the nursery phase, all of the weaned piglets were penned with their original groups or treatments and received isonutritive and isocaloric feeds. Piglets from the T2 and T3 groups also received an additional 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron via their feed. There were no differences among the treatments for reproductive traits or the iron concentrations in the colostrum, milk, or liver. The piglets that did not receive the injectable iron dextran showed the poorest performance during the pre-and post-weaning phases and showed the poorest hematological parameters of the suckling piglets. The chelated iron supplementation is insufficient to meet piglet demand. The iron dextran supply is necessary for suckling and weaned piglets.

  4. Ameliorative effects of l-carnitine on rats raised on a diet supplemented with lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbini, El-Said; El-Sayed, Gehad; El Shotory, Rehab; Gheith, Nervana; Abou-Alsoud, Mohamed; Harakeh, Steve Mustapha; Karrouf, Gamal I

    2017-09-01

    Lead intoxication has been a major health hazard in humans. It affects people at all ages. Its toxicity is associated with various organs of the body and affects different metabolic pathways. Based on histological data, l-carnitine reduced the severity of tissue damage produced as a result of exposure of rats to lead acetate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the underlying mechanism of protection offered by l-carnitine against lead acetate intoxication using male Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each. The first group (G1) served as the control group and animals received standard diet only. The second group (G2) received lead acetate in their diet. The third group (G3) was the l-carnitine treated group and received the normal standard diet supplemented with l-carnitine. While the fourth group (G4) had a diet supplemented with both lead acetate and l-carnitine. At the end of each experiment, blood (serum and whole blood) were collected from each animal and analyzed for the following parameters: serum testosterone levels, serum nitric oxide and serum malondialdehyde. This is in addition to looking at the enzymatic activities of two important enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and on (glutathione reductase) which are indicative of the antioxidant activities in the whole blood. The results indicated that l-carnitine will counteract the undesirable effects of lead intoxication. It exerted its antioxidant potential by reducing the production of ROS and scavenging free radicals by maintaining and protecting the level of the of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion: l-Carnitine may play an important role in reversing the undesirable effects of lead intoxication. Future studies should be conducted to see whether such an effect is applicable in humans exposed to lead poising.

  5. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  6. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale Saheb Fosoul, Sayed Sadra; Azarfar, Arash; Gheisari, Abbasali; Khosravinia, Heshmatollah

    2018-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on productive performance, intestinal morphometric features, blood parameters and energy utilisation in broiler chickens. A total of 390 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments based on a factorial arrangement (2×3) across 1-15 and 15-35-d periods. Experimental treatments consisted of two basal diets with standard (STD; starter: 12·56 MJ/kg and grower: 12·97 MJ/kg) and reduction (LME; starter: 11·93 MJ/kg and grower: 12·33 MJ/kg) of apparent metabolisable energy (AME) requirement of broiler chickens each supplemented with 0, 0·6 and 1·2 g/kg GAA. Supplemental 1·2 g/kg GAA decreased the negative effects of feed energy reduction on weight gain across starter, growing and the entire production phases (PEnergy retention as fat and total energy retention were increased when birds received LME diets supplemented with 1·2 g/kg GAA (Penergy for production (NEp) and total heat production increased in birds fed LME diets containing 1·2 g/kg GAA (P<0·05). A significant correlation was observed between dietary NEp and weight gain of broilers (r 0·493; P=0·0055), whereas this relationship was not seen with AME. Jejunal villus height and crypt depth were lower in birds fed LME diets (P<0·05). Serum concentration of creatinine increased in broilers fed LME diets either supplemented with 1·2 g/kg GAA or without GAA supplementation (P<0·05). Supplemental GAA improved performance of chickens fed LME diet possibly through enhanced dietary NEp. The NEp could be preferred over the AME to assess response of broiler chickens to dietary GAA supplementation.

  7. The self-reported clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists as related to smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Laura Elizabeth; Keller, Peter Richard

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional), therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas. A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242). Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake) and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior. A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%). Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p smoking status, diet and nutritional supplement behaviors, being key modifiable lifestyle risk factors with long-term implications for eye health.

  8. Effect of Garlic Supplementation to Diet on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Broiler Chickens under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the impact of garlic powder (GAR on performance and intestinal morphology when chicken were subjected to different stocking densities. A total 100 one-day old Cobb 500 male chicks were housed in cages as 10 birds/m2 and 15 birds/m2. The chicks received feed as (i basal diet + 0 g/kg garlic powder and (ii basal diet + 5g/kg garlic powder supplementation from 1-42d. At the end of experiment, ten chicks per treatment randomly selected to collect duodenal samples. The results showed significant improvement in body weight and villi length when diet supplemented by GAR. High stocking density (HD had negative impact on growth performance and villi length in basal diet, but chicken supplemented by GAR diet did not affect by HD in the both parameters. In conclusion, diet supplemented by GAR can improve performance and villi length when the chickens were subjected to HD condition.

  9. Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels in rainbow trout fed a complete plant ingredient based diet and the effect of supplemental di-calcium phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Mariojouls, C.; Godin, S.; Fontagné-Dicharry, S.; Geurden, I.; Surget, A.; Bouyssiere, B.; Kaushik, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels and utilisation of minerals in rainbow trout fed complete plant ingredient based diets with or without supplemental di-calcium phosphate (DCP) were studied over an 8 week period. Three diets were used: diet M was FM and fish oil (FO) based diet

  10. Effect of diet supplementation with Ascophyllum nodosum on cow milk composition and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves Lopez, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Rossi, Chiara; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Marchetti, Sonia; Castellani, Federica; Grotta, Lisa; Fiorentino, Francesco Paolo; Paparella, Antonello; Martino, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Iodine deficiency remains a major public health concern in many countries, including some European regions. This study aimed at understanding the effect of a supplement of marine alga Ascophyllum nodosum as a iodine fortifier in the cow diet, on the compositional and microbiological quality of milk. The results obtained in this work indicated that the dietary inclusion of A. nodosum exerted significant effects on cow milk composition. In particular, it increased iodine content and reduced the quantity of free amino acids without modifying the free fatty acid content. From a microbiological point of view, statistically significant differences were found in presumptive mesophilic lactobacilli, mesophilic lactococci, and Pseudomonas spp. counts. Based on a culture-independent method, milk obtained after dietary inclusion of A. nodosum harbored the highest number of Firmicutes (e.g., Lactococcus lactis) and the lowest number of Proteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas). In addition to changes in bacterial population, diet supplementation with A. nodosum changed the catabolic profiles of the milk community, according to Biolog Ecoplate (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA) results. The results of this study suggest that the dietary inclusion of the marine alga A. nodosum led to an improvement of the iodine content in milk, and to a modification of its microbiota with a positive effect on milk hygiene and transformation. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarra, S. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of cassava root-leaf meal (CRLM and copra meal with or without enzyme by growing pullets was investigated. A total of 180 six week-old Shaver 579 pullets (549.79 ? 0.39 g/bird were allotted to 12 floor pens containing 15 birds each. A commercial grower diet (control and 2 diets based on CRLM and copra meal with or without added Allzyme? SSF (test diets were fed each to 4 replicate pens in a completely randomized design. Growth performance, age at first egg, feed cost of rearing and the count of floor primary feathers formed the major response criteria. Birds fed the control commercial diet consumed more feed and gained more weight (P0.05 between the control and enzyme supplemented CRLM groups. There was no dietary effect (P>0.05 on the weight of the first egg among the 3 groups. Feed cost of rearing was reduced (P0.05 between the two test diets as well as between the enzyme supplemented and the control diets. It was concluded that CRLM and copra meal can be used as major energy and protein sources respectively in growing pullets? diets. Enzyme supplementation may however, be needed to maintain performance of the birds.

  12. Production of Bio-omega-3 eggs through the supplementation of extruded flaxseed meal in hen diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nazir; Khan, Muhammad Kamran; Mushtaq, Zarina; Hussain, Shahzad

    2015-10-09

    The full-fat flaxseed meal has obtained relatively new flourished concept as staple chicken feedstuff for the production of designer eggs. However, unprocessed flaxseed also encloses well documented anti-nutritional factors which are associated with growth depression of laying hens. The present research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of full-fat extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diets on productivity performance of hens and production of modified ω-3 fatty acids-enriched eggs. The full-fat flaxseed meal was extruded at barrel exit temperature (140 °C), screw speed (160 rpm) and feed rate (25 kg/h) for reduction of anti-nutritional compounds. One hundred and sixty, Babcock hens (age 24 weeks old) were selected at random from a large flock and ten hens were placed in each of 16 wire-mesh pens. The experimental diets prepared by supplementation of extruded flaxseed at 10%, 20% and 30% level were fed to hens along with control. The extruded flaxseed contained 86% and 76% less hydrocyanic compounds and tannin, respectively than the initial material. The hens fed with control diet consumed more feed, possessed heavy body weight and showed higher egg production as compared to hens fed on extruded flaxseed supplemented diets. The loss in body weight and egg production was recorded less for hens fed on 10% extruded flaxseed supplemented diets as compared to those fed on 30% extruded flaxseed supplemented diets. None of the experimental diets resulted in significant increase or decrease the total lipids and cholesterol content in egg yolk of hens. The extruded flaxseed supplemented diets resulted in a significant improvement of α-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk with a concomitant reduction in arachidonic acid. The sensory scores were assigned higher to control eggs. Increasing level of extruded flaxseed in experimental diets decreased the scores for all sensory attributes of eggs. The present study suggested that extruded flaxseed meal up to

  13. EFFECTS OF ARGININE AND VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTED DIETS ON THE IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILERS CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jesús Chan Diaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets on the immune response during post-vaccine stress, a trial was conducted with 700 chicks (1 day-old which were distributed into 28 floor-pens and fed one of four dietary treatments (with 7 replicates randomly assigned: T1 = control diet (1.31 % of arginine and 10 IU of vitamin E/kg of feed; T2 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine; T3 = T1 + 70 IU of vitamin E; T4 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine + 70 IU of vitamin E. At 12 days of age, all birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (ND, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza (AI and fowl pox. The traits evaluated were: post-vaccine reaction at days 14, 16, 18, 21 and 23; antibody titers against ND and AI, and relative lymphoid organs weight at days 11, 19 and 26; and the performance were recorded weekly. Chickens fed T2, T4 (at day 16, and T3 (at day 21 had lesser (p≤0.05 post-vaccine reaction than birds fed T1. The antibody titers against ND (at day 11 was higher (p≤0.05 in chickens fed T4 (3.1, T3 (2.7 and T2 (2.7 compared to T1 (1.6; meanwhile, for AI titers no differences were found. There were no differences, neither for immune organs weight, nor for performance. In conclusion, arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets reduced the post-vaccine stress and improved the immune response without affecting the performance.

  14. Clinical effects of diet supplementation with DHA in pediatric patients suffering from cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggieri, E; De Biase, R V; Savi, D; Zullo, S; Halili, I; Quattrucci, S

    2013-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients present an altered fatty acid (FA) metabolism characterized by imbalance in the arachidonic/docosohexasenoic acid (AA/DHA) ratio in favour of the former which can contribute to the increase in pulmonary inflammation. The present study aims to assess respiratory, nutritional, clinical and laboratory parameters, and inflammatory markers after six months of DHA supplementation in paediatric patients suffering from CF. A dose of 1 g/10 kg/die was administered to ten CF patients of paediatric age for the first month and 250 mg/10 kg/die for the remaining 5 months. We carried out follow-ups at T0 (baseline), T6 (after six months of the diet) and T12 (six months after supplementation was interrupted) during which respiratory, nutritional, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. After six months of DHA supplementation inflammatory marker levels had diminished: interleukin 8 (IL-8) and Tumour Necrosis Factor Alfa (TNF-α) in serum, and calprotectin in stools. In addition, auxometric parameters were improved as was the clinical condition of patients, who tolerated DHA well. Dietetic integration with DHA seems to improve clinical condition and the inflammatory pulmonary and intestinal state of pediatric patients suffering from CF.

  15. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    continual monitoring of the diet and nutritional status of children with ASD is required. It is also essential to start adequate dietary management in autistic patients with overweight, obesity or wasting, caused by improper nutrition. Frequently only a dietary therapy is insufficient to effectively treat autism. Many studies demonstrate the need to supplement the nutritional deficiencies of autistic patients with fatty acids omega-3, probiotics, vitamins and minerals in combination with medical and psychological interventions. A properly designed elimination diet adapted to the patient's individual may also lead to relief of the autism symptoms and the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders. Parents and caregivers should therefore be aware of the benefits of nutritional therapy and need for proper monitoring the treatment of patients with ASD. A review of nutritional factors, dietary treatments and diet supplementation in patients with ASD is presented.

  16. Carbohydrase and phytase supplementation in diets for semi-heavy laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Geraldo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association of phytase with an enzymatic complex comprised of carbohydrases (α-galactosidase, galactomannan, xylanase and β-glucanase in nutrition reduction diets for semi-heavy laying hens and its effect on egg performance and egg quality. Four hundred Isa Brown laying hens with 42 to 57 weeks of age were distributed in an entirely random experiment with five treatments and 8 repetitions, during five production periods of 21 days. Variables studied: egg production, feed intake, mean egg weight, feed conversion, Haugh unit, percentage of yolk, egg white and albumen, yolk color, eggshell thickness and specific gravity. There was a significant interaction (p 0.05 of treatment on production, egg weight or internal and external egg quality. Treatment effects on feed conversion showed better values for hens fed with the control diet. The levels of nutrient reduction used in the diets with or without enzyme supplementation did not provide good results with regard to feed conversion and feed intake. However, they did not affect the other parameters for egg production and internal and external egg quality.

  17. Fresh meat quality of pigs fed diets with different fatty acid profiles and supplemented with red wine solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThree groups of pigs were fed three different diets, namely a diet rich in saturated fatty acids (palm oil-based, PO, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based, CO, and a PUFA-rich diet (corn oil-based supplemented with red wine solids (RWS, which was added to the diet (CO+RWS in order to assess the protective effect on the oxidative status of the pork meat. The addition of corn oil favourably modulates the FAs profile of the backfat, and to a lesser extent of the intramuscular fat of semimembranosus muscle, without causing adverse effects on the meat quality or on its oxidative stability. Moreover, these parameters were not affected by the addition of the RWS in the CO+RWS diet.

  18. Performance, meat quality, and pectoral myopathies of broilers fed either corn or sorghum based diets supplemented with guanidinoacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Noboa, H A; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Sarsour, A H; Barnes, J; Ferzola, P; Rademacher-Heilshorn, M; Braun, U

    2018-04-13

    One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) supplementation in broilers fed corn or sorghum-based diets on live performance, carcass and cut up yields, meat quality, and pectoral myopathies. The treatments consisted of corn or sorghum-based diets with or without the addition of GAA (600 g/ton). A total of 800 one-d-old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly placed in 40 floor pens with 10 replicates (20 birds per pen) per each of the four treatments. At hatch, 14, 35, and 50 d, BW and feed intake were recorded. BW gain and FCR were calculated at the end of each phase. Four broilers per pen were selected and slaughtered at 51d and 55d of age to determine carcass and cut up yields, meat quality and myopathies (spaghetti muscle, white striping, and wooden breast) severity in the Pectoralis major. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with grain type and GAA supplementation as main effects. At 50 d, diets containing GAA improved (P broilers fed corn diets with GAA had higher breast meat yield (P 0.05) by GAA supplementation at any slaughter ages. However, GAA decreased (P broilers supplemented with GAA had double (P broilers fed non-supplemented diets, therefore reducing the severity of this myopathy. In conclusion, GAA supplementation improved broiler live performance in broilers raised up to 50 d independently of grain source, increased breast meat yield in corn-based diets and reduced the severity of wooden breast myopathy.

  19. Impact of DDGS-supplemented diet with or without vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the fatty acid profile of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holló I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C, supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E, supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se. At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P < 0.05 in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.

  20. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Dietary supplementation with Agaricus blazei murill extract prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Mylène; Philippe, Erwann; Everard, Amandine; Kassis, Nadim; Rouch, Claude; Denom, Jessica; Takeda, Yorihiko; Uchiyama, Shoji; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D; Migrenne, Stéphanie; Magnan, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    Dietary supplement may potentially help to fight obesity and other metabolic disorders such as insulin-resistance and low-grade inflammation. The present study aimed to test whether supplementation with Agaricus blazei murill (ABM) extract could have an effect on diet-induced obesity in rats. Wistar rats were fed with control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HF) and either with or without supplemented ABM for 20 weeks. HF diet-induced body weight gain and increased fat mass compared to CD. In addition HF-fed rats developed hyperleptinemia and insulinemia as well as insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In HF-fed rats, visceral adipose tissue also expressed biomarkers of inflammation. ABM supplementation in HF rats had a protective effect against body weight gain and all study related disorders. This was not due to decreased food intake which remained significantly higher in HF rats whether supplemented with ABM or not compared to control. There was also no change in gut microbiota composition in HF supplemented with ABM. Interestingly, ABM supplementation induced an increase in both energy expenditure and locomotor activity which could partially explain its protective effect against diet-induced obesity. In addition a decrease in pancreatic lipase activity is also observed in jejunum of ABM-treated rats suggesting a decrease in lipid absorption. Taken together these data highlight a role for ABM to prevent body weight gain and related disorders in peripheral targets independently of effect in food intake in central nervous system. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Effect of phytase supplementation on apparent phosphorus digestibility and phosphorus output in broiler chicks fed low-phosphorus diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ren Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental phytase in broiler chicks fed different low levels of total phosphorus (P on the apparent phosphorus digestibility (APD and phosphorus output (PO in the faeces and ileal digesta. After fed a standard broiler starter diet from day 0 to 14 post-hatch, a total of 144 male broiler chicks were allocated to 6 groups for a 7-d experiment with a 2 × 3 factorial design comparing phytase (supplemented without (CTR or with 400 FTU/kg phytase (PHY and total P levels (2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 g/kg. The faecal samples were collected from day 17 to 21 post-hatch. At 22 days of age, all the chicks were slaughtered and collected the ileal digesta. Phytase supplementation significantly (P < 0.01 increased APD and decreased PO in the faeces and ileal digesta in comparison with the CTR group. In addition, PO in the faeces expressed as g/kg DM diets and faeces (Diet × P level, P = 0.047 and < 0.01, respectively as well as PO in the ileal digesta expressed as g/kg DM digesta (Diet × P level, P = 0.04 were affected by diet and P level, which were due to the significant reduction (P < 0.01 by PHY supplementation to the diets with 3.0 g/kg total P. The results evidenced that supplemental phytase improved the APD and PO when chicks was fed 3.0 g/kg total P diet, while lower total P levels may limit exogenous phytase efficacy.

  3. Effects of dietary calcium on atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus in rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

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    Culley Nathan C

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular calcification is implicated in myocardial infarction, instability and rigidity of the aortic wall, and bioprosthetic failures. Although an increase in the calcium (Ca content in atherogenic diets has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis in rabbits, whether Ca supplementation and deficiency can affect atherosclerosis-related aortic calcification remains unknown. Results New Zealand White male rabbit littermates were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil. The Ca content of the diet, which normally contains 1%, was adjusted to 0.5 or 3%. Segments of thoracic aortas were dissected from rabbits for histological evaluations and Ca and Pi determinations. Rabbits with calcium supplementation were maintained for 4 months, whereas those with calcium deficiency were maintained for 2 1/2 months due to severe icterus beyond this stage. The ratios of intimal to medial areas and calcified to intimal areas were used to semi-quantify lesion accumulation and calcification, respectively. Icterus was estimated from the extent of yellowing of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes along with gross evidence of hepatic lipidosis and/or biliary obstructions. Statistical analysis of 16 matched littermates shows that Ca supplementation significantly decreased the lesions by 41% (p Conclusion Ca supplementation to an atherogenic diet inhibits atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus, whereas a Ca deficient-diet promotes them.

  4. Adiponectin,leptin: focus on low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids in chronic glomerulonephritis with hbv patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Shan; Li, Jialin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yu, Zanzhe; Wang, Qin; Xu, Weijia

    2012-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin come from adipose tissue, which can reflect patients' inflammation and status of lipid metabolism. Our study is aim to evaluate the effects of short-term restriction of dietary protein intake (DPI) supplemented with keto acids on nutrition and lipid metabolic disturbance in chronic glomeruloneph-ritis with HBV patients. 17 patients were randomized to either low DPI with keto acid-supplemented (sLP) or low DPI (LP) group for 12 weeks. Low-protein diet (LPD) wasindividual...

  5. Effect of lignin supplementation of a diet contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood and intestinal lymphocyte subpopulations in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revajová, Viera; Levkut, Mikuláš; Levkutová, Mária; Bořutová, Radka; Grešaková, Lubomíra; Košiková, Božena; Leng, Lubomír

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of lignin supplementation of a diet contaminated with the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on peripheral blood leukocytes and duodenal immunocompetent cells in broiler chickens. From day 1 after hatching, all chickens were fed an identical control diet for two weeks. Then chickens of Group 1 continued to be fed the control diet, whereas Group 2 was fed the same diet supplemented with lignin at 0.5% level. Simultaneously, Group 3 started to receive a diet contaminated with DON (2.95 mg kg-1) and ZEA (1.59 mg kg-1), while Group 4 received an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin for further two weeks. Samples of blood and duodenal tissue were collected from 6 birds of each group at 4 weeks of age. Neither counts of white blood cells nor phagocytic function in the peripheral blood were significantly affected in the mycotoxin- and/or lignin-treated birds. As compared to the control, increased numbers of IgM-bearing cells were found in the peripheral blood in Group 3 fed the contaminated diet (P mycotoxin-induced reduction in the number of duodenal CD4+ cells. The results suggest that dietary supplementation of lignin as an indigestible compound to poultry feed may increase the density of some intestinal immunocompetent cells without exerting effects on that in the peripheral blood. However, when added to a diet contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, lignin did not prevent the mycotoxin-induced changes in the numbers of blood and intestinal immunocompetent cells.

  6. Radioisotope and mathematical modeling in the assessment of supplementation of Phytase in diets for growing pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, L.C.; Moreira, J.A.; Oliveira, R.L.R.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Patino, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of including increasing levels of phytase enzyme in pig diets for growing pigs, using the mathematical model. Data from 20 crossbred male piglets, castrated and weighing 26.80 kg on average was used. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages to collect feces and urine in a 17 day period. A randomized block experimental design containing five treatments and four repetitions was used. The experimental diet provided to piglets contained corn and soybean and was supplemented with five increasing levels of phytase enzyme (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 UF/kg), corresponding to 0.00 %, 0.01 %, 0.02 %, 0.03 % and 0.04 % respectively. The variables evaluated were: intake, excretion, output flow of P in the digestive tract, bloodstream, bones and soft tissues. The phytase enzyme did not affect the P intake (P>0.05 (F 10 ), the P excreted in urine (F 02 ) and the output flow of P in the bones (F 32 e F 23 ) and soft tissue (F 42 e F 24 ), however, there was a reduction in P excreted in feces (F 01 ) of 8.92 %, 26.76 %, 22.53 % and 28.64 % to the levels 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000UF/kg, respectively and showed a positive linear effect (P 12 ). Corn and soybean meal based diets can be used with 50% of P by dicalcium phosphate, adding 250UF/kg diet for growing pigs, and may cause a reduction of 27 % of P excretion in feces. (author)

  7. Effect of restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Lichuan; Li, Zi; Qin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the restricted protein diet (low or very low protein diet) supplemented with keto analogues in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CBM and CENTRAL databases were searched and reviewed up to April 2015. Clinical trials were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Seven random control trials, one cross-over trial and one non-randomized concurrent control trial were selected and included in this study according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The changes of eGFR, BUN, Scr, albumin, PTH, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus and nutrition indexes (BMI, lean body mass and mid-arm muscular circumference) before and after treatment were analyzed. The meta-analysis results indicated that, comparing with normal protein diet, low protein diet (LPD) or very low protein diet (vLPD) supplemented with keto analogues (s(v)LPD) could significantly prevent the deterioration of eGFR (P diet supplemented with keto analogues (s(v)LPD) could delay the progression of CKD effectively without causing malnutrition.

  8. Supplementing in the diet of lactating Holstein cows may naturally produce coenzyme Q10-enriched milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Seck Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides supplementation as a direct-fed microbial (DFM on rumen fermentation in dairy cows and on coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 transition into milk, an in vitro rumen simulation batch culture and an in vivo dairy cow experiment were conducted. Methods The characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation were investigated using rumen fluids from six cannulated Holstein dairy cows at 2 h post-afternoon feeding. A control treatment was included in the experiments based on a typified total mixed ration (TMR for lactating dairy cows, which was identical to the one used in the in vivo study, plus R. sphaeroides at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% TMR dry matter. The in vivo study employed six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows randomly allotted to either the control TMR (C-TMR treatment or to a diet supplemented with a 0.5% R. sphaeroides culture (S-TMR, dry matter basis ad libitum. The presence of R. sphaeroides was verified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE applied to the bacterial samples obtained from the in vivo study. The concentration of CoQ10 in milk and in the supernatant from the in vitro study was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The results of the in vitro batch culture and DGGE showed that the concentration of CoQ10 significantly increased after 2 h of R. sphaeroides supplementation above 0.1%. When supplemented to the diet of lactating cows at the level of 0.5%, R. sphaeroides did not present any adverse effect on dry matter intake and milk yield. However, the concentration of CoQ10 in milk dramatically increased, with treated cows producing 70.9% more CoQ10 than control cows. Conclusion The CoQ10 concentration in milk increased via the use of a novel DFM, and R. sphaeroides might be used for producing value-added milk and dairy products in the future.

  9. Cecal parameters of rats fed diets containing grapefruit polyphenols and inulin as single supplements or in a combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduńczyk, Zenon; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Estrella, Isabel

    2006-09-01

    We compared the effects of grapefruit flavonoids and inulin, as single dietary components or in a combination, on cecal fermentation in rats adapted to a semipurified diet. The experimental diets contained 0.3% flavonoid extract and 5% or 10% inulin and a combination of both supplements. The large bowel metabolism assessment was based on cecal parameters: bulk effect, pH, microbial enzymes activity, and short-chain fatty acid production. Both supplements induced significant enlargement of the cecal digesta weight. Acidification of cecal digesta was more pronounced, with a higher inulin addition to the diet. Cecal pH was the highest with the flavonoid-rich diets and lowest in the case of a simultaneous addition of flavonoids and a high content of inulin. The flavonoid extract applied as a single dietary supplement was observed to decrease the activity of bacterial beta-glucosidase and beta- and alpha-galactosidases in the cecal digesta. In contrast, addition of the grapefruit extract to inulin-containing diets increased the activity of alpha-glucosidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase. Great accumulation of cecal digesta in rats consuming the flavonoid-diet caused a considerable increase in the short-chain fatty acid pool, mainly acetic acid. Inulin added to the diet decreased the excessive enlargement of digesta caused by dietary flavonoids. Dietary addition of inulin to the flavonoid-diet also normalized hydration of cecal digesta and significantly decreased the pH of digesta. The presence of polyphenols in the inulin-containing diets did not change total short-chain fatty acid production in the cecum of rats. Our results suggested that simultaneous intake of inulin and polyphenols can decrease the detrimental effects of the latter on cecal fermentation.

  10. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  11. Blood Haematology, Serum Thyroid Hormones and Glutathione Peroxidase Status in Kacang Goats Fed Inorganic Iodine and Selenium Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Aghwan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation of selenium (Se, iodine (I, and a combination of both on the blood haematology, serum free thyroxine (FT4 and free triiodothyronine (FT3 hormones and glutathione peroxidase enzyme (GSH-Px activity were examined on twenty four (7 to 8 months old, 22±1.17 kg live weight Kacang crossbred male goats. Animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (6 animals in each group. Throughout 100 d of feeding trial, the animals of control group (CON received a basal diet, while the other three groups were offered basal diet supplemented with 0.6 mg/kg diet DM Se (SS, or 0.6 mg/kg diet DM I (PI, or a combination of both Se and I, each at 0.6 mg/kg diet DM (SSPI. The haematological attributes which are haemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell (RBC, packed cell volume (PCV, mean cell volume (MCV, white blood cells (WBC, band neutrophils (B Neut, segmented neutrophils (S Neut, lymphocytes (Lymph, monocytes (Mono, eosinophils (Eosin and basophils (Baso were similar among the four treatment groups, while serum levels of Se and I increased significantly (p<0.05 in the supplemented groups. The combined dietary supplementation of Se and I (SSPI significantly increased serum FT3 in the supplemented animals. Serum GSH-Px activity increased significantly in the animals of SS and SSPI groups. It is concluded that the dietary supplementation of inorganic Se and I at a level of 0.6 mg/kg DM increased serum Se and I concentration, FT3 hormone and GSH-Px activity of Kacang crossbred male goats.

  12. Effect of urea-supplemented diets on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Jiang, Lan; Wu, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of urea-supplemented diets on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal communities of finishing bulls using sequencing technology. Eighteen bulls were fed a total mixed ration based on maize silage and concentrate (40:60) and randomly allocated to one of three experimental diets: a basal diet with no urea (UC, 0%), a basal diet supplemented with low urea levels (UL, 0.8% dry matter (DM) basis), and a basal diet supplemented with high urea levels (UH, 2% DM basis). All treatments were iso-nitrogenous (14% crude protein, DM basis) and iso-metabolic energetic (ME = 11.3 MJ/kg, DM basis). After a 12-week feeding trial, DNA was isolated from ruminal samples and used for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. For bacteria, the most abundant phyla were Firmicutes (44.47%) and Bacteroidetes (41.83%), and the dominant genera were Prevotella (13.17%), Succiniclasticum (4.24%), Butyrivibrio (2.36%), and Ruminococcus (1.93%). Urea supplementation had no effect on most phyla (P > 0.05), while there was a decreasing tendency in phylum TM7 with increasing urea levels (P = 0.0914). Compared to UC, UH had lower abundance of genera Butyrivibrio and Coprococcus (P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0222, respectively). For archaea, the most abundant phylum was Euryarchaeota (99.81% of the sequence reads), and the most abundant genus was Methanobrevibacter (90.87% of the sequence reads). UH increased the abundance of genus Methanobrevibacter and Methanobacterium (P = 0.0299 and P = 0.0007, respectively) and decreased the abundance of vadinCA11 (P = 0.0151). These findings suggest that urea-supplemented diets were associated with a shift in archaeal biodiversity and changes in the bacterial community in the rumen.

  13. Scale brightness of common goldfish on diet supplemented with seaweed Sargassum sp. and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfina Manda Astari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The common goldfish Carassius auratus auratus is an ornamental freshwater fish species with  high market value. The market value of ornamental fish can be determined through some parameters, one of them is brightness of the fish scales. Brightness level may be enhanced by supplementing plant powder containing carotenoid into fish diet. The purpose of this research was to examine the scale brightness level of common goldfish fed diet supplemented with Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder, and to determine the dose of those powders that allows higher brightness level of scale.  The feed of common goldfish was supplemented with either Sargassum sp. or pumpkin powder at the doses of 10, 20 and 30%, and without supplementation as control. Fishes were reared for 75 days and fed diet at feeding rate of 5% biomass daily. The results of ANOVA test showed that the Sargassum sp. and pumpkin mill addition on food significantly improved of scales brightness of  common goldfish. Increasing supplementation levels of Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder increased brightness level of scale. The highest improvement in brightness was the fish that fed by 30% concentration of Sargassum sp. flour with the value scale of brightness was 2.67 and the total number of 2,890.67 chromatophore cells. The results suggest that Sargassum sp. powder is better to improve the brightness level of common goldfish scale. Keywords: Carassius auratus auratus, Sargassum sp., Cucurbita moschata, carotenoid, brightness  ABSTRAK Ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus merupakan salah satu spesies ikan hias air tawar yang memiliki nilai jual tinggi. Nilai jual ikan hias dapat ditentukan melalui beberapa parameter, salah satunya yaitu kecerahan sisik ikan. Kecerahan sisik ikan dapat ditingkatkan melalui pemberian pakan yang diperkaya karotenoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji tingkat kecerahan warna sisik ikan komet setelah diberi pakan dengan tambahan tepung Sargassum sp. dan

  14. Cellulolytic and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens bacteria population density, after supplementing fodder diets (Pennisetum clandestinum

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    Licet Molina G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the population density of cellulolytic bacteria, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and the concentration of vaccenic acid, by supplementing diets consisting of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoechst. Ex Chiov. as base ingredient, together with cassava flour and biomass (effluent from ethanol production in rumen simulator-Rusitec. Materials and methods. Four treatments (T were evaluated, these were composed as: T1/Control 1: 100% kikuyu grass with a total protein intake of 23.9%, T2: a mixture of 70% kikuyu grass, 20% biomass and 10% cassava flour with a total protein intake of 19.4%; T3/Control 2: 100% kikuyu grass, with a 17.8% protein intake and T4: 70% kikuyu grass, 20% biomass and 10% cassava flour with a 15.3% protein intake. One and two-way variance analysis was made and the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined. Results. An increase was observed in the population density of viable cellulolytic bacteria (CFU/ml and B. fibrisolvens statistically significant (p<0.005 with treatment T2, in contrast to T1, T3 and T4 treatments. In addition, there was a significant increase in the concentration of vaccenic acid (mg/L in the ruminal content in Rusitec with the same treatment (T2. Conclusions. Results obtained in this ruminal simulation study are evidence to the benefits of kikuyu grass together with cassava flour and biomass diet implementation on the growth of ruminal cellulolytic and B. fibrisolvens bacteria, as well as on the production of vaccenic acid. The study also suggests the nutritional potential that such supplements could provide to grazing bovine feeding.

  15. Lifestyles guide and glaucoma (II). Diet, supplements, drugs, sleep, pregnancy, and systemic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-López, A; Moreno-Montañés, J; Duch-Tuesta, S; Corsino Fernández-Vila, P; García-Feijoo, J; Millá-Griñó, E; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; Pablo-Júlvez, L; Rodríguez-Agirretxe, I; Urcelay-Segura, J L; Ussa-Herrera, F; Villegas-Pérez, M P

    2018-02-01

    To establish evidence based guidelines to advise patients on the relationship between habits, diet, certain circumstances, diseases and glaucoma. Review of all published articles on glaucoma and sports or other activities. The papers were classified according to the level of scientific evidence based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine classification. The evidence on the relationship between diet or supplements and the incidence or progression of glaucoma is insufficient to make a general recommendation for glaucoma patients. Although some studies on normal tension glaucoma suggest that Gingko biloba could reduce glaucoma progression, the results do not allow a general recommendation for all these patients. Similarly, the evidence on the usefulness of vitamin supplements is not conclusive. The studies on smoking do not clearly demonstrate the relationship between this habit and incidence of glaucoma. Marihuana is not a useful treatment for glaucoma. Although the results on the relationship between sleep apnoea and glaucoma are heterogeneous, it is recommended that patients with moderate to intense apnoea are tested for glaucoma. Pregnancy does not influence the course of the disease, but several hypotensive drugs may be harmful for the foetus. Nocturnal systemic hypotension is a risk factor for glaucoma progression. Certain habits, circumstances, or diseases may have an influence on the onset or progression of glaucoma. It is important to have adequate information about the scientific evidence in the publications in order to properly advise patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Habib, G.

    2012-01-01

    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in

  17. Supplementation of Diet With Galacto-oligosaccharides Increases Bifidobacteria, but Not Insulin Sensitivity, in Obese Prediabetic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfora, Emanuel E; van der Beek, Christina M; Hermes, Gerben D A

    2017-01-01

    on peripheral insulin sensitivity, measured by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method. RESULTS: Supplementation of diets with GOS, but not placebo, increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium species in feces by 5-fold (P = .009; q = 0.144). Microbial richness or diversity in fecal samples were...

  18. Role of Diet and Nutritional Supplements in Parkinson’s Disease Progression

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    Laurie K. Mischley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The goal of this study is to describe modifiable lifestyle variables associated with reduced rate of Parkinson’s disease (PD progression. Methods. The patient-reported outcomes in PD (PRO-PD were used as the primary outcome measure, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. In this cross-sectional analysis, regression analysis was performed on baseline data to identify the nutritional and pharmacological interventions associated with the rate of PD progression. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, and years since diagnosis. Results. 1053 individuals with self-reported idiopathic PD were available for analysis. Foods associated with the reduced rate of PD progression included fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, nuts and seeds, nonfried fish, olive oil, wine, coconut oil, fresh herbs, and spices (P<0.05. Foods associated with more rapid PD progression include canned fruits and vegetables, diet and nondiet soda, fried foods, beef, ice cream, yogurt, and cheese (P<0.05. Nutritional supplements coenzyme Q10 and fish oil were associated with reduced PD progression (P=0.026 and P=0.019, resp., and iron supplementation was associated with faster progression (P=0.022. Discussion. These are the first data to provide evidence that targeted nutrition is associated with the rate of PD progression.

  19. Supplementation of extract of Lafoensia pacari in the diet of semi heavy laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina da Silva Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It was intended to evaluate the supplementation of Lafoensia pacari standardized in tannins extract in the diet of laying hens on the performance, internal and external quality of eggs and metabolism of the feed nutrients. A total of 168 Isa Brown laying hens, aged 24 weeks, with the mean weight of 2.6 kg and the mean posture rate of 87% were used during 4 periods of 28 days each. The treatments consisted of Halquinol performance-enhancing antibiotic, Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS prebiotic and three levels of pacari extract – 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 mg kg-1of feed. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments and seven replicates of four hens each. The pacari standardized in tannin extract presented a percentage of albumen and an egg weight similar to the antibiotic (p < 0.04. The supplementation with the extract improved the shell quality, verified by the specific gravity (p < 0.03 and promoted the metabolizability of ether extract similar to antibiotic and MOS (p < 0.04, allowing its indication as a phytogenic additive.

  20. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Tran, Hoainam; Kim, Inho

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics can serve as alternatives to antibiotics to increase the performance of weaning pigs, and the intake of probiotics is affected by dietary nutrient density. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a probiotic complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs. From day 22 to day 42, both high-nutrient-density and probiotic complex supplementation diets increased (P probiotic complex supplementation diets had higher (P probiotic complex supplementation diets. Interactive effects on average daily feed intake (ADFI) were observed from day 22 to day 42 and overall, where probiotic complex improved ADFI more dramatically in low-nutrient-density diets. The beneficial effects of probiotic complex (Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium butyricum) supplementation on ADFI is more dramatic with low-nutrient-density diets. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid from fresh cassava peel in dairy cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreena Srisaikham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on the extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN levels from fresh cassava peel (FCPe in dairy cattle diet by increasing the milk thiocyanate (SCN concentration and lactoperoxidase (LP activity. The sample was twenty-four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging 87±31 days in milk (DIM, 13.4±2.9 kg of milk and 397±52 kg body weight (BW. All cows were fed the control diet with 6.5 kg/d of 21% crude protein (CP concentrate and ad libitum grass silage (GS. The treatments groups were as follows: 1 the control diet for the 1st group, the 2nd group received the control diet supplemented with 400 g/d of FCPe (75 ppm HCN and the 3rd group received the control diet supplemented with 800 g/d of FCPe (150 ppm HCN. The results showed that 800 g/h/d FCPe enhanced the efficiency of LP activity in raw milk to reduce total bacterial count (TBC and coliform count (CC; therefore, 400 g/h/d FCPe can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

  2. Effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk urea concentration in crossbred Karan-Fries cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Sirohi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of urea supplemented and urea treated straw based diet on milk ureaconcentration. Six multiparous crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian ✕ Tharparkar cows were blocked into threegroups of nearly equal body weight, DIM, milk yield and milk fat content and were randomized into a 3 ✕ 3 Latin squaredesign with 3-week period. Three experimental diets were fed to the animals. Composition of these diets were: Diet 1green maize, wheat straw and concentrate mixture; Diet 2 green maize, wheat straw, concentrate mixture (urea supplementedand molasses; Diet 3 green maize (4 % of total DM, 4 % urea treated wheat straw and concentrate mixture.Intake of DM and CP did not vary across the diets. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP was found significantlyhigher in diet 2, while ME and NEL intakes were found significantly lower in diet 3 but did not differ between diets 1and 2. Average milk and plasma urea concentrations (mg dl-1 were found 29.2 ± 2.6, 45.3 ± 0.9, 34.5 ± 2.3 and 28.9± 2.4, 36.6 ± 1.4, 33.9 ± 2.2, respectively in diet 1, diet 2 and diet 3. Urea concentrations in morning milk sampleswere found significantly lower than noon or evening samples in all the three diets. Concentrations of urea in milk andplasma were found closely correlated (r = 0.94 and the regression equation developed was, plasma urea = 8.90 (.89+ .79 (.02 milk urea. Intake (g of DCP than CP, per unit (MCal of ME was found more closely associated with milk ureaconcentration. The study revealed that urea supplementation and urea treated straw based diet increased urea concentrationsignificantly in milk and plasma. Morning milk urea values that estimated at a time gap of 15 hr since last majorfeeding may be considered as the lowest level and can be used for interpretation to monitor feeding adequacy or reproductiveperformances in dairy cows.

  3. Agmatine ameliorates atherosclerosis progression and endothelial dysfunction in high cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohammed S; Suddek, Ghada M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to explore possible effects of agmatine, an endogenous inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), against hypercholesterolemia-induced lipid profile changes and endothelial dysfunction. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD, 0.5%) for 8 weeks. Another HCD-fed group was orally administered agmatine (10 mg/kg/day) during weeks 5 through 8. Serum lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. Aorta was isolated to analyse vascular reactivity, atherosclerotic lesions and intima/media (I/M) ratio. HCD induced a significant increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Agmatine administration significantly decreased HCD-induced elevations in serum TC and LDL-C, MDA, LDH and NO while significantly increased HDL-C levels. Additionally, agmatine significantly protected against HCD-induced attenuation of rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. HCD and agmatine did not significantly influence aortic endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside. Moreover, agmatine significantly reduced the elevation in aortic atherosclerotic lesion area and I/M ratio. This study is the first to reveal that agmatine has the ability to ameliorate hypercholesterolemia-induced lipemic-oxidative and endothelial function injuries possibly by its antioxidant potential and/or iNOS inhibition. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Effects of supplemental enzymes on apparent nutrient digestibility in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed plant-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Ekmann, Kim Schøn

    2010-01-01

    in fish feed due to growing demands for and high price variations in fish meal, but high inclusion levels in diets for carnivorous fish are hampered by a great variety of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), which reduce nutrient utilisation. Exogenous dietary enzymes may potentially help to alleviate...... on the effects of enzymes in fish feed apart from phytase. Phytase works by hydrolyzing phytic acid, and numerous studies have documented that phytase supplementation increases phosphorus availability in fish fed diets with high inclusion levels of plant proteins. Plant derived proteins are increasingly used...... these effects, and the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing protease and pectinase to a diet containing approximately 30% soybean meal, rapeseed meal or sunflower meal on nutrient digestibility in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Digestibility trials were...

  5. Supplementing enzymes to extruded, soybean based diet improves breakdown of non-starch polysaccharides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Verlhac, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Plant-based feed ingredients typically contain remnants of dietary fibres [DF; non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and lignin] that have various antinutritive effects in carnivorous fish. Exogenous enzymes have been shown to improve the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of plant-based diets...... presumably by assisting in the breakdown of NSP. This study examined the effects on NSP degradation when supplementing β-glucanase, xylanase, protease or a mix of the three enzymes to an extruded, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet containing 344 g kg−1 de-hulled, solvent-extracted soybean...... meal (SBM). The NSP content in the non-supplemented control diet and in faecal samples from the dietary treatment groups was analysed to determine the recovery/apparent digestibility of cellulose and total non-cellulosic polysaccharide (T-NCP) sugar monomers. The enzymes had significant, positive...

  6. The impact of a diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and aerobic exercise on memory of middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Gai, Rafaela M; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-08-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for human health and has received attention for its role as a nutrient. The combination of exercise and nutrients has been proposed to promote health. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and swimming exercise on memory of middle-aged rats. Male Wistar rats (12months) received standard diet chow supplemented with 1ppm of (PhSe)2 for 4weeks. Rats were submitted to swimming training (20min per day for 4weeks). After 4weeks, memory was evaluated in the object recognition test (ORT) and in the object location test (OLT). The hippocampal levels of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) were determined. The results of the present study demonstrated that the association of (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise improved short-term memory, long-term memory and spatial learning, and this effect was not related to the increase in hippocampal p-CREB levels in middle-age rats. This study also revealed that middle-aged rats in the swimming exercise group had the best performance in short- and long-term memory. In conclusion, we demonstrated that swimming exercise, (PhSe)2-supplemented diet or the association of these factors improved learning and memory functioning. The hippocampal levels of CREB were not directly related to the benefits of swimming exercise and (PhSe)2-supplemented diet association in memory of middle-aged rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of supplementing a diet with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Leila; Hosseinkhani, Ali; Daghigh Kia, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2-5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×10 9 CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G). Estrous synchronization of all ewes was done using controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and all ewes were mated with purebred Ghezel rams after CIDR removal. The results indicated that MS and SC treatments with 15 lambs had greater number of lambs than ewes of the other two treatment groups. Ewes in MS group with 50% twining rate had the greatest value followed by the FG, SC and G treatment groups (Pewes in MS and SC groups were heavier in weight than those in FG and G treatments (Pewes in MS and SC groups had greater concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), blood urea nitrogen (Pewes of the other groups. These results indicated that using a diet for enhancing reproduction, including monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in the breeding season could have beneficial effects on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Muñoz, Miguel A; Sorlí, José V; Martínez, J Alfredo; Fitó, Montserrat; Gea, Alfredo; Hernán, Miguel A; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2018-06-21

    Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the trial was stopped on the basis of a prespecified interim analysis. In 2013, we reported the results for the primary end point in the Journal. We subsequently identified protocol deviations, including enrollment of household members without randomization, assignment to a study group without randomization of some participants at 1 of 11 study sites, and apparent inconsistent use of randomization tables at another site. We have withdrawn our previously published report and now report revised effect estimates based on analyses that do not rely exclusively on the assumption that all the participants were randomly assigned. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants; there were 96 events in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (3.8%), 83 in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (3.4%), and 109 in the control group (4.4%). In the intention-to-treat analysis including all the participants and adjusting for baseline characteristics and propensity scores, the hazard ratio was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.91) for a Mediterranean diet with extra

  9. Using alfalfa leaf meal as a supplement in late-gestation beef heifer and nursing beef calf diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, C M; Maddock, T D; DiCostanzo, A; Miller, L R; Hall, J M; Lamb, G C

    2010-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate using alfalfa leaf meal (ALM; 22% CP, DM basis) in beef cattle diets. In Exp. 1, a total of 24 late-gestation Angus heifers (initial BW 470 +/- 9 kg) were blocked by BW, calving date, and BCS to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. All heifers were offered a basal hay diet (7.4% CP and 67.6% NDF, DM basis). Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of CP supplied at 100 or 112.5% of the recommended daily intake using either soybean meal (SBM) or ALM as the supplemental protein source. Treatments were fed for an average of 100 d before calving. Total DMI was unaffected by supplemental protein source, although heifers consumed more (P Feeding 112.5% of recommended CP to heifers increased precalving rate of BW gain (P = 0.004) and DM digestibility (P = 0.003). Protein source did not affect DM digestibility (P = 0.17). Neither supplemental protein source nor protein amount affected changes in BCS or calving traits. In Exp. 2, replicates of treatments were conducted over 2 consecutive years at 2 locations in northern Minnesota to determine the effects of including ALM in creep-fed supplements on nursing calf performance, supplement BW gain efficiency (GF; BW gain over control/supplement intake), and cow performance. Treatments were control (no supplement), ALM supplement (58% ALM, as-fed basis), or a wheat middling- and soybean hull-based supplement (MIDD). Milk intake (estimated by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique) was similar among treatments. Creep-fed calves had greater (P creep feed DMI than those offered ALM (2.6 vs. 1.3 kg/d, respectively). A year x treatment interaction was noted for GF (P = 0.02). In yr 1, GF for calves offered ALM was greater (P = 0.006) than GF for calves offered MIDD, but in yr 2, there were no differences. Alfalfa leaf meal may substitute for SBM in beef heifer wintering diets and conventional creep feed ingredients. When included in creep feed diets

  10. Methyl donor supplementation alters cognitive performance and motivation in female offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sarah E; Grissom, Nicola M; Herdt, Christopher T; Reyes, Teresa M

    2017-06-01

    During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior. Given that extensive brain development occurs during early postnatal life-particularly within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region critical for executive function-we examined whether early life methyl donor supplementation ( e.g., during adolescence) could ameliorate executive function deficits observed in offspring that were exposed to maternal HFD. By using operant testing, progressive ratio, and the PFC-dependent 5-choice serial reaction timed task (5-CSRTT), we determined that F1 female offspring (B6D2F1/J) from HFD-fed dams have decreased motivation (decreased progressive ratio breakpoint) and require a longer stimulus length to complete the 5-CSRTT task successfully, whereas early life methyl donor supplementation increased motivation and shortened the minimum stimulus length required for a correct response in the 5-CSRTT. Of interest, we found that expression of 2 chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL10, correlated with the median stimulus length in the 5-CSRTT. Furthermore, we found that acute adult supplementation of methyl donors increased motivation in HFD-fed offspring and those who previously received supplementation with methyl donors. These data point to early life as a sensitive time during which dietary methyl donor supplementation can alter PFC-dependent cognitive behaviors.-McKee, S. E., Grissom, N. M., Herdt, C. T., Reyes, T. M. Methyl donor supplementation alters

  11. Effect of vitamin E supplement in diet on antioxidant ability of testis in Boer goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhu; Hailing, Luo; Hui, Meng; Guijie, Zhang; Leyan, Yan; Dubing, Yue

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the supplementation of Vitamin E in diet on the antioxidant capacity of testis in Boer goat. Twenty-four healthy, Boer male kids of similar body weight (BW) were selected at 3 months of age from the kid flock. Kids were born from does treated with simultaneous flushing and artificial insemination technology. The Boer kids were divided into four groups randomly, supplemented with 0, 80, 320 and 880 IU kid(-1)d(-1) Vitamin E, which were labeled as Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, for 150 days (5 months). Blood samples were collected at the 15th-, 30th-, 60th-, 90th-, 120th-, and 150th-day during the experimental period, and the serums were used to determine Vitamin E content. Three Boer goats in each group were slaughtered at the age of eight months at the end of the experiment. Liver and testis were collected to test the Vitamin E content and the antioxidant capacity of testis. Results showed that the content of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis increased with the increasing addition of Vitamin E. However, the content of Vitamin E in the serum, liver and testis, in the control, was significantly lower than in Groups 2 and 3, respectively, but there was no significant difference between the control Group and Group 4. When high levels of Vitamin E (880 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) were added, contents of Vitamin E in serum, liver and testis were decreased and compared with the controls. Adding a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E can increase activity of total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and decrease content of nitric oxide (NO) in testis. MDA (malondialdehyde) content was decreased significantly in Group 3 (P<0.05). Supplementing a low level (80 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) and middle level (320 IU kid(-1)d(-1)) of Vitamin E decreased activity of nitric oxide syntha (NOS) in testis (P<0.05). Vitamin E can increase activity of GSH-PX (glutathione peroxidase). These results indicate that supplementing

  12. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair

  13. Habitual Diet and Avocado Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-16

    Intra-abdominal Fat; Metabolic Syndrome; High Cholesterol; Triglycerides High; Diet Habit; High Blood Sugar; Liver Fat; Dietary Modification; HDL Cholesterol, Low Serum; Cardiovascular Diseases; High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency; Low-density-lipoprotein-type; Cardiovascular Risk Factor; Diabetes

  14. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Responses of milk quality to roasted soybeans, calcium soap and organic mineral supplementation in dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adawiah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk quality is affected by feed nutrient either macronutrient or micronutrient. Roasted soayabeans and calcium soap were to increase supply by pas protein and fat to dairy cattle. Thus, organic mineral was to increase bioavailability of feed mineral to animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate roasted soybean, mineral soap and organic mineral supplementation on milk quality of dairy cattle. Twenty lactating Frisian Holstein cows (initial weight 361.4 ± 40.39 kg were assigned into a randomized complete block design with 5 treatments and 4 blocks. The treatments were A: basal diet, B: A + roasted soybean, C: B + calcium soap of corn oil, D: C + calcium soap of corn oil, E: C + calcium soap of fish oil. The experimental diets were offered for 9 and 2 weeks preliminary. The results of the experiment showed that milk protein and lactose were not affected by diets. Milk dry matter of cows fed A, B, and D diets were higher (P<0.05 than those of fed C and E diets. Milk fat of cows fed A, B and D diets were higher (P<0.05 than those of fed C and E diets. Milk density of cows fed B and E diets were higher (p<0.05 than those of fed A, C and D diets. Milk TPC of cows fed B diet were higher (0.05 than those of fed A, C, D, and E diets. It is concluded that milk quality especially milk protein and lactose concentration are not affected by roasted soyabeans, Ca-soap, and organic mineral. Calcium soap of fish oil and organic mineral decrease population of milk bacteria.

  16. P and Ca digestibility is increased in broiler diets supplemented with the high-phytase HIGHPHY wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, D; Burton, E; Morgan, N; Sanni, C; Madsen, C K; Dionisio, G; Brinch-Pedersen, H

    2017-09-01

    Around 70% of total seed phosphorus is represented by phytate which must be hydrolysed to be bioavailable in non-ruminant diets. The limited endogenous phytase activity in non-ruminant animals make it common practice to add an exogenous phytase source to most poultry and pig feeds. The mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) of cereal seeds provides a route for the seeds themselves to contribute to phytate digestion, but MGPA varies considerably between species and most varieties in current use make negligible contributions. Currently, all phytases used for feed supplementation and transgenic improvement of MGPA are derived from microbial enzymes belonging to the group of histidine acid phosphatases (HAP). Cereals contain HAP phytases, but the bulk of MGPA can be attributed to phytases belonging to a completely different group of phosphatases, the purple acid phosphatases (PAPhy). In recent years, increased MGPAs were achieved in cisgenic barley holding extra copies of barley PAPhy and in the wheat HIGHPHY mutant, where MGPA was increased to ~6200 FTU/kg. In the present study, the effect of replacing 33%, 66% and 100% of a standard wheat with HIGHPHY wheat was compared with a control diet with and without 500 FTU of supplemental phytase. Diets were compared by evaluating broiler performance, ileal Ca and P digestibility and tibia development, using nine replicate pens of four birds per diet over 3 weeks from hatch. There were no differences between treatments in any tibia or bird performance parameters, indicating the control diet did not contain sufficiently low levels of phosphorus to distinguish effect of phytase addition. However, in a comparison of the two wheats, the ileal Ca and P digestibility coefficients for the 100% HIGHPHY wheat diets are 22.9% and 35.6% higher, respectively, than for the control diet, indicating the wheat PAPhy is functional in the broiler digestive tract. Furthermore, 33% HIGHPHY replacement of conventional wheat, significantly improved

  17. Improved plasma amino acids pattern following 12 months of supplemented low-protein diet in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Lindholm, Bengt; Axelsson, Jonas; Yao, Qiang

    2010-07-01

    Decreased plasma essential amino acid (EAA) levels, increased nonessential amino acid (NEAA) levels, and low EAA to NEAA ratio (E/NEAA) are common in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and may impact uremic complications. In the present study, we investigate the impact of keto acids-supplemented low-protein (sLP) diet on plasma amino acids (AAs) patterns in stable PD patients. This is a supplemental analysis of a previously published prospective and randomized trial. Thirty-nine PD patients selected from the original population were divided to receive either low (LP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg ideal body weight [IBW]/d, n = 13), keto acids-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg IBW/d + 0.12 g/kg IBW/d of keto acids, n = 12), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg IBW/d, n = 14) protein diets and followed for 1 year. Plasma AA patterns were assessed at baseline and 12 months using high-performance liquid chromatography. Whereas there were no significant differences between the three groups at baseline, following 12 months, the E/NEAA had increased significantly in group sLP (0.58 +/- 0.16 to 0.83 +/- 0.20, p diet supplemented with keto acids significantly improved the pattern of plasma AA in prevalent PD patients.

  18. Comparative proteomic analyses of the parietal lobe from rhesus monkeys fed a high-fat/sugar diet with and without resveratrol supplementation, relative to a healthy diet: Insights into the roles of unhealthy diets and resveratrol on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swomley, Aaron M; Triplett, Judy C; Keeney, Jeriel T; Warrier, Govind; Pearson, Kevin J; Mattison, Julie A; de Cabo, Rafael; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2017-01-01

    A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional intervention. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which resveratrol functions through the up- or down-regulation of proteins in different cellular sub-systems to affect the overall health of the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of host nutrition on virulence and fitness of entomopathogenic nematodes: Lipid- and protein-based supplements in Tenebrio molitor diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Rojas, M. Guadalupe; Morales-Ramos, Juan A.; Lewis, Edwin E.; Tedders, W. Louis

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes, Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema riobrave, were tested for virulence and reproductive yield in Tenebrio molitor that were fed wheat bran diets with varying lipid- and protein-based supplements. Lipid supplements were based on 20% canola oil, peanut, pork or salmon, or a low lipid control (5% canola). Protein treatments consisted of basic supplement ingredients plus 0, 10, or 20% egg white; a bran-only control was also included. Some diet supplements had positive effects on nematode quality, whereas others had negative or neutral effects. All supplements with 20% lipids except canola oil caused increased T. molitor susceptibility to H. indica, whereas susceptibility to S. riobrave was not affected. Protein supplements did not affect host susceptibility, and neither lipid nor protein diet supplements affected reproductive capacity of either nematode species. Subsequently, we determined the pest control efficacy of progeny of nematodes that had been reared through T. molitor from different diets against Diaprepes abbreviatus and Otiorhynchus sulcatus. All nematode treatments reduced insect survival relative to the control (water only). Nematodes originating from T. molitor diets with the 0% or 20% protein exhibited lower efficacy versus D. abbreviatus than the intermediate level of protein (10%) or bran-only treatments. Nematodes originating from T. molitor lipid or control diets did not differ in virulence. Our research indicates that nutritional content of an insect host diet can affect host susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes and nematode fitness; therefore, host media could conceivably be optimized to increase in vivo nematode production efficiency. PMID:19259513

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of high-protein diet with resveratrol supplementation on radiation-induced acute-phase inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ok; Park, HyunJin; Chun, Mison; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that a high-protein diet and/or resveratrol supplementation will improve acute inflammatory responses in rats after receiving experimental abdominal radiation treatment (ART). Based on our previous study, the period of 10 days after ART was used as an acute inflammation model. Rats were exposed to a radiation dose of 17.5 Gy and were supplied with a control (C), 30% high-protein diet (HP), resveratrol supplementation (RES), or HP with RES diet ([HP+RES]). At day 10 after ART, we measured profiles of lipids, proteins, and immune cells in blood. The levels of clusters of differentiating 4(+) (CD4(+)) cells and regulatory T cells, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine were also measured. ART caused significant disturbances of lipid profiles by increasing triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The proinflammatroy cytokine levels were also increased by ART. All the experimental diets (HP, RES, and [HP+RES]) significantly decreased levels of TG, monocytes, proinflammatory cytokines, and 8-OHdG, whereas the platelet counts were increased. In addition, the HP and [HP+RES] diets decreased the concentrations of plasma LDL-C and total cholesterol. Also, the HP and RES diets decreased regulatory T cells compared with those of the control diet in ART group. Further, the HP diet led to a significant recovery of white blood cell counts, as well as increased percentages of lymphocyte and decreased percentages of neutrophils. In summary, RES appeared to be significantly effective in minimizing radiation-induced damage to lipid metabolism and immune responses. Our study also demonstrated the importance of dietary protein intake in recovering from acute inflammation by radiation.

  1. Comparative evaluation of fermented and non-fermented de-oiled rice bran with or without exogenous enzymes supplementation in the diet of Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amit; Sahu, Narottam Prasad; Deo, Ashutosh Dharmendra; Kumar, H Sanath; Kumar, Sarvendra; Jain, Kamal Kant

    2018-03-29

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of exogenous enzymes (xylanase and phytase) supplementation in the non-fermented and fermented de-oiled rice bran (DORB)-based diet of Labeo rohita. Four test diets (T1-DORB-based diet, T2-fermented DORB-based diet, T3-phytase and xylanase supplemented DORB-based diet, and T4-phytase and xylanase supplemented fermented DORB-based diet) were formulated and fed to the respective groups. Test diets T3 and T4 were supplemented with 0.01% xylanase (16,000 U kg -1 ) and 0.01% phytase (500 U kg -1 ) enzymes. One hundred twenty juveniles of L. rohita, with an average weight 5.01 ± 0.02 g, were stocked in 12 uniform size plastic rectangular tanks in triplicate with 10 fishes per tank following a completely randomized design (CRD). Exogenous enzyme supplementation to the T3 group significantly improved the growth performance of L. rohita (p exogenous enzymes. The carcass composition (except CP %), enzyme activities (except amylase activity), globulin, and A/G ratio did not vary significantly (p > 0.05). Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that exogenous enzyme supplementation significantly increases the growth of fish fed with DORB-based diet.

  2. Assessment of Grewia oppositifolia leaves as crude protein supplement to low-quality forage diets of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Habib, Ghulam

    2012-10-01

    In the tropical arid and semi-arid regions of many developing countries, sheep are predominantly grazed on low-quality pastures and stall-fed on crop residues. This study evaluated the potential of Grewia oppositifolia tree leaves as crude protein (CP) supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep in comparison with cottonseed cake (CSC). Changes in the chemical composition of the leaves with progressive maturation (December to March) were studied. The leaves maintained a high CP content (>164 g/kg dry matter (DM)) during the prolonged maturation in the winter feed scarcity period. The leaves were rich in Ca (41 g/kg DM) and K (89 g/kg DM). The rate of degradation and effective degradability of CP were consistently higher (P < 0.001) in CSC than in G. oppositifolia. A balance trial in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four mature Ramghani wethers showed that DM intake, DM and CP digestibility, and N retention did not differ with the substitution of CSC with G. oppositifolia leaves, as a supplement to a basal diet of sorghum hay. Body weight (BW) gain and wool yield responses to the supplements were examined with 36 lambs (27 ± 3 kg BW; age 11 ± 1 months) for 15 weeks. The lambs were only grazed on local pasture (control group) or supplemented with CSC, G. oppositifolia leaves, and their mixture on iso-N basis. Addition of the supplements increased (P < 0.05) BW gain and wool yield, and the leaves were as effective as CSC. These results demonstrated that G. oppositifolia leaves provide good quality green fodder during the prolonged winter feed scarcity period, and that the leaves can be efficiently utilized as a CP supplement to the low-quality diets of sheep.

  3. Diet supplementation with açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp improves biomarkers of oxidative stress and the serum lipid profile in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Melina Oliveira de; Silva, Maísa; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Oliveira, Riva de Paula; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the antioxidant potential and hypocholesterolemic effects of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp ingestion in rats fed a standard or hypercholesterolemic diet. Methods: Female Fischer rats were fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (control) or a hypercholesterolemic diet that contained 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol. The test diet was supplemented with 2% acai pulp (dry wt/wt) for control (group CA) and hypercholesterolemic rats (group HA) for 6 wk. At the end of the experim...

  4. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid SHAKERI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density. The treatments were as (i control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii control diet + 5% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage. On day 42, 20 birds per treatment were slaughtered to collect blood samples. The results showed higher level of corticosterone and acute phase protein level in control diet compare to other supplemented diets with coconut milk. In conclusion, coconut milk decreased the level of corticosterone and acute phase protein when chicks were subjected to high stocking density.

  5. Effect of probiotic-prebiotic supplementation with diet counseling in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Rathi

    2012-06-01

    . Twenty five patients showed improvement in five point quality of life visual analogue score, while no patient reported any significant adverse event. In conclusion, this short term study of diet counselling with probiotic supplementation showed significant improvement in various parameters of CKD necessitating a longer term study.

  6. Antidiabetic effects of Mangifera indica Kernel Flour?supplemented diet in streptozotocin?induced type 2 diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Irondi, Emmanuel A.; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our previous report showed that Mangifera indica kernel flour (MIKF) is a rich source of pharmacologically important flavonoids and phenolic acids; and that its methanolic extract inhibits some key enzymes linked to the pathology and complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in vitro. Hence, this study evaluated the antidiabetic effects of 10% and 20% MIKF?supplemented diets in T2D in rats. T2D was induced in rats using a high?fat diet (HFD), low?dose streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) model, by ...

  7. Bone characteristics of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with Solanum glaucophyllum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Medeiros Vieites

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of the tibiotarsus of male broilers at 21 and 35 days of age. The percentages of collagenous proteins (CP, non-collagenous proteins (NCP, ash, and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, as well as weight of dried and defatted tibiotarsus in natura were determined. A total of 648 Cobb® male broilers were used in a random block design study with 6 treatments, 6 replicates, and 18 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of diet supplementation with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 ?g of active vitamin D3 per kg of feed. The birds were weighed at 21 and 35 days of age and one bird per repetition with the mean weight of the experimental unit was slaughtered to collect the tibiotarsus. The organic and mineral composition of the bone was affected by the addition of active vitamin D3 to the feed. Our results indicate that a dose of up to 1.50 ?g of 1,25(OH2D3/kg of feed is ideal for male broilers between 8 and 35 days of age.

  8. THESIS-ABSTRACT Supplementation levels of exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H B; Silva, M I A; Mesquita, F R

    2017-08-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the supplementation levels of an exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets and compare two indicators in determining the diets energy. The experiment was divided into two parallel evaluations, being one of performance and the other of metabolism. In performance assay, 1,700 one-day-old Cobb-500 male chicks were used. The animals were distributed in 50 experimental plots and evaluated five treatments with ten replicates in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were: a positive control (PC), a negative control (NC) and three alpha-amylase supplementation levels 200, 400 and 600 g/t, and the NC was formulated with 50 and 90 kcal of energy reduction in relation to the PC to the phases from 1 to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days, respectively. In the metabolism assay were used 240 animals, 150 birds for stage from 14 to 21 days and 90 birds to stage from 35 to 42 days of age and the treatments were the same as the performance assay, with six replicates per treatment in CRD. All diets of metabolism test contained the digestibility indicators Lipe ® (eucalyptus purified lignin) and chromic oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ), in concentrations of 0.05 and 1.0%, respectively. In the period from 1 to 21 days old, no significant differences were observed in weight gain (WG) (P > 0.05), however, feed intake (FI) was found higher by using 200 ppm of enzyme (P 0.05), but were observed lower FI and better FC to PC treatment (P 0.05), but there was lower FI and better FC for the PC treatment (P < 0.05). The AMEn (apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance), determined using the total collection, reaffirmed the values ​​calculated for the PC and NC with intermediate data obtained from the enzyme use (200, 400 and 600 ppm). Comparing the total collection using Lipe ® and Cr 2 O 3 , a correlation was observed only for the PC results, that were always higher, and for the NC results, that were lower for the three methodologies. For IDE

  9. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements and breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, S. B.; Tjonneland, A.; Stripp, C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The influence of the vitamins A, C, and E on breast cancer development has not been clarified. An effect of a vitamin per se implicates similar patterns for the effects of the vitamin from dietary and supplemental sources. We examined how the breast cancer incidence rate among...... A or E for postmenopausal women. For vitamin C we found an increase in breast cancer rate with increasing intake....... postmenopausal women was related to intake of vitamins A, C, and E from diet and supplements. Methods: Data was sampled as case - control nested within the Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' cohort. Data on vitamin intakes were collected at entry into the cohort by means of self-administered questionnaires. Women...

  10. Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Thaddaeus May; Kevin C. Klatt; Jacob Smith; Eumenia Castro; Mark Manary; Marie A. Caudill; Farook Jahoor; Marta L. Fiorotto

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed...

  11. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P red sea bream. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The self-reported clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists as related to smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Elizabeth Downie

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the self-reported, routine clinical practice behaviors of Australian optometrists with respect to advice regarding smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. The study also sought to assess the potential influence of practitioner age, gender, practice location (major city versus regional, therapeutic-endorsement status and personal nutritional supplementation habits upon management practices in these areas.A survey was electronically distributed to Australian optometrists (n = 4,242. Respondents anonymously provided information about their personal demographics and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., age, gender, practice location, therapeutic-endorsement status, smoking status, nutritional supplement intake and routine patient management practices with respect to advice across three domains: smoking, diet and nutritional supplementation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess for potential effects of the listed factors on practitioner behavior.A total of 283 completed surveys were received (completed survey response rate: 6.7%. Fewer than half of respondents indicated routinely asking their patients about smoking status. Younger practitioners were significantly (p < 0.05 less likely to enquire about patients' smoking behaviors, but this did not extend to counseling for smoking cessation. Almost two-thirds of respondents indicated routinely counseling patients about diet. About half of practitioners specified routinely asking their patients about nutritional supplement intake; this form of questioning was significantly more likely if the respondent was female (p < 0.05. Practitioners who recommended nutritional supplements most commonly did so for age-related macular degeneration (91.2% and dry eye disease (63.9%. The primary source of evidence used to guide practitioners' nutrition-related patient management was reported to be peer-reviewed publications.These findings

  13. Impact of supplementing diets with propolis on productive performance, egg quality traits and some haematological variables of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kareem, A A A; El-Sheikh, T M

    2017-06-01

    One hundred and twenty eight, 28-weeks-old Lohmann LSL hybrid layers were used in this experiment, which lasted 12 weeks to investigate the effect of propolis supplementation on the productive performance, egg quality traits and haematological variables of laying hens. All hens were randomly classified into four equal experimental groups, eight replicates (4 birds/each). Hens in group 1 were fed on a commercial diet and considered as control group, while those in groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed on the same commercial diet and supplemented with 250, 500 and 1000 mg propolis/kg diet. The obtained results revealed that daily feed consumption/hen increased insignificantly with increasing propolis level than that of the control group. Regarding the means of egg mass and egg production rate, it was observed that the laying hens fed diets containing 250 and 1000 mg propolis/kg significantly (p hens as compared to those in the control. Concerning the haematological parameters, the results showed that the levels of total protein and globulin increased significantly with increasing propolis level, while cholesterol and liver enzymes were significantly decreased (p hens in the treated groups significantly decreased, whereas the lymphocyte count significantly increased, resulting in a decreased H/L ratio than that of the control group. Thus, it could be concluded that the supplementation of 250 mg propolis/kg diet is highly recommended to improving egg production, blood constituent and haematological parameters of the commercial laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba B. Jallow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks. The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period. Ambient temperature had significant (p0.05 effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality.

  15. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre.

  16. QUALITY OF MILK FATTY ACID DURING LATE LACTATION IN DAIRY GOAT FED ON PUFA-DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH YEAST AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sulistyowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yeast and curcumin of C. xanthorrhiza Roxb could be added into concentrate containingpolyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA to improve milk fatty acid quality of dairy goat. There were fivetreatments (PD0: PUFA- diet with no additive; PDA: PUFA- diet with 3 Asifit tablets; PDY: PUFA- dietwith 5 g yeast; PDC: PUFA- diet with 20 g curcuma powder; and PDM: PUFA- diet with a mixture of 5g yeast and 20 g curcuma powder applied onto 20 dairy goats during late lactation (4.6 ± 0.55 monthsof lactation. The treatments were allocated according to a completely completely randomized blockdesign. Results demonstrated that diet containing PUFA supplemented with 5 g yeast and 20 g curcumawere high in total fatty acid, medium chain fatty acid (MCFA, and long chain fatty acid (LCFA. Milkof goats with this treatment showed high in mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and MUFA; while itwas low in short chain fatty acid (SCFA, n6/n3 ratio, and atherogenicity index. These qualities wereoptimally considered good in terms of healthier product. Therefore, the PUFA- diet with 5 g yeast and20 g curcuma was a reasonable choice to be applied for dairy goat.

  17. Modulatory effects of dietary supplementation by Vernonia amygdalina on high-fat-diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Ijeh, Ifeoma I; Okafor, Polycarp N

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing public health problem arising from energy imbalance. The effect of 10% dietary incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) leaves into high-fat diets on some biological markers of adiposity and dyslipidaemia was investigated. Experimental diets consisted of the following – CD (control diet); HFD (high-fat diet); and HFD- VA (HFD containing 10% Vernonia amygdalina leaves) supplementation. Fifteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of five animals each. After twelve weeks of feeding, serum lipid profile, blood glucose concentrations, body weight, adiposity index, feed intake, fecal loss and relative organ weight were investigated. Vernonia amygdalina (VA) inhibited HFD-induced weight gain and adiposity in rats. HFD-induced obese rats showed a significant increase in the levels of serum TG and TC compared to rats on a normal diet. However, the levels of serum TG, TC, LDL-C in HFDVA rats reduced significantly relative to the levels in HFD rats. Our results indicate that HFDVA reversed fatty infiltration leading to decreased body weight and fat tissue mass in the rats. These results suggested that incorporation of Vernonia amygdalina into high-fat diets may have therapeutic potentials for obesity and related metabolic disorders. Further studies to explore its possibility as an alternative pharmacologic agent to treat obesity are warranted.

  18. Supplementation of broiler diets with high levels of microbial protease and phytase enables partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2018-02-22

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets. Birds that received the protease-free test diets had reduced FI and BWG, but when supplemented with protease, were similar to the control diet in BWG, FI (except 0-35 days) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). When the test diet was supplemented with elevated levels (extradose) of protease and phytase, the BWG was improved during 0-10 days (p = .05) and 0-24 days (p replace SBM in broiler diets, provided the diets are supplemented with elevated levels of protease and phytase. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effect of l-glutamic acid supplementation on performance and nitrogen balance of broilers fed low protein diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Alam, Mohammad Nazmul; Ulla, Anayt; Sumi, Farzana Akther; Subhan, Nusrat; Khan, Trisha; Sikder, Bishwajit; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2017-08-14

    Cardamom is a well-known spice in Indian subcontinent, used in culinary and traditional medicine practices since ancient times. The current investigation was untaken to evaluate the potential benefit of cardamom powder supplementation in high carbohydrate high fat (HCHF) diet induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (28 rats) were divided into four different groups such as Control, Control + cardamom, HCHF, HCHF + cardamom. High carbohydrate and high fat (HCHF) diet was prepared in our laboratory. Oral glucose tolerance test, organs wet weight measurements and oxidative stress parameters analysis as well as liver marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed on the tissues collected from the rats. Plasma lipids profiles were also measured in all groups of animals. Moreover, histological staining was also performed to evaluate inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in liver. The current investigation showed that, HCHF diet feeding in rats developed glucose intolerance and increased peritoneal fat deposition compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation improved the glucose intolerance significantly (p > 0.05) and prevented the abdominal fat deposition in HCHF diet fed rats. HCHF diet feeding in rats also developed dyslipidemia, increased fat deposition and inflammation in liver compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation significantly prevented the rise of lipid parameters (p > 0.05) in HCHF diet fed rats. Histological assessments confirmed that HCHF diet increased the fat deposition and inflammatory cells infiltration in liver which was normalized by cardamom powder supplementation in HCHF diet fed rats. Furthermore, HCHF diet increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant enzymes activities and increased advanced protein oxidation product level significantly (p > 0.05) both in plasma and liver tissue which were modulated by

  1. Therapeutic effects of an alpha-casozepine and L-tryptophan supplemented diet on fear and anxiety in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Gary; Milgram, Bill; Mougeot, Isabelle; Kelly, Stephanie; de Rivera, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Objectives This study assessed the anxiolytic effectiveness of a test diet (Royal Canin Feline Calm diet) supplemented with L-tryptophan and alpha-casozepine. Methods Subjects were 24 cats that were classified as mildly or markedly fearful based on the presence of a person in their home room. Three different protocols were used to assess anxiety: (1) evaluation of the response to a human in the cat's home room (home room test); (2) analysis of the response to placement in an empty test room (open-field test); and (3) analysis of the response to an unfamiliar human (human interaction test). All three protocols were first run at baseline, and the results were used to assign the animals to control and test diet groups that showed equivalent fear and anxiety. Both groups were retested on the three protocols after 2 weeks (test 1) and again after 4 weeks (test 2). Results The diet groups differed for two behavioral measures in the open-field test: inactivity duration and inactivity frequency. The control group showed statistically significant increases in inactivity duration between baseline and test 1 and baseline and test 2, while the group fed the test diet showed a marginally not significant decrease in inactivity duration between baseline and test 1 and a not significant decrease for test 2. There was also a significant increase in inactivity frequency between baseline and test 1 in the test diet group and marginally not significant decrease in the control group. There were no differences between groups in the approach of the cats toward people for the home room test and the human interaction test. Conclusions and relevance These results suggest that the test diet reduced the anxiety response to placement in an unfamiliar location, but that fear in the presence of an unfamiliar person was not counteracted by the diet.

  2. Influence of Rain Tree Pod Meal Supplementation on Rice Straw Based Diets Using Gas Fermentation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the roughage to concentrate (R:C ratio with rain tree pod meal (RPM supplementation on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. The experiment design was a 6×4 factorial arrangement in a CRD. Factor A was 6 levels of R:C ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 and factor B was 4 levels of RPM (0, 4, 8 and 12 mg. It was found that gas kinetic, extent rate (c was linearly increased (p<0.01 with an increasing level of concentrate while cumulative gas production (96 h was higher in R:C of 40:60. In addition, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level affected NH3-N and IVDMD and were highest in R:C of 0:100 with 0, 4 mg of RPM and 40:60 with 8 mg of RPM, respectively. Moreover, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level significantly increased total volatile fatty acids and propionate concentration whereas lower acetate, acetate to propionate ratios and CH4 production in R:C of 20:80 with 8 mg of RPM. Moreover, the two factors, R:C ratio and RPM level influenced the protozoal population and the percentage of methanogens in the total bacteria population. In addition, the use of real-time PCR found that a high level of concentrate in the diet remarkably decreased three cellulolytic bacteria numbers (F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus. Based on this study, it is suggested that the ratio of R:C at 40:60 and RPM level at 12 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of reducing fermentation losses, thus improving VFA profiles and ruminal ecology.

  3. Citrulline diet supplementation improves specific age-related raft changes in wild-type rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Clamagirand, Christine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Rose, Christiane; Sargueil, Françoise; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Cynober, Luc; Moinard, Christophe; Allinquant, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    The levels of molecules crucial for signal transduction processing change in the brain with aging. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains involved in cell signaling. We describe here substantial biophysical and biochemical changes occurring within the rafts in hippocampus neurons from aging wild-type rats and mice. Using continuous sucrose density gradients, we observed light-, medium-, and heavy raft subpopulations in young adult rodent hippocampus neurons containing very low levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and almost no caveolin-1 (CAV-1). By contrast, old rodents had a homogeneous age-specific high-density caveolar raft subpopulation containing significantly more cholesterol (CHOL), CAV-1, and APP. C99-APP-Cter fragment detection demonstrates that the first step of amyloidogenic APP processing takes place in this caveolar structure during physiological aging of the rat brain. In this age-specific caveolar raft subpopulation, levels of the C99-APP-Cter fragment are exponentially correlated with those of APP, suggesting that high APP concentrations may be associated with a risk of large increases in beta-amyloid peptide levels. Citrulline (an intermediate amino acid of the urea cycle) supplementation in the diet of aged rats for 3 months reduced these age-related hippocampus raft changes, resulting in raft patterns tightly close to those in young animals: CHOL, CAV-1, and APP concentrations were significantly lower and the C99-APP-Cter fragment was less abundant in the heavy raft subpopulation than in controls. Thus, we report substantial changes in raft structures during the aging of rodent hippocampus and describe new and promising areas of investigation concerning the possible protective effect of citrulline on brain function during aging.

  4. Finger millet bran supplementation alleviates obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbial derangements in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran

    2014-11-14

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.

  5. Amelioration of High Cholesterol Diet Caused Lipids Accumulation in Hepatic Cells by Rutin and Ascorbic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz M. Aleisa

    2013-01-01

    Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has become a very common metabolic disorder. It refers to a group of conditions where excess fats are deposited in hepatic cells. Several approaches have been considered for the management of NAFLD including dietary changes, which were reported to suppress hepatic lipids accumulation in previous studies. The present study was designed to investigate the possible synergistic effects of Rutin (RT) and Ascorbic Acid (AA) against lipids accumulation in he...

  6. Assessment of enzyme supplementation on growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility in diets containing undecorticated sunflower seed meal in layer chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafiolu, A O; Oduguwa, O O; Jegede, A V; Tukura, C C; Olarotimi, I D; Teniola, A A; Alabi, J O

    2015-08-01

    Six hundred and forty one-day-old layer chicks were used to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal with undecorticated sunflower seed meal protein for protein at 0, 25, 50, and 75% levels. Diets were without enzyme supplementation or with enzyme supplementation with four replications of twenty birds. Growth performance and nutrient utilization were determined. Proximate composition of the undecorticated sunflower seed meal used revealed that undecorticated sunflower seed meal contained 925.9, 204.5, 336.2, 215.1, 52.0 and 192.2g/kg dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and soluble carbohydrates, respectively. Results showed that the final weight of 484.4 g/bird was obtained for birds on 75% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet, while the lowest value of 472.2g/bird was obtained for birds on 25% undecorticated sunflower seed meal diet. Weight gain per bird per day was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected as the level of undecorticated sunflower seed meal increased in the diets. Feed intake per bird per day increased (P meal inclusion in the diet. However, enzyme supplementation of the diets showed marked (P meal inclusion in the diet while crude protein digestibility progressively reduced (P meal increased in the diet. Ash digestibility values were, however, increased (P meal increased in the diets. Birds on enzyme-supplemented diets consistently showed superior (P meal in the diets of layer chicks showed a similar body weight gain/bird/day with the control. Undecorticated sunflower seed meal used in this study is a good source of crude protein, ether extract, and amino acids and had the potential to serve as feeding stuffs as replacement for soybeans. The nutritive value of undecorticated sunflower seed meal was improved for layer chicks with exogenous enzyme supplementation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostan, R; Béné, M C; Spazzafumo, L; Pinto, A; Donini, L M; Pryen, F; Charrouf, Z; Valentini, L; Lochs, H; Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Blanc-Bisson, C; Buccolini, F; Brigidi, P; Franceschi, C; d'Alessio, P A

    2016-08-01

    Eating habits may influence the life span and the quality of ageing process by modulating inflammation. The RISTOMED project was developed to provide a personalized and balanced diet, enriched with or without nutraceutical compounds, to decrease and prevent inflammageing, oxidative stress and gut microbiota alteration in healthy elderly people. This paper focused on the effect on inflammation and metabolism markers after 56 days of RISTOMED diet alone or supplementation with three nutraceutical compounds. A cohort of 125 healthy elderly subjects was recruited and randomized into 4 arms (Arm A, RISTOMED diet; Arm B, RISTOMED diet plus VSL#3 probiotic blend; Arm C, RISTOMED diet plus AISA d-Limonene; Arm D, RISTOMED diet plus Argan oil). Inflammatory and metabolism parameters as well as the ratio between Clostridium cluster IV and Bifidobacteria (CL/B) were collected before and after 56 days of dietary intervention, and their evolution compared among the arms. Moreover, participants were subdivided according to their baseline inflammatory parameters (erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein, fibrinogen, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alfa (TNF-α), and Interleukin 6) in two clusters with low or medium-high level of inflammation. The evolution of the measured parameters was then examined separately in each cluster. Overall, RISTOMED diet alone or with each nutraceutical supplementation significantly decreased ESR. RISTOMED diet supplemented with d-Limonene resulted in a decrease in fibrinogen, glucose, insulin levels and HOMA-IR. The most beneficial effects were observed in subjects with a medium-high inflammatory status who received RISTOMED diet with AISA d-Limonene supplementation. Moreover, RISTOMED diet associated with VSL#3 probiotic blend induced a decrease in the CL/B ratio. Overall, this study emphasizes the beneficial anti-inflammageing effect of RISTOMED diet supplemented with nutraceuticals to control the inflammatory status of elderly

  8. Daily supplementation with fresh pomegranate juice increases paraoxonase 1 expression and activity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Luna, D; Martínez-Hinojosa, E; Cancino-Diaz, J C; Belefant-Miller, H; López-Rodríguez, G; Betanzos-Cabrera, G

    2018-02-01

    Studies have found that pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption increases the binding of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1), thus increasing the catalytic activity of this enzyme. PON1 is an antioxidant arylesterase synthesized in the liver and transported in plasma in association with HDL. Decreased levels of PON1 are associated with higher levels of cholesterol. We determined the effects of PJ on body weight, cholesterol, and triacylglycerols through 5 months of supplementation. In addition, the effect of PJ on pon1 gene expression in the liver was also measured by RT-qPCR as well as the activity in serum by a semiautomated method using paraoxon as a substrate. CD-1 mice were either fed a control diet or were fed a high-fat diet 1.25% (wt/wt) cholesterol, 0.5% (wt/wt) sodium cholate, and 15% (wt/wt) saturated fat. 300 μL of PJ containing 0.35 mmol total polyphenols was administered by oral gavage to half of the high fat mice daily. The rest of the high fat mice and the control mice were administered with 300 μL of water. PJ-supplemented animals had significantly higher levels of expression of pon1 compared to the unsupplemented group. PJ-supplemented animals had twice the PON1 activity of the unsupplemented group. In addition, PJ-supplemented animals had the lowest body weight and significantly reduced cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, although the tricylglycerol levels were not consistently decreased. These results suggest that PJ protects against the effects of a high-fat diet in body weight, and cholesterol levels.

  9. Dietary creatine supplementation lowers hepatic triacylglycerol by increasing lipoprotein secretion in rats fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robin P; Leonard, Kelly-Ann; Jacobs, René L

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary creatine supplementation can prevent lipid accumulation in the liver. Creatine is a small molecule that plays a large role in energy metabolism, but since the enzyme creatine kinase is not present in the liver, the classical role in energy metabolism does not hold in this tissue. Fat accumulation in the liver can lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a progressive disease that is prevalent in humans. We have previously reported that creatine can directly influence lipid metabolism in cell culture to promote lipid secretion and oxidation. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether similar mechanisms that occur in cell culture were present in vivo. We also sought to determine whether dietary creatine supplementation could be effective in reversing steatosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with creatine for 5 weeks. We found that rats supplemented with creatine had significantly improved rates of lipoprotein secretion and alterations in mitochondrial function that were consistent with greater oxidative capacity. We also find that introducing creatine into a high-fat diet halted hepatic lipid accumulation in rats with fatty liver. Our results support our previous report that liver cells in culture with creatine secrete and oxidize more oleic acid, demonstrating that dietary creatine can effectively change hepatic lipid metabolism by increasing lipoprotein secretion and oxidation in vivo. Our data suggest that creatine might be an effective therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Faqir Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  11. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Haider, Muhammad Faizan; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Sohaib, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid

    2013-02-08

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  12. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.

    2013-01-01

    -term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments...

  13. HPMC supplementation reduces fatty liver, intestinal permeability, and insulin resistance with altered hepatic gene expression in diet-induced obese mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on global hepatic gene profiles, steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet supplemented with either ...

  14. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources.

  15. Caffeine-supplemented diet modulates oxidative stress markers and improves locomotor behavior in the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cícera Simoni; de Cássia Gonçalves de Lima, Rita; Elekofehinti, Olusola Olalekan; Ogunbolude, Yetunde; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Alencar de Menezes, Irwin Rose; Barros, Luiz Marivando; Tsopmo, Appolinaire; Lukong, Kiven Erique; Kamdem, Jean Paul

    2018-02-25

    The effects of caffeine supplementation is well documented in conventional animal models, however, in the lobster cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, they have not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor behavior and biochemical endpoints in the head of the nymphs of N. cinerea following 60 days exposure to food supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg of caffeine/g of diet. The analysis of the locomotor behavior using the video-tracking software, Any-maze, for 12 min revealed that caffeine supplementation caused significant behavioral improvement. There was increase in distance travelled, velocity, frequency of rotation and turn angle (stereotypical behavior such as circling movements), and this was supported by the representative track plots of the path travelled by cockroaches in the open-field arena. In addition, caffeine supplementation markedly increased total thiol and non-protein thiol glutathione (GSH) levels in the heads of cockroaches, and this was in parallel with significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and free Fe(II) content. Taking together, our results indicate that long-term caffeine supplementation may exert preventive effects against oxidative stress and support the use of N. cinerea as an efficient alternative model to assess the efficacy of food molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of soybean curd waste supplementation on water buffalo ration offered local grass a basal diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Z.; Hendratno, C.; Suharyono; Bahaudin, R.

    1988-01-01

    A trial has been conducted to determine the optimal level of soybean curd waste supplementation on growing water buffalo offered local grass as a basal diet. Four ration given to water buffalo were assigned in 4 x 4 latin square design consisting of local grass +0.25% soybean curd waste (A), local grass +0.50% soybean curd waste (B), local grass + 0% soybean curd waste (C), and local grass +0.75% soybean curd waste (D). The result indicated that total intake (P<0.01), dry matter digestibility (P<0.01) and liveweight gain (P<0.025) were significantly increased by the supplementation. However, the grass intake were relatively constant for all rations. N-amonia concentration and volatile fatty acids production in the rumen liquor were significantly increased (P<0.01). Total protozol counts and rumen pH were not significantly different among the four rations, however there was a strong tendency (P<0.1) that protozol counts will be decreased due to soybean curd waste supplementation. Estimation of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen by radiophosphorous (32-P) assay indicated that soybean curd waste supplementation significantly influeced (P<0.05) the protein synthesis in the rumen. This experiment concluded that : a). soybean curd waste could stimulate he growing water buffaloes offered local grass and b). the optimal level of soybean curd waste supplementation were ranged between 0.50 - 0.75% of body weight. (authors). 15 refs, 3 tabs

  17. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  18. Effects of fumaric acid supplementation on methane production and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongjun; Liu, Nannan; Cao, Yangchun; Jin, Chunjia; Li, Fei; Cai, Chuanjiang; Yao, Junhu

    2018-01-01

    In rumen fermentation, fumaric acid (FA) could competitively utilize hydrogen with methanogenesis to enhance propionate production and suppress methane emission, but both effects were diet-dependent. This study aimed to explore the effects of FA supplementation on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size. Four rumen-cannulated goats were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: low or high ratio of forage particle size: concentrate particle size (Fps:Cps), without or with FA supplementation (24 g/d). Fps:Cps was higher in the diet with chopped alfalfa hay plus ground corn than in that with ground alfalfa hay plus crushed corn. Both increasing dietary Fps:Cps and FA supplementation shifted ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) patterns toward more propionate and less acetate in goats. An interaction between dietary Fps:Cps and FA supplementation was observed for the ratio of acetate to propionate (A:P), which was more predominant when FA was supplemented in the low-Fps:Cps diet. Methane production was reduced by FA, and the reduction was larger in the low-Fps:Cps diet (31.72%) than in the high-Fps:Cps diet (17.91%). Fumaric acid decreased ruminal total VFA concentration and increased ruminal pH. No difference was found in ruminal DM degradation of concentrate or alfalfa hay by dietary Fps:Cps or FA. Goats presented a lower ruminal methanogen abundance with FA supplementation and a higher B. fibrisolvens abundance with high dietary Fps:Cps. Adjusting dietary Fps:Cps is an alternative dietary model for studying diet-dependent effects without changing dietary chemical composition. Fumaric acid supplementation in the low-Fps:Cps diet showed greater responses in methane mitigation and propionate increase.

  19. Effects of Propolis, Royal Jelly, Bee Pollen and Ronozyme Supplementation in Diets of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) on Yolk Lipid Peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz S; Tatli Seven P; Kaya E

    2017-01-01

    This study discovers the possible effect propolis, royal jelly, bee pollen and Ronozyme supplementation in diets that can be beneficial for Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Total one hundred and sixty Japanese quails at 43 days of age were used and divided randomly into 4 replicate groups each containing 32 animals. The experimental groups as follows: control group was feed a basal diet, royal jelly group was added to the water with 500 mg/kg diet, propolis group was feed orally ...

  20. Effects of carbohydrase enzyme supplementation on performance, eggshell quality, and bone parameters of laying hens fed on maize- and wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Osman; Altay, Y; Yildiz, Alp O

    2018-04-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of enzyme supplementation of maize/wheat-based diets on the performance, egg quality, and serum and bone parameters of laying hens. 2. During the 12-week experimental period, a total of 72 laying hens aged 52 weeks were randomly distributed among 6 experimental groups. Each experimental group contained 4 replicates, each with three birds. The experiment was a randomised design consisting of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three levels of wheat substitution and two levels of enzyme (xylanase: 1500.00 U/kg, β-glucanase: 100 000 U/kg, cellulase: 1 000 000 U/kg, α-amylase: 160 000 U/kg) inclusion in the diet. Wheat replaced 0, 50, or 100% of maize with or without 1.0 g/kg enzyme supplementation in iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric experimental diets. 3. Body weight, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, eggshell thickness, and the feed conversion ratio were adversely affected by the wheat-based diet. The eggshell quality parameters decreased with enzyme supplementation to the diet. 4. Wheat-based diets adversely affected calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the tibia, but the addition of the enzymes to the wheat-based diet prevented the negative effects of wheat-based diets on tibia mineralisation in laying hens. The wheat-based diets tended to reduce plasma mineral contents, and the addition of enzymes tended to affect plasma minerals and biomechanical properties of the tibia positively in laying hens. 5. These results indicate that wheat-based diets in aged laying hens adversely affected the mineral metabolism compared with maize-based diets, and the negative effects of wheat on bone mineralisation can be prevented by enzyme supplementation to the diets in laying hens.

  1. Effects of yeast culture supplement on digestion of nutrients and rumen fermentation in cattle fed on grass silage barley diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Huhtanen

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of including yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus growth medium; 5 x 106 organisms/g on the digestion of dietary constituents in the rumen and total digestive tract were studied in a pair of monozygote twin bulls. The animals were fitted with cannulae in the rumen and in the proximal duodenum. A diet of grass silage, barley and rapeseed meal (445, 445 and 90 g/kg total dry matter (DM was fed, with and without addition of 10 g per day of yeast culture (YC, in two treatment sequences. The addition of YC had no effect on the mean values of rumen pH, ammonia N concentration or molar proportions of volatile fatty acids. Also, the postprandial changes in rumen fermentation pattern were similar when the diet did and did not contain the YC supplement. The peak concentration of lactic acid 1 h after feeding tended to be higher in cattle receiving the YC diet (13.9 v 6.0 mmol/l. Apparent digestibility of organic matter (OM (mean 0.780 and the proportion of OM digestion occurring in the rumen (mean 0.603 were not affected by YC. Likewise, there was no effect on rumen or total digestion of cell wall carbohydrates, and the results for the degradation of hay DM in the rumen and for particle-associated carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities indicated that YC had no effect on the rumen environment that could affect fibre digestion. Supplemental yeast did not affect the rate of microbial N synthesis (28.0 and 28.6 g/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen. The results indicate that the addition of YC to the diet is not likely to improve the efficiency of digestion and fermentation in the rumen of cattle given a diet based on grass silage and barley.

  2. Phylogenetic characterization of fecal microbial communities of dogs fed diets with or without supplemental dietary fiber using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar S Middelbos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dogs suffer from many of the same maladies as humans that may be affected by the gut microbiome, but knowledge of the canine microbiome is incomplete. This work aimed to use 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to phylogenetically characterize hindgut microbiome in dogs and determine how consumption of dietary fiber affects community structure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six healthy adult dogs were used in a crossover design. A control diet without supplemental fiber and a beet pulp-supplemented (7.5% diet were fed. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rDNA gene amplified using primers suitable for 454-pyrosequencing. Microbial diversity was assessed on random 2000-sequence subsamples of individual and pooled DNA samples by diet. Our dataset comprised 77,771 reads with an average length of 141 nt. Individual samples contained approximately 129 OTU, with Fusobacteria (23-40% of reads, Firmicutes (14-28% of reads and Bacteroidetes (31-34% of reads being co-dominant phyla. Feeding dietary fiber generally decreased Fusobacteria and increased Firmicutes, but these changes were not equally apparent in all dogs. UniFrac analysis revealed that structure of the gut microbiome was affected by diet and Firmicutes appeared to play a strong role in by-diet clustering. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest three co-dominant bacterial phyla in the canine hindgut. Furthermore, a relatively small amount of dietary fiber changed the structure of the gut microbiome detectably. Our data are among the first to characterize the healthy canine gut microbiome using pyrosequencing and provide a basis for studies focused on devising dietary interventions for microbiome-associated diseases.

  3. Effect of Dietary Cocoa Tea (Camellia ptilophylla Supplementation on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Hyperlipidemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Rong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that green tea has the potential to protect against diet-induced obesity. The presence of caffeine within green tea has caused limitations. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. To determine whether cocoa tea supplementation results in an improvement in high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis, and whether such effects would be comparable to those of green tea extract, we studied six groups of C57BL/6 mice that were fed with (1 normal chow (N; (2 high-fat diet (21% butterfat + 0.15% cholesterol, wt/wt (HF; (3 a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% green tea extract (HFLG; (4 a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% green tea extract (HFHG; (5 a high-fat diet supplemented with 2% cocoa tea extract (HFLC; and (6 a high-fat diet supplemented with 4% cocoa tea extract (HFHC. From the results, 2% and 4% dietary cocoa tea supplementation caused a dose-dependent decrease in (a body weight, (b fat pad mass, (c liver weight, (d total liver lipid, (e liver triglyceride and cholesterol, and (f plasma lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol. These data indicate that dietary cocoa tea, being naturally decaffeinated, has a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis, and elevated plasma lipid levels in mice, which are comparable to green tea. The present findings have provided the proof of concept that dietary cocoa tea might be of therapeutic value and could therefore provide a safer and cost effective option for patients with diet-induced metabolic syndrome.

  4. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Adam M; Strauss, Robyn P; McSpadden, Sarah B; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Woo, Ken H; Diepeveen, Luke A; London, Roslyn; Callus, Bernard A; Yeoh, George C

    2015-12-01

    The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC)-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet). Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100%) for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet. Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100% for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality.

  6. Immune response and growth of Lates calcarifer fed on hydrolized protein-supplemented diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi Novriadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was aimed to investigate the effects of protein hydrolysates on growth performance and immune response of the Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer Bloch. The experiment was performed in two different rearing period, namely nursery and grow out by using completely randomized design. Experimental fish were fed with three types of diets and each treatment was repeated three times: a local commercial diet (control, coated or not, with 2%, and 3% of protein hydrolysates. Challenge test was performed with Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a density of 105 sel/mL by using immersion method. The results showed that the the neutrofil, leukocyte and monocyte of the fish fed on protein hydrolisates were significantly higher than those non-supplemented group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, the lymphocyte on the fish treated with hydrolisates showed no difference amongst treatments (P<0.05. The growth performance of Asian sea bass fed on protein hydrolisates significantly improved the total fish weight (g, relative weight gain, specific growth rate, final weight (g and final length (cm in comparison to the control (P<0.05 both at nursery and grow out phase. Higher survival both at the nursery and grow out phase were obtained by the group fed with 3% protein hydrolisates: 97.28±0.18% and 86.0±4.32%. Followed with 2% supplementation level 96.75±0.28% and 78.4±7.7%. The lowest survival was shown by the control group with 93.65±0.13% and 20.1±21.1% from nursery and grow-out phase respectively. Results of challenged test showed that the protein hydrolisates supplementation was able to improve the post-challenged survival and resistency of Asian sea bass against V. parahaemolyticus infection. Fish treated with 3% protein hydrolisates generated higher survival 78,33±2,89%, followed by treatment 2% 73,33±5,77%, and control 31,67±7,64% after five days post immersion (P<0.05. Keywords: Asian sea bass, protein hydrolisates, growth, immune system

  7. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chaplin

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  8. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation under a High-Fat Diet Modulates Stomach Protein Expression and Intestinal Microbiota in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Alice; Parra, Pilar; Serra, Francisca; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract constitutes a physiological interface integrating nutrient and microbiota-host metabolism. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to contribute to decreased body weight and fat accretion. The modulation by dietary CLA of stomach proteins related to energy homeostasis or microbiota may be involved, although this has not been previously analysed. This is examined in the present study, which aims to underline the potential mechanisms of CLA which contribute to body weight regulation. Adult mice were fed either a normal fat (NF, 12% kJ content as fat) or a high-fat (HF, 43% kJ content as fat) diet. In the latter case, half of the animals received daily oral supplementation of CLA. Expression and content of stomach proteins and specific bacterial populations from caecum were analysed. CLA supplementation was associated with an increase in stomach protein expression, and exerted a prebiotic action on both Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and Akkermansia muciniphila. However, CLA supplementation was not able to override the negative effects of HF diet on Bifidobacterium spp., which was decreased in both HF and HF+CLA groups. Our data show that CLA are able to modulate stomach protein expression and exert a prebiotic effect on specific gut bacterial species.

  9. Quercetin supplemented diet improves follicular development, oocyte quality, and reduces ovarian apoptosis in rabbits during summer heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Epikmen, Erkmen Tuğrul; Uçan, Uğur; Boyacioğlu, Murat; İpek, Emrah; Akosy, Melih

    2017-07-01

    The present study was designed to test the modulatory effect of dietary quercetin on follicle population, apoptosis, in vitro maturation rate and quality of oocytes in heat stressed female rabbits. A total of thirty-four New Zealand White heat stress (HS) exposed female rabbits were either fed with quercetin supplemented diet (QU-HS) or non-supplemented (HS) diet. Firstly, laparotomy was performed for oocyte retrieval and then, oocyte grading and COCs dimensional assessments were conducted. The A and B-grade oocytes were submitted for in vitro maturation. Thereafter, the ovaries were collected from rabbits and were processed for follicular population estimation and granulosa cells apoptosis. The results showed that follicle number, retrieved oocytes and A-grade oocytes were higher in QU-HS, comparatively. A significant difference was observed in A-grade oocytes dimensions between QU-HS and HS treatment groups. The oocyte maturation rate was same across the groups. The quercetin supplementation significantly improved primordial and antral stage follicles. A greater number of apoptotic cells were observed in primary and antral follicles in the HS group. In conclusion, the quercetin provision improves the follicular development, minimize granulosa cells apoptosis, and maintain the oocyte competence in HS rabbits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Phosphorus Supplementation Recovers the Blunted Diet-Induced Thermogenesis of Overweight and Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S. Bassil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05, which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02 lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm. P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety.

  11. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

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    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  12. Multiple-enzyme supplementation on digestive traits, carcass characteristics, blood lipid parameters and growth performance of broilers fed a wheat-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Taheri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective A trial was conducted from 11 to 42 d post-hatch to investigate the effectiveness of the supplementation of a multiple-enzyme preparation (Natuzyme Plus in a wheat-based diet on digesta viscosity, pH and microbial population, villus morphology, feed passage time, nutrient retention, carcass characteristics, blood lipid parameters and growth performance of broiler chickens. Methods Three hundreds 10-d-old male Ross 308 chicks were allocated to three diets with five replicates of 20 birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were i a wheat-based diet (W, ii W+Natuzyme Plus (WN; 500 mg/kg of the diet, and iii a corn-based diet (C. Results Birds fed on the C diet had higher average daily gain (ADG, p0.05 difference compared to those of the C diet. Compared to those of the W diet, the WN diet showed the higher count of Lactobacilli and lower count of coliforms (p<0.01 and digesta viscosity (p<0.01. Conclusion In general, the results of this study showed that Natuzyme Plus supplementation in a wheat-based diet can be appropriate to achieve a comparable growth performance in broiler chickens to those given the C diet probably through improving digesta viscosity, VH, ET, TTAR of NT and EE, AMEn, count of Lactobacilli and coliforms.

  13. Utilization of conserved Lucerne Hay as a Protein Supplement in the Diet of Calves on Smallholder Farms of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.W.; Tamminga, S.; Mitaru, B.N.

    1999-01-01

    The nutritive value and the conserved lucerne hay as a protein supplement in the diet of calves reared on the smallholder farms of Kenya was studied in relation to feed intake, growth rate and efficiency of feed utilization. Forty Friesian calves aged one week were allocate in a completely randomised design experiment to the following five dietary treatments: Napier Grass only (N) and supplemented with 33% lucerne (NL33), 50% lucerne (NL50), 67% lucerne (NL67) and 100% lucerne hay (L100) in the diet of calves. Results showed that increasing the level of lucerne supplementation in the ratio of dairy calves from 50 to 100% lucerne hay significantly (P <0.01) increased the crude protein content the mixed ration from 13.8 t o 16.88% CP which would meet the protein, requirement of the growing ruminants. The growth rate of calves increased linearly (P < 0.001) with the levels of lucerne supplements fro 50 to 100 % lucerne hay resulting in 0.02 kg gain more growth per day per kg additional feed supplement given. The cost of production per kg gain decreased with increase in the level of lucerne supplementation and cost of could further reduced by farmers growing lucerne on the smallholder farms for use in compounding home-made ration at the farm level. Result of these study further shows that lucerne as a leguminous forage has ability to fix Nitrogen in the soil which has significantly effect on soil fertility, increased crop yields and reduction in the cost of fertilisers. It is recommended that an acre of lucerne could yield five to seven tons of dry matter per year sufficient to rear a herd of 15 to 20 calves for a period of 1 year. This research has further shown that a pure stand of lucerne crop which is very deep rooted crop has a longevity of five to seven years in the same field and that pest and diseases are not of a serious problem to lucerne, thus making it excellent supplementary legume to the Napier grass in the diet of calves on smallholder farms of Kenya

  14. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( Pcobia.

  15. Effects of wheat cultivar, metabolizable energy level, and xylanase supplementation to laying hens diet on performance, egg quality traits, and selected blood parameters

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    Masoud Mirzaee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary apparent metabolizable energy (AME levels (2,720 and 2,580 kcal kg-1 diet and enzyme (0 and 0.3 g kg-1 diet, Grindazym® GP 15,000 with mostly xylanase activity supplementation on the performance of laying hens fed diets based on two wheat cultivars (Marvdasht and Sardari. Experimental diets were formulated to have a constant energy to protein ratio and were fed to 65-wk-old Lohmann LSL-Lite laying hens for 7 wk. The lower level of AME reduced egg production and egg mass (p<0.05 and increased feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Enzyme addition increased feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Sardari cultivar (p<0.05 but had no effect on feed intake of the birds fed a diet with Marvdasht cultivar (p>0.05. Nevertheless, birds receiving diets based on Marvdasht cultivar had higher feed intake and egg mass than that of those receiving diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The birds fed diets based on Marvdasht cultivar produced less undesired eggs and had better yolk color as compared with the birds fed diets based on Sardari cultivar (p<0.05. The serum concentration of glucose increased by enzyme supplementation when birds receiving lower AME level (p<0.05. These results indicate that enzyme supplementation may have a positive effect on the feed intake of laying hens when fed on wheat-based diets; however, this effect is cultivar dependent and does not necessarily mean that enzyme supplementation always benefit production.

  16. Long-term outcome on renal replacement therapy in patients who previously received a keto acid-supplemented very-low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Couzi, Lionel; Vendrely, Benoit; de Précigout, Valérie; Combe, Christian; Fouque, Denis; Aparicio, Michel

    2009-10-01

    The consequences of a supplemented very-low-protein diet remain a matter of debate with regard to patient outcome before or after the onset of renal replacement therapy. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcome during maintenance dialysis and/or transplantation in patients who previously received a supplemented very-low-protein diet. We assessed the outcome of 203 patients who received a supplemented very-low-protein diet for >3 mo (inclusion period: 1985-2000) and started dialysis after a mean diet duration of 33.1 mo (4-230 mo). The survival rate in the whole cohort was 79% and 63% at 5 and 10 y, respectively. One hundred two patients continued with chronic dialysis during the entire follow-up, and 101 patients were grafted at least once. Patient outcomes were similar to those of the French Dialysis Registry patients for the dialysis group and similar to the 865 patients who were transplanted in Bordeaux during the same period for the transplant group. There was no correlation between death rate and duration of diet. The lack of correlation between death rate and duration of diet and the moderate mortality rate observed during the first 10 y of renal replacement therapy confirm that a supplemented very-low-protein diet has no detrimental effect on the outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease who receive renal replacement therapy.

  17. Effect of diet supplementation with live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, caecal ecosystem and health of growing rabbits

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    T. Belhassen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance, caecal ecosystem and overall health of growing rabbits. A control diet was formulated (crude protein: 15.9%; neutral detergent fibre: 31.6% and another diet obtained by supplementing the control diet with 1 g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (6.5×109 colony-forming units per kg of diet. Ninety 35-d old rabbits were allotted into 3 groups: TT (rabbits offered the supplemented diet from 17 d of age onwards, CT (rabbits offered supplemented diet from 35 d and CC (rabbits fed non-supplemented diet. Body weight (BW and feed intake were measured weekly and mortality was controlled daily. At 35, 42 and 77 d of age, 6 rabbits from each group were slaughtered and digestive physiological traits, serum clinical chemistry parameters, fermentation traits, and the composition of caecal microbiota examined. At 42 and 56 d of age, 10 rabbits from each group were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μg/animal of ovalbumin and blood samples were collected for examination of plasma immunological parameters. Throughout the experiment (5-11 wk, weight gain and feed intake (37.8 and 112.6 g/d, on av. were not affected by yeast, except for weight gain in the first week after weaning, which was the highest in TT animals among the 3 groups (48.1 vs. 43.9 and 44.2 g/d for TT, CC and CT, respectively; P=0.012. This may be due to the increased trend in feed intake (P=0.072 in the TT group (96.4 g/d compared to the others. Mortality (5/90 was low and did not differ among the 3 groups. Treatments had no effect on slaughter traits at the 3 sampling dates (35, 42 and 77 d. Only the weight of the empty caecum (% BW was higher (P=0.02 in CC (2.2% and CT (2.3% than in TT group (1.8% at 77 d of age. Treatments did not overtly affect the caecal microbiota, although the number of total anaerobic bacteria and Bacteroides were lower (108 and 107/g caecal digesta

  18. Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

    2014-11-01

    The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6 ± 11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6 kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8 kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1 kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37 kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of diet supplementation with Toyocerin (R) (Bacillus cereus var. toyoi) on performance and health of growing rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Trocino, A.; Xiccato, G.; Carraro, L.; Jimenez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were performed to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplementation with Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on performance and health of growing rabbits. The studies were conducted in two commercial farms using the same experimental diets. In the first trial, 216 rabbits were controlled from 35 d (weaning) until 70 d of age. In the second trial, 180 rabbits were controlled from 37 until 79 d of age. At weaning, rabbits were put into bicellular cages, divided into three groups and fed the ex...

  20. Supplementation of extract of Lafoensia pacari in the diet of semi heavy laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina da Silva Moreira; José Henrique Stringhini; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Emmanuel Arhnold; Raiana Almeida Noleto; Fabyola Barros de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    It was intended to evaluate the supplementation of Lafoensia pacari standardized in tannins extract in the diet of laying hens on the performance, internal and external quality of eggs and metabolism of the feed nutrients. A total of 168 Isa Brown laying hens, aged 24 weeks, with the mean weight of 2.6 kg and the mean posture rate of 87% were used during 4 periods of 28 days each. The treatments consisted of Halquinol performance-enhancing antibiotic, Mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) prebiotic and...

  1. The effect of a diet supplemented with sea-buckthorn pomace on the colour and viscosity of the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea-buckthorn pomace is a very valuable product which contains not only important nutrients but also high-quality oils. The question addressed in the present study was to what extent the diet containing the sea-buckthorn pomace would affect the viscosity and colour of egg yolk measured in the CIELAB system. The feeding mixture for laying hens was supplemented with 20; 50 and 100 g∙kg-1 of sea-buckthorn pomace. As a result, colour indices of the egg yolk such as L*, a* and b* changed significantly (α = 0.01. The greatest relative enhancement was observed for indicator a* for the red colour. Visually, this corresponds to the more intense orange colour of the egg yolk. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet for laying hens resulted in a larger increase in indicator ∆E* (CIE total colour difference compared to the control group. Colour indicator hab is the only indicator whose value oscillated around that determined for the control group. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet resulted in an increase in colour indices a*, b* and C*ab. Indicator ∆E* also increased significantly with an increasing amount of sea-buckthorn pomace in a diet. Egg yolks were darker, had more intense red and yellow colours, and showed lower viscosity which are all features preferred by the consumer.

  2. Oreochromis mossambicus diet supplementation with Psidium guajava leaf extracts enhance growth, immune, antioxidant response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Ramya, Chinnu; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vijayakumar, Sekar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    In this research, we focused on the efficacy of aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Psidium guajava L. (guava) based experimental diets on the growth, immune, antioxidant and disease resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus following challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental diets were prepared by mixing powdered (1, 5 and 10 mg/g) aqueous and ethanol extract of guava leaf with commercial diet. The growth (FW, FCR and SGR), non-specific cellular immune (myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen activity and reactive nitrogen activity) humoral immune (complement activity, antiprotease, alkaline phosphatase activity and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant enzyme responses (SOD, GPX, and CAT) were examined after 30 days of post-feeding. A significant enhancement in the biochemical and immunological parameters of fish were observed fed with experimental diets compared to control. The dietary supplementation of P. guajava leaf extract powder for 30 days significantly reduced the mortality and increased the disease resistance of O. mossambicus following challenge with A. hydrophila at 50 μl (1 × 10 7  cells ml -1 ) compared to control after post-infection. The results suggest that the guava leaf extract could be used as a promising feed additive in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

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    Jamil Cappelli

    Full Text Available Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10 that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 15. Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced, and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  4. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  5. Effects of cellulase supplementation to corn soybean meal-based diet on the performance of sows and their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi D; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-07-01

    A total of 15 primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the current study to evaluate the efficacy of cellulase supplementation on the production performance of sows and piglets. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of three treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) CON (corn-soybean meal-based control); (ii) EZ1 (CON + 0.05% cellulase); and (iii) EZ2 (CON + 0.10% cellulase). The supplementation of cellulase had no effect (P > 0.05) on body weight and feed intake of lactating sows. At weaning, back fat thickness loss decreased (P = 0.04) linearly in EZ1 and EZ2 treatments. The average daily gain (ADG) of piglets increased (linear P = 0.06, quadratic P = 0.04)) during days 14 to 21 as well as at days 21 to 25 (linear P = 0.03 and quadratic P = 0.01) with the increase in the level of supplemented enzyme. Dry matter and nitrogen digestibility increased (linear P = 0.01) in lactating sows fed EZ1 and EZ2 diet compared with CON. In conclusion, it is suggested that cellulase supplementation to corn-soybean meal based diet exerts beneficial effects to sows in reducing their back fat thickness loss at weaning and also helps to improve nutrient digestibility. It also helped to improve the ADG of piglets. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. A combination of exercise and capsinoid supplementation additively suppresses diet-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kana; Nogusa, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Katsuya; Shinoda, Kosaku; Kajimura, Shingo; Bannai, Makoto

    2015-02-15

    Exercise effectively prevents the development of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Capsinoids (CSNs) are capsaicin analogs found in a nonpungent pepper that increase whole body energy expenditure. Although both exercise and CSNs have antiobesity functions, the effectiveness of exercise with CSN supplementation has not yet been investigated. Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects of exercise could be further enhanced by CSN supplementation in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: 1) high-fat diet (HFD, Control), 2) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs, 3) HFD with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise), and 4) HFD containing 0.3% CSNs with voluntary running wheel exercise (Exercise + CSN). After 8 wk of ingestion, blood and tissues were collected and analyzed. Although CSNs significantly suppressed body weight gain under the HFD, CSN supplementation with exercise additively decreased body weight gain and fat accumulation and increased whole body energy expenditure compared with exercise alone. Exercise together with CSN supplementation robustly improved metabolic profiles, including the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, this combination significantly prevented diet-induced liver steatosis and decreased the size of adipocyte cells in white adipose tissue. Exercise and CSNs significantly increased cAMP levels and PKA activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating an increase of lipolysis. Moreover, they significantly activated both the oxidative phosphorylation gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CSNs efficiently promote the antiobesity effect of exercise, in part by increasing energy expenditure via the activation of fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in BAT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  8. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  9. Effect of Spirulina platensis Supplementation by Different Concentration in Diet on Red Color Intensity of Kohaku Koi (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kohaku koi (Cyprinus carpio is one of the fancy koi that has a high price.  Red color intensity of kohaku determines its market price.  This study was performed to verify the effect of Spirulina platensis supplementation in diet  with different dosages (1, 3 and 5% on red color intensity of kohaku koi.  The result of study show that inclusion of Spirulina platensis in the diet increased intensity of koi color.  Feeding with  1% of Spirulina platensis enriched paste diet for 5 weeks resulted in  a brighter red color compared to other treatments and control.   Alteration of red color intensity has not been followed by its patch length.  No effect of Spirulina supplementation on koi growth by weight and length were observed. Keywords: Spirulina platensis, color, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio   ABSTRAK Ikan koi kohaku (Cyprinus carpio L merupakan salah satu jenis ikan koi yang memiliki harga tinggi.  Kecerahan warna merah ikan koi kohaku menentukan harga jualnya.  Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Spirulina platensis in the diet dengan dosis berbeda (1, 3 dan 5% terhadap kualitas warna merah koi kohaku.  Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Spirulina platensis melalui pakan dapat meningkatkan kualitas warna pada ikan koi. Pemberian pakan berupa pasta yang diperkaya dengan Spirulina platensis sebanyak 1% selama 5 minggu menghasilkan warna merah lebih cerah dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya dan kontrol. Perubahan warna yang terjadi tidak diikuti oleh perubahan panjang bercak warnanya. Penambahan Spirulina pada pakan tidak berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan berat dan panjang ikan koi. Kata kunci: Spirulina platensis, warna, kohaku, koi, Cyprinus carpio

  10. Supplementation of NSP Enzyme Increased the Nutritive Value of Diets Fed to Lactating Sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Fisker, B N

    2017-01-01

    parity sows and their litters were included in the experiment from d 28 to 38 of lactation, including an adaptation period of 3 d. On d 28 of lactation sows were allotted, to two dietary treatments, a control diet or a diet with NSP enzyme addition, and fed for 10 d. The sows continued with their own...

  11. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  12. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  14. Growth Response and Feed Utilization of Giant Gourami (Osphronemus goramy Juvenile Feeding Different Protein Levels of the Diets Supplemented with Recombinant Growth Hormone

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    DARMAWAN SETIA BUDI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the growth and dietary utility of juvenile giant gourami. The rGH was mixed with chicken egg yolk and sprayed on to artificial feed with different protein levels (34, 28, and 21%; isoenergy. Each treatment group of gourami was paired with a control group that received feed of the same protein level, but without rGH supplementation. Juvenile of giant gourami (weight 15.83 ± 0.13 g were fed diets containing rGH, to apparent satiation, 2 times a week. Fish were reared from less than 2 months old for 42 days in 100 L glass aquaria at an initial density of 10 fish per aquarium. At the end of this period, the biomass and daily growth rate (SGR of the fish were measured and the feed conversion ratio calculated and compared. Our data showed that fish fed rGH-supplemented diets experienced higher growth than fish in the control groups and showed that fish with higher protein diets experienced higher growth than the groups with less protein diets. The group with the highest biomass gain, SGR, and lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR was the group fed a 34% protein diet supplemented with rGH. Furthermore, biomass gain, SGR, and FCR in the rGH treatment group with a 28% protein diet matched the measurements of the non-rGH control group receiving a 34% protein diet (P > 0.05. We conclude that giant juvenile gourami given feed supplemented with recombinant growth hormone will experience increased growth and dietary utility compared with gourami given the same feed without supplementation.

  15. The effect of diet supplemented with vegetable oils and/or monensin on the vaccenic acid production in continuous culture fermenters

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    Mostafa Sayed A. Khattab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that supplementing ruminant diets with vegetable oils modulated the rumen biohydrogenation and increased polyunsaturated fatty acid in their products. These positive values are often accompanied by a marginal loss of supplemented unsaturated fatty acids and rise in the concentrations of saturated fatty acids. This study were carried out mainly to investigate the effect of supplementing diets with sunflower oil, olive oil with or without monensin on the production and accumulation of vaccenic acid (VA in continuous culture fermenters as a long term in vitro rumen simulation technique. Eight dual-flow continuous culture fermenters were used in an 8 replication experiment lasted 10 days each (first 7 days for adaptation and last 3 days for samples collection. Supplementing diets with plant oils and monensin in the present experiment increased VA and conjugated linoleic acids (P > 0.05 in ruminal cultures. The results suggest that supplementing diets with both olive oil and sunflower oil and monensin increased VA accumulation compared to plant oils supplemented alone without affecting the rumen dry matter and organic matter digestibility.

  16. Effects of haylage and monensin supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing 60% dried distillers grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T L; Loerch, S C

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the interaction of monensin and haylage supplementation for steers fed 60% dried distillers grains (DDGS) on 1) mineral status, performance, and carcass characteristics, and on 2) ruminal pH, H(2)S, and short-chain fatty acid concentrations. In Exp. 1, Angus-cross steers (n=168; BW=277 ± 67 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to 24 pens. Dietary treatments were 1) 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 0% haylage, 2) 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 0% haylage, 3) 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 10% haylage, and 4) 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet + 10% haylage. The remainder of the diet was 60% DDGS, 10% corn silage, 15% supplement, and corn (either 5 or 15%) on a DM basis. When supplemented with 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet, added haylage increased ADG by 5.7%, whereas when supplemented with 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet, added haylage increased ADG by 13% (P haylage were observed for DMI or G:F (P ≥ 0.36). Haylage inclusion increased (P 0.05) on plasma mineral concentrations were observed; however, over time, plasma Cu concentrations decreased (P Haylage inclusion increased ruminal pH from 1.5 through 12 h postfeeding, and the effects of monensin supplementation were additive (P < 0.05). From 1.5 through 9 h postfeeding, steers fed 33 mg of monensin/kg of diet tended to have reduced (P ≤ 0.10) concentrations of H(2)S when compared with steers fed 0 mg of monensin/kg of diet. Acetate:propionate ratios at 6 h postfeeding were 0.94, 0.93, 1.29, and 1.35 for diets 1 to 4, respectively (P < 0.01); total lactate was decreased regardless of treatment (range: 0.94 to 1.42 µmol/mL). Sulfuric acid in DDGS, not ruminal short-chain fatty acids, may be responsible for the low rumen pH observed and may influence the maximum inclusion of DDGS in cattle diets. Monensin supplementation decreased H(2)S concentration and may decrease the risk of polioencephalomalacia for cattle fed high-DDGS diets

  17. Methionine-supplemented diet affects the expression of cardiovascular disease-related genes and increases inflammatory cytokines in mice heart and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissa, Alexandre Ferro; Amaral, Catia Lira do; Venancio, Vinicius Paula; Machado, Carla da Silva; Hernandes, Lívia Cristina; Santos, Patrick Wellington da Silva; Curi, Rui; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2017-01-01

    Some important environmental factors that influence the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) include tobacco, excess alcohol, and unhealthy diet. Methionine obtained from the diet participates in the synthesis of DNA, proteins, lipids and affects homocysteine levels, which is associated with the elevated risk for CVD development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which dietary methionine might affect cellular mechanisms underlying CVD occurrence. Swiss albino mice were fed either control (0.3% DL-methionine), methionine-supplemented (2% DL-methionine), or a methionine-deprived diet (0% DL-methionine) over a 10-week period. The parameters measured included plasma homocysteine concentrations, oxidative stress by reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as expression of genes associated with CVD. The levels of apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), a regulator of plasma triglycerides, were measured. The methionine-supplemented diet increased oxidative stress by lowering the GSH/GSSG ratio in heart tissues and decreased expression of the genes Apob, Ctgf, Serpinb2, Spp1, Il1b, and Sell, but elevated expression of Thbs4, Tgfb2, Ccr1, and Vegfa. Methionine-deprived diet reduced expression of Col3a1, Cdh5, Fabp3, Bax, and Hbegf and increased expression of Sell, Ccl5, Itga2, Birc3, Msr1, Bcl2a1a, Il1r2, and Selp. Methionine-deprived diet exerted pro-inflammatory consequences as evidenced by elevated levels of cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 noted in liver. Methionine-supplemented diet increased hepatic IL-6 and cardiac TNF-α. Both methionine supplementation and deprivation lowered hepatic levels of APOA5. In conclusion, data demonstrated that a methionine-supplemented diet modulated important biological processes associated with high risk of CVD development.

  18. Effect of sprouted barley grain supplementation of an herbage-based or haylage-based diet on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafla, A N; Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D; Dell, C J

    2014-12-01

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous-culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley (SB) or barley grain (BG) with an herbage-based or haylage-based diet on nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, bacterial protein synthesis, and methane (CH4) output. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Experimental diets were (1) 55.5 g of herbage dry matter (DM) + 4.5 g of SB DM, (2) 56.0 g of herbage DM + 4.0 g of BG DM, (3) 55.5 g of haylage DM + 4.5 g of SB DM, and (4) 56.0 g of haylage DM + 4.0 g of BG DM. Forages were fed at 0730, 1030, 1400, and 1900 h, whereas SB and BG were fed at 0730 and 1400 h. Gas samples for CH₄ analysis were collected at 0725, 0900, 1000, 1355, 1530, and 1630 h on d 8, 9, and 10. Fluid samples were taken once daily on d 8, 9, and 10 for pH measurements and for ammonia-N and VFA analysis and analyzed for DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber for determination of nutrient digestibilities and estimation of bacterial protein synthesis. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare the effect of forage source (haylage vs. herbage), supplement (BG vs. SB), and the forage × supplement interaction. Apparent and true DM and organic matter digestibilities as well as apparent crude protein digestibility were not affected by forage source. However, true DM digestibility was greatest for diets supplemented with SB. Apparent neutral and acid detergent fiber digestibilities of herbage-based diets were higher than haylage-based diets but fiber digestibility was not affected by supplement. Diets supplemented with SB had higher mean and minimum pH than BG; however, maximum pH was not affected by diet. Supplementation with BG produced a greater concentration of total VFA compared with diets supplemented with SB. Haylage

  19. A leucine-supplemented diet improved protein content of skeletal muscle in young tumor-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes-Marcondes M.C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia induces host protein wastage but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Branched-chain amino acids play a regulatory role in the modulation of both protein synthesis and degradation in host tissues. Leucine, an important amino acid in skeletal muscle, is higher oxidized in tumor-bearing animals. A leucine-supplemented diet was used to analyze the effects of Walker 256 tumor growth on body composition in young weanling Wistar rats divided into two main dietary groups: normal diet (N, 18% protein and leucine-rich diet (L, 15% protein plus 3% leucine, which were further subdivided into control (N or L or tumor-bearing (W or LW subgroups. After 12 days, the animals were sacrificed and their carcass analyzed. The tumor-bearing groups showed a decrease in body weight and fat content. Lean carcass mass was lower in the W and LW groups (W = 19.9 ± 0.6, LW = 23.1 ± 1.0 g vs N = 29.4 ± 1.3, L = 28.1 ± 1.9 g, P < 0.05. Tumor weight was similar in both tumor-bearing groups fed either diet. Western blot analysis showed that myosin protein content in gastrocnemius muscle was reduced in tumor-bearing animals (W = 0.234 ± 0.033 vs LW = 0.598 ± 0.036, N = 0.623 ± 0.062, L = 0.697 ± 0.065 arbitrary intensity, P < 0.05. Despite accelerated tumor growth, LW animals exhibited a smaller reduction in lean carcass mass and muscle myosin maintenance, suggesting that excess leucine in the diet could counteract, at least in part, the high host protein wasting in weanling tumor-bearing rats.

  20. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and K2 (menaquinone-4) supplementation improves bone formation in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misung; Na, Woori; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2013-09-01

    Several reports suggest that obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Vitamin K plays an important role in improving bone metabolism. This study examined the effects of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 supplementation on the biochemical markers of bone turnover and morphological microstructure of the bones by using an obese mouse model. Four-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were fed a 10% fat normal diet group or a 45% kcal high-fat diet group, with or without 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K1 (Normal diet + K1, high-fat diet + K1) and 200 mg/1000 g vitamin K2 (Normal diet + K2, high-fat diet + K2) for 12 weeks. Serum levels of osteocalcin were higher in the high-fat diet + K2 group than in the high-fat diet group. Serum OPG level of the high-fat diet group, high-fat diet + K1 group, and high-fat diet + K2 group was 2.31 ± 0.31 ng/ml, 2.35 ± 0.12 ng/ml, and 2.90 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively. Serum level of RANKL in the high-fat diet group was significantly higher than that in the high-fat diet + K1 group and high-fat diet + K2 group (p<0.05). Vitamin K supplementation seems to tend to prevent bone loss in high-fat diet induced obese state. These findings suggest that vitamin K supplementation reversed the high fat diet induced bone deterioration by modulating osteoblast and osteoclast activities and prevent bone loss in a high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

  1. Effect of supplemented diet with maturation plant extract on reproductive performance of Etroplus suratansis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Albin Dhas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to understand the effect of herbal maturation diet on reproductive successes in Etroplus suratensis. Three herbal maturation diets (EXD1, EXD2, EXD3 and one control diet (EXD0 were prepared with different combinations of herbal ingredients and normal diet ingredients. The experimental animal were observed for the success in reproductive performance like Gonado Somatic Index (GSI, fecundity, striping response, percentage of fertilization, percentage of hatching, percentage of deformed and formed larvae, volume of milt, number of sperm cell, percentage of sperm motility, sperm survival time, percentage of active sperm. The EXD3 diet combination increased the GSI (3.14, fecundity (1325, striping responds (87.23, percentage of fertilization (96.45 percentage of hatching (91.89, percentage of formed larvae (87.53, volume of milt (287 μl, number of sperm cell per μl (1912 percentage of sperm motility (94.18, time of sperm survival (72′15″ and percentage of active sperm cells (92.27 and reduced deformed larva percentage (4.36. From this observation it is more evident that the combination of EXD3 was the best combination and it could be utilized for the formulation of maturation diets for E. suratensis.

  2. Effect of tropical browse leaves supplementation on rumen enzymes of sheep and goats fed Dichanthium annulatum grass-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sultan; Kundu, S S

    2010-08-01

    In a switch-over experiment, eight male animals, four each of sheep and goats of local breeds with mean body weight of 26. 8 +/- 2.0 and 30.0 +/- 2.1 kg, were fed Dichanthium annulatum (DA) grass and four browse species viz. Helictris isora, Securengia virosa, Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Hardwickia binnata (HB) in four feeding trials to assess their supplementary effect on activity of rumen enzymes. The sheep and goats were offered DA grass with individual browse in 75:25 and 50:50 proportions, respectively, for more than 3 months during each feeding trial, and rumen liquor samples were collected twice at 0 and 4 h post feeding after 60 and 90 days of feeding. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes were determined in the bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor, while cellulase enzyme activity was measured in mixed rumen liquor. LL and HB had the highest and lowest contents of CP, while fibre contents were lower in early than later browse leaves. Supplementation of browse leaves significantly (P goats on all DA grass-browse-supplemented diets except DA-HB (42.8 units/mg protein), where activity was significantly (P Goat exhibited higher activities of GOT and GPT than sheep in both bacteria and protozoa fraction of rumen liquor, while cellulase activity was similar between the animal species on the grass-browse leaves diets. Results indicate that browse leaves supplementation affect the enzyme activities of sheep and goats rumen, while the goats rumen liquor had higher activities of GOT, GPT and GDH enzyme than sheep.

  3. Effect of forage supplementation and alkali treatment of cocoa pod on the utilization of cocoa pod based diets by ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, O.B.

    1987-01-01

    Two treatment methods - forage supplementation and chemical treatment - both potentially capable of improving cocoa pod utilization by ruminants were evaluated. Forage supplementation, using Gliricidia sepium of cattle fed a 50% cocoa pod diet yielded no positive results. Consumption of Gliricidia was poor and equalled only 0.2 kg/head/d. Feed intake (4.6 versus 4.8 kg dry matter (DM)/d), growth rate (0.37 versus 0.40 kg/d) and feed/gain (12.7 versus 12.0) for control and test cattle were similar (P>0.05). Chemical treatment using cocoa pod ash solutions (PAS) - a caustic material - was more successful. Rumen digestibility (as determined by the nylon bag technique) of cocoa pods treated with PAS, equivalent in alkalinity to 2 (P 2 ), 4 (P 4 ), 6 (P 6 ) and 8% (P 8 ) NaOH, was linearly improved (P 0.05). Dry matter, ADF and NDF degradabilities increased (P 6 and 55, 46 and 42%, respectively, for P 8 treated samples. Dry matter digestibilities of cocoa pod based diets also increased (P 8 treated) in sheep and to 60% in goats. Nevertheless, treatment with P 8 solutions reduced (P 0.75 in sheep and from 48 to 42 g DM/kg W 0.75 in goats. Feed intake, however, was normal for diets containing P 6 treated cocoa pods (67 and 61 g DM/kg W 0.75 ) for sheep and goats, respectively. Cocoa pod ash for treating cocoa pods should therefore not be stronger than the P 6 level which corresponds in alkalinity to 6% NaOH. (author)

  4. Vegetarian low-protein diets supplemented with keto analogues: a niche for the few or an option for many?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina B; Ferraresi, Martina; Deagostini, Maria C; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Consiglio, Valentina; Scognamiglio, Stefania; Moro, Irene; Clari, Roberta; Fassio, Federica; Biolcati, Marilisa; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Low-protein diets are often mentioned but seldom used to slow chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential for implementation of a simplified low-protein diet supplemented with alpha-keto analogues (LPD-KA) as part of the routine work-up in CKD patients. In an implementation study (December 2007-November 2011), all patients with CKD Stages IV-V not on dialysis, rapidly progressive Stage III and/or refractory proteinuria, were offered either a simplified LPD-KA, or commercially available low-protein food. LPD-KA consisted of proteins 0.6 g/kg/day, supplementation with Ketosteril 1 pill/10 Kg, 1-3 free-choice meals/week and a simplified schema based on 'allowed' and 'forbidden' foods. 'Success' was defined as at least 6 months on LPD-KA. Progression was defined as reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR)[(Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) formula CKD-EPI] in patients with at least 6 months of follow-up. Of about 2500 patients referred (8% CKD Stages IV-V), 139 started LPD-KA; median age (70 years) and prevalence of comorbidity (79%) were in line with the dialysis population. Start of dialysis was the main reason for discontinuation (40 cases, unplanned in 7); clinical reasons were recorded in 7, personal preference in 14 and improvement and death in 8 each. The low gross mortality (4% per year) and the progression rate (from -8 to 0 mL/min/year at 6 months) are reassuring concerning safety. None of the baseline conditions, including age, educational level, comorbidity or kidney function, discriminated the patients who followed the diet for at least 6 months. Our data suggest a wider offer of LPD-KA to patients with severe and progressive CKD. The promising results in terms of mortality and progression need confirmation with different study designs.

  5. Contribution of Ruminal Fungi, Archaea, Protozoa, and Bacteria to the Methane Suppression Caused by Oilseed Supplemented Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopu Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary lipids can suppress methane emission from ruminants, but effects are variable. Especially the role of bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa in mediating the lipid effects is unclear. In the present in vitro study, archaea, fungi and protozoa were selectively inhibited by specific agents. This was fully or almost fully successful for fungi and protozoa as well as archaeal activity as determined by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit gene. Five different microbial treatments were generated: rumen fluid being intact (I, without archaea (–A, without fungi (–F, without protozoa (–P and with bacteria only (–AFP. A forage-concentrate diet given alone or supplemented with crushed full-fat oilseeds of either safflower (Carthamus tinctorius or poppy (Papaver somniferum or camelina (Camelina sativa at 70 g oil kg−1 diet dry matter was incubated. This added up to 20 treatments with six incubation runs per treatment. All oilseeds suppressed methane emission compared to the non-supplemented control. Compared to the non-supplemented control, –F decreased organic matter (OM degradation, and short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater with camelina and safflower seeds. Methane suppression per OM digested in –F was greater with camelina seeds (−12 vs.−7% with I, P = 0.06, but smaller with poppy seeds (−4 vs. −8% with I, P = 0.03, and not affected with safflower seeds. With –P, camelina seeds decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio and enhanced the methane suppression per gram dry matter (18 vs. 10% with I, P = 0.08. Hydrogen recovery was improved with –P in any oilseeds compared to non-supplemented control. No methane emission was detected with the –A and –AFP treatments. In conclusion, concerning methanogenesis, camelina seeds seem to exert effects only on archaea and bacteria. By contrast, with safflower and poppy seeds methane was obviously reduced mainly through the interaction with protozoa or archaea

  6. Contribution of Ruminal Fungi, Archaea, Protozoa, and Bacteria to the Methane Suppression Caused by Oilseed Supplemented Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Giller, Katrin; Kreuzer, Michael; Ulbrich, Susanne E; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Dietary lipids can suppress methane emission from ruminants, but effects are variable. Especially the role of bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa in mediating the lipid effects is unclear. In the present in vitro study, archaea, fungi and protozoa were selectively inhibited by specific agents. This was fully or almost fully successful for fungi and protozoa as well as archaeal activity as determined by the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit gene. Five different microbial treatments were generated: rumen fluid being intact (I), without archaea (-A), without fungi (-F), without protozoa (-P) and with bacteria only (-AFP). A forage-concentrate diet given alone or supplemented with crushed full-fat oilseeds of either safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius ) or poppy ( Papaver somniferum ) or camelina ( Camelina sativa ) at 70 g oil kg -1 diet dry matter was incubated. This added up to 20 treatments with six incubation runs per treatment. All oilseeds suppressed methane emission compared to the non-supplemented control. Compared to the non-supplemented control, -F decreased organic matter (OM) degradation, and short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater with camelina and safflower seeds. Methane suppression per OM digested in -F was greater with camelina seeds (-12 vs.-7% with I, P = 0.06), but smaller with poppy seeds (-4 vs. -8% with I, P = 0.03), and not affected with safflower seeds. With -P, camelina seeds decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio and enhanced the methane suppression per gram dry matter (18 vs. 10% with I, P = 0.08). Hydrogen recovery was improved with -P in any oilseeds compared to non-supplemented control. No methane emission was detected with the -A and -AFP treatments. In conclusion, concerning methanogenesis, camelina seeds seem to exert effects only on archaea and bacteria. By contrast, with safflower and poppy seeds methane was obviously reduced mainly through the interaction with protozoa or archaea associated with protozoa. This

  7. THE ROLE OF IRRIGATED FODDER PRODUCTION TO SUPPLEMENT THE DIET OF FATTENING SHEEP BY SMALLHOLDERS IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

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    Melkamu Bezabih Derseh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feed shortage and poor quality of available feeds are major constraints for livestock production in the highlands of Ethiopia. A trial was conducted to assess if producing irrigated oat-vetch fodder during the dry period could adequately supplement the diet of fattening sheep and generate additional income for smallholders. A total of 14 farmers and 70 sheep (5 per farmer were involved in the trial. The farmers supplemented their fattening sheep with 200 g of irrigated oat-vetch fodder per day for about 70 days. The mean daily body weight gain of the fattened sheep ranged from 52 to 110 grams. The partial budget analysis revealed that while farmers with good feeding management could earn an additional income in the range of ETB 55 – 161 per sheep, farmers with the lower rate of weight gain could lose up to ETB 58 per sheep unless purchase and sale prices remained constant. Sheep prices do, however, fluctuate, peaking during major holiday periods occurring during the dry season. Therefore, timing of the fattening period is essential to profitability, and supplemental irrigated fodder production offers smallholders opportunities to produce good quality feed and target favourable markets for fattened animals.

  8. The supplementation of low-P diets with microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae improves P digestibility in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrallardona, D; Llauradó, L; Broz, J

    2012-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate a novel microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae (Ronozyme HiPhos; DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland) in gestating and lactating sows. In the first trial, 24 sows (Duroc × Landrace; 223 kg BW) were offered, at 16 d of gestation, a low-P control diet (formulated to provide 4.0 g total P/kg; 1.5 g digestible P/kg) supplemented with 0, 500, or 1000 phytase activity (FYT)/kg of phytase. Two weeks later, fresh feces were sampled from all sows and the apparent total tract digestibility of P was measured using TiO(2) as indigestible marker. Phytase supplementation did not (P > 0.10) affect the total tract digestibility of P but reduced (P phytase. After 2 wk, fresh feces were sampled from all sows and the apparent total tract digestibility of P was measured using TiO(2) as indigestible marker. Phytase supplementation improved (P phytase tested increased the apparent total tract digestibility of P in sows and reduced P excretion in feces.

  9. Meal Pattern of Male Rats Maintained on Amino Acid Supplemented Diets: The Effect of Tryptophan, Lysine, Arginine, Proline and Threonine

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    Raghad Ayaso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient composition of the diet has been shown to affect food intake, with proteins having distinct effects. The present study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with individual amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine on meal pattern among male rats. Meal pattern and body weight were monitored for two weeks. Proline and threonine had minimal effects on meal pattern, while the most pronounced changes were observed in the tryptophan group. Both tryptophan and lysine decreased overall food intake, which was translated into a reduction in body weight. The reduced food intake of the tryptophan group was associated with an increase in meal size, intermeal intervals (IMI and meal time and a decrease in meal number. The decrease in the food intake of the lysine group was associated with a reduction in both IMI and meal number, and this was accompanied by an increase in meal time. Arginine increased meal number, while decreasing IMI. Proline and threonine had a minimal effect on meal pattern. Lysine seems to increase satiety, and arginine seems to decrease it, while tryptophan seems to increase satiety and decrease satiation. Accordingly, changes in meal patterns are associated with the type of amino acid added to the diet.

  10. Performance and body composition of Nile tilapia fed diets supplemented with AminoGut® during sex reversal period

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    Themis Sakaguti Graciano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the effects of the commercial product AminoGut® (Ajinomoto, SP, a source of glutamine and glutamate, on performance and body composition of Nile tilapia fingerlings. A study was conducted with 26,000 Gift strain tilapias, with seven days of age during the sex reversal, with initial weight and length of 0.037±0.09 g and 13.28±0.78 mm. The fish were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications, totaling 1,300 fish/tank of 0,5m3 each one. Control diet was used with approximately 500 g/kg of crude protein and 3,840 kcal/ kg of digestible energy. The AminoGut® was added to the control diet at a ratio of 5, 10, 15 and 20g/kg to replace L-alanine. Each diet was provided 10 times per day at intervals of one hour, from 8:00 until 17:00, for 30 days. No effect was observed on weight gain (p>0.05 in fish fed with increasing levels of Aminogut®. However, a positive linear effect (p<0.05 on feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio and survival of the fish supplemented was verified. The inclusion of Aminogut® up to 20 g/kg improves the feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio and survival, parameters of Nile tilapia during sex reversal.

  11. DHEA supplementation in ovariectomized rats reduces impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion induced by a high-fat diet

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    Katherine Veras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S are steroids produced mainly by the adrenal cortex. There is evidence from both human and animal models suggesting beneficial effects of these steroids for obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and osteoporosis, conditions associated with the post-menopausal period. Accordingly, we hypothesized that DHEA supplementation in ovariectomized (OVX female rats fed a high-fat diet would maintain glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS and pancreatic islet function. OVX resulted in a 30% enlargement of the pancreatic islets area compared to the control rats, which was accompanied by a 50% reduction in the phosphorylation of AKT protein in the pancreatic islets. However, a short-term high-fat diet induced insulin resistance, accompanied by impaired GSIS in isolated pancreatic islets. These effects were reversed by DHEA treatment, with improved insulin sensitivity to levels similar to the control group, and with increased serine phosphorylation of the AKT protein. These data confirm the protective effect of DHEA on the endocrine pancreas in a situation of diet-induced overweight and low estrogen concentrations, a phenotype similar to that of the post-menopausal period.

  12. The use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate molasses supplementation to mulberry (morus alba and rice straw mixed diets

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    Dwi Yulistiani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry foliages have high nutritive value (protein content, digestibility and degradability, therefore it is potential to be used as a supplement to poor quality roughages. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of addition of fermentable energy in the mixed of mulberry and rice straw basal diet. A control diet consisted of either rice straw (RS or urea treated rice straw mixed with mulberry foliage (URS with ratio of 60 : 40%. Treatment was formulated by supplementation of control diet with molasses (as sources of fermentable energy at 3 levels (5, 10 and 15%. The study was conducted in a 2 x 4 factorial experiment, consisted of 2 levels rice straw (untreated and urea treated and 4 levels molasses supplementation (control and 3 levels for molasses. Diets were evaluated using in vitro gas production. The fermentation kinetics was determined from the incubation of 200 mg sample during 96 hours. The calculation of the kinetics based on exponential equation P = A+ B (1-e-ct. A shorter gas production test was carried out to determine truly degradable fermented substrates (in vitro true organic matter degradability/IVTOMD by incubating 500 mg of samples 24 hours. The result showed that there was no significant interaction between rice straw treatment and molasses supplementation on fermentation characteristics, in vitro true dry matter digestibility, fermented substrate and total volatile fatty acid (VFA production. However there was a significant interaction between rice straw treatment on partitioning factor (PF, gas produced, propionic acid production and ratio between acetic acid and propionic acid. Molasses supplementation significantly (P<0.05 decreased gas production and ratio of acetic to propionic acid, and increase PF, propionic acid production in untreated rice straw mulberry (RSM basal diet. It is concluded that molasses supplementation to RSM diet decreased gas production and ratio of C2/C3, and increased PF and

  13. Diet and dietary supplement intervention trials for the prevention of prostate cancer recurrence: a review of the randomized controlled trial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, Cheri L; de Boer, Johan G; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2008-12-01

    We review the effect of diet and dietary supplement interventions on prostate cancer progression, recurrence and survival. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to identify diet and dietary supplement intervention studies in men with prostate cancer using prostate specific antigen or prostate specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate serum biomarker of prostate cancer recurrence and/or survival. Of the 32 studies identified 9 (28%) were randomized controlled trials and the focus of this review. In these studies men had confirmed prostate cancer and elevated or increasing prostate specific antigen. Only 1 trial included men with metastatic disease. When body mass index was reported, men were overweight or obese. A significant decrease in prostate specific antigen was observed in some studies using a low fat vegan diet, soy beverage or lycopene supplement. While not often reported as an end point, a significant increase in prostate specific antigen doubling time was observed in a study on lycopene supplementation. In only 1 randomized controlled trial in men undergoing orchiectomy was a survival end point of fewer deaths with lycopene supplementation reported. A limited number of randomized controlled trials were identified in which diet and dietary supplement interventions appeared to slow disease progression in men with prostate cancer, although results vary. Studies were limited by reliance on the surrogate biomarker prostate specific antigen, sample size and study duration. Well designed trials are warranted to expand knowledge, replicate findings and further assess the impact of diet and dietary supplement interventions on recurrence and treatment associated morbidities.

  14. Antioxidants from diet or supplements do not alter inflammatory markers in adults with cardiovascular disease risk. A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Tsao, Philip; Rigdon, Joseph; Gardner, Christopher D

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidants have been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects, but there is a lack of research comparing food to supplement antioxidant sources. The aim of this study was to determine if increases in intake of foods naturally rich in antioxidants would lower blood levels of inflammatory markers more than consuming antioxidant supplements among adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Eighty-eight generally healthy adults with ≥1 elevated risk factor for cardiovascular disease were randomized in a single-blind (diets)/double-blind (supplements), parallel-group study for 8 weeks. Participants consumed (1) usual diet and placebo pills (n = 29), (2) usual diet and antioxidant supplements (n = 29), or (3) antioxidant-rich foods closely matched to antioxidant content of supplements and placebo (n = 30). Usual diet combined with antioxidant supplements or increased antioxidant-rich food intake was designed to approximately double daily habitual antioxidant intake. Antioxidant pills included carotenoids, mixed tocopherols, vitamin C, and selenium. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for inflammatory marker concentrations of interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Participants in the intervention groups successfully doubled most antioxidants as verified by diet records and elevated blood concentrations in treatment groups. Baseline levels of inflammatory markers for the entire study group were 110 ± 65 pg/mL for monocyte chemotactic protein-1, 0.9 ± 0.7 pg/mL for interleukin-6, and 217 ± 56 ng/mL for soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (means ± standard deviation) and did not differ by treatment arm. After 8 weeks, there were no significant within-group changes or between-group 8-week change differences in inflammatory marker concentrations. In conclusion, no beneficial effects were detected on the inflammatory markers investigated in response to antioxidants from foods or supplements. Copyright

  15. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  16. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effects of ground thyme and probiotic supplements in diets on broiler performance, blood biochemistry and immunological response to sheep red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Hosseini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to study the effects of the aromatic plant thyme, a commercial probiotic (Protexin and avilamycin on broiler performance, blood biochemical parameters and also the antibody response to sheep red blood cells. A total of 750 broilers were assigned into five replicate groups for each of five dietary treatments, namely; control (C, 2.5 mg/kg avilamycin (AB, 0.1 g/kg commercial probiotic (P, 5 g/kg ground thyme (T1, and 7.5 g/kg ground thyme (T2. In general, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were not affected by dietary treatments compared to the control birds (P>0.05. Birds fed the P supplemented treatment had the greatest serum protein levels (P<0.001 and highest albumin levels (P<0.001 when compared with control birds, while the birds fed T2 had the lowest (P<0.001. Dietary supplementation reduced (P<0.001 cholesterol and triglyceride concentration in serum of broilers, with the effect were more noticeable by P supplements. Moreover, blood calcium and phosphorus concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in birds fed the P-supplemented diet compared to the birds fed the control diets. This study suggests that probiotic supplementation in particular, and to an intermediate extent ground thyme supplementation in diets of broiler, resulted in chicks with favorably improved blood biochemical parameters and mineral utilization, compared to the birds fed diets supplemented with avilamycin or without any supplementation.

  18. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (Pbone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is limiting, supplemental phytase may have beneficial effects on LBM and performance activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  20. A taurine-supplemented vegan diet may blunt the contribution of neutrophil activation to acute coronary events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    Neutrophils are activated in the coronary circulation during acute coronary events (unstable angina and myocardial infarction), often prior to the onset of ischemic damage. Moreover, neutrophils infiltrate coronary plaque in these circumstances, and may contribute to the rupture or erosion of this plaque, triggering thrombosis. Activated neutrophils secrete proteolytic enzymes in latent forms which are activated by the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generated by myeloperoxidase. These phenomena may help to explain why an elevated white cell count has been found to be an independent coronary risk factor. Low-fat vegan diets can decrease circulating leukocytes--neutrophils and monocytes--possibly owing to down-regulation of systemic IGF-I activity. Thus, a relative neutropenia may contribute to the coronary protection afforded by such diets. However, vegetarian diets are devoid of taurine - the physiological antagonist of HOCl--and tissue levels of this nutrient are relatively low in vegetarians. Taurine has anti-atherosclerotic activity in animal models, possibly reflecting a role for macrophage-derived myeloperoxidase in the atherogenic process. Taurine also has platelet-stabilizing and anti-hypertensive effects that presumably could reduce coronary risk. Thus, it is proposed that a taurine-supplemented low-fat vegan diet represents a rational strategy for diminishing the contribution of activated neutrophils to acute coronary events; moreover, such a regimen would work in a number of other complementary ways to promote cardiovascular health. Moderate alcohol consumption, the well-tolerated drug pentoxifylline, and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors--zileuton, boswellic acids, fish oil--may also have potential in this regard. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Direct-to-consumer television advertising exposure, diagnosis with high cholesterol, and statin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Byrne, Sahara; Avery, Rosemary J; Cantor, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    While statin drugs are recommended for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD), there is no medical consensus on whether or not a statin should be added to lifestyle change efforts for primary prevention of CHD. Previous research suggests that exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) increases drug demand among those at comparatively low risk. Research has yet to examine whether individual-level DTCA exposure may influence statin use among men and women at high, moderate, or low risk for future cardiac events. To determine the relationship between estimated exposure to DTCA for statin drugs and two clinical variables: diagnosis with high cholesterol and statin use. We used logistic regression to analyze repeated cross-sectional surveys of the United States population, merged with data on the frequency of DTCA appearances on national, cable, and local television, between 2001 and 2007. American adults (n=106,685) aged 18 and older. Levels of exposure to statin DTCA, based on ad appearances and TV viewing patterns; self-reports of whether or not a respondent has been diagnosed with high cholesterol, and whether or not a respondent took a statin in the past year. Adjusting for potential confounders, we estimate that exposure to statin ads increased the odds of being diagnosed with high cholesterol by 16 to 20 %, and increased statin use by 16 to 22 %, among both men and women (p<0.05). These associations were driven almost exclusively by men and women at low risk for future cardiac events. There was also evidence of a negative association between DTCA exposure and statin use among high-risk women (p<0.05) CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that DTCA may promote over-diagnosis of high cholesterol and over-treatment for populations where risks of statin use may outweigh potential benefits.

  2. Effect of supplemental fat in low energy diets on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food intake and body weight gain both increased significantly with supplemental level of both fat sources, the rate in food intake being higher with soyabean oil than with beef tallow. Feed conversion ratio decreased significantly with both sources in the period 29 – 42 d. Serum triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein ...

  3. Supplemented low-protein diets - are they superior in chronic renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transferrin levels in any of the groups; neither was there ... chronic renal failure for at least 6 months; Se, level 150 - 700. IJmoVI; no ..... J Diet Home Econ. 1988; 16: ... Textbook of Nephrology. London: Williams & Wilkins, 1983: 3.89-3.94. 16.

  4. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A slight decrease in hepatic α-amylase gene expression was observed only in. E1. Conclusion: Besides its sweetening properties, inulin may also find use as a potential anti-obesity compound. Keywords: High-fat diet, Inulin, Obesity, Blood glucose, Biochemical profile. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ...

  5. Performance of West African Dwarf goats fed maize offal diets supplemented with dry poultry excreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Anigbogu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of poultry excreta in replacement of maize offal was evaluated in 16 growing West African Dwarf (WAD goats (eight females and eight males about eight months of age with an average liveweight of 6.5 kg. The goats were allotted to four different diets containing 0% (T1, control treatment, 10% (T2, 20% (T3 and 30% (T4 poultry excreta in maize offal based diets. Each animal was fed its assigned diet ad libitum for 120 days. Feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and fat efficiency ratio were generally higher (p 0.05. The leg, loin, rank, lean, shoulder, brisket cuts, fat and bone generally improved (p 0.05 in all treatments, except in T3 where it was slightly higher. It is concluded that WAD goats could be sustained on poultry excreta as a component of formulated diets for increased performances in weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass yield, and increased economic benefits to farmers.

  6. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, R.B.A.; Berndt, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated

  7. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  8. Reducing crude protein content with supplementation of synthetic lysine and threonine in barley - rapeseed meal - pea diets for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo Valaja

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the possibility to use synthetic amino acids to lower the nitrogen output from pig production. A performance experiment was carried out with 120triplet-fed growing pigs whose dietary crude protein was reduced from 179 g/feed unit (FU= 0.7 kg starch equivalent to 160, 140 and 122 g/FU, respectively. The diets were supplemented with synthetic lysine and threonine to keep the level of these amino acids constant. Dietary protein reduction did not affect the growth performance or feed conversion ratio of the pigs, but it did linearly increase the portion of fat to lean in the carcass. Significant linear effect was found in back fat (p

  9. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski Petri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C. To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS, and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group. In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation.

  10. Dietary supplementation with phytosterol and ascorbic acid reduces body mass accumulation and alters food transit time in a diet-induced obesity mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that animals fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with disodium ascorbyl phytostanyl phosphate (DAPP) exhibit reduced mass accumulation when compared to HF control. This compound is a water-soluble phytostanol ester and consists of a hydrophobic plant stanol covalently bonded to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). To provide insight into the mechanism of this response, we examined the in vivo effects of a high fat diet supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence and absence of unesterified phytosterols (PS), and set out to establish whether the supplements have a synergistic effect in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. Our data indicate that HF diet supplementation with a combination of 1% w/w phytosterol and 1% w/w ascorbic acid results in reduced mass accumulation, with mean differences in absolute mass between PSAA and HF control of 10.05%; and differences in mass accumulation of 21.6% (i.e. the PSAA group gained on average 21% less mass each week from weeks 7-12 than the HF control group). In our previous study, the absolute mass difference between the 2% DAPP and HF control was 41%, while the mean difference in mass accumulation between the two groups for weeks 7-12 was 67.9%. Mass loss was not observed in animals supplemented with PS or AA alone. These data suggest that the supplements are synergistic with respect to mass accumulation, and the esterification of the compounds further potentiates the response. Our data also indicate that chronic administration of PS, both in the presence and absence of AA, results in changes to fecal output and food transit time, providing insight into the possibility of long-term changes in intestinal function related to PS supplementation. PMID:21711516

  11. Improving the nutritional quality and shelf life of broiler meat by feeding diets supplemented with fermented pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S T; Ko, S-Y; Yang, C-J

    2017-12-01

    1. Four experimental diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% fermented pomegranate by-products (FPB) were supplied to 320d-old broilers to evaluate the effects of FPB on growth performance, nutritional composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of meat. 2. Dietary supplementation of FPB linearly increased the weight gain and feed intake of broilers with linear reduction in feed conversion ratio. 3. The crude protein, iron, magnesium, and sodium content were linearly higher, whereas cholesterol was linearly lower in the breast meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. In thigh meat, linearly lower ether extract and cholesterol with higher moisture was noted in response to increasing levels of FPB. 4. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was both linearly and quadratically lower in breast and thigh meat, whereas those of monounsaturated fatty acids of breast (linear and quadratic) and n-3 fatty acids of breast and thigh (linear) meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented broilers. The n-6/n-3 ratio of breast meat was linearly lower in response to FPB supplementation. The hypocholesterolaemic to hypercholesterolaemic ratio of thigh meat was higher in the FPB-supplemented groups. 5. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and pH value were lower in the breast and thigh meat of FPB-supplemented broilers. 6. Thus, additive supplementation of the diet with up to 2% FPB improved the nutritional quality, fatty acid profile and shelf life of broiler meat.

  12. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  13. Testing an egg yolk supplemented diet on boars to aid in sperm adaptation at 5°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Isabel; Miller-Lux, Yvonne; Osborne, Betty; Bonet, Sergi; Althouse, Gary C

    2015-01-01

    In many species, extended semen can be stored at low temperatures to slow bacterial growth. However, boar semen performs poorly at temperatures below 15 °C and this poses unique challenges, as it is not easy to maintain a constant 15-19 °C during shipment. Some extenders have been formulated with egg yolk for storage at 5 °C but the addition of egg yolk is not applicable in the majority of commercial operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if boar dietary supplementation with powdered egg yolk imparts any protective effects on sperm quality when stored at 15 °C and 5 °C for up to 11 days in a conventional extender. Ten boars were fed a commercial diet with the addition of 0.11 Kg of powdered egg yolk for 10 weeks. Ejaculates collected on weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 were processed for storage at both 15 °C and 5 °C and compared with ejaculates from boars fed a standard diet. Throughout an 11-day storage period, sperm quality was assessed including several motility and morphologic parameters and select plasma membrane properties (fluidity, integrity, and triacylglycerol content). Linear regression models were used to describe effects of treatment, storage day, week and temperature on all sperm parameters. Overall, there were minimal beneficial effects of egg yolk treatment on sperm quality parameters. Sperm from egg yolk supplemented boars did have a slower decline in viability and plasma membrane fluidity than that observed in the control sperm when stored at 5 °C (p boars compared to controls at week 10 (p boars.

  14. Quality of royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees fed a supplemented diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josiane Sereia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of artificial supplements prepared with soybean protein isolate, brewer's yeast, mixture of soybean protein isolate with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil, and a mixture of linseed oil with palm oil on the physicochemical and microbiological composition of royal jelly produced by Africanized honey bee colonies. Considering these results, providing supplements for Africanized honeybee colonies subjected to royal jelly production can help and strengthen the technological development of the Brazilian beekeeping industry increasing its consumption in the national market. This research presents values of royal jelly a little different from those established by the Brazilian legislation. This fact shows that is important to discuss or change the official method for royal jelly analysis. The characterization of physicochemical and microbiological parameters is important in order to standardize fresh, frozen, and lyophilized royal jelly produced by Africanized honeybees.

  15. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  16. Effects of Dietary Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisia Supplementation in Practical Diets of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

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    José E. P. Cyrino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-day feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of various dietary levels of brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles. Fish (7.6 ± 0.3 g were stocked into eighteen 1,000-L tanks (100 fish per tank; n = 3 and fed to apparent satiation six isonitrogenous (27% crude protein and isoenergetic (19 kJ/g diets, formulated to contain different dried yeast levels (0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% or 40% diet in substitution to fishmeal. Body weight tripled at the end of the feeding trial for fish fed up to 20% dietary yeast incorporation. Daily growth coefficient (DGC, % body weight/day decreased with increasing dietary yeast level (P < 0.0001. Voluntary feed intake (VFI, %BW/day did not vary significantly with increasing yeast level. Fish fed 40% yeast showed significant reduction in protein efficiency rate, protein retention and nitrogen gain. Increasing levels of dietary yeast did not significantly affect protein or lipid digestibility. Dietary dried yeast was seemingly palatable to tilapia juveniles and was suitable up to 15% inclusion to promote growth and efficient diet utilization, without affecting body composition.

  17. Performance of jundiá larvae, Rhamdia quelen, fed on probiotic supplemented diets

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    Vilson Borba Pinto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since probiotics have proved to be a viable alternative to antibiotics as enhancers of animal growth, the performance, uniformity and mortality rates of the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen larvae fed on diets with different probiotics were evaluated. Jundiá larvae, aged four days post hatching, were fed during 21 days with the following diets, in four replicates, namely, CO: control feed, without probiotics; PP: feed with Pichia pastoris; SB: feed with Saccharomyces boulardii; BT: feed with Bacillus cereus var. toyoi. Among the tested probiotic, Bacillus cereus var. toyoi had the best results due to the fact that the larvae were 25% heavier than CO at the end of the first week; the difference increased to 28% by the end of the trial. Further, BT also improved uniformity and Fulton’s condition factor. Larvae fed on Saccharomyces boulardii had the lowest body weight, whereas those fed on Pichia pastoris grew similarly to the control diet. Mortality rate was not affected by treatments. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi improves the performance and uniformity of the larvae, but does not affect mortality rate.

  18. Effects of replacing groundnut cake with rumen content supplemented with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, A A; Rumak, S; Oluwafemi, R A

    2015-12-18

    Rabbits are also herbivores which efficiently convert fodder to food. They are prolific and converter of plant proteins of little or no use to people as food into high-value animal protein. Rabbit meat is high in protein, low in calories and low in fat and cholesterol contents, being considered as a delicacy and a healthy food product. Feeding rabbits with concentrates is expensive and therefore in order to reduce cost of production, hence the use of rumen content in this study as alternative feedstuff without competition. A total of thirty six (36) weaner rabbits (oryctalagus cuniculus) of different body weight and age where use in this experiment to determine the effects of replacing rumen content with or without enzyme supplementation for groundnut cake. This feeding trial which lasted for 8 weeks was carried out in order to determine the replacement value of groundnut cake with rumen content with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbit. A 3x2 factorial experiment was adopted such that there where three (3) replacement level of rumen content (0, 25 and 50 %) for groundnut cake by two supplemental level (no enzyme and enzyme supplement). The results showed that increased inclusion level of rumen content has significant effects (p  0.05) with weight gained value of 7.62,7.44 and 7.36 g respectively. Similarly there was a significant (p  0.05) of the treatment on urinary nitrogen. Significant (p  0.05) of the supplementation on the nitrogen intake. The interaction between the varying levels of rumen content supplementation had significant effects (p < 0.05) on the feacal nitrogen, feed intake and feed to gain ratio but no significant (p < 0.05) effects on interaction of nitrogen intake. In conclusion, since the results from this study showed no negative effects on the performance of the experimental animals, the test ingredient can be used as alternative feedstuff at a lower inclusion level so as to reduce production cost and expand

  19. Effect of sprouted barley grain supplementation of an herbage or haylage diet on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley (SB) or barley grain (BG), with a pasture (orchardgrass) or haylage diet, on nutrient digestibility, VFA production, bacterial protein synthesis, and methane production. Treatmen...

  20. Diet- and Body Size-related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. The research design consisted of cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, ...

  1. Nutrition of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus L.: An additional evaluation of the effects of soya-based diets and supplemental prebiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the effects of a fishmeal- (FM) and two soybean- [SOY = soybean meal (SBM) + soy protein concentrate (SPC)] based diets [with or without prebiotic (GroBiotic® -A; GBA) supplementation] on the production performance, non-specific immunity, blood parameters, and gut microbiota diversity of...

  2. Supplementation of dextrose to the diet during the weaning to estrus interval affects subsequent variation in within-litter piglet birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of supplementation of dextrose to the diet of sows during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on subsequent litter size and within-litter variation were investigated. After weaning, 223 sows (first to fifth parity) were fed 3.5 kg/d. Half of the sows additionally received 150 g of dextrose

  3. Effect of a high-protein, high-fiber diet plus supplementation with branched-chain amino acids on the nutritional status of patients with cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz-Margáin

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids plus a high-fiber, high-protein diet is a safe intervention in patients with cirrhosis. It helps increase muscle mass and does not raise the levels of ammonia or glucose, nor is it associated with the development of hepatic encephalopathy.

  4. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.; Larsen, B.K.; Santos, G.A.; Conceicao, L.E.C.; Dias, J.; Overli, O.; Höglund, E.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) supplemented diets have been shown to have therapeutic effects in farmed animals including fish by modulating the activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). The effects reported in fish have been obtained using individually-housed fish and include a

  5. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  6. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  7. Metagenomic analysis of rumen microbial population in dairy heifers fed a high grain diet supplemented with dicarboxylic acids or polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Li, Shucong; Khafipour, Ehsan; Plaizier, Kees J C; Gianesella, Matteo; Ricci, Rebecca; Andrighetto, Igino; Segato, Severino

    2016-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two feed supplements on rumen bacterial communities of heifers fed a high grain diet. Six Holstein-Friesian heifers received one of the following dietary treatments according to a Latin square design: no supplement (control, C), 60 g/day of fumarate-malate (organic acid, O) and 100 g/day of polyphenol-essential oil (P). Rumen fluid was analyzed to assess the microbial population using Illumina sequencing and quantitative real time PCR. The P treatment had the highest number of observed species (P PCoA with unweighted Unifrac distance showed a separation among dietary treatments (P = 0.09), above all between the C and P (P = 0.05). The O and P treatments showed a significant increase of the family Christenenellaceae and a decline of Prevotella brevis compared to C. Additionally, the P treatment enhanced the abundance of many taxa belonging to Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Tenericutes phyla due to a potential antimicrobial activity of flavonoids that increased competition among bacteria. Organic acid and polyphenols significantly modified rumen bacterial populations during high-grain feeding in dairy heifers. In particular the polyphenol treatment increased the richness and diversity of rumen microbiota, which are usually high in conditions of physiological rumen pH and rumen function.

  8. Effect of supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Saseendran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of dietary supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 weaned female large white Yorkshire piglets of 2 months of age were selected and randomly divided into three groups allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 - Control ration as per the National Research Council nutrient requirement, T2 - Control ration plus 5% fat, and T3 - T2 plus 0.5% lecithin plus 150 mg/kg carnitine. The total dry matter (DM intake, fortnightly body weight of each individual animal was recorded. Digestibility trial was conducted toward the end of the experiment to determine the digestibility coefficient of various nutrients. Results: There was a significant improvement (p0.05 among the three treatments on average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, and nutrient digestibility during the overall period. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of animal fat at 5% level or animal fat along with lecithin (0.5% and carnitine (150 mg/kg improved the growth performance in pigs than non-supplemented group and from the economic point of view, dietary incorporation of animal fat at 5% would be beneficial for improving growth in pigs without dietary modifiers.

  9. Effect of short-term low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids on hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiming; Long, Quan; Shao, Chunhai; Fan, Hong; Yuan, Li; Huang, Bihong; Gu, Yong; Lin, Shanyan; Hao, Chuanming; Chen, Jing

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of short-term restriction of dietary protein intake (DPI) supplemented with keto acids on hyperphosphatemia in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Forty MHD patients with uncontrolled hyperphosphatemia were randomized to either low DPI with keto acid-supplemented (sLP) or normal DPI (NP) group for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the sLP group was shifted to NP for another 8 weeks. Low-protein diet (LPD) was individualized with total caloric intake 30-35 kcal/kg/day, protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day and phosphate intake of 500 mg/day. Keto acids were supplied in a dosage of 12 pills per day. Calcium phosphorous metabolism index and nutritional index (serum albumin, total protein, somatometric measurements, 3-day diaries and Mini-Nutritional Assessment score) were recorded. C-reactive protein, CO(2) combining power and Kt/V were measured to evaluate the inflammation, metabolic acidosis and dialysis adequacy, respectively. Serum phosphorus level and calcium-phosphate product were significantly decreased at the end of the first 8 weeks in the sLP group compared to the basal value and the NP group (p keto acids could decrease hyperphosphatemia and calcium-phosphate product, while keeping stable nutritional status among MHD patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented with a diet rich in bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Teichert, Joanna; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d(-1) per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n-3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Enhanced Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lysine Supplementations

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    Hsin-Yu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is the most common pathological condition in the liver. Here, we generated high-fat diet-(HFD- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice and tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and lysine during a four-week regular chow (RCfeeding. Our results showed that 1% lysine and the combination of 1% lysine + 1% DHA reduced body weight. Moreover, serum triglyceride levels were reduced by 1% DHA and 1% lysine, whereas serum alanine transaminase activity was reduced by 1% DHA and 1% DHA + 0.5% lysine. Switching to RC reduced hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, which was further reduced by the addition of DHA or lysine. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by DHA and combinations of DHA + lysine, whereas the mRNA for the lipogenic gene, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, was suppressed by DHA. In the gonadal adipose tissues, combinations of DHA and lysine inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes, including ACC1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and perilipin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, in conjunction with RC-induced benefits, supplementation with DHA or lysine further ameliorated the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and provided an alternative strategy to treat, and potentially prevent, NAFLD.

  12. Intestinal Structure and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with a Synbiotic Containing Enterococcus faecium and Oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageha Awad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of the synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO [a combination of Enterococcus faecium, a prebiotic (derived from chicory and immune modulating substances (derived from sea algae], with a dose of 1 kg/ton of the starter diets and 0.5 kg/ton of the grower diets on the intestinal morphometry and nutrient absorption. The general performance was improved (P < 0.05 by the dietary inclusion of synbiotic compared with the controls. Furthermore, the addition of synbiotic increased (P < 0.001 the villus height/crypt depth ratio and villus height in ileum. However, the ileal crypt depth was decreased by dietary supplementation of synbiotic compared with control. The addition of glucose in Ussing chamber produced a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001 in short-circuit current (Isc in jejunum and colon relative to the basal values in both synbiotic and control groups. However, in jejunum the percentage of Isc increase after glucose addition was higher for synbiotic group (333 % than control group (45 %. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of synbiotic BIOMIN IMBO increased the growth performance and improved intestinal morphology and nutrient absorption.

  13. Effect of Different Level of Psyllium Supplementation to Horse Diet on in vitro Fermentation Parameters and Methane Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanber KARA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of psyllium addition to horse diets on methane emissions and digestion parameters by in vitro digestion technique using horse feces as inoculum. The effect of 0 (control group, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/kg DM (Dry matter (treatment groups psyllium (Psyllium Husk, Solgar, UK supplementations to horse diet were determined on in vitro total gas and methane production, metabolisable energy (ME, organic matter digestion (OMD, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, short chain fatty acids (SCFA and pH value. In vitro digestibility technique was performed with using glass syringes of 100 ml volumes (Model Fortuna, Germany at 39.0±0.2°C for 24 hour incubation. In the study, in vitro total gas production was linearly decreased in treatment groups (up to 130 ml/g DM compared to control group (181 ml/g DM (P0.05. Consequently, it was demonstrated that psyllium, which use commonly in constipated horses because of laxative efficacy, reduced methane emission as another positive effect in horses. Although psyllium reduced methane emission, it had adverse effects on in vitro digestibility of horse ration. However, it was considered that further investigations are necessary to understand the effects deeply by doing the in vitro or in vivo digestion trials with lower doses or psyllium is not suitable to use in healthy horses for a long time.

  14. Exogenous protease supplementation of poultry by-product meal-based diets for broilers: Effects on growth, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, T; Mirza, M A; Nawaz, H; Shahid, M

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of three levels (0%, 3% and 6%) of poultry by-product meal (PBM) with or without protease on broiler growth, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility from 1 to 35 days. Two hundred and forty birds (n = 240) were fed equi-caloric and equi-nitrogenous (ME 2850 kcal/kg; CP 20%) diets throughout the experiment. The enzyme supplementation increased feed intake (p  .05) from 1 to 21 days. Increasing level of PBM decreased feed intake (p < .05), but body weight gain was improved (p < .05) at 3% PBM level during 1 to 21 days. The feed:gain was improved (p < .05) in birds fed diets containing 3% PBM. The feed:gain was also improved in birds fed diets containing 3% PBM from 1 to 35 days. However, feed intake and body weight gain in birds fed diets containing PBM remained unaffected. An interaction (p < .01) on feed intake between enzyme and PBM was noticed during 1 to 21 days. However, no interaction was recorded for body weight gain and feed:gain. The per cent carcass yield improved (p < .01) in birds fed diets supplemented with enzyme. The per cent breast meat yield was depressed (p < .005) in birds fed diets containing PBM. Apparent metabolizable energy (p < .001), nitrogen retention (p < .01), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (p < .001), and apparent digestibility coefficient for nitrogen (p < .01) improved in birds fed diets containing enzyme; however, a reverse was noticed in those fed diets containing only PBM. In conclusion, inclusion of 3% PBM along with supplementation of exogenous protease improved performance and nutrient digestibility in broilers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortsäter Henrik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Green tea was suggested as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes more than 70 years ago, but the mechanisms behind its antidiabetic effect remains elusive. In this work, we address this issue by feeding a green tea extract (TEAVIGO™ with a high content of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG or the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone, as positive control, to db/db mice, an animal model for diabetes. Methods Young (7 week-old db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG. Conclusions This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Changes on physiological parameters of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed with diets supplemented with Amazonian fruit Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aride, P H R; Oliveira, A M; Batista, R B; Ferreira, M S; Pantoja-Lima, J; Ladislau, D S; Castro, P D S; Oliveira, A T

    2018-05-01

    The physiological responses of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed commercial feed supplemented with different concentrations of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) were evaluated. The design was completely randomized, with treatments arranged in a factorial design with three proportions of camu camu (15%, 30% and 45%) and a control treatment (100% commercial diet), with four replicates per treatment. A total of 96 tambaqui specimens were used, with a mean initial weight of 11.69 ± 2.68 g and a mean length of 7.06 ± 0.44 cm. After 30 days, hematological parameters, metabolic variables, growth and fish swimming performance were evaluated. The different proportions of camu camu in the diet did not cause significant changes to the tambaqui's hematological parameters during the feeding period, except for hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) after the 30th day, and hematocrit (Ht) after the swimming stress test, which increased significantly (p < 0.05). The significant increases in metabolic variables, such as cortisol, glucose, proteins and triglycerides, and in hematologic variables after the Ucrit test reflect, respectively, biochemical adaptations for maintenance of the energy mobilization process and a regulatory necessity in tissue oxygen demand during intense exercise. Fish fed 15% and 30% camu camu gained the most weight and achieved the best swimming performance, respectively. The results for camu camu concentrations above 30% suggest a saturation of its intrinsic properties in the diet at this level and a loss of nutrients from the commercial feed replaced by the fruit, reducing productive performance and nutritional assimilation.

  17. Changes on physiological parameters of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum fed with diets supplemented with Amazonian fruit Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia

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    P. H. R. Aride

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The physiological responses of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum fed commercial feed supplemented with different concentrations of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia were evaluated. The design was completely randomized, with treatments arranged in a factorial design with three proportions of camu camu (15%, 30% and 45% and a control treatment (100% commercial diet, with four replicates per treatment. A total of 96 tambaqui specimens were used, with a mean initial weight of 11.69 ± 2.68 g and a mean length of 7.06 ± 0.44 cm. After 30 days, hematological parameters, metabolic variables, growth and fish swimming performance were evaluated. The different proportions of camu camu in the diet did not cause significant changes to the tambaqui's hematological parameters during the feeding period, except for hemoglobin (Hb concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC after the 30th day, and hematocrit (Ht after the swimming stress test, which increased significantly (p < 0.05. The significant increases in metabolic variables, such as cortisol, glucose, proteins and triglycerides, and in hematologic variables after the Ucrit test reflect, respectively, biochemical adaptations for maintenance of the energy mobilization process and a regulatory necessity in tissue oxygen demand during intense exercise. Fish fed 15% and 30% camu camu gained the most weight and achieved the best swimming performance, respectively. The results for camu camu concentrations above 30% suggest a saturation of its intrinsic properties in the diet at this level and a loss of nutrients from the commercial feed replaced by the fruit, reducing productive performance and nutritional assimilation.

  18. Effects of dry whey powder and calcium butyrate supplementation of corn/soybean-based diets on productive performance, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization in broilers.

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    Ocejo, Medelin; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Hurtado, Ana

    2017-06-26

    Campylobacter is the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans in industrialized countries, and poultry is its principal reservoir and source of human infections. Dietary supplementation of broiler feed with additives could improve productive performance and elicit health benefits that might reduce Campylobacter contamination during primary production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with whey (a prebiotic) and calcium butyrate (a salt of a short-chain fatty acid) on productive traits, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization and dissemination in broiler chickens during the 42-day rearing period. Six hundred one-day-old Ross-308 chickens were placed into 20 ground pens and assigned to one of 4 corn/soybean-based dietary treatments (5 replicates of 30 chicks per treatment) following a randomized complete block design: 1) basal diet with no supplementation as the control, 2) diet supplemented with 6% dry whey powder, 3) diet containing 0.1% coated calcium butyrate, and 4) diet containing 6% whey and 0.1% calcium butyrate. At age 15 days, 6 chickens per pen were experimentally inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. The results showed that supplementation of the corn/soybean-based diet with 6% whey alone or, preferably, in combination with 0.1% coated calcium butyrate improved growth and feed efficiency, had a beneficial effect on duodenal villus integrity, and decreased mortality. These favourable effects were particularly significant during the starter period. Six days after oral challenge, Campylobacter was widespread in the flock, and the birds remained positive until the end of the rearing period. Although Campylobacter was not isolated from environmental samples, it was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dust, air filters, and drinkers while birds shed culturable C. jejuni cells. No differences (p > 0.050) in colonization or shedding levels that could be attributed to the diet

  19. Effect of nitrogen supplementation on urea kinetics and microbial use of recycled urea in steers consuming corn-based diets.

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    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Jones, M L; Anderson, D E

    2010-08-01

    We studied the effects of supplementing N as distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) or urea to steers consuming corn-based diets. Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (244 kg) were used in 2 concurrent 3 x 3 Latin squares and fed 1 of 3 corn-based diets: control (10.2% CP), urea (13.3% CP), or DDGS (14.9% CP). Periods were 14 d, with 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and feces. Urinary (15)N(15)N-urea enrichments, resulting from venous infusions of (15)N(15)N-urea, were used to measure urea kinetics. Dry matter intake (6.0 kg/d) was not affected by treatment, but N intake differed (99, 151, and 123 g/d for the control, DDGS, and urea treatments, respectively). Urea-N synthesis tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for DDGS (118 g/d) than for the control treatment (52 g/d), with the urea treatment (86 g/d) being intermediate. Urea-N excreted in the urine was greater (P urea treatments (29 g/d) than for the control treatment (13 g/d). Gastrointestinal entry of urea-N was not statistically different among treatments (P = 0.25), but was numerically greatest for DDGS (83 g/d), intermediate for urea (57 g/d), and least for the control (39 g/d). The amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for the DDGS treatment (47 g/d) than for the urea (27 g/d) or control treatment (16 g/d). The fraction of recycled urea-N that was apparently used for anabolism tended (P = 0.14) to be greater for the control treatment (0.56) than for the DDGS treatment (0.31), with the urea treatment (0.45) being intermediate, but no differences were observed among treatments in the amount of urea-N used for anabolism (P = 0.66). Urea kinetics in cattle fed grain-based diets were largely related to the amount of N consumed. The percentage of urea production that was captured by ruminal bacteria was greater (P urea treatment (22%), but the percentage of duodenal microbial N flow that was derived from recycled urea-N tended (P = 0.10) to

  20. Significant effect of NSP-ase enzyme supplementation in sunflower meal-based diet on the growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

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    Bilal, M; Mirza, M A; Kaleem, M; Saeed, M; Reyad-Ul-Ferdous, Md; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2017-04-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 3 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of NSP-ase enzyme combination (with and without) was investigated in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). A total of 240 Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2950 kcal of ME and 21% CP from 1 to 42 days of age. The BW gain was not significantly reduced when 25% SFM was added in the diets during 1 to 42 days of age. Supplementation of NSP-ase in broiler diets (day 1-42 overall) demonstrated non-significant differences (p Replacement of SBM with SFM or inclusion of SFM at higher level (25%) increased/deteriorated FCR. The addition of exogenous NSP-ase showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in feed:gain. The improvement was clearly demonstrated when SFM was added to the experimental diet at 15% or even 20%. Supplementation of NSP-ase at the 25% inclusion level could not, however, sustain the beneficial effect, which was possibly due to excessively high dietary CF. No difference was noted across the treatments regarding carcass response. Relative gizzard weight and intestinal weight were observed to be improved in birds consuming higher levels of SFM (p = 0.00). The digestibility of CF was observed to improve when SFM was used at 20% and 25% in the diets. No improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation, which meant other factors were clearly involved. Supplementation of NSP-ase improved FCR up to 20% SFM. At 25% SFM, no improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Performance, litter quality and gaseous odour emissions of broilers fed phytase supplemented diets.

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    Sharma, Nishchal K; Choct, Mingan; Wu, Shu-Biao; Smillie, Robert; Morgan, Natalie; Omar, Amal S; Sharma, Nisha; Swick, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    The effect of graded levels of phytase on performance, bone characteristics, excreta/litter quality and odorant emissions was examined using 720 Ross 308 male d-old broilers. A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed with 6 replicates of 15 birds per pen. Factors were: diets-positive and negative control (PC, NC); phytase - 0, 500, 1,000, 1,500 FTU/kg. The PC was formulated to meet the 2014 Ross 308 nutrient specifications, whereas the NC was formulated with lower Ca (-1.4 g/kg), available P (-1.5 g/kg), Na (-0.3 g/kg), dLys (-0.2 g/kg) and MEn (-0.28 MJ/kg) equivalent to nutrient matrix values for 500 FTU/kg phytase in the starter, grower and finisher periods (i.e., downspec diet). On d 24, phytase decreased FCR by 1.6, 4.3 and 4.6 points at inclusion levels of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg, respectively ( P  litter quality and water to feed intake ratio ( P   0.05). Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis of gaseous emissions on d 39 indicated no difference in the emission of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, volatile fatty acids and phenols between treatments ( P  > 0.05). The results indicate that phytase has greater benefits when formulated using nutrient matrix values as compared with adding it over the top in an already nutrient sufficient diet. The later method would be expected to increase feed costs without concomitant performance benefits.

  2. Performance, litter quality and gaseous odour emissions of broilers fed phytase supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchal K. Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of graded levels of phytase on performance, bone characteristics, excreta/litter quality and odorant emissions was examined using 720 Ross 308 male d-old broilers. A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed with 6 replicates of 15 birds per pen. Factors were: diets-positive and negative control (PC, NC; phytase – 0, 500, 1,000, 1,500 FTU/kg. The PC was formulated to meet the 2014 Ross 308 nutrient specifications, whereas the NC was formulated with lower Ca (−1.4 g/kg, available P (−1.5 g/kg, Na (−0.3 g/kg, dLys (−0.2 g/kg and MEn (−0.28 MJ/kg equivalent to nutrient matrix values for 500 FTU/kg phytase in the starter, grower and finisher periods (i.e., downspec diet. On d 24, phytase decreased FCR by 1.6, 4.3 and 4.6 points at inclusion levels of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 FTU/kg, respectively (P  0.05. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS analysis of gaseous emissions on d 39 indicated no difference in the emission of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, volatile fatty acids and phenols between treatments (P > 0.05. The results indicate that phytase has greater benefits when formulated using nutrient matrix values as compared with adding it over the top in an already nutrient sufficient diet. The later method would be expected to increase feed costs without concomitant performance benefits.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF SODIUM SELENITE AND SELENIZED YEAST SUPPLEMENTATION INTO DIET FOR LAYING HENS ON SELECTED QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF TABLE EGGS

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    HENRIETA ARPÁŠOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with sodium selenite (SS or selenized yeast (SY on whole egg and egg shell quality of layers were studied. The chickens of Shaver Starcross 288 strain were randomly divided at the day of hatching into 4 groups (n=12; in each. The birds were fed from Day 1 of life to 9 months of age with diets differing in amounts and/or forms of selenium. Control group received basal diet (BD containing selenium naturally occurring in feeds (0.1 mg Se/kg of dry matter (DM. First and second experimental group of chickens were fed with a same BD enriched with equivalent dose of Se 0.4 mg/kg DM in form of sodium selenite or selenized yeast, respectively. The feed for third experimental group of birds consisted of BD supplemented with selenized yeast to the final amount of selenium 1.0 mg/kg DM. The egg weight was significantly higher in the groups with SY supplementation only. On the contrary the egg shell ratio was significantly lower in the groups with SY supplementation in both amounts. The width of egg was significantly increased in the groups with selenium supplementation in both forms. The value of egg shell strength was significantly decreased in group with SY in the highest amount 0.9 mg/kg DM The average egg shell thickness was the highest in the experimental group with Se-yeast in amount 0.9 mg/kg DM, however different was not significant compared with control group. The results showed that the most of selected parameters of egg quality appeared to be significantly influenced by selenium supplementation into laying hen’s basal diet.

  4. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Branched-Chain Amino Acids on the Performance and Fatigue Mechanisms of Rats Submitted to Prolonged Physical Exercise

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    Inar Alves de Castro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA on the fatigue mechanisms of trained rats. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were trained for six weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (one hour a day, five times a week, for six weeks. The animals received a control diet (C (n = 12, a diet supplemented with 3.57% BCAA (S1 (n = 12, or a diet supplemented with 4.76% BCAA (S2 (n = 12. On the last day of the training protocol, half the animals in each group were sacrificed after one hour of swimming (1H, and the other half after a swimming exhaustion test (EX. Swimming time until exhaustion was increased by 37% in group S1 and reduced by 43% in group S2 compared to group C. Results indicate that the S1 diet had a beneficial effect on performance by sparing glycogen in the soleus muscle (p < 0.05 and by inducing a lower concentration of plasma ammonia, whereas the S2 diet had a negative effect on performance due to hyperammonemia (p < 0.05. The hypothalamic concentration of serotonin was not significantly different between the 1H and EX conditions. In conclusion, chronic BCAA supplementation led to increased performance in rats subjected to a swimming test to exhaustion. However, this is a dose-dependent effect, since chronic ingestion of elevated quantities of BCAA led to a reduction in performance.

  5. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

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    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  6. High-Fiber Diet and Acetate Supplementation Change the Gut Microbiota and Prevent the Development of Hypertension and Heart Failure in Hypertensive Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Nelson, Erin; Chu, Po-Yin; Horlock, Duncan; Fiedler, April; Ziemann, Mark; Tan, Jian K; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; El-Osta, Assam; Mackay, Charles R; Kaye, David M

    2017-03-07

    Dietary intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of hypertension, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effect of a high-fiber diet and supplementation with the short-chain fatty acid acetate on the gut microbiota and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Gut microbiome, cardiorenal structure/function, and blood pressure were examined in sham and mineralocorticoid excess-treated mice with a control diet, high-fiber diet, or acetate supplementation. We also determined the renal and cardiac transcriptome of mice treated with the different diets. We found that high consumption of fiber modified the gut microbiota populations and increased the abundance of acetate-producing bacteria independently of mineralocorticoid excess. Both fiber and acetate decreased gut dysbiosis, measured by the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, and increased the prevalence of Bacteroides acidifaciens . Compared with mineralocorticoid-excess mice fed a control diet, both high-fiber diet and acetate supplementation significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures, cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Acetate had similar effects and markedly reduced renal fibrosis. Transcriptome analyses showed that the protective effects of high fiber and acetate were accompanied by the downregulation of cardiac and renal Egr1 , a master cardiovascular regulator involved in cardiac hypertrophy, cardiorenal fibrosis, and inflammation. We also observed the upregulation of a network of genes involved in circadian rhythm in both tissues and downregulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in the heart. A diet high in fiber led to changes in the gut microbiota that played a protective role in the development of cardiovascular disease. The favorable effects of fiber may be explained by the generation and distribution of one of the main metabolites of the gut

  7. Effects of Enzyme Complex Supplementation to a Paddy-based Diet on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Meat-type Ducks

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    P. Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice is rarely used as a feed because of its high fiber content. In this study, two experiments were conducted to study the effects of supplementing an enzyme complex consisting of xylanase, beta-glucanase and cellulase, to paddy-based diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility in meat-type ducks. In the both experiments, meat-type ducks (Cherry Valley were randomly assigned to four treatments. Treatment 1 was a basal diet of corn-soybean; treatment 2 was a basal diet of corn-paddy-soybean; treatment 3, had enzyme complex added to the corn-paddy-soybean basal diet at levels of 0.5 g/kg diet; and treatment 4, had enzyme complex added to the corn-paddy-soybean diet at levels of 1.0 g/kg diet. The results showed that the enzyme complex increased the ADG, and decreased the ADFI and F/G significantly (p0.05. The outcome of this research indicates that the application of enzyme complex made up of xylanase, beta-glucanase, and cellulase, in the corn-paddy-soybean diet, can improve performance and nutrition digestibility in meat-type ducks.

  8. Dietary choline and phospholipid supplementation enhanced docosahexaenoic acid enrichment in egg yolk of laying hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhang, H J; Wang, X C; Wu, S G; Wang, J; Xu, L; Qi, G H

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA). The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.15 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.60%). The feeding trial lasted 28 days. Laying hen performance and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by the diets used. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) level was reduced in the LPC group at d 28 (P egg yolks in the LPC group had a trend to increase in comparison to the control (P = 0.07). The CHO and LPC groups had higher omega-3 (n-3) PUFA and DHA levels and lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the other groups at d 28 (P egg yolk reached a plateau after the laying hens consumed the experimental diets for 14 days, and higher yolk DHA contents were observed in the CHO and LPC groups as compared with the other groups at d 14. It was concluded that dietary choline supplementation for more than 14 d enhanced egg yolk enrichment with n-3 PUFA and DHA when laying hen diets were supplemented with 2% Schizochytrium powder. All the diets had no adverse effect on hen performance, egg quality, or egg components under the experimental condition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Supplementation of pigs diet with zinc and copper as alternative to conventional antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dębski, B

    2016-12-01

    Modern commercial pig farming systems inflict increased stress in animals, which often leads to various negative changes in the gastro-intestinal tract, especially in the case of piglets. Ban of antibiotics, used as growth promoters, has caused a need for alternatives to conventional antimicrobials in swine diets. Use of pre-/or probiotics, organic acids and plant extracts is often recommended, but it seems that zinc oxide and cooper salts, which were traditionally included in high doses to piglets diet, possess the highest efficacy. In commercial conditions feeding piglets with high doses of Zn and/or Cu stimulates piglets daily gain and decreases feed conversion factor. However, as heavy metals Zn and Cu tend to accumulate in soil and cause serious environmental pollution of soil and tap-water. Furthermore, high zinc concentrations (2500÷3000 mg/kg feed) in feed may have an impact on development of antimicrobial resistance, and may regulate the expression of genes that modify piglets' immune response. Therefore, the use of high doses of ZnO and/or Cu salts, as growth promoter, has always been a subject of discussion, and caused different legal status of such treatment in various EU countries. This short review describes current European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) point of view on the use of ZnO in medicated feed. The higher bioavailability of recently introduced new sources or forms of these metals allows for substantial reduction of dietary inclusion rate, which should have a positive outcome for pigs health and the environment.

  10. Amino acid changes during transition to a vegan diet supplemented with fish in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshorbagy, Amany; Jernerén, Fredrik; Basta, Marianne; Basta, Caroline; Turner, Cheryl; Khaled, Maram; Refsum, Helga

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether changes in dietary protein sources can lower plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids and sulfur amino acids (SAAs) that are often elevated in the obese, insulin-resistant state and in type 2 diabetes. Thirty-six subjects (mean age 31 ± 2 years) underwent a voluntary abstinence from meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products for 6 weeks, while enriching the diet with fish, in fulfillment of a religious fast. Subjects were assessed 1 week before the fast (V1), 1 week after initiation of the fast (V2) and in the last week of the fast (V3). Thirty-four subjects completed all three visits. Fasting plasma BCAAs decreased at V2 and remained low at V3 (P < 0.001 for all). Valine showed the greatest decline, by 20 and 19 % at V2 and V3, respectively. Phenylalanine and tryptophan, but not tyrosine, also decreased at V2 and V3. The two proteinogenic SAAs, methionine and cysteine, remained stable, but the cysteine product, taurine, decreased from 92 ± 7 μmol/L to 66 ± 6 (V2; P = 0.003) and 65 ± 6 μmol/L (V3; P = 0.003). A progressive decline in plasma glutamic acid, coupled with an increase in glutamine, was observed. Plasma total and LDL cholesterol decreased at V2 and V3 (P < 0.001 for all). Changing dietary protein sources to plant- and fish-based sources in an ad libitum setting lowers the plasma BCAAs that have been linked to diabetes risk. These findings point to habitual diet as a potentially modifiable determinant of fasting plasma BCAA concentrations.

  11. Influence of diets to Wistar rats supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine products treated by lactofermentation to improve their gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, E; Juodeikiene, G; Vidmantiene, D; Zdunczyk, Z; Zdunczyk, P; Juskiewicz, J; Cizeikiene, D; Matusevicius, P

    2013-09-01

    The present study proposes the contribution of lactic acid bacteria and plants rich in bioactive substances and high-quality proteins as alternative products for human diets in improving the gut environment as potential against pathogenic bacteria. The effect of diets supplemented with soya, flaxseed and lupine flours fermented with a Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 probiotic strain in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of Wistar rats were analyzed. In vivo experiments showed a positive effect of long time lactofermentation of plant material on the body weight of rats. Diets with fermented yellow lupine resulted in enhanced activities of α-glucosidase, β-galactosidases, as well as high levels of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and enterococci in the GIT were determined. Lactofermentation of analyzed plant products had a significantly lowering effect on Escherichia coli compared with the control group. The dominant flora of large intestines like Bifidobacterium and anaerobic cocci were found in high levels after diets with fermented lupine.

  12. Effects of vitamin E from supplements and diet on colonic α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in persons at increased colon cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiting; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Askew, Leah M; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Brenner, Dean E; Ruffin, Mack T; Turgeon, D Kim; Djuric, Zora

    2015-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that γ-tocopherol has more potential for colon cancer prevention than α-tocopherol, but little is known about the effects of foods and supplements on tocopherol levels in human colon. This study randomized 120 subjects at increased colon cancer risk to either a Mediterranean or a Healthy Eating diet for 6 mo. Supplement use was reported by 39% of the subjects, and vitamin E intake from supplements was twofold higher than that from foods. Serum α-tocopherol at baseline was positively predicted by dietary intakes of synthetic vitamin E in foods and supplements but not by natural α-tocopherol from foods. For serum γ-tocopherol, dietary γ-tocopherol was not a predictor, but dietary α-tocopherol was a negative predictor. Unlike with serum, the data supported a role for metabolic factors, and not a direct effect of diet, in governing concentrations of both α- and γ-tocopherol in colon. The Mediterranean intervention increased intakes of natural α-tocopherol, which is high in nuts, and decreased intakes of γ-tocopherol, which is low in olive oil. These dietary changes had no significant effects on colon tocopherols. The impact of diet on colon tocopherols therefore appears to be limited.

  13. [Appreciation of selenium concentration in blood and tissues of male rat as a result of diet ingredients changes and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Dolot, Anna; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła

    2011-01-01

    The influence of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen B group vitamins on concentration of selenium in blood serum and tissues and activity of glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver of male rats was examined in the conducted experiment. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with granulated mixes. Group I with basic mix containing among other things full grains, Group II with modified mix in which full grains were exchanged for wheat flour and in part with saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with vitamins B1, B2, B6 and PP. The experiment was conducted for six weeks during which the amount of consumed feeding stuff was calculated currently and once a week body mass of the animals was checked. When the experiment was finished the activity of GSH-Px was determined by spectrophotometric method in blood and liver whereas concentration of selenium in blood serum, muscles and in liver by fluorometric method. It was ascertained that the change of diet ingredients and its supplementation with chosen group B vitamins was in favour of lowering the amount of selenium in the examined tissues, and the decrease was not only the result of lower amount of the consumed element, but also of its increased usage, forced by the changes taking place under the influence of diet components and its supplementation.

  14. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD ) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased ( p Palm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids ( p palm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle.

  15. Supplementing sow diets with palm oil during late gestation and lactation: effects on milk production, sow hormonal profiles and growth and development of her offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, J; Juniper, D T; Lean, I J; Amusquivar, E; Herrera, E; Dodds, P F; Clarke, L

    2018-05-02

    The supplementing of sow diets with lipids during pregnancy and lactation has been shown to reduce sow condition loss and improve piglet performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental palm oil (PO) on sow performance, plasma metabolites and hormones, milk profiles and pre-weaning piglet development. A commercial sow ration (C) or an experimental diet supplemented with 10% extra energy in the form of PO, were provided from day 90 of gestation until weaning (24 to 28 days postpartum) in two groups of eight multiparous sows. Gestation length of PO sows increased by 1 day (Pmass per kg (C: 66.4±0.8 arbitrary units/kg; PO: 69.7±0.8 arbitrary unit/kg; P<0.01), but by day 14 of life this situation was reversed (C: 65.8±0.6 arbitrary units/kg; PO: 63.6±0.6 arbitrary units/kg; P<0.05). Following weaning, PO sows exhibited an increased ratio of male to female offspring at their subsequent farrowing (C: 1.0±0.3; PO: 2.2±0.2; P<0.05). We conclude that supplementation of sow diets with PO during late gestation and lactation appears to increase sow milk fat content and hence energy supply to piglets. Furthermore, elevated glucose concentrations in the sow during lactation may be suggestive of impaired glucose homoeostasis.

  16. Effect of restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Tang, Yi; Yang, Lichuan; Mi, Xuhua; Qin, Wei

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues when applied in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CBM and CENTRAL databases were searched and reviewed up to January 2017. Clinical trials were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Five randomized controlled trials were selected and included in this study according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Changes in serum albumin, PTH, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, hemoglobin, Kt/v and CRP before and after treatment were analyzed. Meta-analysis results indicated that, compared with normal protein diet, low-protein diet (LPD) supplemented with keto analogues (sLPD) could improve serum albumin (P diet supplemented with keto analogues (sLPD) may improve nutritional status and prevent hyperparathyroidism in ESRD patients. The current data were mainly obtained from short-term, single-center trails with small sample sizes and limited nutritional status indexes, indicating a need for further study.

  17. Cafeteria diet induces obesity and insulin resistance associated with oxidative stress but not with inflammation: improvement by dietary supplementation with a melon superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Romain, Cindy; Bardy, Guillaume; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Gaillet, Sylvie; Lacan, Dominique; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in obesity. However, dietary antioxidants could prevent oxidative stress-induced damage. We have previously shown the preventive effects of a melon superoxide dismutase (SODB) on oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of action of SODB is still unknown. Here, we evaluated the effects of a 1-month curative supplementation with SODB on the liver of obese hamsters. Golden Syrian hamsters received either a standard diet or a cafeteria diet composed of high-fat, high-sugar, and high-salt supermarket products, for 15 weeks. This diet resulted in insulin resistance and in increased oxidative stress in the liver. However, inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, and NF-κB) were not enhanced and no liver steatosis was detected, although these are usually described in obesity-induced insulin resistance models. After the 1-month supplementation with SODB, body weight and insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet were reduced and hepatic oxidative stress was corrected. This could be due to the increased expression of the liver antioxidant defense proteins (manganese and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Even though no inflammation was detected in the obese hamsters, inflammatory markers were decreased after SODB supplementation, probably through the reduction of oxidative stress. These findings suggest for the first time that SODB could exert its antioxidant properties by inducing the endogenous antioxidant defense. The mechanisms underlying this induction need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The supplementation of low-P diets with microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae increases P and Ca digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrallardona, D; Salvadó, R; Broz, J

    2012-12-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the dose response of a novel microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae (Ronozyme HiPhos; DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland) in pigs. Forty-eight individually housed pigs (Landrace × Pietrain; 52 kg BW; 24 males and 24 females) were distributed among 6 experimental treatments consisting of a low-P diet (3.5 g P/kg; 1.1 g digestible P/kg), which was supplemented with 500, 1000, 2000, or 4000 units of phytase activity/kg, and a standard-P diet (4.5 g P/kg; 1.8 g digestible P/kg) that was supplemented with CaHPO(4). After 17 d, fresh feces were sampled from all pigs and the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, ash, P, and Ca was measured using TiO(2) as indigestible marker. Blood samples were also obtained from each pig and serum was analyzed for P and Ca concentrations. The nonsupplemented low-P diet increased Ca and reduced P blood serum concentrations (P Phytase supplementation of the low-P diet reduced Ca (from 10.8 to 9.9 mg/dL; linear, P Phytase improved the total tract digestibility of P (from 29.0 to 62.3%; linear and quadratic, P phytase tested improves the apparent total tract digestibility of P in growing pigs and reduces P excretion in feces in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. Impact of high cholesterol and endoplasmic reticulum stress on metabolic diseases: An updated mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdi Sozen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH, and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress. Recent animal model and human studies have showed high cholesterol and ER stress as an emerging factors involved in the development of many metabolic diseases. In this review, we will summarize the crucial effects of hypercholesterolemia and ER stress response in the pathogenesis of CVDs, NAFLD/NASH, diabetes and obesity which are major health problems in western countries. Keywords: Endoplasmic reticulum stress, High cholesterol, Cardiovascular diseases, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis

  20. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

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    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  1. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  2. Effect of supplementation of lysine and methionine on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer (Cervus Nippon fed protein deficient diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of lysine (Lys and methionine (Met on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and serum biochemical indices for growing sika deer fed crude protein (CP deficient diet. Sixteen 5-month-old growing male sika deer were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving diets (n=4: i CP-adequate (16.63% diet; ii CP-deficient (13.77% diet with 3 g/kg Lys; iii CP-deficient with 3 g/kg Lys and 1 g/kg Met; iv CP-deficient diet with 3 g/kg Lys and 2 g/kg Met. The digestibility of dry matter P<0.01, organic matter (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01, serum albumin (P<0.01, and total protein (P<0.01 concentrations of groups receiving CP-adequate or Met supplementation were improved. The average daily gain (P=0.10, gain to feed ratio (P=0.07, the digestibility of acid (P=0.07 and neutral detergent fibre (P=0.09, and the serum globulin (P=0.08 concentrations had a tendency to increase as the Met or CP level increased. Meanwhile, blood urea nitrogen (P<0.01 and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01 were decreased for CP-deficient, but no response to Met-added diets; aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04 depressed for both CP-deficient and Met-added diets. Therefore, amino acids added to CP-deficient diets show high efficiency: they remain among the simplest ways for growth performance, while cutting down environmental waste and economic consumption.

  3. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohua; Xue, Fuguang; Nan, Xuemei; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Kun; Beckers, Yves; Jiang, Linshu; Xiong, Benhai

    2017-01-01

    The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis), high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis) and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T). On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio , and Ruminobacter , and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum , and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was positively

  4. Illumina Sequencing Approach to Characterize Thiamine Metabolism Related Bacteria and the Impacts of Thiamine Supplementation on Ruminal Microbiota in Dairy Cows Fed High-Grain Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of thiamine in adult ruminants are mainly met by ruminal bacterial synthesis, and thiamine deficiencies will occur when dairy cows overfed with high grain diet. However, there is limited knowledge with regard to the ruminal thiamine synthesis bacteria, and whether thiamine deficiency is related to the altered bacterial community by high grain diet is still unclear. To explore thiamine synthesis bacteria and the response of ruminal microbiota to high grain feeding and thiamine supplementation, six rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned into a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial. Three treatments were control diet (CON, 20% dietary starch, DM basis, high grain diet (HG, 33.2% dietary starch, DM basis and high grain diet supplemented with 180 mg thiamine/kg DMI (HG+T. On day 21 of each period, rumen content samples were collected at 3 h postfeeding. Ruminal thiamine concentration was detected by high performance liquid chromatography. The microbiota composition was determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Cows receiving thiamine supplementation had greater ruminal pH value, acetate and thiamine content in the rumen. Principal coordinate analysis and similarity analysis indicated that HG feeding and thiamine supplementation caused a strong shift in bacterial composition and structure in the rumen. At the genus level, compared with CON group, the relative abundances of 19 genera were significantly changed by HG feeding. Thiamine supplementation increased the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria including Bacteroides, Ruminococcus 1, Pyramidobacter, Succinivibrio, and Ruminobacter, and their increases enhanced the fiber degradation and ruminal acetate production in HG+T group. Christensenellaceae R7, Lachnospira, Succiniclasticum, and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 exhibited a negative response to thiamine supplementation. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed that ruminal thiamine concentration was

  5. Effects of EPA and lipoic acid supplementation on circulating FGF21 and the fatty acid profile in overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoté, Xavier; Félix-Soriano, Elisa; Gayoso, Lucía; Huerta, Ana Elsa; Alvarado, María Antonella; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María Jesús

    2018-05-23

    FGF21 has emerged as a key metabolism and energy homeostasis regulator. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or α-lipoic acid (LIP) has shown beneficial effects on obesity. In this study, we evaluated EPA and/or LIP effects on plasma FGF21 and the fatty acid (FA) profile in overweight/obese women following hypocaloric diets. At the baseline, FGF21 levels were negatively related to the AST/ALT ratio and HMW adiponectin. The weight loss did not cause any significant changes in FGF21 levels, but after the intervention FGF21 increased in EPA-supplemented groups compared to non-EPA-supplemented groups. EPA supplementation decreased the plasma n-6-PUFA content and increased n-3-PUFAs, mainly EPA and DPA, but not DHA. In the LIP-alone supplemented group a decrease in the total SFA and n-6-PUFA content was observed after the supplementation. Furthermore, EPA affected the desaturase activity, lowering Δ4D and raising Δ5/6D. These effects were not observed in the LIP-supplemented groups. Besides, the changes in FGF21 levels were associated with the changes in EPA, n-3-PUFAs, Δ5/6D, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Altogether, our study suggests that n-3-PUFAs influence FGF21 levels in obesity, although the specific mechanisms implicated remain to be elucidated.

  6. Effects of different levels of protein supplements in the diet of early-weaned yaks on growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of crude protein (CP supplements to the diet of early-weaned yaks on their growth performance, intestinal development, and immune response. Forty 3-month-old weaned yaks were selected and assigned to four dietary groups (Control, 17, 19 and 21% CP. Dietary CP supplements had a significant effect on average daily gain (ADG, crypt depth (CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum, villous height (VH (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and CD/VH (jejunum and ileum. Average daily gain, CD (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and VH (ileum showed quadratic increases as the dietary CP increased, whereas CD/VH (jejunum and ileum ratios showed quadratic decreases. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, glucose (GLU, immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgM, interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and interferon (IFN-γ concentrations increased significantly, whereas albumin (ALB, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST decreased significantly with dietary CP supplements. Dietary CP supplements significantly increased the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and the nuclear factor of activated T cell transcription factor (NFAT for gene expression. As the dietary CP supplements increased, IL-6, IFN-γ and NF-AT gene expression showed quadratic increases. These results showed that the appropriate dietary CP supplementation improved the growth performance and intestinal development of earlyweaned yaks and thus that the CP supplements were beneficial and enhanced the humoral immunity response of yaks.

  7. Supplementing diet with Manitoba lingonberry juice reduces kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Cara K; Wang, Pengqi; Prashar, Suvira; O, Karmin; Brown, Daniel Cw; Debnath, Samir C; Siow, Yaw L

    2017-07-01

    Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) contains high levels of anthocyanins which are bioavailable in the kidney and may be protective against ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effect of lingonberry juice on the IR-induced stress-activated signalling pathway and inflammatory response in the kidney. Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to kidney IR had significantly impaired kidney function, with increased activation of the JNK signalling pathway and increased inflammatory response, measured using a multiplex panel containing an extensive array of inflammatory biomarkers. In rats fed 1 mL lingonberry juice daily for 3 weeks prior to IR, kidney function was protected and attenuation of inflammatory response and JNK signalling was reflected in the reduction of the measured biomarkers. In vitro results in cultured HK-2 cells confirmed that lingonberry anthocyanins reduced JNK signalling and inflammatory gene expression after IR. This study shows, for the first time, that daily supplementation with lingonberry juice may protect against loss of kidney function induced by IR injury by modulating JNK signalling and inhibiting the subsequent inflammatory response. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Behavioral and omics analyses study on potential involvement of dipeptide balenine through supplementation in diet of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8

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    Nobuhiro Wada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates effects of dipeptide balenine, as a major component of whale meat extract (hereafter, WME, supplementation on senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8, an Alzheimer's disease (AD model at level of learning and memory formation and brain expression profiles genome-wide in brain. Mice fed experimental balenine (+WME supplemented diet for 26 weeks were subjected to four behavioral tests – open field, Y-maze, novel object recognition, and water-filled multiple T-maze – to examine effects on learning and memory. Brain transcriptome of SAMP8 mice-fed the WME diet over control low-safflower oil (LSO diet-fed mice was delineated on a 4 × 44 K mouse whole genome DNA microarray chip. Results revealed the WME diet not only induced improvements in the learning and memory formation but also positively modulated changes in the brain of the SAMP8 mouse; the gene inventories are publically available for analysis by the scientific community. Interestingly, the SAMP8 mouse model presented many genetic characteristics of AD, and numerous novel molecules (Slc2a5, Treh, Fbp1, Aldob, Ppp1r1a, DNase1, Agxt2l1, Cyp2e1, Acsm1, Acsm2, and Pah were revealed over the SAMR1 (senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 mouse, to be oppositely regulated/recovered under the balenine (+WME supplemented diet regime by DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses. Our present study demonstrates an experimental strategy to understand the effects of dipeptide balenine, prominetly contained in meat diet, on SAMP8, providing new insight into whole brain transcriptome changes genome-wide. The gene expression data has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE76459. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  9. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG barley (lys3a-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE. Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2 antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  10. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrient digestibility and milk production responses to increasing levels of palmitic acid supplementation vary in cows receiving diets with or without whole cottonseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; de Souza, J; Allen, M S; Lock, A L

    2017-01-01

    Our study evaluated the dose-dependent effects of a palmitic acid-enriched supplement in basal diets with or without the inclusion of whole cottonseed on nutrient digestibility and production responses of dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (149 ± 56 days in milk) were used in a split plot Latin square design experiment. Cows were blocked by 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) and allocated to a main plot receiving either a basal diet with soyhulls (SH, = 8) or a basal diet with whole cottonseed (CS, = 8) that was fed throughout the experiment. A palmitic acid-enriched supplement (PA 88.5% C16:0) was fed at 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 2.25% of ration DM in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin Square design within each basal diet group. Periods were 14 d with the final 4 d used for data collection. PA dose increased milk fat content linearly, and cubically affected yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. The PA dose did not affect milk protein and lactose contents, BW, and BCS, but tended to increase yields of milk, milk protein, and milk lactose. Also, PA dose reduced DMI and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically, and increased 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility quadratically. There were no effects of basal diet on the yield of milk or milk components, but DMI tended to decrease in CS compared with SH, increasing feed efficiency (3.5% FCM/DMI). Compared with SH, CS diets increased yield of preformed milk fatty acids and 16-carbon fatty acid digestibility, and tended to decrease 18-carbon fatty acid digestibility. We observed basal diet × PA dose interactions for yields of milk and milk protein and for 16-carbon and total fatty acid digestibility, as well as tendency for yields of milk fat and 3.5% FCM. Also, there was a tendency for an interaction between basal diet and PA dose for NDF digestibility, which increased more for CS with increasing PA than for SH. PA dose linearly decreased digestibility of total fatty acids in SH diets but did not affect it in CS diets Results demonstrate

  12. Serum zinc, copper and iron status of children with coeliac disease on three months of gluten-free diet with or without four weeks of zinc supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, K; Kumar, R; Sharma, L; Datta, S P; Choudhury, M; Kumar, P

    2018-04-01

    Data about the effect of zinc supplementation with gluten-free diet on normalisation of plasma zinc, copper and iron in patients with coeliac disease are scanty. We evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc, copper and iron levels in patients with coeliac disease, by randomising 71 children newly diagnosed with coeliac disease into two groups: Group A = gluten-free diet (GFD); and Group B = gluten-free diet with zinc supplements (GFD +Zn). The rise in iron and zinc was significantly higher in the latter, but the mean rise of copper levels was slightly higher in the former, but the difference was not significant.

  13. Goat Milk Kefir Supplemented with Porang Glucomannan Improves Lipid Profile and Haematological Parameter in Rat Fed High Fat and High Fructose Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurliyani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Diet with a high fat and high sugar is associated with an increased incindence of the metabolic syndrome. Kefir has been known as a natural probiotic, while glucomannan from porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus tuber was demonstrated as prebiotic in vivo. Probiotics and prebiotics can be used adjuvant nutritional therapy for metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of goat milk kefir supplemented with porang glucomannan on the lipid profile and haematological parameters in rats fed with a high-fat/high-fructose (HFHF diet.

  14. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE−/− Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS. It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE−/− mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE−/− mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice.

  15. Consumption of oral hospital diets and percent adequacy of minerals in oncology patients as an indicative for the use of oral supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Júlia S M; Moreira, Daniele C F; Louvera Silva, Karine A; Morgano, Marcelo A; Quintaes, Késia D

    2014-08-01

    Deficiencies in the consumption of foods and nutrients favor malnutrition in patients. Considering the recommendations for the ingestion of minerals, the content, consumption and percent adequacy of the minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, P, Na, Zn and Se) were evaluated amongst oncology patients who received oral diets isolated or associated with an oral food complement (OFC), evaluating the need and composition of an oral supplement. The mineral composition as determined by ICP-OES, and the food consumption of the patients served regular, bland and soft diets, were evaluated on six non-consecutive weekdays. Patients with increased nutritional needs received OFC. The consumptions were calculated by deducting the weight of the leftovers from the value served. A total of 163 patients took part of which 59.5% were men, the mean age was 57 ± 15 years old, and 126 (77.3%), 27 (16.6%) and 10 (6.1%) were served the regular, bland and soft diets, respectively, with (23.0%), 8 (30.7%) and 4 (40.0%) receiving the OFC. Patient consumption was lower when the regular (74.2 vs 79.7%) and soft (68.9 vs 74.2%) diets were combined with OFC. For all diets, less was consumed at the lunch (61.2%-65.7%) and dinner (39.9%-62.8%) meals. Patients that received the OFC showed reduced meal consumption and higher Ca ingestion. The mineral contents of the diets were inadequate, with 66.8% of the patients ingesting Na above the UL and K below the nutritional recommendation (100%). The diet consumption, isolated or associated with OFC was insufficient, and hence the exclusion of OFC and the inclusion of a mineral supplement (without P and Na) was indicated to adequate ingestion to the nutritional recommendations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variat...

  17. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  18. Effect of crude protein levels and organic selenium supplementation in the diets fed during the breeding season on reproductive parameters of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe, L. [UNESP; Santos, E. C.; Tavian, A. F.; Góes, P. A. A.; Moraes, V. M. B. [UNESP; Tonhati, Humberto [UNESP; Boleli, I. C. [UNESP; Malheiros, E. B. [UNESP; Barnabé, V. H.; Queiroz, S. A. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    There is little information on the nutrition of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens) reared in captivity, and their nutritional requirements still need to be determined. This study aimed at determining dietary crude protein requirements and testing four organic selenium supplementation levels in the diet of red-winged tinamous during the breeding season. Birds were housed in a conventional broiler house divided in 16 boxes with one male and three females each. Iso-energy (2800kcal ME/kg...

  19. Consumption of oral hospital diets and percent adequacy of minerals in oncology patients as an indicative for the use of oral supplements.

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Júlia Sommerlatte Manzoli de; Moreira, Daniele Caroline Faria; Silva, Karine Aparecida Louvera; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Deficiencies in the consumption of foods and nutrients favor malnutrition in patients. Considering the recommendations for the ingestion of minerals, the content, consumption and percent adequacy of the minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, P, Na, Zn and Se) were evaluated amongst oncology patients who received oral diets isolated or associated with an oral food complement (OFC), evaluating the need and composition of an oral supplement. Methods: The mineral composition as deter...

  20. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijoon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21, TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60, HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23, insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09 and C-reactive protein (CRP (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38 after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC, and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk.

  1. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the locomotor stimulating effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafine, Katherine M; Labay, Caitlin; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to obesity, chronic metabolic disease, and increased inflammation in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dietary supplements that are high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce or prevent these negative health consequences in rats. Eating high fat chow also increases the sensitivity of rats to behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems (e.g., cocaine), and this effect is greatest in adolescent females. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat chow induced increases in sensitivity to cocaine in adolescent female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (post-natal day 25-27) ate standard laboratory chow (5.7% fat), high fat chow (34.4% fat), or high fat chow supplemented with fish oil (20% w/w). Cocaine dose dependently (1-17.8mg/kg) increased locomotion and induced sensitization across 6 weeks of once-weekly testing in all rats; however, these effects were greatest in rats eating high fat chow. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented enhanced locomotion and sensitization in rats eating high fat chow. There were no differences in inflammatory markers in plasma or the hypothalamus among dietary conditions. These results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with fish oil can prevent high fat diet-induced sensitization to cocaine, but they fail to support the view that these effects are due to changes in proinflammatory cytokines. These data add to a growing literature on the relationship between diet and drug abuse and extend the potential health benefits of fish oil to stimulant drug abuse prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( nitrate-feeding period, the nitrate content of orts on d 2 and 3 was greater ( = 0.02) than that on d 1. In conclusion, the increased consumption rate of a diet supplemented with nitrate was an important factor influencing risk of nitrate toxicity based on blood methemoglobin and plasma NO. In addition, the pattern of daily feed consumption was altered by nitrate (creating a "nibbling" pattern of eating) in beef heifers.

  3. Nonprotein calorie supplement improves adherence to low-protein diet and exerts beneficial responses on renal function in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Lien; Sung, Junne-Ming; Kao, Mei-Ding; Wang, Ming-Cheng; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Chen, Shu-Tzu

    2013-07-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are on low-protein diets and is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality in CKD. Studies have shown that patients on low-protein diets often have difficulty meeting nutritional energy requirements. Our study evaluated the effects of a nonprotein calorie (NPC) supplement on renal function and nutritional status in patients on a low-protein diet. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial. A total of 109 patients with CKD (men, 67%; mean age, 54.5 ± 13 years) with stage 3 to 4 disease were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 55) or the control group (n = 54). All participants received individualized dietary counseling aimed at achieving a daily protein intake of 0.6 to 0.8 g and a daily energy intake of 30 to 35 kcal/kg. The intervention group consumed a 200-kcal NPC supplement daily. The control group received dietary counseling only. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Urine protein excretion, dietary protein and energy intake, and serum levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin were assessed at baseline, at 12 weeks, and at 24 weeks. Dietary protein intake and urine protein excretion levels decreased significantly in the intervention group and were significantly lower than those of the control group. In addition, serum levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen decreased significantly, and eGFR increased significantly in the intervention group compared with baseline assessments. No significant differences were observed in the control group. The NPC supplement improved patient adherence to the low-protein diet and reduced urine protein excretion in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of supplementing growing-finishing pig diets with Bacillus spp. probiotic on growth performance and meat-carcass grade qualitytraits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seventy five pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc] with an initial body weight of 23.3±1.40 kg were used in the present study to investigate the influence of supplementation of a Bacillus spp. combination as probiotic (0%, 0.01%, and 0.02% with basal diet in growing-finishing pig diets on performance parameters with a feeding trial period of 16 weeks. Growth performance was analyzed at the start and at weeks 6, 12, and 16 of the experimental period. The entire experiment using probiotic supplementation in the diet revealed significant differences in average daily gain and gain:feed, but no effects on average daily feed intake. The result showed significant effects on digestibility of dry matter (0.002, nitrogen (0.069, and energy (0.099 at week 16; and number of fecal Lactobacillus (0.082, 0.041, E. coli (0.097, 0.052, and blood glucose (0.001, 0.049 at weeks 6 and 16. Dietary supplementation with Bacillus spp. probiotic resulted in a significant linear effect on sensory evaluation of meat color, drip loss at day 3, and carcass weight in pigs. In contrast, there was no significant difference in blood metabolic profiles and noxious gas emissions in this experiment. Dietary combination of Bacillus spp. can be used as a probiotic for enhancing the growth performances and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs.

  5. Maternal High Folic Acid Supplement Promotes Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Male Mouse Offspring Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.

  6. The effect of increased levels of dried coconut meal supplemented with an enzyme cocktail® on diet utilization in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prawit Rodjan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of increased levels of dried coconut meal supplemented with an enzyme cocktail® on diet utilization in growing pigs. A 4x4 latin square design was used in this study. Four crossbred (Duroc x Landrace x Large White barrows averaging 17.88±0.96 kg in body weight were allotted 4 diets, diet 1 (the control diet, diet 2, diet 3 and diet 4 (5, 10 and 15% dried coconut meal in each diet with an enzyme cocktail® , 1 kg of the enzyme cocktail containing the activities of phytase 1,000,000 units, amylase 5,000,000 units, xylanase 3,500,000 units, beta-glucanase 2,000,000 units, cellulase 1,500,000 units, pectinase 1,000,000 units and mannanase 800,000 units; 500 g/t of feed, at a level 0.05% in the diets, respectively. Pigs were raised in individual metabolism cages. Faeces and urine samples were collected 4 times a day for 5 days for data collection. The results showed that the nutrient digestibility percentage of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash, nitrogen-free extract, blood urea nitrogen, digestible energy (kcal/kg and metabolizable energy (kcal/ kg were not significantly different (P>0.05 in pigs fed with different diets. However, pigs fed with 5, 10 and 15% dried coconut meal in the diet with an enzyme cocktail® at a level 0.05% had significantly (P0.05 from the other groups. Apparent biological values contrarily reduced (linear and quadratic, P<0.05 with increasing level of dried coconut meal in pig diets. In conclusion, our data indicate that pigs fed with 5% dried coconut meal in a diet with addition of an enzyme cocktail at a level of 0.05% can show obviously increasing the highest digestibility of crude fiber (79.25% without impairing nutrient digestibility.

  7. Oxidised LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, I; Abete, I; Navas-Carretero, S; Massis-Zaid, A; Martinez, J A; Zulet, M A

    2014-04-01

    Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01596309). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with Yerba Mate Ameliorates Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in Mice by Regulating Energy Expenditure and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Sang Ryong; Kim, Do Yeon; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks as follows: (1) control group fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and (2) mate group fed with HFD plus yerba mate. Dietary yerba mate increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene mRNA expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expression in WAT, which may be linked to observed decreases in body weight, WAT weight, epididymal adipocyte size, and plasma leptin level. Yerba mate also decreased levels of plasma lipids (free fatty acids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and liver aminotransferase enzymes, as well as the accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets and lipid content by inhibiting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and increasing fecal lipid excretion. Moreover, yerba mate decreased the levels of plasma insulin as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance. Circulating levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and resistin were also decreased in the mate group. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation of dietary yerba mate may be beneficial for improving diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis.

  9. Obese Mice Fed a Diet Supplemented with Enzyme-Treated Wheat Bran Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    ) associated with specific microbes may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display......Background: Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites...... steatosis. Methods: Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 45%-lard based fat diet supplemented with ETWB (20% wt:wt) or rapidly digestible starch (control) (n = 15/group) for 10 wk were characterized by using a multi-omics approach. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify variables that were...

  10. Effect of a commercial anion dietary supplement on acid-base balance, urine volume, and urinary ion excretion in male goats fed oat or grass hay diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton-Phelps, Meri; House, John K

    2004-10-01

    To determine whether feeding a commercial anionic dietary supplement as a urinary acidifier to male goats may be useful for management of urolithiasis. 8 adult sexually intact male Toggenburg, Saanen, and Nubian goats. Goats were randomly assigned by age-, breed-, and weight-matched pairs to an oat or grass hay diet that was fed for 12 days. On days 13 to 14 (early sample collection time before supplementation), measurements were made of blood and urine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations; blood and urine pH; urine production; and water consumption. During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were analyzed during dietary supplementation on days 12 to 13 (middle sample collection time) and 27 to 28 (late sample collection time). Blood bicarbonate, pH, and urine pH of goats fed grass hay and goats fed oat hay were significantly decreased during the middle and late sample collection times, compared with the early sample collection time. Water consumption and urine production in all goats increased significantly during the late sample collection time, compared with the early sample collection time. The anionic dietary supplement used in our study increases urine volume, alters urine ion concentrations, and is an efficacious urinary acidifier in goats. Goats treated with prolonged anionic dietary supplementation should be monitored for secondary osteoporosis from chronic urinary calcium loss.

  11. Effect of Dietary Phytase Supplementation on Bone and Hyaline Cartilage Development of Broilers Fed with Organically Complexed Copper in a Cu-Deficient Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Siemowit; Tomaszewska, Ewa; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Tomczyk, Agnieszka

    2018-04-01

    Tibial mechanical, chemical, and histomorphometrical traits were investigated for growing male Ross 308 broiler chickens fed diets that had copper (Cu) from organic source at a lowered level of 25% of the daily requirement (4 mg kg -1 of a premix) with or without phytase. Dietary treatments were control non-copper, non-phytase group (0 Suppl); 4 mg kg -1 Cu non-phytase group (25%Cu); and 4 mg kg -1 Cu + 500 FTU kg -1 phytase group (25%Cu + phyt). The results show that birds fed with the addition of phytase exhibited improved weight gain and final body weight and had increased serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin concentrations. The serum concentration of Cu and P did not differ between groups; however, Ca concentration decreased in the 25%Cu + phyt group when compared to the 25%Cu group. Added Cu increased bone Ca, P, Cu, and ash content in Cu-supplemented groups, but bone weight and length increased only by the addition of phytase. Bone geometry, yield, and ultimate strengths were affected by Cu and phytase addition. A decrease of the elastic stress and ultimate stress of the tibia in Cu-supplemented groups was observed. The histomorphometric analysis showed a positive effect of Cu supplementation on real bone volume and trabecular thickness in the tibia metaphyseal trabeculae; additionally, phytase increased the trabeculea number. The supplementation with Cu significantly increased the total articular cartilage and growth plate cartilage thickness; however, the changes in thickness of particular zones were dependent upon phytase addition. In summary, dietary Cu supplements given to growing broilers with Cu in their diet restricted to 25% of the daily requirement had a positive effect on bone metabolism, and phytase supplementation additionally improved cartilage development.

  12. Femur morphometry, densitometry, geometry and mechanical properties in young pigs fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2017-02-01

    The study investigated in piglets the effect of replacing dietary inorganic P by addition of microbial phytase and its impact on performance, nutrient digestibility and on the geometrical characteristics and mineralisation of the femur. Sixteen pigs on day 58 of age were divided into two groups and fed either a diet free of additional inorganic phosphorus (P) and supplemented with phytase (Diet LP, 4.23 g total P/kg diet) or a diet with a mineral source of P and not supplemented with phytase (Diet SP, 5.38 g total P/kg diet). Performance data and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients were estimated between days 58 and 114, and 72 and 86 of age, respectively. On day 114 of age, the pigs were slaughtered, the femur was dissected and the mineral content and mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength, cortical wall thickness, cross-sectional area and cortical index were analysed. The growth performance and digestibility of nutrient fractions (with exception of P) did not differ between treatment groups. The P-digestibility was significantly higher in Group LP. The femur of pigs in Group LP had significantly greater cortical wall thickness, cortical index, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength than Group SP. Femur maximum strength and maximum elastic strength were correlated with cortical wall thickness and cortical index. Resulting from the different supply of digestible P, the femur geometrical, densitometric and mechanical properties of Group LP were better than those of Group SP. The mechanical properties of the femur of pigs depended more on its geometrical characteristics than on the degree of its mineralisation.

  13. EXPERIMENT ON EFFECTS OF LOE-PROTEIN DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH α-KETOACIDS ON HYPERTROPHY OF DIABETIC GLOMERULUS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LEVEL OF CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P27

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yi; Yuan, Weijie; Dong, Ting; Wang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids was reported to have renoprotective roles in diabetic nephropathy via inhibiting glomerular hypertrophy, however, the mechanism has not yet been fully clarified. the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 play an important role in hypertrophy of diabetic glomerulus, The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 and the effect of low-protein diet supplemented with α-keto acids on hypertrophy o...

  14. In rats fed high-energy diets, taste, rather than fat content, is the key factor increasing food intake: a comparison of a cafeteria and a lipid-supplemented standard diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Food selection and ingestion both in humans and rodents, often is a critical factor in determining excess energy intake and its related disorders. Methods Two different concepts of high-fat diets were tested for their obesogenic effects in rats; in both cases, lipids constituted about 40% of their energy intake. The main difference with controls fed standard lab chow, was, precisely, the lipid content. Cafeteria diets (K were self-selected diets devised to be desirable to the rats, mainly because of its diverse mix of tastes, particularly salty and sweet. This diet was compared with another, more classical high-fat (HF diet, devised not to be as tasty as K, and prepared by supplementing standard chow pellets with fat. We also analysed the influence of sex on the effects of the diets. Results K rats grew faster because of a high lipid, sugar and protein intake, especially the males, while females showed lower weight but higher proportion of body lipid. In contrast, the weight of HF groups were not different from controls. Individual nutrient’s intake were analysed, and we found that K rats ingested large amounts of both disaccharides and salt, with scant differences of other nutrients’ proportion between the three groups. The results suggest that the key differential factor of the diet eliciting excess energy intake was the massive presence of sweet and salty tasting food. Conclusions The significant presence of sugar and salt appears as a powerful inducer of excess food intake, more effective than a simple (albeit large increase in the diet’s lipid content. These effects appeared already after a relatively short treatment. The differential effects of sex agree with their different hedonic and obesogenic response to diet.

  15. Inulin supplementation reduces the negative effect of a high-fat diet rich in SFA on bone health of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława; Skiba, Grzegorz

    2018-05-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet, rich in SFA, causes deterioration of bone properties. Some studies suggest that feeding inulin to animals may increase mineral absorption and positively affect bone quality; however, these studies have been carried out only on rodents fed a standard diet. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of inulin on bone health of pigs (using it as an animal model for humans) fed a high-fat diet rich in SFA, having an unbalanced ratio of lysine:metabolisable energy. It was hypothesised that inulin reduces the negative effects of such a diet on bone health. At 50 d of age, twenty-one pigs were randomly allotted to three groups: the control (C) group fed a standard diet, and two experimental (T and TI) groups fed a high-fat diet rich in SFA. Moreover, TI pigs consumed an extra inulin supply (7 % of daily feed intake). After 10 weeks, whole-body bone mineral content (P=0·0054) and bone mineral density (P=0·0322) were higher in pigs of groups TI and C compared with those of group T. Femur bone mineral density was highest in pigs in group C, lower in group TI and lowest in group T (P=0·001). Femurs of pigs in groups TI and C had similar, but higher, maximum strength compared with femurs of pigs in group T (P=0·0082). In conclusion, consumption of a high-fat diet rich in SFA adversely affected bone health, but inulin supplementation in such a diet diminishes this negative effect.

  16. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  17. Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaii, Mohammad; Ghiasi, Maryam; Farabi, Seyed Mohammad Vahid; Pourgholam, Reza; Fazli, Hasan; Safari, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Eshagh; Taghavi, Mohammad Javad; Bankehsaz, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different dietary nettle (Urtica dioica) levels on biochemical, hematological and immunological parameters in beluga (Huso huso). Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed for 8 weeks with 0%, 3%, 6% and 12% of nettle. The blood samples were collected on week 4 and 8. The use of nettle did not significantly change the mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, lymphocytes, eosinophils, albumin, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme activity on week 4 and 8. After 4 weeks, the total red blood cell (RBC) and hematocrit (Ht) showed a significant increase in 12% nettle group compared to the 3% nettle and control groups but haemoglobin (Hb) had a significant change in 12% nettle compared to the control. At the same time was not found a significant change in the mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, respiratory burst activity (RB), total immunoglobulin (Ig) and total protein (TP), triglyceride (Tri) and cholesterol (Chol). After 8 weeks, the fish treated with nettle exhibited significantly increase in neutrophil and Hb levels compared to the control and between treatment groups, 12% nettle group shown the highest Hb while RBC and Hct values significantly rose in fish fed by 12% compared to the control. Supplementing 6% and 12% nettle increased the WBC and MCHC compared to the other groups. The group fed 12% showed a highly significant difference in RB, TP and Ig after 8 weeks. However, Tri and Chol were significantly decreased in the juvenile beluga fed by the 6% and 12% nettle diet compared to the other groups. The results suggest that by using this herb there will be an improvement in hemato-biochemical parameters and immune function of juvenile beluga.

  18. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in LDLR -/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from early age may...

  19. Effects of Biotin Supplementation in the Diet on Adipose Tissue cGMP Concentrations, AMPK Activation, Lipolysis, and Serum-Free Fatty Acid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Villa, Daniel; Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Miranda-Cervantes, Adriana; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that pharmacological concentrations of biotin decrease hyperlipidemia. The molecular mechanisms by which pharmacological concentrations of biotin modify lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Adipose tissue plays a central role in lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of biotin supplementation in adipose tissue on signaling pathways and critical proteins that regulate lipid metabolism, as well as on lipolysis. In addition, we assessed serum fatty acid concentrations. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (control: 1.76 mg biotin/kg; supplemented: 97.7 mg biotin/kg diet) over 8 weeks postweaning. Compared with the control group, biotin-supplemented mice showed an increase in the levels of adipose guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) (control: 30.3±3.27 pmol/g wet tissue; supplemented: 49.5±3.44 pmol/g wet tissue) and of phosphorylated forms of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK; 65.2%±1.06%), acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), carboxylase-1 (196%±68%), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 (78.1%±18%). Serum fatty acid concentrations were decreased (control: 1.12±0.04 mM; supplemented: 0.91±0.03 mM), and no change in lipolysis was found (control: 0.29±0.05 μmol/mL; supplemented: 0.33±0.08 μmol/mL). In conclusion, 8 weeks of dietary biotin supplementation increased adipose tissue cGMP content and protein expression of the active form of AMPK and of the inactive forms of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2. Serum fatty acid levels fell, and no change in lipolysis was observed. These findings provide insight into the effects of biotin supplementation on adipose tissue and support its use in the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  20. Effects of a high dose of microbial phytase and myo-inositol supplementation on growth performance, tibia mineralization, nutrient digestibility, litter moisture content, and foot problems in broiler chickens fed phosphorus-deficient diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, D; Karimi, A; Sadeghi, Gh; Rostamzadeh, J; Bedford, M R

    2017-10-01

    A total of 660 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into eleven dietary treatments. Treatments included a maize-soybean meal-based diet with recommended calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (positive control; PC), an nPP-deficient diet (negative control; NC), NC diets supplemented with different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, and 6,000 FTU/kg), a NC diet plus 0.15% myo-inositol, and a NC diet with reduced Ca level (Ca to nPP ratio same as PC). Feeding the NC diet had no effects on birds' body weight (BW), weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), but decreased (P Phytase supplementation at ≥4,000 FTU/kg improved (P phytase returned (P phytase in a dose-dependent manner, especially at ≥4,000 FTU/kg levels, was effective in overcoming the negative consequences of NC diets, primarily due to the ability to improve nutrient utilization. In addition, reducing the Ca level or supplementation of inositol of NC diet can correct some the negative effects of feeding a NC diet confirming the negative effect of a wide Ca: P ratio in a P-deficient diet and suggesting that inositol may play a role in the response to phytase addition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Odor and odorous compound emissions from manure of swine fed standard and dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) supplemented diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the impact diets containing dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) have on emissions of odor and odorous compounds from swine manure storage. Twenty-four pigs were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS. Pigs were fed ...

  2. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  3. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  4. Effect of sulfur supplements on cellulolytic rumen micro-organisms and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed a high fibre diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, C S; Denman, S E

    2007-11-01

    To examine the effect of sulfur-containing compounds on the growth of anaerobic rumen fungi and the fibrolytic rumen bacteria Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes in pure culture and within the cattle rumen. The effect of two reduced sulfur compounds, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid as the sole S source on growth of pure fibroyltic fungal and bacterial cultures showed that these compounds were capable of sustaining growth. An in vivo trial was then conducted to determine the effect of sulfur supplements (MPA and sodium sulfate) on microbial population dynamics in cattle fed the roughage Dichanthium aristatum. Real-time PCR showed significant increases in fibrolytic bacterial and fungal populations when cattle were supplemented with these compounds. Sulfate supplementation leads to an increase in dry matter intake without a change in whole tract dry matter digestibility. Supplementation of low S-containing diets with either sodium sulfate or MPA stimulates microbial growth with an increase in rumen microbial protein supply to the animal. Through the use of real-time PCR monitoring, a better understanding of the effect of S supplementation on discrete microbial populations within the rumen is provided.

  5. [Evaluation of influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on lipids and lipoprtoteins concentration in female rat serum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna

    2009-01-01

    The influence of diet content and its supplementation with chosen group of B vitamins on the intake of feeding stuff increase, changes of body mass, accumulation of fat tissue, lipids and lipoproteins concentration in the blood of female rats were under research. The animals, aged 5 months, were divided into three groups (8 persons each) and fed ad libitum with granulated Labofeed B type mix. Group I with the basic mix containing among other things whole grain, Group II with a modified mix, where whole grain was replaced by wheat flour and saccharose and Group III with modified mix supplemented in excess with chosen vitamins of B group. This experiment took 6 weeks during which the amount of consumed feed was currently evaluated, and the body mass was controlled weekly. After finishing the experiment in the obtained serum the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol with enzyme method and the content of cholesterol fractions with electrophoretic separation method were determined. Analysis of fat content in muscles and livers was conducted and the amount of round the bodily organ fat was determined. It was ascertained that change of the content of the feed and its supplementation with the chosen B group vitamins did not influence in a substantial way its intake and the increase of body mass, however it had influenced substantially, in animals fed with the modified feed the accumulation of round the organ fat and in supplemented the intramuscular fat. Analysis of the results enabled the ascertainment that the diet supplementation with chosen ingredients of the B group vitamins corrects the negative effect of accumulation of the visceral fat tissue as a result of the change of its contents, caused substantial increase in the concentration of triacylglycerols, complete cholesterol and its fractions VLDL- and LDL- with simultaneous decrease of the concentration of cholesterol HDL- fractions.

  6. The Influence of Iron and Zinc Supplementation on the Bioavailability of Provitamin A Carotenoids from Papaya Following Consumption of a Vitamin A-Deficient Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana-Sop, Marie Modestine; Gouado, Inocent; Achu, Mercy Bih; Van Camp, John; Amvam Zollo, Paul Henri; Schweigert, Florian J; Oberleas, Donald; Ekoe, Tetanye

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies are serious public health problems in Cameroon, as in many developing countries. Local vegetables which are sources of provitamin A carotenoids (PACs) can be used to improve vitamin A intakes. However, traditional meals are often unable to cover zinc and iron needs. The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability of 3 PACs (α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) in young men, who were fed with a vitamin A-free diet and received iron and zinc supplementation. Twelve healthy participants were divided into three groups and were supplemented with elemental iron (20 mg of iron fumarate), 20 mg of zinc sulfate or iron+zinc (20 mg of iron in the morning and 20 mg of zinc in the evening) for 11 d. They were given a vitamin A- and PAC-free diet from the 6th to the 11th day, followed by a test meal containing 0.55 kg of freshly peeled papaya as a source of PACs. Blood samples were collected four times successively on the 11th day (the test meal day), at T0 (just after the test meal), after 2 h (T2), after 4 h (T4) and after 7 h (T7). Ultracentrifugation was used to isolate serum chylomicrons. Retinol appearance and PAC postprandial concentrations were determined. The supplementation with zinc, iron and iron+zinc influenced the chylomicron appearance of retinol and PACs differently as reflected by retention times and maximum absorption peaks. Iron led to highest retinol levels in the chylomicron. Zinc and iron+zinc supplements were best for optimal intact appearance of α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin respectively. Supplementation with iron led to the greatest bioavailability of PACs from papaya and its conversion to retinol.

  7. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, psynthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid supplementation on production and metabolic variables of primiparous or multiparous cows in periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Locher, Lena; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna; Kenéz, Ákos; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    It is well observed that feeding energy-dense diets in dairy cows during the dry period can cause metabolic imbalances after parturition. Especially dairy cows with high body condition score (BCS) and fed an energy-dense diet were prone to develop production diseases due to metabolic disturbances postpartum. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid (NA) on production and metabolic variables of primiparous and multiparous cows in late pregnancy and early lactation which were not pre-selected for high BCS. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous German Holstein cows with equal body conditions were fed with energy-dense (60% concentrate/40% roughage mixture; HC group) or adequate (30% concentrate/70% roughage mixture; LC group) diets prepartum. After parturition, concentrate proportion was dropped to 30% for all HC and LC groups and was increased to 50% within 16 days for LC and within 24 days for HC cows. In addition, half of the cows per group received 24 g NA supplement per day and cow aimed to attenuate the lipid mobilisation postpartum. Feeding energy-dense diets to late-pregnant dairy cows elevated the dry matter (p metabolic deviation postpartum as the effects of prepartum concentrate feeding were not carried over into postpartum period. Multiparous cows responded more profoundly to energy-dense feeding prepartum compared with primiparous cows, and parity-related differences in the transition from late pregnancy to lactation were obvious pre- and postpartum. The supplementation with 24 g NA did not reveal any effect on energy metabolism. This study clearly showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in multiparous and primiparous cows not selected for high BCS. A genetic predisposition for an anabolic metabolic status as indicated by high BCS may be crucial for developing production diseases at the onset of lactation.

  9. Microbial protein synthesis, digestion and lactation responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover silage diet supplemented with barley or oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. VANHATALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass and grain supplement (oats vs. barley on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk production. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four 28-d experimental periods and 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments. Using red clover-containing (40% silage rather than pure grass silage had minor effects on rumen fermentation or diet digestion but increased non-ammonia nitrogen (N flow in terms of increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering to the small intestine. This was reflected as a reduced ruminal N degradability on grass-red clover diets. Furthermore, grass-red clover diets in comparison to grass silage diets increased milk lactose concentration and yields of milk, protein and lactose. Feeding oats in replacement for barley had minor effects on rumen fermentation or post-ruminal non-ammonia N flows but reduced digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre in the diet. Using oats rather than barley increased yields of milk and lactose but reduced milk protein concentration. Oats also increased proportions of C18:0 and C18:1 in milk fat and reduced those of C10:0 to C16:0. It is concluded that inclusion of red clover and replacement of barley with oats in grass silage based diets have beneficial effects in dairy cow production.;

  10. Growth responses of native chicken Sentul G-3 on diet containing high rice-bran supplemented with phytase enzyme and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase enzymes and ZnO supplementation on the performance of native chicken Sentul-G3 fed high rice-bran diet. Two hundred and seventy day old chicks (DOC native chicken Sentul-G3 from three different hatcheries were used in this study. Factorial randomized block design (3 x 3 was applied in this study. The first factor was the enzyme phytase supplementation levels (0; 1000; 2000 U/kg, the second factor was the level of supplementation of ZnO (0; 1.5; 3.2 g/kg, so that there are nine treatment given, namely R1 = 50% commercial diet : 50% rice bran; R2 = R1 + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R3 = R1 + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R4 = R1 + phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg; R5 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R6 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R7 = R1 + phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg; R8 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R9 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg. Each experimental unit consisted of 6 head unsexed native chicken Sentul-G3. The experimental diet was fed for 10 weeks. The variables measured were body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, mineral deposition of Ca, P, Zn in the tibia bone, alkaline phosfatase enzyme activity in serum. Results showed that there was significant interaction (P 0.05 between phytase enzyme and ZnO supplementation on feed intake, mortality, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in serum, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the tibia bone. It was concluded that supplementation of phytase enzyme and ZnO were not able to increase the growth of native chicken Sentul-G3 on fed diet containing high rice bran.

  11. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  12. Long-term dietary supplementation with low-dose nobiletin ameliorates hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and inflammation without altering fat mass in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Je; Choi, Myung-Sook; Woo, Je Tae; Jeong, Mi Ji; Kim, Sang Ryong; Jung, Un Ju

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the long-term effect of low-dose nobiletin (NOB), a polymethoxylated flavone, on diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disturbances. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 kcal% fat) with or without NOB (0.02%, w/w) for 16 weeks. NOB did not alter food intake or body weight. Despite increases in fatty acid oxidation-related genes expression and enzymes activity in adipose tissue, NOB did not affect adipose tissue weight due to simultaneous increases in lipogenic genes expression and fatty acid synthase activity. However, NOB significantly decreased not only pro-inflammatory genes expression in adipose tissue but also proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma. NOB-supplemented mice also showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, along with decreased levels of plasma insulin, free fatty acids, total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B. In addition, NOB caused significant decreases in hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and triglyceride content by activating hepatic fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes. Hepatic proinflammatory TNF-α mRNA expression, collagen accumulation, and plasma levels of aminotransferases, liver damage indicators, were also significantly lower in NOB-supplemented mice. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation with low-dose NOB can protect against HFD-induced inflammation, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, without ameliorating adiposity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Sheep response to fish meal supplements for diets based on industrial by-products or native pastures of the Peruvian High Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera, V.

    1987-01-01

    Rumen degradabilities were determined for various proteins by incubation for 48 h in nylon bags. Values obtained were 37.3% for corn grain and feather meal, 59.6% for alfalfa meal, 63.4% for cottonseed meal, 66.8% for soybean meal and 68.0% for rice polishings. Fish meal protein degradability was less than 45%. Sheep given either cottonseed meal or fish meal as sources of 'bypass' protein did not show differences in daily gain or intake. Fish meal diets gave better feed/gain ratios. Fish meal or urea supplementation of a basal diet containing 4.6% crude protein increased feed intake, daily gain, the feed/gain ratio and wool staple length. Castrated sheep grazing native pastures of the Peruvian Andes (altitude approximately 3800 m) during either the rainy or dry season did not show significant improvement in growth rate with fish meal supplementation. Supplementation of ewes at first mating produced higher weights at the end of gestation, as well as an increase in the number and weight of lambs born, in the weaning rate and in wool weight from the ewes. (author)

  14. No Additive Effects of Polyphenol Supplementation and Exercise Training on White Adiposity Determinants of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Insulin-Resistant Rats

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    Karen Lambert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major insulin resistance instigators is excessive adiposity and visceral fat depots. Individually, exercise training and polyphenol intake are known to exert health benefits as improving insulin sensitivity. However, their combined curative effects on established obesity and insulin resistance need further investigation particularly on white adipose tissue alterations. Therefore, we compared the effects on different white adipose tissue depot alterations of a combination of exercise and grape polyphenol supplementation in obese insulin-resistant rats fed a high-fat diet to the effects of a high-fat diet alone or a nutritional supplementation of grape polyphenols (50 mg/kg/day or exercise training (1 hr/day to 5 days/wk consisting of treadmill running at 32 m/min for a 10% slope, for a total duration of 8 weeks. Separately, polyphenol supplementation and exercise decreased the quantity of all adipose tissue depots and mesenteric inflammation. Exercise reduced adipocytes’ size in all fat stores. Interestingly, combining exercise to polyphenol intake presents no more cumulative benefit on adipose tissue alterations than exercise alone. Insulin sensitivity was improved at systemic, epididymal, and inguinal adipose tissues levels in trained rats thus indicating that despite their effects on adipocyte morphological/metabolic changes, polyphenols at nutritional doses remain less effective than exercise in fighting insulin resistance.

  15. Low-Protein Diet Supplemented with Keto Acids Is Associated with Suppression of Small-Solute Peritoneal Transport Rate in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

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    Na Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d, keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6–0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids, or high- (HP: 1.0–1.2 g/kg/d protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/Pcr (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour and D/D0glu (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio were similar, D/Pcr in group sLP was lower, and D/D0glu was higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.05 at 12th month. D/D0glu increased (P<0.05, and D/Pcr tended to decrease, (P=0.071 in group sLP. Conclusions. Low-protein diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  16. Low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids is associated with suppression of small-solute peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Weiming; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective. We investigate whether low-protein diet would show benefits in suppressing peritoneal transport rate in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods. This is a supplemented analysis of our previously published trial, which randomized 60 PD patients to receive low- (LP: dietary protein intake of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d), keto-acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg/d with 0.12 g/kg/d of keto acids), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg/d) protein diet and lasted for one year. In this study, the variations of peritoneal transport rate were assessed. Results. While baseline D/P(cr) (dialysate-to-plasma concentration ratio for creatinine at 4 hour) and D/D0(glu) (dialysate glucose at 4 hour to baseline dialysate glucose concentration ratio) were similar, D/P(cr) in group sLP was lower, and D/D0(glu) was higher than those in the other two groups (P diet with keto acids may benefit PD patients by maintaining peritoneum at a lower transport rate.

  17. Dietary supplementation of defatted kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal and its phenolics-saponins rich extract effectively attenuates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-02-21

    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p < 0.05). The combined results showed that hypercholesterolemia and the atherogenic risk in rats were effectively attenuated by DKSM and PSRE supplementation, possibly via modulations of multiple vital processes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  18. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  19. EGG QUALITY AND HATCHABILITY OF In situ - REARED KEDU AND CEMANI HENS FED DIET OF FARMER FORMULATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Wahyuni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation in Kedu andCemani hens reraed in situ and given farmer-formulated diet on egg performances. A total of 120 femaleand 24 male birds were equally divided into two groups of Kedu and Cemani, with average body weightof 1890+216.79 and 1830+396.23 g, respectively. Basal ration was based on the diet formulated by thefarmer (R1 consisting of corn (30%, rice bran (50%, protein concentrate (15%, and premix (5%.Dietary treatments evaluated were R1 (without additional vitamin E, and the other three were theinclusion of DL α-tocopheryl acetate into the R1 diet up to 2 (R2, 4 (R3 and 6 IU (R4. The experimentwas arranged in a Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments, and 2 different groups of hen (Kedu andCemani were assigned as block. Parameters observed were feed consumption, hen day production, feedconversion ratio, egg quality, fertility, and hatchability. The result showed that vitamin Esupplementation did not affect whatever parameters, except egg fertility. Egg hatchability between Keduand Cemani hens was significantly different (p<0.05. Trend comparison test indicated significantlylinear (p<0.05 for fertility and hatchability. In conclusion, vitamin E supplementation up to 6 IUincreased linearly egg fertility and hatchability of about 5-8%, and egg hatchability of Kedu hens washigher (11% than that of Cemani.

  20. Supplementing Blends of Sugars, Amino Acids, and Secondary Metabolites to the Diet of Termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Drive Distinct Gut Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing-Feng; Chaparro, Jacqueline M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Judd, Timothy M; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2016-10-01

    Although it is well known that diet is one of the major modulators of the gut microbiome, how the major components of diet shape the gut microbial community is not well understood. Here, we developed a simple system that allows the investigation of the impact of given compounds as supplements of the diet on the termite gut microbiome. The 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis revealed that feeding termites different blends of sugars and amino acids did not majorly impact gut community composition; however, ingestion of blends of secondary metabolites caused shifts in gut bacterial community composition. The supplementation of sugars and amino acids reduced the richness significantly, and sugars alone increased the evenness of the gut bacterial community significantly. Secondary metabolites created the most dramatic effects on the microbial community, potentially overriding the effect of other types of compounds. Furthermore, some microbial groups were stimulated specifically by particular groups of compounds. For instance, termites fed with secondary metabolites contained more Firmicutes and Spirochaetes compared to the other treatments. In conclusion, our results suggest that the termite (Reticulitermes flavipes) can be used as a simple and effective system to test the effects of particular chemical compounds in modulating the gut microbiome.

  1. Potentiation of antioxidant effect of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Shubhra; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant role of tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, CB), a rich source of soluble fibre, was investigated in a hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress situation in rats. In the context of dietary garlic (Allium sativa) potentiating the hypocholesterolemic influence of CB, we also examined if dietary garlic enhances the antioxidant potential of CB. Groups of Wistar rats were rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding them a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made by inclusion of 15% tender CB powder or 1% garlic powder or their combination in a high-cholesterol diet. Concentrations of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and liver were examined. Dietary CB displayed an antioxidant influence in terms of elevating ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations and stimulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes both in blood and liver. The antioxidant effect of dietary CB was generally potentiated by co-administration of garlic. Thus, consumption of tender CB and garlic together could form a strategy for improving the body's antioxidant status.

  2. Supplementation of chitosan alleviates high-fat diet-enhanced lipogenesis in rats via adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase activation and inhibition of lipogenesis-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Chan, Im-Lam; Yang, Tsung-Han; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-03-25

    This study investigated the role of chitosan in lipogenesis in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. The lipogenesis-associated genes and their upstream regulatory proteins were explored. Diet supplementation of chitosan efficiently decreased the increased weights in body, livers, and adipose tissues in high-fat diet-fed rats. Chitosan supplementation significantly raised the lipolysis rate; attenuated the adipocyte hypertrophy, triglyceride accumulation, and lipoprotein lipase activity in epididymal adipose tissues; and decreased hepatic enzyme activities of lipid biosynthesis. Chitosan supplementation significantly activated adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and attenuated high-fat diet-induced protein expressions of lipogenic transcription factors (PPAR-γ and SREBP1c) in livers and adipose tissues. Moreover, chitosan supplementation significantly inhibited the expressions of downstream lipogenic genes (FAS, HMGCR, FATP1, and FABP4) in livers and adipose tissues of high-fat diet-fed rats. These results demonstrate for the first time that chitosan supplementation alleviates high-fat diet-enhanced lipogenesis in rats via AMPK activation and lipogenesis-associated gene inhibition.

  3. Intestinal CREBH overexpression prevents high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia by reducing Npc1l1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kikuchi

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Intestinal CREBH regulates dietary cholesterol flow from the small intestine by controlling the expression of multiple intestinal transporters. We propose that intestinal CREBH could be a therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia.

  4. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

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    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.