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Sample records for high-body fat proportion

  1. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  2. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  3. The Effects of Diet on the Proportion of Intramuscular Fat in Human Muscle: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThere is an increasing trend in the consumption of poor-quality diets worldwide, contributing to the increase of non-communicable diseases. Diet directly influences physiological composition and subsequently physical health. Studies have shown that dietary macronutrient and energy content can influence the proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF, which mediates various metabolic and endocrine dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify evidence in the literature assessing the association between different dietary interventions on the proportion of IMF in humans.MethodsThree medical databases were investigated (Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane to identify studies assessing changes in IMF after dietary interventions. The primary outcome measure was the change in IMF proportions after a dietary intervention. The effects of high-fat, high-carbohydrate, low-calorie, and starvation diets were assessed qualitatively. A meta-analysis assessing the effect of high-fat diets was conducted. Follow-up sensitivity and subgroup analyses were also conducted.ResultsOne thousand eight hundred and sixty-six articles were identified for review. Of these articles, 13 were eligible for inclusion after a full screening. High-fat diets increased IMF proportions, standardized mean difference = 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 0.43–2.05 and a significant overall effect size (P = 0.003. Diets with an increased proportion of carbohydrates decreased IMF proportions; however, increasing caloric intake with carbohydrates increased IMF. Starvation diets increased IMF stores, and hypocaloric diets did not result in any IMF proportion changes.ConclusionThis systematic review suggests that high-fat diets and diets with caloric intake increased above the amount required to maintain BMI with carbohydrates, and short-term starvation diets are associated with increases in IMF content. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of macronutrient

  4. Effects of physical exercice over corporal fat predictor indexes: corporal mass index, waist-hip proportion and cutaneous folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertino de Oliveira Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify alterations in corporal fat amount prediction indexes as a consequence of physical exercise, in assiduous individuals of programs offered in academies in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. The sample consisted of 68 subjects who practiced swimming, water aerobics, gymnastics or muscular exercice, being 38 women (age 29±6 years and 30 men (age 28±8 years. The data was collected during the year of 2000. According to the results, both groups showed significant decrease of the variables related to corporal fat prediction (fat percentage, corporal mass index, waist-hip proportion and significant increase in the thin corporal mass, independent of the exercise modality, allowing the conclusion that, besides aesthetic effects, physical exercises precticed with regularity and continuity act positively on aspects related to the individual's life quality, bringing him/her closer to ideal health standards.

  5. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pinsulin resistance.

  6. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  7. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  8. Assessment of body fat proportion by means of bioelectrical impedance in athletic boys aged 7 to 18 years with respect to specific types of instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Martin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance (BIA seems an appropriate method for basic diagnostics of body composition in a practical environment. This is a non-time consuming non-invasive method that provides a high degree of response relevance. However, the values identifi ed by the BIA method are susceptible to a number of factors, which need to be taken into account during the investigation stage and interpretation of the results. One of the signifi cant factors infl uencing the outcomes of measurement is the instrument factor.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present comparative survey was to analyse the proportions of body fat by means of the BIA hand-to-leg method and BIA leg-to-leg method in a sample of athletic individuals aged 7 to 18 years.METHODS: The survey included a total of 178 ice-hockey players aged 7 to 18 years. The proportion of body fat analysed by means of the BIA hand-to-leg method was measured by the Tanita BC-418 MA instrument. For the purposes of the BIA leg-to-leg method the Tanita BF-350 instrument was used (Tanita, Japan. Both instruments work at a frequency of 50 kHz.RESULTS: The percentage of body fat established by the BIA leg-to-leg method (M = 13.5%; SD = 4.8 indicated signifi cantly lower values of fat percentage than the values measured by the BIA hand-to-leg method (M = 17.1%; SD = 4.3. The overall diff erence represents an average value of 3.6% (standard mode; p < .001; d = 0.8. Regarding the monitored age categories the observed diff erences are in the range of 3.1–4.7% (p < .001; d = 0.7–1.2.CONCLUSION: The present study compares the proportions of body fat by means of the BIA leg-to-leg method and BIA hand-to-leg method in athletic boys aged 7 to 18 years. The results measured by the BIA leg-to-leg method signifi cantly undervalue the proportion of body fat in comparison with the BIA hand-to-leg method. The instrument factor and age factor represented signifi - cant variables infl uencing the results of the

  9. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  11. Proportionality lost - proportionality regained?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the European Court of Justice (the ECJ) seems to have accepted restrictions on the freedom of establishment and other basic freedoms, despite the fact that a more thorough proportionality test would have revealed that the restriction in question did not pass the 'rule of reason' ...

  12. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01). Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  13. High proportions of foods recommended for consumption by United States Dietary Guidance contain solid fats and added sugar: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that individuals older than one year reduce intakes of solid fats (SoF) and added sugars (AS; together SoFAS). MyPlate, illustrates the proportions of five major food groups to promote healthy eating (Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, Fruit...

  14. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...

  15. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P fat oxidation were higher on a high-protein diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  16. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... women aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program at multiple designated community centres. All subjects were able to communicate and residing in an urban area of central Malaysia. Exclusion criteria included those who have mental disorders, concomitant diseases (i.e. dialysis ...

  17. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  18. Proportionality for Military Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gary D

    2000-01-01

    .... Especially lacking is a realization that there are four distinct types of proportionality. In determining whether a particular resort to war is just, national leaders must consider the proportionality of the conflict (i.e...

  19. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  20. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  1. Insulin sensitivity is reduced in children with high body-fat regardless of BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairchild, Timothy J; Klakk, Heidi; Heidemann, Malene

    2018-01-01

    BF% was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured and the homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) used to assess insulin sensitivity. RESULTS: Approximately 8% of children classified as normal weight...... by BMI had high BF% (NW + Adipose). Children with high BF% had significantly higher insulin (NW + adipose: 32.3%; OW/OB + Adipose: 52.2%) and HOMA-IR scores (NW + Adipose: 32.3%; OW/OB + Adipose: 55.3%) than children classified as NW without high BF% (reference group; NW + NonAdipose). Adjusting for CRF...

  2. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  3. The divine proportion

    CERN Document Server

    Huntley, H E

    1970-01-01

    Using simple mathematical formulas, most as basic as Pythagoras's theorem and requiring only a very limited knowledge of mathematics, Professor Huntley explores the fascinating relationship between geometry and aesthetics. Poetry, patterns like Pascal's triangle, philosophy, psychology, music, and dozens of simple mathematical figures are enlisted to show that the ""divine proportion"" or ""golden ratio"" is a feature of geometry and analysis which awakes answering echoes in the human psyche. When we judge a work of art aesthetically satisfying, according to his formulation, we are making it c

  4. A nuclear proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear proportional counter comprising in a bulb filled with a low-pressure gas, a wire forming an anode and a cathode, characterized in that said cathode is constituted by two plane plates parallel to each other and to the anode wire, and in that two branches of a circuit are connected to the anode wire end-portions, each branch comprising a pre-amplifier, a measuring circuit consisting of a differentiator-integrator-differentiator amplifier and a zero detector, one of the branches comprising an adjustable delay circuit, both branches jointly attacking a conversion circuit for converting the pulse duration into amplitudes said conversion circuit being followed by a multi-channel analyzer, contingently provided with a recorder [fr

  5. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  6. Macroeconomic Proportions and Corellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The work is focusing on the main proportions and correlations which are being set up between the major macroeconomic indicators. This is the general frame for the analysis of the relations between the Gross Domestic Product growth rate and the unemployment rate; the interaction between the inflation rate and the unemployment rate; the connection between the GDP growth rate and the inflation rate. Within the analysis being performed, a particular attention is paid to �the basic relationship of the economic growth� by emphasizing the possibilities as to a factorial analysis of the macroeconomic development, mainly as far as the Gross Domestic Product is concerned. At this point, the authors are introducing the mathematical relations, which are used for modeling the macroeconomic correlations, hence the strictness of the analysis being performed.

  7. Macroeconomic Proportions and Corellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is focusing on the main proportions and correlations which are being set up between the major macroeconomic indicators. This is the general frame for the analysis of the relations between the Gross Domestic Product growth rate and the unemployment rate; the interaction between the inflation rate and the unemployment rate; the connection between the GDP growth rate and the inflation rate. Within the analysis being performed, a particular attention is paid to “the basic relationship of the economic growth” by emphasizing the possibilities as to a factorial analysis of the macroeconomic development, mainly as far as the Gross Domestic Product is concerned. At this point, the authors are introducing the mathematical relations, which are used for modeling the macroeconomic correlations, hence the strictness of the analysis being performed.

  8. [Obesity paradox or reverse epidemiology: is high body weight a protective factor for various chronic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Rieder, A

    2010-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for the development of disease and death in the general population. However, in people with various conditions (old age, wasting diseases, heart diseases or renal dialysis) overweight and obesity are associated with a higher survival rate. The terms "reverse epidemiology" or "obesity paradox" have been suggested to describe this finding. However, it still remains uncertain, whether this phenomenon is attributable to a real protective effect of high body fat mass. Methodological problems in studies suggesting an obesity paradox such as survivor bias, selection bias, lead time bias or, in meta analyses, publication bias and confounders have been discussed. These cannot, however, entirely explain the observed phenomenon. Biological models, examining possible explanations for the protective effect of high body mass, for instance, in wasting diseases and elderly patients, have also been produced. In particular high inflammation markers combined with malnutrition predict a high mortality rate among patients with various medical conditions: overweight and obesity could counter these effects. Possible implications for clinical and public health recommendations regarding weight management and nutrition are issues for future research. In elderly subjects and patients with a poor prognosis the impact of weight management on quality of life should also be taken into account.

  9. The health and cost implications of high body mass index in Australian defence force personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peake Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent illness and injury among workers with high body mass index (BMI can raise the costs of employee healthcare and reduce workforce maintenance and productivity. These issues are particularly important in vocational settings such as the military, which require good physical health, regular attendance and teamwork to operate efficiently. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage and administrative outcomes among Australian Defence Force personnel with varying BMI. Methods Personnel were grouped into cohorts according to the following ranges for (BMI: normal (18.5 − 24.9 kg/m2; n = 197, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2; n = 154 and obese (≥30 kg/m2 with restricted body fat (≤28% for females, ≤24% for males (n = 148 and with no restriction on body fat (n = 180. Medical records for each individual were audited retrospectively to record the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage (i.e., consultation with medical specialists, hospital stays, medical investigations, prescriptions and administrative outcomes (e.g., discharge from service over one year. These data were then grouped and compared between the cohorts. Results The prevalence of injury and illness, cost of medical specialist consultations and cost of medical scans were all higher (p  Conclusions High BMI in the military increases healthcare usage, but does not disrupt workforce maintenance. The greater prevalence of injury and illness, greater healthcare usage and lower productivity in obese Australian Defence Force personnel is not related to higher levels of body fat.

  10. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  11. High body mass index is associated with impaired cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and cognitive deficits concerning mental flexibility and inhibitory control efficiency. The present study aims at replicating and extending these observations. We compared cognitive control performance of normal weight (BMI task tapping either inhibitory control (Experiment 1) or interference control (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 replicated previous findings that found less efficient inhibitory control in overweight individuals. Experiment 2 complemented these findings by showing that cognitive control impairments associated with high BMI also extend to the ability to resolve stimulus-induced response conflict and to engage in conflict-driven control adaptation. The present results are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that high BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with less efficient cognitive control functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  13. Proportional Symbol Mapping in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Tanimura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of spatial data on a map aids not only in data exploration but also in communication to impart spatial conception or ideas to others. Although recent carto-graphic functions in R are rapidly becoming richer, proportional symbol mapping, which is one of the common mapping approaches, has not been packaged thus far. Based on the theories of proportional symbol mapping developed in cartography, the authors developed some functions for proportional symbol mapping using R, including mathematical and perceptual scaling. An example of these functions demonstrated the new expressive power and options available in R, particularly for the visualization of conceptual point data.

  14. Optical fusions and proportional syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Vanel, Michel

    2002-06-01

    A tragic error is being made in the literature concerning matters of color when dealing with optical fusions. They are still considered to be of additive nature, whereas experience shows us somewhat different results. The goal of this presentation is to show that fusions are, in fact, of 'proportional' nature, tending to be additive or subtractive, depending on each individual case. Using the pointillist paintings done in the manner of Seurat, or the spinning discs experiment could highlight this intermediate sector of the proportional. So, let us try to examine more closely what occurs in fact, by reviewing additive, subtractive and proportional syntheses.

  15. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Urban and migrant Indians are experiencing a rapidly escalating epidemic of diabetes and CHD. This may be related to high body fat percentage in Indians and its central distribution which have been shown to be detrimental for metabolism

  16. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  17. Electronics for proportional drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, G.; Friend, B.; Mess, K.H.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Tarle, J.C.; Verweij, H.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Geske, K.; Riege, H.; Schuett, J.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration); Semenov, Y.; CERN-Hamburg-Amsterdam-Rome-Moscow Collaboration)

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for the read-out of a large number of proportional drift tubes (16,000) has been designed. This system measures deposited charge and drift-time of the charge of a particle traversing a proportional drift tube. A second event can be accepted during the read-out of the system. Up to 40 typical events can be collected and buffered before a data transfer to a computer is necessary. (orig.)

  18. Analogical proportions: another logical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Richard, Gilles

    This paper investigates the logical formalization of a restricted form of analogical reasoning based on analogical proportions, i.e. statements of the form a is to b as c is to d. Starting from a naive set theoretic interpretation, we highlight the existence of two noticeable companion proportions: one states that a is to b the converse of what c is to d (reverse analogy), while the other called paralogical proportion expresses that what a and b have in common, c and d have it also. We identify the characteristic postulates of the three types of proportions and examine their consequences from an abstract viewpoint. We further study the properties of the set theoretic interpretation and of the Boolean logic interpretation, and we provide another light on the understanding of the role of permutations in the modeling of the three types of proportions. Finally, we address the use of these proportions as a basis for inference in a propositional setting, and relate it to more general schemes of analogical reasoning. The differences between analogy, reverse-analogy, and paralogy is still emphasized in a three-valued setting, which is also briefly presented.

  19. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  20. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe Brunello

    Full Text Available Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software.

  1. Saving Money Using Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.; Garney, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    It is beneficial for students to discover intuitive strategies, as opposed to the teacher presenting strategies to them. Certain proportional reasoning tasks are more likely to elicit intuitive strategies than other tasks. The strategies that students are apt to use when approaching a task, as well as the likelihood of a student's success or…

  2. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  3. PEP quark search proportional chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S I; Harris, F; Karliner, I; Yount, D [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA); Ely, R; Hamilton, R; Pun, T [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.; Guryn, W; Miller, D; Fries, R [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)

    1981-04-01

    Proportional chambers are used in the PEP Free Quark Search to identify and remove possible background sources such as particles traversing the edges of counters, to permit geometric corrections to the dE/dx and TOF information from the scintillator and Cerenkov counters, and to look for possible high cross section quarks. The present beam pipe has a thickness of 0.007 interaction lengths (lambdasub(i)) and is followed in both arms each with 45/sup 0/ <= theta <= 135/sup 0/, ..delta..phi=90/sup 0/ by 5 proportional chambers, each 0.0008 lambdasub(i) thick with 32 channels of pulse height readout, and by 3 thin scintillator planes, each 0.003 lambdasub(i) thick. Following this thin front end, each arm of the detector has 8 layers of scintillator (one with scintillating light pipes) interspersed with 4 proportional chambers and a layer of lucite Cerenkov counters. Both the calculated ion statistics and measurements using He-CH/sub 4/ gas in a test chamber indicate that the chamber efficiencies should be >98% for q=1/3. The Landau spread measured in the test was equal to that observed for normal q=1 traversals. One scintillator plane and thin chamber in each arm will have an extra set of ADC's with a wide gate bracketing the normal one so timing errors and tails of earlier pulses should not produce fake quarks.

  4. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  5. Incisors’ proportions in smile esthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F; Batwa, Waeil

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether alteration of the maxillary central and lateral incisors’ length and width, respectively, would affect perceived smile esthetics and to validate the most esthetic length and width, respectively, for the central and lateral incisors. Materials and Methods: Photographic manipulation was undertaken to produce two sets of photographs, each set of four photographs showing the altered width of the lateral incisor and length of the central length. The eight produced photographs were assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Results: Alteration in the incisors’ proportion affected the relative smile attractiveness for laypeople (n=124), dentists (n=115) and orthodontists (n=68); dentists and orthodontists did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 0.5 mm (P<0.01), which suggests that the lateral to central incisor width ratio ranges from 54% to 62%. However, laypeople did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 1 mm (P<0.01), widening the range to be from 48% to 62%. All groups had zero tolerance for changes in central crown length (P<0.01). Conclusion: All participants recognized that the central incisors’ length changes. For lateral incisors, laypeople were more tolerant than dentists and orthodontists. This suggests that changing incisors’ proportions affects the relative smile attractiveness. PMID:24987650

  6. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  8. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans fat is a type of dietary fat . Of all the fats, trans fat is the worst for your health. Too much ... from solid margarine to soft margarine. Ask what type of fats foods are cooked in when you eat out ...

  9. Position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit uses a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode, which functions as an RC line. A pair of preamplifiers at the anode ends act as stabilized active-capacitance loads, each comprising a series-feedback, low-noise amplifier and a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at the anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction of handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates (>10 6 counts/sec). (author)

  10. Body physique and proportionality of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciotti, Sarita; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Gaya, Adroaldo; Maia, José

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify physique characteristics (anthropometry, somatotype, body proportionality) of Brazilian female artistic gymnasts, and to compare them across competitive levels (sub-elite versus non-elite) within competitive age-categories. Two hundred forty-nine female gymnasts (68 sub-elite; 181 non-elite) from 26 Brazilian gymnastics clubs, aged 9-20 years and split into four age-categories, were sampled. Gymnasts were assessed for 16 anthropometric traits (height, weight, lengths, widths, girths, and skinfolds); somatotype was determined according to Heath-Carter method, body fat was estimated by bioimpedance, and proportionality was computed based on the z-phantom strategy. Non-elite and sub-elite gymnasts had similar values in anthropometric characteristics, however non-elite had higher fat folds in all age-categories (P < 0.01). In general, mesomorphy was the salient somatotype component in all age-categories, and an increase in endomorphy, followed by a decrease in ectomorphy across age was observed. Regarding proportionality, profile similarity was found between sub-elite and non-elite within age-categories. In conclusion results suggest the presence of a typical gymnast's physical prototype across age and competitive level, which can be useful to coaches during their selection processes in clubs and regional/national teams.

  11. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  12. Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

    2009-05-01

    Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels <10% of adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed.

  13. Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of drought hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  14. Low-fat vs. high-fat bedtime snacks in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darrell; Chase, H Peter; Kollman, Craig; Xing, Dongyuan; Caswell, Kimberly; Tansey, Michael; Fox, Larry; Weinzimer, Stuart; Beck, Roy; Ruedy, Katrina; Tamborlane, William

    2008-07-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether, in a group of children with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump, a prebedtime snack with a relatively high fat content provides greater protection from nocturnal hypoglycemia than a snack containing the same amount of carbohydrate and protein but a lower fat content. Ten subjects, aged 6 to carbohydrate-low-fat (30 g CHO, 2.5 g protein, and 1.3 g fat; 138 kcal) snack or a carbohydrate-high-fat (30 g CHO, 2 g protein, and 20 g fat; 320 kcal) snack. Subjects used their usual evening snack algorithm to determine the size (in 15-g carbohydrate increments) and insulin dosage. Average glucose on 128 valid study nights before snack was similar in both groups. The proportion of nights with hypoglycemia (a sensor or meter glucose value fat vs. 20% low fat), as was the proportion of nights with hyperglycemia (a glucose >or=200 mg/dL and at least 50 mg/dL above baseline, 35% high fat vs. 30% low fat). There were no statistical differences between the high- and low-fat snacks on the frequency of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. This study highlights the feasibility of web-based research in patients' home environment.

  15. Impossibility Theorem in Proportional Representation Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The study examines general axiomatics of Balinski and Young and analyzes existed proportional representation methods using this approach. The second part of the paper provides new axiomatics based on rational choice models. New system of axioms is applied to study known proportional representation systems. It is shown that there is no proportional representation method satisfying a minimal set of the axioms (monotonicity and neutrality).

  16. Cognitive and Metacognitive Aspects of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestou, Modestina; Gagatsis, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    In this study we attempt to propose a new model of proportional reasoning based both on bibliographical and research data. This is impelled with the help of three written tests involving analogical, proportional, and non-proportional situations that were administered to pupils from grade 7 to 9. The results suggest the existence of a…

  17. Evaluating Middle Years Students' Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Geoff; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is a key aspect of numeracy that is not always developed naturally by students. Understanding the types of proportional reasoning that students apply to different problem types is a useful first step to identifying ways to support teachers and students to develop proportional reasoning in the classroom. This paper describes…

  18. Relation of Pericardial Fat, Intrathoracic Fat, and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF. Body mass index (BMI) was included in the multivariable-adjusted model as a secondary adjustment. We included 2,135 participants (53.3% women; mean age 58.8 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, we identified 162 cases of incident AF. Across the increasing tertiles of pericardial fat volume, age- and sex-adjusted incident AF rate per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 8.4, 7.5, and 10.2. Based on an age- and sex-adjusted model, greater pericardial fat [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.34] and intrathoracic fat (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. The HRs (95% CI) for incident AF were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) for pericardial fat, 1.19 (1.01-1.40) for intrathoracic fat, and 1.09 (0.93-1.28) for abdominal visceral fat after multivariable adjustment. After additional adjustment of BMI, none of the associations remained significant (all p>0.05). Our findings suggest that cardiac ectopic fat depots may share common risk factors with AF, which may have led to a lack of independence in the association between pericardial fat with incident AF. PMID:27666172

  19. Proportioning of U3O8 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, V.; Markvart, M.; Novy, P.; Vanka, M.

    1989-01-01

    The tests are briefly described or proportioning U 3 O 8 powder of a granulometric grain size range of 0-160 μm using a vertical screw, a horizontal dual screw and a vibration dispenser with a view to proportioning very fine U 3 O 8 powder fractions produced in the oxidation of UO 2 fuel pellets. In the tests, the evenness of proportioning was assessed by the percentage value of the proportioning rate spread measured at one-minute intervals at a proportioning rate of 1-3 kg/h. In feeding the U 3 O 3 in a flame fluorator, it is advantageous to monitor the continuity of the powder column being proportioned and to assess it radiometrically by the value of the proportioning rate spread at very short intervals (0.1 s). (author). 10 figs., 1 tab., 12 refs

  20. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, in severe cases, symptoms of malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. If the condition prevents the digestion and/or absorption of fats from the diet, then excess fat is present in the stool and the ...

  1. Why do card issuers charge proportional fees?

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy; Zhu Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains why payment card companies charge consumers and merchants fees which are proportional to the transaction values instead of charging a fixed per-transaction fee. Our theory shows that, even in the absence of any cost considerations, card companies earn much higher profit when they charge proportional fees. It is also shown that competition among merchants reduces card companies' gains from using proportional fees relative to a fixed per-transaction fee. Merchants are found ...

  2. Relating arithmetical techniques of proportion to geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how textbooks introduce and treat the theme of proportion in geometry (similarity) and arithmetic (ratio and proportion), and how these themes are linked to each other in the books. To pursue this aim, we use the anthropological theory of the didactic....... Considering 6 common Indonesian textbooks in use, we describe how proportion is explained and appears in examples and exercises, using an explicit reference model of the mathematical organizations of both themes. We also identify how the proportion themes of the geometry and arithmetic domains are linked. Our...

  3. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. © 2015 UICC.

  4. Proportional Reasoning and the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Geoff; Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley L.; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is an important aspect of formal thinking that is acquired during the developmental years that approximate the middle years of schooling. Students who fail to acquire sound proportional reasoning often experience difficulties in subjects that require quantitative thinking, such as science, technology, engineering, and…

  5. Adaptive bayesian analysis for binomial proportions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available of testing the proportion of some trait. For example, say, we are interested to infer about the effectiveness of a certain intervention teaching strategy, by comparing proportion of ‘proficient’ teachers, before and after an intervention. The number...

  6. Mix Proportion Design of Asphalt Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianhu; Gao, Lingling; Du, Shoujun

    2017-12-01

    Based on the gradation of AC and SMA, this paper designs a new type of anti slide mixture with two types of advantages. Chapter introduces the material selection, ratio of ore mixture ratio design calculation, and determine the optimal asphalt content test and proportioning design of asphalt concrete mix. This paper introduces the new technology of mix proportion.

  7. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  8. Proportional gas scintillation detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.

    1978-01-01

    The principle is described of a gas proportional scintillation detector and its function. Dependence of Si(Li) and xenon proportional detectors energy resolution on the input window size is given. A typical design is shown of a xenon detector used for X-ray spetrometry at an energy of 277 eV to 5.898 keV and at a gas pressure of 98 to 270 kPa. Gas proportional scintillation detectors show considerable better energy resolution than common proportional counters and even better resolution than semiconductor Si(Li) detectors for low X radiation energies. For detection areas smaller than 25 mm 2 Si(Li) detectors show better resolution, especially for higher X radiation energies. For window areas 25 to 190 mm 2 both types of detectors are equal, for a window area exceeding 190 mm 2 the proportional scintillation detector has higher energy resolution. (B.S.)

  9. Icon arrays help younger children's proportional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Azzurra; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Xu, Fei

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the effects of two context variables, presentation format (icon arrays or numerical frequencies) and time limitation (limited or unlimited time), on the proportional reasoning abilities of children aged 7 and 10 years, as well as adults. Participants had to select, between two sets of tokens, the one that offered the highest likelihood of drawing a gold token, that is, the set of elements with the greater proportion of gold tokens. Results show that participants performed better in the unlimited time condition. Moreover, besides a general developmental improvement in accuracy, our results show that younger children performed better when proportions were presented as icon arrays, whereas older children and adults were similarly accurate in the two presentation format conditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is a developmental improvement in proportional reasoning accuracy. Icon arrays facilitate reasoning in adults with low numeracy. What does this study add? Participants were more accurate when they were given more time to make the proportional judgement. Younger children's proportional reasoning was more accurate when they were presented with icon arrays. Proportional reasoning abilities correlate with working memory, approximate number system, and subitizing skills. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A critical evaluaton is presented of the actual state of investigations and explanations of the resolution and pulse height changes resulted in proportional counters from radiation intensity variations. (author)

  11. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  12. Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risérus, Ulf; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is determined primarily by lifestyle and genes, dietary composition may affect both its development and complications. Dietary fat is of particular interest because fatty acids influence glucose metabolism by altering cell membrane function, enzyme activity, insulin signaling, and gene expression. This paper focuses on the prevention of type 2 diabetes and summarizes the epidemiologic literature on associations between types of dietary fat and diabetes risk. It also summarizes controlled feeding studies on the effects of dietary fats on metabolic mediators, such as insulin resistance. Taken together, the evidence suggests that replacing saturated fats and trans fatty acids with unsaturated (polyunsaturated and/or monounsaturated) fats has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and is likely to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. Among polyunsaturated fats, linoleic acid from the n-6 series improves insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, long-chain n-3 fatty acids do not appear to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose metabolism. In dietary practice, foods rich in vegetable oils, including non-hydrogenated margarines, nuts, and seeds, should replace foods rich in saturated fats from meats and fat-rich dairy products. Consumption of partially hydrogenated fats should be minimized. Additional controlled, long-term studies are needed to improve our knowledge on the optimal proportion of different types of fats to prevent diabetes.

  13. Proportion congruency effects: Instructions may be enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eEntel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning takes time, namely, one needs to be exposed to contingency relations between stimulus dimensions in order to learn, whereas intentional control can be recruited through task demands. Therefore showing that control can be recruited as a function of experimental instructions alone, that is, adapting the processing according to the instructions before the exposure to the task, can be taken as evidence for existence of control recruitment in the absence of learning. This was done by manipulating the information given at the outset of the experiment. In the first experiment, we manipulated list-level congruency proportion. Half of the participants were informed that most of the stimuli would be congruent, whereas the other half were informed that most of the stimuli would be incongruent. This held true for the stimuli in the second part of each experiment. In the first part, however, the proportion of the two stimulus types was equal. A proportion congruent effect was found in both parts of the experiment, but it was larger in the second part. In our second experiment, we manipulated the proportion of the stimuli within participants by applying an item-specific design. This was done by presenting some color words most often in their congruent color, and other color words in incongruent colors. Participants were informed about the exact word-color pairings in advance. Similar to Experiment 1, this held true only for the second experimental part. In contrast to our first experiment, informing participants in advance did not result in an item-specific proportion effect, which was observed only in the second part. Thus our results support the hypothesis that instructions may be enough to trigger list-level control, yet learning does contribute to the proportion congruent effect under such conditions. The item-level proportion effect is apparently caused by learning or at least it is moderated by it.

  14. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Proportional hazards models of infrastructure system recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, Kash; Baroud, Hiba

    2014-01-01

    As emphasis is being placed on a system's ability to withstand and to recover from a disruptive event, collectively referred to as dynamic resilience, there exists a need to quantify a system's ability to bounce back after a disruptive event. This work applies a statistical technique from biostatistics, the proportional hazards model, to describe (i) the instantaneous rate of recovery of an infrastructure system and (ii) the likelihood that recovery occurs prior to a given point in time. A major benefit of the proportional hazards model is its ability to describe a recovery event as a function of time as well as covariates describing the infrastructure system or disruptive event, among others, which can also vary with time. The proportional hazards approach is illustrated with a publicly available electric power outage data set

  16. The Origins of Scintillator Non-Proportionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; Bizarri, G. A.; Williams, R. T.; Payne, S. A.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Singh, J.; Li, Q.; Grim, J. Q.; Choong, W.-S.

    2012-10-01

    Recent years have seen significant advances in both theoretically understanding and mathematically modeling the underlying causes of scintillator non-proportionality. The core cause is that the interaction of radiation with matter invariably leads to a non-uniform ionization density in the scintillator, coupled with the fact that the light yield depends on the ionization density. The mechanisms that lead to the luminescence dependence on ionization density are incompletely understood, but several important features have been identified, notably Auger-like processes (where two carriers of excitation interact with each other, causing one to de-excite non-radiatively), the inability of excitation carriers to recombine (caused either by trapping or physical separation), and the carrier mobility. This paper reviews the present understanding of the fundamental origins of scintillator non-proportionality, specifically the various theories that have been used to explain non-proportionality.

  17. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  18. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  19. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  20. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  1. Investigation of a multiwire proportional chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses some aspects of a prototype multiwire proportional chamber for electron detection located at IKO in Amsterdam, i.e. voltage, counting rates, noise and gas mixture (argon, ethylene bromide). The efficiency and performance of the chamber have been investigated and an error analysis is given

  2. Author: IM Rautenbach PROPORTIONALITY AND THE LIMITATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    public law, it is not clear to me that there are any differences at this more abstract ... Bills of Rights entrench "basic principles of rationality and proportionality – of ..... Sweet Europe of Rights 10-11; Van Dijk and Van Hoof Theory and Practice.

  3. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  4. Proportional green time scheduling for traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kovacs; Le, T. (Tung); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo); Vu, H. (Hai); N. Walton

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the decentralized scheduling of a large number of urban traffic lights. We investigate factors determining system performance, in particular, the length of the traffic light cycle and the proportion of green time allocated to each junction. We study the effect of the length

  5. Triangular tube proportional wire chamber system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badtke, D H; Bakken, J A; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B J; Chien, C Y; Madansky, L; Matthews, J A.J.; Pevsner, A; Spangler, W J [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA); Lee, K L [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1981-10-15

    We report on the characteristics of the proportional tube chamber system which has been constructed for muon identification in the PEP-4 experiment at SLAC. The mechanical and electrical properties of the extruded aluminum triangular tubes allow these detectors to be used as crude drift chambers.

  6. Commanding to 'Nudge' via the Proportionality Principle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P. Purnhagen (Kai); E. van Kleef (Ellen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis piece assesses whether nudging techniques can be argued to be a less restrictive but equally effective way to regulate diets in EU law. It has been argued that nudging techniques, due to their freedom-preserving nature, might influence the proportionality test in such a way that

  7. Levels and sources of fat in the U.S. food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, N R; Marston, R M

    1986-01-01

    The amount of fat in the U.S. food supply increased one-third between 1909-13 and 1984, from 124 grams to 166 grams per capita per day. Also, the proportion of food energy provided by fat increased from 32 to 43 percent. The gain in fat in the food supply was due to an increase in fat from vegetable sources. The share of fat from vegetable sources increased from 17 to 42 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Although animal fats provided the largest share of fat, their proportionate contribution declined from 83 to 58 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Three food groups--fats and oils; meat, poultry, and fish; and dairy products--provided about 90 percent of the fat in the food supply throughout the past 75 years. However, the shares of fat provided by these groups changed. The share from the fats and oils group increased from 37 to 44 percent between 1909-13 and 1984, while the share from the meat, poultry, and fish group declined from 37 to 34 percent, and the share from the dairy products group declined from 15 to 12 percent. Fat from the fats and oils group increased 59 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Most of the gain in fat from this group was due to increased use of edible oils. Margarine replaced much of the butter and shortening replaced much of the lard as sources of fat. Fat from the meat, poultry, and fish group increased 24 percent between 1909-13 and 1984. Pork accounted for the largest proportion of fat from this group and beef ranked second. The share of fat from poultry, although much smaller than either pork or beef, almost tripled. Fat from dairy products was about the same in 1984 as in 1909-13. Cheese was the leading source of fat from dairy products by 1984. Until recent years, whole milk was the leading source, although its share declined substantially after the late 1950's. Despite their low fat content, the share of fat from skim and lowfat milks increased as use increased, particularly in the past 25 years. The proportion of fat provided by

  8. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of IPX066: Evaluation of Dose Proportionality and Effect of Food in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hsuan-Ming; Hsu, Ann; Gupta, Suneel; Modi, Nishit B

    2016-01-01

    IPX066 is an oral, extended-release capsule formulation of carbidopa-levodopa (CD-LD) available in 4 strengths. The goals of this investigation were to assess the dose proportionality of IPX066 and to study the effects of a high-fat, high-calorie meal and of sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce on the pharmacokinetics of IPX066 in healthy volunteers. Three open-label studies were conducted. In the first study, subjects received 1 capsule of each IPX066 strength (23.75-95, 36.25-145, 48.75-195, and 61.25-245 mg of CD-LD). In the second study, subjects received 1 and 2 capsules of IPX066 245-mg LD under fasting conditions. In the third study, subjects received 2 capsules of IPX066 245-mg LD under 3 conditions: fasting; following a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast; and with the capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce under fasting conditions. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUCt, AUCinf) for LD and CD increased dose-proportionally over the range of the IPX066 capsule strengths. Comparison of 1 and 2 IPX066 245-mg LD capsules showed dose-proportional pharmacokinetics for Cmax and AUCt. Sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce did not affect the pharmacokinetics. A high-fat, high-calorie meal delayed the initial increase in LD concentration by approximately 1 to 2 hours, reduced Cmax by 21%, and increased AUCinf by 13% compared with the fasted state. IPX066 shows dose-proportional pharmacokinetics. Sprinkling the capsule contents on applesauce does not affect the pharmacokinetics; a high-fat, high-calorie meal delayed absorption by 1 to 2 hours, slightly reduced Cmax, and slightly increased extent of absorption.

  9. Multistate cohort models with proportional transfer rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    of transfer rates. The two living state case and hierarchical multistate models with any number of living states are analyzed in detail. Applying our approach to 1997 U.S. fertility data, we find that observed rates of parity progression are roughly proportional over age. Our proportional transfer rate...... approach provides trajectories by parity state and facilitates analyses of the implications of changes in parity rate levels and patterns. More women complete childbearing at parity 2 than at any other parity, and parity 2 would be the modal parity in models with total fertility rates (TFRs) of 1.40 to 2......We present a new, broadly applicable approach to summarizing the behavior of a cohort as it moves through a variety of statuses (or states). The approach is based on the assumption that all rates of transfer maintain a constant ratio to one another over age. We present closed-form expressions...

  10. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)

  11. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) succesfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm 2 with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results. (orig.)

  12. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F. (Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati (Italy))

    1981-07-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) successfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm/sup 2/ with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results.

  13. Cylindrical geometry for proportional and drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoulet, B.

    1975-06-01

    For experiments performed around storage rings such as e + e - rings or the ISR pp rings, cylindrical wire chambers are very attractive. They surround the beam pipe completely without any dead region in the azimuth, and fit well with the geometry of events where particles are more or less spherically produced. Unfortunately, cylindrical proportional or drift chambers are difficult to make. Problems are discussed and two approaches to fabricating the cathodes are discussed. (WHK)

  14. 2 π gaseous flux proportional detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, E.A.; Costello, E.D.; Di Carlo, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    A counting system has been developed in order to measure carbon-14 samples obtained in the course of a study of a plasmapheresis treatment for diabetic children. The system is based on the use of a 2π gaseous flux proportional detector especially designed for the stated purpose. The detector is described and experiment results are given, determining the characteristic parameters which set up the working conditions. (Author) [es

  15. General methods for analyzing bounded proportion data

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Abu

    2017-01-01

    This thesis introduces two general classes of models for analyzing proportion response variable when the response variable Y can take values between zero and one, inclusive of zero and/or one. The models are inflated GAMLSS model and generalized Tobit GAMLSS model. The inflated GAMLSS model extends the flexibility of beta inflated models by allowing the distribution on (0,1) of the continuous component of the dependent variable to come from any explicit or transformed (i.e. logit or truncated...

  16. Commanding to 'Nudge' via the Proportionality Principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Purnhagen, Kai; van Kleef, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis piece assesses whether nudging techniques can be argued to be a less restrictive but equally effective way to regulate diets in EU law. It has been argued that nudging techniques, due to their freedom-preserving nature, might influence the proportionality test in such a way that authorities need to give preference to nudging techniques over content-related or information regulation. We will illustrate on the example of EU food law how behavioural sciences have first altered t...

  17. Contingency proportion systematically influences contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2018-01-01

    In the color-word contingency learning paradigm, each word appears more often in one color (high contingency) than in the other colors (low contingency). Shortly after beginning the task, color identification responses become faster on the high-contingency trials than on the low-contingency trials-the contingency learning effect. Across five groups, we varied the high-contingency proportion in 10% steps, from 80% to 40%. The size of the contingency learning effect was positively related to high-contingency proportion, with the effect disappearing when high contingency was reduced to 40%. At the two highest contingency proportions, the magnitude of the effect increased over trials, the pattern suggesting that there was an increasing cost for the low-contingency trials rather than an increasing benefit for the high-contingency trials. Overall, the results fit a modified version of Schmidt's (2013, Acta Psychologica, 142, 119-126) parallel episodic processing account in which prior trial instances are routinely retrieved from memory and influence current trial performance.

  18. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  19. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  20. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They're mainly found in fish such as salmon, trout and herring, avocados, olives, walnuts and liquid ... fats are found in many fried foods and baked goods such as pastries, pizza dough, pie crust, ...

  1. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... albacore tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to ... sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower oil instead of butter and solid fats.

  2. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  3. Rheological, fat bloom, and sensory acceptability effects of mango kernel fat and palm olein blends on chocolate-flavored coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves María Flores March; Gabriela Cristina Chire Fajardo; Carlos Eduardo Lescano Anadón

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing cocoa butter with different percentages and proportions of a mango kernel fat/palm olein (MKF/POL) blend, are reported. Samples were prepared by melting together mango kernel fat, palm olein, cocoa butter and cocoa mass and powdered sugar combinated. The samples were milled, conched, tempered, and molded to obtain three sets of seven samples as follows: one control omitting mango kernel fat and palm olein, and six samples with cocoa butter replacement of 15 and 22.5% ...

  4. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  5. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  6. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jai; Koblov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  7. Rate dependent image distortions in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, M.W.; Bento, A.C.; Smith, A.

    1994-01-01

    The positional linearity of imaging proportional counters is affected by the intensity distribution of the incident radiation. A mechanism for this effect is described, in which drifting positive ions in the gas produce a distorting electric field which perturbs the trajectories of the primary electrons. In certain cases, the phenomenon causes an apparent improvement of the position resolution. We demonstrate the effect in a detector filled with a xenon-argon-CO 2 mixture. The images obtained are compared with the results of a simulation. If quantitative predictions for a particular detector are required, accurate values of the absolute detector gain, ion mobility and electron drift velocity are needed. ((orig.))

  8. Hydrogen high pressure proportional drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arefiev, A.; Balaev, A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and operation performances of a proportional drift detector PDD are described. High sensitivity of the applied PAD makes it possible to detect the neutron-proton elastic scattering in the energy range of recoil protons as low as 1 keV. The PDD is filled with hydrogen up to the pressure at 40 bars. High purity of the gas is maintained by a continuously operating purification system. The detector has been operating for several years in a neutron beam at the North Area of the CERN SPS

  9. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  10. Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Vibeke

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.

  11. Amplifier Design for Proportional Ionization Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. H.

    1950-08-24

    This paper presents the requirements of a nuclear amplifier of short resolving time, designed to accept pulses of widely varying amplitudes. Data are given which show that a proportional ionization chamber loaded with a 1,000-ohm resistor develops pulses of 0.5 microsecond duration and several volts amplitude. Results indicate that seven basic requirements are imposed on the amplifier when counting soft beta and gamma radiation in the presence of alpha particles, without absorbers. It should, (1) have a fast recovery time, (2) have a relatively good low frequency response, (3) accept pulses of widely varying heights without developing spurious pulsed, (4) have a limiting output stage, (5) preserve the inherently short rise time of the chamber, (6) minimize pulse integration, and (7) have sufficient gain to detect the weak pulses well below the chamber voltage at which continuous discharge takes place. The results obtained with an amplifier which meets these requirements is described. A formula is derived which indicates that redesign of the proportional ionization chamber might eliminate the need for an amplifier. This may be possible if the radioactive particles are collimated parallel to the collecting electrode.

  12. Divine proportions in attractive and nonattractive faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancherz, Hans; Knapp, Verena; Erbe, Christina; Heiss, Anja Melina

    2010-01-01

    To test Ricketts' 1982 hypothesis that facial beauty is measurable by comparing attractive and nonattractive faces of females and males with respect to the presence of the divine proportions. The analysis of frontal view facial photos of 90 cover models (50 females, 40 males) from famous fashion magazines and of 34 attractive (29 females, five males) and 34 nonattractive (13 females, 21 males) persons selected from a group of former orthodontic patients was carried out in this study. Based on Ricketts' method, five transverse and seven vertical facial reference distances were measured and compared with the corresponding calculated divine distances expressed in phi-relationships (f=1.618). Furthermore, transverse and vertical facial disproportion indices were created. For both the models and patients, all the reference distances varied largely from respective divine values. The average deviations ranged from 0.3% to 7.8% in the female groups of models and attractive patients with no difference between them. In the male groups of models and attractive patients, the average deviations ranged from 0.2% to 11.2%. When comparing attractive and nonattractive female, as well as male, patients, deviations from the divine values for all variables were larger in the nonattractive sample. Attractive individuals have facial proportions closer to the divine values than nonattractive ones. In accordance with the hypothesis of Ricketts, facial beauty is measurable to some degree. COPYRIGHT © 2009 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  13. Kalman-predictive-proportional-integral-derivative (KPPID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluerasu, A.; Sutton, M.

    2004-01-01

    With third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, it is possible to acquire detailed structural information about the system under study with time resolution orders of magnitude faster than was possible a few years ago. These advances have generated many new challenges for changing and controlling the state of the system on very short time scales, in a uniform and controlled manner. For our particular X-ray experiments on crystallization or order-disorder phase transitions in metallic alloys, we need to change the sample temperature by hundreds of degrees as fast as possible while avoiding over or under shooting. To achieve this, we designed and implemented a computer-controlled temperature tracking system which combines standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) feedback, thermal modeling and finite difference thermal calculations (feedforward), and Kalman filtering of the temperature readings in order to reduce the noise. The resulting Kalman-Predictive-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (KPPID) algorithm allows us to obtain accurate control, to minimize the response time and to avoid over/under shooting, even in systems with inherently noisy temperature readings and time delays. The KPPID temperature controller was successfully implemented at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories and was used to perform coherent and time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments.

  14. Proportional-Integral-Resonant AC Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an improved stationary-frame AC current controller based on the proportional-integral-resonant control action (PIR is proposed. Namely, the novel two-parameter PIR controller is applied in the stationary-frame AC current control, accompanied by the corresponding parameter-tuning procedure. In this way, the proportional-resonant (PR controller, common in the stationary-frame AC current control, is extended by the integral (I action in order to enable the AC current DC component tracking, and, also, to enable the DC disturbance compensation, caused by the voltage source inverter (VSI nonidealities and by nonlinear loads. The proposed controller parameter-tuning procedure is based on the three-phase back-EMF-type load, which corresponds to a wide range of AC power converter applications, such as AC motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies, and active filters. While the PIR controllers commonly have three parameters, the novel controller has two. Also, the provided parameter-tuning procedure needs only one parameter to be tuned in relation to the load and power converter model parameters, since the second controller parameter is directly derived from the required controller bandwidth value. The dynamic performance of the proposed controller is verified by means of simulation and experimental runs.

  15. The effect of oxandrolone on body proportions and body composition in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Ridder, M.A. de; Stijnen, T.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Untreated girls with Turner syndrome (TS) have short stature, relatively broad shoulders, a broad pelvis, short legs, a high fat mass and low muscle mass. Our objective was to assess the effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) on body proportions and composition in growth hormone

  16. [Comparison of 24 hour dietary recalls with a food frequency questionnaire in evaluating dietary fat intakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Zhuo, Qin; He, Yu-na

    2016-05-01

    To compare the difference and correlation of dietary fat intakes measures from the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with measures from 24 hour dietary recalls (24HDRs), and provide evidence for the future research of dietary fat. A total of 511 participants, selected from Zhejiang province, were asked to complete an FFQ and 24HDRs. The consumption of energy, fat, fatty acids, the percentages of energy from fat were calculated with the FFQ and 24HDRs and the results were analyzed. There was no difference between FFQ and 24HDRs in energy, fat, fatty acids and the percentages of energy from fat. Sperman's rank correlation coefficient between the two methods were 0.51 in energy, 0.58 in fat and 0. 57 in the percentages of energy from fat. The proportion of subjects who were assigned to the same or adjacent quintile groups were 80.73% for energy, 84.81% for fat and 83. 38% for the percentages of energy from fat. An effective FFQ can evaluate dietary fat consumption and rank participants well. Selecting the simple and easy FFQ method to assess the dietary fat intake would he a good choice when research the relationship between dietary fat and chronic disease in the future.

  17. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  18. BCE selector valves and flow proportional sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippy, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Electrical/Instrumentation systems for the B-Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility (BCE) function as required by project criteria. Tests will be run to: Verify the operation of the solenoid valve and associated limit switches installed for the BCE portion of W-007H; Operate the solenoid valve and verify the proper operation of the associated limit switches based on the position of the solenoid valve;and, Demonstrate the integrity of the Sample Failure Alarm Relay XFA-211BA-BCE-1, and Power Failure ALarm Relay JFA-211BA-BCE-1 located inside the Flow Proportional Sampler in Building 211 BA

  19. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Loughlin, M.

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  20. CWRU multiwire proportional counter readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevington, P.R.; Leskovec, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic system is described which translates pulses from individual wires of multiwire proportional counters into binary addresses indicating the location of the wires in the chambers. The system combines a fast (<100 ns) serial scan of an event buffer with parallel encoding to provide fast transfer of addresses (250 ns per hit). The buffer has provision for disabling the input less than 40 ns after detection of an event to suppress recording of multiple hits caused by individual events. The encoder can digitize the address of every hit encountered or just the first addresses of contiguous hits. The system includes a coincidence trigger for determining whether timing criteria have been satisfied between chambers and with external devices. Events which do not meet the coincidence criteria are typically reset within 400 ns. The addresses are transferred to a computer interface through CAMAC modules. Multiple buffering permits further data acquisition during CAMAC transfer cycles. (Auth.)

  1. Fabrication of preamplifier for proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, Y.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Talebi, B.; Mohammadi, A.; Etaati, Gh.

    2002-01-01

    We have tried to describe techniques of preamplifier fabrication for proportional counter. At first electronic circuit of preamplifier has been analyzed by means of Or cad 9.1. Then we assembled the circuit. Thereafter essential and standard parameters of preamplifier has been measured and compared with foreign made one, according to IEEE standard method. (IEEE Std 301-1988) Specification for our preamplifier is: 1. Rise time of output plus: 25 nsec. 2. Fall time of output pulse: 50μ sec. 3. Charge sensitive: 46.3 mV/pc. 4. Average noise: 500 ion pair (rms) 5. Count R ate L imit: 9.14*10 10 Count/sec. 6. Resolution: %1.3 7. Spectrum of Bf3 detector to 300μ Ci Am-Be source for this preamplifier is the same as foreign one. On the Whole comparison of this preamplifier with the foreign one shows that their parameters similarity is about %95

  2. Tables of Confidence Limits for Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    0.972 180 49 0.319 0.332 0,357 175 165 0.964 0.969 0.976 ISO 50 0.325 0.338 0.363 175 166 0.969 0.973 0.980 180 51 0.331 0.344 0.368 175 167 0.973 0.977...0.528 180 18 0.135 0 145 0.164 180 19 0.141 0.151 0.171 ISO 80 0.495 0,508 0.534 347 UPPER CONFIDENCE LIMIT FOR PROPORTIONS CONFIDENCE LEVEL...500 409 0.8401 0.8459 0.8565 500 355 0.7364 0.7434 0.7564 500 356 0.7383 0.7453 0.7582 500 410 0.8420 0.8478 0 8583 500 357 0.7402 0.7472 0.7602 500

  3. Proportional chamber with data analog output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.E.; Prokof'ev, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A proportional multiwier chamber is described. The chamber makes it possible to determine angles at wich a pion strikes a polarized target. A delay line, made of 60-core flat cable is used for removing signals from the chamber. From the delay line, signals are amplified and successively injected into shapers and a time-to-amplitude converter. An amplitude of the time-to amplitude converter output signal unambiguously determines the coordinate of a point at which a particle strikes the chamber plane. There are also given circuits of amplifiers, which consist of a preamplifier with gain 30 and a main amplifier with adjustable gain. Data on testing the chamber with the 450 MeV pion beam is demonstrated. The chamber features an efficiency of about 98 per cent under load of 2x10 5 s -1

  4. Proportional representation apportionment methods and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pukelsheim, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth study of the translation of vote counts into seat numbers in proportional representation systems  – an approach guided by practical needs. It also provides plenty of empirical instances illustrating the results. It analyzes in detail the 2014 elections to the European Parliament in the 28 member states, as well as the 2009 and 2013 elections to the German Bundestag. This second edition is a complete revision and expanded version of the first edition published in 2014, and many empirical election results that serve as examples have been updated. Further, a final chapter has been added assembling biographical sketches and authoritative quotes from individuals who pioneered the development of apportionment methodology. The mathematical exposition and the interrelations with political science and constitutional jurisprudence make this an apt resource for interdisciplinary courses and seminars on electoral systems and apportionment methods.

  5. Quality measurement by proportional counter with B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizuka, Yoshihiko; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    The dosimetry of air and the tissue-equivalent phantom made of acryl are carried out by the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and TEPC with wall contained B, and both results were compared. The changes of quality with distance from the beam center are determined by the frequency mean renewal energy y F (y)and the dose mean renewal energy y D (y) as indicators of quality. Both y F (y)and y D (y) of tissue-equivalent phantom are larger than air, but very large change was not observed in all distance. The dose rate is determined by y D (y), the number of events and measurement time. Change of dose rate was larger than the change of quality. The maximum value of dose rate depended on γray and neutron beam showed at the point 2 cm away from the center. (S.Y.)

  6. Proportional counter system for radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M; Okudera, S

    1970-11-21

    A gas such as Xe or Kr employed in counter tubes is charged into the counter tube of a gas-flow type proportional counter for radiation measurement and into a vessel having a volume larger than that of the counter tube. The vessel communicates with the counter tube to circulate the gas via a pump through both the vessel and tube during measurement. An organic film such as a polyester synthetic resin film is used for the window of the counter tube to measure X-rays in the long wavelength range. Accordingly, a wide range of X-rays can be measured including both long and short wavelengths ranges by utilizing only one counter tube, thus permitting the gases employed to be effectively used.

  7. Count rate effect in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, B.

    1980-01-01

    A new concept is presented explaining changes in spectrometric parameters of proportional counters which occur due to varying count rate. The basic feature of this concept is that the gas gain of the counter remains constant in a wide range of count rate and that the decrease in the pulse amplitude and the detorioration of the energy resolution observed are the results of changes in the shape of original current pulses generated in the active volume of the counter. In order to confirm the validity of this statement, measurements of the gas amplification factor have been made in a wide count rate range. It is shown that above a certain critical value the gas gain depends on both the operating voltage and the count rate. (author)

  8. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that

  9. Dietary fat type, meat quality and fatty acid metabolism in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchaothai, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the replacement of animal fat by vegetable oil in the diet for growing-finishing pigs. Generally, but not exclusively, fats of animal origin contain higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) than vegetable oils that are commonly rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids

  10. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  11. A phenomenological SMA model for combined axial–torsional proportional/non-proportional loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A.R.; Aghdam, M.M.; Shakeri, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and robust phenomenological model for shape memory alloys (SMAs) is proposed to simulate main features of SMAs under uniaxial as well as biaxial combined axial–torsional proportional/non-proportional loadings. The constitutive model for polycrystalline SMAs is developed within the framework of continuum thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The model nominates the volume fractions of self-accommodated and oriented martensite as scalar internal variables and the preferred direction of oriented martensitic variants as directional internal variable. An algorithm is introduced to develop explicit relationships for the thermo-mechanical behavior of SMAs under uniaxial and biaxial combined axial–torsional proportional/non-proportional loading conditions and also thermal loading. It is shown that the model is able to simulate main aspects of SMAs including self-accommodation, martensitic transformation, orientation and reorientation of martensite, shape memory effect, ferro-elasticity and pseudo-elasticity. A description of the time-discrete counterpart of the proposed SMA model is presented. Experimental results of uniaxial tension and biaxial combined tension–torsion non-proportional tests are simulated and a good qualitative correlation between numerical and experimental responses is achieved. Due to simplicity and accuracy, the model is expected to be used in the future studies dealing with the analysis of SMA devices in which two stress components including one normal and one shear stress are dominant

  12. Rheological, fat bloom, and sensory acceptability effects of mango kernel fat and palm olein blends on chocolate-flavored coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves María Flores March

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing cocoa butter with different percentages and proportions of a mango kernel fat/palm olein (MKF/POL blend, are reported. Samples were prepared by melting together mango kernel fat, palm olein, cocoa butter and cocoa mass and powdered sugar combinated. The samples were milled, conched, tempered, and molded to obtain three sets of seven samples as follows: one control omitting mango kernel fat and palm olein, and six samples with cocoa butter replacement of 15 and 22.5% and MKF/POL ratios of 2.3, 4.0, and 9.0. Casson viscosity, Casson yield stress, fat bloom and sensory acceptability were all measured. In fact, all samples had achieved a low Casson viscosity (ηCA and Casson yield stress (τ_oCA, which indicates molding and enrobing as appropriate uses. In addition, some significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 were found among samples. Fat bloom was accelerated in the samples relative to control, but high MKF proportions tended to retard appearance of fat bloom. No differences were observed in organoleptic properties between samples and control.

  13. Calibration of proportional counters in microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    Many microdosimetric spectra for low LET as well as high LET radiations are measured using commercially available (similar to EG and G) Rossi proportional counters. This paper discusses the corrections to be applied to data when calibration of the counter is made using one type of radiation, and then the counter is used in a different radiation field. The principal correction factor is due to differences in W-value of the radiation used for calibration and the radiation for which microdosimetric measurements are made. Both propane and methane base tissue-equivalent (TE) gases are used in these counters. When calibrating the detectors, it is important to use the correct stopping power value for that gas. Deviations in y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ are calculated for 60 Co using different extrapolation procedures from 0.15 keV/μm to zero event size. These deviations can be as large as 30%. Advantages of reporting microdosimetric parameters such as y-bar/sub F/ and y-bar/sub D/ above a certain minimum cut-off are discussed

  14. Environmental drivers of sapwood and heartwood proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurner, Martin; Beer, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances combining information on stem volume from remote sensing with allometric relationships derived from forest inventory databases have led to spatially continuous estimates of stem, branch, root and foliage biomass in northern boreal and temperate forests. However, a separation of stem biomass into sapwood and heartwood mass has remained unsolved, despite their important differences in biogeochemical function, for instance concerning their contribution to tree respiratory costs. Although relationships between sapwood cross-sectional area and supported leaf area are well established, less is known about relations between sapwood or heartwood mass and other traits (e.g. stem mass), since these biomass compartments are more difficult to measure in practice. Here we investigate the variability in sapwood and heartwood proportions and determining environmental factors. For this task we explore an available biomass and allometry database (BAAD) and study relative sapwood and heartwood area, volume, mass and density in dependence of tree species, age and climate. First, a theoretical framework on how to estimate sap- and heartwood mass from stem mass is developed. Subsequently, the underlying assumptions and relationships are explored with the help of the BAAD. The established relationships can be used to derive spatially continuous sapwood and heartwood mass estimates by applying them to remote sensing based stem volume products. This would be a fundamental step forward to a data-driven estimate of autotrophic respiration.

  15. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  16. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  17. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  18. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  19. Genomic ancestry and education level independently influence abdominal fat distributions in a Brazilian admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Yudkin, John S; Ong, Ken K; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women), genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3), African (6.6), and Native American (6.3) ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; pabdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001), and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009). Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all pabdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.

  20. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  1. Optimize fat Replacers in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HassaniMoosaAbadi

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: In order to solve some problems related to the elimination or reduction of fat , cardiovascular diseases prevention and health improvement, it is possible to use fat alternatives in communities’ food, furthermore, the obtained results indicated that the production of low-calorie foods is similar to the texture of high fat products.

  2. Combined adverse effects of maternal smoking and high body mass index on heart development in offspring : evidence for interaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, M.E.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S.; Corpeleijn, E.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Hofstra, R.M.W.; Berger, R.M.F.; Bakker, M.K.

    Objective To study the influence of a possible interaction between maternal smoking and high body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of specific congenital heart anomalies (CHA) in offspring. Design Case-control study. Setting Data from a population-based birth defects registry in the Netherlands.

  3. Differential effects of restricted versus unlimited high-fat feeding in rats on fat mass, plasma hormones and brain appetite regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, T; Chen, H; Morris, M J

    2009-07-01

    The rapid rise in obesity has been linked to altered food consumption patterns. There is increasing evidence that, in addition to total energy intake, the macronutrient composition of the diet may influence the development of obesity. The present study aimed to examine the impact of high dietary fat content, under both isocaloric and hypercaloric conditions, compared with a low fat diet, on adiposity, glucose and lipid metabolism, and brain appetite regulators in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three diets: control (14% fat), ad lib high-fat palatable (HFD, 35% fat) or high-fat palatable restricted (HFD-R, matched to the energy intake of control) and were killed in the fasting state 11 weeks later. Body weight was increased by 28% in unrestricted HFD fed rats, with an almost tripling of caloric intake and fat mass (P < 0.001) and double the plasma triglycerides of controls. Glucose intolerance and increased insulin levels were observed. HFD-R animals calorie matched to control had double their fat mass, plasma insulin and triglycerides (P < 0.05). Only ad lib consumption of the HFD increased the hypothalamic mRNA expression of the appetite-regulating peptides, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin. Although restricted consumption of palatable HFD had no significant impact on hypothalamic appetite regulators or body weight, it increased adiposity and circulating triglycerides, suggesting that the proportion of dietary fat, independent of caloric intake, affects fat deposition and the metabolic profile.

  4. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  5. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  6. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin

    2014-01-01

    at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. CONCLUSIONS: These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic......OBJECTIVES: To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega....../day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and plant omega 3. Countries representing 52.4% of the global population had national mean intakes for omega 6 fat ≥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes...

  8. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  9. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  10. Cutoff Values of the Body Fat Mass and Visceral Adiposity for the Prediction of Metabolic Syndrome in a sample of Colombian University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Tovar, Lorena Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Visceral obesity and high body fat percentages are related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of the study was to explore thresholds of body fat (BF%) and the visceral fat area (VFA) for the prediction of MetS among Colombian university students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 886 volunteers (51.9% women, mean age= 21.4 years). Weight, height, serum lipids indices, b...

  11. PROPORTIONS AND HUMAN SCALE IN DAMASCENE COURTYARD HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salim Ferwati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Interior designers, architects, landscape architects, and even urban designers, agree that environment, as a form of non-verbal communication means, has a symbolic dimension to it. As for its aesthetic dimension, it seems that beauty is related to a certain proportion, partially and as a whole. Suitable proportion leaves a good impression upon the beholders, especially when it matches human proportion. That in fact was the underlining belief of LeCorbusier, according to which he developed his Modular concept. The study searches for a modular, or proportion, system that governs the design of Damascene traditional house. By geometrical and mathematical examinations of 28 traditional houses, it was found that a certain proportional relationship existed; however, these proportional relationships were not fixed ones. The study relied on analyzing the Iwan elevation as well as the inner courtyard proportion in relation to the building area. Charts, diagrams and tables were produced to summarize the results.

  12. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  13. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut butter and peanut oil Polyunsaturated fat: Polyunsaturated fat, another type of unsaturated fat, protects your heart. Sources of ... paste • safflower oil • walnuts • salad dressings Omega-3 fats: This type of fat helps prevent clogging of the arteries. ...

  14. Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-01-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. PMID:20617018

  15. Pressure control valve using proportional electro-magnetic solenoid actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, So Nam; Ham, Young Bog; Park, Pyoung Won

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental characteristics of electro-hydraulic proportional pressure control valve. In this study, poppet and valve body which are assembled into the proportional solenoid were designed and manufactured. The constant force characteristics of proportional solenoid actuator in the control region should be independent of the plunger position in order to be used to control the valve position in the fluid flow control system. The stroke-force characteristics of the proportional solenoid actuator is determined by the shape (or parameters) of the control cone. In this paper, steady state and transient characteristics of the solenoid actuator for electro-hydraulic proportional valve are analyzed using finite element method and it is confirmed that the proportional solenoid actuator has a constant attraction force in the control region independently on the stroke position. The effects of the parameters such as control cone length, thickness and taper length are also discussed

  16. The effect of parity on the proportion of important healthy fatty acids in raw milk of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate the effect of parity on the fatty acids groups’ proportion in Holstein cows’ milk during the first phase of lactations, with an emphasis on its potential importance for consumer health. A total of 25 Holstein cows, 9 primiparous, 9 in the 2nd, and 7 in the 3rd and subsequent parity, were observed and sampled at 7-day intervals through the first 17 weeks of lactation. The percentage proportion of saturated (hypercholesterolemic and volatile as its components and unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated as its components fatty acids in the samples of milk fat (n=425 was determined. The effects of parity and negative energy balance, as well as regression, on the lactation week and the fat to protein ratio were evaluated using SAS 9.3. A significantly (P<0.01 lower proportion of unhealthy hypercholesterolemic fatty acids was detected in primiparous cows (-2.67 % and those in the 3rd and subsequent lactation (-2.94 % compared to the 2nd lactation, as well as a simultaneously higher proportion of healthy unsaturated fatty acids (+2.07, respectively +3.08 %. The determined relationships corresponded to organism stress evoked by the initiation of milk production and its maintenance in higher parities. Therefore, the generally required prolongation of dairy cows’ longevity can influence on the quality of raw milk, especially considering composition of fatty acids.

  17. Brown fat in a protoendothermic mammal fuels eutherian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkrug, Rebecca; Goetze, Nadja; Exner, Cornelia; Lee, Yang; Ganjam, Goutham K; Kutschke, Maria; Müller, Saskia; Stöhr, Sigrid; Tschöp, Matthias H; Crichton, Paul G; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Jastroch, Martin; Meyer, Carola W

    2013-01-01

    Endothermy has facilitated mammalian species radiation, but the sequence of events leading to sustained thermogenesis is debated in multiple evolutionary models. Here we study the Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a phylogenetically ancient, 'protoendothermic' eutherian mammal, in which constantly high body temperatures are reported only during reproduction. Evidence for nonshivering thermogenesis is found in vivo during periodic ectothermic-endothermic transitions. Anatomical studies reveal large brown fat-like structures in the proximity of the reproductive organs, suggesting physiological significance for parental care. Biochemical analysis demonstrates high mitochondrial proton leak catalysed by an uncoupling protein 1 ortholog. Strikingly, bioenergetic profiling of tenrec uncoupling protein 1 reveals similar thermogenic potency as modern mouse uncoupling protein 1, despite the large phylogenetic distance. The discovery of functional brown adipose tissue in this 'protoendothermic' mammal links nonshivering thermogenesis directly to the roots of eutherian evolution, suggesting physiological importance prior to sustained body temperatures and migration to the cold.

  18. Development of extruded resistive plastic tubes for proportional chamber cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon mixed plastic tubes with resistivity of 10 3 approx. 10 4 Ωcm have been molded with an extrusion method and used for the d.c. cathode of a proportional counter and a multi-wire proportional chamber. The signal by gas multiplication was picked up from a strip r.f. cathode set outside the tube. The characteristics of the counter in the proportional and limited streamer modes have been studied

  19. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  20. Multiwire proportional chamber for Moessbauer spectroscopy: development and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.S. da.

    1985-12-01

    A new Multiwere proportional Chamber designed for Moessbauer Spectroscopy is presented. This detector allows transmission backscattering experiments using either photons or electrons. The Moessbauer data acquisition system, partially developed for this work is described. A simple method for determining the frontier between true proportional and semi-proportional regions of operation in gaseous detectors is proposed. The study of the tertiary gas mixture He-Ar-CH 4 leads to a straight forward way of energy calibration of the electron spectra. Moessbauer spectra using Fe-57 source are presented. In particular those obtained with backsattered electrons show the feasibility of depth selective analysis with gaseous proportional counters. (author) [pt

  1. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  2. The role of dietary fat in obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Denise E; Lazaro, Raul G; Li, Pingping; Johnson, Andrew; Hernandez-Carretero, Angelina; Weber, Natalie; Vorobyova, Ivetta; Tsukomoto, Hidekazu; Osborn, Olivia

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of excess calories results in obesity and insulin resistance and has been intensively studied in mice and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the specific contribution of dietary fat rather than total caloric intake to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We used an intragastric feeding method to overfeed excess calories from a low-fat diet (and an isocalorically matched high-fat diet) through a surgically implanted gastric feeding tube to generate obesity in wild-type mice followed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies to assess the development of insulin resistance. We show that overfeeding a low-fat diet results in levels of obesity similar to high-fat diet feeding in mice. However, despite a similar body weight, obese high-fat diet-fed mice are more insulin resistant than mice fed an isocaloric low-fat diet. Therefore, increased proportion of calories from dietary fat further potentiates insulin resistance in the obese state. Furthermore, crossover diet studies revealed that reduction in dietary fat composition improves glucose tolerance in obesity. In the context of the current obesity and diabetes epidemic, it is particularly important to fully understand the role of dietary macronutrients in the potentiation and amelioration of disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out

  4. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. X-ray proportional counter for the Viking Lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesius, F.L.; Kroon, J.C.; Castro, A.J.; Clark, B.C.

    1978-01-01

    A set of four sealed proportional counters with optimized energy response is employed in the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer units aboard the two Viking Landers. The instruments have provided quantitative elemental analyses of soil samples taken from the Martian surface. This paper discusses the design and development of these miniature proportional counters, and describes their performance on Mars

  6. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Rosemie M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; van 't Hof, Martin A; van 't Hof, Bep E; Maltha, Jaap C

    2008-10-01

    In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100. The facial esthetic value of each subject was calculated as a mean VAS score. Three observers recorded the position of 13 facial landmarks included in 19 putative golden proportions, based on the golden proportions as defined by Ricketts. The proportions and each proportion's deviation from the golden target (1.618) were calculated. This deviation was then related to the VAS scores. Only 4 of the 19 proportions had a significant negative correlation with the VAS scores, indicating that beautiful faces showed less deviation from the golden standard than less beautiful faces. Together, these variables explained only 16% of the variance. Few golden proportions have a significant relationship with facial esthetics in adolescents. The explained variance of these variables is too small to be of clinical importance.

  7. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, R.M.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Hof, B.E. van 't; Maltha, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople

  8. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  9. The Improved Estimation of Ratio of Two Population Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Ramkrishna S.; Singh, Housila P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, first we obtained the correct mean square error expression of Gupta and Shabbir's linear weighted estimator of the ratio of two population proportions. Later we suggested the general class of ratio estimators of two population proportions. The usual ratio estimator, Wynn-type estimator, Singh, Singh, and Kaur difference-type…

  10. Attention Modulation by Proportion Congruency: The Asymmetrical List Shifting Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim; Risko, Evan F.

    2013-01-01

    Proportion congruency effects represent hallmark phenomena in current theorizing about cognitive control. This is based on the notion that proportion congruency determines the relative levels of attention to relevant and irrelevant information in conflict tasks. However, little empirical evidence exists that uniquely supports such an attention…

  11. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms. (a...

  12. Frying process in the relation fat/degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various components of the diet, fat receives very dose attention because of its relationship to several chronic degenerative diseases (CDD. Currently most of the available information on these relationships is derived from epidemiologic or experimental studies in which lipid intake is calculated using food composition tables. In most of these tables the quoted lipid content is that of raw food, whereas most foods are usually consumed only after being subjected to several culinary processes. Often there is no indication of the type of fat used in food processing in general or in frying in particular. But as it known, in the course of these processes the lipid content undergoes important qualitative and quantitative changes and not keeping them in mind may be the underlying cause of the difficulties an the confounding results in studies trying to establish the relationship between lipid intake an health. In the Mediterranean diet, about 50% of total dietary fat is derived not from the food itself but from the cooking fat, of which only a small fraction is eaten raw (as dressings and the greatest proportion is used in thermal culinary processes, mainly deep-frying. The scientific study of the process whereby fat penetrates into fried foods has shown the benefits of this cooking method. If the process is correctly carried out, the amount of fat ingested with fried foodstuffs is not greater than when other procedures involving fat are used (for example, sautening, stewing or canning in oil. Very schematically deep-frying is a technique that replaces a fraction of the water content of food by cooking fat. Consecuently, the fat composition of the fried lean foods will be the same as that cooking fat. The process is more complex with fatty foods, and there are not great changes in the total quantity of fat in the fried food before and after frying. However, there are notable quality changes and these depend on the concentration gradients

  13. School lunch: a comparison of the fat and cholesterol content with dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, R C; Wright, J A; Finch, A J; Deyo, R A; Psaty, B M

    1993-12-01

    To compare the fat and cholesterol content of the foods offered and selected in an elementary school lunch program with current dietary guidelines. For 105 school days we recorded the food items selected by elementary school students in an entire school district (262,851 meals) who were given a choice between two entrees. The nutrient content of foods was assessed with a computerized nutrient data base supplemented by the food manufacturers' data. Sixteen elementary schools in the Bellevue (Washington) School District. The number of students eating school lunch averaged 2500 per day, of whom 25% were from households with incomes less than 185% of poverty. None. We determined the nutritional content of the average meal selected; the proportion of days when one of the two offered entrees met fat and cholesterol guidelines; and the proportion of children selecting the entrees that met the guidelines. The average lunch selected had 35.9% of calories from total fat and 12.6% from saturated fat, exceeding the guidelines of 30% and 10%, respectively. Lunch contained an average of 57 mg cholesterol (106 mg/1000 kcal) and met guidelines. One of the two daily entree choices met guidelines for both total fat and saturated fat on 20% of days, and met both fat and cholesterol guidelines on 14% of days. When available, entrees meeting the fat guidelines were chosen by 37% of students, and entrees meeting both fat and cholesterol guidelines were chosen by 34% of students. In this school district the average lunch selected did not meet the current guidelines for dietary fat; when given the choice, more than one third of students selected the entrees that met these guidelines.

  14. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  15. Fat in the dural sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, S.; Ando, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Ito, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fat density in the dural sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in eight cases. Of the eight cases, five had fat deposit in the torcular Herophili, and three in the superior sagittal sinus. This finding was incidentally found by CT and there was no common underlying disease in these cases. It is suggested that this finding represents normal adipose tissue in the dural sinus. (orig.)

  16. Which Mixed-Member Proportional Electoral Formula Fits You Best? Assessing the Proportionality Principle of Positive Vote Transfer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-member proportional systems (MMP) are a family of electoral systems which combine district-based elections with a proportional seat allocation. Positive vote transfer systems belong to this family. This article explains why they might be better than their siblings, and examines under which ...

  17. The proportionate value of proportionality in palliative sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Proportionality, as it pertains to palliative sedation, is the notion that sedation should be induced at the lowest degree effective for symptom control, so that the patient's consciousness may be preserved. The pursuit of proportionality in palliative sedation is a widely accepted imperative advocated in position statements and guidelines on this treatment. The priority assigned to the pursuit of proportionality, and the extent to which it is relevant for patients who qualify for palliative sedation, have been overstated. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  18. An integrated photosensor readout for gas proportional scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A xenon gas proportional scintillation counter has been instrumented with a novel photosensor that replaces the photomultiplier tube normally used to detect the VUV secondary scintillation light. In this implementation, the collection grid of a planar gas proportional scintillation counter also functions as a multiwire proportional chamber to amplify and detect the photoelectrons emitted by a reflective CsI photocathode in direct contact with the xenon gas. This integrated concept combines greater simplicity, compactness, and ruggedness (no optical window is used) with low power consumption. An energy resolution of 12% was obtained for 59.6 keV x-rays

  19. Fat Grafting for Facial Filling and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sydney R; Katzel, Evan B

    2015-07-01

    Plastic surgeons have come to realize that fat grafting can rejuvenate an aging face by restoring or creating fullness. However, fat grafting does much more than simply add volume. Grafted fat can transform or repair the tissues into which it is placed. Historically, surgeons have hesitated to embrace the rejuvenating potential of fat grafting because of poor graft take, fat necrosis, and inconsistent outcomes. This article describes fat grafting techniques and practices to assist readers in successful harvesting, processing, and placement of fat for optimal graft retention and facial esthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    . A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched

  1. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  2. Proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Il [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dong Gun [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In the present study, we perform a proportional feedback control of laminar flow over a hemisphere at Re = 300 to reduce its lift fluctuations by attenuating the strength of the vortex shedding. As a control input, blowing/suction is distributed on the surface of hemisphere before the separation, and its strength is linearly proportional to the transverse velocity at a sensing location in the centerline of the wake. The sensing location is determined based on a correlation function between the lift force and the time derivative of sensing velocity. The optimal proportional gains for the proportional control are obtained for the sensing locations considered. The present control successfully attenuates the velocity fluctuations at the sensing location and three dimensional vertical structures in the wake, resulting in the reduction of lift fluctuations of hemisphere.

  3. Operability test report for 211BA flow proportional sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    This operability report will verify that the 211-BA flow proportional sampler functions as intended by design. The sampler was installed by Project W-007H and is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent stream

  4. A parsimonious model for the proportional control valve

    OpenAIRE

    Elmer, KF; Gentle, CR

    2001-01-01

    A generic non-linear dynamic model of a direct-acting electrohydraulic proportional solenoid valve is presented. The valve consists of two subsystems-s-a spool assembly and one or two unidirectional proportional solenoids. These two subsystems are modelled separately. The solenoid is modelled as a non-linear resistor-inductor combination, with inductance parameters that change with current. An innovative modelling method has been used to represent these components. The spool assembly is model...

  5. Reduction of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R.; Kirsten, T. (Max Planck Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1991-11-15

    A method to reduce the number of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters is described. A shaping of the outer cathode leads to a more uniform gas gain along the counter axis. The method is useful in situations in which the total number of decay events is very low. The effects leading to degraded events are studied theoretically and experimentally. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by using it for the proportional counter of the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment. (orig.).

  6. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  7. [Autologous fat grafting in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D

    2016-10-01

    Lipofilling or fat grafting transfer is defined as a technique of filling soft tissue by autologous fat grafting. The basic principle of lipofilling is based on a harvest of adipose tissue, followed by a reinjection after treatment. Lipofilling main objective is a volume defect filling, but also improving cutaneous trophicity. Lipofilling specificities among children is mainly based on these indications. Complications of autologous fat grafting among children are the same as those in adults: we distinguish short-term complications (intraoperative and perioperative) and the medium and long-term complications. The harvesting of fat tissue is the main limiting factor of the technique, due to low percentage of body fat of children. Indications of lipofilling among children may be specific or similar to those in adults. There are two types of indications: cosmetic, in which the aim of lipofilling is correcting a defect density, acquired (iatrogenic, post-traumatic scar) or malformation (otomandibular dysplasia, craniosynostosis, Parry Romberg syndrom, Poland syndrom, pectus excavatum…). The aim of functional indications is correcting a velar insufficiency or lagophthalmos. In the paediatric sector, lipofilling has become an alternative to the conventional techniques, by its reliability, safety, reproducibility, and good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fat Quantification in the Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheng William; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Hooker, Jonathan C; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver disease is characterized histologically by hepatic steatosis, the abnormal accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes. It is classified into alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is an increasingly important cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis in these conditions is important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as hepatic steatosis is potentially reversible if diagnosed early. The criterion standard for assessing hepatic steatosis is liver biopsy, which is limited by sampling error, its invasive nature, and associated morbidity. As such, noninvasive imaging-based methods of assessing hepatic steatosis are needed. Ultrasound and computed tomography are able to suggest the presence of hepatic steatosis based on imaging features, but are unable to accurately quantify hepatic fat content. Since Dixon's seminal work in 1984, magnetic resonance imaging has been used to compute the signal fat fraction from chemical shift-encoded imaging, commonly implemented as out-of-phase and in-phase imaging. However, signal fat fraction is confounded by several factors that limit its accuracy and reproducibility. Recently, advanced chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging methods have been developed that address these confounders and are able to measure the proton density fat fraction, a standardized, accurate, and reproducible biomarker of fat content. The use of these methods in the liver, as well as in other abdominal organs such as the pancreas, adrenal glands, and adipose tissue will be discussed in this review.

  9. Against proportional shortfall as a priority-setting principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Samuel

    2018-05-01

    As the demand for healthcare rises, so does the need for priority setting in healthcare. In this paper, I consider a prominent priority-setting principle: proportional shortfall. My purpose is to argue that proportional shortfall, as a principle, should not be adopted. My key criticism is that proportional shortfall fails to consider past health.Proportional shortfall is justified as it supposedly balances concern for prospective health while still accounting for lifetime health, even though past health is deemed irrelevant. Accounting for this lifetime perspective means that the principle may indirectly consider past health by accounting for how far an individual is from achieving a complete, healthy life. I argue that proportional shortfall does not account for this lifetime perspective as it fails to incorporate the fair innings argument as originally claimed, undermining its purported justification.I go on to demonstrate that the case for ignoring past health is weak, and argue that past health is at least sometimes relevant for priority-setting decisions. Specifically, when an individual's past health has a direct impact on current or future health, and when one individual has enjoyed significantly more healthy life years than another.Finally, I demonstrate that by ignoring past illnesses, even those entirely unrelated to their current illness, proportional shortfall can lead to instances of double jeopardy, a highly problematic implication. These arguments give us reason to reject proportional shortfall. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Dietary fat intake and risk of pancreatic cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Mayne, Susan T; Sampson, Joshua; Risch, Harvey; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that dietary fat intake may affect risk of pancreatic cancer, but published results are inconsistent. We examined risk associations for specific types of dietary fat intakes and related food sources among 111,416 participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine associations between fat intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Over a mean 8.4 years of follow-up, 411 pancreatic cancer cases were identified. We observed an inverse association between saturated fat intake and pancreatic cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64 comparing extreme quintiles; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.88), but the association became weaker and nonsignificant when individuals with fewer than 4 years of follow-up were excluded to avoid possible reverse causation (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.58-1.33). Total fat intake showed a similar pattern of association, whereas intakes of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and fats from animal or plant sources showed no associations with risk. These results do not support the hypothesis of increased pancreatic cancer risk with higher fat consumption overall or by specific fat type or source. Dietary changes owing to undetected disease may explain the observed inverse association with saturated fat. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    :Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high......-fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced...

  12. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  13. The principle of proportionality revisited: interpretations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermerén, Göran

    2012-11-01

    The principle of proportionality is used in many different contexts. Some of these uses and contexts are first briefly indicated. This paper focusses on the use of this principle as a moral principle. I argue that under certain conditions the principle of proportionality is helpful as a guide in decision-making. But it needs to be clarified and to be used with some flexibility as a context-dependent principle. Several interpretations of the principle are distinguished, using three conditions as a starting point: importance of objective, relevance of means, and most favourable option. The principle is then tested against an example, which suggests that a fourth condition, focusing on non-excessiveness, needs to be added. I will distinguish between three main interpretations of the principle, some primarily with uses in research ethics, others with uses in other areas of bioethics, for instance in comparisons of therapeutic means and ends. The relations between the principle of proportionality and the precautionary principle are explored in the following section. It is concluded that the principles are different and may even clash. In the next section the principle of proportionality is applied to some medical examples drawn from research ethics and bioethics. In concluding, the status of the principle of proportionality as a moral principle is discussed. What has been achieved so far and what remains to be done is finally summarized.

  14. Fat and fat-free mass at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2011-01-01

    LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because they und......LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because...... they undergo nutritional transition. There is a need for data on birth BC and its predictors from low-income countries in transition. We assessed absolute FM and FFM at birth and examined the role of gender, parity, GA, and LBW as predictors of birth BC. FM and FFM were assessed within 48 h of birth on 350...... Ethiopian newborns using air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Female gender and being an infant of primi- or secundiparous mothers predicted lower BW and lower birth FFM but not FM, compared with male gender and infants of multiparous mothers, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship...

  15. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Prospective Teachers Proportional Reasoning and Presumption of Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyem Sapti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the proportional reasoning of prospective teachers and their predictions about students' answers. Subjects were 4 prospective teacher  7th semester Department of Mathematics Education, Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo. Proportional reasoning task used to obtain research data. Subjects were asked to explain their reasoning and write predictions of student completion. Data was taken on October 15th, 2014. Interviews were conducted after the subjects completed the task and recorded with audio media. The research data were subject written work and interview transcripts. Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. In solving the proportional reasoning task, subjects using the cross product. However, they understand the meaning of the cross product. Subject also could predict students' reasoning on the matter.

  17. Proton-recoil proportional counter tests at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Eichholz, J.J.; Burrows, D.R.; DeVolpi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A methane filled proton-recoil proportional counter will be used as a fission neutron detector in the fast-neutron hodoscope. To provide meaningful fuel-motion information the proportional counter should have: a linear response over a wide range of reactor powers background ratio (the number of high energy neutrons detected must be maximized relative to low energy neutrons, and gamma ray sensitivity must be kept small); and a detector efficiency for fission neutrons above 1 MeV of approximately 1%. In addition, it is desirable that the detector and the associated amplifier/discriminator be capable of operating at counting rates in excess of 500 kHz. This paper reports on tests that were conducted on several proportional counters at the TREAT reactor

  18. Multiaxial low cycle fatigue life under non-proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takamoto; Sakane, Masao; Ohsuga, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    A simple and clear method of evaluating stress and strain ranges under non-proportional multiaxial loading where principal directions of stress and strain are changed during a cycle is needed for assessing multiaxial fatigue. This paper proposes a simple method of determining the principal stress and strain ranges and the severity of non-proportional loading with defining the rotation angles of the maximum principal stress and strain in a three dimensional stress and strain space. This study also discusses properties of multiaxial low cycle fatigue lives for various materials fatigued under non-proportional loadings and shows an applicability of a parameter proposed by author for multiaxial low cycle fatigue life evaluation

  19. EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL AND METOPROLOL ON VEGETATIVE REGULATION OF HEART AND MICROCIRCULATION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND HIGH BODY MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on vegetative regulation of heart and microcirculatory vessels in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degrees and high body mass/obesity.Material and methods. Patients with HT of 1-2 degrees (n=25; aged 51±8 y.o. were included in the study. Registration of 0,1 Hz-fluctuations in heart rhythm variability and microcirculation change was performed during passive orthostatic test at spontaneous breath (duration of each test stage 10 min. Synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms was estimated by calculation of phases difference and a numerical measure of synchronization. Frequency estimations of heart rhythm variability spectrum were performed in high and low frequency ranges additionaly.Results. Carvedilol and metoprolol have the comparable antihypertensive effect and influence on vegetative regulation of cardiovascular system in patients with HT. Both drugs have negative influence on synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms in initially high systolic blood pressure level (>150 mm Hg.Conclusion. Carvedilol and metoprolol have comparable influence on synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms in cardiovascular system.

  20. Relation between eating habits and a high body mass index among freshman students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Fatma Esra; Bekiroglu, Nural; Imeryuz, Nese; Agirbasli, Mehmet

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation between eating habits and a high body mass index (BMI) in first-year freshman university students and included 2525 freshman university students 18 to 22 years old from a Turkish population. İn this study, 48% of the students were men. They were asked to complete a questionnaire on their dietary habits including the frequency of their consumption of individual food items, demographic data, and smoking habit. The effects of eating habits on increased BMI (≥25) were analyzed. Of 2259 subjects included in the analyses, 322 were overweight or obese and 1937 had normal and thin BMI (ender, recent weight change, and high number of meals as independent predictors of obesity/overweight. Frequent consumptions of beer, alcoholic drinks other than beer and wine (e.g., spirits including whisky, gin, raki, vodka), coffee, tea, coke, red meat, variety meat, and eggs were associated with a significantly higher risk of obesity/overweight, whereas frequent consumption of snacks was associated with a low risk. Findings of further studies, possibly taking into consideration the absolute quantities of consumption along with cultural and local issues, would guide the adoption of healthier feeding behaviors in this particular age group.

  1. Overweight and Cognitive Performance: High Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impairment in Reactive Control during Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Steenbergen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI < 25, five males and twenty-six overweight (BMI ≥ 25, seven males university students performed a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs. reactive control with regard to cognitive flexibility. Compared to individuals with a BMI lower than 25, overweight (i.e., ≥25 was associated with increased switching costs in the reactive switching condition (i.e., when preparation time is short, representing reduced cognitive flexibility in the preparatory domain. In addition, the overweight group reported significantly more depression and binge eating symptoms, although still indicating minimal depression. No between-group differences were found with regard to self-reported autism spectrum symptoms, impulsiveness, state- and trait anxiety, and cognitive reactivity to depression. The present findings are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that elevated BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with significantly more switching costs due to inefficiency in the retrieval, implementation, and maintenance of task sets, indicating less efficient cognitive control functioning.

  2. Neural networks to formulate special fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia, R. K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks are a branch of artificial intelligence based on the structure and development of biological systems, having as its main characteristic the ability to learn and generalize knowledge. They are used for solving complex problems for which traditional computing systems have a low efficiency. To date, applications have been proposed for different sectors and activities. In the area of fats and oils, the use of neural networks has focused mainly on two issues: the detection of adulteration and the development of fatty products. The formulation of fats for specific uses is the classic case of a complex problem where an expert or group of experts defines the proportions of each base, which, when mixed, provide the specifications for the desired product. Some conventional computer systems are currently available to assist the experts; however, these systems have some shortcomings. This article describes in detail a system for formulating fatty products, shortenings or special fats, from three or more components by using neural networks (MIX. All stages of development, including design, construction, training, evaluation, and operation of the network will be outlined.

    Las redes neuronales son una rama de la inteligencia artificial basadas en la estructura y funcionamiento de sistemas biológicos, teniendo como principal característica la capacidad de aprender y generalizar conocimiento. Estas son utilizadas en la resolución de problemas complejos, en los cuales los sistemas computacionales tradicionales presentan una eficiencia baja. Hasta la fecha, han sido propuestas aplicaciones para los más diversos sectores y actividades. En el área de grasas y aceites, la utilización de redes neuronales se ha concentrado principalmente en dos asuntos: la detección de adulteraciones y la formulación de productos grasos. La formulación de grasas para uso específico es el caso clásico de problema complejo donde un experto o grupo de

  3. Flow proportional sampling of low level liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, D.; Jenkins, R.

    1989-01-01

    A flow proportional sampler for use on low level radioactive liquid effluent has been developed for installation on all CEGB nuclear power stations. The sampler, operates by drawing effluent continuously from the main effluent pipeline, through a sampler loop and returning it to the pipeline. The effluent in this loop is sampled by taking small, frequent aliquots using a linear acting shuttle valve. The frequency of operation of this valve is controlled by a flowmeter installed in the effluent line; sampling rate being directly proportional to effluent flowrate. (author)

  4. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used...... in practice due to the lack of reliable estimation procedures. We suggest such procedures and show that their performance improve considerably on existing methods. We also suggest a goodness-of-fit test for the proportional odds assumption. We derive the large sample properties and provide estimators...

  5. Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerviller, H. de

    1965-01-01

    The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10 -2 to 15 MeV are specified. (author) [fr

  6. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell

  7. Avalanche localization and its effects in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Okuno, H.; Walenta, A.H.

    1977-11-01

    Avalanche development around the anode wire in a gas proportional counter is investigated. In the region of proportional gas amplification, the avalanche is found to be well localized on one side of the anode wire, where the electrons arrive along the field lines from the point of primary ionization. Induced signals on electrodes surrounding the anode wire are used to measure the azimuthal position of the avalanche on the anode wire. Practical applications of the phenomena such as left-right assignment in drift chambers and measurement of the angular direction of the primary ionization electrons drifting towards the anode wire are discussed

  8. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima E Souza, Rodrigo; Apgaua, Bruno Tavares; Milhomens, João Daniel; Albuquerque, Francisco Tadeu Motta; Carneiro, Luiz Antônio; Mendes, Márcio Henrique; Garcia, Tiago Carvalho; Paiva, Clerisson; Ladeia, Felipe; Jeunon, Deiler Célio

    2016-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH=7.21; PCO2=51mmHg; PO2=52mmHg; BE=-8; HCO3=18mEqL(-1), and lactate=6.0mmolL(-1). Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP=55mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF=60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale=3). A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction). The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Physico-chemical characterisation of the fat from red-skin rambutan (Nephellium lappaceum L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Yanty Noorziana Abdul; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The seeds (6.9±0.2% by weight of fruit) of the red-skin rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) contain a considerable amount of crude fat (38.0±4.36%) and thus, the aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical properties of this fat for potential applications. The iodine and saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of the seed fat were 50.27 g I2/100g fat, 182.1 mg KOH/g fat, 0.8% and 2.1%, respectively. The fat is pale yellow with a Lovibond color index of 3.1Y+1.1R. The fatty acid profile indicates an almost equal proportion of saturated (49.1%) and unsaturated (50.9%) fatty acids, where oleic (42.0%) and arachidic (34.3%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. It also contained small amounts of stearic (8.0%), palmitic (4.6%), gadoleic (5.9%), linoleic (2.2%), behenic (2.1%) palmitoleic (0.7%) myristic (0.1%) and erucic (0.1%) acids. HPLC analysis showed that the fat comprised mainly unknown triacylglycerols (TAG) with high retention times indicating they have higher carbon numbers compared with many vegetable oils. The fat has melting and cooling points of 44.2°C and -42.5°C, respectively, making it a semi-solid at room temperature. The solid content at 0°C was 53.5% and the fat melted completely at 40°C. z-Nose analysis showed that the presence of high levels of volatile compounds in red-skin rambutan seed and seed fat.

  10. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  11. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  12. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  13. Insensitivity of proportional fairness in critically loaded bandwidth sharing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasiou, M.; Zhang, J.; Zwart, B.

    2014-01-01

    Proportional fairness is a popular service allocation mechanism to describe and analyze the performance of data networks at flow level. Recently, several authors have shown that the invariant distribution of such networks admits a product form distribution under critical loading. Assuming

  14. Principles of operation of multiwire proportional and drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauli, F.

    1987-01-01

    The first multiwire proportional chamber, in its modern conception, was constructed and operated in the years 1967-68. It was soon recognized that the main properties of a multiwire proportional chamber, i.e. very good time resolution, good position accuracy and self-triggered operation, are very attractive for the use of the new device in high-energy physics experiments. Today, most fast detectors contain a large number of proportional chambers, and their use has spread to many different fields of applied research, such as X-ray and heavy ion astronomy, nuclear medicine, and protein crystallography. In many respects, however, multiwire proportional chambers are still experimental devices, requiring continuous attention for good operation and sometimes reacting in unexpected ways to a change in the environmental conditions. Furthermore, in the fabrication and operation of a chamber people seem to use a mixture of competence, technical skill and magic rites, of the kind ''I do not know why I'm doing this but somebody told me to do so''. In these notes the authors illustrate the basic phenomena underlying the behaviour of a gas detector, with the hope that the reader will not only better understand the reasons for some irrational-seeming preferences (such as, for example, in the choice of the gas mixture), but will also be able better to design detectors for his specific experimental needs

  15. Proportion of patients in the Uganda rheumatic heart disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proportion of patients in the Uganda rheumatic heart disease registry with advanced ... of Cardiology guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease. ... disease that require surgical treatment yet they cannot access this therapy due to ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  16. Digital signal processing for 3He proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Kurahashi, Tomohiko; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1994-01-01

    Numerical analysis of individual pulses from 3 He proportional counters has been performed. A parametric approach has been used for the identification of a charge particle track direction. Using area parameters, a clear separation of events was observed for the wall effect on a triton and a proton, respectively. ((orig.))

  17. Are Explicit Apologies Proportional to the Offenses They Address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, John; Raymond, Chase Wesley

    2016-01-01

    We consider here Goffman's proposal of proportionality between virtual offenses and remedial actions, based on the examination of 102 cases of explicit apologies. To this end, we offer a typology of the primary apology formats within the dataset, together with a broad categorization of the types of virtual offenses to which these apologies are…

  18. Radiation loading effect proportional chamber on the performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, T.D.; Kalinina, N.A.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kruglov, V.V.; Khazins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a space charge which appears under the effect of radiation loading on counting characteristics of a proportional chamber, is experimentally investigated. Calculations are made which take into account the effect of a space charge of positive ions formed in the chamber. The investigations have been carried out on the test board which consists of a one-coordinate proportional chamber, a telescope of two scintillation counters and a collimated 90 Sr β-source. The proportional chamber has the 160x160 mm dimensions. The signal wires with the 50 μm diameter are located with the step of s=10 mm. High-voltage planes are coiled with a wire with the 100 μm diameter and a 2 mm step. The distance between high-voltage planes are 18 mm. The chamber is blown through with a gaseous mixture, its composition is 57% Ar+38% CH 4 +5% (OCH 3 ) 2 CH 2 . When carrying out measurements in wide ranges, the density of radiation loading and the amplifier threshold are changed. The experimental results show a considerable effect of radiation loading and the value of amplifier threshold on the value of a counting characteristic. This should be taken into account when estimating the performance of a proportional chamber according to board testing using radioactive sources, as conditions for investigations are usually different from those of a physical experiment on an accelerator

  19. Contribution of working memory in the parity and proportional judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.K.; Zajenkowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence on the differences in a sentence-picture verification task under additional memory load between parity and proportional quantifiers. We asked subjects to memorize strings of four or six digits, then to decide whether a quantified sentence was true for a

  20. Amplification and discrimination of signals from proportional multiwire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, L.; Bosio, C.; Cordelli, M.

    1976-03-01

    A circuit is described which detects signals from proportional multiwire chambers. The threshold is about 3μ A and the time jitter of the pulse obtained is better than 2.5 ns. The circuit has one negative input and two complementary outputs. The realized module includes 8 channels with common trigger level control and was built as NIM standard unit

  1. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  2. Transposition of Knowledge: Encountering Proportionality in an Algebra Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Anna. L. V.; Kilhamn, Cecilia

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the process in which "knowledge to be taught" was transposed into "knowledge actually taught," concerning a task including proportional relationships in an algebra setting in a grade 6 classroom. We identified affordances and constraints of the task by describing the mathematical…

  3. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.; Blazquez, J.B.; Barrado, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hidrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Montecarlo application and the other one analytical at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (author) [es

  4. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno Casado, J.L.; Blazquez Martinez, J.B.; Barrado Menendez, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hydrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Monte Carlo application and the other one analytica at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (Author)

  5. Pulse-shape discrimination in IAEA tritium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florkowski, T.

    1981-01-01

    Two systems of pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) for the reduction of background in low-level proportional counters were tested. A tentative conclusion is drawn that both PSD systems, although they decrease slightly the meson background, do not bring improvement in the analytical accuracy

  6. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF 2 , as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures

  7. Position sensitive proportional counters as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The rise time and charge division techniques for position decoding with RC-line proportional counters are reviewed. The advantages that these detectors offer as focal plane counters for nuclear spectroscopy performed with magnetic spectrographs are discussed. The theory of operation of proportional counters as position sensing devices is summarized, as well as practical aspects affecting their application. Factors limiting the position and energy resolutions obtainable with a focal plane proportional counter are evaluated and measured position and energy loss values are presented for comparison. Detector systems capable of the multiparameter measurements required for particle identification, background suppression and ray-tracing are described in order to illustrate the wide applicability of proportional counters within complex focal plane systems. Examples of the use of these counters other than with magnetic spectrographs are given in order to demonstrate their usefulness in not only nuclear physics but also in fields such as solid state physics, biology, and medicine. The influence of the new focal plane detector systems on future magnetic spectrograph designs is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Nature and proportion of total injuries at the Stellenbosch Rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the nature and proportion of total injuries occurring at Stellenbosch Rugby Football Club in Stellenbosch, South Africa, between the years 1973 - 1975 and 2003 - 2005. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. Main outcome measures. Injured rugby players from the ...

  9. Flexible geometry hodoscope using proportional chamber cathode read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubret, C.; Bellefon, A. de; Benoit, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Tristram, G.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of a cathode read-out proportional chamber, used as a low mass hodoscope is described. Results on efficiency, time resolution and space resolution are shown. The associative logic, which permits the use of the chamber as a coplanarity chamber is briefly presented

  10. Proportionality in the New German Insurance Contract Act 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Heiss (Helmut)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 2008, the German legislature enacted a completely revised Insurance Contract Act, in which a new rule of proportionality replaced the former all-or-nothing principle for questions of liability. This article outlines the reasons for this shift and the impact of the

  11. A proportional counter for efficient backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Cudny, W.; Holnicka, J.; Walentek, J.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a novel gas-tight proportional counter with flat beryllium windows for backscatter Moessbauer spectroscopy. The krypton-filled counter has a geometry that approaches 2π and a resolution of 12% fwhm for the 14.4 keV line of 57 Fe, and is easy to manufacture. (Auth.)

  12. An Axiomatization of the Proportional Rule in Financial Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csoka, Péter; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The most important rule to determine payments in real-life bankruptcy problems is the proportional rule. Many bankruptcy problems are characterized by network aspects and default may occur as a result of contagion. Indeed, in financial networks with defaulting agents, the values of the agents'

  13. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.

  14. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  15. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...

  16. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p Abdominal fat distribution patterns are associated with varying levels of resting energy expenditure, potentially reflecting different metabolic rates of adipose sub-depots and providing an anatomic/anthropometric link to physiological obese sub-phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat.

  18. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  19. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  20. Effects of proportions of dietary macronutrients on glucocorticoid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H Stimson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 and inactivation by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36 for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12 or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12 or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12 diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12 throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01, but did not alter 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5Alpha-reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001 and increased 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01 in the liver, and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01 in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue, a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.

  1. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation...

  2. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Wijk, R.A. de; Huntjens, L.A.H.; Engelen, L.; Polet, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat

  3. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  4. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective

  5. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  6. Protocol for a systematic review of the efficacy of fat grafting and platelet-rich plasma for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Oliver J; Kanapathy, Muholan; Khajuria, Ankur; Prokopenko, Max; Hachach-Haram, Nadine; Mann, Haroon; Mosahebi, Ash

    2017-06-06

    The use of fat grafting as a reconstructive surgical option is becoming much more common. Adipose-derived stem cells found in fat grafts are believed to facilitate wound healing via differentiation into fibroblasts and keratinocytes and the release of pro-healing growth factors. Several small studies have shown a positive effect of fat grafting in healing of wounds of a variety of aetiologies. When fat is combined with autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), there may be enhanced healing effects. This may be due to the pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of PRP. We aim to synthesise the current evidence on combination fat grafting and PRP for wound healing to establish the efficacy of this technique. We will conduct a comprehensive literature search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Science Citation Index, and Google Scholar databases (up to July 2017) to identify studies on fat grafting and PRP for wound healing. All primary studies and systematic reviews of these studies will be included, except case reports and case series with fewer than three patients, to evaluate the outcome of fat grafting and PRP on wound healing either on its own or when compared to other studies. Primary outcome measures are expected to be the proportion of total wounds healed at 12 weeks and the average wound healing time (time for 100% re-epithelialisation). Expected secondary outcome measures are the proportion of wounds achieving 50% wound healing, the type of wound benefitting most from fat grafting, economic evaluation, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. Subgroup analysis will be performed for the proportions of wounds healed based on wound aetiology. This review will provide robust evidence of the efficacy of fat grafting and PRP for wound healing. This is an emerging technique, and this review is expected to guide clinical practice and ongoing research aimed at improving wound care. PROSPERO CRD42016049881.

  7. Visualizing Proportions and Dissimilarities by Space-filling Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a set of individuals, which have attached a statistical value given as a proportion, and a dissimilarity measure. Each individual is represented as a region within the unit square, in such a way that the area of the regions represent...... the proportions and the distances between them represent the dissimilarities. To enhance the interpretability of the representation, the regions are required to satisfy two properties. First, they must form a partition of the unit square, namely, the portions in which it is divided must cover its area without...... is solved heuristically by using the Large Neighborhood Search technique. The methodology proposed in this paper is applied to three real-world datasets: the first one concerning financial markets in Europe and Asia, the second one about the letters in the English alphabet, and finally the provinces...

  8. Combining proportional and majoritarian democracy: An institutional design proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Ganghof

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a new way to combine the “proportional” and “majoritarian” visions of democracy. The proposal blends elements of mixed electoral systems, parliamentarism, presidentialism and bicameralism. Voters are given a single vote to make two simultaneous choices: one about the proportional composition of the legislature and one about the two top parties forming a majoritarian “confidence chamber” embedded within the legislature. Only the majority in this chamber has the power to dismiss the cabinet in a vote of no-confidence. The proposed system virtually guarantees the feasibility of identifiable and stable one-party cabinets governing with shifting, issue-specific majorities in a highly proportional legislature. It is illustrated with respect to the 2013 federal election in Germany.

  9. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, M., E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawano, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isozumi, Y. [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive {sup 55}Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH{sub 4} admixed dry air or N{sub 2}. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 10{sup 4}) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O{sub 2} has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N{sub 2}.

  10. Sample Size Calculation for Controlling False Discovery Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulian Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The false discovery proportion (FDP, the proportion of incorrect rejections among all rejections, is a direct measure of abundance of false positive findings in multiple testing. Many methods have been proposed to control FDP, but they are too conservative to be useful for power analysis. Study designs for controlling the mean of FDP, which is false discovery rate, have been commonly used. However, there has been little attempt to design study with direct FDP control to achieve certain level of efficiency. We provide a sample size calculation method using the variance formula of the FDP under weak-dependence assumptions to achieve the desired overall power. The relationship between design parameters and sample size is explored. The adequacy of the procedure is assessed by simulation. We illustrate the method using estimated correlations from a prostate cancer dataset.

  11. Nonlinear kinematic hardening under non-proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1979-07-01

    Within the framework of conventional plasticity theory, it is first determined under which conditions Melan-Prager's and Ziegler's kinematic hardening rules result in identical material behaviour. Next, assuming initial isotropy and adopting the von Mises yield criterion, a nonlinear kinematic hardening function is proposed for prediction of metal behaviour. The model assumes that hardening at a specific stress point depends on the direction of the new incremental loading. Hereby a realistic response is obtained for general reversed loading, and a smooth behaviour is assured, even when loading deviates more and more from proportional loading and ultimately results in reversed loading. The predictions of the proposed model for non-proportional loading under plane stress conditions are compared with those of the classical linear kinematic model, the isotropic model and with published experimental data. Finally, the limitations of the proposaed model are discussed. (author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEOUS PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS FOR NEUTRON DOSIMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Faezeh; Waker, Anthony J

    2018-01-10

    The use of a custom-made cylindrical graphite proportional counter (Cy-GPC) along with a cylindrical tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) for neutron-gamma mixed-field dosimetry has been studied in the following steps: first, the consistency of the gamma dose measurement between the Cy-TEPC and the Cy-GPC was investigated over a range of 20 keV (X-ray) to 0.661 MeV (Cs-137 gamma ray). Then, with both the counters used simultaneously, the neutron and gamma ray doses produced by a P385 Neutron Generator (Thermo Fisher Scientific) together with a Cs-137 gamma source were determined. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. New proportional counter assembly in Gliwice 14C laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscicki, W.; Zastawny, A.

    1977-01-01

    The design and parameters are described of a proportional counter for low level counting. The cathode tube 80 mm in diameter and 30 cm in length is made of pure copper. The anode is a tungsten wire 0.05 mm in diameter. The cathode tube is surrounded by a cylindrical ring container with mercury. The total volume of the counter is 1.5 l and it is filled with carbon dioxide. At a pressure of 1 at of CO 2 the counter background is 4.20+-0.05 cpm and contemporary 14 C net effect 10.22+-0.10 cpm; at a pressure of 2 at of CO 2 the background is 4.40+-0.05 cpm and the contemporary 14 C net effect 20.53+-10 cpm. The efficiency of the proportional counter is 88% in both cases. (J.B.)

  14. Sexually dimorphic proportions of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Sexual differences in growth, allometric growth patterns and skeletal proportions were investigated by linear measurements of skeletal parts on 225 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the inner Danish and adjacent waters. Females show larger asymptotic sizes and extended period of growth...... to females is also found in the vertebral epiphyses that mature later in males than females, although the males finish growth at a younger age....

  15. Multiwire proportional counter (lecture by an electromagnetic delay line)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruere-Dawson, R.

    1989-01-01

    For track localisation of ionizing particles with multiwire proportional chamber, an electronic chain including amplifying, shaping and memorizing circuits is required for each wire. In order to lower the cost of this type of detector, an electromagnetic delay line is proposed among various possibilities. In this paper, different coupling modes between chamber and delay line are studied with their respective advantages. The realization of one meter long delay line with a unit delay time of 15 ns per cm is also presented [fr

  16. Quench gases for xenon- (and krypton-)filled proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Xenon-filled proportional counters are used extensively in astronomy, particularly in the hard X-ray region. The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the operating characteristics of the instrument although the data necessary to make the choice are not easily obtainable. We present results which detail the performance obtained from both cylindrical and parallel field geometries for a wide variety of readily available, ultrahigh or research grade purity, quench gases. (orig.)

  17. Azimuthal spread of the avalanche in proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, H.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.; Walenta, A.H.

    1978-10-01

    The angular distribution of the avalanche around the anode wire in the gas proportional counter is determined by measuring the distribution of positive ions arriving on cathode strips surrounding the anode wire for each single event. The shape and width of the distribution depend on such factors as the gas gain, the anode diameter, the counting gas and the primary ionization density. Effects of these factors are studied systematically, and their importance for practical counter applications is discussed

  18. Metrology and Proportion in the Ecclesiastical Architecture of Medieval Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, Avril; Moss, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which detailed empirical analysis of the metrology and proportional systems used in the design of Irish ecclesiastical architecture can be analysed to provide historical information not otherwise available. Focussing on a relatively limited sample of window tracery designs as a case study, it will first set out to establish what, if any, systems were in use, and then what light these might shed on the background, training and work practices of...

  19. Data-driven smooth tests of the proportional hazards assumption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-16 ISSN 1380-7870 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120604; GA ČR(CZ) GD201/05/H007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Cox model * Neyman's smooth test * proportional hazards assumption * Schwarz's selection rule Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2007

  20. Populational Growth Models Proportional to Beta Densities with Allee Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Sandra M.; Rocha, J. Leonel; Pestana, Dinis D.

    2009-05-01

    We consider populations growth models with Allee effect, proportional to beta densities with shape parameters p and 2, where the dynamical complexity is related with the Malthusian parameter r. For p>2, these models exhibit a population dynamics with natural Allee effect. However, in the case of 1

  1. Fast multiwire proportional chamber data encoding system for proton tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.

    1979-01-01

    A data encoding system that rapidly generates the binary address of an active wire in a 512-wire multiwire proportional chamber has been developed. It can accept a second event on a different wire after a deadtime of 130 ns. The system incorporates preprocessing of the wire data to reject events that would require more than one wire address. It also includes a first-in, first-out memory to buffer the data flow

  2. Relating the Electrical Resistance of Fresh Concrete to Mixture Proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obla, K; Hong, R; Sherman, S; Bentz, D P; Jones, S Z

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of fresh concrete is critical for assuring the quality of our nation's constructed infrastructure. While fresh concrete arriving at a job site in a ready-mixed concrete truck is typically characterized by measuring temperature, slump, unit weight, and air content, here the measurement of the electrical resistance of a freshly cast cylinder of concrete is investigated as a means of assessing mixture proportions, specifically cement and water contents. Both cement and water contents influence the measured electrical resistance of a sample of fresh concrete: the cement by producing ions (chiefly K + , Na + , and OH - ) that are the main source of electrical conduction; and the water by providing the main conductive pathways through which the current travels. Relating the measured electrical resistance to attributes of the mixture proportions, such as water-cement ratio by mass ( w/c ), is explored for a set of eleven different concrete mixtures prepared in the laboratory. In these mixtures, w/c , paste content, air content, fly ash content, high range water reducer dosage, and cement alkali content are all varied. Additionally, concrete electrical resistance data is supplemented by measuring the resistivity of its component pore solution obtained from 5 laboratory-prepared cement pastes with the same proportions as their corresponding concrete mixtures. Only measuring the concrete electrical resistance can provide a prediction of the mixture's paste content or the product w*c ; conversely, when pore solution resistivity is also available, w/c and water content of the concrete mixture can be reasonably assessed.

  3. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  4. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, Donovan S; Morgan, Penelope; Smith, Alistair M S; Kolden, Crystal A; Hudak, Andrew T

    2014-01-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day. (letters)

  5. Contributions to the methodology of multiwire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrascu, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Ph.D. thesis presents first the realization, testing, optimization, and use of detection equipment based on position sensitive multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC), high resolution proportional counters, and of ΔE,E ionization chambers. In the second chapter it is presented the realization MWPC, in which the coordinate information is obtained by means of LC-delay lines, containing many original constructive elements. By using a system of three MWPC in coincidence, an experimental testing of the theoretically predicted pion generation in the 235 U fission process, was performed. An upper limit of 10 -11 for this process was found. In the 3-rd chapter there are presented the developments of high resolution proportional counters for X-ray spectrometry. Various penning mixtures of high purity gases were studied. The purity of gases was assured by a technology described in a Romanian patents. These counters are currently use in various applications as a rapid analysis of steel marks and in the mining industry. the 4-th chapter is dedicated to the construction and using of ΔE,E closed, high resolution ionization chambers. With these chambers the multinucleon transfer in the 27 Al( 14 M, X) reaction at 116 MeV bombarding energy was investigated. Also this type of chambers was used for the elaboration of an absolute method for analysis and profiling of impurities in silicon wafers. This method is described in the last part of the chapter. (Author) 117 Figs., 8 Tabs., 55 Refs

  6. An extended parametrization of gas amplification in proportional wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is normally assumed that the gas amplification in proportional chambers is a function of Townsend's first ionization coefficient, α, and that α is a function of the anode surface electric field only. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating the breakdown of the latter assumption for electric fields, X, greater than about 150 V/cm/Torr on the anode wire surface for a gas mixture of 80/20 argon/methane. For larger values of X, the parametrization of the proportional gas gain data requires an additional term related to the gradient of the electric field near the wire. This extended gain parametrization remains valid until the onset of nonproportional contributions such as positive ion space charge saturation effects. Furthermore, deviations of the data from this parametrization are used to measure the onset of these space charge effects. A simple scaling dependence of the gain data on the product of pressure and wire radius over the whole proportional range is also demonstrated. (orig.)

  7. Duality between resource reservation and proportional share resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Ion; Abdel-Wahab, Hussein; Jeffay, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    We describe anew framework for resource allocation that unifies the well-known proportional share and resource reservation policies. Each client is characterized by two parameters: a weight that represents the rate at which the client 'pays' for the resource, and a share that represents the fraction of the resource that the client should receive. A fixed rate corresponds to a proportional share allocation, while a fixed share corresponds to a reservation. Furthermore, rates and shares are duals of each other. Once one parameters is fixed the other becomes fixed as well. If a client asks for a fixed share then the level of competition for the resource determines the rate at which it has to pay, while if the rate is fixed, level of competition determines the service time the clients should receive. To implement this framework we use a new proportional share algorithm, called earliest eligible virtual deadline first, that achieves optical accuracy in the rates at which process execute. This makes it possible to provide support for highly predictable, real-time services. As a proof of concept we have implemented a prototype of a CPU scheduler under the FreeBSD operating system. The experimental results show that our scheduler achieves the goal of providing integrated support for batch and real-time applications.

  8. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  9. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization......Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  10. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  11. Desire to eat high- and low-fat foods following a low-fat dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Frederick G; Vander Weg, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    This study examined changes in desires to eat high-fat and low-fat foods across an obesity treatment program. The hypotheses under examination were (1) preferences for low-fat foods would increase across time and (2) preferences for high-fat foods would decrease across time. Single-group, prospective examination of desires to eat 48 foods, categorized according to fat content, before and after the 16-week treatment program. University clinic, Memphis, Tennessee. 118 obese (mean weight = 194.4 lbs) women (mean age = 45.24 years) participating in an obesity treatment program. A 16-week cognitive-behavioral program for obesity. Desires to eat 48 foods varying in fat content and whether or not participants actually ate these foods. Analysis of variance, multiple regression, and paired t tests. The results indicate that during the program, preferences for low-fat foods increased, whereas preferences for high-fat foods decreased. These changes mirrored the changes in consumption of both low-fat and high-fat foods. Within a behavioral economic perspective, the reinforcement value of low-fat foods may increase following a low-fat dietary intervention, whereas the reinforcing properties of high-fat foods may decline. This is desirable as low-fat foods hold many advantages over high-fat foods in terms of weight maintenance.

  12. Statistical properties of proportional residual energy intake as a new measure of energetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Pouya

    2017-08-01

    Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows. The aim of this study was to propose a new measure of efficiency to overcome the problems attributed to the previous criteria. A total of 1478 monthly records of 268 lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In addition to FCR, GME, GEE, NEE and REI, a new criterion called proportional residual energy intake (PREI) was calculated as REI to net energy intake ratio and defined as proportion of net energy intake lost as REI. The PREI had an average of -0·02 and range of -0·36 to 0·27, meaning that the least efficient cow lost 0·27 of her net energy intake as REI, while the most efficient animal saved 0·36 of her net energy intake as less REI. Traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) had high correlations with milk and fat corrected milk yields (absolute values from 0·469 to 0·816), while the REI and PREI had low correlations (0·000 to 0·069) with milk production. The results showed that the traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) are highly influenced by production traits, while the REI and PREI are independent of production level. Moreover, the PREI adjusts the REI magnitude for intake level. It seems that the PREI could be considered as a worthwhile measure of efficiency for future studies.

  13. Investigation of ruminal bacterial diversity in dairy cattle fed supplementary monensin alone and in combination with fat, using pyrosequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; Eastridge, M L; Yu, Z

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and compare the effects of monensin, both alone and together with dietary fat, on ruminal bacterial communities in dairy cattle fed the following 3 diets: a control diet, the control diet supplemented with monensin, and the control diet supplemented with both monensin and fat. Bacterial communities in the liquid and the adherent fractions of rumen content were analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Most sequences were assigned to phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, irrespective of diets and fractions. Prevotella was the most dominant genus, but most sequences could not be classified at the genus level. The proportion of Gram-positive Firmicutes was reduced by 4.5% in response to monensin but increased by 12.8% by combination of monensin and fat, compared with the control diet. Some of the operational taxonomic units in Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were also affected by monensin or by the combination of monensin with fat. The proportion of numerous bacteria potentially involved in lipolysis and (or) biohydrogenation was increased by both monensin and fat. The Shannon diversity index was decreased in the control diet supplemented with both monensin and fat, compared with the other 2 diet groups. Supplementary fats hinder bacterial attachment to plant particles and then result in decreased bacterial diversity in the rumen. The finding of this study may help in understanding the effect of monensin and fat on ruminant nutrition and the adverse effect of monensin and fat, such as milk fat depression and decreased feed digestibility.

  14. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  15. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate.......32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation...

  16. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  17. Low proportion of high school senior athletes receiving recommended immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Rizzone, Katherine H; Cribbs, Sarah P; Roumie, Christianne L

    2014-05-01

    The preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) often serves as the only preventive health care visit for athletes, but immunization status is not uniformly addressed in such visits. Thus, athletes may not be receiving recommended immunizations. Our aim was to determine the proportion of high school senior athletes who received all recommended immunizations. Our hypothesis was that females would be less likely than males to receive all recommended immunizations given suboptimal human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake. We conducted a cross-sectional survey evaluation of the immunization status of high school senior athletes in Davidson County, TN. The primary composite outcome was receipt of recommended immunizations for tetanus, meningococcal, and seasonal influenza. For females, the primary outcome also included completion of the HPV series. A total of 162 participants, 104 males and 58 females, were included. More males than females received all recommended immunizations (15.4% vs 3.5%; P = 0.02). When HPV immunization was excluded from the composite outcome, there was no difference in the proportion of males and females who received all recommended immunizations (15.4% vs 15.5%; P = 0.98). The odds of receiving all recommended immunizations was 0.14 (95% CI, 0.03-0.72) for females compared with males when adjusted for covariates. Athletes seen at retail-based clinics for their PPE were less likely to receive all recommended immunizations compared with athletes seen in primary care (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.69). Only 1 in 6 high school senior athletes received the recommended tetanus, meningococcal, and influenza immunizations. A lower proportion of females, only 1 in 28, received all recommended immunizations due to the HPV series. Policy changes requiring a review of immunizations at the PPE would benefit many high school athletes.

  18. Anthropometric Indicators as Body Fat Discriminators in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Junior, Carlos As; Mocellin, Michel C; Gonçalves, Eliane C Andrade; Silva, Diego As; Trindade, Erasmo Bsm

    2017-09-01

    We analyzed the discriminatory capacity of anthropometric indicators for body fat in children and adolescents. This systematic review and meta-analysis included cross-sectional and clinical studies comprising children and adolescents aged 2-19 y that tested the discriminatory value for body fat measured by anthropometric methods or indexes generated by anthropometric variables compared with precision methods in the diagnosis of body fat [dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), computed tomography, air displacement plethysmography (ADP), or MRI]. Five studies met the eligibility criteria and presented high methodologic quality. The anthropometric indicators that had high discriminatory power to identify high body fat were body mass index (BMI) in males [area under the curve (AUC): 0.975] and females (AUC: 0.947), waist circumference (WC) in males (AUC: 0.975) and females (AUC: 0.959), and the waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) in males (AUC: 0.897) and females (AUC: 0.914). BMI, WC, and WTHR can be used by health professionals to assess body fat in children and adolescents. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. A versatile gas-flow proportional counter for Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibicu, I., E-mail: bibicu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics (Romania); Nicolescu, G. [IFIN-HH, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania); Cretu, C. [Transylvania University, Physics Department (Romania)

    2009-07-15

    This article presents a versatile gas-flow proportional counter for surface and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, suitable for studies with {sup 57}Fe, {sup 119}Sn and {sup 151}Eu isotopes. The main advantages obtained by new design are: (1) the height of the detection volume can be changed in large limits from 0 to 38 mm, (2) the detection volume can be choose symmetrical or not in respect with anode plan, (3) the anode replacement is easily (4) and different anode configuration can be used. The characteristics of the detector, operating at room temperature, are reported.

  20. Proportional counter response calculations for gallium solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Reynolds, D.

    1989-01-01

    Gallium bases solar neutrino detectors are sensitive to the primary pp reaction in the sun. Two experiments using gallium, SAGE in the Soviet Union and GALLEX in Europe, are under construction and will produce data by 1989. The radioactive /sup 71/Ge produced by neutrinos interacting with the gallium detector material, is chemically extracted and counted in miniature proportional counters. A number of calculations have been carried out to simulate the response of these counters to the decay of /sup 71/Ge and to background events

  1. Xenon-based Penning mixtures for proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.D.; Agrawal, P.C.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL

    1989-01-01

    The choice of quench gas can have a significant effect on the gas gain and energy resolution of gas-filed proportional counters. Details are given on the performance obtained with a variety of quench additives of varying ionization potentials for use in xenon-filled systems. It is confirmed that optimum performance is obtained when the ionization potential is closely matched to the first metastable level of xenon (8.3 eV) as is the case with xenon + trimethylamine and xenon + dimethylamine. For these mixtures the Penning effect is at its strongest. (orig.)

  2. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.F.; Guedes, G.P.; Tamura, E.; Pepe, I.M.; Oliveira, N.B.

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10 6 counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10 7 events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author)

  3. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance Strategies in Contagious Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccioli, Alice; Kokholm, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    charging and for risk management. The literature on CPPI modeling typically assumes diffusive or Lévy-driven dynamics for the risky asset underlying the strategy. In either case the self-contagious nature of asset prices is not taken into account. In order to account for contagion while preserving......Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) strategies are popular as they allow to gear up the upside potential of a stock index while limiting its downside risk. From the issuer's perspective it is important to adequately assess the risks associated with the CPPI, both for correct "gap'' fee...

  4. A multiwire proportional counter for very high counting rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, A F; Guedes, G P [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tamura, E [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Pepe, I M; Oliveira, N B [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-01

    Preliminary measurements in a proportional counter with two independently counting wires showed that counting rates up to 10{sup 6} counts/s per wire can be reached without critical loss in the true versus measured linearity relation. Results obtained with a detector containing 30 active wires (2 mm pitch) are presented. To each wire is associated a fast pre-amplifier and a discriminator channel. Global counting rates in excess to 10{sup 7} events/s are reported. Data acquisition systems are described for 1D (real time) and 2D (off-line) position sensitive detection systems. (author) 13 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Multi-element proportional counter for radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.; Rossi, H.H.; Johnson, G.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses design modifications of a multi-element proportional counter. The original counter exhibited poor resolution, as measured by the width of the event-size spectrum for low-energy photons. It was also suspected that the field inside each volume was not sufficiently symmetric. Results of the modifications showed that a dramatic improvement in resolution could be obtained in the chamber with tissue-equivalent septa if their potentials were adjusted to obtain optimal resolution. The full width at half maximum then approached, although it did not equal, that of a standard spherical counter

  6. Computer simulation of gain fluctuations in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Nelgun; Tapan, . Ilhan

    2004-01-01

    A computer simulation code has been developed in order to examine the fluctuation in gas amplification in wire proportional counters which are common in detector applications in particle physics experiments. The magnitude of the variance in the gain dominates the statistical portion of the energy resolution. In order to compare simulation and experimental results, the gain and its variation has been calculated numerically for the well known Aleph Inner Tracking Detector geometry. The results show that the bias voltage has a strong influence on the variance in the gain. The simulation calculations are in good agreement with experimental results. (authors)

  7. Proportional counter with uniform electric field with Penning's mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Marzec, J.; Zaremba, K.

    1984-01-01

    Some calculations are given and the design of proportional counters with a homogeneous electric field filled with Penning's mixtures, which ensure the best energy resolution is described. The counters with mixtures of Ne+Ar, Ne+CH 4 , Ne+CO 2 and Ar+C 2 H 2 have been checked. The admixtures (Ar, CH 4 , CO 2 , C 2 H 2 ) constitute from 0.1 to 2%, with pressure from 125 Tr to 760 Torr. The best energy resolution has been obtained for the mixture of Ne+1%CH 4 at the pressure of 190 Torr

  8. Energy resolution limitations in a gas scintillation proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.G.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Peacock, A.; Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is made of the factors limiting the energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC). Several of these limitations originate in the drift region of such a counter and data is presented, giving a quantitative description of those effects. Data is also presented of a GSPC without a drift region, that therefore largely circumvents most of those degrading factors. The results obtained so far indicate that in that detector the limitation to the resolution is most probably due to cleanliness of the gas. Further research is underway in order to assess quantitatively the limiting factors in such a driftless GSPC

  9. Golden Proportion in Frontal Social Smile from Orthodontic Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Tabatabaei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical attraction has a significant effect on all aspects of personal life, and in this category facial appearance is the most important part of the body in prediction of attractiveness. In the face, mouth and specially shape and size of anterior teeth is important to gain dental and facial esthetic. The aim of this study is evaluation of golden proportion from orthodontic view in maxillary anterior teeth in both sexes. Methods: Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected, and photographs of their frontal social smile were taken by a standard method from 30cm distance. Then visible part of central, lateral and canine teeth was measured by Photoshop software (Adobe Photoshop ver8 with 0.1mm precision. Data was evaluated by descriptive statistical analysis and sample T-test using SPSS. Results: According to descriptive statistical analysis and sample T- test, mean ratio of central to lateral teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.209±0.199 and 1.157±0.156 and in the right side in men and women was 1.179± 0.27 and 1.158± 0.145, respectively. The ratio of lateral to canine teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.522±0.146 and 1.494±0.127 and in the right side in men and women was 1.55±0.164 and 1.51±0.114, respectively. Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral teeth in 16% in the right side and 3.4% in the left side only in men. Conclusion: Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral in the left side and right side in men, but due to large canine in men, this proportion was not seen between lateral and canine teeth and so due to small lateral in women, it was not seen between anterior teeth.

  10. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  11. On timing properties of the SRPO-304 proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.A.; Pugacheva, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    Data of measurements of the signal delay time and the time of development of the discharge in a proportional counter filled with 90% Xe + 10% CH 4 mixture at 0.3 atm are presented. The measurements were carried out on muons of cosmic rays. Signal delay distribution for the proportional counter are given relative to the time of passage through it of a charged particle. The data obtained shows that the average delay time is 0.8 μs when a particle passes near the counter centre, whereas when it passes near its side wall the average delay time is 1.5 μs. The investigation of the discharge development time distribution was carried out for two values of the discriminator threshold: 6 and 20 keV. It was determined that the discharge development time distribution depends but little on the place of particle passage in a counter. The average discharge development time is 1.5 μs, with the maximum time beina 4.3 μs. It is shown that the resolution time of logical circuits will be near 4 μs when the counter is combined with scintillation detectors

  12. Operability test procedure for 211BA flow proportional sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this operability test procedure (OTP) is to verify the 211-BA flow proportional sampler system and components function correctly as intended by design. System test will include the sampling system, all associated instrumentation, and Facility Process Monitor and Control System (FPMCS). The combined chemical sewer stream from B Plant flows through sump 211BA-SMP-01 located in 211-BA and is continuously monitored for gamma and beta radiation and pH. 211-BA has been upgraded to include a flow proportional sampler. A specified sample volume will be withdrawn at programmed intervals from the 211BA sump and deposited in a 19 liter plastic carboy. The sampler will be programmed per the vendor installation and operations manual by B Plant instrument maintenance personnel. Samples will be taken during five consecutive sample cycles with the sample volumes and sample frequencies recorded for comparison purposes. Additional tests related to the sampler include the alarm circuitry for loss of power and failure to obtain sample

  13. The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warton, David I; Hui, Francis K C

    2011-01-01

    The arcsine square root transformation has long been standard procedure when analyzing proportional data in ecology, with applications in data sets containing binomial and non-binomial response variables. Here, we argue that the arcsine transform should not be used in either circumstance. For binomial data, logistic regression has greater interpretability and higher power than analyses of transformed data. However, it is important to check the data for additional unexplained variation, i.e., overdispersion, and to account for it via the inclusion of random effects in the model if found. For non-binomial data, the arcsine transform is undesirable on the grounds of interpretability, and because it can produce nonsensical predictions. The logit transformation is proposed as an alternative approach to address these issues. Examples are presented in both cases to illustrate these advantages, comparing various methods of analyzing proportions including untransformed, arcsine- and logit-transformed linear models and logistic regression (with or without random effects). Simulations demonstrate that logistic regression usually provides a gain in power over other methods.

  14. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Schwarz

    Full Text Available Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones. The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may

  15. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  16. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohan, T. E.; Heo, M.; Kamensky, V.; Kabat, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14-2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50-2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45-2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46-2.65), and waist-: hip ratio (1.91, 1.41-2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  17. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  18. Intestinal absorption of dietary fat from a liquid diet perfused in rats at a submaximum level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simko, V.; Kelley, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The small intestine of rats was perfused in vivo for 2 h with a nutritionally complete liquid diet (68% calories from fat as corn oil). As the perfusion increased from 106 mg/2 h, the intestinal disappearance of the 14 C-triolein marker remained proportional to the load up to 2359 mg fat/2 h. Despite a decrease in absorption from 70 to 17%, this represents a very large fat intake. Fat absorption improved when medium-chain triglycerides or octanoic acid replaced corn oil (both p less than 0.01). Linoleic acid was absorbed from the diet less than corn oil (p less than 0.01). Dry ox bile reduced fat absorption (p less than 0.05); lipase and an antacid had no effect. Corn oil perfused alone was absorbed better than from the diet (p less than 0.01). Data with 14 C-triolein was confirmed by dry-weight disappearance of the diet and by net intestinal water balance. Usual feeding underutilizes a large reserve for fat absorption. This reserve should be considered in therapeutic nutrition

  19. PERFORMANCE OF FAT-TAILED RAMS FED COMPLETE FEED BASED OIL PALM FRONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamidah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of fat-tailed rams fed complete feedbased oil palm fronds (OPF. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRDwith 5 treatments and 4 replications i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of OPF substituting fields grass incomplete feed for A, B, C, D and E treatments, respectively. Twenty fat-tailed rams were fed twice at08.00 and 14.00 with pellet of complete feed for 4 months. The result of this experiment showed thatOPF significantly influenced nutrient consumption, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency ratio(FER. Oil palm fronds significantly affected (P<0.05 fat-tailed rams’s dry matter intake (DMI, organicmatter intake (OMI, crude protein intake (CPI, ADG and FER. The highest DMI, OMI, CPI, ADG, andFER of fat-tailed rams was in C treatment and significantly different from the others. It was concludedthat C treatment was the best treatment which can give the best fat-tailed rams performance. The OPFcan be used to replace the field grass as feed up to 75% proportion in complete feed and could increasethe performance and productivity of fat-tailed rams.

  20. PERFORMANCE OF FAT-TAILED RAMS FED COMPLETE FEED BASED OIL PALM FRONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamidah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of fat-tailed rams fed complete feed based oil palm fronds (OPF. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 treatments and 4 replications i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of OPF substituting fields grass in complete feed for A, B, C, D and E treatments, respectively. Twenty fat-tailed rams were fed twice at 08.00 and 14.00 with pellet of complete feed for 4 months. The result of this experiment showed that OPF significantly influenced nutrient consumption, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency ratio (FER. Oil palm fronds significantly affected (P<0.05 fat-tailed rams’s dry matter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, crude protein intake (CPI, ADG and FER. The highest DMI, OMI, CPI, ADG, and FER of fat-tailed rams was in C treatment and significantly different from the others. It was concluded that C treatment was the best treatment which can give the best fat-tailed rams performance. The OPF can be used to replace the field grass as feed up to 75% proportion in complete feed and could increase the performance and productivity of fat-tailed rams.

  1. Isocaloric intake of a high-fat diet modifies adiposity and lipid handling in a sex dependent manner in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lladó Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences. Aim To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling. Methods Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot. Results The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.

  2. Ethnic variability in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years: is ethnic-specific calibration of bioelectrical impedance required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lee

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration.In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698. Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution.In children < 11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance+0.18*weight.Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

  3. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  4. Coenzyme Q Metabolism Is Disturbed in High Fat Diet-Induced Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Botham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributory factor in the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, the most common liver disorder worldwide. In this study, the effects of high fat diet-induced NAFLD on Coenzyme Q (CoQ metabolism and plasma oxidative stress markers in rats were investigated. Rats were fed a standard low fat diet (control or a high fat diet (57% metabolizable energy as fat for 18 weeks. The concentrations of total (reduced + oxidized CoQ9 were increased by > 2 fold in the plasma of animals fed the high fat diet, while those of total CoQ10 were unchanged. Reduced CoQ levels were raised, but oxidized CoQ levels were not, thus the proportion in the reduced form was increased by about 75%. A higher percentage of plasma CoQ9 as compared to CoQ10 was in the reduced form in both control and high fat fed rats. Plasma protein thiol (SH levels were decreased in the high fat-fed rats as compared to the control group, but concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated dienes were unchanged. These results indicate that high fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats is associated with altered CoQ metabolism and increased protein, but not lipid, oxidative stress.

  5. Gluteal fat thickness in pelvic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Jung, Se Young; Lee, Jae Mun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Many calcifications due to fat necrosis in the buttocks detected on the pelvis roentgenograms suggest that the majority of injections intended to be intramuscular actually are delivered into fat. We measured thickness of adult gluteal fat to decide whether the injection using needle of usual length is done into fat or muscle. We measured the vertical thickness of the subcutaneous fat at a point of 2-3cm above the femoral head cut slice with randomly collected 116 cases of adults in the department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. We found that 32% female cases might actually receive on intra adipose injection when a needle of maximum 3.8cm length is inserted into the buttock. If deposition into muscle is desirable, we need to choose needle whose length is appropriate for the site of injection and the patient's deposits of fat.

  6. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  7. Performance of fine grained photon position detector using proportional tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gordeev, A.; Gorodkov, Y.; Kamishkov, Y.; Lubimov, V.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Shevchenko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Bamberger, A.; Fuchs, M.; Giesen, G.; Heck, W.; Ludwig, J.; Marx, R.; Mocken, T.; Runge, K.; Skodzek, E.; Weber, H.C.; Weltin, A.; Wuelker, M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NA24 experiment at the CERN-SPS a photon position detector serves to separate direct photons from abundantly produced π 0 decay photons: electromagnetic showers are measured with an energy- and position-resolution sufficiently good to give a two-gamma resolving power of 1.2 cm. The shower detector covers 3 x 3 m 2 and consists of 12 layers of triangular proportional tubes (7.73 mm pitch) sandwiched with lead (altogether 9.6 X 0 ). For eight layers the analog information is provided by an ADC system. Ambiguities are resolved by the digital information of four additional layers inclined by 45 0 . Prototypes were built in order to test gas mixtures and electronics. The electromagnetic shower development in the PPD and the prototypes are reproduced by Monte Carlo calculations. The homogeneity of the PPD has been checked by calibration measurements. (orig.)

  8. Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)

  9. Design of nuclear pulse shaped circuit based on proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qianqian; Cheng Yi; Tuo Xianguo

    2011-01-01

    Use the self-developed proportional to sample gas tritium in environment and make the measurement. For this detector, a kind of pulse shape circuit based on second order active low pass filtering circuit realized filtering and shaping nuclear pulse by high-speed operational amplifier, with less stages that has been approved for filter Gaussian wave. Use Multisim 10.0 to simulate the different parameters of the filter circuit. The simulation result was consistent with the theoretical results. The experiments proved the feasibility of this circuit, and at the same time provided a convenient and reliable method for analysis and optimization of the nuclear pulse waveform in order for discriminating by MCA. (authors)

  10. Nitrogen large area proportional counter with gas regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidner, L.; Sadri, E.

    1984-10-01

    A nitrogen large area proportional chamber with gas regeneration is introduced to measure alpha and beta/gamma activites. In contrast to the flow counters used till now the new detector is independent of an external gas supply. The gas amplification factor of nitrogen keeps constant up to an impurity of 2% of O 2 . Oxygen diffusing through unavoidable leakages into the counting gas is removed by an activated catalyzer using low temperature copper oxidation. Humidty is adsorbed by a molecular sieve. The closed counter consists of three components: the actual detector, a gas purification cartridge and a gas circulating pump. Finally, the report describes long run experiments being carried out with prototypes. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Functional form diagnostics for Cox's proportional hazards model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Larry F; Tsai, Chih-Ling

    2004-03-01

    We propose a new type of residual and an easily computed functional form test for the Cox proportional hazards model. The proposed test is a modification of the omnibus test for testing the overall fit of a parametric regression model, developed by Stute, González Manteiga, and Presedo Quindimil (1998, Journal of the American Statistical Association93, 141-149), and is based on what we call censoring consistent residuals. In addition, we develop residual plots that can be used to identify the correct functional forms of covariates. We compare our test with the functional form test of Lin, Wei, and Ying (1993, Biometrika80, 557-572) in a simulation study. The practical application of the proposed residuals and functional form test is illustrated using both a simulated data set and a real data set.

  12. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Maldonado, Emilio Raymundo; Casanova-Lugo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion and their response in plant were reviewed. Agricultural wastes are considered a pollutant reservoir in Mexico; however, for another perspective this represent an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. The production of compost and vermicompost is an option that minimize the risk of contamination and improve quality. Both processes are an alternative for organic production. The efficiency of irrigation and fertilization are affected for the reducing the volumen of an organic material incresase compaction and compression of roots. The mixtures with inorganic materials are used in the development of a new material to obtain better growing conditions for the plant. (author) [es

  13. Imaging performance of a multiwire proportional-chamber positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mandez, V.; Del Guerra, A.; Nelson, W.R.; Tam, K.C.

    1982-08-01

    A new design - fully three-dimensional - Positron Camera is presented, made of six MultiWire Proportional Chamber modules arranged to form the lateral surface of a hexagonal prism. A true coincidence rate of 56000 c/s is expected with an equal accidental rate for a 400 μCi activity uniformly distributed in a approx. 3 l water phantom. A detailed Monte Carlo program has been used to investigate the dependence of the spatial resolution on the geometrical and physical parameters. A spatial resolution of 4.8 mm FWHM has been obtained for a 18 F point-like source in a 10 cm radius water phantom. The main properties of the limited angle reconstruction algorithms are described in relation to the proposed detector geometry

  14. The suppression of destructive sparks in parallel plate proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, R.A.; Mason, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The authors find that high energy background events produce localised sparks in parallel plate counters when operated in the proportional mode. These sparks increase dead-time and lead to degradation ranging from electrode damage to spurious pulsing and continuous breakdown. The problem is particularly serious in low energy photon detectors for X-ray astronomy which are required to have lifetimes of several years in the high radiation environment of space. For the parallel plate imaging detector developed for the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) they investigate quantitatively the spark thresholds, spark rates and degradation processes. They discuss the spark mechanism, pointing out differences from the situation in spark chambers and counters. They show that the time profile of the sparks allows them to devise a spark suppression system which reduces the degradation rate by a factor of ''200.

  15. Design of pneumatic proportional flow valve type 5/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, P. A.; Pietrala, D. S.; Zwierzchowski, J.; Czarnogorski, K.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the 5/3-way pneumatic, proportional flow valve was designed and made. Stepper linear actuator was used to move the spool. The valve is controlled by the controlled based on a AVR microcontroller. Virtual model of the valve was created in CAD. The real element was made based on a standard 5/3-way manually actuated valve with hand lever, which was dismounted and replaced by linear stepper motor. All the elements was mounted in a specially made housing. The controller consists of microcontroller Atmega16, integrated circuit L293D, display, two potentiometers, three LEDs and six buttons. Series of research was also conducted. Simulation research were performed using CFD by the Flow Simulation addition to SolidWorks. During the experiments the valve characteristics of flow and pressure was determined.

  16. A Bayesian equivalency test for two independent binomial proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yohei; Shimokawa, Asanao; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyaoka, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    In clinical trials, it is often necessary to perform an equivalence study. The equivalence study requires actively denoting equivalence between two different drugs or treatments. Since it is not possible to assert equivalence that is not rejected by a superiority test, statistical methods known as equivalency tests have been suggested. These methods for equivalency tests are based on the frequency framework; however, there are few such methods in the Bayesian framework. Hence, this article proposes a new index that suggests the equivalency of binomial proportions, which is constructed based on the Bayesian framework. In this study, we provide two methods for calculating the index and compare the probabilities that have been calculated by these two calculation methods. Moreover, we apply this index to the results of actual clinical trials to demonstrate the utility of the index.

  17. Application of multiwire proportional chamber in BEPC test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Chen Ziyu; Ye Yunxiu; Cuiu Xiangzong; Li Jiacai

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) for the Test Beam on BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Colider). The distance between the anode surface and the cathode surface of the MWPC is 6 mm. Both surfaces are made of gold-plated tungsten wires, the anode wires are 20 μm in diameter and 2 mm apart, and the cathode wires are 50 μm indiameter and 0.7 mm apart. Six adjacent wires are connected together to form a 4.2 mm wide cathode strip. The MWPC can localize the particles of e, π by cathode-induced charge centre-of-gravity read-out. For 5.9 keV γ photon, the positional resolution is less than 0.3 mm (FWHM) and for 1.1 GeV beam electron, 0.224 mm (FWHM) positional resolution is attained. (authors)

  18. Use of proportional tubes in a muon polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, C.J.; Eckhause, M.; Ginkel, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype muon polarimeter was built to study the feasibility of measuring the positive muon polarization in the decay K/sub L/ → μ + μ/sup /minus//. The system consisted of alternating layers of extruded aluminum gas proportional tubes and polarization-retaining absorber plates of either aluminum or marble. Longitudinally polarized positive muons from the Stopped Muon Channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) were stopped in the absorber plates where they precessed in a field of 60 gauss. Decay times were recorded in 100 ns first-in-first-out memories for all wires hit during a 12.8 μs period centered about the muon stop trigger. The performance of the system was studied for different beam rates and absorber thicknesses. The value of imposing time and spacial cuts on track data to enhance the precession signal was also investigated. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Optimization of maintenance policy using the proportional hazard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samrout, M. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: mohamad.el_samrout@utt.fr; Chatelet, E. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: chatelt@utt.fr; Kouta, R. [M3M Laboratory, University of Technology of Belfort Montbeliard (France); Chebbo, N. [Industrial Systems Laboratory, IUT, Lebanese University (Lebanon)

    2009-01-15

    The evolution of system reliability depends on its structure as well as on the evolution of its components reliability. The latter is a function of component age during a system's operating life. Component aging is strongly affected by maintenance activities performed on the system. In this work, we consider two categories of maintenance activities: corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). Maintenance actions are characterized by their ability to reduce this age. PM consists of actions applied on components while they are operating, whereas CM actions occur when the component breaks down. In this paper, we expound a new method to integrate the effect of CM while planning for the PM policy. The proportional hazard function was used as a modeling tool for that purpose. Interesting results were obtained when comparison between policies that take into consideration the CM effect and those that do not is established.

  20. A Praxeological Study of Proportionality in Mathematics Lower Secondary Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    Research on the uses and contents of mathematics textbooks has expanded over the past decades, due to the central role textbooks occupy in mathematics teaching worldwide. However, the methodology of analysing the texts themselves often appears underdeveloped or even naïve, especially when it comes...... to specific mathematical content. The central idea of this thesis is to deploy the anthropological theory of the didactic, and especially the notion of praxeology, to analyse how textbooks treat three specific and related areas (or more precisely, sectors) of mathematical contents for lower secondary school......, namely "proportion and ratio" (in Arithmetic), "similar plane figures" (in Geometry), and "linear functions" (in Algebra). This leads to a new and very precise methodological tool for analysing the practices (types of tasks, techniques) supported by the textbooks through examples, explanations...

  1. Pressure control of hydraulic servo system using proportional control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyong Uk; Oh, In Ho; Lee, Ill Yeong

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a control scheme for the hydraulic servo system which can rapidly control the pressure in a hydraulic cylinder with very short stroke. Compared with the negligible stroke of the cylinder in the system, the flow gain of the proportional pressure control valve constituting the hydraulic servo system is relatively large and the time delay on the response of the valve is quite long. Therefore, the pressure control system, in this study tends to get unstable during operations. Considering the above mentioned characteristics of the system, a two-degree-of-freedom control scheme, composed of the I-PDD 2 ... feedback compensator and the feedforward controller, is proposed. The reference model scheme is used in deciding the parameters of the controllers. The validity of the proposed control scheme is confirmed through the experiments

  2. Optimization of simultaneous tritium–radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta decay interference.

  3. Industrial defectoscope based on multiwire proportional chamber in CAMAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzeski, P.; Kazubek, M.; Mirkowski, J.; Szabatin, R.

    1976-01-01

    The defectoscope for non-destructive testing has been built at the Institute of Radioelectronics in collaboration with the Electrotechnical Institute, Non-destructive Division. The defectoscope consists of the following parts: gamma radiation detector, multiwire proportional chamber with γ-e converter, preamplifier system attached directly to the chamber wires, logic module of CAMAC philoscopy, and MERA 300 minicomputer. The defectoscope is used to detect material flaws in tested objects, irradiated from an internal radiation source. Minicomputer used enables data processing. The data collected in mincomputer memory are the radiological image of a tested object. It is possible to display the collected image on a television monitor, to display any profile of the image on an oscilloscope, to print the map of the image on a mosaic printer. (author)

  4. A Modified Proportional Navigation Guidance for Accurate Target Hitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moharampour

    2010-03-01

    First, the pure proportional navigation guidance (PPNG in 3-dimensional state is explained in a new point of view. The main idea is based on the distinction between angular rate vector and rotation vector conceptions. The current innovation is based on selection of line of sight (LOS coordinates. A comparison between two available choices for LOS coordinates system is proposed. An improvement is made by adding two additional terms. First term includes a cross range compensator which is used to provide and enhance path observability, and obtain convergent estimates of state variables. The second term is new concept lead bias term, which has been calculated by assuming an equivalent acceleration along the target longitudinal axis. Simulation results indicate that the lead bias term properly provides terminal conditions for accurate target interception.

  5. Effect of short-term carbohydrate overfeeding and long-term weight loss on liver fat in overweight humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastianova, Ksenia; Santos, Alexandre; Kotronen, Anna; Hakkarainen, Antti; Makkonen, Janne; Silander, Kaisa; Peltonen, Markku; Romeo, Stefano; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Fielding, Barbara A; Rissanen, Aila; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2012-10-01

    Cross-sectional studies have identified a high intake of simple sugars as an important dietary factor predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined whether overfeeding overweight subjects with simple sugars increases liver fat and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and whether this is reversible by weight loss. Sixteen subjects [BMI (kg/m²): 30.6 ± 1.2] were placed on a hypercaloric diet (>1000 kcal simple carbohydrates/d) for 3 wk and, thereafter, on a hypocaloric diet for 6 mo. The subjects were genotyped for rs739409 in the PNPLA3 gene. Before and after overfeeding and after hypocaloric diet, metabolic variables and liver fat (measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were measured. The ratio of palmitate (16:0) to linoleate (18:2n-6) in serum and VLDL triglycerides was used as an index of DNL. Carbohydrate overfeeding increased weight (±SEM) by 2% (1.8 ± 0.3 kg; P fat by 27% from 9.2 ± 1.9% to 11.7 ± 1.9% (P = 0.005). DNL increased in proportion to the increase in liver fat and serum triglycerides in subjects with PNPLA3-148IIbut not PNPLA3-148MM. During the hypocaloric diet, the subjects lost 4% of their weight (3.2 ± 0.6 kg; P fat content (from 11.7 ± 1.9% to 8.8 ± 1.8%; P Carbohydrate overfeeding for 3 wk induced a >10-fold greater relative change in liver fat (27%) than in body weight (2%). The increase in liver fat was proportional to that in DNL. Weight loss restores liver fat to normal. These data indicate that the human fatty liver avidly accumulates fat during carbohydrate overfeeding and support a role for DNL in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. This trial was registered at www.hus.fi as 235780.

  6. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  7. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Maureen J.

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. Here I review the possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMA...

  8. Estimation of the false discovery proportion with unknown dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale multiple testing with correlated test statistics arises frequently in many scientific research. Incorporating correlation information in approximating false discovery proportion has attracted increasing attention in recent years. When the covariance matrix of test statistics is known, Fan, Han & Gu (2012) provided an accurate approximation of False Discovery Proportion (FDP) under arbitrary dependence structure and some sparsity assumption. However, the covariance matrix is often unknown in many applications and such dependence information has to be estimated before approximating FDP. The estimation accuracy can greatly affect FDP approximation. In the current paper, we aim to theoretically study the impact of unknown dependence on the testing procedure and establish a general framework such that FDP can be well approximated. The impacts of unknown dependence on approximating FDP are in the following two major aspects: through estimating eigenvalues/eigenvectors and through estimating marginal variances. To address the challenges in these two aspects, we firstly develop general requirements on estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a good approximation of FDP. We then give conditions on the structures of covariance matrices that satisfy such requirements. Such dependence structures include banded/sparse covariance matrices and (conditional) sparse precision matrices. Within this framework, we also consider a special example to illustrate our method where data are sampled from an approximate factor model, which encompasses most practical situations. We provide a good approximation of FDP via exploiting this specific dependence structure. The results are further generalized to the situation where the multivariate normality assumption is relaxed. Our results are demonstrated by simulation studies and some real data applications.

  9. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, R.; Innone, A.; Catalano, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots

  10. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirante, R.; Catalano, L.A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Innone, A. [Universita degli Studi di Foggia, via Napoli, 25 Foggia (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots. (author)

  11. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  12. Take a look at the bright side: Effects of positive body exposure on selective visual attention in women with high body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashouwer, Klaske A; Jonker, Nienke C; Thomassen, Karen; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Women with high body dissatisfaction look less at their 'beautiful' body parts than their 'ugly' body parts. This study tested the robustness of this selective viewing pattern and examined the influence of positive body exposure on body-dissatisfied women's attention for 'ugly' and 'beautiful' body parts. In women with high body dissatisfaction (N = 28) and women with low body dissatisfaction (N = 14) eye-tracking was used to assess visual attention towards pictures of their own and other women's bodies. Participants with high body dissatisfaction were randomly assigned to 5 weeks positive body exposure (n = 15) or a no-treatment condition (n = 13). Attention bias was assessed again after 5 weeks. Body-dissatisfied women looked longer at 'ugly' than 'beautiful' body parts of themselves and others, while participants with low body dissatisfaction attended equally long to own/others' 'beautiful' and 'ugly' body parts. Although positive body exposure was very effective in improving participants' body satisfaction, it did not systematically change participants' viewing pattern. The tendency to preferentially allocate attention towards one's 'ugly' body parts seems a robust phenomenon in women with body dissatisfaction. Yet, modifying this selective viewing pattern seems not a prerequisite for successfully improving body satisfaction via positive body exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Body fat assessed from body density and estimated from skinfold thickness in normal children and children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J L; Leong, M S; Checkland, E G; Zuberbuhler, P C; Conger, P R; Quinney, H A

    1988-12-01

    Body density and skinfold thickness at four sites were measured in 140 normal boys, 168 normal girls, and 6 boys and 7 girls with cystic fibrosis, all aged 8-14 y. Prediction equations for the normal boys and girls for the estimation of body-fat content from skinfold measurements were derived from linear regression of body density vs the log of the sum of the skinfold thickness. The relationship between body density and the log of the sum of the skinfold measurements differed from normal for the boys and girls with cystic fibrosis because of their high body density even though their large residual volume was corrected for. However the sum of skinfold measurements in the children with cystic fibrosis did not differ from normal. Thus body fat percent of these children with cystic fibrosis was underestimated when calculated from body density and invalid when calculated from skinfold thickness.

  14. Association of Dietary Proportions of Macronutrients with Visceral Adiposity Index: Non-Substitution and Iso-Energetic Substitution Models in a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Nazanin; Ehsani, Behnaz; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hojjat, Parvane; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-10-26

    We aimed to investigate associations between dietary macronutrient proportions and prospective visceral adiposity index changes (ΔVAI). The study included 1254 adults (18-74 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), who were followed for three years. Dietary intakes were assessed twice using food frequency questionnaires. Associations of dietary macronutrient with ΔVAI and risk of visceral adiposity dysfunction (VAD) after three years were investigated. The percentage of energy intake from protein in the total population, and from fat in women, were associated with higher increases in VAI. A 5% higher energy intake from protein substituted for carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher ΔVAI. Higher energy intake from animal protein substituted for PUFAs was positively associated with ΔVAI. Substituting protein and PUFAs with MUFAs were related to higher ΔVAI. The associations were similar in men and women, but reached significance mostly among women. Risk of VAD was increased when 1% of energy from protein was replaced with MUFAs. Substituting protein for carbohydrate and fat, and fat for carbohydrate, resulted in increased risk of VAD in women. Higher dietary proportions of protein and animal-derived MUFA may be positively associated with ΔVAI and risk of VAD.

  15. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM...

  16. The effect of flooding on soil proportion and plant growth. 2. Its effect on the changes in soil proportion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to study changes in soil proportion as affected by flooding. Barley plants were used as indicators. Black polyethylene columns were used as plant containers, and were filled with sandy loam Begbroke soil. Several parameters were used in the experiment, namely concentrations of oxygen carbon dioxide, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, and organic acids. Oxygen concentration dropped to about 2% one day after flooding, while the concentration of carbon dioxide, ethylene and organic acids turned out to be slowly increased with the extension of flooding time. No hydrogen sulfide was detectable as affected by various flooding periods. Different concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ethylene were observed between the top and the lower layers of soil. (author)

  17. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-effect evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wechem, S.N. van; Brug, J.; Assema, P. van; Kistemaker, C.; Riedstra, M.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the nationwide Fat Watch campaign aiming at a reduction in fat consumption was organized from 1991 onwards. This study describes the effects of the first three consecutive campaign years on attention to fat, diet and health, attitudes, self-efficacy expectations and intentions

  18. Clinical pharmacokinetics of Icotinib, an anti-cancer drug: evaluation of dose proportionality, food effect, and tolerability in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyang; Jiang, Ji; Zhang, Li; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yingxiang; Zhang, Don; Hu, Pei

    2014-04-01

    Icotinib, an oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has proved effectiveness in xenografted nude mice. Purpose of the present studies was to investigate tolerability and pharmacokinetics of Icotinib in healthy subjects for the first time, including dose proportionality, food effect, and tolerability. Two studies were conducted in total of 22 healthy subjects: a randomized, two-Latin-square crossover, dose proportional study (n = 12) and a randomized two-way crossover food-effect study (n = 10). Plasma concentration of Icotinib reached peak at a median Tmax of 0.75-3.5 h after single dose and then declined with a mean t1/2β of 6.02-7.83 h. Over the dose range of 100-600 mg, AUC values were proportional to dose and Cmax showed a slight saturation when dose increases. Only 0.2 % of the dose was excreted through kidney in unchanged Icotinib. After dosing 400 mg of Icotinib with high-fat and high-calorie meal, mean Cmax and AUC were significantly increased by 59 and 79 %, respectively. Three subjects experienced four adverse events (rash, increase in AST and ALT, and external injury). Rash and increased levels of AST and ALT were considered as drug-related. No serious adverse events were reported. The current work demonstrated that Icotinib was well tolerated in healthy male subjects (n = 22) over the dose range of 100-600 mg with or without food. Icotinib exposure, expressed in AUC, was proportionally increased with dose over the above dose range. Food intake significantly increased the absorption and exposure of Icotinib in healthy subjects.

  19. Culture, health, and bigotry: How exposure to cultural accounts of fatness shape attitudes about health risk, health policies, and weight-based prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Saguy, Abigail C; Gruys, Kjerstin

    2016-09-01

    We conducted three experiments to examine how cultural frames shape attitudes about health, focusing on obesity, which is considered a public health crisis and is imbued with symbolic meaning. College students (Ns = 99, 114, and 293) read news articles that presented high body weight according to one or more of the following frames: 1) public health crisis; 2) personal responsibility; 3) health at every size (HAES); or 4) fat rights. Compared to people who read the HAES and Fat Rights articles, those who read the Public Health Crisis and Personal Responsibility articles expressed more belief in the health risks of being fat (ds = 1.28 to 1.79), belief that fat people should pay more for insurance (ds = 0.53 to 0.71), anti-fat prejudice (ds = 0.61 to 0.69), willingness to discriminate against fat people (ds = 0.41 to 0.59), and less willingness to celebrate body-size diversity (ds = 0.77 to 1.07). They were less willing to say women at the lower end of the obese range could be healthy. Exposure to these articles increased support for price-raising policies to curb obesity but not support for redistributive or compensatory policies. In Experiment 3, in comparison to a control condition, exposure to HAES or Fat Rights frames significantly reduced beliefs in the risks of obesity and support for charging fat people more for insurance. However, only people exposed to the Fat Rights frame expressed fewer anti-fat attitudes and more willingness to celebrate body-size diversity. Our findings suggest that simply disseminating information that people can be both fat and healthy will not suffice to reduce prejudice. Given that anti-fat stigma is a health risk and barrier to collective solidarity, fat rights viewpoints can buffer against the negative consequences of anti-fat stigma and promote a culture of health by fostering empathy and social justice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.O.; Salazar, G.; Uauy, R.

    1999-01-01

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  1. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, E O; Salazar, G; Uauy, R [Energy and Metabolism and Stable Isotopes Laboratory, Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de los Alimentos (INTA), Santiago (Chile)

    1999-07-01

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  2. Multiwire proportional chamber with a supporting line on anode wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorov, V.A.; Golovkin, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental investigations on a supporting line (wire) used in large-sized proportional chambers to compensate for electrostatic forces. The length of anode wires (gilded tungsten of 0.02 mm in diameter) in the chamber constituted 600 mm, the pitch 2 mm, the total number of channels 192. High-voltage electrodes are made of Cu-Be wire of 0.1 mm in diameter, the pitch is 2 mm. The gap between anode and cathode plates is 6 mm. The supporting line is an enamelled nichrome wire of 0.2 mm in diameter enclosed in an additional fluoroplastic insulation. The outside diameter was equal to 0.4 mm. The supporting line was placed through the centre of the chamber at right angles and immediately adjacent to anode wires with the tension of 2000 g. A negative compensating potential was applied to it. The controllable parameter was the chamber efficiency at variable paAameters: (1) an operating voltage in the chamber; (2) Vsub(c) - a compensating potential of the supporting line, and (3) a beam axis relative coordinate. The performed investigations showed that the supporting line of this type is simple and reliable in operation (electric breakdown occurs at Vsub(c) > 3.5 kV). The noneffective zone in the supporting region can be reduced to approximately 2.4 mm which constitutes approximately 0.3% of the chamber total sensitive region

  3. Low energy recoil detection with a spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Katsioulas, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Giomataris, I.; Papaevangellou, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present results for the detection of low energy nuclear recoils in the keV energy region, from measurements performed with the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC). An 241Am-9Be fast neutron source is used in order to obtain neutron-nucleus elastic scattering events inside the gaseous volume of the detector. The detector performance in the keV energy region was measured by observing the 5.9 keV line of a 55Fe X-ray source, with energy resolution of 10% (σ). The toolkit GEANT4 was used to simulate the irradiation of the detector by an 241Am-9Be source, while SRIM was used to calculate the Ionization Quenching Factor (IQF), the simulation results are compared with the measurements. The potential of the SPC in low energy recoil detection makes the detector a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including Supernova or reactor neutrino detection and Dark Matter (WIMP) searches (via coherent elastic scattering).

  4. Medical applications of multi-wire proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, D.H.

    1976-05-01

    The adaption of Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) for medical applications has necessitated bi-dimensional readout. This is achieved by analysing signals induced onto the cathode planes. At a useful X-ray energy of 40 to 45 keV, just above the K absorption edge in Xenon, the efficiency and resolution are both optimized. Poor resolution events due to K shell fluorescent capture and Auger emission, or L shell photo-electron emission, may be rejected by using energy discrimination - resulting in approximately halving the efficiency to 8% for a 1.6 cm thick atmospheric pressure chamber, but with sub millimeter inherent resolution. This is still far inferior to film resolution, but the MWPC is useful when numbers are required for computation or retrieval. Short descriptions of the MWPC applications to bone density measurements and tomography are given. Its use when pressurized as a gamma camera is discussed, and it is concluded that it may prove useful as a portable special purpose camera, or as one with a very large area thus compensating for low efficiency. Developments with liquid filled chambers are given and also the promising positron imaging hybrid MWPC. (author)

  5. Flexible proportional-rate scheduling for OFDMA system

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the sum-rate maximization algorithms for downlink and uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems under proportional-rate constraint (PRC) and minimum-rate constraint. We develop a low-complexity weighted channel signal-to-noise ratio (w-SNR)-based ranking scheme for user selection on each subchannel in OFDMA combined with waterfilling (WF) power allocation. Both offline and online optimization algorithms are developed to optimize the SNR weight vector to maximize the sum rate while satisfying several constraints, such as PRC. The offline weight optimization technique relies on the analytical throughput results developed in this paper, and the online weight adaptation method tracks the user rates and meets the PRC using a subgradient search. Furthermore, we introduce a novel SNR operating region test to enhance the multiuser diversity gain and the sum rate. The proposed schemes have a low complexity, which is linear to the numbers of users and subchannels. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the developed analytical rates and fairness formulas, and show that the proposed w-SNR schemes can achieve higher sum rates than several benchmark schemes that provide the PRC with either short-term or long-term fairness. © 2013 IEEE. © 2013 ESO.

  6. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.S.; Ahmadov, Q.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing make possible to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions. Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a digital storage oscilloscope. This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit (256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5 * 10 8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252. To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages.

  7. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics. Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width, and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the virtual dimensions. METHODS: The best scientific evidence was sought in the literature to support the clinical procedures that must guide the professional to obtain maximum esthetic quality on their treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate what the other specialties in Dentistry expect from Orthodontics and, specially, what they have to offer. Clinical cases will be used to illustrate the dental movement that might maximize treatment outcome and to confront the ideal standards with the current state of the art. CONCLUSION: Treatment quality is directly related to the amount of procedures implemented by the orthodontist, associated with concepts and resources from Periodontics and Dental Prosthesis. Microesthetics cannot be seen in isolation, but rather as the key to establish a pleasant smile (miniesthetics in addition to a harmonious face (macroesthetics and a human being with high self-esteem (hyper-esthetics.

  8. Use of the helium-3 proportional counter for neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialettes, H.; Le Thanh, P.

    1967-01-01

    Up to now, two methods have been mainly used for neutron spectrometry near nuclear installations: - photographic emulsion spectrometry - the so-called, 'multisphere' technique spectrometry. The first method, which is fairly difficult to apply, has a threshold energy of about 500 keV; this is a big disadvantage for an apparatus which has to be used for spectrometry around nuclear installations where the neutron radiation is very much degraded energetically. The second method does not suffer from this disadvantage but the results which it yields are only approximate. In order to extend the energy range of the neutron spectra studied with sufficient accuracy the use of a helium-3 proportional counter has been considered. This report presents the principles of operation of the helium-3 spectrometer, and the calculation methods which make it possible to take into account the two main effects tending to deform the spectra obtained: - energy absorption by the walls of the counter, - energy loss of the incident neutrons due to elastic collisions with helium-3 nuclei. As an example of the application, the shape of the neutron spectrum emitted by a polonium-lithium source is given; the results obtained are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. (authors) [fr

  9. Conflicts between domestic inequality and global poverty: lexicality versus proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Gibson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current views on global justice often hold that affluent states are under at least two duties: a duty to reduce socioeconomic inequalities at home and a duty to reduce extreme poverty abroad. Potential duty conflicts deriving from resource scarcity can be solved in broadly two principled ways. The ‘lexical’ principle requires all disputed resources to be allocated to the weightiest duty. The ‘proportionality’ principle requires resources to be distributed between the two duties according to their relative weight (the weightiest duty receives the largest resource share, but the less weighty duty receives a share too. I argue that the proportionality principle is morally preferable. I show that it is sensitive to a number of factors that are intuitively relevant when solving duty conflicts: the number of affected individuals, the size of the benefits each individual could get, and the time it could take to eventually comply with the less weighty duty. Some argue that the lexical principle should nevertheless be preferred because domestic egalitarian duties are duties of justice, and they are therefore lexically prior to mere humanitarian duties to reduce global poverty. I reject this view by showing that duties of justice are not necessarily lexically prior to humanitarian duties, and that (even if they were duties to reduce global poverty can be regarded as duties of justice too.

  10. The European ‘Nomofilachia’ and the Principle of Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BARONE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available *The European Court of Justice greatly contributes to the guarantees that Community law will be uniformly interpreted and applied (“nomofilachia” and the rights which individuals derive from the Community legal order will be effectively protected. This essay analyses some aspects of the European Union “nomofilachia”; the research is developed in two steps which are strictly correlated. In the first part, it will be underlined how the uniform interpretation and the uniform application of EC law go beyond the provisions of art. 234 of the EC Treat; and are supported by new kind of relations among the Court of Justice, national courts and national administrations. In the second part of the research, it will be highlighted the impact of the general principles of the European Community legal system, moulded through the “nomofilachia” function of the Luxembourg Court, as regards the activities of national administrations. The analysis gives a particular attention to the evolutionary dynamics of the proportionality principle. All these aspects work in a contemporary context of deep transformation of the traditional relations among law, courts, administrations and citizens. * This essay is the joint work of both authors with Barone primary responsible for paragraph 1,2,3,4,9 and Ansaldi for paragraph 5,6,7,8.

  11. Optimization of simultaneous tritium–radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonicalzi, R.M. [Seattle Central College, 1701 Broadway, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States); Aalseth, C.E.; Day, A.R.; Hoppe, E.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Mace, E.K., E-mail: Emily.Mace@pnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Moran, J.J.; Overman, C.T.; Panisko, M.E.; Seifert, A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference. - Highlights: • Use of a single compound (methane) for dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements. • Optimized analysis window for simultaneous tritium and radiocarbon measurement. • Allows for optimization of tritium counting in the presence of radiocarbon.

  12. Flexible proportional-rate scheduling for OFDMA system

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kim, Dongin; (Sherman) Shen X., Xuemin; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the sum-rate maximization algorithms for downlink and uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems under proportional-rate constraint (PRC) and minimum-rate constraint. We develop a low-complexity weighted channel signal-to-noise ratio (w-SNR)-based ranking scheme for user selection on each subchannel in OFDMA combined with waterfilling (WF) power allocation. Both offline and online optimization algorithms are developed to optimize the SNR weight vector to maximize the sum rate while satisfying several constraints, such as PRC. The offline weight optimization technique relies on the analytical throughput results developed in this paper, and the online weight adaptation method tracks the user rates and meets the PRC using a subgradient search. Furthermore, we introduce a novel SNR operating region test to enhance the multiuser diversity gain and the sum rate. The proposed schemes have a low complexity, which is linear to the numbers of users and subchannels. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the developed analytical rates and fairness formulas, and show that the proposed w-SNR schemes can achieve higher sum rates than several benchmark schemes that provide the PRC with either short-term or long-term fairness. © 2013 IEEE. © 2013 ESO.

  13. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  14. Out of proportion pulmonary hypertension in obstructive lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kshitij; Tarawneh, Ahmad R; Alam, Shoaib

    2018-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is common (25-90%) in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). Severe pulmonary hypertension, however, is quite rare (1-3%). The term 'out of proportion' pulmonary hypertension is still widely used. New guidelines instead propose to use the term 'Severe pulmonary hypertension' if mean pulmonary arterial pressure at least 35 mmHg or cardiac index (CI) is less than 2.0 l/min/m on right heart catheterization (RHC). Why only a minority of COPD patients develop severe pulmonary hypertension is unclear. When present, severe pulmonary hypertension in COPD is associated with increased dyspnea and decreased survival and often does not closely correlate with degree of obstructive abnormality on pulmonary function testing. COPD patients with severe pulmonary hypertension experience circulatory limitation at maximum exercise, and not ventilatory limitation, which is typical for moderate-to-severe COPD patients with no or moderate pulmonary hypertension. There is no conclusive evidence to support or completely reject the possibility of the use of specific pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) therapies in pulmonary hypertension associated with COPD. In mild-to-moderate COPD patients who have severe and progressive symptoms, and have evidence of severe pulmonary hypertension on RHC, specific PAH therapies may be used similar to WHO group-I PAH guidelines.

  15. A fat gluino in disguise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  16. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  17. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  18. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  19. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  20. Dietary fat and obesity : An epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C.

    1998-01-01

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  1. Dietary fat and obesity : an epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  2. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  3. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  4. Large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Walstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    Compression and wire-cutting experiments on dispersions of fully hydrogenated palm oil in sunflower oil with varying fraction solid fat were carried out to establish which parameters are important for the large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks. Compression experiments showed that the

  5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P [Department of Electrical Eng., State University of Santa Catarina, Joinville (Brazil)

    2012-12-20

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  7. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  8. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  10. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, Q.S.; Institute of Radiation Problems, ANAS, Baku

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing allow us to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions.Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors [1] [2]. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a OTSZS-02 (250USB)-4 digital storage oscilloscope from ZAO R UDNEV-SHILYAYEV . This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit(256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5.10''8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252.To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages

  12. Proportion of gynecologic cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supoken, Amornrat; Chaisrisawatsuk, Thitima; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2009-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of cancer and for supportive care of cancer patients must be clearly separated. There is encouraging evidence for CAM in the latter area, such as acupuncture and progressive muscle relaxation for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, and aromatherapy for decreasing anxiety and increasing quality of life. However, there are limited data about CAM used by gynecologic cancer patients, especially in Thai women. Therefore, the authors aimed to investigate the proportion and types of CAM using in our gynecologic cancer patients. This cross-sectional survey was conducted between October to December, 2008. Totals of 50 admitted and 50 walk-in gynecologic cancer patients 1 month after diagnosis, aged more than 20 years and able to give informed consent, were selected for one-by-one interview by random walking survey. Among the 100 interviewed patients, aged 21-69 (mean=50.12), there were 46 cases of cervical cancers, 35 of ovarian cancers, 18 of endometrial cancers (two of these also had ovarian cancers), 2 of malignant gestational trophoblastic diseases, 1 of vulvar cancer, and 1 liver cancer (in a patient with ovarian cancer). Some 67% (95% CI, 57.8-76.2%) of them used CAM. As diet modifications, 11 used Chinese vegetarian, 8 common vegetarian, 5 Cheewajit, and 1 macrobiotics. Five of them used dietary supplements while colonic detoxification was emplyed in three. As herbal medicines, 27 used Thai herbs, 4 Chinese herbs, and 1 a herbal sauna. Twelve were receiving Thai massage. As exercises, 23 used aerobics and 5 stretching. Interestingly, 62 of them used Buddhist praying while only 3 employed native magic. The three most common forms of CAM used by our gynecologic cancer patients were Buddhist praying (62/67, 92.5%), followed by herbal medicines (27/67, 40.3%) and exercises (25/67, 37.3%).

  13. Long-term plasticity is proportional to theta-activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tsanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theta rhythm in the hippocampal formation is a main feature of exploratory behaviour and is believed to enable the encoding of new spatial information and the modification of synaptic weights. Cyclic changes of dentate gyrus excitability during theta rhythm are related to its function, but whether theta epochs per se are able to alter network properties of dentate gyrus for long time-periods is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used low-frequency stimulation protocols that amplify the power of endogenous theta oscillations, in order to estimate the plasticity effect of endogenous theta oscillations on a population level. We found that stimulation-induced augmentation of the theta rhythm is linked to a subsequent increase of neuronal excitability and decrease of the synaptic response. This EPSP-to-Spike uncoupling is related to an increased postsynaptic spiking on the positive phases of theta frequency oscillations. Parallel increase of the field EPSP slope and the population spike occurs only after concurrent pre- and postsynaptic activation. Furthermore, we observed that long-term potentiation (>24 h occurs in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving adult rats after phasic activity of entorhinal afferents in the theta-frequency range. This plasticity is proportional to the field bursting activity of granule cells during the stimulation, and may comprise a key step in spatial information transfer. Long-term potentiation of the synaptic component occurs only when the afferent stimulus precedes the evoked population burst, and is input-specific. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm the role of the dentate gyrus in filtering information to the subsequent network during the activated state of the hippocampus.

  14. Studies in Fat Grafting: Part II. Effects of Injection Mechanics on Material Properties of Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashroo, David; Raphel, Jordan; Chung, Michael T.; Paik, Kevin J.; Parisi-Amon, Andreina; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R.; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Chris; Walmsley, Graham G.; Hu, Michael S.; Momeni, Arash; Domecus, Brian; Rimsa, Joe R.; Greenberg, Lauren; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wan, Derrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While fat grafting can address many soft tissue deficits, results remain inconsistent. In this study, we compared physical properties of fat following injection using an automated, low shear device or the modified Coleman technique. Methods Lipoaspirate was obtained from nine patients and processed for injection using either a modified Coleman technique or with an automated, low shear device. Fat was passed through a 2 mm cannula and compared to minimally processed fat. A rheometer was used to measure the storage modulus and shear rate at which tissues began to lose their solid-like properties. Viscosity was also measured and gross properties of treatment groups were qualitatively evaluated with a glass slide test. Results Fat injected through an automated, low shear device closely matched physical properties of minimally processed fat. The storage modulus (G′) of fat for the device group was greater than the modified Coleman group and the onset of breakdown was delayed. Similarly, viscosity measurement of fat from the automated device closely matched minimally processed fat and was greater than the modified Coleman group. Conclusions The physical properties of lipoaspirate processed using an automated, low shear device with a 2 mm cannula preserved the intactness of fat more than the modified Coleman technique. Our rheological data demonstrate less damage using an automated device compared to modified Coleman technique and potentially support its use for improved fat graft integrity. PMID:25028817

  15. Proportioning and performance evaluation of self-consolidating concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhao

    A well-proportioned self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixture can be achieved by controlling the aggregate system, paste quality, and paste quantity. The work presented in this dissertation involves an effort to study and improve particle packing of the concrete system and reduce the paste quantity while maintaining concrete quality and performance. This dissertation is composed of four papers resulting from the study: (1) Assessing Particle Packing Based Self-Consolidating Concrete Mix Design; (2) Using Paste-To-Voids Volume Ratio to Evaluate the Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete Mixtures; (3) Image Analysis Applications on Assessing Static Stability and Flowability of Self-Consolidating Concrete, and (4) Using Ultrasonic Wave Propagation to Monitor Stiffening Process of Self-Consolidating Concrete. Tests were conducted on a large matrix of SCC mixtures that were designed for cast-in-place bridge construction. The mixtures were made with different aggregate types, sizes, and different cementitious materials. In Paper 1, a modified particle-packing based mix design method, originally proposed by Brouwers (2005), was applied to the design of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixs. Using this method, a large matrix of SCC mixes was designed to have a particle distribution modulus (q) ranging from 0.23 to 0.29. Fresh properties (such as flowability, passing ability, segregation resistance, yield stress, viscosity, set time and formwork pressure) and hardened properties (such as compressive strength, surface resistance, shrinkage, and air structure) of these concrete mixes were experimentally evaluated. In Paper 2, a concept that is based on paste-to-voids volume ratio (Vpaste/Vvoids) was employed to assess the performance of SCC mixtures. The relationship between excess paste theory and Vpaste/Vvoids was investigated. The workability, flow properties, compressive strength, shrinkage, and surface resistivity of SCC mixtures were determined at various ages

  16. To Build Proportions in Time, or Tie Knots in Space? A Reassessment of the Renaissance Turn in Architectural Proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Trachtenberg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Alberti, and most critically since Wittkower’s 'Architectural Principles', architectural theory has tended to construe ‘proportions’ in plenary, static terms. The dimension of time and change that relentlessly affects all human endeavor is not accommodated by the celebrated Albertian ideal of immutable design perfection, so perfect in all respects that once attained ‘nothing can be added, taken away, or altered, but for the worse’. This article, drawing on the author’s recent book, 'Building-in-Time from Giotto to Alberti and Modern Oblivion' (Yale, 2010, outlines the antithetical, dynamic proportional methodology of the pre-Albertian architectural regime. Its point of departure was the author’s concept of durational aesthetics, according to which perfected architectural form is produced by a process of incessant revision. What distinguished this process from related ancient or neo-antique doctrines was above all its dynamic modality and participation in the fluid orientation and processes of ‘building-in-time’.

  17. Comparison of fat maintenance in the face with centrifuge versus filtered and washed fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilian, Ali; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Iraji, Razieh

    2014-06-01

    Autogenous fat injection of the face is a viable and lasting remedy for soft tissue loss and has become a mainstay in facial rejuvenation. Fat transfer as either a stand-alone technique or as an adjunct to other filler technique and lifting depending on patient needs. Although soft tissue augmentation with autologous fat transfer has been increasingly used by esthetic surgeon, but there is no agreement concerning the best way of processing the harvested fat before injection. This study compared the clinical results obtained using simple filtered and washed fat via metal sieve with those achieved by means of pure centrifuged fat. A prospective single-blind analysis on 32 healthy patients undergoing nasolabial fold fat transplantation from 2009 to 2011 (simple sampling). Patients assigned in two groups randomly. The face of half (16 subjects) was injected with centrifuged, another half with simple filtered and washed fat to evaluate the effect of preparation methods on fat graft viability. Objective method was used to evaluate the results, involving the evaluation of postoperative photographs (in month 1, 6 and 12) by an esthetic surgeon (according to the nasolabial scale). Subjective method was a self-assessment obtained from patients about general level of satisfaction and improvement of skin texture, statistical analysis were performed by means of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 and a value of P > 0.05 was considered as significant. There was no significant difference in the survival of grafted fat between the Group 1 (fat-processing with centrifuge at 3400 rpm for 1-min) and Group 2 (washing the fat in the sieve). Our data suggest that the centrifuge of the fat does not enhance survival of grafted fat (P > 0.05).

  18. Modelling fat mass as a function of weekly physical activity profiles measured by Actigraph accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, Nicole H; Faraway, Julian J; Mattocks, Calum; Cooper, Ashley R; Ness, Andy R

    2012-01-01

    We show results on the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC) using a new approach for modelling the relationship between health outcomes and physical activity assessed by accelerometers. The key feature of the model is that it uses the histogram of physical activity counts as a predictor function, rather than scalar summary measures such as average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Three models are fitted: (1a) A regression of fat mass at age 12 (N = 4164) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12; (1b) A regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2403) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12 and (1c) a regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2413) onto the accelerometer counts at age 14. All three models significantly improve on models including MVPA instead of the histogram and improve the goodness of fit of models (2a), (2b) and (2c) from R 2 = 0.267, 0.248 and 0.230 to R 2 = 0.292, 0.263 and 0.258 for models (1a), (1b) and (1c) respectively. The proportion of time spent in sedentary and very light activity (corresponding to slow walking and similar activities) has a positive contribution towards fat mass and time spent in moderate to vigorous activity has a negative contribution towards fat mass. (paper)

  19. Lessons from the war on dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas B; Parker, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Conventional dietary guidelines put forth by health care institutions and providers for the past 40 years have stressed the importance of reducing the amount of dietary fat consumed. Such a diet is purported to mitigate metabolic risk factors and optimize the ability to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. However, over the past 35 years obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically though the level of dietary fat consumed by U.S. adults has fallen. This review examines the potential reasons for this paradox. Various meta-analyses, controlled trials, and cohort studies have demonstrated that reducing dietary fat intake provides for very little weight loss unless accompanied by equal or greater reductions in total energy intake. Due to both psychological (e.g., the tendency for people to eat more of what they consider low fat) and physiological (e.g., the low satiety that accompanies carbohydrate intake) factors, reducing total caloric intake while simultaneously reducing fat intake is a difficult challenge. Further, reductions in total carbohydrate intake, increases in protein intake, and adoption of a Mediterranean diet seem to be more effective in inducing weight loss than reductions in fat intake. Traditional claims that simply reducing dietary fat will improve metabolic risk factors are also not borne out by research. There is some evidence that replacing dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat may improve metabolic risk factors, but that research is not conclusive. • Over the past 40 years, Americans have decreased the percentage of calories they get from dietary fat while rates of overweight and obesity have risen dramatically. • It appears that a decrease in total dietary fat in ad libitum diets may induce a very small decrease in body weight. • Evidence suggests that reductions in total dietary fat intake often occur in conjunction with an increase in total caloric intake. • It seems reasonable to conclude that guiding the

  20. Dietary fat intake, circulating and membrane fatty acid composition of healthy Norwegian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y; Blois, A; Geppert, J; Khalil, F; Ghebremeskel, K; Holmsen, H

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to assess the dietary fat intake and blood fatty acid status of healthy Norwegian men and women living in Bergen whose habitual diet is known to be high in long-chain omega-3 fat. Healthy men (n = 41) and women (n = 40) aged 20-50 years who were regular blood donors completed 7-day food diaries and their nutrient intake was analysed by Norwegian food database software, kbs, version 4.9 (kostberegningssystem; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway). Blood samples were obtained before blood donation and assessed for the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, and red cell phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. There was no difference in dietary fat intake between men and women. Total and saturated fat intakes exceeded the upper limits of the recommendations of the National Nutrition Council of Norway. Although polyunsaturated fat intake was close to the lower limit of the recommended level, the intake varied greatly among individuals, partly as a result of the use of supplementary fish oil. Moreover, the proportional fatty acid composition of plasma and red cell lipids was similar between men and women. Enrichment of docosahexaenoic acid in red cell phosphatidylethanolamine was found in fish oil users. The results of the present study provide a snapshot of the current nutritional status of healthy Norwegian adults. Moreover, the detailed blood fatty acid composition of men and women whose habitual diet constitutes high long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fat as well as saturated fat could be used as reference value for population studies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Aplikasi Kontrol PI (Proportional Integral pada Katup Ekspansi Mesin Pendingin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rudiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan proses perancangan dan pembuatan kontrol katup ekspansi otomatis dengan menggunakan sistem kontrol PI, untuk melakukan proses pengontrolan temperatur ruang evaporator agar didapatkan hasil pembekuan yang lebih optimal. Sensor temperatur LM35 digunakan dalam penelitian ini untuk melakukan pembacaan temperatur pada ruang evaporator, yang mana dari hasil pembacaan sensor tersebut digunakan sebagai sinyal masukan untuk sistem kontrol PI. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian sensor LM35 mempunyai sensitivitas pembacaan sebesar 0,009335 V/oC.  Unjuk kerja sistem kontrol PI pada penelitian ini didapatkan respon yang baik pada nilai Kp = 20 dan Ki = 10, dimana dengan nilai berikut untuk mencapai temperatur set point waktu yang dibutuhkan selama 251 detik dengan nilai maximum overshoot lebih rendah yaitu -2,4 oC. Hasil pendinginan yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini dengan menggunakan sistem kontrol katup ekspansi otomatis didapat proses pendinginan yang lebih cepat dan energi yang dibutuhkan jauh lebih hemat yaitu sebesar 0,265 kWh.   The Application of A Control PI (Proportional Integral on Expansion Valves Refrigeration Machine  Abstract. This research aim to do design process and making control valve expansion automatic by using control system PI, which then applied on refrigerator plates touch to perform the process of control freezing temperatures. Censor temperature LM35 used in this research to do reading the temperature at evaporator room, of results reading sensors is used as input signal to control system PI. Based on the test result of testing censor LM35 have the sensitivity reading of almost accordance with the datav sheet is as much as 0,009335 V/oC. Were control sistem works PI the research this obtained response good to value center Kp = 20 and Ki =10. In which value, to reach set temperature point , the time it takes 251 seconds by value maximum overshoot point lower then -2.4°C. The result

  2. Fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as indicators of fat intake in 5-year-old children in the STRIP project

    OpenAIRE

    Hagström, Hanna; Jokinen, Eero; Seppänen, Ritva; Salo, Pia; Viikari, Jorma; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Helenius, Hans; Simell, Olli

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between dietary fat composition and the proportion of fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as biomarkers of previous dietary fat quality in 5-year-old children. Using 4-consecutive-day food records, the food consumption of half (n=50) of a group of randomly selected children who are participating in a prospective randomized coronary risk factor intervention project (STRIP; n=1062 at recruitment at 7 months of age) was estim...

  3. Invisible fat on CT: making it visible by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Presence of fat in a lesion significantly narrows the differential diagnosis. Small quantities of macroscopic fat and intracellular fat are invisible on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal any fatty change in a lesion and can also differentiate macroscopic fat from intracellular and intravoxel fat. Hypodensity on CT may be a sign of invisible fat and MRI can help to diagnose even minute amounts of fat in liver, pancreas, adrenal, musculoskeletal, and omental pseudolesions and lesions. This article will review the superiority of MRI over CT in demonstrating fat in abdominal lesions.

  4. [Combine fats products: methodic opportunities of it identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, E V; Kulakova, S N; Mikhaĭlov, N A

    2006-01-01

    At present time very topical problem is falsification of milk fat. The number of methods was considered to detection of milk fat authention and possibilities his difference from combined fat products. The analysis of modern approaches to valuation of milk fat authention has showed that the main method for detection of fat nature is gas chromatography analysis. The computer method of express identification of fat products is proposed for quick getting of information about accessory of examine fat to nature milk or combined fat product.

  5. Subpleural thoracic fat as defined with CT of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.J.; Glazer, H.S.; Molina, P.L.; Sagel, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Consecutive computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the chest (n=202) were reviewed to determine the location, thickness, and extent of subpleural fat. Patient age, thickness of subcutaneous fat, and adjacent pleural or parenchymal abnormalities were recorded. Subpleural fat was most often identified in the paravertebral region (48%) and in the apices (23%). Fatty deposits anterolaterally were seen in seven individuals. Subpleural fat thickness ranged from 1 to 19 mm, except in the apex, where fat sometimes filled the space. A direct relationship between subcutaneous fat thickness and a higher incidence of subpleural fat was observed in the paravertebral region. Subpleural fat occurs commonly in the paravertebral regions but is unusual in other areas

  6. Teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naohisa; Fuchinoe, Tokuro; Yahagi, Yasuji; Nakamura, Toshihiko

    1983-01-01

    Intracranial fat-containing congenital tumors are characterized by negative absorption values on computed tomography(CT). We are reporting a case of teratoma with intraventricular free fat diagnosed preoperatively by CT. The case is a 19-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of contineous severe headache, nausea and vomiting. At the time of admission, her physical and neurological examination was negative except for bilateral papilledema. CT demonstrated marked enlargement of the right lateral ventricle. In addition, there was negative absorption value (-90 H.U.), suggesting free fat, within right frontal horn layering above the CSF with a fluid level. Metrizamide ventriculography demonstrated complete obstruction and revealed an irregular shadow defect at the right foramen of Monro. At surgery, yellowish cheese-like material, white hair was found on the surface of the CSF. Tumor arose from the floor of the right foramen of Monro and extended upward. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 17 days after surgery. Intraventricular free fat is likely that to be released from the teratoma cyst ruptured spontaneously when the patient complained of severe headache 40 days prior to admission. There have been several published reports of the CT appearances of intracranial fat-containing tumors, however, teratoma with intraventricular free fat is very rare. It was concluded that fat-containing tumors should be highly suspected, when negative absorption values were found on CT. (author)

  7. Enzymatically interesterified fats based on mutton tallow and walnut oil suitable for cosmetic emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M; Mendrycka, M; Zbikowska, A; Stawarz, S

    2015-02-01

    Formation of emulsion systems based on interesterified fats was the objective of the study. Enzymatic interesterification was carried out between enzymatic mutton tallow and walnut oil in the proportions 2 : 3 (w/w) to produce fats not available in nature. At the beginning of the interesterification process, the balance between the interesterification and fat hydrolysis was intentionally disturbed by adding more water to the catalyst (Lipozyme IR MR) of the reaction to produce more of the polar fraction monoacylglycerols [MAGs] and diacylglycerols [DAGs]. To obtain a greater quantity of MAGs and DAGs in the reaction environment via hydrolysis, water was added (11, 13, 14, 16 w-%) to the enzymatic preparation. The obtained fats were used to form emulsions. The emulsions were evaluated with respect to sensory and skin moisturizing properties by 83 respondents. Determination of emulsion stability using temperature and centrifugal tests was carried out. Morphology and the type of emulsions were determined. The respondents described the skin to which the emulsions in testing were applied as smooth, pleasant to touch and adequately moisturized. The work has demonstrated that interesterification of a mutton tallow and walnut oil blend resulted in new fats with very interesting characteristics of triacylglycerols that are not present in the environment. The results of the present work indicate the possibility of application of fats with the largest quantity of MAGs and DAGs as a fat base of emulsions in the cosmetic industries. The hypothesis assumed in this work of producing additional quantities of MAGs and DAGs (in the process of enzymatic interesterification) responsible for the stability of the system was confirmed. It should be pointed out that the emulsions based on interesterified fats exhibited a greater level of moisturization of the skin than the emulsions containing non-interesterified fat. Also, in the respondents' opinion, the emulsion containing fat, which

  8. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  9. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Duplex ultrasound evidence of fat embolism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Naddaf, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal disease process most commonly associated with long-bone and pelvic fractures. Reports describing ultrasound evidence of fat emboli are restricted to echocardiography. We propose a new objective finding on venous duplex ultrasound imaging of the lower extremities as a useful diagnostic criterion by presenting the case reports of two patients with acute long-bone fractures, possibly leading to earlier orthopedic fixation and allocation of resources to those patients at higher risk of fat embolism syndrome.

  12. CT findings of cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ishibashi, Takao.

    1986-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism following multiple bone fractures is presented. A 27-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic 50 minutes after a traffic accident. He was somnolent on admission, but his consciousness level was gradually raised and respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, bloody sputum) appeared with petechiae of his conjunctiva and chest. We diagnosed cerebral fat embolism. On CT scan we found multiple high-density areas, which gradually turned into multiple low-density areas. Subsequent cerebral atrophy and subdural effusion developed one month after the injury. This patient showed a typical clinical course and CT findings of cerebral fat embolism. (author)

  13. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilsanz, Vicente; Chung, Sandra A.; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  14. Regulation, proportionality and discharges of radioactive wastes: UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, Bob; Butler, Gregg; Mc Glynn, Grace

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the UK Government and the Regulators have made a commitment to further improve the operation of the regulatory regime and to its operating within the principles of proportionality, transparency, consistency and accountability which underpin the Government's approach to regulation in general. Particular emphasis was to be placed upon ensuring that there is greater consistency in the treatment of risk and hazard; proportionate and cost effective delivery of public, worker and environmental protection; and an open and transparently applied regulatory system. It is noteworthy that with regard to radiation protection, there are different limits for public doses and workforce doses, with the latter 15 times greater. Allowable doses for medical patients are higher still. This discrepancy raises a question in itself. This presentation focuses on the practical application of the regulatory regime with particular regard to environmental discharges and disposals. Under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993, Operators within the UK nuclear industry are required to employ Best Practicable Means (BPM) to control and minimise radioactive discharges to ensure that doses from discharges are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Scientific assessments to date indicate that there are no expectations of environmental harm from discharges at Sellafield (and hence likewise at other UK nuclear sites where the discharges are lower), even where those discharges have historically been up to two orders of magnitude higher than current levels. Current discharges result in doses which are a small fraction of those received by the UK population due to natural background radiation. In addition, there is no proven environmental harm from foreseeable future discharges from Sellafield or other UK nuclear sites. This is supported by independent work which illustrates that the public collective dose from Sellafield discharges is almost all delivered at risks of less that one in a

  15. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  16. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs. We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, or third (HF3 week, or for all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status.

  17. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  18. Effect of maize, rumen-protected fat and whey permeate on energy utilisation and milk fat composition in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of utilisation of diets with different proportions of energy sources (starch, fat, lactose was studied with three pairs of lactating Saanen goats; the animals were fed, in a Latin square design, 3 silage-based diets containing (on DM basis the following energy sources: 32% maize meal (diet M; 4.7% rumen-protected fat (Megalac® and 23.5% maize meal (diet F; 9.8% milk whey permeate powder and 22.3% maize meal (diet W. During each of the three experimental periods, 8 days of total collection balance trials were conducted during which goats were allocated for 72 h (three 24 h cycles in open circuit respiration chambers to determine methane and heat production and, hence, the energy balance. Diet F, in comparison with diets M and W, significantly increased the milk fat content (4.13 vs 3.11 and 3.14%, P<0.001 and the 4%-FCM yield (3367 vs 2927 and 3055 g/d, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, while no relevant changes were observed for milk protein content and yield. Energy digestibility was equal in diets F and W. Megalac® did not decrease fibre digestibility. The partition of the gross energy intake (EI differed significantly between diets: diet M had lower DE (72.4 vs 74.3 and 74.3%; P<0.01 and ME (62.1 vs 64.7 and 63.5%; P<0.05 in comparison with diets F and W, respectively. Energy lost as methane was not significantly decreased by the inclusion of rumen- protected fat in the diet, although a trend for a reduction of methanogenesis was observed. Heat production deter- mined by treatment F was lower in comparison with the other treatments. This difference was almost significant (P=0.056 when expressed as a percentage of the ME. Milk energy output increased significantly (+12%, P<0.001 by including fat in the diet, as compared with treatments M and W: 21.4 vs 19.1 and 19.0% of the EI. The net ener- gy content of the protected fat was 27.94 MJ NEl/kg DM (+340% vs maize meal; its kl value resulted 0.77. The corresponding values for whey

  19. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (pfat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  20. Errors in dual-energy X-ray scanning of the hip because of nonuniform fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, Peter; Weir, Nicholas; Loveland, John

    2014-01-01

    The variable proportion of fat in overlying soft tissue is a potential source of error in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of bone mineral. The effect on spine scanning has previously been assessed from cadaver studies and from computed tomography (CT) scans of soft tissue distribution. We have now applied the latter technique to DXA hip scanning. The CT scans performed for clinical purposes were used to derive mean adipose tissue thicknesses over bone and background areas for total hip and femoral neck. The former was always lower. More importantly, the fat thickness differences varied among subjects. Errors because of bone marrow fat were deduced from CT measurements of marrow thickness and assumed fat proportions of marrow. The effect of these differences on measured bone mineral density was deduced from phantom measurements of the bone equivalence of fat. Uncertainties of around 0.06g/cm(2) are similar to those previously reported for spine scanning and the results from cadaver measurements. They should be considered in assessing the diagnostic accuracy of DXA scanning. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilization of nitrogen and energy from diets containing protein and fat derived from either goat milk or cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Laura Sanz; Morales, Eva Ramos; Martínez, Luis Pérez; Extremera, Francisca Gil; Sampelayo, M Remedios Sanz

    2009-11-01

    Consumption of whole milk and related dairy products has decreased considerably as a result of negative aspects associated with the consumption of saturated fats. The main difference between the composition of goat milk and cow milk concerns the composition of the fat, that of goat milk containing a larger proportion of medium-chain triglycerides. The metabolic utilization of these compounds is fundamentally oriented towards their use as sources of energy, and they may even contribute to the synthesis of proteins. This study was carried out, using 40 rats at weaning, in order to determine whether, on the basis of their fat and protein composition, there is any difference between the nutritional utilization of the N and the energy from goat and cow milk. Eight animals were killed on arrival at the laboratory, and the rest were divided into four groups of eight animals and killed at the end of the experiment. Each group was given a different diet: diet 1 contained fat and protein from goat milk; diet 2 had fat from cow milk and protein from goat milk; diet 3 had fat from goat milk and protein from cow milk; diet 4 had fat and protein from cow milk. The animals were allowed to feed ad libitum for 30 d and a balance assay was performed during the final 7 d to determine N and energy utilization. At the same time and by the comparative slaughter method, the protein and fat deposition for each group was established. It was concluded that goat milk protein is more digestible than that of cow milk. Moreover, the metabolic utilization of digestible N was found to be dependent on the sources of both the protein and the fat in the diet; a higher degree of utilization was recorded for the digestible N obtained using diets with protein or fat from goat milk. Consumption of diets with goat milk fat led to a lower level of thermogenesis associated with protein oxidation and a higher one for that associated with fat oxidation, which in turn implied a protein-sparing effect of the

  2. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  3. [Obesity, fat and bones: friends or foes ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, Emmanuel

    2017-04-19

    Low fat mass is associated with an increased risk of fracture because of low bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone micro-architecture. Conversely, overweight and obese patients also have an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the humerus and ankle, despite greater BMD. Visceral abdominal fat, which is the most metabolically active, may be associated with poorer quality of bone tissue properties, as suggested in diabetes. Other factors may contribute to higher fracture risk in overweight patients, notably higher frequency of falls and lower bioavailability of vitamin D stoked in fat. Thus, fat mass and its distribution should be taken into account beyond BMD and classical clinical risk factors in the assessment of fracture risk.

  4. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  5. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat...

  6. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corn oil Safflower oil Walnuts Sunflower, sesame, and pumpkin seeds; flaxseed Fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, ... pork) Chicken with the skin Whole-fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack ...

  7. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  8. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  9. What About the Rheological Properties of PRP/Microfat Mixtures in Fat Grafting Procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouane, R; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Veran, J; Abellan, M; Francois, P; Velier, M; Orneto, C; Piccerelle, P; Magalon, J

    2017-10-01

    Fat grafting has emerged as a reference procedure in daily plastic surgery practice. Unpredictable fat resorption is the main clinical problem. For this purpose, the addition of PRP to enhance fat revascularization is now an easy and popular procedure. However, no consensus exists regarding the respective volume of fat and PRP used to obtain the ideal mixture. This study investigated the rheological properties of microfat mixed with different proportions of PRP. Results obtained were compared with commercialized hyaluronic acid fillers. Microfat and PRP preparations were performed using standardized techniques. Lipoaspirate residue and blood were obtained from six patients undergoing aesthetic facial microlipofilling. Elastic modulus G' and tan δ (proportion of elasticity versus fluidity) were obtained for the following conditions: microfat alone and microfat mixed with 10, 30 or 50% of PRP. An expected decrease in elastic modulus was observed by adding increase volumes of PRP. Two groups of products with different rheological properties were considered based on statistical differences highlighted regarding the value of G'. Mean tan δ varied from 0.20 ± 0.04 (microfat alone) to 0.28 ± 0.08 (50% microfat/50% PRP). Microfat mixed with 10% of PRP presents consistency comparable to stiffer fillers, whereas microfat mixed with 30 or 50% corresponds to softer fillers. Rheological differences were highlighted given the proportion of PRP added to the microfat. Further studies assessing the impact of increased doses of platelets in microfat/PRP mixtures on clinical outcomes should also be investigated. Our findings will help clinicians to choose a mixture that meets their specific needs for a given indication. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  10. Autologous fat transplantation for labia majora reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P M; Herold, C; Rennekampff, H O

    2011-10-01

    A case of autologous fat transplantation for labia majora augmentation after ablative surgery is presented. The patient reported pain and deformity of the left labium majus after resection for Bowen's disease. The symptoms had not been solved by classic plastic surgical reconstructions including a pudendal thigh fasciocutaneous flap. Use of autologous fat transplantation facilitated an improved aesthetic result while preserving residual sensation to the external genitalia and improving symptoms of mucosal exposure and dryness.

  11. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    biological plausibility add weight to the prospect of a causal connection. Our results may have relevance to public policy determinations regarding dietary trans fats. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00330980.

  12. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, J F; de Wijk, R A; Huntjens, L A H; Engelen, L; Polet, I A

    2007-04-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour, mouthfeel, and afterfeel. This suggested a third detection mechanism; fat may be detected via its effect on the thermal conductivity of the food. In 3 studies, thermal sensitivity in humans was investigated to verify whether oral thermal receptors are sufficiently rapid and accurate to play a role in the perception of fats. The thermal sensitivity of the lips and oral mucosa of the anterior and middle one-third of the tongue were assessed using a Peltier device. Subjects detected 0.5 Hz fluctuations in temperature of 0.08'C on the lower lip, 0.26 degrees C and 1.36 degrees C at the tip and dorsum of the tongue, demonstrating that the lips are sufficiently sensitive to detect small differences in temperature. In two further experiments subjects ingested custards and mayonnaises and then spat out samples after 5, 10, or 20 sec. The temperature of the food and oral mucosa was measured before and after spitting and the rates of heating were calculated. Results suggest assessment of thermal conductivity of food may be used to assess fat content.

  13. Fat intake and injury in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

    2008-01-03

    Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 +/- 20 vs. 80 +/- 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 +/- 5 vs. 30 +/- 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  14. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  15. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fat intake and injury in female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  17. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Willson, S.A.; Tobin, R.S.; Cubberley, D.A.; Marx, M.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (Pmetabolic syndrome factors (Pexercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (Pexercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  19. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina

    2013-01-01

    the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY...

  20. Effects of vitamin D deficient and high-fat diets in the diabetic brain: focus on insulin signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Guilherme Alvarinhas de Assis

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Bioquímica, apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disorder that reached epidemic proportions, affecting almost 390 million people around the globe. Most cases of T2D result from unhealthy eating habits. In fact, consumption of high-fat diets and high intake of saturated fat are associated with an increased risk of obesity, meta...

  1. Ultrasonically enhanced fractionation of milk fat in a litre-scale prototype vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Thomas; Johansson, Linda; Mawson, Raymond; McArthur, Sally L; Manasseh, Richard; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasonic fractionation of milk fat in whole milk to fractions with distinct particle size distributions was demonstrated using a stage-based ultrasound-enhanced gravity separation protocol. Firstly, a single stage ultrasound gravity separation was characterised after various sonication durations (5-20 min) with a mass balance, where defined volume partitions were removed across the height of the separation vessel to determine the fat content and size distribution of fat droplets. Subsequent trials using ultrasound-enhanced gravity separation were carried out in three consecutive stages. Each stage consisted of 5 min sonication, with single and dual transducer configurations at 1 MHz and 2 MHz, followed by aliquot collection for particle size characterisation of the formed layers located at the bottom and top of the vessel. After each sonication stage, gentle removal of the separated fat layer located at the top was performed. Results indicated that ultrasound promoted the formation of a gradient of vertically increasing fat concentration and particle size across the height of the separation vessel, which became more pronounced with extended sonication time. Ultrasound-enhanced fractionation provided fat enriched fractions located at the top of the vessel of up to 13 ± 1% (w/v) with larger globules present in the particle size distributions. In contrast, semi-skim milk fractions located at the bottom of the vessel as low as 1.2 ± 0.01% (w/v) could be produced, containing proportionally smaller sized fat globules. Particle size differentiation was enhanced at higher ultrasound energy input (up to 347 W/L). In particular, dual transducer after three-stage operation at maximum energy input provided highest mean particle size differentiation with up to 0.9 μm reduction in the semi-skim fractions. Higher frequency ultrasound at 2 MHz was more effective in manipulating smaller sized fat globules retained in the later stages of skimming than 1 MHz. While 2 MHz

  2. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkun; Bai Renju

    2013-01-01

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  3. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M.; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Results Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (−100.1 to −46.7 HU vs −117.6 to −61.8 HU, P < .0001), despite lower fat CSA (2.0–62.8 cm2 vs 5.5–185.9 cm2, P < .0001). VAT attenuation but not CSA was inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index in AN (r = −0.71, P = .006). Serum estradiol levels were inversely associated with fat attenuation (r = −0.34 to −0.61, P = .03 to <.0001) and were positively associated with fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42–0.64, P = .007 to <.0001). Thyroxine levels and urinary free cortisol levels were positively associated with thigh SAT attenuation (r = 0.64 [P = .006] and r = 0.68 [P = .0004], respectively) and were inversely associated with abdominal SAT and VAT CSA (r = −0.44 to −0.58, P = .04 to .02). Conclusion Women with AN have differences in fat

  4. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  5. Body Mass Index, percent body fat, and regional body fat distribution in relation to leptin concentrations in healthy, non-smoking postmenopausal women in a feeding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell William

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between BMI and leptin has been studied extensively in the past, but previous reports in postmenopausal women have not been conducted under carefully controlled dietary conditions of weight maintenance using precise measures of body fat distribution. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between serum leptin concentration and adiposity as estimated by BMI and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA measures (percent body fat, central and peripheral fat, and lean mass in postmenopausal women. Methods This study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis within the control segment of a randomized, crossover trial in which postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (control, 15 (one drink, and 30 (two drinks g alcohol (ethanol/d for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet. BMIs were determined and DEXA scans were administered to the women during the 0 g alcohol treatment, and a blood sample was collected at baseline and week 8 of each study period for leptin analysis. Results and discussion In multivariate analysis, women who were overweight (BMI > 25 to ≤ 30 kg/m2 had a 2-fold increase, and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2 had more than a 3-fold increase in serum leptin concentrations compared to normal weight (BMI ≤25 kg/m2 women. When the models for the different measures of adiposity were assessed by multiple R2, models which included percent body fat explained the highest proportion (approximately 80% of the serum leptin variance. Conclusion Under carefully controlled dietary conditions, we confirm that higher levels of adiposity were associated with higher concentrations of serum leptin. It appears that percent body fat in postmenopausal women may be the best adiposity-related predictor of serum leptin.

  6. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopians, Alin L.; Madrigal, Vanessa K.; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Thomas, Albert M.; Grogan, Tristan R.; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A.; Okeya, Bette L.; Abbott, David H.; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. Objective: This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. Design: This is a prospective cohort study. Setting: The setting was an academic medical center. Patients: Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. Intervention(s): All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Main Outcome Measure(s): Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Results: Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction. PMID:27571186

  7. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Akopians, Alin L; Madrigal, Vanessa K; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J; Sarma, Manoj K; Thomas, Albert M; Grogan, Tristan R; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A; Okeya, Bette L; Abbott, David H; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2016-11-01

    Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. This is a prospective cohort study. The setting was an academic medical center. Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction.

  8. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Malay; Wong-See, Denise; Katz, Tamarah; Gaskin, Kevin; Whitehead, Bruce; Jaffe, Adam; Coakley, John; Lochhead, Alistair

    2014-07-01

    Determine the prevalence of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) aged ≤18 years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, from 2007 to 2010. A retrospective analysis of fat-soluble vitamin levels in children aged ≤18 years who lived in NSW and attended any of the three paediatric CF centres from 2007 to 2010. An audit of demographic and clinical data during the first vitamin level measurement of the study period was performed. Deficiency of one or more fat-soluble vitamins was present in 240/530 children (45%) on their first vitamin level test in the study period. The prevalence of vitamins D and E deficiency fell from 22.11% in 2007 to 15.54% in 2010, and 20.22% to 13.89%, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency increased from 11.17% to 13.13%. Low vitamin K was present in 29% in 2007, and prevalence of prolonged prothrombin time increased from 19.21% to 22.62%. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency is present in 10%-35% of children with pancreatic insufficiency, but only a very small proportion of children who are pancreatic-sufficient. This is one of few studies of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency in children with CF in Australia. Fat-soluble vitamin testing is essential to identify deficiency in pancreatic-insufficient children who may be non-compliant to supplementation or require a higher supplement dose, and pancreatic-sufficient children who may be progressing to insufficiency. Testing of vitamin K-dependent factors needs consideration. Further studies are needed to monitor rates of vitamin deficiency in the CF community. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Gender Difference in Body Fat for Healthy Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Wu, Qiulian; Gong, Jian; Xiao, Zeyu; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Cheng, Yong; Xu, Hao

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to establish gender-related differences and the percentile curves for total body fat mass percentage (Total FM%), trunk/appendicular fat mass ratio (TrAppFMR), and fat mass ratio as % fat trunk/% fat lower limb (TrLLFMR) in Chinese children and adolescents using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children (n = 1541; 764 girls) and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Total FM% and regional FM were measured by DXA. TrAppFMR values were calculated as trunk FM divided by appendicular FM, and TrLLFMR values were calculated as the ratio between the percentage of trunk FM and the percentage of lower limb FM. Total FM% peaks for boys were at approximately age 11 years and continued to increase for girls throughout adolescence. Median Total FM% at the age of 19 years was 15.53% and 28.06% for boys and girls, respectively. Median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR increases were 61% and 81% from 5 to 19 years of age in boys compared with those in girls, 31% and 54%. The curves for median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR in girls were relatively flat, with TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR remaining near 1.0 after 16 years of age, whereas in boys, median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR increased with age until approximately 19 years. Gender differences in the patterns of proportion and distribution of body fat were found. We present sex-specific percentile curves for Total FM%-age, TrAppFMR-age, and TrLLFMR-age relationships in this population.

  10. Effects of induced subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat content and milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjalbert, F; Videau, Y; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2008-06-01

    Two lactating dairy cows fitted with a rumen cannula received successively diets containing 0%, 20%, 34% and again 0% of wheat on a dry matter basis. After 5, 10 and 11 days, ruminal pH was measured between 8:00 and 16:00 hours, and milk was analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Diets with 20% and 34% wheat induced a marginal and a severe subacute ruminal acidosis respectively. After 11 days, diets with wheat strongly reduced the milk yield and milk fat content, increased the proportions of C8:0 to C13:0 even- or odd-chain fatty acids, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids but decreased the proportions of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 fatty acids. Wheat also increased the proportions of trans-5 to trans-10 C18:1, the latter exhibiting a 10-fold increase with 34% of wheat compared with value during the initial 0% wheat period. There was also an increase of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 fatty acid and a decrease of trans-11 to trans-16 C18:1 fatty acids. The evolution during adaptation or after return to a 0% wheat diet was rapid for pH but much slower for the fatty acid profile. The mean ruminal pH was closely related to milk fat content, the proportion of odd-chain fatty acids (linear relationship) and the ratio of trans-10 C18:1/trans-11 C18:1 (nonlinear relationship). Such changes in fatty acid profile suggested a possible use for non-invasive diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis.

  11. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition.

  12. The Fat-Dachsous signaling pathway regulates growth of horns in Trypoxylus dichotomus, but does not affect horn allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hust, James; Lavine, Mark D; Worthington, Amy M; Zinna, Robert; Gotoh, Hiroki; Niimi, T; Lavine, Laura

    Males of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, possess exaggerated head and thoracic horns that scale dramatically out of proportion to body size. While studies of insulin signaling suggest that this pathway regulates nutrition-dependent growth including exaggerated horns, what regulates disproportionate growth has yet to be identified. The Fat signaling pathway is a potential candidate for regulating disproportionate growth of sexually-selected traits, a hypothesis we advanced in a previous paper (Gotoh et al., 2015). To investigate the role of Fat signaling in the growth and scaling of the sexually dimorphic, condition-dependent traits of the in the Asian rhinoceros beetle T. dichotomus, we used RNA interference to knock down expression of fat and its co-receptor dachsous. Knockdown of fat, and to a lesser degree dachsous, caused shortening and widening of appendages, including the head and thoracic horns. However, scaling of horns to body size was not affected. Our results show that Fat signaling regulates horn growth in T. dichotomus as it does in appendage growth in other insects. However, we provide evidence that Fat signaling does not mediate the disproportionate, positive allometric growth of horns in T. dichotomus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Recurring Esthetic Dental Proportion in Natural Mandibular Anterior Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti S Shah

    2015-01-01

    Results: After calculating proportions in mandibular anterior teeth, P value was found to be statistically insignificant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, RED proportion was not seen in mandibular natural dentition.

  14. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  15. Self-imagery in individuals with high body dissatisfaction: the effect of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Stephanie; Stopa, Lusia; Turner, Hannah

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of eating disorders highlight low self-esteem as a maintaining factor. This study explored the impact of positive and negative self-imagery on aspects of the working self (implicit and explicit self-esteem and self-concept clarity) in individuals with high body dissatisfaction (an important aspect of eating disorders). The impact of these images on state body satisfaction and affect was also explored. A group of participants with high body dissatisfaction completed measures of explicit self-esteem, self-concept clarity, state body satisfaction and affect prior to completing a negative (n = 33) or positive (n = 33) self-imagery retrieval task. Following this they completed the baseline measures and a measure of implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative self-image in mind had a negative effect on explicit self-esteem, whilst holding a positive self-image had a beneficial effect. There were no effects of imagery on implicit self-esteem. Holding a negative image in mind led to a significant reduction in self-concept clarity; however, positive self-imagery did not affect self-concept clarity. Holding a negative self-image in mind led to a decrease in body satisfaction and state affect. The opposite was found for the positive self-imagery group. Implicit self-esteem was not measured at baseline. Imagery techniques which promote positive self-images may help improve aspects of the working self, body satisfaction and affect in individuals with high levels of body dissatisfaction. As such, these imagery techniques warrant further investigation in a clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Authentication of feeding fats: Classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Codony, R.

    2010-01-01

    Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the

  17. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Rocha, J.L.; Sala, G.; Velde, van de F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the

  18. The influence of fat score and fat trimming on primal cut composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the primal cut composition of South African lamb carcasses with different fat scores, and to identify cuts suitable for fat trimming. Sixty grain fed Dorper lambs (rams and ewes) were divided into three groups and slaughtered at 30, 36 and 42 kg. Chilled carcass sides were ...

  19. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat segmentation and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks. Bioimpedance spectroscopy may offer a method of assessment without any risks to the patients. A comparison is made of these two methods. This was a preliminary study of the utility of multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy of the mid abdomen as a measure of intra-abdominal fat, by comparison with fat segmentation of an abdominal CT scan in the -30 to -190 HU range. There was a significant (P abdominal fat and mid-upper arm circumference, as well as the bioimpedance parameter, the R/S ratio. Multivariate analysis showed that these were the only independant variables and allowed the derivation of a formula to estimate intra-abdominal fat: IAF = 0.02 × MAC - 0.757 × R/S + 0.036. Circumabdominal bioimpedance spectroscopy may prove a useful method of assessing intra-abdominal fat, and may be suitable for use in studies to enhance other measures of body composition, such as mid-upper arm circumference.

  20. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  1. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  2. Fat ViP MRI: Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging of water-fat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Roberto; Hitti, Eric; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Gambarota, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ViP MRI) is a method to generate reference signals on MR images, using external radiofrequency (RF) signals. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ViP MRI to generate complex-data images of phantoms mimicking water-fat systems. Various numerical phantoms with a given fat fraction, T2* and field map were designed. The k-space of numerical phantoms was converted into RF signals to generate virtual phantoms. MRI experiments were performed at 4.7T using a multi-gradient-echo sequence on virtual and physical phantoms. The data acquisition of virtual and physical phantoms was simultaneous. Decomposition of the water and fat signals was performed using a complex-based water-fat separation algorithm. Overall, a good agreement was observed between the fat fraction, T2* and phase map values of the virtual and numerical phantoms. In particular, fat fractions of 10.5±0.1 (vs 10% of the numerical phantom), 20.3±0.1 (vs 20%) and 30.4±0.1 (vs 30%) were obtained in virtual phantoms. The ViP MRI method allows for generating imaging phantoms that i) mimic water-fat systems and ii) can be analyzed with water-fat separation algorithms based on complex data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-process evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelie, J.; Feen van der, Lille, J.C.J.F. de; Riedstra, M.; Hardeman, W.; Wedel, M.; Brug, J.; Pruyn, J.F.A.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fat Watch was a four-year campaign carried out in cooperation with retailers and industry, aiming at a reduction of fat consumption by 10% among the Dutch population. Mass media and supermarkets were the main conveyers of the message. Supermarkets participated well in the first (53%) and in the

  4. Interactions between levels of heat-treated soybean meal and prilled fat on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Mirzaei, M; Jahani-Moghadam, M; Soltani, A; Mahjoubi, E; Patton, R A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the interaction of RUP and fat levels on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Forty 3-d-old calves (20 females and 20 males) with a starting BW of 40.6 ± 2.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within sex treatments were: (1) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); (2) low RUP and high fat (LRUP-HF); (3) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); and high RUP and high fat (HRUP-HF). Low-RUP starter contained 21.5%, whereas high RUP starter contained 34.3% RUP as % of CP, whereas low fat starter contained 2.9% and high starter contained 5.8% crude fat based on DM. Isonitrogenous levels in the starter grain were maintained by replacing solvent soybean meal with heat treated soybean meal while fat levels were increased by the addition of prilled fatty acids. Calves were housed individually and had ad libitum access to water and calf starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age but remained in the study until d 70 for final measurements. Overall, there was no interaction between RUP and fat levels for measured variables. Starter intake tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for calves fed low fat starter during the postweaning period, although over the whole experiment and during the preweaning period, differences in starter intake were not different. Although there were no differences for most VFA concentrations, the molar proportion of butyrate tended ( RUP ( RUP starter. However, feeding a calf starter with over 3% fat appeared to decrease starter intake as growth progressed.

  5. A HIGHER PROPORTION OF PUFA IN DIET INCREASES THE PUFA CONTENT IN RABBIT MEAT, BUT REDUCES THE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the changes in the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat, if palm fat (99% of saturated fatty acids (SFA, as a source of fat in rabbit diet, was replaced with linseed oil (71% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, containing 52% of α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA. The Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves were added in the diet as potential antioxidant in order to protect the PUFA against oxidation. 48 SIKA rabbits were randomly divided by mass and gender in four groups: CONT- 6% palm fat, CONT+ 6% linseed oil, REISHI 6% linseed oil and 1% Ganoderma lucidum, OLIVE 6% linseed oil and 1% olive leaves. After 22 days of the experimental procedure, the samples of back muscle were taken and divided in 7 portions. One was for fatty acid determination, other six for malondialdehyde (MDA determination after different storage condition; fresh, 6 days at 4°C or 3 months at -20°C, raw or cooked (60 minutes, 85°C. Addition of linseed oil resulted in a significant higher proportion of PUFA (n-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and lower proportion of SFA in the back muscle, but the oxidative stability of meat was reduced, since the level of MDA was significantly higher. After cooking, the level of MDA increased in all the groups, but more in the groups with linseed oil in the diet, the addition of Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves slightly decreased the level of MDA, but the difference was not significant.

  6. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  7. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone

    2006-01-01

    diet (P = 0.039). The daily protein and carbohydrate intake increased (+4.4% of total energy intake, P = 0.0049 and +2.5%, P = 0.34, respectively), while alcohol intake decreased (-3.2% of total energy intake, P = 0.02). There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity on the isocaloric, low-fat......AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... by the insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...

  8. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  9. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  10. Massive Cerebral Infarction Following Facial Fat Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Qi; Zhang, Hengshu

    2016-10-01

    Autologous facial fat injection is becoming popular around the world. Semiliquid fat grafts are used for correction of deformities or aesthetic purposes. Fat transfer is a mini-invasive surgical procedure, but causes severe complications occasionally. A 30-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with sudden unconsciousness and left limb weakness 8 h after facial fat injection. Brain arteriography (CTA) and venography were performed immediately after her admission. Frontal temporoparietal decompressive craniectomy plus multiple treatments was scheduled for the patient. The patient was diagnosed with extensive cerebral infarction of the right hemisphere. CTA showed that both external and internal carotid arteries were obstructed. A sectional filling defect could be seen at the telecentric segment of the right carotid artery. No development was observed during the full course of the treatment at the carotid bifurcation, external carotid artery, or internal carotid artery. Routine cosmetic procedures of facial fat injections could cause devastating and even fatal complications to patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the A5 online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  11. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  12. Duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J; Lembo, A; Elashoff, J; Fass, R; Mayer, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) frequently report that meals high in fat worsen heartburn. Nevertheless, studies to determine whether high fat meals promote gastro-oesophageal reflux have produced conflicting and equivocal conclusions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—To determine, alternatively, whether fat in the small intestinal lumen intensifies the perception of heartburn, we studied 11 patients with typical heartburn from GORD. After being placed on omeprazole to suppress endogenous acid, these fasting subjects underwent oesophageal perfusions with graded doses of HCl at pH values of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. Oesophageal perfusions were conducted while the duodenum was perfused with saline (control) and again with fat at 8 g/h.
RESULTS—Time to onset, intensity, and severity of heartburn varied with dose of oesophageal acid (pheartburn significantly (pheartburn.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; heartburn; perception; fat PMID:11600463

  13. Fat Taste Sensitivity Is Associated with Short-Term and Habitual Fat Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Costanzo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6 (SD years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7 kg/m2 by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank. Food liking was assessed by hedonic ratings of high-fat and reduced-fat foods, and a 24-h food recall and food frequency questionnaire was completed. Linear mixed regression models were fitted. FT rank was associated with dietary % energy from fat ( β ^ = 0.110 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.216], % energy from carbohydrate ( β ^ = −0.112 [−0.188, −0.035], and frequency of consumption of foods per day from food groups: high-fat dairy ( β ^ = 1.091 [0.106, 2.242], meat & meat alternatives ( β ^ = 0.669 [0.168, 1.170], and grain & cereals ( β ^ = 0.771 [0.212, 1.329] (adjusted for energy and age. There were no associations between FT rank and anthropometric measurements or hedonic ratings. Therefore, fat taste sensitivity appears to be associated with short-term fat intake, but not body size in this group of females.

  14. Subjective Proportions: 18th-Century Interpretations of Paestum’s ‘Disproportion’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid de Jong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When 18th-century travellers saw the Doric temples of Paestum in Southern Italy with their own eyes, they observed for the first time true examples of the proportions of archaic Greek architecture. Contrary to the Roman proportional systems, the Greek ones had been largely unavailable to architects until then. With the rediscovery of Paestum, conveniently located south of Naples and not in far away Greece, the secret of Greek proportions was no more. Architects were able to precisely measure the temples and wrote many accounts about their primitive forms and proportions. But what did architects mean exactly when describing the proportions as primitive? What kinds of reflections did these proportions provoke? This article treats proportions as aesthetics, or as visible proportions, not as a numerical system. The discourse on proportions changed in this period, giving more weight to their cultural and historical meaning. The writings by such architects as Soane, Wilkins, and Labrouste demonstrate how Paestum functioned as a laboratory to unveil the secret of primitive proportions, and how, with the different meanings architects attached to them, it enlarged and renewed the debate on proportions.

  15. Proportional reasoning as a heuristic-based process: time constraint and dual task considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Ellen; Van Dooren, Wim; Schaeken, Walter; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    The present study interprets the overuse of proportional solution methods from a dual process framework. Dual process theories claim that analytic operations involve time-consuming executive processing, whereas heuristic operations are fast and automatic. In two experiments to test whether proportional reasoning is heuristic-based, the participants solved "proportional" problems, for which proportional solution methods provide correct answers, and "nonproportional" problems known to elicit incorrect answers based on the assumption of proportionality. In Experiment 1, the available solution time was restricted. In Experiment 2, the executive resources were burdened with a secondary task. Both manipulations induced an increase in proportional answers and a decrease in correct answers to nonproportional problems. These results support the hypothesis that the choice for proportional methods is heuristic-based.

  16. Development of Proportional Pressure Control Valve for Hydraulic Braking Actuator of Automobile ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Pin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a novel proportional pressure control valve for an automobile hydraulic braking actuator. It also analyzed and simulated solenoid force of the control valves, and the pressure relief capability test of electromagnetic thrust with the proportional valve body. Considering the high controllability and ease of production, the driver of this proportional valve was designed with a small volume and powerful solenoid force to control braking pressure and flow. Since the proportional valve can have closed-loop control, the proportional valve can replace a conventional solenoid valve in current brake actuators. With the proportional valve controlling braking and pressure relief mode, it can narrow the space of hydraulic braking actuator, and precisely control braking force to achieve safety objectives. Finally, the proposed novel proportional pressure control valve of an automobile hydraulic braking actuator was implemented and verified experimentally.

  17. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  18. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Maureen J

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. This review considers several possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMAT a passive filler that occupies spaces left by dying bone cells, a pathological consequence of suppressed bone formation, or potentially an adaptation for surviving starvation? These possibilities are evaluated in terms of the effects of starvation on the body, particularly the skeleton, and the mechanisms involved in storing and metabolizing BMAT during negative energy balance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Postoperative hypoxemia due to fat embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the reported incidence of fat embolism syndrome (FES is low (approximately 1%, it is likely that microscopic fat emboli are showered during manipulation of long bone fractures. Even though there continues to be debate regarding the etiology and proposed mechanism responsible for FES, significant systemic manifestations may occur. Treatment is generally symptomatic based on the clinical presentations. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed hypoxemia following treatment of a displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal tibia. The subsequent evaluation and hospital course pointed to fat embolism as the most likely etiology for the hypoxemia. We discuss the etiology for FES, review the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for its clinical manifestations, present currently accepted diagnostic criteria, and discuss its treatment.

  20. The examination of the seasonal influence on the efficiency in oil and fats removal through primary treatment from the wastewater of edible oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolin Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the seasonal change of the air temperature, chemical oxygen demand as well as efficiency of suspended matter removal on the efficiency of oil and fats removal (h, % during primary treatment. The parameters are monitored in the period of time from 2006 to 2011. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the first and in the fourth quartal is proportional to the efficiency of the removal of suspended matter and of total organic matter, measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD. The measured values for oil and fat are: η (IV quartal = 0.96 % - 50.8 % and η (I quartal = 5.06 % - 95.97 %. The efficiency of oil and fats removal in the second and third quartal is proportional to air temperature so the measured efficiency of fat and oil removal are, η (II quartal = 3.93 % - 82.86 % and η (III quartal = 6.82% - 71.51%. The results of investigation have shown the existence of the correlation between the air temperature during various seasons and the efficiency of the oil and fats removal (h, % as well as the removal of the suspended matter and chemical oxygen demand (COD.

  1. [Fat grafting in facial burns sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, R; Bouguila, J; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Dionyssopoulos, A; Foyatier, J-L

    2012-06-01

    Fat graft is now part of the armamentarium in face plastic surgery. It is successfully used in burn scars. The aim of our study is the discussion of the value of this technique in optimizing cosmetic result of burns face sequelae. Fifteen adult patients (10 females and five males) with scars resulting from severe burns 2 to 9 years previously were selected. The patients were treated by injection of adipose tissue harvested from abdominal subcutaneous fat and processed according to Coleman's technique. Two to three injections were administered at the dermohypodermal junction. Ages, sexes, aetiology of burn, facial burn sequelae, recipient sites, quantity of fat injected, aesthetic results are discussed. Patient age ranged from 21 to 55 years (average: 38). The mean follow-up of the study was 66 months (23-118). Patients received 7.5 (5-11) facial restorative surgeries before fat graft. Patients underwent two sessions of fat transfer, 33cc average per session. We did not report any complications. The clinical appearance, discussed by three surgeons and subjective patient feelings, after a 6-month follow-up period, suggests considerable improvement in the mimic features, skin texture, and thickness. The result is good in 86% of cases and acceptable in the other cases. Burns sequelae offer local conditions which justify special cannula can cross fibrosis and explaining the value of multiplying the sessions. Indications for lipostructure include four distinct nosological situations, sometimes combined. Lipostructure can restore a missing relief, filling a localized depression, reshape a lack of face volume or smooth a scarring skin. Fat graft seems to complete and improve the results of the standard surgical approach in burned face. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy, added sugar, and saturated fat contributions of taxed beverages and foods in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Pedraza, Lilia S; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Aburto, Tania C; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the dietary contribution of taxed beverages and foods. Using 24-hour diet recall data from the Ensanut 2012 (n=10 096), we estimated the contribution of the items which were taxed in 2014 to the total energy, added sugar, and saturated fat intakes in the entire sample and by sociodemographic characteristics. The contributions for energy, added sugar, and saturated fat were found to be 5.5, 38.1, and 0.4%, respectively, for the taxed beverages, and 14.4, 23.8, and 21.4%, respectively, for the taxed foods. Children and adolescents (vs. adults), medium and high socioeconomic status (vs. low), urban area (vs. rural), and North and Center region (vs. South) had higher energy contribution of taxed beverages and foods. The energy contribution was similar between males and females. These taxes covered an important proportion of Mexicans' diet and therefore have the potential to improve it meaningfully.

  3. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, G C; Montes, L F; Cassady, G

    1978-08-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) developed in a 1-week-old black boy. His mother had received numerous medications for eclampsia. Birth was by Caesarean section and complicated by meconium aspiration. There were numerous nodules over the back, buttocks and extremities that yielded a caseous-like material. Microscopically, these nodules showed crystallization and necrosis of the fat. Hypoglycemia, pneumonia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, seizures and urinary infection were associated with the cutaneous problem and led to a fatal outcome 2 weeks after birth.

  4. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  5. Classification of Obesity Varies between Body Mass Index and Direct Measures of Body Fat in Boys and Girls of Asian and European Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Nzunga, J.; Naylor, P. J.; Macdonald, H.; Rhodes, R. E.; Hofer, S. M.; McKay, H.

    2018-01-01

    Body mass index is a common proxy for proportion of body fat. However, body mass index may not classify youth similarly across ages and ethnicities. We used sex- and ethnic-specific receiver operating characteristic curves to determine how obesity classifications compared between body mass index and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-based body fat…

  6. Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (Psalt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  8. Fatness-Associated FTO Gene Variant Increases Mortality Independent of Fatness - in Cohorts of Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Kring, SI; Berentzen, TL

    2009-01-01

    The A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene is associated with increased fatness. We hypothesized that the SNP is associated with morbidity and mortality through the effect on fatness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population of 362,200 Danish young...... prior to death suggested a general protective effect of the TT genotype, whereas there were only weak associations with disease incidence, except for diseases of the nervous system. CONCLUSION: Independent of fatness, the A-allele of the FTO SNP appears to increase mortality of a magnitude similar...

  9. [Progress of midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lihong; Wang, Jinhuang; Li, Yang; Liu, Dalie

    2018-02-01

    To review the research progress of midfacial fat compartments, and to thoroughly understand its current state of the anatomy and the aging morphologic characters of midfacial fat compartments, as well as the current status of clinical applications. The recent literature concerning the midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications were extensively reviewed and analyzed. Midfacial fat layer has been considered as a fusion and a continuous layer, experiencing a global atrophy when aging. As more anatomical researches have done, recent studies have shown that midfacial fat layer is broadly divided into superficial and deep layers, which are both divided into different fat compartments by fascia, ligaments, or muscles. Midfacial fat compartments tend to atrophy with age, specifically in the deep fat compartments while hypertrophy in the superficial fat compartments. Clinical applications show that fat volumetric restoration with deep medial cheek fat and Ristow's space can restore the appearance of midface effectively. In recent years, the researches of midfacial fat compartments have achieved obvious progress, which will provide new ideas and basis for fat volumetric restoration. Corresponding treatments are selected based on different sites and different layers with different aging changes, reshaping a more youthful midface.

  10. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney's test was applied. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson's linear correlation or Spearman's correlation were used. In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR.

  11. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  12. Formation of trans fats during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Oman; Aladedunye, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was completed to determine how typical cooking procedures used in food preparation, such as baking and stir-frying, affect trans fats formation. Canola oil was used as the main fat ingredient. Zucchini cake and gingersnap cookies were baked at 180o C and 200o C, while stir-fried chicken was prepared at 200o C and 275o C. The lipids from the food were extracted following the Folch procedure, and analyzed for trans fatty acids according to ISO official method 15304. Minimal changes were observed in the amount of trans fats during baking. Application of extreme temperatures during baking, which caused carbonization of the outer layer of products, yielded an insignificant increase in the amount of trans isomers. As with baking, stir-frying did not result in significant isomerization of the fatty acids, even when the oil was heated to 275o C and smoking heavily before the food was placed in it. Irrespective of the cooking procedure, linolenic acid was the most prone to isomerization with the highest amount of trans isomers formation. Baking and stir-frying at normal and/or extreme temperatures do not significantly affect the amounts of trans fats. Likewise, heating oil to the smoking point during stir-frying may decrease the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids because of oxidative degradation.

  13. Facial rejuvenation: Serial fat graft transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad Mohamed Saad Ibrahiem

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... This a clinical study carried out to test the aesthetic outcome of serial injection of the cryo-preserved fat cells for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes. Methods: Clinical ..... ucts, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript that might create a ... Adipose stem cells and regenerative medicine. 7th ed.

  14. GPR119 as a fat sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    acting through, for example, GPR40, but is also probably mediated in large part through the luminal formation of 2-monoacylglycerol acting on the 'fat sensor' GPR119. In the pancreas GPR119 may also be stimulated by 2-monoacylglycerol generated from local turnover of pancreatic triacylglycerol. Knowledge...

  15. Understanding hydrodeoxygenation of oils and fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Production of diesel fuels from renewable feedstock is increasing. One auspicious route could be by hydrodeoxygenating waste fats and oils to result long-chain alkanes, a process well suited for existing fuel infrastructure. This was studied over metal oxide-supported platinum-group metals...

  16. Investigation of Hydrodeoxygenation of Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long-chain a...

  17. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  18. Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a ...

  19. Fat in the normal cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Kera, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1986-01-01

    The cavernous sinuses of 17 patients examined by metrizamide CT cisternography with 1.5 mm-thick silces were reviewed. Most of the cavernous sinuses contained fatty components. Anterior lateral end and posterior end of the cavernous sinus are the comon sites where the fat is visible. (orig.)

  20. Pulmonary fat embolism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvlou, E.; Vakhnina-Vassila, O.; Vlahou, I.; Petrocheilou, G.; Markantonatos, D.; Petinelli, A.; Stathopoulou, S.; Kokkinis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Fat embolism is a clinical syndrome that usually occurs from the first to third day after a bone fracture or/and an orthopaedic surgery. The target organs are the lungs and more rarely the brain and the skin. Objectives and tasks: The aim of this presentation is to discuss the imaging diagnostic criteria of lung fat embolism in CT on the occasion of a case. Material and methods: A 30-years-old male patient was admitted to the Orthopaedic Department after a motorbike accident. A fracture of the head of his right femur was diagnosed and the patient underwent a surgery 3 days later. During the first postoperative day, the patient presented severe dyspnoea, tachycardia, a significant fall of PO 2 (59 mmHg) and a parallel increase in d-Dimmers (7.8 mg/l). The patient was then referred for a chest CT scan. Results: Contrast enhanced CT excluded the presence of thrombus in the pulmonary arteries and raised the diagnosis of lung fat embolism (septal thickening with a nodular pattern and diffuse ground-glass opacities along with the presence of small quantity of bilateral pleural effusions). Conclusion: Chest CT prior and the use of intravenous contrast media after is the most reliable diagnostic method to confirm or exclude pulmonary fat embolism syndrome

  1. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  2. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  3. Verbal and perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Sullivan, M P

    1987-09-01

    In contrast to the common assumption that young children have little or no ability to reason by analogy or to comprehend proportional metaphors, the present study demonstrated that children as young as age 5 years have an emerging ability to solve both verbal and perceptual proportional analogy problems and to detect the meanings of proportional metaphoric sentences. These results were largely because the experimental tasks were designed to minimize the number of factors that would restrict the performance of young children. The results indicated that the years between 5 and 7 mark a steady improvement in analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension, but that children ages 5, 6, and 7 display a wide-ranging ability in these areas. It was also found that perceptual analogical reasoning was statistically related to verbal analogical reasoning and to proportional metaphor comprehension, and that perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension were both statistically related to receptive vocabulary development.

  4. Incidence, Risk Factors, and the Protective Effect of High Body Mass Index against Sarcopenia in Suburb-Dwelling Elderly Chinese Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Zhao, J; Guo, Q; Wang, J; Zhang, W; Shen, S; Wang, X; Dong, R; Ma, Y; Kang, L; Fu, L; Jia, L; Han, X; He, Z; Bao, Y; Wang, L; Niu, K

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the risk factors of sarcopenia in certain cohorts. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of sarcopenia and associated factors over a 1-year period in an elderly Chinese suburban population. This study was conducted on 356 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years, for whom detailed information regarding sociodemographics, behavioral characteristics, and medical conditions had been documented. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Sarcopenia incidence was documented after one year of follow-up, and correlated with several possible factors. At baseline, 64 (9.7%) of the initial 657 participants had sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 10.4% after one year. Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, 13 of the participants without sarcopenia at baseline had developed sarcopenia. After multivariate adjustments, it was found that the incidence of sarcopenia increased with age and high body mass index (BMI) is associated with less incidence of sarcopenia. Incidence was also higher among women. We found sarcopenia incidence increased with age, and women were more likely to have sarcopenia. A higher BMI is also associated with a lower incidence of sarcopenia. Maintaining a healthy weight could be beneficial in the prevention of sarcopenia.

  5. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  6. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  7. [The fat content and fatty acids composition in selected products of the convenience food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewicka, Maria; Grajeta, Halina; Kleczkowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    An increasing pace of life and a lack of time for meals preparation at home, observed in many countries worldwide, have led to an increased consumption of convenient food products. This term refers to highly processed food products that are either ready-to-eat or may be consumed after short culinary processing. Convenience foods include: dinner courses, salads, cereals, creams, broths, pizzas, roasts, as well as frozen products ready-to-eat after short heat treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the fat content and fatty acids composition of frozen products belonging to convenience food. Material for analysis comprised of 30 following food products: fish and seafood products, pizza, casseroles and meat products. The fat content was determined using Folch method and the fatty acids composition using gas chromatography technique. The analyzed products contained from 1.2% to 26.9% of fat. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) content ranged from 8.7% to 53.2%, while the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)--from 24.0% to 68.7% of total fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage accounted for 8,1% to 48,8% and trans isomers--for 0.2% to 6.1% of total fatty acids. The fat and fatty acid contents showed large differences in products depending on their composition and preparation techniques declared by the producer. Most of the analyzed fish and seafood products were characterized by the fat content ranged from 11% to 14% with the high percentage of fatty acids favorable from nutritional point of view, MUFA and PUFA. The composition of fatty acids from pizza and casseroles was less favorable, due to high proportion of SFA and also trans isomers.

  8. High-fat diet determines the composition of the murine gut microbiome independently of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Marie A; Hoffmann, Christian; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Hamady, Micah; Chen, Ying-Yu; Knight, Rob; Ahima, Rexford S; Bushman, Frederic; Wu, Gary D

    2009-11-01

    The composition of the gut microbiome is affected by host phenotype, genotype, immune function, and diet. Here, we used the phenotype of RELMbeta knockout (KO) mice to assess the influence of these factors. Both wild-type and RELMbeta KO mice were lean on a standard chow diet, but, upon switching to a high-fat diet, wild-type mice became obese, whereas RELMbeta KO mice remained comparatively lean. To investigate the influence of diet, genotype, and obesity on microbiome composition, we used deep sequencing to characterize 25,790 16S rDNA sequences from uncultured bacterial communities from both genotypes on both diets. We found large alterations associated with switching to the high-fat diet, including a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in both Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. This was seen for both genotypes (ie, in the presence and absence of obesity), indicating that the high-fat diet itself, and not the obese state, mainly accounted for the observed changes in the gut microbiota. The RELMbeta genotype also modestly influenced microbiome composition independently of diet. Metagenomic analysis of 537,604 sequence reads documented extensive changes in gene content because of a high-fat diet, including an increase in transporters and 2-component sensor responders as well as a general decrease in metabolic genes. Unexpectedly, we found a substantial amount of murine DNA in our samples that increased in proportion on a high-fat diet. These results demonstrate the importance of diet as a determinant of gut microbiome composition and suggest the need to control for dietary variation when evaluating the composition of the human gut microbiome.

  9. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  10. Effects of Mixed Isoenergetic Meals on Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Exercise in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Bassami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of four different meals on fat and CHO metabolism during subsequent exercise in elderly males. Eight healthy males (age: 63.3 ± 5.2 years reported to the physiology laboratory on four separate occasions, each of which was allocated for the performance of a 30-minute exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% ̇VO2max after having normal (N, high fat (HF, high carbohydrate high glycaemic index (HGI and high carbohydrate low glycaemic index (LGI meals. Fat oxidation during exercise after the meals (HF=0.26±0.04 g/min; N=0.21±0.04 g/min; HGI=0.22±0.03 g/min; LGI=0.19±0.03 g/min was not significant (>.05, and neither were the rates of carbohydrate oxidation (N=1.79±0.28, HF=1.58±0.22, HGI=1.68±0.22, and LGI=1.77±0.21 g/m. NEFA concentration increased after HF (<.05 but decreased after HGI and LGI (<.05. Glucose concentration decreased as a result of exercise after HF, and LGI (<.05 whereas insulin concentration decreased significantly during exercise after N, HF, and HGI (<.05. It can be concluded that, in elderly males, feeding isoenergetic meals containing different proportions of carbohydrate and fat do not significantly alter oxidation of fat and CHO during exercise in spite of changes in some circulating metabolites.

  11. Growth Optimal Portfolio Selection Under Proportional Transaction Costs with Obligatory Diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, T.; Pasik Duncan, B.; Stettner, L.

    2011-01-01

    A continuous time long run growth optimal or optimal logarithmic utility portfolio with proportional transaction costs consisting of a fixed proportional cost and a cost proportional to the volume of transaction is considered. The asset prices are modeled as exponent of diffusion with jumps whose parameters depend on a finite state Markov process of economic factors. An obligatory portfolio diversification is introduced, accordingly to which it is required to invest at least a fixed small portion of our wealth in each asset.

  12. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...

  13. The proportion valid effect in covert orienting: strategic control or implicit learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko, Evan F; Stolz, Jennifer A

    2010-03-01

    It is well known that the difference in performance between valid and invalid trials in the covert orienting paradigm (i.e., the cueing effect) increases as the proportion of valid trials increases. This proportion valid effect is widely assumed to reflect "strategic" control over the distribution of attention. In the present experiments we determine if this effect results from an explicit strategy or implicit learning by probing participant's awareness of the proportion of valid trials. Results support the idea that the proportion valid effect in the covert orienting paradigm reflects implicit learning not an explicit strategy.

  14. Anti-synchronization control of BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays and stochastic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Yuan, Manman; Luo, Xiong; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Proportional delay is a class of unbounded time-varying delay. A class of bidirectional associative memory (BAM) memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays is concerned in this paper. First, we propose the model of BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays and stochastic perturbations. Furthermore, by choosing suitable nonlinear variable transformations, the BAM memristive neural networks with multiple proportional delays can be transformed into the BAM memristive neural networks with constant delays. Based on the drive-response system concept, differential inclusions theory and Lyapunov stability theory, some anti-synchronization criteria are obtained. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed criteria are demonstrated through numerical examples.

  15. Original Research Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advantage for composition measurement of no radiation exposure ... Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with .... spiral CT scan with 3-mm slices covering the abdomen,.

  16. Improving low fat meatball characteristics by adding whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2006-01-01

    In this study whey powder (WP) at levels of 0%, 2% and 4% was added to beef meatballs formulated with 5%, 10% and 20% fat levels. Raw and cooked meatballs were analyzed for protein, fat, moisture, ash and pH. Meatballs were evaluated for cooking characteristics, juiciness, colour parameters (L*,a*,b*) and sensory properties. Addition of WP did not affect fat and protein contents of meatballs. Addition of 2% or 4% WP significantly increased cooking yield regardless of the fat level. Both fat level and WP level significantly affected fat retention values of meatballs. Incorporating WP had no effect on meatball juiciness. Addition of WP increased fat and moisture retention of meatballs. Twenty percent fat resulted in higher L* and lower a* values. Adding WP resulted in higher L* values but WP had no effect on a* and b* values. WP had no detrimental effect on sensory properties.

  17. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative trait locus ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  18. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  19. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as screening technique for assessing compatibility between dika fat and drug substances. Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire ...

  20. Effect of the proportion of Duroc genes in crosses with Large White and Landrace pigs on the characteristics of seasoned Parma ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bonomi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the linear and quadratic effects of the proportion of Duroc genes on the characteristicsof seasoned Parma hams by means of a covariance model. The study was carried out on 167 pigs (87 castratedmales, 80 females from different crosses among Duroc (D, Large White (LW and Landrace (L breeds, slaughteredat 300 d of age (live weight 170 kg. All pigs were raised under similar conditions. The curing period was 380 days. Theproportion of Duroc genes was 0% (LWxL; n. 33, 25% [(LWx(DxL; n. 31 and Lx(DxLW; n. 35] and 50%[Dx(LWx(LWxL; n. 68]. The increase in the proportion of Duroc genes had a positive linear effect (Pquadratic effect (P=0.01 on the yield of deboned ham while ham fat thickness decreased linearly (P=0.07 andincreased quadratically (P(Pfor lightness (Pfeatured a linear increase in moisture (Pin addition to significant quadratic effects with an increase in the proportion of Duroc genes. In conclusion, crossbreedingwith the Duroc breed (up to 50% makes it possible to obtain positive quality characteristics of cured Parma ham.