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Sample records for high-body fat proportion

  1. [Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1 kg/m(2), WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7 cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Adolescent skinfold thickness is a better predictor of high body fatness in adults than is body mass index: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

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    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Koppes, Lando L J; Visscher, Tommy L S; Twisk, Jos W R; Kemper, Han C G; Schuit, A Jantine; van Mechelen, Willem; Seidell, Jacob C

    2007-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) during adolescence is predictive of BMI at adult age. However, BMI cannot distinguish between lean and fat body mass. Skinfold thickness may be a better predictor of body fatness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relations between BMI and skinfold thickness during adolescence and body fatness during adulthood. We included 168 men and 182 women from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, a prospective study that conducted 8 measurements of BMI and skinfold thickness between 1976 and 2000. BMI and skinfold thickness during adolescence were analyzed in relation to adult body fatness measured at a mean age of 37 y with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. None of the boys and 1.7% of the girls were overweight at baseline, whereas the prevalence of high body fatness during adulthood was 29% in men and 32% in women. At the ages of 12-16 y, skinfold thickness was more strongly associated with adult body fatness than was BMI. Age-specific relative risks for a high level of adult body fatness varied between 2.3 and 4.0 in boys and between 2.1 and 4.3 in girls in the highest versus the lowest tertile of the sum of 4 skinfold thicknesses. For the highest tertile of BMI, the relative risk varied between 0.8 and 2.1 in boys and between 1.3 and 1.8 in girls. Skinfold thickness during adolescence is a better predictor of high body fatness during adulthood than is BMI during adolescence.

  3. Dietary proportions of carbohydrates, fat, and protein and risk of oesophageal cancer by histological type.

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    Katarina Lagergren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary habits influence the risk of cancer of the oesophagus and oesophago-gastric junction, but the role of proportions of the main dietary macronutrients carbohydrates, fats and proteins is uncertain. METHODS: Data was derived from a nationwide Swedish population-based case-control study conducted in 1995-1997, in which case ascertainment was rapid, and all cases were uniformly classified. Information on the subjects' history of dietary intake was collected in personal interviews. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using logistic regression, with adjustment for potentially confounding factors. RESULTS: Included were 189 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 262 oesophago-gastric adenocarcinomas, 167 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, and 820 control subjects. Regarding oesophageal or oesophago-gastric junctional adenocarcinoma, a high dietary proportion of carbohydrates decreased the risk (OR 0.50, CI 0.34-0.73, and a high portion of fat increased the risk (OR 1.96, CI 1.34-2.87, while a high proportion of protein did not influence the risk (OR 1. 08, 95% CI 0.75-1.56. Regarding oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the single macronutrients did not influence the risk statistically significantly. CONCLUSIONS: A diet with a low proportion of carbohydrates and a high proportion of fat might increase the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  4. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one sub

  5. Body adiposity and type 2 diabetes: increased risk with a high body fat percentage even having a normal BMI.

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    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Galofré, Juan C; Escalada, Javier; Santos, Silvia; Gil, María J; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. BMI is widely used as a surrogate measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (both considered together as prediabetes) or type 2 diabetes in relation to the criteria used for the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared to body fat percentage (BF%). We performed a cross-sectional study including 4,828 (587 lean, 1,320 overweight, and 2,921 obese classified according to BMI) white subjects (66% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and conventional blood markers of glucose metabolism and lipid profile were measured. We found a higher than expected number of subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in the obese category according to BF% when the sample was globally analyzed (P BMI-classified subjects (P BMI) women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as compared to those with normoglycemia (NG) (35.5 ± 7.0 vs. 30.3 ± 7.7%, P BMI. Similarly, increased BF% was found in lean BMI-classified men with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (25.2 ± 9.0 vs. 19.9 ± 8.0%, P = 0.008), exhibiting no differences in BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, assessing BF% may help to diagnose disturbed glucose tolerance beyond information provided by BMI and waist circumference in particular in male subjects with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and over the age of 40.

  6. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

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    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  7. Body fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes in pregnant women are associated with gestational insulin resistance.

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    Svensson, H; Wetterling, L; Bosaeus, M; Odén, B; Odén, A; Jennische, E; Edén, S; Holmäng, A; Lönn, M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by fat gain and insulin resistance. Changes in adipose tissue morphology and function during pregnancy and factors contributing to gestational insulin resistance are incompletely known. We sought to characterize adipose tissue in trimesters 1 and 3 (T1/T3) in normal weight (NW) and obese pregnant women, and identify adipose tissue-related factors associated with gestational insulin resistance. Twenty-two NW and 11 obese women were recruited early in pregnancy for the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. Examinations and sampling of blood and abdominal adipose tissue were performed longitudinally in T1/T3 to determine fat mass (air-displacement plethysmography); insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR); size, number and lipolytic activity of adipocytes; and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Fat mass and HOMA-IR increased similarly between T1 and T3 in the groups; all remained normoglycemic. Adipocyte size increased in NW women. Adipocyte number was not influenced, but proportions of small and large adipocytes changed oppositely in the groups. Lipolytic activity and circulating adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein increased in both groups. Adiponectin release was reduced in NW women. Fat mass and the proportion of very large adipocytes were most strongly associated with T3 HOMA-IR by multivariable linear regression (R(2)=0.751, Pchange comprehensively. NW women accumulated fat in existing adipocytes, accompanied by reduced adiponectin release. In comparison with the NW group, obese women had signs of adipocyte recruitment and maintained adiponectin levels. Body fat and large adipocytes may contribute significantly to gestational insulin resistance.

  8. CB(1) blockade-induced weight loss over 48 weeks decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss in humans.

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    Bergholm, R; Sevastianova, K; Santos, A; Kotronen, A; Urjansson, M; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Tiikkainen, M; Rissanen, A; Lundbom, N; Yki-Järvinen, H

    2013-05-01

    Studies in mice have suggested that endocannabinoid blockade using the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) blocker rimonabant prevents obesity-induced hepatic steatosis. To determine effects of rimonabant on liver fat in humans, we measured liver fat content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 37 subjects who used either a CB1 blocker rimonabant or placebo in a double-blind, randomized manner. This was retrospectively compared with a historical hypocaloric diet weight loss group (n=23). Weight loss averaged 8.5±1.4 kg in the rimonabant, 1.7±1.0 kg in the placebo and 7.5±0.2 kg in the hypocaloric diet group (Pfat decreased more in the rimonabant (5.9% (2.5-14.6%) vs 1.8% (0.9-3.5%), before vs after) than in the placebo group (6.8% (2.2-15.7%) vs 4.9% (1.6-7.8%), before vs after, Ploss of liver fat (r=0.70, P>0.0001). The decreases in liver fat were comparable between the rimonabant and the young historical hypocaloric diet groups. We conclude that, unlike in mice, in humans rimonabant decreases liver fat in proportion to weight loss.

  9. Higher percent body fat in young women with lower physical activity level and greater proportion Pacific Islander ancestry.

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    Black, Nate; Nabokov, Vanessa; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Novotny, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    Samoan women exhibit high rates of obesity, which can possibly be attenuated through diet and physical activity. Obesity, and body fatness in particular, is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases. Ancestry, physical activity, and dietary patterns have been associated with body composition. Using a cross-sectional design, the relative importance of proportion of Pacific Islander (PI) ancestry, level of physical activity, and macronutrients among healthy women in Honolulu, Hawai'i, ages 18 to 28 years was examined. All data were collected between January 2003 and December 2004. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were derived from a three-day food record. Means and standard deviations were computed for all variables of interest. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine correlates of %BF. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine relative contribution of variables significantly associated with %BF. Proportion of PI ancestry was significantly positively associated with %BF (P=0.0001). Physical activity level was significantly negatively associated with %BF (P=0.0006). Intervention to increase physical activity level of young Samoan women may be effective to decrease body fat and improve health. CRC-NIH grant: 0216.

  10. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Abdulkarimi; Alimirza Aghazadeh; Mohsen Daneshyar

    2011-01-01

    A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c), proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT), 0.2 (LT), 0.4 (MT) or 0.6% (HT) thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the b...

  11. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

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    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  12. A lower proportion of dietary saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the expression of adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Yang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jieyi; Pen, Anfang; Ying, Chenjiang; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2012-04-01

    The role for the amount of different dietary fatty acids in regulating expression of adiponectin and metabolism of glucose and lipids has been implicated, but the optimal amount has not been established yet. To address this issue, we fed male Wistar rats with either chow diet or various high-fat diets (HFDs) for 12 weeks. The HFDs contained the same percentage of fat (35% energy from fat) but had different proportions of saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated (S/M/P) (1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, 1:2:1, or 1:1:2) fat. Glucose and lipid metabolism and adiponectin expression were subsequently examined. In comparison with chow diet, HFD with any proportion of S/M/P increased energy intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:1 or 1:1:2 significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1. The HFD containing the highest level of saturated fatty acids (S/M/P proportion at 2:1.5:1) increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose. Levels of serum insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index were significantly increased by HFD with S/M/P proportions at 1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1 but not by the HFD with the S/M/P proportions at 1:1:2 (containing the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Levels of adiponectin messenger RNA in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were reduced by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2 or 1:1:1 but increased by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:2. These changes in expression of adiponectin were inversely associated with those in levels of triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Together, the proportion of different fatty acids in diets plays an important role in expression of adiponectin and

  13. Assessment of body fat proportion by means of bioelectrical impedance in athletic boys aged 7 to 18 years with respect to specific types of instruments

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    Sigmund Martin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance (BIA seems an appropriate method for basic diagnostics of body composition in a practical environment. This is a non-time consuming non-invasive method that provides a high degree of response relevance. However, the values identifi ed by the BIA method are susceptible to a number of factors, which need to be taken into account during the investigation stage and interpretation of the results. One of the signifi cant factors infl uencing the outcomes of measurement is the instrument factor.OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present comparative survey was to analyse the proportions of body fat by means of the BIA hand-to-leg method and BIA leg-to-leg method in a sample of athletic individuals aged 7 to 18 years.METHODS: The survey included a total of 178 ice-hockey players aged 7 to 18 years. The proportion of body fat analysed by means of the BIA hand-to-leg method was measured by the Tanita BC-418 MA instrument. For the purposes of the BIA leg-to-leg method the Tanita BF-350 instrument was used (Tanita, Japan. Both instruments work at a frequency of 50 kHz.RESULTS: The percentage of body fat established by the BIA leg-to-leg method (M = 13.5%; SD = 4.8 indicated signifi cantly lower values of fat percentage than the values measured by the BIA hand-to-leg method (M = 17.1%; SD = 4.3. The overall diff erence represents an average value of 3.6% (standard mode; p < .001; d = 0.8. Regarding the monitored age categories the observed diff erences are in the range of 3.1–4.7% (p < .001; d = 0.7–1.2.CONCLUSION: The present study compares the proportions of body fat by means of the BIA leg-to-leg method and BIA hand-to-leg method in athletic boys aged 7 to 18 years. The results measured by the BIA leg-to-leg method signifi cantly undervalue the proportion of body fat in comparison with the BIA hand-to-leg method. The instrument factor and age factor represented signifi - cant variables infl uencing the results of the

  14. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats progressively decreases the proportion of fat calories selected from a palatable cafeteria diet.

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    Mathes, Clare M; Letourneau, Chanel; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2016-05-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) decreases caloric intake in both human patients and rodent models. In long-term intake tests, rats decrease their preference for fat and/or sugar after RYGB, and patients may have similar changes in food selection. Here we evaluated the impact of RYGB on intake during a "cafeteria"-style presentation of foods to assess if rats would lower the percentage of calories taken from fat and/or sugar after RYGB in a more complex dietary context. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent either RYGB or sham surgery (Sham) were presurgically and postsurgically given 8-days free access to four semisolid foods representative of different fat and sugar levels along with standard chow and water. Compared with Sham rats, RYGB rats took proportionally fewer calories from fat and more calories from carbohydrates; the latter was not attributable to an increase in sugar intake. The proportion of calories taken from protein after RYGB also increased slightly. Importantly, these postsurgical macronutrient caloric intake changes in the RYGB rats were progressive, making it unlikely that the surgery had an immediate impact on the hedonic evaluation of the foods and strongly suggesting that learning is influencing the food choices. Indeed, despite these dietary shifts, RYGB, as well as Sham, rats continued to select the majority of their calories from the high-fat/high-sugar option. Apparently after RYGB, rats can progressively regulate their intake and selection of complex foods to achieve a seemingly healthier macronutrient dietary composition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

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    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  16. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  17. Proportionality lost - proportionality regained?

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    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the European Court of Justice (the ECJ) seems to have accepted restrictions on the freedom of establishment and other basic freedoms, despite the fact that a more thorough proportionality test would have revealed that the restriction in question did not pass the 'rule of reason' ...

  18. Change in Proportional Protein Intake in a 10-Week Energy-Restricted Low- or High-Fat Diet, in Relation to Changes in Body Size and Metabolic Factors

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    Tanja Stocks

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771 were randomised to a 600 kcal energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat% or high-fat (40-45 fat% diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2 on outcomes. Results: The low-fat group with >2 prot% increase lost 1.1 kg more weight (p = 0.03 and reduced cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/l more (p = 0.003 than the high-fat group with >2 prot% decrease. These differences were 2.5-fold and 1.8-fold greater than the differences between the low-fat and high-fat groups while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01. Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet.

  19. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal e...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.......Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat%) or high-fat (40-45 fat%) diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2) on outcomes...

  20. Proportional reasoning

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    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

  1. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills......Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

  2. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

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    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  3. Alterações no padrão alimentar de adolescentes com adequação pôndero-estatural e elevado percentual de gordura corporal Alterations in the feeding patterns of adolescents with weight-height adequacy and high body fat percentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina Ribeiro Vieira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o padrão alimentar de adolescentes com adequação pôndero-estatural e elevado percentual de gordura corporal (%GC. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo transversal com 99 adolescentes, sendo 70% do sexo feminino. Utilizou-se o índice de massa corporal para diagnosticar adequação pôndero-estatural, segundo a World Health Organization. Obteve-se o %GC pelo somatório das pregas cutâneas, conforme Durnin e Rahaman, considerando elevados os valores >25% (sexo feminino e >20% (masculino. Aplicou-se um questionário para investigação do hábito alimentar. RESULTADOS: a mediana de refeições diárias era quatro. O jantar era a refeição mais omitida, entretanto, a maioria o substituía por lanche. Omissão do jantar e realização do lanche da tarde foram mais freqüentes entre as adolescentes (p OBJECTIVES: alterations in the feeding patterns of adolescents as related to weight-height adequacy and high body fat percentage (%BF. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 99 adolescents, 70% females. The body mass index was applied to diagnose weight-height adequacy, according to the cut-off point established by the World Health Organization. %BF was obtained by the sum of skinfolds, according to Durnin and Rahaman, considering the values >25% (females and >20% (males high. A questionnaire was applied to investigate the feeding pattern. RESULTS: the median of daily meals was four. Dinner was the most skipped main meal, however, the majority replaced it by a snack. Skipping dinner and having a snack in the afternoon were more common among girls (p <0.01. About 11% skipped breakfast. In the last years, meal frequency and food intake, except for vegetables, were reduced by the majority. On weekends, about 81% and 31% of the adolescents, respectively, modified the fat and sugar class and the vegetable class intake, consuming more sweets, fat foods and less vegetables. The most rejected food class consisted of vegetable

  4. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index. However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2±4.7 and 26.8±4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P<0.001 but weak (r=0.39 correlation between BMI and body fat (%. In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (% in this age group.

  5. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  6. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  7. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  8. Adaptation through proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features.

  9. Proportional Borda allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Andreas; Klamler, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the allocation of indivisible items among a group of agents, a problem which has received increased attention in recent years, especially in areas such as computer science and economics. A major fairness property in the fair division literature is proportionality, which is satisfied whenever each of the n agents receives at least [Formula: see text] of the value attached to the whole set of items. To simplify the determination of values of (sets of) items from ordinal rankings of the items, we use the Borda rule, a concept used extensively and well-known in voting theory. Although, in general, proportionality cannot be guaranteed, we show that, under certain assumptions, proportional allocations of indivisible items are possible and finding such allocations is computationally easy.

  10. The divine proportion

    CERN Document Server

    Huntley, H E

    1970-01-01

    Using simple mathematical formulas, most as basic as Pythagoras's theorem and requiring only a very limited knowledge of mathematics, Professor Huntley explores the fascinating relationship between geometry and aesthetics. Poetry, patterns like Pascal's triangle, philosophy, psychology, music, and dozens of simple mathematical figures are enlisted to show that the ""divine proportion"" or ""golden ratio"" is a feature of geometry and analysis which awakes answering echoes in the human psyche. When we judge a work of art aesthetically satisfying, according to his formulation, we are making it c

  11. Proportional counter radiation camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  12. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation...... on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  13. Treatment versus proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson

    2010-01-01

    Persons suffering from mental illness, retardation or other disturbances who commit crimes in Denmark cannot be punished, but are instead sentenced to treatment. In the past, these sentences were always indeterminate, meaning that treatment regimens were only terminated when psychiatrists judged...... these persons no longer a danger to themselves or others. This practice was, however, severely criticized by advocates for the mentally ill in the late 1990s, since many of these treatment sentences lasted far longer than penal sentences given to mentally competent persons found guilty of similar crimes....... This critique, which hinges on proportionality, led to a change in the law on July 1, 2000, after which the length of treatment for non-serious-violent crimes was limited to a maximum of five years. This change was itself criticized by the Council of Medical Forensic Specialists, who argued that time of release...

  14. Treatment versus proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson

    2010-01-01

    Persons suffering from mental illness, retardation or other disturbances who commit crimes in Denmark cannot be punished, but are instead sentenced to treatment. In the past, these sentences were always indeterminate, meaning that treatment regimens were only terminated when psychiatrists judged...... these persons no longer a danger to themselves or others. This practice was, however, severely criticized by advocates for the mentally ill in the late 1990s, since many of these treatment sentences lasted far longer than penal sentences given to mentally competent persons found guilty of similar crimes....... This critique, which hinges on proportionality, led to a change in the law on July 1, 2000, after which the length of treatment for non-serious-violent crimes was limited to a maximum of five years. This change was itself criticized by the Council of Medical Forensic Specialists, who argued that time of release...

  15. The microstrip proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors in which the usual discrete anode and cathode wires are replaced by conducting strips on an insulating or partially insulating substrate are fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithographic techniques and hence offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity, together with the capability of producing extremely fine electrode structures. Microstrip proportional counters have now been variously reported having an energy resolution of better than 11 percent FWHM at 5.9 keV. They have been fabricated with anode bars down to 2 microns and on a variety of substrate materials including thin films which can be molded to different shapes. This review will examine the development of the microstrip detector with emphasis on the qualities which make this detector particularly interesting for use in astronomy.

  16. Effect of rice fat mimics on texture and microstructure of low-fat yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dan; KONG Baohua; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    This paper made a research on a new kind of rice fat mimics, which was obtained from rice powder hydrolyzed by a -amylase. Through the comparison between the yoghurt added with diverse proportions of above mentioned rice fat mimics and the reduced-fat yoghurt without any fat mimics as well as full-fat ones, the effect of the rice fat mimics in different proportions was examined upon the composition, the microstructure, the texture and the sensory evaluation of reduced-fat yoghurt. The results showed that the yoghurts added with rice fat mimics exhibited similar organoleptic attribute, textual characteristics and acceptability compared to those of full-fat controls(P>0.05), but with lower fat content and looser microstructures.

  17. Coconut fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  18. DPP4 gene variation affects GLP-1 secretion, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in humans with high body adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, Anja; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves and inactivates the insulinotropic hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, collectively termed incretins. DPP-4 inhibitors entered clinical practice as approved therapeutics for type-2 diabetes in 2006. However......-BMI interaction effects were detected (p = 0.8). After stratification for body fat content, the SNP negatively affected glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0229), insulin secretion (p = 0.0061), and glucose tolerance (p = 0.0208) in subjects with high body fat content only. CONCLUSIONS: A common variant, i......, inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF). RESEARCH DESIGN...

  19. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  20. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...

  1. Introduction: Two Kinds of Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Cohen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of architectural proportional systems in the history of architecture, the topic of this special collection of essays in 'Architectural Histories', has long been characterized by a fundamental ambiguity: the word and concept of proportion simultaneously signify two unrelated and in some ways opposite meanings. Proportion can refer to ratios, or it can refer to architectural beauty. In this introduction to the papers that follow, Matthew A. Cohen proposes a simple clarification of this ambiguity as a framework for continued discussion of this subject: that whenever scholars use the word proportion, they specify whether they intend ‘proportion-as-ratio’ or ‘proportion-as-beauty’. The frequent blending of these meanings today, Cohen argues, is a survival of attitudes toward proportional systems in architecture that were prevalent as long ago as the early Renaissance. Cohen proposes an alternative to Rudolf Wittkower's paradigmatic ‘break-away’ theory of the history of proportional systems, according to which virtually everyone accepted proportional systems as sources of universal beauty in architecture until the mid-eighteenth century, and after that time virtually everyone believed that beauty and proportional systems were matters of individual preference. Rather than a long period respectful of tradition followed by a long period skeptical of it, Cohen argues, based in part on a new interpretation of Claude Perrault’s 1683 codification of the notion of positive beauty, that architects and others have always had access to two parallel strands of thought pertaining to proportional systems: a skeptical-pragmatic strand and a respectful-metaphysical strand. This new historical and historiographical interpretation of the problem of architectural proportional systems, and the new vocabulary with which to discuss it critically presented herein, helps to separate aesthetic from historical considerations.

  2. THE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FOR ANIMAL FATS DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Pop; Cornel Laslo

    2009-01-01

    In this article the chemical composition for 3 types of animal fats (pork fat, beef tallow and buffalo tallow), following the variation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids proportion during freezing storage was studied. Determination of chemical composition of animal fats is important in establishing organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, the variation of them in time, nature and proportion of fatty acids conferring specific characteristics to them. For pork fat was determined the...

  3. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  4. Proportioning of light weight concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmus, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

  5. Proportional Reasoning as Essential Numeracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an aspect of a large research and development project that aimed to promote middle years school teachers' understanding and awareness of the pervasiveness of proportional reasoning as integral to numeracy. Teacher survey data of proportional reasoning across the curriculum were mapped on to a rich model of numeracy. Results…

  6. Proportional smile design using the recurring esthetic dental (red) proportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D H

    2001-01-01

    Dentists have needed an objective way in which to evaluate a smile. A method for determining the ideal size and position of the anterior teeth has been presented here. Use of the FIVE to evaluate the RED proportion and the width-to-height ratio, tempered with sound clinical judgment, gives pleasing and consistent results. With the diversity that exists in nature, rarely does the final result follow all the mathematical rules of proportional smile design. This approach may serve as a foundation on which to base initial smile design, however. When one begins to understand the relationship between beauty, mathematics, and the surrounding world, one begins to appreciate their interdependence.

  7. Replacing foods high in saturated fat by low-saturated fat alternatives: a computer simulation of the potential effects on reduction of saturated fat consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schickenberg, B.; Assema, P.; Brug, J.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Ocke, M.C.; Vries, de N.

    2009-01-01

    10 en%) increased from 23.3 % to 86.0 %. We conclude that the replacement of relatively few important high-saturated fat products by available lower-saturated fat alternatives can significantly reduce saturated fat intake and increase the proportion of individuals complying with recommended intake

  8. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

    CERN Multimedia

    Charpak, G

    1969-01-01

    It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

  9. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe Brunello

    Full Text Available Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software.

  10. Social Justice and Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic-Muller, Ksenija

    2015-01-01

    Ratio and proportional reasoning tasks abound that have connections to real-world situations. Examples in this article demonstrate how textbook tasks can easily be transformed into authentic real-world problems that shed light on issues of equity and fairness, such as population growth and crime rates. A few ideas are presented on how teachers can…

  11. Proportional Reasoning with a Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolo, Ami; Sinclair, Margaret; Whiteley, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Proportional reasoning pops up in math class in a variety of places, such as while making scaled drawings; finding equivalent fractions; converting units of measurement; comparing speeds, prices, and rates; and comparing lengths, areas, and volume. Students need to be exposed to a variety of representations to develop a sound understanding of this…

  12. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  13. Endogenous fat loss and true total tract digestibility of poultry fat in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F R; Trevizan, L; Saad, F M O B; Lisenko, K G; Reis, J S; Kessler, A M

    2017-07-01

    Fat plays an important role in the carnivore diet. It has high digestibility and high energy content and likely improves digestibility of the diet when present in greater amounts, suggesting that endogenous fat adversely affects the apparent digestibility of fat in low-fat diets. This study aimed to determine the endogenous fat loss (EFL) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of fat in dogs by using diets having different fat:carbohydrate ratios. Furthermore, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of macronutrients and energy, food intake, fecal output, and stool quality were evaluated. Twelve adult Beagle dogs were stratified into three 10-d periods in a 6 × 3 balanced incomplete Latin square design. Dietary treatments included a low-fat basal diet (3.4% fat) supplemented with 6 poultry fat levels (1, 4, 10, 12, 16, or 20%). The dogs were individually housed in metabolic cages and fed to meet the maintenance energy requirements. The ME intake was similar across the diets, despite the clearly low palatability of the 1 and 4% fat diets. Dietary ATTD of DM, OM, fat, and GE were improved after fat inclusion ( fat increase ( > 0.05). The amount of fecal output decreased with increasing level of fat in the diet, but the fecal score was not affected. The stool quality was close to ideal (2.4-2.8) and no different among diets. The EFL was estimated using 2 regression methods and was expressed as 155 mg∙kg BW∙d or 7.9 g/kg of DMI. The TTTD of poultry fat was the same irrespective of the dietary fat level. Poultry fat was 99.3% digestible for the dogs. The relation between EFL and fat intake was higher for the lower-fat diets, explaining the ATTD of fat increase according to the dietary fat inclusion. In conclusion, dietary fat is well digested by dogs irrespective of the level included, close to 100%. The ATTD of fat in low-fat diets is underestimated because the endogenous content is proportionally greater than that in high-fat diets.

  14. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. Saturated fats and trans fats are solid at room temperature. ... fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. You should limit saturated fat to less than 10% of your daily calories. ...

  15. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fatty acid they contain. Types of Fat Saturated fats raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. High LDL ... avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Keep saturated fats to less than 6% of ...

  16. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  18. Fats and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with “good” unsaturated fats, limit foods high in saturated fat, and avoid “bad” trans fat. “Good” unsaturated fats — ... have been eliminated from many of these foods. Saturated fats , while not as harmful as trans fats, by ...

  19. Fat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei

    2006-01-01

    The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being flexible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I develop a model where ?rms can o¤er interval long 'fat' products in the spatial model of differentiation. Contrary to the standard results pro?ts of the firms can decrease with increased differentiati...

  20. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  1. Photodetectors for scintillator proportionality measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: wwmoses@lbl.gov; Choong, Woon-Seng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, John D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2009-10-21

    We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.

  2. Photodetectors for Scintillator Proportionality Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, William W.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, J.D.

    2010-10-18

    We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.

  3. Statistical inference on mixing proportion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the interval estimation and hypothesis testing of the mixing proportion in mixture distributions are considered. A statistical inferential method is proposed which is inspired by the generalized p-values and generalized pivotal quantity. In some situations, the true levels of the tests given in the paper are equal to nominal levels, and the true coverage of the interval estimation or confidence bounds is also equal to nominal one. In other situations, under mild conditions, the tests are consistent and the coverage of the interval estimations or the confidence bounds is asymptotically equal to nominal coverage. Meanwhile, some simulations are performed which show that our method is satisfactory.

  4. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  5. Statistical inference on mixing proportion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XingZhong; LIU Fang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the interval estimation and hypothesis testing of the mixing proportion in mixture distributions are considered.A statistical inferential method is proposed which is inspired by the generalized p-values and generalized pivotal quantity.In some situations,the true levels of the tests given in the paper are equal to nominal levels,and the true coverage of the interval estimation or confidence bounds is also equal to nominal one.In other situations,under mild conditions,the tests are consistent and the coverage of the interval estimations or the confidence bounds is asymptotically equal to nominal coverage.Meanwhile,some simulations axe performed which show that our method is satisfactory.

  6. Proportional Reasoning: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourniaire, Francoise; Pulos, Steven

    1985-01-01

    The literature on proportional reasoning is reviewed. After methodology is discussed, strategies used to solve proportion problems, variables that influence performance, and training studies are each considered. (MNS)

  7. Quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats by triacylglycerol analysis using gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgraber, Manuela; Androni, Simona; Anklam, Elke

    2007-05-02

    The development and in-house testing of a method for the quantification of milk fat in chocolate fats is described. A database consisting of the triacylglycerol profiles of 310 genuine milk fat samples from 21 European countries and 947 mixtures thereof with chocolate fats was created under a strict quality control scheme using 26 triacylglycerol reference standards for calibration purposes. Out of the individual triacylglycerol fractions obtained, 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-3-butyroyl-glycerol (PSB) was selected as suitable marker compound for the determination of the proportion of milk fat in chocolate fats. By using PSB values from the standardized database, a calibration function using simple linear regression analysis was calculated to be used for future estimations of the milk fat content. A comparison with the widely used butyric acid method, which is currently used to determine the milk fat content in nonmilk fat mixtures, showed that both methods were equivalent in terms of accuracy. The advantage of the presented approach is that for further applications, i.e., determination of foreign fats in chocolate fats, just a single analysis is necessary, whereas for the same purpose, the C4 method requires two different analytical methods.

  8. Breast milk composition: fat content and fatty acid composition in vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, D A; Lönnerdal, B; Dewey, K G; Grivetti, L E

    1985-04-01

    Milk from vegetarians contained a lower proportion of fatty acids derived from animal fat and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from dietary vegetable fat. No significant differences were observed between dietary groups in percent fat in the milk or in proportions of fatty acids synthesized de novo in the mammary gland. Among women consuming less than 35 g animal fat per day, percent milk fat was significantly correlated with animal fat intake. Among women consuming greater than 35 g animal fat, percent fat in milk was positively correlated with percent of C10:0, C12:0, and C18:3 and negatively correlated with percent of C16:0 and C18:0 in the milk fat. These findings suggest that there is a maximum amount of C16:0 and C18:0 that can be taken up from the blood and subsequently secreted into the milk.

  9. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You ... or limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  10. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oils like soybean, corn, canola, and olive oil. Saturated fats: These fats are found in meat and other ... as butter, cheese, and all milk except skim. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  11. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  12. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  13. Leg length, proportion, health and beauty: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2009-12-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (foot + tibia + femur), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions (for example the relative leg length in proportion to stature, and the sitting height ratio [sitting height/stature x 100], among others) are used as epidemiological markers of risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e. a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) is the first genomic region that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, in most cases research has been showing that environment is a more powerful force to shape leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility. There are a variety of cosmetic, fashion, and surgical interventions to enhance perceived or actual leg length.

  14. Cognitive and Metacognitive Aspects of Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modestou, Modestina; Gagatsis, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    In this study we attempt to propose a new model of proportional reasoning based both on bibliographical and research data. This is impelled with the help of three written tests involving analogical, proportional, and non-proportional situations that were administered to pupils from grade 7 to 9. The results suggest the existence of a…

  15. Effect of ingestion of fat on ileostomy effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, S E; Read, N W

    1990-04-01

    Infusion of fat into the ileum slows small bowel transit and increases absorption of a carbohydrate meal. Paired studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of adding fat to the diet on gastrointestinal transit and absorption in eight people with terminal ileostomies. Each subject ate a daily diet that contained either low or high levels of fat but equivalent amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fibre. Solid and liquid markers were added to the food to measure transit times. The ileostomy outputs after the meals were analysed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyethylene glycol, and the delivery of solid markers. All subjects produced more ileal effluent while taking the high fat diet compared with the low fat diet. Fat and protein outputs were significantly higher on the high fat days, but a greater proportion of the fat was absorbed during the high fat diet compared with the low fat diet. The output of carbohydrate on the two diets was not significantly different. The incorporation of fat in the diet produced no significant differences in the transit times of the first marker, but a slight prolongation of the transit time of the second marker. Increasing the fat content of the diet did not slow small bowel transit or increase nutrient absorption. The increase in protein and water output could be explained by an increased secretion of pancreatic enzymes.

  16. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ...) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase...

  17. Proportional valve with a piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Pawel Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    The article concerns a slotted proportional valve for use in pneumatic and hydraulic systems. There is a growing demand for both hydraulic and pneumatic ultrafast proportional valves. The conducted analysis of literature confirms the lack of such solutions for proportional valves. The currently used pneumatic systems for selection and segregation of parts and objects require ultrafast valves. The presented solution for the proportional valve can significantly improve and accelerate this type of technological processes. Furthermore, fast proportional valves can be successfully used for positional control of pneumatic and hydraulic drives. The article presents the design of a slotted divide valve and sets the maximum mass flow rate for service roads.

  18. Proportional valve with a piezoelectric actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laski Pawel Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns a slotted proportional valve for use in pneumatic and hydraulic systems. There is a growing demand for both hydraulic and pneumatic ultrafast proportional valves. The conducted analysis of literature confirms the lack of such solutions for proportional valves. The currently used pneumatic systems for selection and segregation of parts and objects require ultrafast valves. The presented solution for the proportional valve can significantly improve and accelerate this type of technological processes. Furthermore, fast proportional valves can be successfully used for positional control of pneumatic and hydraulic drives. The article presents the design of a slotted divide valve and sets the maximum mass flow rate for service roads.

  19. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  20. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  1. Confinement and fat-center-vortices model

    CERN Document Server

    Deldar, S

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I review shortly potentials obtained for SU(2), SU(3) and SU(4) static sources from fat-center-vortices model. Results confirm the confinement of quarks in all three gauge groups. Proportionality of string tensions with flux tube counting is better than Casimir scaling especially for SU(4).

  2. Optimal crossover designs for the proportional model

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In crossover design experiments, the proportional model, where the carryover effects are proportional to their direct treatment effects, has draw attentions in recent years. We discover that the universally optimal design under the traditional model is E-optimal design under the proportional model. Moreover, we establish equivalence theorems of Kiefer-Wolfowitz's type for four popular optimality criteria, namely A, D, E and T (trace).

  3. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A V; Bruun, T S; Hansen, C F

    2017-02-15

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Weight and back fat thickness of sows were measured at day 7 prepartum, day 2 postpartum and at weaning. Litters were weighed at day 2 and at weaning. Pearson correlation coefficients between variables were calculated and regression models were developed. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the sows was 6.1±1.1 kg/day, average daily gain (ADG) of the litter was 2.92±0.53 kg/day and sows weaned 13.0±1.1 piglets. First parity sows generally had a lower ADFI and milk production and a decrease in total born piglets in next litter compared with parity 2 to 4 sows, which could be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter with 220 to 440 g/day in parity 1 to 4, respectively. Increasing the ADFI by 1 kg/day reduced the BW loss with 6.6 to 13.9 kg of parity 1 to 4 sows, respectively, during lactation, whereas increasing the average milk yield with 1 kg/day raised the BW loss with 4.3 to 21.0 kg of the four parities during lactation. The number of total born piglets in the next litter was positively related to the number of piglets born in the previous litter. In conclusion, both a high feed

  4. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  5. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fit Fats and Your Family en español Las grasas y su hijo As with carbohydrates in recent ... and increase the risk of heart disease. 3. Trans fats: Found in margarine (especially the sticks), commercial ...

  6. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  7. Proportional Reasoning and the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Geoff; Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley L.; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is an important aspect of formal thinking that is acquired during the developmental years that approximate the middle years of schooling. Students who fail to acquire sound proportional reasoning often experience difficulties in subjects that require quantitative thinking, such as science, technology, engineering, and…

  8. Regulatory scrutiny of subsidiarity and proportionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne; Gomtsyan, Suren

    2015-01-01

    As the monitoring of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality is mostly left up to the EU institutions, internal quality control bodies could play an important role in developing tests and standards which represent part of ‘subsidiarity and proportionality in action’. In this context, the

  9. CCSSM Challenge: Graphing Ratio and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberg, Signe E.; D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Lynch-Davis, Kathleen; Mintos, Alexia; Krawczyk, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    A renewed emphasis was placed on ratio and proportional reasoning in the middle grades in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). The expectation for students includes the ability to not only compute and then compare and interpret the results of computations in context but also interpret ratios and proportions as they are…

  10. Relating arithmetical techniques of proportion to geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    2015-01-01

    . Considering 6 common Indonesian textbooks in use, we describe how proportion is explained and appears in examples and exercises, using an explicit reference model of the mathematical organizations of both themes. We also identify how the proportion themes of the geometry and arithmetic domains are linked. Our...... results show that the explanation in two domains has different approach, but basically they are mathematically related....

  11. Fat embolism syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob George; Reeba George; Dixit, R; Gupta, R C; Gupta, N.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonar...

  12. Numerical Proportion Representation: A Neurocomputational Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Verguts, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Proportion representation is an emerging subdomain in numerical cognition. However, its nature and its correlation with simple number representation remain elusive, especially at the theoretical level. To fill this gap, we propose a gain-field model of proportion representation to shed light on the neural and computational basis of proportion representation. The model is based on two well-supported neuroscientific findings. The first, gain modulation, is a general mechanism for information integration in the brain; the second relevant finding is how simple quantity is neurally represented. Based on these principles, the model accounts for recent relevant proportion representation data at both behavioral and neural levels. The model further addresses two key computational problems for the cognitive processing of proportions: invariance and generalization. Finally, the model provides pointers for future empirical testing.

  13. A Fat Higgs with a Fat Top

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, A; Delgado, Antonio; Tait, Tim M.P.

    2005-01-01

    A new variant of the supersymmetric Fat Higgs model is presented in which the MSSM Higgses as well as the top quark are composite. The underlying theory is an s-confining SU(3) gauge theory with the MSSM gauge groups realized as gauged sub-groups of the chiral flavor symmetries. This motivates the large Yukawas necessary for the large top mass and SM-like Higgs of mass>>M_Z in a natural way as the residual of the strong dynamics responsible for the composites. This removes fine-tuning associated with these couplings present in the original Fat Higgs and New Fat Higgs models, respectively.

  14. Human skeleton proportions from monocular data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG En; LI Ling

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel method for estimating the skeleton proportions ofa human figure from monocular data.The proposed system will first automatically extract the key frames and recover the perspective camera model from the 2D data.The human skeleton proportions are then estimated from the key frames using the recovered camera model without posture reconstruction. The proposed method is tested to be simple, fast and produce satisfactory results for the input data. The human model with estimated proportions can be used in future research involving human body modeling or human motion reconstruction.

  15. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  16. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than.......05). Muscle glycogen breakdown was significantly lower in the subjects taking the fat-rich diet than those taking the carbohydrate-rich diet (2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1) min(-1), respectively; P

  17. Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer from krabok (irvingia malayana) seed fat and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ornla-Ied, Pimwalan; Aneknun, Tanapa

    2015-01-01

    Lauric fat cocoa butter replacer (LCBR) was produced from a blend of krabok seed fat (KSF) and coconut oil (CO). Four fat blends with different ratios of KSF/CO (20/80, 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 (%wt)), CO, KSF and a commercial LCBR (C-LCBR) were characterized using various techniques. It was found that blend 60/40 exhibited SFC curve and crystallization/melting behavior most similar to that of C-LCBR. The blend met the requirements to be considered as LCBR and has potential as an alternative to commercial LCBR that are being used nowadays and hence it was recommended as LCBR (called R-LCBR). The polymorphic behavior of both C-LCBR and R-LCBR was investigated and both fats displayed mainly short spacing pattern associated with β' polymorph, a required polymorph for LCBR. The compatibility between R-LCBR and CB was investigated by mixing the R-LCBR with CB in different proportions and softening due to the eutectic effect was observed in the mixed fats. This limits the proportion of CB and the R-LCBR in compound coatings to no more than 5% of CB in the total fat phase.

  18. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed.

  19. The linear relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the cow diet, milk fatty acid composition, and butter properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, S; Hurtaud, C; Lopez, C; Delaby, L; Peyraud, J L

    2006-06-01

    Fresh grass in the cow diet improves the rheological and nutritional properties of butter. However, the relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the diet and these properties is still unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between the proportion of fresh grass in the diet and the properties of milk and butter. Four groups of 2 cows were fed 4 isoenergetic diets characterized by increasing amounts of fresh grass (0, 30, 60, and 100% dry matter of forage) according to a Youden square design. Energy levels were similar among all diets. Thus, no effect of mobilization was observed and the results were only due to the proportion of fresh grass in the diet. Milk yield linearly increased with the proportion of fresh grass in the diet (+0.21 kg/d per 10% of grass). Fat yield remained unchanged. Thus, by effect of dilution, increasing the proportion of fresh grass in the diet induced a linear decrease in fat content. Milk fat globule size decreased by 0.29 mum when the proportion of grass reached 30% in the diet. Increasing the proportion of fresh grass in the diet induced a linear increase in unsaturated fatty acids percentages at the expense of saturated fatty acids. Relationships were +0.38, +0.12, +0.05 and -0.69 points/10% of fresh grass in the diet for C18:1 trans-11, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:3n-3, and C16:0, respectively. These modifications in fatty acid composition, and in particular in the spreadability index, C16:0/C18:1, were responsible for linear decreases in final melting temperature and solid fat content in butter fat, perceived in sensory analysis by a linear decrease in firmness in mouth. The nutritional value of butter was also linearly improved by the proportion of fresh grass in the diet by halving the atherogenicity index.

  20. The impact of a high body mass index on laparoscopy assisted gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Min-Chan; Ryu, Seong-Yeob; Kim, Wook; Song, Kyo-Young; Cho, Gyu-Seok; Han, Sang-Uk; Hyung, Woo Jin; Ryu, Seung-Wan

    2009-11-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with postoperative morbidity in gastric cancer surgery, but its impact on laparoscopy assisted gastrectomy (LAG) for gastric cancer has rarely been evaluated. The clinical data for 1,485 LAG procedures for gastric cancer in 10 institutions were reviewed. The patients were divided into high body mass index (BMI) (BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2); n = 432) and low BMI (BMI gastric cancer. However, when a surgeon is relatively inexperienced with LAG, a careful approach is required for male patients with a high BMI.

  1. Validation study of the body adiposity index as a predictor of percent body fat in older individuals: findings from the BLSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cooper, Jamie A

    2014-09-01

    A new body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5)) - 18) has been developed and validated in adult populations. We aimed to assess the validity of BAI in an older population. We compared the concordance correlation coefficient between BAI, body mass index (BMI), and percent body fat (fat%; by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in an older population (n = 954) participating in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. BAI was more strongly correlated with fat% than BMI (r of .7 vs .6 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI was in better agreement with fat% (r of .6 vs .7 for BAI vs BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI and fat%, respectively, p BMI may be a better index for older men. Finally, BAI is not accurate in people with extremely low or high body fat percentages.

  2. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

    2009-04-30

    We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

  3. Proportional loss functions for debris flow events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Rheinberger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative risk assessments of debris flows and other hydrogeological hazards require the analyst to predict damage potentials. A common way to do so is by use of proportional loss functions. In this paper, we analyze a uniquely rich dataset of 132 buildings that were damaged in one of five large debris flow events in Switzerland. Using the double generalized linear model, we estimate proportional loss functions that may be used for various prediction purposes including hazard mapping, landscape planning, and insurance pricing. Unlike earlier analyses, we control for confounding effects of building characteristics, site specifics, and process intensities as well as for overdispersion in the data. Our results suggest that process intensity parameters are the most meaningful predictors of proportional loss sizes. Cross-validation tests suggest that the mean absolute prediction errors of our models are in the range of 11%, underpinning the accurateness of the approach.

  4. Proportional loss functions for debris flow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinberger, C. M.; Romang, H. E.; Bründl, M.

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative risk assessments of debris flows and other hydrogeological hazards require the analyst to predict damage potentials. A common way to do so is by use of proportional loss functions. In this paper, we analyze a uniquely rich dataset of 132 buildings that were damaged in one of five large debris flow events in Switzerland. Using the double generalized linear model, we estimate proportional loss functions that may be used for various prediction purposes including hazard mapping, landscape planning, and insurance pricing. Unlike earlier analyses, we control for confounding effects of building characteristics, site specifics, and process intensities as well as for overdispersion in the data. Our results suggest that process intensity parameters are the most meaningful predictors of proportional loss sizes. Cross-validation tests suggest that the mean absolute prediction errors of our models are in the range of 11%, underpinning the accurateness of the approach.

  5. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  6. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  7. LTR design of proportional-integral observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.;

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension...... of the LQG/LTR method of proportional (P) observers, a systematic LTR design method is derived for the PI observer. Our recovery design method allows time recovery and frequency (normal) recovery to be done independently. Furthermore, we give explicit expressions for the recovery error when asymptotic...

  8. Proportional hazards models with discrete frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, Chrys; Crowder, Martin; Kimber, Alan

    2010-07-01

    We extend proportional hazards frailty models for lifetime data to allow a negative binomial, Poisson, Geometric or other discrete distribution of the frailty variable. This might represent, for example, the unknown number of flaws in an item under test. Zero frailty corresponds to a limited failure model containing a proportion of units that never fail (long-term survivors). Ways of modifying the model to avoid this are discussed. The models are illustrated on a previously published set of data on failures of printed circuit boards and on new data on breaking strengths of samples of cord.

  9. Divining Proportions in the Information Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tallon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of reverse engineering proportional systems of historic buildings has long been fraught with problems. One cannot assume, without knowing the specific conditions of acquisition, that existing plans are accurate enough to sustain the scrutiny necessary to resolve differences among potential proportional schemes. Yet producing a new survey with conventional measurement instruments could take weeks, if not months, and only in the best of situations would it be possible to acquire data in the upper reaches of the building—information required to avoid arbitrary dimensional rectification. With the advent of high-speed and high-precision laser scanning, however, the situation has changed dramatically.

  10. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  11. Kitchen Gardens: Contexts for Developing Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2013-01-01

    It is great to see how the sharing of ideas sparks new ideas. In 2011 Lyon and Bragg wrote an "Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom" (APMC) article on the mathematics of kitchen gardens. In this article the authors show how the kitchen garden may be used as a starting point for proportional reasoning. The authors highlight different…

  12. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

  13. Adaptive bayesian analysis for binomial proportions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of statistical inference of binomial proportions for non-matched, correlated samples, under the Bayesian framework. Such inference can arise when the same group is observed at a different number of times with the aim...

  14. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palm kernel oil (often called tropical oils) and cocoa butter. For people who need to lower their ... fat. Guidelines for Fats For adults who would benefit from lowering their LDL cholesterol, the American Heart ... This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

  15. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A A A What's in ... Kid's Guide to Eating Right MyPlate Food Guide Learning About Proteins Nutrition & Fitness Center Learning About Carbohydrates ...

  16. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  17. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  18. Metabolic responses to high-fat or low-fat meals and association with sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2005-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, energy from fat) or an isoenergetic low-fat (20% energy from fat) meal served in random order. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). After the high-fat meal, increases in thermoregulatory SNS activity (very low-frequency component of HRV, 0.007-0.035 Hz, 577.4+/-45.9 vs. 432.0+/-49.3 ms2, p<0.05) and fat oxidation (21.0+/-5.3 vs. 13.3+/-4.3 g, p<0.001) were greater than those after the low-fat meal. However, thermic effects of the meal (TEM) were lower after the high-fat meal than after the low-fat meal (27.5+/-11.2 vs. 36.1+/-10.9 kcal, p<0.05). In conclusion, the high-fat meal can stimulate thermoregulatory SNS and lipolysis, but resulted in lower TEM, suggesting that a high proportion of dietary fat intake, even with a normal daily range of calories, may be a potent risk factor for further weight gain.

  19. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  20. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  1. Efficacy paradox and proportional contextual effect (PCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2017-07-20

    The "efficacy paradox" is when the effect of a treatment tested in an RCT, or evidence-based guideline advice, differs markedly from treatment benefits observed in clinical practice. This arises because in RCT reporting and guideline development treatment efficacy is judged by the separation of the treatment group from the placebo group (the specific treatment effect) whereas in clinical practice it is the overall treatment effect, which includes both specific and contextual responses, that patients experience. This paradox causes a disconnect between guidelines and clinical practice and ignores the importance of contextual response in clinical care. This article fully explains and discusses these issues and presents a possible way to reduce the paradox through an alteration in RCT reporting that shifts the focus to overall treatment benefit and the proportion ("proportional contextual effect") that is explained by placebo and contextual effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutron spectroscopy with the Spherical Proportional Counter

    CERN Document Server

    Bougamont, E; Derre, J; Galan, J; Gerbier, G; Giomataris, I; Gros, M; Katsioulas, I; Jourde, D; Magnier, P; Navick, X F; Papaevangelou, T; Savvidis, I; Tsiledakis, G

    2015-01-01

    A novel large volume spherical proportional counter, recently developed, is used for neutron measurements. Gas mixtures of $N_{2}$ with $C_{2}H_{6}$ and pure $N_{2}$ are studied for thermal and fast neutron detection, providing a new way for the neutron spectroscopy. The neutrons are detected via the ${}^{14}N(n, p)C^{14}$ and ${}^{14}N(n, \\alpha)B^{11}$ reactions. Here we provide studies of the optimum gas mixture, the gas pressure and the most appropriate high voltage supply on the sensor of the detector in order to achieve the maximum amplification and better resolution. The detector is tested for thermal and fast neutrons detection with a ${}^{252}Cf$ and a ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}Be$ neutron source. The atmospheric neutrons are successfully measured from thermal up to several MeV, well separated from the cosmic ray background. A comparison of the spherical proportional counter with the current available neutron counters is also given.

  3. Proportional Fair Coding for Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karumbu, Premkumar; Leith, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    We consider multi--hop wireless networks carrying unicast flows for multiple users. Each flow has a specified delay deadline, and the lossy wireless links are modelled as binary symmetric channels (BSCs). Since transmission time, also called airtime, on the links is shared amongst flows, increasing the airtime for one flow comes at the cost of reducing the airtime available to other flows sharing the same link. We derive the joint allocation of flow airtimes and coding rates that achieves the proportionally fair throughput allocation. This utility optimisation problem is non--convex, and one of the technical contributions of this paper is to show that the proportional fair utility optimisation can nevertheless be decomposed into a sequence of convex optimisation problems. The solution to this sequence of convex problems is the unique solution to the original non--convex optimisation. Surprisingly, this solution can be written in an explicit form that yields considerable insight into the nature of the proporti...

  4. Developing Essential Understanding of Ratios, Proportions, and Proportional Reasoning for Teaching Mathematics: Grades 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Joanne; Ellis, Amy; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    2010-01-01

    How do you refute the erroneous claim that all ratios are fractions? This book goes beyond a simple introduction to ratios, proportions, and proportional reasoning. It will help broaden and deepen your mathematical understanding of one of the most challenging topics for students--and teachers--to grasp. It will help you engage your students,…

  5. Proportional Reasoning of Preservice Elementary Education Majors: An Epistemic Model of the Proportional Reasoning Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleener, M. Jayne

    Current research and learning theory suggest that a hierarchy of proportional reasoning exists that can be tested. Using G. Vergnaud's four complexity variables (structure, content, numerical characteristics, and presentation) and T. E. Kieren's model of rational number knowledge building, an epistemic model of proportional reasoning was…

  6. Ideal proportional navigation for exoatmospheric interception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kebo; Zhang Taotao; Chen Lei

    2013-01-01

    Ideal proportional navigation (IPN) is a natural choice for exoatmospheric interception for its mighty capture capability and ease of implementation.The closed-form solution of two-dimensional ideal proportional navigation was conducted in previous public literature,whereas the practical interception happens in the three-dimensional space.A novel set of relative dynamic equations is adopted in this paper,which is with the advantage of decoupling relative motion in the instantaneous rotation plane of the line of sight from the rotation of this plane.The dimension-reduced IPN is constructed in this instantaneous plane,which functions as a three-dimensional guidance law.The trajectory features of dimension-reduced IPN are explored,and the capture regions of dimension-reduced IPN with limited acceleration against nonmaneuvering and maneuvering targets are analyzed by using phase plane method.It is proved that the capture capability of IPN is much stronger than true proportional navigation (TPN),no matter the target maneuvers or not.Finally,simulation results indicate that IPN is more effective than TPN in exoatmospheric interception scenarios.

  7. Band Control of Mutual Proportional Reinsurance

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, John; Yuan, Jiguang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimization of mutual proportional reinsurance --- a mutual reserve system that is intended for the collective reinsurance needs of homogeneous mutual members, such as P&I Clubs in marine mutual insurance and reserve banks in the U.S. Federal Reserve. Compared to general (non-mutual) insurance models, which involve one-sided impulse control (i.e., either downside or upside impulse) of the underlying insurance reserve process that is required to be positive, a mutual insurance differs in allowing two-sided impulse control (i.e., both downside and upside impulse), coupled with the classical proportional control of reinsurance. We prove that a special band-type impulse control $(a,A,B,b)$ with $a=0$ and $aproportional reinsurance policy (classical control), is optimal when the objective is to minimize the total maintenance cost. That is, when the reserve position reaches a lower boundary of $a=0$, the reserve should immediately be raised to ...

  8. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Milutinovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of a patient’s facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP. Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions.

  9. The Proportion of Stars with Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    Estimates of the proportion of Sun-like stars with accompanying planets vary widely; the best present estimate is that it is about 0.34. The capture theory of planet formation involves an interaction between a condensed star and either a diffuse protostar or a high-density region in a dense embedded cluster. The protostar, or dense region, is tidally stretched into a filament that is gravitationally unstable and breaks up into a string of protoplanetary blobs, which subsequently collapse to form planets, some of which are captured by the star. A computational model, in which the passage of collapsing protostars, with initial radii 1000, 1500 and 2000 au, through a dense embedded cluster are followed, is used to estimate the proportion of protostars that would be disrupted to give planets, in environments with star number-densities in the range 5000-25,000 pc-3. It is concluded from the results that the capture theory might explain the presently-estimated proportion of stars with exoplanet companions, although other possible ways of producing exoplanets are not excluded.

  10. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatto, Giseli; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the economic level (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by economic level, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Conclusions: Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and economic level. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. PMID:27131896

  11. Differences in the effect of bolus weight on flavor release into the breath between low-fat and high-fat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linforth, Rob S T; Blissett, Annie; Taylor, Andrew J

    2005-09-07

    The maximum intensity of flavor release increased as the weight of food introduced into the mouth (the bolus) was increased for a range of different foods. The relationship was not directly proportional (1:1) but followed a power law function. Low-fat (foods showed a different relationship than high-fat (> or = 5 g/100 g) foods, but all low-fat and all high-fat foods were broadly similar irrespective of food type or flavor molecule chemistry. For low-fat foods the intensity of flavor release increased with increasing bolus weight to a greater extent than high-fat foods. This may be associated with the capacity of fat to selectively adhere to the surfaces of the oral cavity, thereby changing the effective surface area for the release of lipophilic flavors.

  12. Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellbaum, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000.

  13. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  14. Cosmic Muon Detector Using Proportional Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Dezső; Hamar, Gergő; Molnár, Janka Sára; Oláh, Éva; Pázmándi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A set of classical multi-wire proportional chambers were designed and constructed with the main purpose of efficient cosmic muon detection. These detectors are relatively simple to construct, and at the same time are low cost, making them ideal for educational purposes. The detector layers have efficiencies above 99% for minimum ionizing cosmic muons, and their position resolution is about 1 cm, that is, particle trajectories are clearly observable. Visualization of straight tracks is possible using an LED array, with the discriminated and latched signal driving the display. Due to the exceptional operating stability of the chambers, the design can also be used for cosmic muon telescopes.

  15. The effect of oxandrolone on body proportions and body composition in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Ridder, M.A. de; Stijnen, T.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Untreated girls with Turner syndrome (TS) have short stature, relatively broad shoulders, a broad pelvis, short legs, a high fat mass and low muscle mass. Our objective was to assess the effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) on body proportions and composition in growth hormone (GH

  16. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira Maria Karvinen

    2016-07-01

    capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  17. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans fats Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are known ... your own salads instead of using commercial dressings. Saturated fats and trans fats are known as the “harmful ...

  18. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper......% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  19. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  20. How to Lose Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Maxwell; 钱俊

    2005-01-01

    Here is yet another article about losing body fat. The Interact is riddled with such articles, Some propose complex diets; others give worth while valuable advice and most are trying to sell something.

  1. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  2. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  3. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biscuits, sweet rolls, and donuts Breads and crackers Frozen foods, such as frozen dinners, pizza, ice cream, frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and ...

  4. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and coconut oils, cheese, and red meat have high amounts of ... pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm kernel oils (found in packaged ...

  5. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  6. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron

    2010-09-09

    Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty.

  7. Viking-Age Sails: Form and Proportion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Vibeke

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological ship-finds have shed much light on the design and construction of vessels from the Viking Age. However, the exact proportions of their sails remain unknown due to the lack of fully preserved sails, or other definite indicators of their proportions. Key Viking-Age ship-finds from Scandinavia—the Oseberg Ship, the Gokstad Ship and Skuldelev 3—have all revealed traces of rigging. In all three finds, the keelson—with the mast position—is preserved, together with fastenings for the sheets and the tack, indicating the breadth of the sail. The sail area can then be estimated based on practical experience of how large a sail the specific ship can carry, in conjunction with hull form and displacement. This article presents reconstructions of the form and dimensions of rigging and sail based on the archaeological finds, evidence from iconographic and written sources, and ethnographic parallels with traditional Nordic boats. When these sources are analysed, not only do the similarities become apparent, but so too does the relative disparity between the archaeological record and the other sources. Preferential selection in terms of which source is given the greatest merit is therefore required, as it is not possible to afford them all equal value.

  8. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankui Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105 and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107. Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI 0.05.The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Serum T levels do not correlate directly with body fat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  9. Active vibration isolation by adaptive proportional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Wu, Wei-Hao; Chu, Chih-Liang

    2013-01-01

    An active vibration isolation system that applies proportional controller incorporated with an adaptive filter to reduce the transmission of base excitations to a precision instrument is proposed in this work. The absolute vibration velocity signal acquired from an accelerator and being processed through an integrator is input to the controller as a feedback signal, and the controller output signal drives the voice coil actuator to produce a sky-hook damper force. In practice, the phase response of integrator at low frequency such as 2~5 Hz deviate from the 90 degree which is the exact phase difference between the vibration velocity and acceleration. Therefore, an adaptive filter is used to compensate the phase error in this paper. An analysis of this active vibration isolation system is presented, and model predictions are compared to experimental results. The results show that the proposed method significantly reduces transmissibility at resonance without the penalty of increased transmissibility at higher frequencies.

  10. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  11. Microstrip proportional counter development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors are an exciting new development in proportional counter design fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithography techniques; they therefore offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity. A development program is underway at NASA-Marshall to produce large-area microstrips for use in an X-ray detector balloon flight program and to investigate the general performance limits of these new devices. Microstrips tested so far have been fabricated both in-house using standard photolithographic techniques and by an outside contractor using electron beam technology. Various substrate materials have been tested along with different electrode configurations. The distributions of pickup on subdivided cathodes on both top and bottom surfaces of the microstrips are also being investigated for use as two-dimensional imaging detectors. Data from these tests in the development of a large-area device will be presented.

  12. Scaling and universality in proportional elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Castellano, Claudio

    2007-09-28

    A most debated topic of the last years is whether simple statistical physics models can explain collective features of social dynamics. A necessary step in this line of endeavor is to find regularities in data referring to large-scale social phenomena, such as scaling and universality. We show that, in proportional elections, the distribution of the number of votes received by candidates is a universal scaling function, identical in different countries and years. This finding reveals the existence in the voting process of a general microscopic dynamics that does not depend on the historical, political, and/or economical context where voters operate. A simple dynamical model for the behavior of voters, similar to a branching process, reproduces the universal distribution.

  13. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W.J.

    1999-04-06

    A power controller device is disclosed which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the ``reset`` input of a R-S flip flop, while an ``0`` crossing detector controls the ``set`` input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the ``reset`` and ``set`` inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations. 9 figs.

  14. Dietary fat type, meat quality and fatty acid metabolism in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchaothai, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the replacement of animal fat by vegetable oil in the diet for growing-finishing pigs. Generally, but not exclusively, fats of animal origin contain higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) than vegetable oils that are commonly rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUF

  15. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  16. Trans fatty acids in dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries : the TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.; Amelsvoort, J. van; Becker, W.; Erp-Baart, M.A. van; Kafatos, A.; Leth, T.; Poppel, G. van

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fats and oils from 14 European countries was analyzed with particular emphasis on isomerictransfatty acids. The proportion oftransfatty acids in typical soft margarines and low-fat spreads ranged between 0.1 and 17% of total fatty acids and that ofcis-unsaturate

  17. Do highly body dissatisfied women exhibit attentional biases towards thin and overweight figures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Body dissatisfaction has been linked as a direct precursor for life threatening eating disorders such as Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Current research indicates that attentional bias may play a key role in the development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction in women due to the constant exposure to media depicted images. Therefore, we conducted an eye-tracking study to investigate whether individuals with high body dissatisfaction show a heightened attentional bias towards images of thin and overweight bodies compared to low body dissatisfied individuals. We also examined whether there was a general tendency for participants to show an attentional bias towards overweight bodies opposed to medium bodies and thin bodies opposed to medium bodies. Method: Thirty six participants completed a body dissatisfaction scale, and subsequently took part in an eye-tracking study. An eye-tracker was used to measure and record both gaze direction and gaze duration frequencies whilst exposing participants to images of females presented for 2000ms. Each trial compared either thin with medium images, or overweight with medium images. Results: Results indicated that overall participants viewed the thin images for a significantly longer time (M=.451, M= .534 respectively than the overweight images F(1, 34= 9.806, p = .04, ηp2= .224. However, there were no significant effects of gaze direction towards the thin or overweight bodies. Similarly, no significant effects were obtained for direction or duration bias towards the thin or overweight bodies across the high and low body dissatisfied groups. Conclusions: These data show that overall, participants orient their attention more towards thin body images. However, body dissatisfaction level appears to have no effect on such attentional biases.

  18. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  19. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has...

  20. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; N Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (pfat chicken sausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (pfat contents and energy values are decreased in reduced-fat chicken sausages (pfat chicken sausages (pfat and the addition of BSG pre-emulsion had no influence on the cohesiveness of the chicken sausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages.

  1. Exact tests for Hardy-Weinberg proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, William R

    2009-12-01

    Exact conditional tests are often required to evaluate statistically whether a sample of diploids comes from a population with Hardy-Weinberg proportions or to confirm the accuracy of genotype assignments. This requirement is especially common when the sample includes multiple alleles and sparse data, thus rendering asymptotic methods, such as the common chi(2)-test, unreliable. Such an exact test can be performed using the likelihood ratio as its test statistic rather than the more commonly used probability test. Conceptual advantages in using the likelihood ratio are discussed. A substantially improved algorithm is described to permit the performance of a full-enumeration exact test on sample sizes that are too large for previous methods. An improved Monte Carlo algorithm is also proposed for samples that preclude full enumeration. These algorithms are about two orders of magnitude faster than those currently in use. Finally, methods are derived to compute the number of possible samples with a given set of allele counts, a useful quantity for evaluating the feasibility of the full enumeration procedure. Software implementing these methods, ExactoHW, is provided.

  2. Dynamical fat link fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

  3. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  4. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.

  5. Combined adverse effects of maternal smoking and high body mass index on heart development in offspring : evidence for interaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, M.E.; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S.; Corpeleijn, E.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Hofstra, R.M.W.; Berger, R.M.F.; Bakker, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of a possible interaction between maternal smoking and high body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of specific congenital heart anomalies (CHA) in offspring. Design Case-control study. Setting Data from a population-based birth defects registry in the Netherlands. P

  6. Comparison of Fat7-bar and HYP fat links

    CERN Document Server

    Bilson-Thompson, S O

    2004-01-01

    We study various methods of constructing fat links based upon the HYP (by Hasenfratz & Knechtli) and Fat7-bar (by W. Lee) algorithms. We present the minimum plaquette distribution for these fat links. This enables us to determine which algorithm is most effective at reducing the spread of plaquette values.

  7. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  8. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help f...... future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively....

  9. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  10. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and down the soccer field. So what's the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  11. A study of dentists' preferred maxillary anterior tooth width proportions: comparing the recurring esthetic dental proportion to other mathematical and naturally occurring proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Daniel H

    2007-01-01

    Presently, there are no generally accepted standards for designing smiles using tooth proportion relationships. The purpose of this study was to determine whether North American dentists prefer smile designs created using the recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion, other mathematically defined tooth proportion relationships, or naturally occurring tooth-to-tooth width proportions previously reported to occur in the North American population. Three hundred and one North American dentists were surveyed to determine their preferences of imaged smiles exhibiting different anterior tooth width proportions and the primary proportion influencing their decision. One-sample t-tests were used to compare preferences of constructed smiles. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to assess the independence of the relationship between the subjects' demographic attributes and the factors reported as being instrumental in their decision processes. Fifty-seven percent of dentists surveyed preferred the smiles with the 70% RED proportion over the smiles with the naturally occurring maxillary anterior tooth width proportions in normal-length teeth. Dentists preferred the smiles of the naturally occurring maxillary tooth proportions (70%) and the 70% RED proportion (75%) over the golden proportion. In smiles with tall teeth, the golden proportion was preferred by 58% of the surveyed dentists over the naturally occurring tooth-to-tooth width proportions as previously defined by Preston. Sixty-two percent of dentists cited the overall balance as the primary factor affecting their selection. Twenty-three percent made their selection based on the size of the maxillary central incisors, whereas 15% used other teeth or factors. Smiles created using the principles of the RED proportion were preferred by a majority of dentists surveyed. The majority of dentists reported that overall balance was the primary factor affecting their selection. The RED proportion may be useful in creating smiles

  12. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  13. Influence of the type of fat and air humidity on chosen properties of the lipid fraction in the process of baking shortbread pastries

    OpenAIRE

    Miśkiewicz, K.; Nebesny, E.; Rosicka-Kaczmarek, J.; Budryn, G.; Krysiak, W.

    2013-01-01

    The results from his study reveal that the type of fat used during the baking of shortbreads had a noticeable influence on the properties of lipid fractions as well as the correlation among these properties (acid value, peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes contents). For low-trans fats, the correlation between acid value and peroxide value was inversely proportional; for transcontaining fats this correlation was directly proportional. An increase in air...

  14. The trochanteric fat pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Panettiere

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological developments based on the use of autologous white adipose tissue (WAT attracted attention to minor fat depots as possible sources of adipose tissue. In plastic surgery, the trochanteric fatty pad is one of the most used WAT depots for its location and organoleptic characteristics that make it particularly suitable for reconstructive procedures. Despite its wide use in clinic, the structure of this depot has never been studied in detail and it is not known if structural differences exist among trochanteric fat and other subcutaneous WAT depots. The present study was performed on trochanteric fat pad with the aim to clarify the morphology of its adipocytes, stroma and microcirculation, with particular reference to the stem niches. Histological and ultrastructural studies showed that the main peculiar feature of the trochanteric fat concerns its stromal component, which appears less dense than in the other subcutaneous WATs studied. The intra-parenchymal collagen stroma is poor and the extracellular compartment shows large spaces, filled with electron-light material, in which isolated collagen bundles are present. The adipocytes are wrapped in weak and easily detachable collagen baskets. These connective sheaths are very thin compared to the sheaths in other subcutaneous WAT depots. The capillaries are covered by large, long and thin elements surrounded by an external lamina; these perivascular cells are poor in organelles and mainly contain poly-ribosomes. In conclusion, when compared to other WAT deposits, the trochanteric fatty pad shows structural peculiarities in its stroma and microcirculation suggesting a high regenerative potential. Resistance, dissociability, microvascular weft and high regenerative potential make the trochanteric fatty pad a privileged source for harvesting in autologous WAT-based regenerative procedures.

  15. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  16. Mathematically modelling proportions of Japanese populations by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito

    2016-10-01

    I propose a mathematical model for temporal changes of proportions for industrial sectors. I prove that the model keeps the proportions for the primary, the secondary, and the tertiary sectors between 0 and 100% and preserves their total as 100%. The model fits the Japanese historical data between 1950 and 2005 for the population proportions by industry very well. The model also predicts that the proportion for the secondary industry becomes negligible and becomes less than 1% at least around 2080.

  17. Evaluation of natural smile: Golden proportion, RED or Golden percentage

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, B. V. Sreenivasan; Ramani, Niketa

    2008-01-01

    Creating geometric or mathematical proportion to relate the successive width of maxillary anterior teeth is a critical aspect in Esthetic dentistry. Golden proportion, recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion and golden percentage are new theories in this field. Aim: To investigate the existence and suitability of Golden proportion, Recurring Esthetic Dental, and Golden percentage between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in individuals with natural dentition, with the aid of digital p...

  18. Spatial Proportional Reasoning Is Associated with Formal Knowledge about Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S.; Levine, Susan C.; Frick, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Proportional reasoning involves thinking about parts and wholes (i.e., about fractional quantities). Yet, research on proportional reasoning and fraction learning has proceeded separately. This study assessed proportional reasoning and formal fraction knowledge in 8- to 10-year-olds. Participants (N = 52) saw combinations of cherry juice and water…

  19. Theoretical Investigation of a Proportional-Plus-Flicker Automatic Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Ernest C.

    1950-01-01

    The proportional-plus-flicker automatic pilot operates by a nonlinear principle whereby a fast-acting flicker servomotor response is combined with a low-speed proportional servomotor response for the purpose of obtaining supersonic stability and control. Essentially, the autopilot maintains a zero reference about which the output is proportional to the input. However, a flicker response overrides this proportional response at a fixed angle of gimbal displacement on either side of the zero gyroscope reference. Therefore, in contrast to other high speed control systems, the design requirements are simplified because the two components of the proportional-flicker control system are easy to build separately and they can be combined in a relatively simple manner. By application of the proportional-flicker principle, satisfactory stability can be obtained by the proper adjustment of the variable factors in the autopilot mechanism; namely, the proportional gain, the amplitude of flicker control deflection, the autopilot time-lag factor (the time-lag between flicker and proportional operation), and the point in the range that the autopilot switches from a flicker to a proportional system. There is a possibility that these factors can be adjusted so that a more rapid response time (the time to reach steady state) is obtained with the non-linear proportional-flicker autopilot than with a purely linear proportional autopilot. For the main part of this analysis, the proportional part of the system is approximated by a zero-phase-lag proportional autopilot with the assumption that the control surface moves instantaneously at the point where the system switches from flicker to proportional. Good correlation is shown between the results obtained by this method and results obtained by using a close approximation of an actual autopilot transfer function for proportional autopilot operation.

  20. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  1. The Supersymmetric Fat Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Harnik, R

    2004-01-01

    Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.

  2. Milk fat triacyglycerols

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerol composition varies within a population of dairy cows. The variability of MF triacylglycerols and their structure was partially explained by the fatty acid (FA) composition of the MF, and by DGAT1 K232A polymorphism. The FA C16:0 and C18:1cis-9 play a major role in understanding the changes seen in triacylglycerol profile and structure because they are the most abundant FAs in MF and are negatively correlated. MFs with low ratio C16:0/C18:1cis-9 were decreased in ...

  3. Evaluating the ability to measure pork fat quality for the production of commercial bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, D L; Barron, W N G; Matzinger, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate three fat quality measures to characterize the suitability of pork bellies for commercial bacon production. Bellies from six sources (A to F) and two weight ranges (4.5/5.5 kg and 5.5/6.4 kg) were sampled by randomly selecting 50 belly sets from commercial combos of pork bellies from each source. The fat on these 50 individual bellies was assessed for quality using three methods: an FTNIR spectrophotometer to predict iodine (IV) value, a Durometer to assess fat firmness, and a subjective fat quality score (FQS) to assess integrated values of fat color, firmness, oiliness, and wetness. Data show that the fat quality measures differed (Pbacon and bacon slicing yield index varied significantly (Pbacon slice yield. The 50 belly subsamples obtained from each source/weight class also allowed the prediction of frequency distribution-based values based on fat quality measures (proportion IV>74, proportion Durometer value 3. These were also correlated with slice yield. The data lead to a new paradigm model that is useful to describe both the uncertainty in fat quality measures and the relationships observed from pork bellies from different sources.

  4. [Health behaviours in children and youth based on perception own's proportions of body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajka, Kamila; Kochan, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is analyse perceptions, intentions and actions related with own proportions of body conections with assessment to actual weight and height proportions (BMI) children and youth from Polkowice. Material examination includes measurement from research conducted in autumn of 2008 of Polkowice (Lower Silesia). Refine material includes measurement and survey 816 pupils (362 boys and 454 girls) aged 10 - 15 of primary schools and secondary school. Body height and weight were measured and calculated on the basis of Body Mass Index (BMI). According to the international standards--cut off points for overweight and obesity by Cole et al. (2000). Estimate the frequency of overweight and obesity among the examined population. Some information about self-body proportions and activities undertaken to change them was obtained from a survey titled Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). The frequency of overweight among the examined population is more common by boys (17.7%) than by girls (12.8%). Obesity was observed among 4.7% of boys and 4.4% of girls. In the group of children and youth with overweight 42.2% boys and 67.2% girls correctly describes to actual weight and height proportions. Among the children and young people classified as overweight 88.9% boys and 75% girls perceived themselves as "too fat". Among the respondents with overweight and obesity 67.9% boys and 85.9% have declared trying to lose weight. The most popular methods used to regulating body weight are physical exercises and low-calories diet. Girls in comparing to boys they more often declare for lowering the body weight. The most popular method used to accomplish this aim is physical activity. One should explain to pupils of the appropriate body mass for the health and acquaint objective methods of estimation of the weight and height proportions and safe methods of their regulation.

  5. Leg Length, Body Proportion, and Health: A Review with a Note on Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Varela-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia, sitting height (trunk length + head length and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature, or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature × 100, among others are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness, coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility.

  6. Leg length, body proportion, and health: a review with a note on beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês

    2010-03-01

    Decomposing stature into its major components is proving to be a useful strategy to assess the antecedents of disease, morbidity and death in adulthood. Human leg length (femur + tibia), sitting height (trunk length + head length) and their proportions, for example, (leg length/stature), or the sitting height ratio (sitting height/stature x 100), among others) are associated with epidemiological risk for overweight (fatness), coronary heart disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction and certain cancers. There is also wide support for the use of relative leg length as an indicator of the quality of the environment for growth during infancy, childhood and the juvenile years of development. Human beings follow a cephalo-caudal gradient of growth, the pattern of growth common to all mammals. A special feature of the human pattern is that between birth and puberty the legs grow relatively faster than other post-cranial body segments. For groups of children and youth, short stature due to relatively short legs (i.e., a high sitting height ratio) is generally a marker of an adverse environment. The development of human body proportions is the product of environmental x genomic interactions, although few if any specific genes are known. The HOXd and the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are genomic regions that may be relevant to human body proportions. For example, one of the SHOX related disorders is Turner syndrome. However, research with non-pathological populations indicates that the environment is a more powerful force influencing leg length and body proportions than genes. Leg length and proportion are important in the perception of human beauty, which is often considered a sign of health and fertility.

  7. Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls.Methods: A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools.Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometricassessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regionalfat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status.Findings: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular riskfactors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total andregional body fat percent (P<0.001. After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat massespecially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure.Conclusion: Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  8. The effect of parity on the proportion of important healthy fatty acids in raw milk of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate the effect of parity on the fatty acids groups’ proportion in Holstein cows’ milk during the first phase of lactations, with an emphasis on its potential importance for consumer health. A total of 25 Holstein cows, 9 primiparous, 9 in the 2nd, and 7 in the 3rd and subsequent parity, were observed and sampled at 7-day intervals through the first 17 weeks of lactation. The percentage proportion of saturated (hypercholesterolemic and volatile as its components and unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated as its components fatty acids in the samples of milk fat (n=425 was determined. The effects of parity and negative energy balance, as well as regression, on the lactation week and the fat to protein ratio were evaluated using SAS 9.3. A significantly (P<0.01 lower proportion of unhealthy hypercholesterolemic fatty acids was detected in primiparous cows (-2.67 % and those in the 3rd and subsequent lactation (-2.94 % compared to the 2nd lactation, as well as a simultaneously higher proportion of healthy unsaturated fatty acids (+2.07, respectively +3.08 %. The determined relationships corresponded to organism stress evoked by the initiation of milk production and its maintenance in higher parities. Therefore, the generally required prolongation of dairy cows’ longevity can influence on the quality of raw milk, especially considering composition of fatty acids.

  9. Dietary fat oxidation as a function of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Klaas R; Smeets, Astrid; Lejeune, Manuela P; Wouters-Adriaens, Mirjam P E; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-01-01

    It is hypothesized that low dietary fat oxidation makes subjects prone to weight gain. The aim of the study was to determine dietary fat oxidation in normal, overweight, and obese subjects. The subjects were 38 women and 18 men with a mean (+/-SD) age of 30+/-12 y and a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25+/-4 (range: 18-39). Dietary fat oxidation was measured with deuterated palmitic acid, given simultaneously with breakfast, while the subjects were fed under controlled conditions in a respiration chamber. Body composition was measured by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution. Dietary fat oxidation, measured over 12 h after breakfast, ranged from 4% to 28% with a mean (+/-SD) of 16+/-6%. Dietary fat oxidation was negatively related to percentage body fat, and lean subjects had the highest and obese subjects the lowest values (r=-0.65, P<0.001). The observed reduction in dietary fat oxidation in subjects with a higher percentage body fat may play a role in human obesity.

  10. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  11. Pressure control valve using proportional electro-magnetic solenoid actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, So Nam; Ham, Young Bog; Park, Pyoung Won [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents an experimental characteristics of electro-hydraulic proportional pressure control valve. In this study, poppet and valve body which are assembled into the proportional solenoid were designed and manufactured. The constant force characteristics of proportional solenoid actuator in the control region should be independent of the plunger position in order to be used to control the valve position in the fluid flow control system. The stroke-force characteristics of the proportional solenoid actuator is determined by the shape (or parameters) of the control cone. In this paper, steady state and transient characteristics of the solenoid actuator for electro-hydraulic proportional valve are analyzed using finite element method and it is confirmed that the proportional solenoid actuator has a constant attraction force in the control region independently on the stroke position. The effects of the parameters such as control cone length, thickness and taper length are also discussed.

  12. Measurements of proportional scintillation in liquid xenon using thin wires

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, E; Goetzke, L W; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Messina, M; Naganoma, J; Plante, G; Rizzo, A; Shagin, P; Wall, R

    2014-01-01

    Proportional scintillation in liquid xenon has a promising application in the field of direct dark matter detection, potentially allowing for simpler, more sensitive detectors. However, knowledge of the basic properties of the phenomenon as well as guidelines for its practical use are currently limited. We report here on measurements of proportional scintillation light emitted in liquid xenon around thin wires. The maximum proportional scintillation gain of $287^{+97}_{-75}$ photons per drift electron was obtained using 10 $\\mu$m diameter gold plated tungsten wire. The thresholds for electron multiplication and proportional scintillation are measured as $725^{+48}_{-139}$ and $412^{+10}_{-133}$ kV/cm, respectively. The threshold for proportional scintillation is in good agreement with a previously published result, while the electron multiplication threshold represents a novel measurement. A complete set of parameters for the practical use of the electron multiplication and proportional scintillation processe...

  13. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  14. The proportionality as legal limit the right negotiating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Augusto da Silva Zolet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a maximum of proportionality study and its maximum partial, especially of the Negotiating law perspective and in the sphere of legal limitation for proportionality in the practice of commercial freedoms. The constant use of the maximum of proportionality, as the basis of judicial decisions without proper methodological rigor, triggers a debate about the use of the Theory of Fundamental Rights as a mere rhetorical reference, including criticism of an incomplete legal basis of the principle of proportionality, which by means of judicial decisions can take on a different character or subverted that provided in the doctrine of Robert Alexy.     

  15. Evaluation of natural smile: Golden proportion, RED or Golden percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, B V Sreenivasan; Ramani, Niketa

    2008-01-01

    Creating geometric or mathematical proportion to relate the successive width of maxillary anterior teeth is a critical aspect in Esthetic dentistry. Golden proportion, recurring esthetic dental (RED) proportion and golden percentage are new theories in this field. To investigate the existence and suitability of Golden proportion, Recurring Esthetic Dental, and Golden percentage between the widths of maxillary anterior teeth in individuals with natural dentition, with the aid of digital photographs and computer analysis. Standardized frontal images of 56 dental students, 20 male and 36 female, were captured. Each maxillary anterior tooth was digitally measured. Once the measurements were recorded, the three theories were applied and the data was analyzed statistically. The golden proportion was found to exist only in 14-25% of the subjects, between perceived maxillary anterior teeth in natural dentition. The value of RED proportion was not constant, and as one moved distally, this proportion gradually increased. Furthermore, the results revealed that golden percentage was rather constant in terms of relative tooth width. Central incisor represented 22%, lateral incisor 15% and canine 13% of the width of six maxillary anterior teeth, as viewed from the front. Both golden proportion and RED proportion are unsuitable methods to relate the successive width of the maxillary anterior teeth in natural dentition. However, the golden percentage theory can be applied if percentages are adjusted, taking into consideration the ethnicity of the population.

  16. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  17. Brown fat in a protoendothermic mammal fuels eutherian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkrug, Rebecca; Goetze, Nadja; Exner, Cornelia; Lee, Yang; Ganjam, Goutham K; Kutschke, Maria; Müller, Saskia; Stöhr, Sigrid; Tschöp, Matthias H; Crichton, Paul G; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Jastroch, Martin; Meyer, Carola W

    2013-01-01

    Endothermy has facilitated mammalian species radiation, but the sequence of events leading to sustained thermogenesis is debated in multiple evolutionary models. Here we study the Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a phylogenetically ancient, 'protoendothermic' eutherian mammal, in which constantly high body temperatures are reported only during reproduction. Evidence for nonshivering thermogenesis is found in vivo during periodic ectothermic-endothermic transitions. Anatomical studies reveal large brown fat-like structures in the proximity of the reproductive organs, suggesting physiological significance for parental care. Biochemical analysis demonstrates high mitochondrial proton leak catalysed by an uncoupling protein 1 ortholog. Strikingly, bioenergetic profiling of tenrec uncoupling protein 1 reveals similar thermogenic potency as modern mouse uncoupling protein 1, despite the large phylogenetic distance. The discovery of functional brown adipose tissue in this 'protoendothermic' mammal links nonshivering thermogenesis directly to the roots of eutherian evolution, suggesting physiological importance prior to sustained body temperatures and migration to the cold.

  18. Flavor profiles of full-fat and reduced-fat cheese and cheese fat made from aged Cheddar with the fat removed using a novel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Drake, M A; Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2006-02-01

    Many consumers are concerned with fat intake. However, many reduced-fat foods, including reduced-fat cheese, lack robust flavors. The objectives of this study were to characterize the flavors found in full-fat cheese, cheese fat, and reduced-fat cheese made from aged Cheddar using a novel process to remove the fat (Nelson and Barbano, 2004). Two full-fat, aged cheeses (9 and 39 mo) were selected, and the fat was removed using the novel fat removal process. Full-fat cheeses, shredded and reformed full-fat cheeses, corresponding reduced-fat cheeses, and cheese fats were then analyzed using descriptive sensory and instrumental analysis followed by consumer acceptance testing. Cheeses were extracted with diethyl ether followed by isolation of volatile material by high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/ olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Selected compounds were quantified. The 39-mo cheese was characterized by fruity and sulfur notes, and the 9-mo-old cheese was characterized by a spicy/brothy flavor. Reduced-fat cheeses had similar flavor profiles with no difference in most sensory attributes to corresponding full-fat cheeses. Sensory profiles of the cheese fats were characterized by low intensities of the prominent flavors found in the full-fat cheeses. Instrumental analysis revealed similar trends. Consistent with sensory analysis, there were lower concentrations and log(3) flavor dilution factors for most compounds in the cheese fats compared with both the reduced- and full-fat cheeses, regardless of compound polarity. Consumers found the intensity of flavor in the reduced-fat cheese to be equal to the full-fat cheeses. This study demonstrated that when fat was removed from aged full-fat Cheddar cheese, most of the flavor and flavor compounds remained in the cheese and were not removed with the fat.

  19. A Multiaxial Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction Model for Both Proportional and Non-proportional Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Surajit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    This paper has presented a life prediction model in the field of multiaxial low-cycle fatigue. The proposed model is generally applied for constant amplitude multiaxial proportional and non-proportional loading. Depending upon applied strain path the equivalent strain varies within a cycle. Equivalent average strain amplitude is considered as fatigue damage parameter in the proposed model. The model has requirement of only two material constants and no other tuning parameters. The model is examined by the proportional and non-proportional low-cycle fatigue life experimental data for eight different types of materials. The model is successfully correlated with multiaxial fatigue lives of eight different materials.

  20. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in some snacks, cookies, pies, and other foods) • saturated fat (found in whole milk products, fatty meats, dark ... and blood vessels: • Eat less foods high in saturated fat and trans fat. Instead eat foods with healthy ...

  1. High fat diet causes rebound weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNay, David E G; Speakman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions but treatment options remain limited. Treatment of obesity by calorie restriction (CR) despite having initial success often fails due to rebound weight gain. One possibility is that this reflects an increased body weight (BW) set-point. Indeed, high fat diets (HFD) reduce adult neurogenesis altering hypothalamic neuroarchitecture. However, it is uncertain if these changes are associated with weight rebound or if long-term weight management is associated with reversing this. Here we show that obese mice have an increased BW set-point and lowering this set-point is associated with rescuing hypothalamic remodelling. Treating obesity by CR using HFD causes weight loss, but not rescued remodelling resulting in rebound weight gain. However, treating obesity by CR using non-HFD causes weight loss, rescued remodelling and attenuates rebound weight gain. We propose that these phenomena may explain why successful short-term weight loss improves obesity in some people but not in others.

  2. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  3. The role of dietary fat in obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Denise E; Lazaro, Raul G; Li, Pingping; Johnson, Andrew; Hernandez-Carretero, Angelina; Weber, Natalie; Vorobyova, Ivetta; Tsukomoto, Hidekazu; Osborn, Olivia

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of excess calories results in obesity and insulin resistance and has been intensively studied in mice and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the specific contribution of dietary fat rather than total caloric intake to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We used an intragastric feeding method to overfeed excess calories from a low-fat diet (and an isocalorically matched high-fat diet) through a surgically implanted gastric feeding tube to generate obesity in wild-type mice followed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies to assess the development of insulin resistance. We show that overfeeding a low-fat diet results in levels of obesity similar to high-fat diet feeding in mice. However, despite a similar body weight, obese high-fat diet-fed mice are more insulin resistant than mice fed an isocaloric low-fat diet. Therefore, increased proportion of calories from dietary fat further potentiates insulin resistance in the obese state. Furthermore, crossover diet studies revealed that reduction in dietary fat composition improves glucose tolerance in obesity. In the context of the current obesity and diabetes epidemic, it is particularly important to fully understand the role of dietary macronutrients in the potentiation and amelioration of disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Composition and thermal analysis of binary mixtures of mee fat and palm stearin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Manaf, Yanty Noorziana; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed; Musthafa, Shuhaimi; Saari, Miskandar Mat

    2014-01-01

    Seed fat of Madhuca longifolia known as mee fat (MF) has been considered as a potential plant fat for producing fat mixture to simulate the properties of lard. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of addition of palm stearin (PS) on the solidification behavior of MF to formulate a mixture to become similar in solidification characteristics of lard. Three fat mixtures were prepared by blending MF with palm stearin PS in different ratios: MF:PS (99.5:0.5), MF:PS (99:1), MF:PS (98:2) (w/w), and identified by the mass ratio of MF to PS. The fat mixtures were compared with lard in terms of their fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermal profiles and solid fat content (SFC) characteristics. Results showed that there were considerable differences between lard and MF:PS fat mixtures with regard to fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions. The increasing proportion of PS in MF:PS fat mixtures caused a general increase in SFC at different temperatures with respect to the SFC profile of native MF. Of the three binary mixtures, MF:PS (99:1) was found to show the least difference to lard in terms of SFC values throughout the temperature range.

  5. Effect of fat globule size on the churnability of dairy cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Bhavesh R; Truong, Tuyen; Prakash, Sangeeta; Bansal, Nidhi; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2017-09-01

    The churnability of commercial dairy cream as a function of fat globule size from micron to nanometric range (0.17-3.50μm) was investigated. To achieve the lower fat globule size with increased interfacial area various amounts of sodium caseinate (NaCN) (0.15-4.9wt%) or Tween 80 (0.25-1wt%) were added to the cream. Under similar microfluidization and churning conditions, both fat globule size and emulsifier type had a significant influence on the churning time and proportion of fat in buttermilk. In general, churning time and buttermilk fat content were increased above 3.5min and 4.4% fat (for untreated fat globule size), respectively with decreasing average fat globule size irrespective of the type of emulsifier used. The addition of Tween 80 reduced the churning time significantly and also decreased the fat content of buttermilk as compared to NaCN added cream. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of homogenization and milk fat fractions on the functionality of Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowney, M K; Hickey, M W; Roupas, P; Everett, D W

    2003-03-01

    Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from milk containing either a low (olein) or a high (stearin) melting point fraction of milk fat or anhydrous milk fat. The fat was dispersed into skim milk by homogenization at 2.6 MPa before being manufactured into cheese. The melting point of the milk fat did not affect the size or shape of the fat globules, nor was there any effect of homogenization on the polymorphic state of the milk fat. There were no changes in milk fat globule size and shape concomitant with the amount of free oil formed. The polymorphic state of the milk fat did affect the amount of free oil formed and the apparent viscosity of the cheese. The lower melting point fraction yielded a larger amount of free oil. The higher melting point fraction yielded a higher viscosity of melted cheese at 60 degrees C. Mozzarella cheese was also manufactured from homogenized milk, nonhomogenized milk, and a 1:1 ratio of the two, without altering the milk fat composition. Increasing the proportion of homogenized milk yielded a lower free oil content and higher viscosity of the cheese.

  7. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  8. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  9. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  10. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Rosemie M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; van 't Hof, Martin A; van 't Hof, Bep E; Maltha, Jaap C

    2008-10-01

    In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100. The facial esthetic value of each subject was calculated as a mean VAS score. Three observers recorded the position of 13 facial landmarks included in 19 putative golden proportions, based on the golden proportions as defined by Ricketts. The proportions and each proportion's deviation from the golden target (1.618) were calculated. This deviation was then related to the VAS scores. Only 4 of the 19 proportions had a significant negative correlation with the VAS scores, indicating that beautiful faces showed less deviation from the golden standard than less beautiful faces. Together, these variables explained only 16% of the variance. Few golden proportions have a significant relationship with facial esthetics in adolescents. The explained variance of these variables is too small to be of clinical importance.

  11. Visualizing Proportions and Dissimilarities by Space-filling Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a set of individuals, which have attached a statistical value given as a proportion, and a dissimilarity measure. Each individual is represented as a region within the unit square, in such a way that the area of the regions represent the proport...

  12. Store-Forward and its implications for Proportional Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walton, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Proportional Scheduler was recently proposed as a scheduling algorithm for multi-hop switch networks. For these networks, the BackPressure scheduler is the classical benchmark. For networks with fixed routing, the Proportional Scheduler is maximum stable, myopic and, furthermore, will alleviate

  13. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms. (a...

  14. The Fibonacci Sequence: Proportional Semantic Bases of Children's Aesthetic Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neperud, Ronald W.; Serlin, Ronald C.

    1984-01-01

    Only at the third- and seventh-grade levels did proportional preferences for Fibonacci figures differ significantly from preferences for other kinds of proportional spatial divisions. Semantic patterns were similar among third and fifth graders, with a change occurring between fifth and seventh grades in keeping with the development of formal…

  15. Putative golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiekens, R.M.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Hof, BE van 't; Maltha, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the putative relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. METHODS: Seventy-six adult laypeople

  16. To evaluate the validity of Recurring Esthetic Dental proportion in natural dentition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shetty, Shilpa; Pitti, Varun; Satish Babu, Cl; Surendra Kumar, Gp; Jnanadev, Kr

    2011-01-01

    Different proportions are described in the literature for smile designing, such as Golden proportion, Golden percentage, Preston's proportion, and recently, Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) proportion...

  17. Proportional reasoning as a key to numeracy across the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    . Proportional reasoning is the ability to understand, interpret, and solve problems related to situations of proportion, using comparison and relative and multiplicative thinking. It relies on numerous foundational skills including fractional thinking and an understanding of ratio, scale, decimals......Numeracy (mathematical literacy) is an essential skill in life and work. Lack of numeracy has been linked to poor health and work outcomes, and diminished social and civic participation. A key aspect of numeracy, which is not often explicitly mentioned in school curricula, is proportional reasoning...... internationally. Research has also shown that while proportional reasoning develops in students from Years 5 to 9, this development does not always happen naturally. Further, research suggests that targeted teaching can assist students to develop better proportional reasoning skills. This multi-state Australian...

  18. Dynamic adjustment: an electoral method for relaxed double proportionality

    CERN Document Server

    Linusson, Svante

    2013-01-01

    We describe an electoral system for distributing seats in a parliament. It gives proportionality for the political parties and close to proportionality for constituencies. The system suggested here is a version of the system used in Sweden and other Nordic countries with permanent seats in each constituency and adjustment seats to give proportionality on the national level. In the national election of 2010 the current Swedish system failed to give proportionality between parties. We examine here one possible cure for this unwanted behavior. The main difference compared to the current Swedish system is that the number of adjustment seats is not fixed, but rather dynamically determined to be as low as possible and still insure proportionality between parties.

  19. Influence of lean body-mass index versus that of fat mass index on blood pressure of gujarati school going adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Sinah, S K

    2014-01-01

    There are so many studies associating blood pressure in children and adolescents with body fatness i.e. stating that high body fat is associated with high blood pressure in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine that which portion of the body mass index, fat or fat free mass index is more influencing the blood pressure in Gujarati Indian adolescents. 733 schoolchildren of 10-18 years of both genders were chosen for this study. The body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured and on the basis of body mass and fat mass, fat free mass index and various other indices were calculated. The association of fat mass index and fat free mass index with blood pressure was computed using correlations. The relationship of BMI with mean blood pressure of boys (R = .326) was more strong than that in girls (R = .149). The blood pressure was having more strong positive correlation with lean body mass index than that with fat mass index in all subjects (R = 0.230 versus R = 0.184), boys (R = 0.285 versus R = 0.242), & girls (R = 0.179 versus R = -0.081). Fat free mass index has more strong association with blood pressure than fat mass index in the adolescent population irrespective of gender. However as far as prevention of hypertension is concerned, reducing body fat (rather than only body weight) may remain an important measure to prevent hypertension as body fat mass is reducible while lean body mass may not be reducible and, in long term, obesity itself can lead to hypertension by various mechanisms.

  20. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    -based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated...... as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...... values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, Pmass (-0.38 - -0.70, P...

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of autologous fat grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehde, Susanne C.; Kuehl, Hilmar; Ladd, Mark E. [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    A 30-year-old female patient with isolated facial lipodystrophy underwent two sessions of fat injection. MR signals of injected fat at different injection ages were compared to native fat. Native T1 signal was smaller for transplant fat, probably due to a slightly lower fat content and/or fibrosis or due to higher perfusion. T2 signal of transplants was significantly higher than that of native fat. T1 post-contrast was also higher, and contrast uptake of transplanted fat increased slightly with transplant age, which could be explained by an increasing perfusion. This study demonstrates the differences and MR signal time changes of native and transplanted fat. (orig.)

  2. Which Mixed-Member Proportional Electoral Formula Fits You Best? Assessing the Proportionality Principle of Positive Vote Transfer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-member proportional systems (MMP) are a family of electoral systems which combine district-based elections with a proportional seat allocation. Positive vote transfer systems belong to this family. This article explains why they might be better than their siblings, and examines under which ...

  3. Investigating Proportional Reasoning in a University Quantitative Literacy Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Frith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reason with proportions is known to take a long time to develop and to be difficult to learn. We regard proportional reasoning (the ability to reason about quantities in relative terms as a threshold concept for academic quantitative literacy. Our study of the teaching and learning of proportional reasoning in a university quantitative literacy course for law students consisted of iterative action research, in which we introduced various teaching interventions and analysed students’ written responses to assessment questions requiring students to explain their reasoning in situations that call for proportional reasoning. For this analysis we used a modified phenomenographic method to develop and refine a framework to code the responses. This enabled us to broadly describe the responses in terms of the concept of the liminal space that a student must traverse in coming to a full understanding of a threshold concept, and to further define the liminal space to facilitate finer description of students’ responses. Our latest analysis confirmed that many university students cannot reason with proportions, that this kind of thinking is difficult to learn, and that it takes more time than is available in a one-semester course. The context and structure of the questions have a marked effect on students’ ability to apply proportional reasoning successfully. The fraction of students who were classified as ‘at or over the threshold’ (i.e., fairly competent at proportional reasoning after instruction ranged between 8% for the most difficult question and 48% for the easiest.

  4. Frying process in the relation fat/degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various components of the diet, fat receives very dose attention because of its relationship to several chronic degenerative diseases (CDD. Currently most of the available information on these relationships is derived from epidemiologic or experimental studies in which lipid intake is calculated using food composition tables. In most of these tables the quoted lipid content is that of raw food, whereas most foods are usually consumed only after being subjected to several culinary processes. Often there is no indication of the type of fat used in food processing in general or in frying in particular. But as it known, in the course of these processes the lipid content undergoes important qualitative and quantitative changes and not keeping them in mind may be the underlying cause of the difficulties an the confounding results in studies trying to establish the relationship between lipid intake an health. In the Mediterranean diet, about 50% of total dietary fat is derived not from the food itself but from the cooking fat, of which only a small fraction is eaten raw (as dressings and the greatest proportion is used in thermal culinary processes, mainly deep-frying. The scientific study of the process whereby fat penetrates into fried foods has shown the benefits of this cooking method. If the process is correctly carried out, the amount of fat ingested with fried foodstuffs is not greater than when other procedures involving fat are used (for example, sautening, stewing or canning in oil. Very schematically deep-frying is a technique that replaces a fraction of the water content of food by cooking fat. Consecuently, the fat composition of the fried lean foods will be the same as that cooking fat. The process is more complex with fatty foods, and there are not great changes in the total quantity of fat in the fried food before and after frying. However, there are notable quality changes and these depend on the concentration gradients

  5. Transformation of equations in analysis of proportionality through referent models

    CERN Document Server

    Romay, E O

    2006-01-01

    In proportionality of objects, samples or populations, usually we work with Z score of proportionality calculated through referent models, instead directly with the variables of the objects in itself. In these studies we have the necessity to transform, the equations that use the variables of the object, in equations that directly use like variables Z score. In the present work a method is developed to transform the parametric equations, in equations in variables Z using like example the studies of human proportionality from the Phantom stratagem of Ross and Wilson.

  6. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel: VI. Fat deposition patterns of serially slaughtered bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamantes, M A; Long, C R; Smith, G C; Jenkins, T G; Ellis, W C; Cartwright, T C

    1986-05-01

    Dissection and chemical analysis data from 197 bulls of 15 breedtypes were used to examine the distribution of total fat (TOTFAT) among carcass fat (CFAT), viscera fat (VIF), kidney plus pelvic fat (KPF) and blood fat (BLF). The bulls were obtained from a five-breed diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey; reciprocal crosses were pooled. One or two bulls of each breedtype were slaughtered at each of seven ages: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 and 30 mo. An allometric equation was utilized to describe growth rate of each fat depot relative to either TOTFAT or carcass side weight (CSW). The pooled within-breedtype differential growth rates obtained from the allometric equation indicated that as TOTFAT or CSW increased, the proportion composed of CFAT and KPF increased (growth coefficients significantly greater than 1), whereas the proportion composed of VIF and BLF decreased (growth coefficients significantly less than 1). Holstein and Jersey tended to have more CFAT than Hereford, Angus and Brahman. Jersey had more KPF than other breeds. Crossbreds exhibited positive heterosis for CFAT and VIF, and negative heterosis for KPF. On a constant CSW basis, there were no significant breedtype differences in TOTFAT: nevertheless, differences in fat distribution among breedtypes persisted. There were different amounts of fat at the depots studied, but fat growth coefficients relative to TOTFAT tended to be homogeneous among breedtypes.

  7. Factors affecting the fatty acid composition and fat oxidative stability in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Vehovsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selected factors affecting fatty acids (FA composition in pig fat. In the experiment, the influence of nutrition, gender, carcass weight, lean meat proportion (LMP and intramuscular fat (IMF were monitored. The effect of diet, specifically the influence of added linseed or corn on the fatty acids composition in the backfat was studied in pigs. From the perspective of the required increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA only the addition of the linseed proved to have a significant effect. Another evaluated aspect concerning the FA spectrum was the gender. While the backfat in barrows showed higher (P≤0.05 amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, the backfat in gilts displayed a significantly higher proportion (P≤0.01 of the PUFA and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA. A significant effect on the PUFA proportion has also been demonstrated for the lean meat proportion (LMP parameter, which therefore represents not only a qualitative carcass meat parameter but also plays an important role in relation to the FA composition in the fat in pigs. In connection to the FA proportion changes the study also monitored the fat oxidative stability with the use of the TBARS method. Concerning the oxidative stability the effects of nutrition, FA groups, gender, carcass weight and LMP were studied. The relationship between the above mentioned factors and oxidative stability was found to be insignificant.

  8. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  9. Effect of Dietary Fat on Gene Expression in Poultry, A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Recent reports suggest that not only the quantity but also the composition of dietary fat is an important factor to prevent these metabolic diseases in human populations. It has been reported that some dietary fats are able to reduce lipid synthesis and increase fatty acid oxidation and diet-mediated thermogenesis. The outcome of this change is a superior animal product with lower fat content. There is evidence of dissimilar mechanisms of action of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of gene expression. This review will focus on the control of body fat by gene expression in avians.

  10. Proportion and factors associated with low fifth minute Apgar score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proportion and factors associated with low fifth minute Apgar score among ... with low Apgar scores are at an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. ... of meconium stained liquor, induced/ augmented labor and low birth weight.

  11. Proportionality: a valid alternative to correlation for relative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lovell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the life sciences, many measurement methods yield only the relative abundances of different components in a sample. With such relative-or compositional-data, differential expression needs careful interpretation, and correlation-a statistical workhorse for analyzing pairwise relationships-is an inappropriate measure of association. Using yeast gene expression data we show how correlation can be misleading and present proportionality as a valid alternative for relative data. We show how the strength of proportionality between two variables can be meaningfully and interpretably described by a new statistic ϕ which can be used instead of correlation as the basis of familiar analyses and visualisation methods, including co-expression networks and clustered heatmaps. While the main aim of this study is to present proportionality as a means to analyse relative data, it also raises intriguing questions about the molecular mechanisms underlying the proportional regulation of a range of yeast genes.

  12. The proportional fairness scheduling algorithm on multi-classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江勇; 吴建平

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study resource management models and algorithms that satisfy multiple performance objects simultaneously. We realize the proportional fairness principle based QoS model, which defines both delay and loss rate requirements of a class, to include fairness, which is important for the integration of multiple service classes. The resulting Proportional Fairness Scheduling model formalizes the goals of the network performance, user's QoS requirement and system fairness and exposes the fundamental tradeoffs between these goals. In particular, it is difficult to simultaneously provide these objects. We propose a novel scheduling algorithm called Proportional Fairness Scheduling (PFS) that approximates the model closely and efficiently. We have implemented the PFS scheduling in Linux. By performing simulation and measurement experiments, we evaluate the delay and loss rate proportional fairness of PFS, and determine the computation overhead.

  13. Estimating the Proportion of True Null Hypotheses for Multiple Comparisons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongmei Jiang; RW Doerge

    2008-01-01

    ...) controlling procedures are too conservative. Although false discovery rate (FDR) procedures have been suggested as having greater power, the control itself is not exact and depends on the proportion of true null hypotheses...

  14. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  15. Big, Fat World of Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Home Page The Big, Fat World of Lipids By Emily Carlson Posted August 9, 2012 Cholesterol ... ways to diagnose and treat lipid-related conditions. Lipid Encyclopedia Just as genomics and proteomics spurred advances ...

  16. A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter with krypton filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mano, R. D. P.; Barata, E. C. G. M.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Freitas, E. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter filled with pure krypton was studied. Energy resolution below 10% for 5.9-keV X-rays was obtained with this prototype. This value is much better than the energy resolution obtained with proportional counters or other MPGDs with krypton filling. The krypton electroluminescence scintillation and ionisation thresholds were found to be about 0.5 and 3.5 kV cm-1bar-1, respectively.

  17. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. CONCLUSION It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit. PMID:27826387

  18. Empirical study of alginate impression materials by customized proportioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulus, Karani; Tüfekci, Kenan

    2016-10-01

    Alginate mixers available in the market do not have the automatic proportioning unit. In this study, an automatic proportioning unit for the alginate mixer and controller software were designed and produced for a new automatic proportioning unit. With this device, it was ensured that proportioning operation could arrange weight-based alginate impression materials. The variation of coefficient in the tested groups was compared with the manual proportioning. Compression tension and tear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of alginate impression materials. The experimental data were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey test at the 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant differences in modulus of elastisity (P>0.3), tensional/compresional strength (P>0.3), resilience (P>0.2), strain in failure (P>0.4), and tear energy (P>0.7) of alginate impression materials were seen. However, a decrease in the standard deviation of tested groups was observed when the customized machine was used. To verify the efficiency of the system, powder and powder/water mixing were weighed and significant decrease was observed. It was possible to obtain more mechanically stable alginate impression materials by using the custom-made proportioning unit.

  19. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development.

  20. Corticosteroids for fat embolism after multiple fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huai-sheng; ZHANG Qing-mei; WEN Jun-min; WEN Shun-kang; YI Jing; ZHOU Zhi-qiang; WU Sheng-nan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Fat embolism is a common complication of multiple fractures. Corticosteroids are usually prescribed in prophylactic and treatment of fat embolism. A case of fat embolism followed multiple fractures was hospitalized, and we searched best evidences about corticosteroids for fat embolism so as to provide best therapeutics for the patient.

  1. Removal of mouse ovary fat pad affects sex hormones, folliculogenesis and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Hui; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Teng; Guo, Lei; Dong, Ming-Zhe; Hou, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Shen, Wei; Ma, Jun-Yu; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    As a fat storage organ, adipose tissue is distributed widely all over the body and is important for energy supply, body temperature maintenance, organ protection, immune regulation and so on. In humans, both underweight and overweight women find it hard to become pregnant, which suggests that appropriate fat storage can guarantee the female reproductive capacity. In fact, a large mass of adipose tissue distributes around the reproductive system both in the male and female. However, the functions of ovary fat pad (the nearest adipose tissue to ovary) are not known. In our study, we found that the ovary fat pad-removed female mice showed decreased fertility and less ovulated mature eggs. We further identified that only a small proportion of follicles developed to antral follicle, and many follicles were blocked at the secondary follicle stage. The overall secretion levels of estrogen and FSH were lower in the whole estrus cycle (especially at proestrus); however, the LH level was higher in ovary fat pad-removed mice than that in control groups. Moreover, the estrus cycle of ovary fat pad-removed mice showed significant disorder. Besides, the expression of FSH receptor decreased, but the LH receptor increased in ovary fat pad-removed mice. These results suggest that ovary fat pad is important for mouse reproduction. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. ["Golden proportion" and its application to calculate dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Gumberidze, N Sh; Mandzhavidze, N A

    2007-01-01

    Within an evolutionary process, the nature has created the standard of aesthetics - a "gold proportion" on the basis of which, the parts of human body, to be more exact, teeth and denture correspond to each other and to own parts by the size, which is the ideal precondition for ideal appearance. The charming smile serves as the proof, that teeth in denture are located by a principle of "gold proportion". A "gold proportion" is the corner stone of beauty and it can be applied with success in stomatology. Proportion is the certain ratio between parts, and proportional means a proper correlation of parts among themselves. It is reputed, that knowledge about "gold proportion" Pythagor has got from products of the Egyptian and Babylon scientists. And this is true, proportions of cult constructions, bas-relieves, pyramids in Giza, home appliances and ornaments from Tutanhamon tomb testify, that under their creation the Egyptian masters were guided by a principle of "gold proportion". The facade of ancient Greek temple Parthenon is built by a principle of "gold proportion". During archeological digs of this temple the compasses which sculptors and architects of an ancient world used has been found. The "gold proportion" is mentioned in the work which has reached us "Beginning" the author is the scientist of antique epoch Euclid. In 1509, in Venice the book of Luka Pacholi the "Divine proportion" has been published, its illustration is attributed to Leonardo de Vinci. This work has been recognized as a "Hymn of a gold proportion". In 1885 the German researcher professor Zeising published his work - "Aesthetic researches". When Zeising has received numerical values of piece length, he saw that they coincided with figures of some numerical sequence, which was offered by the great Italian mathematician of Middle Ages Fibonacci (or Leonardo Pisano). In his composition the "Abacus Book" Leonardo Fibonacci showed aforesaid sequence of numbers, by means of which he has explained

  3. Proportional counter for X-ray analysis of lunar and planetary surfaces. [a position sensitive scintillating imaging proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional scintillation detector was developed and evaluated for use in applications involving X-ray imaging as well as spectroscopy. Topics covered include limitations of the proportional scintillation counter for use in space; purification of the xenon gas in the detector, and the operation of the detector system. Results show that the light signal in a proportional scintillation detector remains well localized. With modest electric fields in xenon, the primary electrons from a photoelectric absorption of an X-ray can be brought a distance of a few millimeters to a higher field region without spreading more than a millimeter or so. Therefore, it is possible to make a proportional scintillation detector with good position sensitivity that could be used to calibrate out the difference in light collection over its sensitive volume.

  4. Composition and Microstructure of Commercial Full-Fat and Low-Fat Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, V. V.; Anderson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the composition of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses and to evaluate their microstructure. Commercial cheeses evaluated included full-fat and low-fat Cheddar, Mozzarella , processed, and Swiss cheeses. Cheddar cheeses ranged from 8.2% fat and 5 1.1% moisture in the 75% low-fat product to 33.2% fat and 35.9% moisture in the full-fat cheese . Mozzarella cheeses ranged in fat from a low of 2. I% to a high of 24% with corresponding moisture content...

  5. Assessment of facial golden proportions among central Indian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Rathore; Piyush, Bolya; Sourabh, Bhatt; Preeti, Ojha; Trivedi, Rutvik; Vishnoi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to identify and establish the facial and smile proportions in young adults and to compare the results with ideal or divine proportions, compare the proportions of males and females included in our study population and compare them with those established for Caucasian and Japanese populations. Materials and Methods: Two hundred participants (164 females, 36 males) with Angle's class I malocclusion (M.O). and well-balanced faces were selected and photographed in the frontal repose position. Analysis was done in Adobe Photoshop software. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0. (IBM Corporation Armonk, New York, United States). Results: Results suggested that females are more near to ideal ratios and males are more deviated from the ideal ratios. The proportions of males and females were not considerably different from each other. In Indian population, upper 3rd facial height (TR-LC) was increased and mid-face height (LC-LN) was decreased; in lower 3rd of the face, LN-CH was slightly increased in comparison to CH-ME. In facial widths, outer canthal width (LC-LC) was greater in the Indian population and mouth width (CH-CH) was normal. When compared with Indian population, Japanese participants had wider noses, outer canthal distance, and bitemporal width. Conclusion: It was concluded that significant difference was found between the proportions of the Indian population and ideal ratio. When Indian population was compared with Japanese and Caucasian populations, some parameters of facial proportions showed significant difference, which leads to the need for establishing standardized norms for various facial proportions in Indian population. PMID:28217534

  6. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  7. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A. S.; Charlton, B. G.; Hutchinson, J. R.; Gustafsson, T.; McGonnell, I. M.; Timmons, J. A.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development. PMID:28165010

  8. Relation between eating habits and a high body mass index among freshman students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Fatma Esra; Bekiroglu, Nural; Imeryuz, Nese; Agirbasli, Mehmet

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation between eating habits and a high body mass index (BMI) in first-year freshman university students and included 2525 freshman university students 18 to 22 years old from a Turkish population. İn this study, 48% of the students were men. They were asked to complete a questionnaire on their dietary habits including the frequency of their consumption of individual food items, demographic data, and smoking habit. The effects of eating habits on increased BMI (≥25) were analyzed. Of 2259 subjects included in the analyses, 322 were overweight or obese and 1937 had normal and thin BMI (onsumptions of beer, alcoholic drinks other than beer and wine (e.g., spirits including whisky, gin, raki, vodka), coffee, tea, coke, red meat, variety meat, and eggs were associated with a significantly higher risk of obesity/overweight, whereas frequent consumption of snacks was associated with a low risk. Findings of further studies, possibly taking into consideration the absolute quantities of consumption along with cultural and local issues, would guide the adoption of healthier feeding behaviors in this particular age group.

  9. EFFECTS OF CARVEDILOL AND METOPROLOL ON VEGETATIVE REGULATION OF HEART AND MICROCIRCULATION IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION AND HIGH BODY MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on vegetative regulation of heart and microcirculatory vessels in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of 1-2 degrees and high body mass/obesity.Material and methods. Patients with HT of 1-2 degrees (n=25; aged 51±8 y.o. were included in the study. Registration of 0,1 Hz-fluctuations in heart rhythm variability and microcirculation change was performed during passive orthostatic test at spontaneous breath (duration of each test stage 10 min. Synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms was estimated by calculation of phases difference and a numerical measure of synchronization. Frequency estimations of heart rhythm variability spectrum were performed in high and low frequency ranges additionaly.Results. Carvedilol and metoprolol have the comparable antihypertensive effect and influence on vegetative regulation of cardiovascular system in patients with HT. Both drugs have negative influence on synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms in initially high systolic blood pressure level (>150 mm Hg.Conclusion. Carvedilol and metoprolol have comparable influence on synchronization of 0,1 Hz-rhythms in cardiovascular system.

  10. Randomized, multi-center trial of two hypo-energetic diets in obese subjects: high- versus low-fat content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M; Taylor, M A; Saris, W H M

    2006-01-01

    -fat group than in the high-fat group. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were lowered equally by both diets. CONCLUSIONS: The low-fat diet produced similar mean weight loss as the high-fat diet, but resulted in more subjects losing >10% of initial body weight and fewer dropouts. Both diets produced......:Obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) adult subjects (n = 771), from eight European centers. MEASUREMENTS: Body weight loss, dropout rates, proportion of subjects who lost more than 10% of initial body weight, blood lipid profile, insulin and glucose. RESULTS: The dietary fat energy percent was 25% in the low-fat group...... and 40% in the high-fat group (mean difference: 16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 15-17)%). Average weight loss was 6.9 kg in the low-fat group and 6.6 kg in the high-fat group (mean difference: 0.3 (95% CI -0.2 to 0.8) kg). Dropout was 13.6% (n = 53) in the low-fat group and 18.3% (n = 70) in the high...

  11. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Biofuel proportions in fuels by AMS radiocarbon method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oinonen, M., E-mail: markku.j.oinonen@helsinki.f [Dating Laboratory, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hakanpaeae-Laitinen, H. [Neste Oil Oyj, Research and Technology, Porvoo (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, K.; Kaskela, A.; Jungner, H. [Dating Laboratory, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    Within the context of expanding use of biofuels in transport worldwide, a need has emerged to accurately determine biofuel proportions of fuels. In this study, the radiocarbon method by AMS has been used to study the fuel mixtures containing 2%, 5% and 30% of the NExBTL renewable diesel, particularly. Special effort has been put to develop reproducible pretreatment and combustion methods and to verify the reliable determination of the low biofuel proportions - corresponding to the present status of the European-wide biofuel usage. The developed procedures are ready to meet the requirements set in the ASTM D 6866-06a standard and demonstrate our ability to perform reliable measurements on biofuel proportions in fuels.

  13. Prospective Teachers Proportional Reasoning and Presumption of Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyem Sapti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the proportional reasoning of prospective teachers and their predictions about students' answers. Subjects were 4 prospective teacher  7th semester Department of Mathematics Education, Muhammadiyah University of Purworejo. Proportional reasoning task used to obtain research data. Subjects were asked to explain their reasoning and write predictions of student completion. Data was taken on October 15th, 2014. Interviews were conducted after the subjects completed the task and recorded with audio media. The research data were subject written work and interview transcripts. Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. In solving the proportional reasoning task, subjects using the cross product. However, they understand the meaning of the cross product. Subject also could predict students' reasoning on the matter.

  14. Proportional Motor Recovery After Stroke: Implications for Trial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D; Ackerley, Suzanne J; Smith, Marie-Claire; Borges, Victor M; Barber, P Alan

    2017-03-01

    Recovery of upper-limb motor impairment after first-ever ischemic stroke is proportional to the degree of initial impairment in patients with a functional corticospinal tract (CST). This study aimed to investigate whether proportional recovery occurs in a more clinically relevant sample including patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and previous stroke. Patients with upper-limb weakness were assessed 3 days and 3 months poststroke with the Fugl-Meyer scale. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to test CST function, and patients were dichotomized according to the presence of motor evoked potentials in the paretic wrist extensors. Linear regression modeling of Δ Fugl-Meyer score between 3 days and 3 months was performed, with predictors including initial impairment (66 - baseline Fugl-Meyer score), age, sex, stroke type, previous stroke, comorbidities, and upper-limb therapy dose. One hundred ninety-two patients were recruited, and 157 completed 3-month follow-up. Patients with a functional CST made a proportional recovery of 63% (95% confidence interval, 55%-70%) of initial motor impairment. The recovery of patients without a functional CST was not proportional to initial impairment and was reduced by greater CST damage. Recovery of motor impairment in patients with intact CST is proportional to initial impairment and unaffected by previous stroke, type of stroke, or upper-limb therapy dose. Novel interventions that interact with the neurobiological mechanisms of recovery are needed. The generalizability of proportional recovery is such that patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and previous stroke may usefully be included in interventional rehabilitation trials. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au. Unique identifier: ANZCTR12611000755932. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Student reasoning about ratio and proportion in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    To many students, introductory physics must seem a fast-moving parade of abstract and somewhat mysterious quantities. Most such quantities are rooted in proportional reasoning. Using ratio, physicists construct the force experienced by a unit charge, and attach the name electric field, or characterize a motion with the velocity change that occurs in a unit time. While physicists reason about these ratios without conscious effort, students tend to resort to memorized algorithms, and at times struggle to match the appropriate algorithm to the situation encountered. Although the term ``proportional reasoning'' is prevalent, skill in reasoning with these ratio quantities is neither acquired nor applied as a single cognitive entity. Expert ability seems to be characterized by the intentional use of a variety of components, or elements of proportional reasoning, by a fluency in shifting from one component to another, and by a skill in selecting from among these components. Based on this perspective, it is natural to expect students to develop proportional reasoning ability in fits and starts as various facets are acquired and integrated into existing understandings. In an ongoing collaboration between Western Washington University, New Mexico State University, and Rutgers, we are attempting to map the rich cognitive terrain of proportional reasoning, and to use our findings to guide the design of instruction that develops fluency. This talk will present a provisional set of proportional reasoning components, along with research tasks that have been developed to measure student ability along these components. Student responses will be presented as evidence of specific modes of thinking. The talk will conclude with a brief outline of our approach to improving student understanding.

  16. Selective transport of long-chain fatty acids by FAT/CD36 in skeletal muscle of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Shu, G; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Liao, W; Wang, S; Yang, J; Zhou, G; Xi, Q; Gao, P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, S; Yuan, L; Jiang, Q

    2013-03-01

    Fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is a membrane receptor that facilitates long-chain fatty acid uptake. To investigate its role in the regulation of long-chain fatty acid composition in muscle tissue, we studied and compared FAT/CD36 gene expression in muscle tissues of commercial broiler chickens and Chinese local Silky fowls. The results from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of muscle samples demonstrated that Chinese local Silky fowls had significantly higher (P FAT/CD36 and caveolin-1) in the m. ipsilateral pectoralis and biceps femoris were analyzed by Q-PCR, and FAT/CD36 expression levels showed significant differences between these types of chickens (P FAT/CD36 expression are positively correlated with LA content (r = 0.567, P FAT/CD36 cDNA demonstrated that overexpression of FAT/CD36 improves total FA uptake with a significant increase in the proportion of LA and AA, and a decreased proportion of palmitic acid. These results suggest that chicken FAT/CD36 may selectively transport LA and AA, which may lead to the higher LA deposition in muscle tissue.

  17. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, B; Habib, S; Hallin, A L [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Bichsel, H; Cox, G A; Formaggio, J A; McGee, S; Miller, M L; Oblath, N S [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cai, B; Kraus, C; Leslie, H R; Martin, R [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Deng, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Detwiler, J; Loach, J C [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hime, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Huang, M [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0264 (United States); Monreal, B; Monroe, J, E-mail: nsoblath@mit.edu [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this neutral-current detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar-neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of current pulses from NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on {sup 3}He through NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array MC simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase {sup 8}B solar-neutrino measurement.

  18. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, B; Cai, B.; Cox, G.A.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Habib, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Hime, A.; Huang, M.; Kraus, C.; Leslie, H.R.; Loach, J.C.; Martin, R.; McGee, S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Oblath, N.S.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tolich, N.; Van Wechel, T.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wright, A.

    2011-01-01

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of 3He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this Neutral Current Detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of the current pulses from the NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on 3He through the NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase 8B solar-neutrino measurement.

  19. [Autologous fat grafting in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D

    2016-10-01

    Lipofilling or fat grafting transfer is defined as a technique of filling soft tissue by autologous fat grafting. The basic principle of lipofilling is based on a harvest of adipose tissue, followed by a reinjection after treatment. Lipofilling main objective is a volume defect filling, but also improving cutaneous trophicity. Lipofilling specificities among children is mainly based on these indications. Complications of autologous fat grafting among children are the same as those in adults: we distinguish short-term complications (intraoperative and perioperative) and the medium and long-term complications. The harvesting of fat tissue is the main limiting factor of the technique, due to low percentage of body fat of children. Indications of lipofilling among children may be specific or similar to those in adults. There are two types of indications: cosmetic, in which the aim of lipofilling is correcting a defect density, acquired (iatrogenic, post-traumatic scar) or malformation (otomandibular dysplasia, craniosynostosis, Parry Romberg syndrom, Poland syndrom, pectus excavatum…). The aim of functional indications is correcting a velar insufficiency or lagophthalmos. In the paediatric sector, lipofilling has become an alternative to the conventional techniques, by its reliability, safety, reproducibility, and good results.

  20. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  1. Stages of Change in Adopting Healthy Diets: Fat, Fiber, and Correlates of Nutrient Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data on dietary intake and stages of change from 17,121 employees in the Working Well Trail show that a greater proportion have tried to reduce fat rather than increase fiber consumption. Stage of change predicted 8-13% of variance in dietary intake. (SK)

  2. Contrasting cellularity on fat deposition in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus lumborum muscle from lean and fat pigs under dietary protein reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P A; Costa, A S H; Costa, P; Pires, V M R; Madeira, M S; Achega, F; Pinto, R M A; Prates, J A M

    2014-04-01

    The production of pork with high amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) without an increase in subcutaneous fat is highly desirable for the pig industry and consumers. Herein, we question the impact of dietary protein reduction (18% v. 13%) on fat deposition in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle using genetically diverse pigs for body fatness (lean v. fat). A clear effect of genotype was observed on plasma insulin (P=0.004) and leptin (Pfat pigs having higher values. Accordingly, IMF was higher in the fat pigs, when compared with their lean counterparts (P=0.003), which was supported by enlarged adipocytes (Pincreased in pigs fed reduced protein diets, regardless of genotype, which is consistent with higher levels of plasma triacylglycerols (P=0.002). The gene-expression pattern of lipogenic factors in the SAT was distinct from the LL muscle. In the SAT, PPARG expression was similar among genotypes (P>0.05), whereas in the LL muscle it was higher in the lean pigs (P=0.023), especially when fed on low protein diet (P=0.057). The CEBPA and FABP4 mRNA levels were increased in the SAT of fat pigs (Pmuscle (P>0.05). The influence of diet on FABP4 expression in the SAT was dependent on pig's genetic background (P=0.005). In conclusion, fat deposition was clearly influenced by genotype and, to a lesser extent, by dietary protein level, the SAT being more sensitive than the LL muscle. One can speculate that the pathways involved in lipid metabolism are downregulated in intramuscular adipocytes when compared with SAT fat cells. This result might be a direct consequence of the relatively low proportion of adipocytes found in the LL muscle.

  3. Should mono- or poly-unsaturated fats replace saturated fat in the diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M; Ball, M; Chisholm, A; Duncan, A; Spears, G; Mann, J

    1992-06-01

    The effects of diets differing in saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition (SAFA, MUFA and PUFA, respectively) on plasma lipoproteins and factor VIIc were investigated in 28 middle-aged men and women with mild to moderate hyperlipidaemia. The subjects were stabilized on a diet with a total fat content fairly typical of New Zealand, containing approximately 40% energy as fat, before entering a randomized cross-over trial of diets high in PUFA (20% energy; SAFA and MUFA 10% each) or a high MUFA diet (20% energy; SAFA and PUFA 10% each). After 6-week periods on each diet the subjects returned to a high SAFA diet. Body weight and blood pressure remained unchanged during the study. Total and LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and the HDL2 subfraction were significantly lower on both the MUFA and the PUFA diet than on SAFA. However, there were no statistically significant differences in lipoprotein concentrations on the MUFA and PUFA diet. Factor VIIc concentrations were similar on the three diets. The proportion of PUFA in a MUFA diet appears to be a major determinant of the relative lipoprotein response to such a diet. In order to avoid a reduction in HDL-C when replacing SAFA with MUFA it may be necessary to ensure that PUFA does not provide more than about 8% total energy. Thus careful planning is needed to identify the most appropriate foods to replace those rich in SAFA in diets designed to reduce the lipoprotein-mediated risk of coronary heart disease.

  4. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol, and high body mass index among non-Hispanic Asian adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yoon, Sung Sug; Chong, Yinong; Carroll, Margaret D

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hispanic Asian adults constituted 4.9% of the U.S. population in 2012, corresponding to 15.4 million people (2). This group primarily comprises persons of Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese descent. The prevalence of hypertension (defined as having blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg or taking blood pressure-lowering medications) among non-Hispanic Asian adults aged 20 and over was 25.6%. As previously reported, this prevalence is similar to that of non-Hispanic white adults and Hispanic adults but lower than that of non-Hispanic black adults (3). Among non-Hispanic Asian adults, the prevalence of hypertension was higher among those who were older or had less education, similar to findings in U.S. adults overall (4,5). The prevalence of high total cholesterol (measured as cholesterol of at least 240 mg/dL) among non-Hispanic Asian adults was similar to that among adults of other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adults had a lower prevalence of low HDL cholesterol (measured as HDL less than 40 mg/dL) than Hispanic persons (6). Non-Hispanic Asian adult men were almost five times more likely than non-Hispanic Asian adult women to have low HDL cholesterol. While adult men in general are known to have a higher prevalence of low HDL cholesterol than adult women (7), the sex difference was larger than in other race and Hispanic origin groups (6). The prevalence of high BMI among non-Hispanic Asian adults (38.6%) was much lower than that previously reported for non-Hispanic white adults (66.7%), non-Hispanic black adults (76.7%), and Hispanic adults (78.8%) (8). BMI is widely used as a measure of body fat. However, at a given BMI level, body fat may vary by sex, age, and race and Hispanic origin. In particular, at a given BMI, Asian adults may have more body fat than white adults (9). Also, morbidity and mortality risk may be influenced by body composition and fat distribution in a manner that is

  5. Epicardial fat: a new cardiovascular therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat is the visceral fat depot of the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, organ fat specificity and simple objective measurability, epicardial fat can serve as target for pharmaceutical agents targeting the adipose tissue. Epicardial fat has shown to significantly respond to thiazolidinediones, glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and statins. Epicardial fat may represent a measurable risk factor and modifiable therapeutic target. Targeted pharmaceutical interventions may allow the epicardial fat to resume its physiological role. A drug-induced browning effect on epicardial fat suggests the development of pharmacological strategies to increase energy consumption. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat transcriptome with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of cardio-metabolic diseases.

  6. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids and dietary concentrate proportion on performance, milk composition, milk yield and metabolic parameters of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Spilke, Joachim; Kramer, Ronny; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to examine effects of supplemented conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to periparturient cows receiving different concentrate proportions ante partum (a.p.) to investigate CLA effects on lipid mobilisation and metabolism. Compared to adapted feeding, a high-concentrate diet a.p. should induce a ketogenic metabolic situation post partum (p.p.) to better understand how CLA works. Sixty-four pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations 3 weeks prior to calving until day 60 p.p. Ante partum, cows received control fat (CON) or a CLA supplement at 100 g/d, either in a low-concentrate (CON-20, CLA-20) or high-concentrate diet (CON-60, CLA-60). Post partum, concentrate proportion was adjusted, while fat supplementation continued. After day 32 p.p., half of the animals of CLA-groups changed to CON supplementation (CLA-20-CON, CLA-60-CON). A ketogenic metabolic situation p.p. was not achieved and therefore impacts of CLA could not be examined. Live weight, milk yield and composition, blood parameters remained unaffected by the treatments. Only a slightly reduced milk fat yield (not significant) was recorded for Group CLA-20. The proportion of trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA in milk fat was significantly increased in CLA-groups compared to CON-groups. With the exception of a reversible CLA effect on milk fat in Group CLA-20, no post-treatment effects occurred. Dry matter intake (DMI) of Group CLA-60 was highest before calving, resulting in a significantly improved estimated energy balance after calving. Ante partum, net energy intakes were significantly increased in high-concentrate groups. Overall, supplemented CLA preparation did not relieve metabolism and lipid mobilisation of early lactating cows. But feeding CLA in a high-concentrate diet a.p. seems to increase DMI and thereby improve the energy balance of cows immediately after calving.

  7. Proportional Reasoning in the Learning of Chemistry: Levels of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Narod, Fawzia Bibi

    2014-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study sketches the ways in which proportional reasoning is involved in the solution of chemistry problems, more specifically, problems involving quantities in chemical reactions (commonly referred to as stoichiometry problems). By building on the expertise of both mathematics and chemistry education research, the present…

  8. Modelling long term survival with non-proportional hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perperoglou, Aristidis

    2006-01-01

    In this work I consider models for survival data when the assumption of proportionality does not hold. The thesis consists of an Introduction, five papers, a Discussion and an Appendix. The Introduction presents technical information about the Cox model and introduces the ideas behind the extensions

  9. System proportions fluid-flow in response to demand signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Control system provides proportioned fluid flow rates in response to demand signals. It compares a digital signal, representing a flow demand, with a reference signal to yield a control voltage to one or more solenoid valves connected to orifices of a predetermined size.

  10. Macroevolutionary diversity of amniote limb proportions predicted by developmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M

    2013-11-01

    Mammals, birds, and reptiles exhibit a remarkable diversity of limb proportions. These evolved differences are thought to reflect selection for biomechanical, postural, and locomotor requirements primarily acting on independent variation in later fetal and postnatal segmental growth. However, earlier conserved developmental events also have the potential to impact the evolvability of limb proportions by limiting or biasing initial variation among segments. Notably, proximo-distal patterning of the amniote limb through activation-inhibition dynamics predicts that initial proportions of segments should exhibit both tradeoffs between stylopod and autopod and a diagnostic reduction in variance of the zeugopod. Here it is demonstrated that this developmental "design rule" predicts patterns of macroevolutionary diversity despite the effects of variation in segmental growth over ontogeny, lineage-specific differences in phylogenetic history, or functional adaptation. These results provide critical comparative evidence of a conserved Turing-like mechanism in proximo-distal limb segmentation, and suggest that development has played a previously unrecognized role in the evolvability of limb proportions in a wide range of amniote taxa.

  11. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  12. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF/sub 2/, as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures.

  13. The relation between spatial thinking and proportional reasoning in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S; Frick, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has indicated a close link between spatial and mathematical thinking. However, what shared processes account for this link? In this study, we focused on the spatial skill of map reading and the mathematical skill of proportional reasoning and investigated whether scaling, or the ability to relate information in different-sized representations, is a shared process. Scaling was experimentally manipulated in both tasks. In the map task, 4- and 5-year-olds (N=50) were asked to point to the same position shown on a map in a larger referent space on a touch screen. The sizes of the maps were varied systematically, such that some trials required scaling and some did not (i.e., the map had the same size as the referent space). In the proportional reasoning task, children were presented with different relative amounts of juice and water and were asked to estimate each mixture on a rating scale. Again, some trials required scaling, but others could be solved by directly mapping the proportional components onto the rating scale. Children's absolute errors in locating targets in the map task were closely related to their performance in the proportional reasoning task even after controlling for age and verbal intelligence. Crucially, this was only true for trials that required scaling, whereas performance on nonscaled trials was not related. These results shed light on the mechanisms involved in the close connection between spatial and mathematical thinking early in life.

  14. Proportional control valves integrated in silicon nitride surface channel technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Meutstege, Esken; Brookhuis, Robert A.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and realized two types of proportional microcontrol valves in a silicon nitride surface channel technology process. This enables on-die integration of flow controllers with other surface channel devices, such as pressure sensors or thermal or Coriolis-based (mass) flow sensors, to o

  15. Map Scale, Proportion, and Google[TM] Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Martin C.; Cooper, Linda L.

    2010-01-01

    Aerial imagery has a great capacity to engage and maintain student interest while providing a contextual setting to strengthen their ability to reason proportionally. Free, on-demand, high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography provides both a bird's eye view of the world and a new perspective on one's own community. This article presents an…

  16. Are Explicit Apologies Proportional to the Offenses They Address?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, John; Raymond, Chase Wesley

    2016-01-01

    We consider here Goffman's proposal of proportionality between virtual offenses and remedial actions, based on the examination of 102 cases of explicit apologies. To this end, we offer a typology of the primary apology formats within the dataset, together with a broad categorization of the types of virtual offenses to which these apologies are…

  17. On Homogeneous Production Functions with Proportional Marginal Rate of Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Daniela Vîlcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We completely classify homogeneous production functions with proportional marginal rate of substitution and with constant elasticity of labor and capital, respectively. These classifications generalize some recent results of C. A. Ioan and G. Ioan (2011 concerning the sum production function.

  18. Neural networks to formulate special fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia, R. K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks are a branch of artificial intelligence based on the structure and development of biological systems, having as its main characteristic the ability to learn and generalize knowledge. They are used for solving complex problems for which traditional computing systems have a low efficiency. To date, applications have been proposed for different sectors and activities. In the area of fats and oils, the use of neural networks has focused mainly on two issues: the detection of adulteration and the development of fatty products. The formulation of fats for specific uses is the classic case of a complex problem where an expert or group of experts defines the proportions of each base, which, when mixed, provide the specifications for the desired product. Some conventional computer systems are currently available to assist the experts; however, these systems have some shortcomings. This article describes in detail a system for formulating fatty products, shortenings or special fats, from three or more components by using neural networks (MIX. All stages of development, including design, construction, training, evaluation, and operation of the network will be outlined.

    Las redes neuronales son una rama de la inteligencia artificial basadas en la estructura y funcionamiento de sistemas biológicos, teniendo como principal característica la capacidad de aprender y generalizar conocimiento. Estas son utilizadas en la resolución de problemas complejos, en los cuales los sistemas computacionales tradicionales presentan una eficiencia baja. Hasta la fecha, han sido propuestas aplicaciones para los más diversos sectores y actividades. En el área de grasas y aceites, la utilización de redes neuronales se ha concentrado principalmente en dos asuntos: la detección de adulteraciones y la formulación de productos grasos. La formulación de grasas para uso específico es el caso clásico de problema complejo donde un experto o grupo de

  19. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... by the insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...... haemoglobin rose during both diet intervention periods (P = 0.18), with no difference between the two diets. CONCLUSIONS: Change to an isocaloric, low-fat diet in Type 1 diabetic patients during a 3-month period resulted in significant improvement in insulin sensitivity without improvement in glycaemic...

  20. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    . The rumen ammonia concentration was not affected by the ration. The milk and energy-corrected milk yields were unaffected by the fat supplementation. In conclusion, rapeseed is an appropriate fat source to reduce the enteric CH4 production without affecting neutral detergent fiber digestion or milk....... The amount of fat-free rapeseed was kept constant for all rations. The forage consisted of corn silage and grass silage and the forage to concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Diurnal samples of duodenal and ileal digesta and feces were compiled. The methane production was measured for 4 d...... in open-circuit respiration chambers. Additional fat reduced the CH4 production per kilogram of dry matter intake and as a proportion of the gross energy intake by 11 and 14%, respectively. Neither the total tract nor the rumen digestibility of organic matter (OM) or neutral detergent fiber were...

  1. Weyl law for fat fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Spina, Maria E; Saraceno, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    It has been conjectured that for a class of piecewise linear maps the closure of the set of images of the discontinuity has the structure of a fat fractal, that is, a fractal with positive measure. An example of such maps is the sawtooth map in the elliptic regime. In this work we analyze this problem quantum mechanically in the semiclassical regime. We find that the fraction of states localized on the unstable set satisfies a modified fractal Weyl law, where the exponent is given by the exterior dimension of the fat fractal.

  2. Physico-chemical characterisation of the fat from red-skin rambutan (Nephellium lappaceum L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Yanty Noorziana Abdul; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The seeds (6.9±0.2% by weight of fruit) of the red-skin rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) contain a considerable amount of crude fat (38.0±4.36%) and thus, the aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical properties of this fat for potential applications. The iodine and saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of the seed fat were 50.27 g I2/100g fat, 182.1 mg KOH/g fat, 0.8% and 2.1%, respectively. The fat is pale yellow with a Lovibond color index of 3.1Y+1.1R. The fatty acid profile indicates an almost equal proportion of saturated (49.1%) and unsaturated (50.9%) fatty acids, where oleic (42.0%) and arachidic (34.3%) acids were the most dominant fatty acids. It also contained small amounts of stearic (8.0%), palmitic (4.6%), gadoleic (5.9%), linoleic (2.2%), behenic (2.1%) palmitoleic (0.7%) myristic (0.1%) and erucic (0.1%) acids. HPLC analysis showed that the fat comprised mainly unknown triacylglycerols (TAG) with high retention times indicating they have higher carbon numbers compared with many vegetable oils. The fat has melting and cooling points of 44.2°C and -42.5°C, respectively, making it a semi-solid at room temperature. The solid content at 0°C was 53.5% and the fat melted completely at 40°C. z-Nose analysis showed that the presence of high levels of volatile compounds in red-skin rambutan seed and seed fat.

  3. High-fat diet is associated with obesity-mediated insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mary Helen; Watanabe, Richard M; Trigo, Enrique; Takayanagi, Miwa; Lawrence, Jean M; Buchanan, Thomas A; Xiang, Anny H

    2013-04-01

    Consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has contributed to the rising incidence of obesity and may underlie insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Macronutrient intake patterns were examined in relation to anthropometric and metabolic traits in participants of BetaGene, a family-based study of obesity, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans. Dietary intake, body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), and β-cell function [Disposition Index (DI)] were assessed by food-frequency questionnaires, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and intravenous glucose-tolerance tests, respectively. Patterns of macronutrient intake were identified by using a K-means model based on the proportion of total energy intake per day attributable to carbohydrate, fat, and protein and were tested for association with anthropometric and metabolic traits. Among 1150 subjects aged 18-65 y (73% female), tertiles of fat intake were associated with greater adiposity and lower SI, after adjustment for age, sex, and daily energy intake. Moreover, 3 distinct dietary patterns were identified: "high fat" (35% fat, 44% carbohydrate, 21% protein; n = 238), "moderate fat" (28% fat, 54% carbohydrate, 18% protein; n = 520), and "low fat" (20% fat, 65% carbohydrate, 15% protein; n = 392). Compared with the low-fat group, the high-fat group had higher age- and sex-adjusted mean body mass index, body fat percentage, and trunk fat and lower SI and DI. Further adjustment for daily energy intake by matching individuals across dietary pattern groups yielded similar results. None of the observed associations were altered after adjustment for physical activity; however, associations with SI and DI were attenuated after adjustment for adiposity. These findings suggest that high-fat diets may contribute to increased adiposity and concomitant insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in Mexican Americans.

  4. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures or plastic surgery (liposuction, compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45 min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH = 7.21; PCO2 = 51 mmHg; PO2 = 52 mmHg; BE = -8; HCO3 = 18 mEq L-1, and lactate = 6.0 mmol L-1. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP = 55 mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF = 60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24 h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale = 3. A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72 h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. CONCLUSION: Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction. The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis.

  5. Determination of the milk fat content of fat mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaeser, H.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the determination of the milk fat content of fat mixtures are usually based on a butyric acid determination. This fatty acid is specific for milk fat. A conversion factor is used to calculate the milk fat content from the butyric acid content of the mixture. When applying this procedure, the natural variation of the butyric acid content of milk fat is not taken into consideration. Recently published data show that a considerable error may thus be introduced, making the interpretation of analytical results difficult. It is therefore proposed to envisage a control procedure which takes this aspect into consideration.Los métodos para la determinación del contenido de grasa de leche en mezclas de grasas se basan habitualmente en el análisis de ácido butiríco. Este ácido graso es específico de la grasa de la leche. Para el cálculo del contenido de grasa de leche a partir del contenido de ácido butírico de la mezcla se utiliza un factor de conversión. Cuando se aplica este procedimiento, no se tiene en cuenta la variación natural del contenido en ácido butírico de la grasa de leche. Datos publicados recientemente indican que si este factor no se tiene en cuenta se cometen importantes errores, haciendo difícil la interpretación de los resultados analíticos. Se propone, por tanto, un procedimiento de control que considere este aspecto.

  6. High order coherent control sequences of fat pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Pasini, S; Uhrig, G S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the performance of sequences of fat pulses of various lengths and shapes for dynamic decoupling and we compare it with that of sequences of ideal, instantaneous pulses. The use of second order, shaped pulses represents a significant improvement. Non-equidistant sequences characterized by pulse durations scaled proportional to the duration T of the sequence strikingly outperform the sequences with pulses of constant length for small T. Interestingly, for longer durations sequences of pulses of substantial length are found to suppress dephasing better than sequences of ideal pulses.

  7. ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D.; Yellin, Samuel A.; Ong, Frank J.; Singh, Nina P.; Konyer, Norman; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth in conjunction with extremely low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiometabolic health risk compared to birth at full term with normal birth weight (NBW). However, little is known regarding the biologic mediators of these effects. Abdominal and ectopic lipid accumulation is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, yet whether ELBW survivors are predisposed to aberrant lipid deposition in adulthood is unknown. We used magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of 16 NBW and 29 ELBW participants to determine if ELBW survivors have differences in pancreatic, hepatic, subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution compared to NBW participants. ELBW individuals had a higher proportion of liver and pancreatic fat compared to NBW subjects (P < 0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, area was higher in ELBW survivors compared to NBW individuals. In multivariate analyses, tissue fat measures were most highly related to BMI and sex, but not preterm birth. This work highlights that fat deposition is enhanced in adults born preterm and suggests that ectopic fat accretion driven by their relatively greater adiposity may contribute to the higher rates of metabolic dysfunction seen in ELBW survivors. PMID:27530702

  8. Effects of proportions of dietary macronutrients on glucocorticoid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H Stimson

    Full Text Available Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 and inactivation by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36 for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12 or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12 or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12 diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12 throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01, but did not alter 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5Alpha-reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001 and increased 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01 in the liver, and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01 in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue, a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.

  9. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26066016

  10. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H L; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-06-09

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.

  11. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  12. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  13. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  14. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  15. Targeting fat to prevent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Jaswinder K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J

    2007-05-01

    An emerging view is that obesity causes metabolic problems when adipose tissue fails to meet the increased demands for fat storage. A study in this issue of Cell Metabolism (Waki et al., 2007) has identified harmine as a proadipogenic small molecule that promotes energy expenditure in white adipose tissue and delays the onset of obesity-associated diabetes.

  16. Hidden fat facilitates passive overconsumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van M.; Graaf, de C.; Siebelink, E.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food intake regulation may be disturbed when sensory signals from foods are disconnected from their metabolic properties. Consumption of high-fat, energy-dense foods may stimulate passive overconsumption, because these foods do not provide sensory signals in accordance with the actual nutrient

  17. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already i...

  18. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  19. Intelligent automated control of life support systems using proportional representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Annie S; Garibay, Ivan I

    2004-06-01

    Effective automatic control of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) is a crucial component of space exploration. An ALSS is a coupled dynamical system which can be extremely sensitive and difficult to predict. As a result, such systems can be difficult to control using deliberative and deterministic methods. We investigate the performance of two machine learning algorithms, a genetic algorithm (GA) and a stochastic hill-climber (SH), on the problem of learning how to control an ALSS, and compare the impact of two different types of problem representations on the performance of both algorithms. We perform experiments on three ALSS optimization problems using five strategies with multiple variations of a proportional representation for a total of 120 experiments. Results indicate that although a proportional representation can effectively boost GA performance, it does not necessarily have the same effect on other algorithms such as SH. Results also support previous conclusions that multivector control strategies are an effective method for control of coupled dynamical systems.

  20. Measuring Cherenkov Backgrounds from Proportional Counters in SNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Stanley

    2006-04-01

    In the current phase of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, He-3 proportional counters have been deployed in the center of the detector to measure neutron production from neutral-current interactions between neutrinos and deuterons in the heavy water. Radioactive decays of Bi-214 and Tl-208 in the counters produce gammas of sufficient energy to photodisintegrate deuterons, which become a background to the neutral current measurement. We have measured the background rate in-situ using Cherenkov light detected with SNO's 9456 inward-looking photomultiplier tubes. A maximum likelihood method is used to separate backgrounds in the heavy water from backgrounds in the proportional counters based upon the spatial distribution of low energy Cherenkov event vertices. Uncertainties on the backgrounds have been estimated using calibration data taken with both a distributed Na-24 source, and a contained Th source deployed at various points in the detector.

  1. Event identification in 3He proportional counters using risetime discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, T. J.; Bass, C. D.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Erwin, D. K.; Heimbach, C. R.; Nico, J. S.

    2013-07-01

    We present a straightforward method for particle identification and background rejection in 3He proportional counters for use in neutron detection. By measuring the risetime and pulse height of the preamplifier signals, one may define a region in the risetime versus pulse height space where the events are predominately from neutron interactions. For six proportional counters surveyed in a low-background environment, we demonstrate the ability to reject alpha-particle events with an efficiency of 99%. By applying the same method, we also show an effective rejection of microdischarge noise events that, when passed through a shaping amplifier, are indistinguishable from physical events in the counters. The primary application of this method is in measurements where the signal-to-background for counting neutrons is very low, such as in underground laboratories.

  2. Event Identification in $^3$He Proportional Counters Using Risetime Discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Langford, T J; Beise, E J; Breuer, H; Erwin, D K; Heimbach, C R; Nico, J S

    2012-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for particle identification and background rejection in $^3$He proportional counters for use in neutron detection. By measuring the risetime and pulse height of the preamplifier signals, one may define a region in the risetime versus pulse height space where the events are predominately from neutron interactions. For six proportional counters surveyed in a low-background environment, we demonstrate the ability to reject alpha-particle events with an efficiency of 99%. By applying the same method, we also show an effective rejection of microdischarge noise events that, when passed through a shaping amplifier, are indistinguishable from physical events in the counters. The primary application of this method is in measurements where the signal-to-background for counting neutrons is very low, such as in underground laboratories.

  3. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosaki, M.; Kawano, T.; Isozumi, Y.

    2013-11-01

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive 55Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH4 admixed dry air or N2. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 104) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O2 has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N2.

  4. Measurements of electron attachment by oxygen molecule in proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosaki, M., E-mail: tosaki.mitsuo.3v@kyoto-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kawano, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Isozumi, Y. [Radioisotope Research Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    We present pulse height measurements for 5-keV Auger electrons from a radioactive {sup 55}Fe source mounted at the inner cathode surface of cylindrical proportional counter, which is operated with CH{sub 4} admixed dry air or N{sub 2}. A clear shift of the pulse height has been observed by varying the amount of the admixtures; the number of electrons, created in the primary ionization by Auger electrons, is decreased by the electron attachment of the admixtures during their drift from the place near the source to the anode wire. The large gas amplification (typically 10{sup 4}) in the secondary ionization of proportional counter makes it possible to investigate a small change in the number of primary electrons. The electron attenuation cross-section of O{sub 2} has been evaluated by analyzing the shifts of the pulse height caused by the electron attachment to dry air and N{sub 2}.

  5. Proportional reasoning as a key to numeracy across the curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    -day workshops in Queensland and four full-day workshops in South Australia). Between workshops, teachers designed and trialled teaching approaches and learning experiences in their classrooms to target their students’ identified proportional reasoning learning needs and capabilities. Data were collected from...... teachers through feedback sessions, surveys, interviews, and practical presentations. Data were collected on student learning outcomes through interviews, diagnostic instruments, and classroom observations. The initial findings revealed that students and teachers had relatively poor proportional reasoning...... skills and teachers tended to rely on algorithmic approaches rather than focusing on conceptual development. These findings informed the design of an ongoing professional development program and the collaboration between teachers and researchers led to the development of a range of evidence...

  6. Combining proportional and majoritarian democracy: An institutional design proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Ganghof

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a new way to combine the “proportional” and “majoritarian” visions of democracy. The proposal blends elements of mixed electoral systems, parliamentarism, presidentialism and bicameralism. Voters are given a single vote to make two simultaneous choices: one about the proportional composition of the legislature and one about the two top parties forming a majoritarian “confidence chamber” embedded within the legislature. Only the majority in this chamber has the power to dismiss the cabinet in a vote of no-confidence. The proposed system virtually guarantees the feasibility of identifiable and stable one-party cabinets governing with shifting, issue-specific majorities in a highly proportional legislature. It is illustrated with respect to the 2013 federal election in Germany.

  7. Random weighting method for Cox’s proportional hazards model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Variance of parameter estimate in Cox’s proportional hazards model is based on asymptotic variance. When sample size is small, variance can be estimated by bootstrap method. However, if censoring rate in a survival data set is high, bootstrap method may fail to work properly. This is because bootstrap samples may be even more heavily censored due to repeated sampling of the censored observations. This paper proposes a random weighting method for variance estimation and confidence interval estimation for proportional hazards model. This method, unlike the bootstrap method, does not lead to more severe censoring than the original sample does. Its large sample properties are studied and the consistency and asymptotic normality are proved under mild conditions. Simulation studies show that the random weighting method is not as sensitive to heavy censoring as bootstrap method is and can produce good variance estimates or confidence intervals.

  8. Proportional Distribution of Patient Satisfaction Scores by Clinical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Leonard MD, MS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Proportional Responsibility for Integrated Metrics by Encounter (PRIME model is a novel means of allocating patient experience scores based on the proportion of each physician's involvement in care. Secondary analysis was performed on Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys from a tertiary care academic institution. The PRIME model was used to calculate specialty-level scores based on encounters during a hospitalization. Standard and PRIME scores for services with the most inpatient encounters were calculated. Hospital medicine had the most discharges and encounters. The standard model generated a score of 74.6, while the PRIME model yielded a score of 74.9. The standard model could not generate a score for anesthesiology due to the lack of returned surveys, but the PRIME model yielded a score of 84.2. The PRIME model provides a more equitable method for distributing satisfaction scores and can generate scores for specialties that the standard model cannot.

  9. Random weighting method for Cox's proportional hazards model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI WenQuan; LI Kai; YANG YaNing; WU YueHua

    2008-01-01

    Variance of parameter estimate in Cox's proportional hazards model is based on asymptotic variance.When sample size is small,variance can be estimated by bootstrap method.However,if censoring rate in a survival data set is high,bootstrap method may fail to work properly.This is because bootstrap samples may be even more heavily censored due to repeated sampling of the censored observations.This paper proposes a random weighting method for variance estimation and confidence interval estimation for proportional hazards model.This method,unlike the bootstrap method,does not lead to more severe censoring than the original sample does.Its large sample properties are studied and the consistency and asymptotic normality are proved under mild conditions.Simulation studies show that the random weighting method is not as sensitive to heavy censoring as bootstrap method is and can produce good variance estimates or confidence intervals.

  10. MULTIAXIAL CREEP-FATIGUE LIFE EVALUATION UNDER PROPORTIONAL LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Noguchi; M.Miyahara

    2004-01-01

    A new method was proposed for the multiaxial creep-fatigue life evaluation under proportional loadings. Because this method was derived from the strain range partitioning method with a multiaxiality factor, it was possible to consider the influence of both creep-fatigue interaction and multiaxial stress state on fatigue life. In order to predict the combined axial-torsional fatigue life the damage under combined loading was defined as linear summation of the damages under axial loading and torsional loading.Axial-torsional creep-fatigue tests were carried out using tubular specimens of 316LC austenitic stainless steel and the ferritic rotor steel. This rotor steel was developed for the permanent magnet type eddy current retarder in heavy trucks. Experimentally obtained lives of both steels were well corresponded with the lives predicted by the proposed method. It was found that the proposed method was effective in multiaxial fatigue life evaluation under proportional creep-fatigue loadings.

  11. Exact Group Sequential Methods for Estimating a Binomial Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjia Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We first review existing sequential methods for estimating a binomial proportion. Afterward, we propose a new family of group sequential sampling schemes for estimating a binomial proportion with prescribed margin of error and confidence level. In particular, we establish the uniform controllability of coverage probability and the asymptotic optimality for such a family of sampling schemes. Our theoretical results establish the possibility that the parameters of this family of sampling schemes can be determined so that the prescribed level of confidence is guaranteed with little waste of samples. Analytic bounds for the cumulative distribution functions and expectations of sample numbers are derived. Moreover, we discuss the inherent connection of various sampling schemes. Numerical issues are addressed for improving the accuracy and efficiency of computation. Computational experiments are conducted for comparing sampling schemes. Illustrative examples are given for applications in clinical trials.

  12. Association of high body mass index with decreased treatment response to combination therapy in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimans, L; van den Broek, M; le Cessie, S; Siegerink, B; Riyazi, N; Han, K H; Kerstens, P J S M; Huizinga, T W J; Lems, W F; Allaart, C F

    2013-08-01

    To assess the association between high body mass index (BMI) and treatment response in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis. In the Behandelstrategieën voor Reumatoide Artritis (Treatment Strategies for Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, 508 patients were randomized to initial monotherapy or combination therapy with prednisone or infliximab (IFX). The response to Disease Activity Score (DAS) ≤2.4-steered treatment (first dose and after 1 year) was compared between patients with a BMI <25 kg/m(2) and ≥25 kg/m(2) , using relative risk (RR) regression analyses. DAS, components of DAS, and functional ability during the first year were compared using linear mixed models. High BMI was independently associated with failure to achieve a DAS ≤2.4 on initial therapy (RR 1.20 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.05, 1.37]). The effect for combination therapy with prednisone was RR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06, 2.28) and for combination therapy with IFX 1.42 (95% CI 0.98, 2.06). The RRs for failure after 1 year were 1.46 (95% CI 0.75, 2.83) and 2.20 (95% CI 0.99, 4.92), respectively. High BMI was also associated with failure on delayed combination therapy with IFX, after adjustment for selection bias related to previous failure on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. No significant association was observed in the initial monotherapy groups. In the first year, patients with a high BMI had higher DAS and worse functional ability, with more tender joints and a higher visual analog scale global health, but not more swollen joints and similar systemic inflammation. High BMI was independently associated with failure to achieve low DAS on initial combination therapy with prednisone and on initial and delayed treatment with IFX. Patients with a high BMI experienced more pain, but not more swelling or systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  14. Estimation of Dental and Facial Proportions Using Height as Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nalawade, Sumit Shivaji; Shinde, Sagar Kundlik; Pawar, Renuka Lalit; Gupta, Aditi; Kale, Vishwajeet Tulshidas; Janrao, Kunal Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ideal dental restoration is one which not only restores optimal functions but also confirm to standard dental and facial relations. This is important to achieve long term patient satisfaction both with regard to esthetics as well as functions. Objective was to find a credible relationship between dental and facial proportions using height of individuals as the criteria in a specific group of population. To determine a regression equation for determination of various dental and fac...

  15. Estimation and relevance of bark proportion in a willow stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Anneli [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden); Estonian Agricultural Univ. (EAU), Inst. of Zoology and Botany, Tartu (Estonia); Verwijst, Theo; Aronsson, Paer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    We studied bark proportion of a willow (Salix viminalis) plantation established to produce biomass for energy, the vertical distribution of elements (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Si, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg and Ni) in bark and in wood of the shoots and the content of elements in the standing biomass. The study is based on 5-year-old shoots (clone 77-683) from a 12-year-old plantation. The bark proportion of the whole willow stand was 19% (9 tDM ha{sup -1}). The bark proportion of single shoots was constant after they had reached the size of 20 mm at stem diameter at 55 cm height. Compared to wood, bark had significantly higher concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Cd, Pb, Co and Zn. The nutrient element (N, P, K, Mg) concentrations in the bark and in the wood of the current year shoot fractions (twigs) were significantly higher compared to the bark and the wood of other fractions. The accumulation of heavy metals occurred due to the accumulation of tree biomass and not due to the increase of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg) concentrations in plant tissues over time. In summary, different management regimes give a possibility to influence shoot size frequency distribution of the crop and the chemical composition of biomass. For minimizing element removals from the soil and corrosion processes in power plants, energy willow stands should be managed in a way that promotes low bark proportion and thereby as little nutrient removal from the site by biomass harvest as possible. (Author)

  16. Effect of Autopilot Structure on Proportional Navigation Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Qun-li; LIU Yi-ying; QI Zai-kang

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of acceleration autopilot and attitude autopilot are discussed in detail.Also, a comparison study was made between these two different types of control schemes for guidance loop.By means of simulation, it is concluded that the guidance accuracy is mainly determined by the slowest subsystem among different system dynamics.For air-to-ground missiles, with limited terminal guidance time, the control scheme of acceleration autopilot combined with proportional navigation guidance (PNG) law is the better choice.

  17. Proportionality in enterprise development of South African towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitland T. Seaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated proportionalities in the enterprise structures of 125 South African towns through examining four hypotheses, (1 the magnitude of enterprise development in a town is a function of the population size of the town; (2 the size of an enterprise assemblage of a town is a function of the town’s age; (3 there are statistically significant relationships, and hence proportionalities, between the total number of enterprises in towns and some, if not all, of the enterprise numbers of different business sectors in towns; and (4 the implications of proportionalities have far-reaching implications for rural development and job creation. All hypotheses were accepted on the basis of statistically significant (p < 0.05 correlations, except for the second hypothesis – the age of a town does not determine the size of its enterprise assemblage. Analysis for the fourth hypothesis suggested that there are two broad entrepreneurial types in South African towns: ‘run-of-the-mill’ entrepreneurs and ‘special’ entrepreneurs, which give rise to different enterprise development dynamics. ‘Run-of-the-mill’ enterprises are dependent on, and limited by, local demand and if there is only a small demand, the entrepreneurial space is small. By comparison, ‘special’ enterprises have much larger markets because their products and/or services are exportable. We propose that the fostering of ‘special’ entrepreneurs is an imperative for local economic development in South African towns.

  18. Energy Proportionality and Performance in Data Parallel Computing Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Chou, Jerry; Rotem, Doron

    2011-02-14

    Energy consumption in datacenters has recently become a major concern due to the rising operational costs andscalability issues. Recent solutions to this problem propose the principle of energy proportionality, i.e., the amount of energy consumedby the server nodes must be proportional to the amount of work performed. For data parallelism and fault tolerancepurposes, most common file systems used in MapReduce-type clusters maintain a set of replicas for each data block. A coveringset is a group of nodes that together contain at least one replica of the data blocks needed for performing computing tasks. In thiswork, we develop and analyze algorithms to maintain energy proportionality by discovering a covering set that minimizesenergy consumption while placing the remaining nodes in lowpower standby mode. Our algorithms can also discover coveringsets in heterogeneous computing environments. In order to allow more data parallelism, we generalize our algorithms so that itcan discover k-covering sets, i.e., a set of nodes that contain at least k replicas of the data blocks. Our experimental results showthat we can achieve substantial energy saving without significant performance loss in diverse cluster configurations and workingenvironments.

  19. A method to quantify mouse coat-color proportions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songthip Ounpraseuth

    Full Text Available Coat-color proportions and patterns in mice are used as assays for many processes such as transgene expression, chimerism, and epigenetics. In many studies, coat-color readouts are estimated from subjective scoring of individual mice. Here we show a method by which mouse coat color is quantified as the proportion of coat shown in one or more digital images. We use the yellow-agouti mouse model of epigenetic variegation to demonstrate this method. We apply this method to live mice using a conventional digital camera for data collection. We use a raster graphics editing program to convert agouti regions of the coat to a standard, uniform, brown color and the yellow regions of the coat to a standard, uniform, yellow color. We use a second program to quantify the proportions of these standard colors. This method provides quantification that relates directly to the visual appearance of the live animal. It also provides an objective analysis with a traceable record, and it should allow for precise comparisons of mouse coats and mouse cohorts within and between studies.

  20. The effect of fat content and flavor enhancers on the perceived saltiness of cooked ‘bologna-type’ sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Ruusunen, Marita; Simolin, M; Puolanne, Eero

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the saltiness perception of cooked sausage changes the fat content of sausages was varied. The effect of varying fat content (8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28%) on sausage perceived saltiness was studied using two different formulations, each with 1.2 and 2.0% NaCl. The formulations were made either by varying the proportions of lean pork and pork fat (Series 1) or by replacing water with pork fat on an equal weight basis (Series 2). The replacement of l...

  1. Weighing Posthumanism : Fatness and Contested Humanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidou, S.; Sturm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed

  2. Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tchkonia, T.; Morbeck, D.E.; Zglinicki, T. von; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Lustgarten, J.; Scrable, H.; Khosla, S.; Jensen, M.D.; Kirkland, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat tissue, frequently the largest organ in humans, is at the nexus of mechanisms involved in longevity and age-related metabolic dysfunction. Fat distribution and function change dramatically throughout life. Obesity is associated with accelerated onset of diseases common in old age, while fat abla

  3. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  4. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Huntjens, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Polet, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour

  5. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excessive dietary fat intake can result in health problems such as obesity and heart-related diseases, resulting in increased consumer demand for reduced fat foods. A number of food ingredients with fat-like functions have been developed as fat alternatives in the food industry. Especially, so...

  6. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Inve

  7. The Effect of Dietary Vegetable Oilseeds Supplement on Fatty Acid Profiles in Milk Fat from Lactating Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-jun; WANG Jia-qi; BU Deng-pan; WEI Hong-yang; ZHOU Ling-yun; LUO Qiu-jiang

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with vegetable oilseeds on the composition of bovine milk fatty acids(FAs), 40 Holstein dairy cows were used with a complete randomized design. At the beginning of the experiment, the cows were 150±25 day in milk (DIM). Total duration of the experiment was six weeks. Measurements were made during the last three weeks. Cows in four treatments were fed with a basal diet (CT) or basal diet supplemented with either whole full fat soybean (WFS), full fat expanded soybean (FPS) or whole full fat soybean with whole cottonseed and full fat expanded soybean (MIX). The composition of the milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography. Relative to control, the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration in milk fat from cows on FPS was significantly increased by 83.88% (P<0.05). The proportions of C12:0 were decreased by 35.7, 35.51, and 38.65% in milk fat from cows on WFS, MIX, and FPS compared with cows on CT. Similar decreases in C14:0 were 23.83, 24.85, and 31.48% in WFS, MIX, and FPS treatments, respectively.Feeding vegetable oilseeds increased the proportion of healthy FAs (mainly CLA), whereas decreased the concentration of C12:0 and C14:0. Therefore, milk and dairy products would have higher nutritive and therapeutic value.

  8. Sensory characteristics of meat and composition of carcass fat from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    subcutaneous fat composition and sensory characteristics. Keywords: sensory .... increased juiciness was associated with an increased carcass fat content. In the present study carcass fat .... Fat:Muscle ratio (%). Little. Medium. Abundant.

  9. Dietary fat restriction increases fat taste sensitivity in people with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Lisa P.; Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P.; Susan J. Torres; Keast, Russell S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Individuals with obesity may be less sensitive to the taste of fat, and it is hypothesized that this is due to excess dietary fat intake. This study assessed the effect of a 6‐week low‐fat (LF) or portion control (PC) diet matched for weight loss on fat taste thresholds, fat perception, and preference in people with overweight/obesity. Methods Participants (n = 53) completed a randomized dietary intervention and consumed either a LF diet (25% fat) or PC diet (33% fat) for 6 weeks. F...

  10. Degree of obesity influences the relationship of PAI-1 with body fat distribution and metabolic variables in African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Kruger, Herculina S

    2016-10-01

    Although the relationship of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with obesity has been well established, the relationship of PAI-1 with different body fat distribution patterns is less clear particularly in non-white ethnicities. We investigated the cross-sectional association of PAI-1act with body fat % and two different body fat distribution patterns, namely sarcopenic obesity (SO) and visceral (VAT) compared to subcutaneous (SCAT) abdominal obesity, in 246 healthy African women by creating sub-groups according to different body fat distribution patterns. The PAI-1act level of the SO group did not differ significantly from that of the excessive % body fat, non-sarcopenic group (p=0.8). The relationship of PAI-1act, with body fat %, insulin, triglycerides and appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) was influenced by body fat distribution patterns and degree of obesity. PAI-1act was higher (1.65 vs 0.16U/ml; p=0.001) in women with a proportionally higher abdominal VAT compared to higher abdominal SCAT compartment in the total study population, but not in the centrally obese sub-group (1.72 vs 0.83U/ml; p=0.5). Multiple regression models indicated that body fat % per se did not contribute significantly to PAI-1act variance in women with increased fat mass. Fat distribution patterns and degree of obesity influenced the association of PAI-1act with insulin, triglycerides, ASM and body fat % in African women. In centrally obese women, abdominal VAT no longer contributed more to plasma PAI-1act, than abdominal SCAT. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction contributed more to PAI-1act variance in obese African women than did body fat % per se. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diet Rich in Saturated Fat Decreases the Ratio of Thromboxane/prostacyclin in Healthy Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUO LI; RAYMUNDO HABITO; GEORGE ANGELOS; ANDREW J. SINCLAIR; MADELEINE J. BALL

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of dietary saturated fat (SFA) from animal sources on the urine excretion 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto prostaglandin F 1α (PGF 1α) in 27 healthy free-living male subjects aged 30 to 55 years. Methods It was a randomized crossover design. Each volunteer was randomly assigned to one of the two diets (high fat and low fat) for a period of 4 weeks, after which each subject resumed his usual diet for 2 weeks as a ‘wash-out period',before being assigned to the other diet for an additional 4 weeks. Results Serum proportion of 20:4n-6 was 5% lower in the high fat (6.2% of total fatty acid) than in the low fat diet (6.5% of total fatty acid), which was associated with a significantly decreased ratio of the urinary excretion 11-dehydro TXB2 to 6-keto PGF 1α (P<0.05). However, there was no significant fall in the absolute urinary excretion of 11-dehydro TXB2. Conclusions Diet rich in SFA from animal sources may influence TXA2 formation via effect on tissue proportion of 20:4n-6.

  13. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  14. Association between dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in Chinese child twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Beaty, Terri; Li, Ji; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is correlated with increased insulin resistance (IR). However, it is unknown whether gene-diet interaction modulates the association. This study estimated heritability of IR measures and the related genetic correlations with fat intake, and tested whether dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related traits in Chinese child twins. We included 622 twins aged 7-15 years (n 311 pairs, 162 monozygotic (MZ), 149 dizygotic (DZ)) from south-eastern China. Dietary factors were measured using FFQ. Structural equation models were fit using Mx statistical package. The intra-class correlation coefficients for all traits related to T2D were higher for MZ twins than for DZ twins. Dietary fat and fasting serum insulin (additive genetic correlation (r A) 0·20; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·43), glucose (r A 0·12; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·40), homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (Homa-IR) (r A 0·22; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·50) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Quicki) (r A -0·22; 95 % CI -0·40, 0·04) showed strong genetic correlations. Heritabilities of dietary fat intake, fasting glucose and insulin were estimated to be 52, 70 and 70 %, respectively. More than 70 % of the phenotypic correlations between dietary fat and insulin, glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index appeared to be mediated by shared genetic influence. Dietary fat significantly modified additive genetic effects on these quantitative traits associated with T2D. Analysis of Chinese twins yielded high estimates of heritability of dietary fat intake and IR. Genetic factors appear to contribute to a high proportion of the variance for both insulin sensitivity and IR. Dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on blood levels of insulin and glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index.

  15. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  16. Effects of Dietary Fat and Saturated Fat Content on Liver Fat and Markers of Oxidative Stress in Overweight/Obese Men and Women under Weight-Stable Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marina; Anize Delfino von Frankenberg; Seda Suvag; Callahan, Holly S.; Mario Kratz; Richards, Todd L.; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturate...

  17. High proportion of male faeces in jaguar populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Francisco; Roques, Séverine; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Silveira, Leandro; Keller, Claudia; Sollmann, Rahel; do Prado, Denise Mello; Torres, Patricia Carignano; Adrados, Begoña; Godoy, José Antonio; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi) as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars). Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n = 493) were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n = 68), with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species.

  18. Functional hand proportion is approximated by the Fibonacci series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, K W-Q; Quah, W-K; Chang, G-H; Chan, J Y

    2012-08-01

    The debatable relationship of functional human hand proportion with the Fibonacci series has remained an obscure scientific enigma short of clinical interest. The main difficulty of proving such a relationship lies in defining what should constitute true functional proportion. In this study, we re-evaluate this unique relationship using hand flexion creases as anatomical surrogates for the functional axes of joint rotation. Standardised desktop photocopies of palmar views of both hands in full digital extension and abduction were obtained from 100 healthy male volunteers of Chinese ethnicity. The functional axes were represented by the distal digital crease (distal interphalangeal joint, DIPJ), proximal digital crease (proximal interphalangeal joint, PIPJ), as well as the midpoint between the palmar digital and transverse palmar creases (metacarpophalangeal joint, MCPJ). The ratio of DIPJ-Fingertip:PIPJ-DIPJ:MCPJ-PIPJ (p3:p2:p1) was measured by two independent observers and represented as standard deviation about the mean, and then compared to the theoretical ratio of 1:1:2. Our results showed that, for the 2nd to 5th digits, the p2:p3 ratios were 0.97 ± ± 0.09, 1.10 ± 0.10, 1.04 ± 0.12, and 0.80 ± 0.08, respectively; whilst the p1:p2 ratios were 1.91 ± 0.17, 1.98 ± 0.14, 1.89 ± 0.16, and 2.09 ± 0.24, respectively. When the data were analysed for all digits, they showed a combined p3:p2:p1 ratio of 1:0.98:2.01. In conclusion, our results suggest that functional human hand proportion, as defined by flexion creases, is approximated by the Fibonacci series.

  19. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS ANDREESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  20. PRINCIPLE OF PROPORTIONALITY, CRITERION OF LEGITIMACY IN THE PUBLIC LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A problem of essence of the state is the one to delimit the discretionary power, respectively the power abuse in the activity of the state’s institutions. The legal behavior of the state’s institutions consists in their right to appreciate them and the power excess generates the violation of a subjective right or of the right that is of legitimate interest to the citizen. The application and nonobservance of the principle of lawfulness in the activities of the state is a complex problem because the exercise of the state’s functions assumes the discretionary powers with which the states authorities are invested, or otherwise said the ‘right of appreciation” of the authorities regarding the moment of adopting the contents of the measures proposed. The discretionary power cannot be opposed to the principle of lawfulness, as a dimension of the state de jure. In this study we propose to analyze the concept of discretionary power, respectively the power excess, having as a guidance the legislation, jurisprudence and doctrine in the matter. At the same time we would like to identify the most important criterions that will allow the user, regardless that he is or not an administrator, a public clerk or a judge, to delimit the legal behavior of the state’s institutions from the power excess. Within this context, we appreciate that the principle of proportionality represents such a criterion. The proportionality is a legal principle of the law, but at the same time it is a principle of the constitutional law and of other law branches. It expresses clearly the idea of balance, reasonability but also of adjusting the measures ordered by the state’s authorities to the situation in fact, respectively to the purpose for which they have been conceived. In our study we choose theoretical and jurisprudence arguments according to which the principle of proportionality can procedurally be determined and used to delimit the discretionary power and

  1. High proportion of male faeces in jaguar populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palomares

    Full Text Available Faeces provide relevant biological information which includes, with the application of genetic techniques, the sex and identity of individuals that defecated, thus providing potentially useful data on the behaviour and ecology of individuals, as well as the dynamics and structure of populations. This paper presents estimates of the sex ratio of different felid species (jaguar, Panthera onca; puma, Puma concolor; and ocelot/margay, Leopardus pardalis/Leopardus wiedi as observed in field collected faeces, and proposes several hypotheses that could explain the strikingly high proportion of faeces from male jaguars. The proportion of male and female faeces was estimated using a non-invasive faecal sampling method in 14 study areas in Mexico and Brazil. Faecal samples were genetically analysed to identify the species, the sex and the individual (the latter only for samples identified as belonging to jaguars. Considering the three species, 72.6% of faeces (n = 493 were from males; however, there were significant differences among them, with the proportion from males being higher for jaguars than for pumas and ocelots/margays. A male-bias was consistently observed in all study areas for jaguar faeces, but not for the other species. For jaguars the trend was the same when considering the number of individuals identified (n = 68, with an average of 4.2±0.56 faeces per male and 2.0±0.36 per female. The observed faecal marking patterns might be related to the behaviour of female jaguars directed toward protecting litters from males, and in both male and female pumas, to prevent interspecific aggressions from male jaguars. The hypothesis that there are effectively more males than females in jaguar populations cannot be discarded, which could be due to the fact that females are territorial and males are not, or a tendency for males to disperse into suboptimal areas for the species.

  2. Body fat and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Messina, Catherine; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2013-06-01

    Studies of the relationship between anthropometric indices of obesity and colorectal cancer risk in women have shown only weak and inconsistent associations. Given the limitations of such indices, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and risk of incident colorectal cancer. We compared these risk estimates with those obtained using conventional anthropometric measurements (body mass index and waist circumference). After exclusions, the study population consisted of 11,124 postmenopausal women with DXA measurements at baseline and no history of colorectal cancer. After a median follow-up period of 12.9 years, 169 incident colorectal cancer cases were ascertained. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for the exposures of interest. Neither DXA-derived body fat measures nor anthropometric measures showed significant associations with risk. In view of the limited number of cases, we cannot rule out the existence of weak associations of these measures with risk of colorectal cancer.

  3. Fat and Bone: An Odd Couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Richard; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we will first discuss the concept of bone strength and introduce how fat at different locations, including the bone marrow, directly or indirectly regulates bone turnover. We will then review the current literature supporting the mechanistic relationship between marrow fat and bone and our understanding of the relationship between body fat, body weight, and bone with emphasis on its hormonal regulation. Finally, we will briefly discuss the importance and challenges of accurately measuring the fat compartments using non-invasive methods. This review highlights the complex relationship between fat and bone and how these new concepts will impact our diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in the very near future. PMID:27014187

  4. Pancreatic enzyme secretion during intravenous fat infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G P; Stein, T A

    1987-01-01

    The nutritional support of patients with pancreatic and high gastrointestinal fistulas and severe pancreatitis frequently involves intravenous fat infusion. There are conflicting reports on the effect of intravenous fat on pancreatic exocrine secretion. In 10 dogs with chronic pancreatic fistulas, pancreatic juice was collected during secretin (n = 10) or secretin + cholecystokinin (n = 4) stimulation, with and without intravenous fat infusion (5 g/hr). The hormonal-stimulated secretion of lipase, amylase, trypsin, total protein, bicarbonate, and water was unchanged during fat infusion. This study supports the use of intravenous fat as a nutritional source when it is desirable to avoid stimulation of the pancreas.

  5. Study on Proportional Synchronization of Hyperchaotic Circuit System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG De-Ping; LUO Xiao-Shu; WANG Bin-Hong; FANG Jin-Qing; JIANG Pin-Qun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the proportional synchronization between drive system and response system is achieved by using the concept of generalized synchronization. The phase space of all variables in response system can be expanded and compressed flexibly. Meanwhile, the 6-D hyperchaotic chua's circuit is considered as an illustrative example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, focusing on the shortcoming of the long transient behavior during the process of synchronization, a feedback method is adopted to shorten the transitional time of synchronization, which will provide an effective way for speeding up the transmitting velocity of code in chaotic multiple access communication.

  6. High condylectomy versus proportional condylectomy: is secondary orthognathic surgery necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, R; Olate, S; Raposo, A; Araya, I; Alister, J P; Uribe, F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the need for secondary orthognathic surgery in patients undergoing two different condylectomy protocols for active unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH). A retrospective cohort study evaluated UCH patients treated by condylectomy. Two groups were established: group 1 comprised those who had undergone a high condylectomy (5 mm removed) and group 2 comprised those who had undergone a proportional condylectomy (removing the difference observed between the measurements of the hyperplastic and the healthy side). Data analysis was done with the Levene test and t-test; a P-value of orthognathic surgery (Porthognathic surgery.

  7. Golden Proportion in Frontal Social Smile from Orthodontic Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    z Tabatabaei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical attraction has a significant effect on all aspects of personal life, and in this category facial appearance is the most important part of the body in prediction of attractiveness. In the face, mouth and specially shape and size of anterior teeth is important to gain dental and facial esthetic. The aim of this study is evaluation of golden proportion from orthodontic view in maxillary anterior teeth in both sexes. Methods: Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences were selected, and photographs of their frontal social smile were taken by a standard method from 30cm distance. Then visible part of central, lateral and canine teeth was measured by Photoshop software (Adobe Photoshop ver8 with 0.1mm precision. Data was evaluated by descriptive statistical analysis and sample T-test using SPSS. Results: According to descriptive statistical analysis and sample T- test, mean ratio of central to lateral teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.209±0.199 and 1.157±0.156 and in the right side in men and women was 1.179± 0.27 and 1.158± 0.145, respectively. The ratio of lateral to canine teeth in the left side in men and women was 1.522±0.146 and 1.494±0.127 and in the right side in men and women was 1.55±0.164 and 1.51±0.114, respectively. Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral teeth in 16% in the right side and 3.4% in the left side only in men. Conclusion: Golden proportion was seen between central and lateral in the left side and right side in men, but due to large canine in men, this proportion was not seen between lateral and canine teeth and so due to small lateral in women, it was not seen between anterior teeth.

  8. Wealth distribution under Yard-Sale exchange with proportional taxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Guajardo, R.; Moukarzel, Cristian F.

    2016-03-01

    Recent analysis of a Yard-Sale (YS) exchange model supplemented with redistributive proportional taxation suggested an asymptotic behavior P(w)˜1/wμ for the wealth distribution, with a parameter-dependent exponent μ. Revisiting this problem, it is here shown analytically, and confirmed by extensive numerical simulation, that the asymptotic behavior of P(w) is not power-law but rather a Gaussian. When taxation is weak, we furthermore show that a restricted-range power-law behavior appears for wealths around the mean value. The corresponding power-law exponent equals 3/2 when the return distribution has zero mean.

  9. Generalized Proportional Integral Control for an Unmanned Quadrotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Caballero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a generalized proportional integral (GPI control approach is presented for regulation and trajectory tracking problems in a nonlinear, multivariable quadrotor system model. In the feedback control law, no asymptotic observers or time discretizations are needed in the feedback loop. The GPI controller guarantees the asymptotically and exponentially stable behaviour of the controlled quadrotor position and orientation, as well as the possibilities of carrying out trajectory tracking tasks. The simulation results presented in the paper show that the proposed method exhibits very good stabilization and tracking performance in the presence of atmospheric disturbances and noise measurements.

  10. Fat Triangulations and Differential Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Saucan, Emil

    2011-01-01

    We study the differential geometric consequences of our previous result on the existence of fat triangulations, in conjunction with a result of Cheeger, M\\"{u}ller and Schrader, regarding the convergence of Lipschitz-Killing curvatures of piecewise-flat approximations of smooth Riemannian manifolds. A further application to the existence of quasiconformal mappings between manifolds, as well as an extension of the triangulation result to the case of almost Riemannian manifolds, are also given. In addition, the notion of fatness of triangulations and its relation to metric curvature and to excess is explored. Moreover, applications of the main results, and in particular a purely metric approach to Regge calculus, are also investigated.

  11. Fat and Thin Fisher Zeroes

    CERN Document Server

    Janke, W; Stathakopoulos, M

    2002-01-01

    We show that it is possible to determine the locus of Fisher zeroes in the thermodynamic limit for the Ising model on planar (``fat'') phi4 random graphs and their dual quadrangulations by matching up the real part of the high- and low-temperature branches of the expression for the free energy. Similar methods work for the mean-field model on generic, ``thin'' graphs. Series expansions are very easy to obtain for such random graph Ising models.

  12. Safety of oils and fats

    OpenAIRE

    Superior Health Council (Belgium)

    2011-01-01

    Though there are nutritional advantages to consuming vegetable fat that is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's), this can also entail health hazards that are linked to their potential oxidative deterioration.  This oxidative deterioration can be the outcome of numerous and varying causes. This publication examines these causes as well as the different kinds of oxidation products in the light of what is known about their toxicity for humans.  Though our knowledge in this field h...

  13. Safety of oils and fats

    OpenAIRE

    Superior Health Council (Belgium)

    2012-01-01

    Though there are nutritional advantages to consuming vegetable fat that is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's), this can also entail health hazards that are linked to their potential oxidative deterioration.  This oxidative deterioration can be the outcome of numerous and varying causes. This publication examines these causes as well as the different kinds of oxidation products in the light of what is known about their toxicity for humans.  Though our knowledge in this field h...

  14. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  15. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity. PMID:20089734

  16. Deep fat of the face revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang Ho; Lee, Hak Seung; Katori, Yukio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2013-04-01

    The midfacial deep fatty tissue has been divided into the buccal and parapharyngeal fat pads although the former carries several extensions in adults. Using histological sections of 15 large human fetuses, we demonstrated that the parapharyngeal fat pad corresponds to the major content of the prestyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space or, simply, the prestyloid fat. The buccal and prestyloid fatty tissues were separated by the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. In these tissues, superficial parts, corresponding to the lower body and the masseteric extension of the adult buccal fat pad, were well encapsulated and showed the most advanced stage of histogenesis. As the sphenoid bone was not fully developed even in the largest specimens, the temporal, infratemporal, and pterygopalatine fossae joined to provide a large space for a single, large upper extension of the buccal fat pad. In the intermediate part of the extension course, the larger specimens carried a narrower part between the maxilla and the temporalis muscle. The single, upper extension appeared to divide into several extensions, as seen in adults. The periocular fat was clearly separated from the upper extension of the buccal fat pad by the sheet-like orbitalis muscle. A communication between the prestyloid fat and the buccal fat pad likely occurred through a potential space along the lingual nerve immediately superior to the deep part of the submandibular gland. At this site, therefore, the prestyloid fat may be injured or infected when the buccal fat pad is treated surgically.

  17. Low fat meat products - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Naga Mallika

    Full Text Available Meat is an excellent source of valuable nutrients. Meat fat acts as a reservoir for flavor compounds and contributes to the texture of product. There are diverse possible strategies for developing low fat meat and meat products. Reducing the fat content in products leads to a firmer, rubbery, less juicy product with dark color and more cost. Other technological problems like reduction in particle binding, reduced cook yields, soft and mushy interiors, rubbery skin formation, excessive purge and shortened shelf life are also associated with reduction in fat levels. This paper describes Procedured of reducing fat content, Selection of additives, Protein, Carbohydrat and fat based fat replacer and Super critical fluid extraction. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 364-366

  18. The arcsine is asinine: the analysis of proportions in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warton, David I; Hui, Francis K C

    2011-01-01

    The arcsine square root transformation has long been standard procedure when analyzing proportional data in ecology, with applications in data sets containing binomial and non-binomial response variables. Here, we argue that the arcsine transform should not be used in either circumstance. For binomial data, logistic regression has greater interpretability and higher power than analyses of transformed data. However, it is important to check the data for additional unexplained variation, i.e., overdispersion, and to account for it via the inclusion of random effects in the model if found. For non-binomial data, the arcsine transform is undesirable on the grounds of interpretability, and because it can produce nonsensical predictions. The logit transformation is proposed as an alternative approach to address these issues. Examples are presented in both cases to illustrate these advantages, comparing various methods of analyzing proportions including untransformed, arcsine- and logit-transformed linear models and logistic regression (with or without random effects). Simulations demonstrate that logistic regression usually provides a gain in power over other methods.

  19. Proportional directional valve based automatic steering system for tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yi LIU; Jing-quan TAN; En-rong MAO; Zheng-he SONG; Zhong-xiang ZHU‡

    2016-01-01

    Most automatic steering systems for large tractors are designed with hydraulic systems that run on either constant flow or constant pressure. Such designs are limited in adaptability and applicability. Moreover, their control valves can unload in the neutral position and eventually lead to serious hydraulic leakage over long operation periods. In response to the problems noted above, a multifunctional automatic hydraulic steering circuit is presented. The system design is composed of a 5-way-3-position proportional directional valve, two pilot-controlled check valves, a pressure-compensated directional valve, a pressure-compensated flow regulator valve, a load shuttle valve, and a check valve, among other components. It is adaptable to most open-center systems with constant flow supply and closed-center systems with load feedback. The design maintains the lowest pressure under load feedback and stays at the neutral position during unloading, thus meeting the requirements for steering. The steering controller is based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID) running on a 51-microcontroller-unit master control chip. An experimental platform is developed to establish the basic characteristics of the system subject to stepwise inputs and sinusoi-dal tracking. Test results show that the system design demonstrates excellent control accuracy, fast response, and negligible leak during long operation periods.

  20. Adaptive differences in the body proportions of large felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyea, W J

    1976-01-01

    Body proportions of eight species of large felids were studied and the relationship between their morphology, habitat structure and habitat utilization was analyzed. Both Panthera onca and Neofelis nebulosa are exclusive forest dwellers (found exclusively in high densly structured habitats). These felids have the relatively shortest anterior limbs and lumbar spine. In addition, P. onca has the relatively shortest posterior limbs of the large felids, while the posterior limbs of N. nebulosa are relatively long when compared with those of P. onca which seems to be an adaptation for jumping. All large fields use the anterior limbs to make primary contact with their prey. In addition, the prey taken by the forest fields can exceed their own body weight. On the other hand, the cheetah is found in low structured habitats (savanna), and it has the relatively longest limbs and lumbarspine of the large felids. But the cheetah's prey usually weigh less than its own body weight. The cheetah also employs a 'rapid pursuit phase' in hunting and is capable of overtaking its prey. The lion, however, was found to have the body proportions of a forest felid, yet it also resides in low structured habitats. It is postulated that the utilization of large prey by the lion limits the possibilities for morphological adaptations for speed. To increase hunting efficiency, reproductive success, and territorial defense on the plains, lions form prides.

  1. Recent developments of multiwire proportional chambers at JINR (DUBNA)

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, A I

    1980-01-01

    In this report a review of some wire chamber developments at JINR is given. The conception and performance of different detectors will be discussed as well as their application in experiments. For NA-4 (CERN) a special proportional chamber with asymmetric cut for the target was built. The necessary rigidness was achieved by sandwich panels with honeycomb filling. In order to study rare processes with registration of the nuclear fragments a proportional drift chamber was constructed. The resolution for Delta m was 0.2 GeV and 0.2 for Delta Z. In the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems a new mode of gas amplification was investigated. It was shown to have interesting characteristics from the practical point of view; apparently it cannot be interpreted as a transitory mode. On the basis of these investigations two large systems of drift chambers operating in the selfquenching mode have been made. For investigations on the synchrocyclotron a multipurpose magnetic spectrometer ARES (Analyser of Rate Events) was develop...

  2. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Schwarz

    Full Text Available Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones. The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may

  3. Isocaloric intake of a high-fat diet modifies adiposity and lipid handling in a sex dependent manner in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lladó Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences. Aim To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling. Methods Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot. Results The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.

  4. Body fat and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Thomas E; Heo, Moonseong; Choi, Lydia; Datta, Mridul; Freudenheim, Jo L; Kamensky, Victor; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Qi, Lihong; Thomson, Cynthia A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kabat, Geoffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA-) derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women's Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years), 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest) ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14-2.07) for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50-2.79) for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles) of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45-2.68), waist circumference (1.97, 1.46-2.65), and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41-2.58)) were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  5. Quantum coherence spectroscopy to measure dietary fat retention in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Lucas; de Graaf, Robin A; Nabuurs, Christine I; van Ewijk, Petronella A; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Wildberger, Joachim E; Schrauwen, Patrick; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B

    2016-08-18

    The prevalence of fatty liver reaches alarming proportions. Fatty liver increases the risk for insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although extensively studied in a preclinical setting, the lack of noninvasive methodologies hampers our understanding of which pathways promote hepatic fat accumulation in humans. Dietary fat retention is one of the pathways that may lead to fatty liver. The low (1.1%) natural abundance (NA) of carbon-13 ((13)C) allows use of (13)C-enriched lipids for in vivo MR studies. Successful implementation of such methodology, however, is challenging due to low sensitivity of (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C-MRS). Here, we investigated the use of 1-dimensional gradient enhanced heteronuclear single quantum coherence (ge-HSQC) spectroscopy for the in vivo detection of hepatic (1)H-[(13)C]-lipid signals after a single high-fat meal with (13)C-labeled fatty acids in 5 lean and 6 obese subjects. Postprandial retention of orally administered (13)C-labeled fatty acids was significant (P < 0.01). Approximately 1.5% of the tracer was retained in the liver after 6 hours, and retention was similar in both groups (P = 0.92). Thus, a substantial part of the liver fat can originate directly from storage of meal-derived fat. The ge-HSQC can be used to noninvasively reveal the contribution of dietary fat to the development of hepatic steatosis over time.

  6. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  7. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  8. Design and Implementation of Log Structured FAT and ExFAT File Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Munegowda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The File Allocation Table (FAT file system is supported in multiple Operating Systems (OS. Hence, FAT file system is universal exchange format for files/directories used in Solid State Drives (SSD and Hard disk Drives (HDD. The Microsoft Corporation introduced the new file system called Extended FAT file system (ExFAT to support larger size storage devices. The ExFAT file system is optimized to use with SSDs. But, Both FAT and ExFAT are not power fail safe. This means that the uncontrolled power loss or abrupt storage device removable from the computer system, during file system update, causes corruption of file system meta data and hence it leads to loss of data in storage device. This paper implements the Logging and Committing features to FAT and ExFAT file systems and ensures that the file system meta data is consistent across the abrupt power loss or device removal from the computer system.

  9. Changes in fat contents of US snack foods in response to mandatory trans fat labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Debra; Hooker, Neal H; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan

    2012-06-01

    Impact of mandatory trans fat labelling on US snack food introductions is examined. Using label information, lipid ingredients and fat profiles are compared pre- and post-labelling. Key products in the US snack food industry contribute significant amounts of artificial trans fat. Industry efforts to reformulate products to lower trans fat may alter the overall fat profile, in particular saturates. Composition data for more than 5000 chip and cookie products introduced for sale between 2001 (pre-labelling) and 2009 (post-labelling) were analysed. One-way ANOVA was used to test for significant changes in saturated fat content per serving and the ratio of saturated to total fat. The shares of chip and cookie introductions containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oil declined by 45 and 42 percentage points, respectively. In cookies, there was an increase of 0·49 (98 % CI 0·01, 0·98) g in the average saturated fat content per 30 g serving and an increase of 9 (98 % CI 3, 15) % in the average ratio of saturated to total fat. No statistically significant changes in fat content were observed in chips. This research suggests that, holding other factors constant, the policy has resulted in a decreased use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil in chip products without a corresponding increase in saturated fat content, but led to significantly higher levels of saturated fat and ratio of saturated fat to total fat in cookie products.

  10. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  11. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  12. Biologic rationale of esthetic crown lengthening using innovative proportion gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that practitioners tend to underestimate the amount of tooth structure that must be exposed during a crown lengthening procedure. In the anterior portion of the mouth, this can lead to biologic width problems and subsequent cosmetic issues. This paper presents a biologically based, step-by-step approach to periodontal esthetic crown lengthening. Using a series of innovative measuring gauges, the ideal clinical crown length of a tooth as well as the proper occlusogingival placement of the interproximal papilla will be determined based on established, documented tooth proportion relationships. The biologic crown length of the tooth, defined as the distance from the incisal edge to the bone crest, will subsequently be determined as a function of the clinical crown length, with the ultimate goals being adequate tooth structure for the placement of a restorative margin, establishment of a healthy dentogingival complex, and the placement of an esthetically pleasing definitive restoration.

  13. Light yield non-proportionality of undoped YAP scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klamra, W [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Balcerzyk, M; Czarnacki, W; Moszynski, M; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A; Szczesniak, T [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Kozlov, V [Lebedev Physical Institute, 117924 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: klamra@particle.kth.se

    2009-05-15

    Scintillation properties of undoped YAP crystal were studied. The emission spectra show a very intense light component at 360 nm. Analysis of the light pulse shape resulted in five components, four of them, with time constants of 38{+-}2 ns, 92{+-}3 ns, 7.5{+-}0.5 {mu}s and 24{+-}3 {mu}s, representing high light intensity. The light yield was found to be temperature dependent, N{sub ph}= 3090{+-}130 ph/MeV at liquid nitrogen temperature and N{sub ph}= 1440{+-}60 ph/MeV at room temperature. Also the light yield non-proportionality shows temperature dependence and is more pronounced at room temperature.

  14. The role of facial proportion in hair restoration surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, D B; Schell, B J; Weyrich, R P

    1997-02-01

    Facial aesthetics involve basic artistic principles that relate individual features to the face as a whole. These principles, such as balance and proportion, are key elements in the development of hair restoration surgery and can be applied to reconstructive procedures for the trauma or burn patient. This paper describes the application of anthropometric and artistic principles used in hair reconstruction. Attention has been directed to the procedures used to determine hairline contour and placement, and certain aspects of frontotemporal recession management. The frontal hair has a profound effect on facial balance because of the major role hair plays in framing and visually enhancing the face. The presence of frontal hair and facial framing also serves to retain a vital element of autonomy in appearance for the individual.

  15. Jackknifed random weighting for Cox proportional hazards model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao; WU YaoHua; TU DongSheng

    2012-01-01

    The Cox proportional hazards model is the most used statistical model in the analysis of survival time data.Recently,a random weighting method was proposed to approximate the distribution of the maximum partial likelihood estimate for the regression coefficient in the Cox model.This method was shown not as sensitive to heavy censoring as the bootstrap method in simulation studies but it may not be second-order accurate as was shown for the bootstrap approximation.In this paper,we propose an alternative random weighting method based on one-step linear jackknife pseudo values and prove the second accuracy of the proposed method.Monte Carlo simulations are also performed to evaluate the proposed method for fixed sample sizes.

  16. Method of proportioning stone to stowing installations underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szafarczyk, J.; Kubek, F.

    1992-07-01

    Reviews types of stowing intallations and the technology of supplying after-washing stone used. It is recommended to take advantage of downward inclined stowing pipeline sections for underground feeding of the stowing stone. Calculation of the mass of stone fed to a stowing pipeline is explained. First experience of using the method in the Jankowice black coal mine in 1991 is reported on. About 8,000 t of stone were stowed using the method during 7 months. The stowing installation consists of a tippler, a belt conveyor and a batcher of about 10 m[sup 3]. The capacity of the installation is 30 m[sup 3]/h. Suitable proportions of slag-crushed stone mixtures are recommended.

  17. Optimization of maintenance policy using the proportional hazard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samrout, M. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: mohamad.el_samrout@utt.fr; Chatelet, E. [Information Sciences and Technologies Institute, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000 Troyes (France)], E-mail: chatelt@utt.fr; Kouta, R. [M3M Laboratory, University of Technology of Belfort Montbeliard (France); Chebbo, N. [Industrial Systems Laboratory, IUT, Lebanese University (Lebanon)

    2009-01-15

    The evolution of system reliability depends on its structure as well as on the evolution of its components reliability. The latter is a function of component age during a system's operating life. Component aging is strongly affected by maintenance activities performed on the system. In this work, we consider two categories of maintenance activities: corrective maintenance (CM) and preventive maintenance (PM). Maintenance actions are characterized by their ability to reduce this age. PM consists of actions applied on components while they are operating, whereas CM actions occur when the component breaks down. In this paper, we expound a new method to integrate the effect of CM while planning for the PM policy. The proportional hazard function was used as a modeling tool for that purpose. Interesting results were obtained when comparison between policies that take into consideration the CM effect and those that do not is established.

  18. Beltrami Fields with a Nonconstant Proportionality Factor are Rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Alberto; Peralta-Salas, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    We consider the existence of Beltrami fields with a nonconstant proportionality factor f in an open subset U of R^3. By reformulating this problem as a constrained evolution equation on a surface, we find an explicit differential equation that f must satisfy whenever there is a nontrivial Beltrami field with this factor. This ensures that there are no nontrivial regular solutions for an open and dense set of factors f in the C k topology, {k≥q 7}. In particular, there are no nontrivial Beltrami fields whenever f has a regular level set diffeomorphic to the sphere. This provides an explanation of the helical flow paradox of Morgulis et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 48:571-582, 1995).

  19. Regularization for Cox's Proportional Hazards Model With NP-Dimensionality

    CERN Document Server

    Bradic, Jelena; Jiang, Jiancheng

    2010-01-01

    High throughput genetic sequencing arrays with thousands of measurements per sample and a great amount of related censored clinical data have increased demanding need for better measurement specific model selection. In this paper we establish strong oracle properties of non-concave penalized methods for {\\it non-polynomial} (NP) dimensional data with censoring in the framework of Cox's proportional hazards model. A class of folded-concave penalties are employed and both LASSO and SCAD are discussed specifically. We unveil the question under which dimensionality and correlation restrictions can an oracle estimator be constructed and grasped. It is demonstrated that non-concave penalties lead to significant reduction of the "irrepresentable condition" needed for LASSO model selection consistency. The large deviation result for martingales, bearing interests of its own, is developed for characterizing the strong oracle property. Moreover, the non-concave regularized estimator, is shown to achieve asymptotically ...

  20. The evolution of human and ape hand proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, Sergio; Smaers, Jeroen B; Jungers, William L

    2015-07-14

    Human hands are distinguished from apes by possessing longer thumbs relative to fingers. However, this simple ape-human dichotomy fails to provide an adequate framework for testing competing hypotheses of human evolution and for reconstructing the morphology of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. We inspect human and ape hand-length proportions using phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses and test alternative models of evolution along the anthropoid tree of life, including fossils like the plesiomorphic ape Proconsul heseloni and the hominins Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus sediba. Our results reveal high levels of hand disparity among modern hominoids, which are explained by different evolutionary processes: autapomorphic evolution in hylobatids (extreme digital and thumb elongation), convergent adaptation between chimpanzees and orangutans (digital elongation) and comparatively little change in gorillas and hominins. The human (and australopith) high thumb-to-digits ratio required little change since the LCA, and was acquired convergently with other highly dexterous anthropoids.

  1. Observational evidence for travelling wave modes bearing distance proportional shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Guruprasad, V

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies of range between the Space Surveillance Network radars and the Deep Space Network in tracking the 1998 earth flyby of NEAR, and between ESA's Doppler and range data in Rosetta's 2009 flyby, reveal a consistent excess delay, or lag, equal to instantaneous one-way travel time in the telemetry signals. These lags readily explain all details of the flyby anomaly, and are shown to be symptoms of chirp d'Alembertian travelling wave solutions, relating to traditional sinusoidal waves by a rotation of the spectral decomposition due to the clock acceleration caused by the Doppler rates during the flybys. The lags thus relate to special relativity, but yield distance proportional shifts like those of cosmology at short range.

  2. Estimating False Discovery Proportion Under Arbitrary Covariance Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Jianqing; Gu, Weijie

    2011-01-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing is a fundamental problem in high dimensional inference, with wide applications in many scientific fields. In genome-wide association studies, tens of thousands of tests are performed simultaneously to find if any SNPs are associated with some traits and those tests are correlated. When test statistics are correlated, false discovery control becomes very challenging under arbitrary dependence. In the current paper, we propose a novel method based on principal factor approximation, which successfully subtracts the common dependence and weakens significantly the correlation structure, to deal with an arbitrary dependence structure. We derive an approximate expression for false discovery proportion (FDP) in large scale multiple testing when a common threshold is used and provide a consistent estimate of realized FDP. This result has important applications in controlling FDR and FDP. Our estimate of realized FDP compares favorably with Efron (2007)'s approach, as demonstrated in the sim...

  3. Mixtures of organic and inorganic substrates, particle size and proportion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Raymundo Morales-Maldonado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to review the mixtures of organic and inorganic materials used in the preparation of a new material, particle size, proportion, and their response in plant. In Mexico, agricultural waste is considered as a pollutant reservoir; however, from another perspective, this represents an industry with great potential. The nutrients ingested by animals represent nutriments available for plants when properly recycled. An option that minimizes the risk of contamination and improves its quality is the production of compost and vermicompost. Both processes are an alternative to organic production. A material by itself does not meet the optimum conditions. Reducing the volume of an organic material increases compaction and compression of roots, affecting the efficiency of irrigation and fertilization, so it is necessary to make mixtures with inorganic materials, that is used in the development of a new material for better growing conditions of the plant.

  4. Design of pneumatic proportional flow valve type 5/3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, P. A.; Pietrala, D. S.; Zwierzchowski, J.; Czarnogorski, K.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the 5/3-way pneumatic, proportional flow valve was designed and made. Stepper linear actuator was used to move the spool. The valve is controlled by the controlled based on a AVR microcontroller. Virtual model of the valve was created in CAD. The real element was made based on a standard 5/3-way manually actuated valve with hand lever, which was dismounted and replaced by linear stepper motor. All the elements was mounted in a specially made housing. The controller consists of microcontroller Atmega16, integrated circuit L293D, display, two potentiometers, three LEDs and six buttons. Series of research was also conducted. Simulation research were performed using CFD by the Flow Simulation addition to SolidWorks. During the experiments the valve characteristics of flow and pressure was determined.

  5. Word of mouth and universal voting behaviour in proportional elections

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunato, S; Castellano, Claudio; Fortunato, Santo

    2006-01-01

    Human societies exhibit many examples of nontrivial collective behaviour generated by the interaction of a large number of individuals. To characterize these emergent phenomena and understand their origin it is crucial to discover regularities in the macroscopic patterns of data describing collective social phenomena. Elections are a prominent example of collective social phenomenon, and a quantitative statistical analysis has begun. Here we show that, in proportional elections, the distribution of the number of votes received by candidates is universal, i.e. it is the same function in different countries and years, when the number of votes is rescaled according to the strength of the party each candidate belongs to. A simple dynamical model for the behaviour of voters, based on the spreading of word of mouth, reproduces well the universal distribution. This finding reveals the existence in the voting process of a general underlying dynamics that does not depend on the specific historical, political and/or ec...

  6. Pulse-Shape Discrimination for Low-Background Proportional Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, Craig

    2011-10-01

    Digital pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) is used to improve measurement sensitivity for internal-source gas proportional counters. Because the design of these detectors can be physically simple, they are well-suited for low-background applications where the radiopurity of detector materials must be stringently controlled. After mitigating dominant backgrounds (cosmic rays, external gamma-rays, radioactivity in materials), remaining background events frequently do not arise from ionization of the proportional counter gas. Various PSD methods have exploited the resulting pulse-shape differences. More sophisticated methods can offer better discrimination but may lead to more difficult calibration between model and detector. Variations between modeled and experimental shapes can limit the discriminating power achieved. This work addresses this difficulty by generating a template shape from each individual sample measurement of interest, a ``self-calibrating'' template. Differences in event topology can also cause differences in pulse shape. In this work the temporal region analyzed is limited to maximize background discrimination while avoiding unwanted sensitivity to event topology. Low-background measurements of tritium, carbon-14, argon-37, and argon-39 are currently being developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory with detectors employing radiopure materials developed for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches. The application of self-calibrating template PSD to measurement of these radioisotopes, along with initial measurement results, is described. Applications such as nuclear treaty verification, elucidating the environmental carbon cycle, and the assay of low-background materials for next-generation nuclear physics experiments are presented.

  7. Global burden of cancer attributable to high body-mass index in 2012: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Graham; Renehan, Prof Andrew G; Stevens, Gretchen A; Ezzati, Prof Majid; Ferlay, Jacques; Miranda, J. Jaime; Romieu, Isabelle; Dikshit, Rajesh; Forman, David; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Excess body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of cancer. To inform public health policyand future research, we estimated the global burden of cancer attributable to excess BMI. Methods Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were derived using relative risks and BMI estimates in adults by age, sex and country. Assuming a10-year lag-period, PAFs were calculated using BMI estimates in 2002. GLOBOCAN2012 was used to compute numbers of new cancer cases attributable to excess BMI. In an alternative scenario, we computed the proportion of potentially avoidable cancers assuming that populations maintained their BMI-level observed in 1982. Secondary analyses were performed to test the model and estimate the impactof hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and smoking. Findings Worldwide, we estimated that 481,000 or 3·6% of all new cancer cases in 2012 were attributable to excess BMI. PAFs were greater in women compared with men (5·4% versus 1·9%). The burden was concentrated in countries with very high and high human development index (HDI, PAF: 5·3% and 4·8%) compared with countries with moderate and low HDI (PAF: 1·6% and 1·0%). Corpus uteri, post-menopausal breast and colon cancers accounted for approximately two-thirds (64%) of excess BMI attributable cancers. One fourth (~118,000) of all cases related to excess BMI in 2012 could be attributed to the rising BMI since 1982. Interpretation These findings further underpin the need for a global effort to abate the rising trends in population-level excess weight. Assuming that the relationship between excess BMI and cancer is causal and the current pattern of population weight gain continues, this will likely augment the future burden of cancer. Funding World Cancer Research Fund, Marie Currie Fellowship, the National Health and Medical Research Council Australia and US NIH. PMID:25467404

  8. Two closely related species of desert carpenter ant differ in individual-level allocation to fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel A

    2006-01-01

    Comparison of closely related species that differ in their life histories is a powerful method for studying the underlying physiological mechanisms contributing to life-history variation. I investigated whether two closely related members of the Camponotus festinatus species complex of desert carpenter ants, C. nr. festinatus Desert Light and C. nr. festinatus Desert Dark, differed in their life-history tactics with respect to fat storage. Newly mated queens were collected in the field, and colonies were reared under common conditions in the laboratory for 2 yr before sampling. I show that the two species differ in fat storage at the individual level. While the basic scaling relationship between lean mass and fat content did not differ between the two species, Dark workers and soldiers stored significantly more fat per unit lean mass than Light workers or soldiers. There were no significant demographic differences in the proportions of workers or soldiers involved in fat storage between the two species, although there was a trend toward Light colonies having a greater proportion of soldiers storing large amounts of fat. There was also no significant difference in the total amount of fat stored by the two species at the colony level. The detection of strong individual-level effects but no colony-level effects was likely due to the low statistical power of colony-level analyses. Showing that these two closely related species differ in fat storage at the individual level in a common environment demonstrates their utility as a model for understanding the physiological and behavioral mechanisms regulating life-history variation in fat storage in ants.

  9. Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    受美食的诱感,阿肥难以抗拒享受各种食物.因此体重也变得越来越不乐观;同时.阿肥曾经暗恋过但已多年没见的旧同学提出聚会.于是在他的生活中就有了矛盾和冲突;嗜食和减肥!他虽然努力克制自己的食欲.但是食神的出现却使他备受美食的折磨。而最后的聚会结局更是令观众们大跌眼镜……

  10. Interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Kelemen, Linda E; de Koning, Lawrence; Lonn, Eva; Vuksan, Vlad; Jacobs, Ruby; Davis, Bonnie; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2008-01-01

    Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol alter cardiovascular disease risk, but their effect on subclinical atherosclerosis remains understudied. The objective was to examine and quantify the interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and mean carotid artery intimal medial thickness (IMT). We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among 620 persons of Aboriginal, South Asian, Chinese, or European origin aged 35-75 y, who had lived in Canada for >or=5 y. Mean IMT was calculated from 6 well-defined segments of the right and left carotid arteries with standardized B-mode ultrasound, and saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol intakes were measured with validated food-frequency questionnaires. For every 10-g/d increase in saturated fat intake, IMT was 0.03 mm higher (P=0.01) after multivariate adjustment. A 1-g/d higher intake of trans fat was associated with a 0.03-mm higher IMT (P=0.02) after multivariate adjustment. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P:S) was inversely associated with IMT after multivariate adjustment (change in IMT: -0.06 mm; PSaturated and trans fat intakes were independently associated with IMT thickness (change in IMT: 0.03 mm; Pfat intakes were unrelated to IMT. The relation between saturated fat intake and IMT strengthened (beta=0.0066, Psaturated and trans fats are independently associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis, and alcohol intake may attenuate the relation between saturated fat and subclinical atherosclerosis.

  11. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  12. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort...... dairy foods have on human health. The emerging scientific evidence indicates that the consumption of regular fat dairy foods is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and inversely associated with weight gain and the risk of obesity. Dairy foods, including regular-fat milk...... to disseminate, explore and discuss the state of the science on the relationship between regular fat dairy products and health, symposia were programmed by dairy industry organizations in Europe and North America at The Eurofed Lipids Congress (2014) in France, The Dairy Nutrition Annual Symposium (2014...

  13. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V

    2014-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties.

  14. DIETARY FAT AND SPORTS NUTRITION: A PRIMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonnie M. Lowery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The general public's view of macronutrients has undergone sweeping changes in recent years. Dietary fats are a key example. Since the anti-fat health education initiatives of the 1980s and early 1990s, certain dietary fats have been increasingly recognized as actually beneficial to health. Athletes, like the mainstream populace, are now getting the message that wise dietary fat (triacylglycerol choices offer essential fatty acids, blood lipid management, maintained endocrine and immune function, inflammation control, metabolic effects and even potential body composition and performance benefits. Toward this end, many companies now sell specialty dietary fat supplements and recognized health authorities have begun recommending them to certain populations. This review will cover data regarding the physiology, dietary needs, food sources, and potential benefits and risks most relevant to athletes. Practical suggestions for incorporating healthy fats will be made. Both food-source and supplemental intakes will be addressed with interrelationships to health throughout.

  15. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation......Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes...... to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...

  16. To evaluate the validity of Recurring Esthetic Dental proportion in natural dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Shilpa Shetty; Varun Pitti; C L Satish Babu; Surendra Kumar, G. P.; Jnanadev, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Different proportions are described in the literature for smile designing, such as Golden proportion, Golden percentage, Preston′s proportion, and recently, Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) proportion. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the existence of RED proportion in natural dentition. To determine the relative height of maxillary lateral incisor and canine occurring in natural dentition so that it can be used in any of the above proportions. Materials and Methods: Fiftee...

  17. Perbedaan Proporsi Lebar Gigi Anterior Rahang Atas dengan Konsep Golden Proportion dan Konsep Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) Proportion pada Mahasiswa FKG USU Angkatan 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Prima, Ferianny

    2015-01-01

    Salah satu aspek terpenting dalam estetika kedokteran gigi adalah menciptakan proporsi yang harmonis antara lebar gigi-geligi anterior rahang atas dalam penyusunan anasir gigitiruan. Konsep golden proportion dan konsep Recurring Esthetic Dental (RED) proportion adalah konsep estetis yang diperkenalkan dalam bidang estetika kedokteran gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat perbedaan antara proporsi lebar gigi anterior rahang atas dengan konsep golden proportion dan konsep RED proport...

  18. Adaptive TrimTree: Green Data Center Networks through Resource Consolidation, Selective Connectedness and Energy Proportional Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Zafar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A data center is a facility with a group of networked servers used by an organization for storage, management and dissemination of its data. The increase in data center energy consumption over the past several years is staggering, therefore efforts are being initiated to achieve energy efficiency of various components of data centers. One of the main reasons data centers have high energy inefficiency is largely due to the fact that most organizations run their data centers at full capacity 24/7. This results into a number of servers and switches being underutilized or even unutilized, yet working and consuming electricity around the clock. In this paper, we present Adaptive TrimTree; a mechanism that employs a combination of resource consolidation, selective connectedness and energy proportional computing for optimizing energy consumption in a Data Center Network (DCN. Adaptive TrimTree adopts a simple traffic-and-topology-based heuristic to find a minimum power network subset called ‘active network subset’ that satisfies the existing network traffic conditions while switching off the residual unused network components. A ‘passive network subset’ is also identified for redundancy which consists of links and switches that can be required in future and this subset is toggled to sleep state. An energy proportional computing technique is applied to the active network subset for adapting link data rates to workload thus maximizing energy optimization. We have compared our proposed mechanism with fat-tree topology and ElasticTree; a scheme based on resource consolidation. Our simulation results show that our mechanism saves 50%–70% more energy as compared to fat-tree and 19.6% as compared to ElasticTree, with minimal impact on packet loss percentage and delay. Additionally, our mechanism copes better with traffic anomalies and surges due to passive network provision.

  19. Determination of fat in vegetable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, I; Merin, U; Popel, G; Bernstein, S

    1985-01-01

    The fat in vegetable foods--tree nuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, avocado, and olives--can be determined volumetrically by acid digestion of the material and separation of the fat. The assay can be performed conveniently by using the equipment developed for fat determination of milk (Gerber method). The results agree well with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The advantages of using the Gerber method for vegetable foods are simplicity, speed, low operation cost, and elimination of the use of inflammable solvents.

  20. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  1. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  2. Short communication: influence of dietary tallow and fish oil on milk fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D F; Weiss, W P; Palmquist, D L

    2000-09-01

    Four midlactation Holstein cows in a 4 x 4 Latin square design were fed one of four diets that contained 3% added fat (dry matter basis) as 100:0, 67:33, 50:50, or 33:67 tallow:fish oil. Feed intake and yield and composition of milk were not affected by treatment. The proportion of fatty acids 18:0 and cis-18:1 decreased and trans-18:1, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3, 20:4, and 20:5 increased in milk fat with increasing fish oil. The efficiency of transferring dietary 20:5 and 22:6 to milk fat was < 7%.

  3. A low-fat Diet improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, AM; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Viggers, Lone;

    2006-01-01

    diet (P = 0.039). The daily protein and carbohydrate intake increased (+4.4% of total energy intake, P = 0.0049 and +2.5%, P = 0.34, respectively), while alcohol intake decreased (-3.2% of total energy intake, P = 0.02). There was a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity on the isocaloric, low......AIMS: To compare the effects on insulin sensitivity, body composition and glycaemic control of the recommended standard weight-maintaining diabetes diet and an isocaloric low-fat diabetes diet during two, 3-month periods in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Thirteen Type 1 patients were...... by the insulin clamp technique at baseline and after each of the diet intervention periods. RESULTS: On an isocaloric low-fat diet, Type 1 diabetic patients significantly reduced the proportion of fat in the total daily energy intake by 12.1% (or -3.6% of total energy) as compared with a conventional diabetes...

  4. The absorption of fat by intestine of golden hamster in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STRAUSS, E W

    1963-06-01

    Everted sacs of intestine from golden hamsters were incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 1 hour in vitro with emulsified lipid after removal of both pancreatic lipase and bile salts. The fine structure of intestinal epithelium is well preserved under these conditions. Absorption of fat by the intestinal mucosa in vitro closely resembles lipid absorption in vivo, as observed by both light and electron microscopy. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed. Tubular elements of the agranular endoplasmic reticulum are often strikingly abundant in the apical cytoplasm of intestinal absorptive cells. These have a role in the intracellular transport of fat since they frequently contain droplets of lipid derived from the incubation medium. The rate of fat accumulation in the epithelium appears to be proportional to the concentration in the medium.

  5. The influence of hormones on the lipid profile in the fat body of insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cerkowniak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptide hormones play a special role in the neuroendocrine systems of insects and affect a number of physiological processes related to their development, reproduction and behavior. The lipid content in the fat body of insects is closely correlated with the work of the endocrine glands. The lipid profile of the fat body of the Zophobas atratus beetle reveals a predominant proportion of triacylglycerols when compared to free fatty acids and other lipid compounds, such as fatty acid esters, fatty alcohols and sterols. Although it may depend on the stage of the insects’ development, the disparate impacts of the adipokinetic hormone (AKH on the lipid content in the fat bodies of the feeding larvae and the non-feeding pupae of Z. atratus, may signify the different roles this hormone plays in the indirect control of the insects’ metabolism.

  6. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based body composition analysis is an idea means of assessing changes in relative proportions of fat, lean, and fluid in rodents non­ invasively. While the data are not as accurate as convent ional chemical analysis, the systems allow one to follo...

  7. Impact of genetic strain on body fat loss, food consumption, metabolism, ventilation, and motor activity in free running female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based body composition analysis is an idea means of assessing changes in relative proportions of fat, lean, and fluid in rodents non­ invasively. While the data are not as accurate as convent ional chemical analysis, the systems allow one to follo...

  8. Body fat and skeletal muscle mass in relation to physical disability in very old men and women of the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M; Harris, T B; Langlois, J; Hannan, M T; Roubenoff, R; Felson, D T; Wilson, P W; Kiel, D P

    1998-05-01

    Low muscle mass has been assumed to be associated with disability, but no studies confirming this association have been published. High body weight and high body mass index, both rough indicators of body fatness, have been shown to increase the risk for disability; however, the specific role of body fatness has not been studied. The relations of skeletal muscle mass and percent body fat with self-reported physical disability were studied in 753 men and women aged 72 to 95 years. Cross-sectional data from biennial examination 22 (1992-1993) of the Framingham Heart Study were used. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Disability was scored as any versus none on a 9-item questionnaire. Total body and lower extremity muscle mass were not associated with disability in either men or women. However, a strong positive association between percent body fat and disability was observed. The odds ratio for disability in those in the highest tertile of body fatness was 2.69 (95% confidence interval 1.45-5.00) for women and 3.08 (1.22-7.81) for men compared to those in the lowest tertile. The increased risk could not be explained by age, education, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, estrogen use (women only), muscle mass, and health status. Analyses restricting disability to mobility items gave similar results. In contrast to current assumptions, low skeletal muscle mass was not associated with self-reported physical disability. Persons with a high percent body fat had high levels of disability. Because it cannot be ruled out that persons with low skeletal muscle mass dropped out earlier in the study, prospective studies are needed to further assess the relationship between body composition and physical disability.

  9. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  10. Fluid-dynamic design optimization of hydraulic proportional directional valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirante, Riccardo; Catalano, Luciano Andrea; Poloni, Carlo; Tamburrano, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    This article proposes an effective methodology for the fluid-dynamic design optimization of the sliding spool of a hydraulic proportional directional valve: the goal is the minimization of the flow force at a prescribed flow rate, so as to reduce the required opening force while keeping the operation features unchanged. A full three-dimensional model of the flow field within the valve is employed to accurately predict the flow force acting on the spool. A theoretical analysis, based on both the axial momentum equation and flow simulations, is conducted to define the design parameters, which need to be properly selected in order to reduce the flow force without significantly affecting the flow rate. A genetic algorithm, coupled with a computational fluid dynamics flow solver, is employed to minimize the flow force acting on the valve spool at the maximum opening. A comparison with a typical single-objective optimization algorithm is performed to evaluate performance and effectiveness of the employed genetic algorithm. The optimized spool develops a maximum flow force which is smaller than that produced by the commercially available valve, mainly due to some major modifications occurring in the discharge section. Reducing the flow force and thus the electromagnetic force exerted by the solenoid actuators allows the operational range of direct (single-stage) driven valves to be enlarged.

  11. The European ‘Nomofilachia’ and the Principle of Proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio BARONE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available *The European Court of Justice greatly contributes to the guarantees that Community law will be uniformly interpreted and applied (“nomofilachia” and the rights which individuals derive from the Community legal order will be effectively protected. This essay analyses some aspects of the European Union “nomofilachia”; the research is developed in two steps which are strictly correlated. In the first part, it will be underlined how the uniform interpretation and the uniform application of EC law go beyond the provisions of art. 234 of the EC Treat; and are supported by new kind of relations among the Court of Justice, national courts and national administrations. In the second part of the research, it will be highlighted the impact of the general principles of the European Community legal system, moulded through the “nomofilachia” function of the Luxembourg Court, as regards the activities of national administrations. The analysis gives a particular attention to the evolutionary dynamics of the proportionality principle. All these aspects work in a contemporary context of deep transformation of the traditional relations among law, courts, administrations and citizens. * This essay is the joint work of both authors with Barone primary responsible for paragraph 1,2,3,4,9 and Ansaldi for paragraph 5,6,7,8.

  12. Discussion on "proportional solidification technology" for nodular iron casting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gen

    2006-01-01

    The Proportional Solidification Technology believes that advancing the expansion of graphite precipitation is favorable for fully utilizing the expansion to offset the contraction and minimizing feeder size. But this author has proved that advancing the expansion is unfavorable for both feeding from the feeder and the self-feeding by expansion. On contrary, advancing the contraction is favorable for both kinds of feeding and favorable for avoiding shrinkage. The feeding efficiency of feeders cannot be increased by advancing the expansion of the casting, but can only be increased by accelerating cooling and contraction of the casting, and (or) by delaying the freezing of the feeders. In order to fully utilize the expansion to offset the contraction, it is a must to ensure that all inlets and outlets of a casting being poured are blocked rapidly at the moment when pouring is finished. It is pointed out that blocking at the earlier frozen feeder neck is unfavorable for both feeding from the feeder and the self-feeding by expansion; whereas blocking at earlier frozen ingates is favorable for both kinds of feeding.

  13. Tire Force Estimation using a Proportional Integral Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Ahmad; Koenig, Damien; Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses a method for detecting critical stability situations in the lateral vehicle dynamics by estimating the non-linear part of the tire forces. These forces indicate the road holding performance of the vehicle. The estimation method is based on a robust fault detection and estimation approach which minimize the disturbance and uncertainties to residual sensitivity. It consists in the design of a Proportional Integral Observer (PIO), while minimizing the well known H ∞ norm for the worst case uncertainties and disturbance attenuation, and combining a transient response specification. This multi-objective problem is formulated as a Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) feasibility problem where a cost function subject to LMI constraints is minimized. This approach is employed to generate a set of switched robust observers for uncertain switched systems, where the convergence of the observer is ensured using a Multiple Lyapunov Function (MLF). Whilst the forces to be estimated can not be physically measured, a simulation scenario with CarSimTM is presented to illustrate the developed method.

  14. Phylogenetic origins of early alterations in brain region proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Sandoval, Alexis L; Striedter, Georg F

    2010-01-01

    Adult galliform birds (e.g. chickens) exhibit a relatively small telencephalon and a proportionately large optic tectum compared with parrots and songbirds. We previously examined the embryonic origins of these adult species differences and found that the optic tectum is larger in quail than in parakeets and songbirds at early stages of development, prior to tectal neurogenesis onset. The aim of this study was to determine whether a proportionately large presumptive tectum is a primitive condition within birds or a derived feature of quail and other galliform birds. To this end, we examined embryonic brains of several avian species (emus, parrots, songbirds, waterfowl, galliform birds), reptiles (3 lizard species, alligators, turtles) and a monotreme (platypuses). Brain region volumes were estimated from serial Nissl-stained sections. We found that the embryos of galliform birds and lizards exhibit a proportionally larger presumptive tectum than all the other examined species. The presumptive tectum of the platypus is unusually small. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the expanded embryonic tectum of lizards and galliform birds is a derived feature in both of these taxonomic groups.

  15. Conflicts between domestic inequality and global poverty: lexicality versus proportionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García Gibson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current views on global justice often hold that affluent states are under at least two duties: a duty to reduce socioeconomic inequalities at home and a duty to reduce extreme poverty abroad. Potential duty conflicts deriving from resource scarcity can be solved in broadly two principled ways. The ‘lexical’ principle requires all disputed resources to be allocated to the weightiest duty. The ‘proportionality’ principle requires resources to be distributed between the two duties according to their relative weight (the weightiest duty receives the largest resource share, but the less weighty duty receives a share too. I argue that the proportionality principle is morally preferable. I show that it is sensitive to a number of factors that are intuitively relevant when solving duty conflicts: the number of affected individuals, the size of the benefits each individual could get, and the time it could take to eventually comply with the less weighty duty. Some argue that the lexical principle should nevertheless be preferred because domestic egalitarian duties are duties of justice, and they are therefore lexically prior to mere humanitarian duties to reduce global poverty. I reject this view by showing that duties of justice are not necessarily lexically prior to humanitarian duties, and that (even if they were duties to reduce global poverty can be regarded as duties of justice too.

  16. High efficiency proportional neutron detector with solid liner internal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Roger Allen; Holcomb, David Eugene; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2014-08-05

    A tube-style neutron detector, a panel-style neutron detector incorporating a plurality of tube-style neutron detectors, and a panel-style neutron detector including a plurality of anode wires are provided. A plurality of channels is provided in a neutron detector such that each channel has an inner surface of a coating layer including a neutron-absorbing material. A wire anode is provided at end of each channel so that electrons generated by a charged daughter particle generated by a neutron are collected to detect a neutron-matter interaction. Moderator units can be incorporated into a neutron detector to provide improved detection efficiencies and/or to determine neutron energy spectrum. Gas-based proportional response from the neutron detectors can be employed for special nuclear material (SNM) detection. This neutron detector can provide similar performance to .sup.3He-based detectors without requiring .sup.3He and without containing toxic, flammable, or high-pressure materials.

  17. Large-area proportional counter for in situ transuranic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    Improved methods for site characterization are desired for environmental restoration at nuclear facilities. Measurements of transuranics, in particular several isotopes of plutonium, are especially difficult due to the low penetrating nature of the radiations involved, namely, alpha particles and X rays. The effects of attenuation by soil and vegetation generally render direct alpha survey methods useless. For this reason, thin scintillators, such as the FIDLER (field instrument for detection of low-energy radiation) or its more sophisticated successor, the VIOLINIST, that rely on the detection of the L shell X rays (13 to 21 keV) are used for survey work. Semiconductor detectors (germanium and silicon), used singly or in arrays, can be effective, especially for situations where {sup 241}Am (60 keV) is present in the isotropic mix. In principle, in situ spectrometric techniques that have been successfully applied at higher photon energies for the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment can be extended to the X-ray region as well. For situations where {sup 241}Am is not present or its ratio to plutonium is unknown, an alternative detector that we have explored for in situ X-ray spectrometry is a large-area proportional counter (LAPC). These instruments were developed for X-ray astronomical measurements in space and offer the combination of large window area and medium energy resolution. Smaller versions have also been used for lung counting.

  18. Fairness of seat allocation methods in proportional representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L van Eck

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fairness of some methods of allocating seats in a proportional representation (PR voting system is investigated. Different PR systems are in use throughout the democratic world, but the primary focus here is the method used in South Africa, namely the largest remainder method with a Droop quota. It is shown that as the number of parties increases, the number of lost votes (votes not used to allocate seats increases when using this method. Other existing allocation methods are discussed and compared with each other as well as with three optimisation methods (based on mathematical programming introduced in this paper. Applying these mathematical programming methods results in allocations that are more fair than the existing methods of seat allocation, if South African voting data are used. These mathematical models attempt to minimise a number of different measures of the deviation between the actual percentage of votes received and the percentage of seats allocated to a certain party. Ideally this deviation should be zero, but due to the discrete nature of seats this is virtually impossible to achieve.

  19. Major copy proportion analysis of tumor samples using SNP arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the most common genetic variations in the human genome and are useful as genomic markers. Oligonucleotide SNP microarrays have been developed for high-throughput genotyping of up to 900,000 human SNPs and have been used widely in linkage and cancer genomics studies. We have previously used Hidden Markov Models (HMM to analyze SNP array data for inferring copy numbers and loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH from paired normal and tumor samples and unpaired tumor samples. Results We proposed and implemented major copy proportion (MCP analysis of oligonucleotide SNP array data. A HMM was constructed to infer unobserved MCP states from observed allele-specific signals through emission and transition distributions. We used 10 K, 100 K and 250 K SNP array datasets to compare MCP analysis with LOH and copy number analysis, and showed that MCP performs better than LOH analysis for allelic-imbalanced chromosome regions and normal contaminated samples. The major and minor copy alleles can also be inferred from allelic-imbalanced regions by MCP analysis. Conclusion MCP extends tumor LOH analysis to allelic imbalance analysis and supplies complementary information to total copy numbers. MCP analysis of mixing normal and tumor samples suggests the utility of MCP analysis of normal-contaminated tumor samples. The described analysis and visualization methods are readily available in the user-friendly dChip software.

  20. Multichannel electrotactile feedback for simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Gauravkumar K.; Dosen, Strahinja; Castellini, Claudio; Farina, Dario

    2016-10-01

    Objective. Closing the loop in myoelectric prostheses by providing artificial somatosensory feedback to the user is an important need for prosthetic users. Previous studies investigated feedback strategies in combination with the control of one degree of freedom of simple grippers. Modern hands, however, are sophisticated multifunction systems. In this study, we assessed multichannel electrotactile feedback integrated with an advanced method for the simultaneous and proportional control of individual fingers of a dexterous hand. Approach. The feedback used spatial and frequency coding to provide information on the finger positions (normalized flexion angles). A comprehensive set of conditions have been investigated in 28 able-bodied subjects, including feedback modalities (visual, electrotactile and no feedback), control tasks (fingers and grasps), systems (virtual and real hand), control methods (ideal and realistic) and range of motion (low and high). The task for the subjects was to operate the hand using closed-loop myoelectric control and generate the desired movement (e.g., selected finger or grasp at a specific level of closure). Main results. The subjects could perceive the multichannel and multivariable electrotactile feedback and effectively exploit it to improve the control performance with respect to open-loop grasping. The improvement however depended on the reliability of the feedforward control, with less consistent control exhibiting performance trends that were more complex across the conditions. Significance. The results are promising for the potential application of advanced feedback to close the control loop in sophisticated prosthetic systems.

  1. Proportion of US congregations that have people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Steven M; Chaves, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance studies monitor the prevalence and incidence of HIV, and this information is used by policy makers to design prevention programs and facilitate care for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Although most of these studies monitor the presence of PLWHIV in the general population or specific communities, some assess the presence of PLWHIV in organizations. One type of organization that has not been examined, yet could potentially play a large role in caring for PLWHIV, is the religious congregation. In this study, we estimate the proportion of US religious congregations that have PLWHIV and examine whether congregations that are in contact with populations with high HIV prevalence and incidence rates are more likely to have PLWHIV using data from a nationally representative sample of congregations and the 2000 Census. Over 10,000 congregations have PLWHIV, and congregations containing, open to, or located in areas with populations with high HIV prevalence and incidence rates are more likely to have them. This study offers new insight into the presence of HIV in the United States and provides information about which congregations may be amenable to serving as sites of HIV programs.

  2. Proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, Joseph; Mallhi, R S; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    The Rh system is the major blood group system besides ABO system. Even after proper blood grouping and cross matching there is a possibility of alloimmunization and antibody production in the recipients against the Rh or minor blood group antigens like Kell, MNSs, Duffy etc. Keeping in view the heavy financial burden of complete phenotyping of blood; the determination of only Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and adverse events in multitransfusion cases. To determine the proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors with a view to generate blood bank data for constitution of panel of blood donors for multipurpose utilities. Identification of Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test by the test tube method on 10,133 healthy voluntary donors. The phenotypic frequencies of Rh blood groups in the studied population were D-92.25%, C-87.55%, E-26.55%, c-51.06% and e-98.42%. Thus 'e' was the most common and E was the least common of all the Rh types. Phenotypically DCCee group was the most common phenotype and dccee was least common type. Determination of Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and avoiding adverse events in multitransfusion cases.

  3. Low energy recoil detection with a spherical proportional counter

    CERN Document Server

    Savvidis, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Giomataris, I; Papaevangellou, T

    2016-01-01

    We present low energy recoil detection results in the keV energy region, from measurements performed with the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC). An ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}{Be}$ fast neutron source is used in order to obtain neutron-nucleus elastic scattering events inside the gaseous volume of the detector. The detector performance in the $keV$ energy region was resolved by observing the $5.9\\ keV$ line of a ${}^{55}Fe$ X-ray source, with energy resolution of $9\\%$ ($\\sigma$). The toolkit GEANT4 was used to simulate the irradiation of the detector by an ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}{Be}$ source, while SRIM was used to calculate the Ionization Quenching Factor (IQF). The GEANT4 simulated energy deposition spectrum in addition with the SRIM calculated quenching factor provide valuable insight to the experimental results. The performance of the SPC in low energy recoil detection makes the detector a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including Supernova or reactor neutrino detection and Dark Matter (WIMP) searc...

  4. Finishing procedures in Orthodontics: dental dimensions and proportions (microesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Bodart Brandão

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present article is to describe procedures that can be performed to achieve excellence in orthodontic treatment finishing. The content is limited to microesthetics, which comprises the concept of ideal dental dimensions and proportions (white esthetics and its correlation with the periodontium (pink esthetics. Standards of normality are described both in their real dimensions (dental height and width, and in those effectively perceived by the observer, the virtual dimensions. METHODS: The best scientific evidence was sought in the literature to support the clinical procedures that must guide the professional to obtain maximum esthetic quality on their treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate what the other specialties in Dentistry expect from Orthodontics and, specially, what they have to offer. Clinical cases will be used to illustrate the dental movement that might maximize treatment outcome and to confront the ideal standards with the current state of the art. CONCLUSION: Treatment quality is directly related to the amount of procedures implemented by the orthodontist, associated with concepts and resources from Periodontics and Dental Prosthesis. Microesthetics cannot be seen in isolation, but rather as the key to establish a pleasant smile (miniesthetics in addition to a harmonious face (macroesthetics and a human being with high self-esteem (hyper-esthetics.

  5. Flexible proportional-rate scheduling for OFDMA system

    KAUST Repository

    Leith, Alex

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the sum-rate maximization algorithms for downlink and uplink orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems under proportional-rate constraint (PRC) and minimum-rate constraint. We develop a low-complexity weighted channel signal-to-noise ratio (w-SNR)-based ranking scheme for user selection on each subchannel in OFDMA combined with waterfilling (WF) power allocation. Both offline and online optimization algorithms are developed to optimize the SNR weight vector to maximize the sum rate while satisfying several constraints, such as PRC. The offline weight optimization technique relies on the analytical throughput results developed in this paper, and the online weight adaptation method tracks the user rates and meets the PRC using a subgradient search. Furthermore, we introduce a novel SNR operating region test to enhance the multiuser diversity gain and the sum rate. The proposed schemes have a low complexity, which is linear to the numbers of users and subchannels. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the developed analytical rates and fairness formulas, and show that the proposed w-SNR schemes can achieve higher sum rates than several benchmark schemes that provide the PRC with either short-term or long-term fairness. © 2013 IEEE. © 2013 ESO.

  6. Culture, health, and bigotry: How exposure to cultural accounts of fatness shape attitudes about health risk, health policies, and weight-based prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Saguy, Abigail C; Gruys, Kjerstin

    2016-09-01

    We conducted three experiments to examine how cultural frames shape attitudes about health, focusing on obesity, which is considered a public health crisis and is imbued with symbolic meaning. College students (Ns = 99, 114, and 293) read news articles that presented high body weight according to one or more of the following frames: 1) public health crisis; 2) personal responsibility; 3) health at every size (HAES); or 4) fat rights. Compared to people who read the HAES and Fat Rights articles, those who read the Public Health Crisis and Personal Responsibility articles expressed more belief in the health risks of being fat (ds = 1.28 to 1.79), belief that fat people should pay more for insurance (ds = 0.53 to 0.71), anti-fat prejudice (ds = 0.61 to 0.69), willingness to discriminate against fat people (ds = 0.41 to 0.59), and less willingness to celebrate body-size diversity (ds = 0.77 to 1.07). They were less willing to say women at the lower end of the obese range could be healthy. Exposure to these articles increased support for price-raising policies to curb obesity but not support for redistributive or compensatory policies. In Experiment 3, in comparison to a control condition, exposure to HAES or Fat Rights frames significantly reduced beliefs in the risks of obesity and support for charging fat people more for insurance. However, only people exposed to the Fat Rights frame expressed fewer anti-fat attitudes and more willingness to celebrate body-size diversity. Our findings suggest that simply disseminating information that people can be both fat and healthy will not suffice to reduce prejudice. Given that anti-fat stigma is a health risk and barrier to collective solidarity, fat rights viewpoints can buffer against the negative consequences of anti-fat stigma and promote a culture of health by fostering empathy and social justice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  8. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J D; Enser, M; Fisher, A V; Nute, G R; Sheard, P R; Richardson, R I; Hughes, S I; Whittington, F M

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the factors affecting the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in pigs, sheep and cattle and shows that a major factor is the total amount of fat. The effects of fatty acid composition on meat quality are also reviewed. Pigs have high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including the long chain (C20-22) PUFA in adipose tissue and muscle. The full range of PUFA are also found in sheep adipose tissue and muscle whereas cattle 'conserve' long chain PUFA in muscle phospholipid. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is a major ingredient of feeds for all species. Its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle in relation to the amount in the diet is greater than for other fatty acids. It is deposited in muscle phospholipid at a high level where it and its long chain products eg aracidonic acid (20:4n-6) compete well for insertion into phospholipid molecules. Its proportion in pig adipose tissue declines as fat deposition proceeds and is an index of fatness. The same inverse relationships are not seen in ruminant adipose tissue but in all species the proportion of 18:2n-6 declines in muscle as fat deposition increases. The main reason is that phospholipid, where 18:2n-6 is located, declines as a proportion of muscle lipid and the proportion of neutral lipid, with its higher content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, increases. Oleic acid (18:1cis-9), formed from stearic acid (18:0) by the enzyme stearoyl Co-A desaturase, is a major component of neutral lipid and in ruminants the same enzyme forms conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), an important nutrient in human nutrition. Like 18:2n-6, α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) is an essential fatty acid and is important to ruminants since it is the major fatty acid in grass. However it does not compete well for insertion into phospholipid compared with 18:2n-6 and its incorporation into adipose tissue and muscle is less efficient. Greater biohydrogenation of 18:3n-3 and a long rumen transit time

  9. Composition and thermal characteristics of Madhuca longifolia seed fat and its solid and liquid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikkar, J M N; Ghazali, H M; Long, K

    2010-01-01

    This study was to characterize the seed fat from Madhuca longifolia known as Mee fat and its solid and liquid fractions with the objective of distinguishing them. A sample of Mee fat was partitioned into solid and liquid fractions using acetone as the solvent medium. The isolated fractions were compared to the native Mee fat sample with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as, gas liquid chromatography (GLC), reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic analyses indicated that there were wide variations between the native sample and its fractions with respect to iodine value (IV), and slip melting point (SMP). The cloud point (CP) of the liquid fraction was found to be 10.5 degrees C. Fatty acid compositional analyses showed that the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palmitic and stearic went up in the high-melting fraction (HMF) while in low-melting fraction (LMF) the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) such as oleic and lenoleic increased. According to the HPLC analyses, Mee fat had a tiacyl glycerol (TAG) sequence similar to that of palm oil. After fractionation, the solid and liquid fractions obtained were found to have TAG profiles very much different from the native sample. Thermal analyses by DSC showed that Mee fat had two-widely separated high and low melting thermal transitions, a feature which was beneficial for the effective separation of solid and liquid fractions. The thermal profiles displayed by the fractions were clearly distinguishable from that of the native sample.

  10. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brask, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R; Hellwing, A L F; Poulsen, M; Larsen, M K; Hvelplund, T

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) were submitted to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 rations: 1 control with rapeseed meal (low-fat, CON) and 3 fat-supplemented rations with either rapeseed cake (RSC), whole cracked rapeseed (WCR), or rapeseed oil (RSO). Dietary fat concentrations were 3.5 in CON, 5.5 in RSC, 6.2 in WCR, and 6.5% in RSO. The amount of fat-free rapeseed was kept constant for all rations. The forage consisted of corn silage and grass silage and the forage to concentrate ratio was 50:50 on a dry matter basis. Diurnal samples of duodenal and ileal digesta and feces were compiled. The methane production was measured for 4 d in open-circuit respiration chambers. Additional fat reduced the CH4 production per kilogram of dry matter intake and as a proportion of the gross energy intake by 11 and 14%, respectively. Neither the total tract nor the rumen digestibility of organic matter (OM) or neutral detergent fiber were significantly affected by the treatment. Relating the CH4 production to the total-tract digested OM showed a tendency to decrease CH4 per kilogram of digested OM for fat-supplemented rations versus CON. The acetate to propionate ratio was not affected for RSC and WCR but was increased for RSO compared with CON. The rumen ammonia concentration was not affected by the ration. The milk and energy-corrected milk yields were unaffected by the fat supplementation. In conclusion, rapeseed is an appropriate fat source to reduce the enteric CH4 production without affecting neutral detergent fiber digestion or milk production. The physical form of fat did not influence the CH4-reducing effect of rapeseed fat. However, differences in the volatile fatty acid pattern indicate that different

  11. Fecal Fat Analyses in Chronic Pancreatitis Importance of Fat Ingestion before Stool Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engjom, Trond; Jurmy, Palwasha; Tjora, Erling; Gilja, Odd Helge; Dimcevski, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Objective Quantitative determination of fecal fat still is the gold standard for measuring malabsorption. We evaluated the importance of standardized food intake before and under the collection of feces. Material and Methods In a project, evaluating patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis (CP) and healthy volunteers (HC), stools were collected for 72 hours coupled to registration of nutritional intake over five consecutive days. Patient groups were created by a modified Layer score, which includes imaging findings, clinical parameters and pancreas function testing. Results We found 12 patients with CP, 11 patients without CP and 13 healthy individuals in our database. Median fecal fat in CP patients was 12 g/day, in non-CP patients 5 g/day and in healthy controls 5 g/day. Median fat absorption coefficient was 81% in those with chronic pancreatitis, 92% in those without CP and 92% in healthy controls. Corresponding median fat intake was 65 g/day, 68 g/day and 81 g/day in the respective groups. Spearman Rank Order Correlation between fecal fat (g/d) and fat absorption coefficient in all study subjects (n = 36) was good (-0.88 (p<0.001)). When we stratified groups according to fat intake, correlation between fecal fat and fat absorption was also good (-0.86 to -0.95). Conclusion In the diagnoses of fat malabsorption, calculating the ratio of fat absorption did not give additional information compared to fecal fat. PMID:28095460

  12. Detecting Fat Content of Food from a Distance: Olfactory-Based Fat Discrimination in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Lundstrom, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The desire to consume high volumes of fat is thought to originate from an evolutionary pressure to hoard calories, and fat is among the few energy sources that we can store over a longer time period. From an ecological perspective, however, it would be beneficial to detect fat from a distance, befor

  13. Body fat and fat distribution by anthropometry and the response to high-fat cholesterol-containing diet in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Sharma, R C; Chin, H P; Jiao, Q; Kramsch, D M

    1993-02-01

    Considerable variability exists among individuals in the response of plasma cholesterol to changes in dietary fat and cholesterol, and obesity is one variable reported to affect this response. This study was performed to determine the relationship between body fat and changes in plasma cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys fed a high-fat cholesterol-containing diet for 12 months. The animals gained significant body weight (body mass index increased from 30.5 +/- 0.5 to 35.7 +/- 2.8 kg/m2) and skinfold parameters of body fat increased as well. Total cholesterol increased from 109 +/- 4 to 390 +/- 25 mg/dl (P < 0.001), and there were also significant increases in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride. While there was very little relationship between body fat and plasma lipids before the diet, after 12 months, there were significant negative correlations between total and LDL-cholesterol and anthropometric measures of body fat (r ranged from -0.37 to -0.55, P < 0.01). The correlations were not affected when the effects of baseline body mass index and serum cholesterol and total food intake were controlled by partial correlation analysis. In this sample of animals, the acquisition of greater body fat appeared to protect against rises in cholesterol in response to consumption of a high-fat cholesterol-containing diet.

  14. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were...... to the third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source....... examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days...

  15. Correlation between serum lipoproteins and abdominal fat pad in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... There are several reports on the various effects of fat ... body fat accumulation in poultry (Tuncer et al., 1987;. Kirkpinar et al., 1999; .... that fish oil can affect abdominal fat pad deposition, ..... Effect of dietary fat on tissue fat and ...

  16. Calibration and background measurements with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autischer, M; Beck, P; Kindl, P; Latocha, M; Rollet, S

    2007-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent-proportional counter (TEPC) instrument has been used as the reference instrument for cosmic radiation measurement at flight altitudes by several institutes. For purposes of characterisation the response of the instrument has been investigated under different standard radiation conditions, in terms of radiation particle, energy and angle of incidence. Photon sources and photon beams of energies up to 6.6 MeV and neutron beams up to 200 MeV were used. To have a better understanding of the shielding influence of the instrument assembly, the angle dependence of response was analysed for several radiation conditions. Specific measurement conditions were simulated with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. The measured instrument response was compared with simulation results. It was demonstrated, that simulations were very helpful to understand the instrument's response. The TEPC instrument used by the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (ARCS) research simulates the energy deposition in a unit density tissue volume of 2 microm diameter, of similar size to a cell nucleus. Pure propane at low pressure is used as measurement gas. To characterise the instrument at low dose rates background measurements were done 800 m below ground and at the ultra low level laboratory in Gran Sasso, 1380 m below ground. These results were compared with measurements on the Earth's surface at different altitudes on mountains up to 3480 m above sea level. The significant increase of the expected dose rate is well reproduced by the experiments at mountain altitudes. As a result of this study a full characterisation and a thorough understanding of the performance and reliability of the detector was achieved.

  17. Long-term plasticity is proportional to theta-activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tsanov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theta rhythm in the hippocampal formation is a main feature of exploratory behaviour and is believed to enable the encoding of new spatial information and the modification of synaptic weights. Cyclic changes of dentate gyrus excitability during theta rhythm are related to its function, but whether theta epochs per se are able to alter network properties of dentate gyrus for long time-periods is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used low-frequency stimulation protocols that amplify the power of endogenous theta oscillations, in order to estimate the plasticity effect of endogenous theta oscillations on a population level. We found that stimulation-induced augmentation of the theta rhythm is linked to a subsequent increase of neuronal excitability and decrease of the synaptic response. This EPSP-to-Spike uncoupling is related to an increased postsynaptic spiking on the positive phases of theta frequency oscillations. Parallel increase of the field EPSP slope and the population spike occurs only after concurrent pre- and postsynaptic activation. Furthermore, we observed that long-term potentiation (>24 h occurs in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving adult rats after phasic activity of entorhinal afferents in the theta-frequency range. This plasticity is proportional to the field bursting activity of granule cells during the stimulation, and may comprise a key step in spatial information transfer. Long-term potentiation of the synaptic component occurs only when the afferent stimulus precedes the evoked population burst, and is input-specific. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm the role of the dentate gyrus in filtering information to the subsequent network during the activated state of the hippocampus.

  18. A method for measuring passive elastance during proportional assist ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, M; Webster, K; Kun, J; Roberts, D; Masiowski, B

    2001-07-01

    There are currently no reliable, noninvasive ways to monitor respiratory elastance (E) during assisted ventilation. We describe a method that is suited for proportional assist ventilation (PAV). In this mode, the end of the ventilator's inflation phase occurs during the declining phase of inspiratory effort (Pmus). If the opening of the exhalation valve is delayed, airway pressure (Paw) should initially rise as Pmus continues its decline. When Pmus declines to zero, a Paw plateau should appear. Paw at this point should reflect passive recoil at the prevailing volume. A cohort of 74 ventilator-dependent patients, ventilated in the PAV mode, were studied. Brief end-inspiratory occlusions were applied at random intervals. The magnitude of early change in Paw during the occlusion was inversely related to level of assist (r = 0.7, p 75%), Paw was nearly flat or declined slightly, indicating minimal residual Pmus at the onset of occlusion. At lower assist levels, Paw increased exponentially in most patients with an average time constant of 0.21 +/- 0.06 s. Extraneous events that may corrupt the measurement (e.g., behavioral responses) were extremely rare (passive E measured during controlled ventilation (ECMV); the average difference (EPAV - ECMV) was (+/- SD) -0.3 +/- 4.9 cm H2O x L(-1), corresponding to 0.9 +/- 16.4% of average E. We conclude that Paw measured at 0.25 s from the onset of end-inspiratory occlusion in the PAV mode provides a reliable estimate of passive elastic recoil.

  19. Compact multiwire proportional counters for the detection of fission fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhingan, Akhil; Sugathan, P; Golda, K S; Singh, R P; Varughese, T; Singh, Hardev; Behera, B R; Mandal, S K

    2009-12-01

    Two large area multistep position sensitive (two dimensional) multiwire proportional counters have been developed for experiments involving study of fission dynamics using general purpose scattering chamber facility at IUAC. Both detectors have an active area of 20x10 cm(2) and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) planes, timing signal for time of flight measurements and energy signal giving the differential energy loss in the active volume. The design features are optimized for the detection of low energy heavy ions at very low gas pressures. Special care was taken in setting up the readout electronics, constant fraction discriminators for position signals in particular, to get optimum position and timing resolutions along with high count rate handling capability of low energy heavy ions. A custom made charge sensitive preamplifier, having lower gain and shorter decay time, has been developed for extracting the differential energy loss signal. The position and time resolutions of the detectors were determined to be 1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and 1.7 ns FWHM, respectively. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 20 kHz without any breakdown. Time of flight signal in combination with differential energy loss signal gives a clean separation of fission fragments from projectile and target like particles. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for fission coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass, angular, and total kinetic energy distributions. This article describes systematic study of these fission counters in terms of efficiency, time resolution, count rate handling capability, position resolution, and the readout electronics. The detector has been operated with both five electrode geometry and four electrode geometry, and a comparison has been made in their performances.

  20. Proportioning and performance evaluation of self-consolidating concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuhao

    A well-proportioned self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixture can be achieved by controlling the aggregate system, paste quality, and paste quantity. The work presented in this dissertation involves an effort to study and improve particle packing of the concrete system and reduce the paste quantity while maintaining concrete quality and performance. This dissertation is composed of four papers resulting from the study: (1) Assessing Particle Packing Based Self-Consolidating Concrete Mix Design; (2) Using Paste-To-Voids Volume Ratio to Evaluate the Performance of Self-Consolidating Concrete Mixtures; (3) Image Analysis Applications on Assessing Static Stability and Flowability of Self-Consolidating Concrete, and (4) Using Ultrasonic Wave Propagation to Monitor Stiffening Process of Self-Consolidating Concrete. Tests were conducted on a large matrix of SCC mixtures that were designed for cast-in-place bridge construction. The mixtures were made with different aggregate types, sizes, and different cementitious materials. In Paper 1, a modified particle-packing based mix design method, originally proposed by Brouwers (2005), was applied to the design of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixs. Using this method, a large matrix of SCC mixes was designed to have a particle distribution modulus (q) ranging from 0.23 to 0.29. Fresh properties (such as flowability, passing ability, segregation resistance, yield stress, viscosity, set time and formwork pressure) and hardened properties (such as compressive strength, surface resistance, shrinkage, and air structure) of these concrete mixes were experimentally evaluated. In Paper 2, a concept that is based on paste-to-voids volume ratio (Vpaste/Vvoids) was employed to assess the performance of SCC mixtures. The relationship between excess paste theory and Vpaste/Vvoids was investigated. The workability, flow properties, compressive strength, shrinkage, and surface resistivity of SCC mixtures were determined at various ages

  1. RELATIVE TOTAL BODY FAT AND SKINFOLD PATTERNING IN FILIPINO NATIONAL COMBAT SPORT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi T. Bercades

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess relative total body fat and skinfold patterning in Filipino national karate and pencak silat athletes. Participants were members of the Philippine men's and women's national teams in karate (12 males, 5 females and pencak silat (17 males and 5 females. In addition to age, the following anthropometric measurements were taken: height, body mass, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, umbilical, anterior thigh and medial calf skinfolds. Relative total body fat was expressed as sum of six skinfolds. Sum of skinfolds and each individual skinfold were also expressed relative to Phantom height. A two-way (Sport*Gender ANOVA was used to determine the differences between men and women in total body fat and skinfold patterning. A Bonferroni-adjusted alpha was employed for all analyses. The women had a higher proportional sum of skinfols (80.19 ± 25.31 mm vs. 51.77 ± 21.13 mm, p = 0. 001, eta2 = 0.275. The men had a lower proportional triceps skinfolds (-1.72 ± 0.71 versus - 0.35 ± 0.75, p < 0.001. Collapsed over gender, the karate athletes (-2.18 ± 0.66 had a lower proportional anterior thigh skinfold than their pencak silat colleagues (-1.71 ± 0.74, p = 0.001. Differences in competition requirements between sports may account for some of the disparity in anthropometric measurements

  2. It's All Connected: The Power of Proportional Reasoning to Understand Mathematics Concepts, Gr. 6-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    "It's All Connected" provides teachers of mathematics the support they need to improve their instruction. This in-demand collection of lessons for grades 6-8 explores proportionality, proportional relationships, and proportional reasoning, acknowledging that the ability to reason proportionally is crucial in the middle school mathematics…

  3. The serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is influenced more favorably by exchanging saturated with unsaturated fat than by reducing saturated fat in the diet of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hanne; Lindman, Anja S; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Pedersen, Jan I

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of a high fat diet [38.4% of energy (E%) from fat; HSAFA diet, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio = 0.14], a low fat diet (19.7 E% from fat; LSAFA diet, P/S = 0.17), both based on coconut oil, and a diet with a high content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 38.2 E% from fat; HUFA diet, P/S = 1.9) on serum lipoproteins. The 25 women studied consumed each diet for 3-wk periods in a crossover design. The two high fat diets were identical except for the quality of the test fat. The LSAFA diet was identical to the HSAFA diet except that half the fat was replaced by carbohydrates. Serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB concentrations did not differ between the HSAFA and the LSAFA diet periods. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB were lower when women consumed the HUFA diet than when they consumed the other two diets. HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were 15 and 11%, respectively, higher when women consumed the HSAFA diet than when they consumed the LSAFA diet; HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were lower when women consumed the HUFA diet than when they consumed the HSAFA diet, but not the LSAFA diet. The LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and apoB/apoA-I ratios were higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed the HSAFA diet. The LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was higher when women consumed either the LSAFA or the HSAFA diet than when they consumed the HUFA diet, whereas apoB/apoA-I was higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed the HUFA diet. Triacylglycerol and VLDL cholesterol were higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed either the HSAFA or the HUFA diet. We conclude that, to influence the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, changing the proportions of dietary fatty acids may be more important than restricting the percentage of total or saturated fat energy, at least when derived mainly from lauric and myristic acids, both of which increase HDL cholesterol.

  4. Serum leptin as an indicator of fat levels in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, M Colter; Phillips, Shannon P; Whisnant, Scott; Tyndall, James; Lashley, Marcus A; DePerno, Christopher S

    2014-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake, appetite, and metabolism. In some mammals, leptin has been shown to circulate at levels proportional to body fat, which could make it useful for nonlethal evaluation of body condition. Leptin's usefulness for estimating fat levels (i.e., body condition) of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is unknown. We quantified serum leptin concentrations in a sample of free-ranging, female deer collected in July 2008 and March 2009 from coastal North Carolina, USA. We compared leptin concentrations with kidney fat index, femur marrow fat index, and kidney fat mass. Additionally, we assessed differences in leptin concentrations between the two seasons, lactating and nonlactating females, and gestating and nongestating females. Leptin concentrations were similar between seasons but were lower in lactating and gestating females. We did not detect significant relationships between leptin and the body fat metrics, indicating that leptin may have limited value for estimating fat reserves in white-tailed deer.

  5. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem.

  6. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, Denovan P.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantianigra producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers.

  7. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  8. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  9. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  10. Plaster body wrap: effects on abdominal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Moreira, Juliana; Melo, Ana Sofia Carneiro Pinto de; Noites, Andreia; Couto, Miriam Faria; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Adubeiro, Nuno Carvalho Freire de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal fat is associated with metabolic disorders, leading to cardiovascular risk factors and numerous diseases. This study aimed to analyze the effect of plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise on abdominal fat. Nineteen female volunteers were randomly divided into intervention group (IG; n = 10) performing aerobic exercise with plaster body wrap, and control group (CG; n = 9) performing only exercise. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured using ultrasound; subcutaneous fat was also estimated on analysis of skinfolds and abdominal perimeters. At the end of the 10-sessions protocol, the IG demonstrated a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous fat at the left anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) level and in iliac crest perimeter measurements. A large intervention effect size strength (0.80) was found in subcutaneous fat below the navel and a moderate effect size strength on the vertical abdominal skinfold (0.62) and the perimeter of the most prominent abdominal point (0.57). Comparing the initial and final data of each group, the IG showed a significant decrease in numerous variables including visceral and subcutaneous fat above and below the navel measured by ultrasound (p ≤ 0.05). Plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise seems to be effective for abdominal fat reduction.

  11. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  12. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat . We need these fats to build brain cells and for other important functions. Omega-3s help keep your heart healthy and protected against stroke. They also help improve your heart health ...

  13. Large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Walstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    Compression and wire-cutting experiments on dispersions of fully hydrogenated palm oil in sunflower oil with varying fraction solid fat were carried out to establish which parameters are important for the large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks. Compression experiments showed that the app

  14. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  15. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was modera

  16. Vitamin D3 in Fat Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The literature describing vitamin D content of fat tissue is extremely limited. We conducted a pilot study that measured the concentrations of vitamin D3 in the fat tissue and serum of obese adults. These measurements were performed using a new liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) metho...

  17. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  18. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. Effect of prepartal and postpartal dietary fat level on performance and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, M; Khorvash, M; Forouzmand, M A; Alikhani, M; Rahmani, H R; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary fat (low and high) offered during the prepartal and postpartal periods on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma concentration of metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Twenty-four Holstein dry cows were assigned on d 21 relative to expected parturition date to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 levels of fat fed during the prepartal period and 2 levels of fat fed during the postpartal period: prepartal low fat and postpartal low fat (LF-LF), prepartal low fat and postpartal high fat (LF-HF), prepartal high fat and postpartal low fat (HF-LF), or prepartal high fat and postpartal high fat (HF-HF). Prepartal and postpartal LF diets contained no fat supplement. Prepartal HF diets contained 1.60% calcium salts of soybean oil. The proportion of calcium salts of soybean oil was increased to 1.70% of DM for the first 21 d of lactation and to 2.27% of DM from d 21 to 56 of lactation in the HF diet. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake from d 21 before calving until d 56 of gestation. Prepartal DMI was lower for cows fed the HF diet compared with those fed the LF diet (12.6 vs. 16.2kg/d). Postpartum, cows fed the HF-HF and HF-LF diets had, respectively, the lowest and highest DMI, although no significant differences existed between HF-LF and LF-LF. Net energy intake was higher for cows fed the postpartal HF diets compared with those fed the LF diets. Prepartal fat level had no effect on net energy intake. Cows offered the prepartal HF diet had higher milk yield when offered the postpartal LF diet compared with those offered the postpartal HF diet and no effect of the postpartal fat level was detected when cows were fed the prepartal LF diet. Milk composition was similar among treatments. Plasma cholesterol concentration postpartum was higher for cows fed the prepartal LF diet than for those fed the prepartal HF diet (5.16 vs. 3.74mmol/L) and postpartal fat level had no effect

  20. A Fat Gluino in Disguise

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being "fat" on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  1. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Juergen; Wiesler, Daniel [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascade steps in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied. (orig.)

  2. [Progress in dedifferentiated fat cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feifei; Yang, Zhi; Qian, Cheng

    2014-10-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. DFAT cells have many advantages compared with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). For example, DFAT cells are homogeneous and could be obtained from donors regardless of their age. Furthermore, DFAT cells also have the same multi-lineage potentials and low immunogenicity as ASCs. As an excellent source of seed cells for tissue engineering and stem cell transplantation, DFAT cells have better prospects in the treatment of many clinical diseases, such as bone defects, neurological diseases, ischemic heart disease and kidney disease. It is necessary to make more intensive studies of DFAT cells. This article summarizes progresses in the immunological characteristics, differentiation ability and potential clinical applications of DFAT cells.

  3. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  4. Fat ful′fill′ment: A review of autologous fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjot Marwah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than a century, clinicians have attempted to utilise fat for the treatment of tissue deficiencies and contour abnormalities. Autologous fat transplantation for soft-tissue augmentation has become increasingly popular in recent years. The popularity of tumescent liposuction has brought renewed interest and accessibility of fat for transplantation. Newer techniques and approaches to augmentation have provided more predictable and reproducible results. Fat augmentation has become an effective, safe and reliable method for restoring volume and correcting the atrophy that accompanies senescence. In this review, the authors have described their approach to fat transplantation.

  5. The Principle of Proportionality and the European Arrest Warrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Haggenmüller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Arrest Warrant (EAW is a grossly coercive instrument that was designed for the persecution of serious cross-border crimes. In recent years, however, Member States have increasingly reported cases in which EAWs have not been issued for serious, but rather for harmless and minor offences. This article analyses the reasons behind the disproportionate use of the EAW and outlines measures to alleviate the problem. Thereby, it claims that in current debates different categories of disproportionate use of EAWs are often lumped together, and only concentrate on the introduction of a (binding proportionality test, failing to consider other alternative legislative solutions regarding minor crimes, such as the introduction of new comparable and effective alternative measures. These, however, are considered to be crucial for an alleviation of disproportionate warrants. La orden de detención europea (ODE es un instrumento extremadamente coercitivo que fue diseñado para la persecución de delitos transfronterizos graves. En años recientes, sin embargo, los Estados miembro han notificado cada vez más casos en los que la ODE no se debía a delitos serios, sino a casos menores e inofensivos.. En este artículo se analizan las razones que hay detrás del uso desproporcionado de la orden de detención europea y propone medidas para paliar el problema. De esta manera, se defiende que el debate actual, frecuentemente agrupan diferentes categorías de uso desproporcionado de la ODE, y sólo se concentran en la introducción de un test de proporcionalidad (vinculante, sin tener en cuenta otras soluciones legislativas alternativas, en lo que respecta a delitos menores, como la introducción de nuevas medidas alternativas, comparables y eficaces. Sin embargo, se considera que estas medidas son cruciales para reducir las órdenes de arresto desproporcionadas. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200874

  6. Study on Color and Antioxidant Properties of Rambutan Seed Fat as Cocoa Butter Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma Khairy. H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the color (whiteness, L*, a*, b* and antioxidant properties (radical scavenging activity, total phenolic compound of rambutan seed fat (RSF and its mixture with cocoa butter (CB were investigated. Different proportions were applied in preparing the samples between (RSF and (CB. The results showed that significant differences among samples in the whiteness, (L* and (a* value, whereas (b* value had no significant differences. With regard antioxidant activity the results showed that total phenolic compound (TPC of cocoa butter was (47.37±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat, while the other mixtures between (RSF and (CB showed (40.49±0.01-11.12±0.02 mg GA/100 g fat. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH of cocoa butter valued (67.32±0.44 µmol trolox/100 g fat, similar to the mixture M1 (60.16±0.23. Based on the results the study recommended that mixture ratio up to 40% rambutan seed fat (RSF can benefit as a cocoa butter replacer whereas a higher ratio completely change original cocoa butter characteristics. Thus, there is the possibility of using the (RSF as replacer of (CB and could utilize by chocolate products.

  7. MiR-103 controls milk fat accumulation in goat (Capra hircus mammary gland during lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzi Lin

    Full Text Available Milk is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals including humans. The nutritional value of milk is mainly attributable to fats and proteins fractions. In comparison to cow milk, goat milk contains greater amounts of total fat, including much higher levels of the beneficial unsaturated fatty acids. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a well-defined group of small RNAs containing about 22 nucleotides (nt, participate in various metabolic processes across species. However, little is known regarding the role of miRNAs in regulating goat milk composition. In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing to identify mammary gland-enriched miRNAs in lactating goats. We identified 30 highly expressed miRNAs in the mammary gland, including miR-103. Further studies revealed that miR-103 expression correlates with the lactation. Further functional analysis showed that over-expression of miR-103 in mammary gland epithelial cells increases transcription of genes associated with milk fat synthesis, resulting in an up-regulation of fat droplet formation, triglyceride accumulation, and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. This study provides new insight into the functions of miR-103, as well as the molecular mechanisms that regulate milk fat synthesis.

  8. FAT AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN HUMANS-A Study of Nutritional and Hormonal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J

    1960-09-01

    As an index to the rate of fat utilization in human subjects, the recovery of all radioactive carbon dioxide in the expired air was measured for one hour following intravenous injection of palmitate-1-C(14). In the normal fasted subject, about 10 per cent of the injected dose was recovered, and the proportion was lowered to about 5 per cent by administration of glucose. With prolonged fasting, the recovery of radioactive carbon dioxide did not change, despite a rising concentration of fatty acids in the serum. This was interpreted as due to the development of a balance between increasing mobilization and oxidation and was thought to indicate increasing fatty acid oxidation. In chronic undernutrition and diabetes mellitus there was increased fatty acid oxidation due presumably to adaptation to a chronic increase in fat utilization for energy. Administration of human growth hormone did not increase fat oxidation but prevented the usual inhibition produced by glucose. This was interpreted to mean that growth hormone increases fat utilization only indirectly by inhibiting the usual preferential utilization of glucose over fat.

  9. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate...... intensity. Lipolysis was assessed by glycerol release using microdialysis and blood flow measurement by 133Xe clearance technique. The FO women had lower resting EE than C (3.77 +/- 1.01 vs. 4.88 +/- 0.74 kJ/min, P tissue glycerol release was twice as high...

  10. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... – and broaden – the analysis at a later stage, when data are available for a longer period after the introduction of the fat tax....

  11. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  12. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  13. Fat and fed: frequent use of summer torpor in a subtropical bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    A widely held view is that torpor is avoided by mammals whenever possible because of potential costs associated with reduced body temperatures and slowed metabolic processes. We examined this hypothesis by quantifying use of torpor in relation to body condition of free-ranging northern long-eared bats ( Nyctophilus bifax, approximately 10 g), a species known to hibernate, from a subtropical region during the austral summer when insects were abundant. Temperature-telemetry revealed that bats used torpor on 85% of observation days and on 38% of all nights. Torpor bouts ranged from 0.7 to 21.2 h, but the relationship between duration of torpor bouts and ambient temperature was not significant. However, skin temperature of torpid bats was positively correlated with ambient temperature. Against predictions, individuals with a high body condition index (i.e., good fat/energy reserves) expressed longer and deeper torpor bouts and also employed torpor more often during the activity phase at night than those with low body condition index. We provide the first evidence that use of torpor in a free-ranging subtropical mammal is positively related with high body condition index. This suggests that employment of torpor is maximised and foraging minimised not because of food shortages or low energy stores but likely to avoid predation when bats are not required to feed.

  14. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Bredella, Miriam A

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (-100.1 to -46.7 HU vs -117.6 to -61.8 HU, P fat CSA (2.0-62.8 cm(2) vs 5.5-185.9 cm(2), P fat attenuation (r = -0.34 to -0.61, P = .03 to fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42-0.64, P = .007 to fat composition, with higher fat attenuation than that of control subjects, as well as low fat mass. VAT attenuation but not CSA is inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index, suggesting that fat attenuation may serve as a biomarker of prior and current disease status in AN.

  15. Belly Fat in Men: Why Weight Loss Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as fish and low-fat dairy products. Limit saturated fat, found in meat and high-fat dairy products, ... 61:262. Carlsson AC, et al. Prediction of cardiovascular disease by abdominal obesity measures is dependent on ...

  16. FAT10 level in human gastric cancer and its relation with mutant p53 level, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ji; Xi Jin; Chun-Hua Jiao; Qin-Wei Xu; Zi-Wei Wang; Yue-Liang Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of FAT10 and mutant p53 in the pathogenesis, severity and prognosis of gastric cancer. METHODS: FAT10, mutant p53 mRNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry in gastric cancer tissue ( n = 62), tumor-adjacent tissue ( n = 62) and normal gastric tissue ( n = 62). Relation of FAT10 and mutant p53 expression with clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients were analyzed. RESULTS: The FAT10, mutant p53 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in gastric cancer than in its adjacent and normal tissue. The FAT10 and mutant p53 levels in gastric cancer tissue were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) staging. Moreover, the high FAT10 level was associated with the overall survival rate of patients. Multivariate Cox-proportional hazards model analysis showed that mRNA and protein levels of FAT10 and mutant p53, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and TNM stage were the independent prognostic factors for gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: FAT10 may be involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and is a potential marker for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. FAT10 and mutant p53 may play a common role in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer.

  17. Fat discrimination: a phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lisa C H; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J; Chung, Wendy K; Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-01-18

    Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/different tests with Italian salad dressings that ranged in fat-by-weight content from 5 to 55%. Performance on this procedure was determined by tallying the number of trials in which a participant correctly identified the pair of samples as "same" or "different" across all test pairs (ranging from 1 to 7). Individuals who received the lowest scores on this task (≤3 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat non-discriminators (n=33) and those who received the highest scores (7 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat discriminators (n=59). These 2 groups were compared for the primary outcome variables: reported food intake, preferences, and adiposity. After adjusting for BMI, sex, age, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, fat non-discriminators reported greater consumption of both added fats and reduced fat foods (pFat non-discriminators also had greater abdominal adiposity compared to fat discriminators (pfat discrimination test (rho=0.53; pfat discrimination may serve as clinical research tool to identify participants who are at risk for obesity and other chronic diseases due to increased fat intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs. We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, or third (HF3 week, or for all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status.

  19. Effect of acute ethanol ingestion on fat absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquillon, M

    1976-12-01

    A test meal (300 mg casein, 600 mg sucrose, 100 mg corn oil, tracer dose of 9.10(3)H oleic acid) was given to fasting adult rats with intestinal lymph fistulas. One group received an acute oral dose of ethanol (3.2 g/kg body weight) simultaneously with the test meal. Controls received 2.5 ml of water instead of ethanol. Ingestion of ethanol temporarily delayed the removal of lipid radioactivity from the stomachs. More than 25% of radioactivity fed remained 8 hr after feeding whereas with control rats less than 10% of lipid radioactivity fed remained 6 hr after feeding. In controls and ethanol-treated rats, the amounts of exogenous lipids in the intestinal lumen and mucosa were low and similar enough. Quantities of endogenous and exogenous lipids found in the lymph collected during 24 hr after feeding were similar in the two groups, but the fat absorption peak was found after 6 hr in alcoholic rats and before 6 hr in controls. This delay was probably due to the retention of lipids in the stomach. More of the exogenous lipid was always transported by small particles moving in the region of alpha1 globulins in cellulose acetate electrophoresis than by larger particles remaining at the origin. This proportion was enhanced in the ethanol-treated animals. The larger fat particles were richer in endogenous fatty acids in alcohol-treated rats than in controls.

  20. High-fat diet alters gut microbiota physiology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hannelore; Gholami, Amin Moghaddas; Berry, David; Desmarchelier, Charles; Hahne, Hannes; Loh, Gunnar; Mondot, Stanislas; Lepage, Patricia; Rothballer, Michael; Walker, Alesia; Böhm, Christoph; Wenning, Mareike; Wagner, Michael; Blaut, Michael; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kuster, Bernhard; Haller, Dirk; Clavel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is known to regulate host energy homeostasis and can be influenced by high-calorie diets. However, changes affecting the ecosystem at the functional level are still not well characterized. We measured shifts in cecal bacterial communities in mice fed a carbohydrate or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks at the level of the following: (i) diversity and taxa distribution by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing; (ii) bulk and single-cell chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared- (FT-IR) and Raman micro-spectroscopy and (iii) metaproteome and metabolome via high-resolution mass spectrometry. High-fat diet caused shifts in the diversity of dominant gut bacteria and altered the proportion of Ruminococcaceae (decrease) and Rikenellaceae (increase). FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the impact of the diet on cecal chemical fingerprints is greater than the impact of microbiota composition. Diet-driven changes in biochemical fingerprints of members of the Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae were also observed at the level of single cells, indicating that there were distinct differences in cellular composition of dominant phylotypes under different diets. Metaproteome and metabolome analyses based on the occurrence of 1760 bacterial proteins and 86 annotated metabolites revealed distinct HF diet-specific profiles. Alteration of hormonal and anti-microbial networks, bile acid and bilirubin metabolism and shifts towards amino acid and simple sugars metabolism were observed. We conclude that a HF diet markedly affects the gut bacterial ecosystem at the functional level.

  1. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  2. Age-related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters ofArab stallions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AmalMAboEl-Maaty; GamalA ElSisy; MonaHShaker; OmimaH Ezzo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To study the effect of age and body fat on leptin levels and semen parameters of Arab horse.Methods:Fifteen fertileArab stallions of different ages belonging toPoliceAcademy were divided into three equal groups according to their age.Old horses are those of >18 yeas (18-27),Mid-age horses≥13 to18 years(13-18),Young horses are those of <12 years(7-11). Semen was evaluated three times for each stallion.Blood and seminal plasma were assayed for measuring leptin, testosterone and estradiol.Subcutaneous rump fat thickness was measured using ultrasound for estimating body fat percent and fat mass percent.Results:All body fat parameters were significantly high inYoung stallions and decreased with increasing age.As age increased, testosterone levels increases but leptin levels decreased.Age was inversely correlated with fat%, fat mass and leptin.All fat parameters had direct correlation with leptin in semen and serum but an inverse one with serum testosterone.Serum leptin directly correlated with sperm cell concentration inMid- age stallions and inversely correlated with percent of live sperm in Old stallions.Semen leptin correlated directly with both percent of live sperm and percent of abnormal sperm inOld stallions.Conclusion:This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin.Arab stallions of age7 to18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  3. The unified equation by the Proportion 19 (-1:3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoo Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As mankind is created in the image of a creator, the mathematical continuum is understandably connected, not by “Strings”, but by rational coordinates of mathematics. That is what this manuscript is all about; the rationalization of the natural expanse of mathematics and the stark reality of -1. The section on the mathematical PI (π clearly proves the -1 constriction of 4-1. Definition of the Unified Theorem: “The ascension and expansion of all space (and mass is curved, spiral and warped because of the -1 zero inverse primordial constriction of all space by -1. 4-(1 =+3. Bounded space is inverse at -1, a non-collapsible curve. The value of -1 is -1 for numbers and 0.5/60(1/120 for non-linear space. The minus 1 is manifested at proportion 19 as a composite of the of the values 9 and 10, both by numbers and prime angle (1:3. The proof of -1 is and has always been in the mathematical Pi (π, corrected trigonometry, and the spiral curved ascension of Prime numbers.” This proof is clearly stated under the section for the “mathematical Pi (π where the author has clearly proven -1 by theorem.” This manuscript has been preceded by several manuscripts on Prime numbers, -1 and Prime number 19 that show the unified mathematics as a consequence of a -1 Vedic zero, and the overall -1 ( 4-3 . As the treatise on the Unified Theorem, this is all written by simple theorem .This manuscript completely disregards current mathematical theory with regard to non- linear mathematics as irrelevant to mathematics. The clear assertion is that the -1 Vedic zeros is the correct zero, but that the current null zero is in error. The inverse curved value off-set of -1 is the value that precedes the +1 value, and it is clearly stated by this author that mathematically a curve cannot ever be collapsed to null. There is no logical compromise in this regard. Essentially and mathematically the author validates the primordial -1, and the absolute primordial value of

  4. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    ). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...... pressure were measured and maturity assessed according to Tanner. There were significant (P

  5. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet decreases lean mass and impairs cardiac function in pair-fed female C57BL/6J mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jessica; Ericsson, Madelene; Joibari, Masoumeh Motamedi; Anderson, Fredrick; Carlsson, Leif; Nilsson, Stefan K; Sjödin, Anna; Burén, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excess body fat is a major health issue and a risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. Low-carbohydrate diets like the Atkins Diet are popular for rapid weight loss, but the long-term consequences remain the subject of debate. The Scandinavian low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet, which has been popular in Scandinavian countries for about a decade, has very low carbohydrate content (~5 E %) but is rich in fat and includes a high proportion of saturated fatty ...

  6. Production of fats and oils by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Osamu

    1987-10-20

    This paper describes the production of fats and oils by microorganisms. Various fat-productive bacteria have been found to produce the fats and oils by microorganisms which are roughly classified into enzyme and filiform fungus. The cells do not proliferate under the conditions adequate for producing the cells with the high content of lipid. A cell with high content of fat belonging to Mortierella filamentas fungi has been recently obtained at high density in the high concentration culture medium. The productivity of the fat similar to cocoa butter seems to be also high. A lot of microorganisms producing various functional fatty acids have been found. The microorganismic production methods of esters of longer-chain dicarboxylic acids and alcohols than C/sub 11/ hardly produced in nature form n-alkane also have been recently developed. Squalene has been able to produce by a cell from the other raw materials than the shark oil. Various sterols exist in microorganisms. The high-productivity manufacturing method of the fats containing gamma-linoleic acid by Mortierella filiform fungi has been developed and commercialized as the first production process of the fat by the microorganism. (5 figs, 7 tabs, 128 refs

  7. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  8. Antecedents and consequences of expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuorila, H; Cardello, A V; Lesher, L L

    1994-12-01

    Hedonic and sensory expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat pound cake, crackers and American cheese were studied with 97 subjects divided into three subgroups, each testing one type of product. Four study phases were separated by 1-month intervals: (1) a questionnaire on demographics, dietary practices and consumption of the test products, (2) intensity ratings of sensory attributes and ratings of liking of unlabeled fat-free and regular-fat samples, (3) ratings of expected attribute intensities and liking in response to product labels of "fat-free" and "regular", and subsequent ratings of these samples and (4) phase 3 repeated with opposite (incorrect) labels. Fat-free products were expected to be less liked than their regular counterparts; however, only cheese was less liked in actual taste tests. Expected liking was best predicted by familiarity with the product and, in the case of fat-free products, by the extent to which a person substituted low-fat for high-fat foods. Actual liking was best predicted by the effect of labeling and by expectations. The expected intensities of sensory attributes were uniformly higher in regular than in fat-free products. Both sensory and hedonic ratings of labeled samples changed in the direction of expectations, as compared to baseline values, supporting an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on sensory perception and consumer acceptance.

  9. Not all fats are created equal: adipose vs. ectopic fat, implication in cardiometabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggini, Melania; Saponaro, Chiara; Gastaldelli, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ that acts not only as a fuel storage but also is able to secrete adipokines that can modulate inflammation. Most of the fat is composed of white adipocytes (WAT), although also brown/beige adipocytes (BAT/BeAT) have been found in humans. BAT is located close to the neck but also among WAT in the epicardial fat and perivascular fat. Adipocyte hypertrophy and infiltration of macrophages impair adipose tissue metabolism determining "adiposopathy" (i.e., sick fat) and increasing the risk to develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review was to search and discuss the available literature on the impact of different types of fat and fat distribution on cardiometabolic risk. Visceral fat, but also ectopic fat, either in liver, muscle and heart, can increase the risk to develop insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Results recently published showed that BAT could have an impact on cardiometabolic risk, not only because it is implicated in energy metabolism but also because it can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Therapeutical interventions that can increase energy expenditure, successfully change fat distribution and reduce ectopic fat, also through BAT activation, were discussed.

  10. Investigation of Hydrodeoxygenation of Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long......-chain alkanes. This would allow direct integration of biofuel production in existing refineries and allow use of feedstock with high amounts of free fatty acids (abattoir wastes, used fats, greases, etc.) [1], or even tall oils from the Kraft process [2]. The reaction network from oils and fats in H2 atmosphere...

  11. Fat embolism syndrome and pulmonary microvascular cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, X; Vallés, J; Cabezuelo, M A; Fernandez, R; Artigas, A

    1992-06-01

    Pulmonary microvascular cytology consists of analysis of capillary blood sampled while a Swan-Ganz catheter is in the wedge position. This technique has proved to be useful in the diagnosis of lymphangitic spread of carcinoma in the lungs and there are case reports of their use in amniotic fluid embolism. Its usefulness in diagnosing fat embolism syndrome has been shown only rarely. We report a new case in which pulmonary microvascular cytologic study allowed a definite diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. We suggest obtaining routinely samples of capillary blood when a pulmonary catheter is in place and fat embolism is suspected on a clinical basis.

  12. Low-fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil A; Marshall, Belinda J; Daley, Maxine; Boulos, Elie; Windus, Janelle; Baker, Nadine; Kwok, Nigel

    2011-02-16

    Hypercholesterolaemia, characterised by raised blood cholesterol levels, is not a disease itself but a metabolic derangement that often contributes to many diseases, notably cardiovascular disease. In most cases, elevated cholesterol levels are associated with high-fat diet, especially saturated fat, coupled with an inactive lifestyle. Less commonly, raised cholesterol may be related to an inherited disorder, familial hypercholesterolaemia. This systematic review is only concerned with acquired hypercholesterolaemia. To assess the effects of low-fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia and to investigate the incidence of adverse effects from low-fat dietary interventions. We planned to compare the relative effectiveness of low-fat diets with calorie-restricted diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia. We also wanted to look into the relative effectiveness of low-fat diets and pharmacological interventions for acquired hypercholesterolaemia. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and databases of ongoing trials. Date of last search was February 2010. Otherwise healthy adults (equal to or greater than 18 years) with acquired (not familial) hypercholesterolaemia. We defined hypercholesterolaemia as either total cholesterol greater than 5.2 mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol greater than 3.0 mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol less than 1.0 mmol/L or a combination thereof, although investigators' definitions were also accepted. We wanted to include any low-fat dietary intervention, like low-fat and low-saturated fat diets, intended to lower serum total and LDL-cholesterol or to raise HDL-cholesterol. A low-fat diet was considered as a fat calorie intake less than 20% of the total calories. The minimum duration of the intervention had to be six months. We excluded studies in unhealthy people. Two authors were planned to independently assess risk of bias and extract data. No study met our inclusion criteria. Well designed, adequately

  13. Age–related rump fat, fat percent, body fat mass, leptin, androgens and semen parameters of Arab stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. Abo El-Maaty

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study proved that aging in stallions is related to a drop in fertility, a decrease in body fat and in turn leptin. Arab stallions of age 7 to 18 years could be used in the breeding efficiently.

  14. Subcutaneous adipose cell size and distribution: relationship to insulin resistance and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, T; Lamendola, C; Coghlan, N; Liu, T C; Lerner, K; Sherman, A; Cushman, S W

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic heterogeneity among obese individuals may be attributable to differences in adipose cell size. We sought to clarify this by quantifying adipose cell size distribution, body fat, and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in overweight to moderately-obese individuals. A total of 148 healthy nondiabetic subjects with BMI 25-38 kg/m2 underwent subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose uptake with steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations during the modified insulin suppression test. Cell size distributions were obtained with Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Primary endpoints included % small adipose cells and diameter of large adipose cells. Cell-size and metabolic parameters were compared by regression for the whole group, according to insulin-resistant (IR) and insulin-sensitive (IS) subgroups, and by body fat quintile. Both large and small adipose cells were present in nearly equal proportions. Percent small cells was associated with SSPG (r = 0.26, P = 0.003). Compared to BMI-matched IS individuals, IR counterparts demonstrated fewer, but larger large adipose cells, and a greater proportion of small-to-large adipose cells. Diameter of the large adipose cells was associated with % body fat (r = 0.26, P = 0.014), female sex (r = 0.21, P = 0.036), and SSPG (r = 0.20, P = 0.012). In the highest versus lowest % body fat quintile, adipose cell size increased by only 7%, whereas adipose cell number increased by 74%. Recruitment of adipose cells is required for expansion of body fat mass beyond BMI of 25 kg/m2 . Insulin resistance is associated with accumulation of small adipose cells and enlargement of large adipose cells. These data support the notion that impaired adipogenesis may underlie insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  16. Effect of maize, rumen-protected fat and whey permeate on energy utilisation and milk fat composition in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of utilisation of diets with different proportions of energy sources (starch, fat, lactose was studied with three pairs of lactating Saanen goats; the animals were fed, in a Latin square design, 3 silage-based diets containing (on DM basis the following energy sources: 32% maize meal (diet M; 4.7% rumen-protected fat (Megalac® and 23.5% maize meal (diet F; 9.8% milk whey permeate powder and 22.3% maize meal (diet W. During each of the three experimental periods, 8 days of total collection balance trials were conducted during which goats were allocated for 72 h (three 24 h cycles in open circuit respiration chambers to determine methane and heat production and, hence, the energy balance. Diet F, in comparison with diets M and W, significantly increased the milk fat content (4.13 vs 3.11 and 3.14%, P<0.001 and the 4%-FCM yield (3367 vs 2927 and 3055 g/d, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, while no relevant changes were observed for milk protein content and yield. Energy digestibility was equal in diets F and W. Megalac® did not decrease fibre digestibility. The partition of the gross energy intake (EI differed significantly between diets: diet M had lower DE (72.4 vs 74.3 and 74.3%; P<0.01 and ME (62.1 vs 64.7 and 63.5%; P<0.05 in comparison with diets F and W, respectively. Energy lost as methane was not significantly decreased by the inclusion of rumen- protected fat in the diet, although a trend for a reduction of methanogenesis was observed. Heat production deter- mined by treatment F was lower in comparison with the other treatments. This difference was almost significant (P=0.056 when expressed as a percentage of the ME. Milk energy output increased significantly (+12%, P<0.001 by including fat in the diet, as compared with treatments M and W: 21.4 vs 19.1 and 19.0% of the EI. The net ener- gy content of the protected fat was 27.94 MJ NEl/kg DM (+340% vs maize meal; its kl value resulted 0.77. The corresponding values for whey

  17. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  18. Impact of Nonoptimal Intakes of Saturated, Polyunsaturated, and Trans Fat on Global Burdens of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianyi; Afshin, Ashkan; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Singh, Gitanjali M; Rehm, Colin D; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Shi, Peilin; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-20

    Saturated fat (SFA), ω-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and trans fat (TFA) influence risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but attributable CHD mortalities by country, age, sex, and time are unclear. National intakes of SFA, n-6 PUFA, and TFA were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical model based on country-specific dietary surveys; food availability data; and, for TFA, industry reports on fats/oils and packaged foods. Etiologic effects of dietary fats on CHD mortality were derived from meta-analyses of prospective cohorts and CHD mortality rates from the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases study. Absolute and proportional attributable CHD mortality were computed using a comparative risk assessment framework. In 2010, nonoptimal intakes of n-6 PUFA, SFA, and TFA were estimated to result in 711 800 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 680 700-745 000), 250 900 (95% UI 236 900-265 800), and 537 200 (95% UI 517 600-557 000) CHD deaths per year worldwide, accounting for 10.3% (95% UI 9.9%-10.6%), 3.6%, (95% UI 3.5%-3.6%) and 7.7% (95% UI 7.6%-7.9%) of global CHD mortality. Tropical oil-consuming countries were estimated to have the highest proportional n-6 PUFA- and SFA-attributable CHD mortality, whereas Egypt, Pakistan, and Canada were estimated to have the highest proportional TFA-attributable CHD mortality. From 1990 to 2010 globally, the estimated proportional CHD mortality decreased by 9% for insufficient n-6 PUFA and by 21% for higher SFA, whereas it increased by 4% for higher TFA, with the latter driven by increases in low- and middle-income countries. Nonoptimal intakes of n-6 PUFA, TFA, and SFA each contribute to significant estimated CHD mortality, with important heterogeneity across countries that informs nation-specific clinical, public health, and policy priorities. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  20. Fat lowers fat: purified phospholipids as emerging therapies for dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-04-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. In spite of the proven efficacy of statin drugs in reducing CHD burden, there is still much room for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents to address the considerable residual cardiovascular risk that remains after treatment with currently available medications. In particular, there is an urgent demand for drugs capable of boosting the concentration and/or function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), thereby promoting reverse cholesterol transport. Phospholipids are naturally occurring fats that play indispensible role in human health via their structural, energy storage, signal transduction and metabolic functions. Supplementation with either purified or mixed preparations of bioactive phospholipids has been reported to ameliorate a range of nutritional and cardiovascular disorders. Moreover, several lines of evidence have supported the efficacy of dietary phospholipids in reducing serum and hepatic contents of cholesterol and triglycerides, while increasing HDL-C and apo A-I levels. These beneficial effects of phospholipids could be attributed to their ability in reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption, enhancing biliary cholesterol excretion and modulating the expression and activity of transcriptional factors and enzymes that are involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Given their extreme safety and biocompatibility, dietary supplementation with phospholipid preparations, in particular phosphatidylinositol, appears as a novel and effective strategy that could be used as an alternative or adjunctive therapy to the current medications. The present review outlines the in-vitro, in-vivo and clinical findings on the anti-dyslipidemic effects of three most abundant phospholipids in the human body and diet namely phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol.