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Sample records for high-alumina ramming mixture

  1. High alumina refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simao, L.C.; Lopes, A.B.; Galvao Filho, N.B.; Souza, R.B. de

    1989-01-01

    High alumina refractories with 92 to 96.5% Al 2 O 3 were produced using brown and white fused as aggregate. Those refractories present only alumina-α and mullite as crystalline mineralogical phase. Other physical and chemical characteristics are similar to the ones found in refractories produced in Brazil, Japan and U.S.A. The most important physical and chemical tests used for the characterization of the raw materials and refractories, complemented by those realized at high temperatures, plus X-ray Difractometry and optical microscopy are presented, besides the refractory formulation and main parameters of production [pt

  2. Memoria RAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Suárez, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The present study intends to open a new theoretical means of analysis within the field of comparative memories. Through the metaphorical designation of RAM memory we will try to observe the continuous circulation of social discourses related to the collective memory of a particular community. Thi...

  3. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  4. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  5. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  6. Performance and carcass characteristics of Yankasa ram fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me ... and 50% maize and wheat offal mixture, were better when compared to the control (B0) and other test diet in terms of performance and carcass characteristics. ... Key words: Performance, carcass, biscuit waste, Yankasa ram.

  7. SQL-RAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Victor O.; Casey, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    SQL-RAMS (where "SQL" signifies Structured Query Language and "RAMS" signifies Rocketdyne Automated Management System) is a successor to the legacy version of RAMS -- a computer program used to manage all work, nonconformance, corrective action, and configuration management on rocket engines and ground support equipment at Stennis Space Center. The legacy version resided in the File-Maker Pro software system and was constructed in modules that could act as standalone programs. There was little or no integration among modules. Because of limitations on file-management capabilities in FileMaker Pro, and because of difficulty of integration of FileMaker Pro with other software systems for exchange of data using such industry standards as SQL, the legacy version of RAMS proved to be limited, and working to circumvent its limitations too time-consuming. In contrast, SQL-RAMS is an integrated SQL-server-based program that supports all data-exchange software industry standards. Whereas in the legacy version, it was necessary to access individual modules to gain insight into a particular workstatus document, SQL-RAMS provides access through a single-screen presentation of core modules. In addition, SQL-RAMS enables rapid and efficient filtering of displayed statuses by predefined categories and test numbers. SQL-RAMS is rich in functionality and encompasses significant improvements over the legacy system. It provides users the ability to perform many tasks, which in the past required administrator intervention. Additionally, many of the design limitations have been corrected, allowing for a robust application that is user centric.

  8. Distribution and occurrence of lithium in high-alumina-coal fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Pengpeng; Hou, Xinjuan; Zhang, Jianbo

    2018-01-01

    the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method indicated that Li occurred in Q3(0Al) and Q3(1Al) structures by reacting with Q4(0Al) and Q4(1Al). Based on the experimental and simulation results, we propose extracting Li during the pre-desilication process by dissolving the glass phase.......High-alumina-coal fly ash (HAFA) with a high Li content is regarded as a potential resource for Li production. To support the development of Li recovery technology from HAFA, the distribution and modes of occurrence of Li in HAFA were investigated. HAFA was separated into magnetic particles, glass...

  9. Sharma, Dr Ram Swaroop

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1989 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Sharma, Dr Ram Swaroop Ph.D. (Basel), FNA. Date of birth: 10 July 1937. Specialization: Metamorphic Petrology, Mineralogy and Precambrian Geology Address: 70/36, Pratapnagar, Sector 7, Sanganer (RHB), Jaipur 302 033, Rajasthan

  10. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  11. Laser-propelled ram accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasoh, A. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science

    2000-11-01

    The concept of 'laser-propelled ram accelerator (L-RAMAC)' is proposed. Theoretically it is capable of achieving a higher launch speed than that by a chemical ram accelerator because a higher specific energy can be input to the propellant gas. The laser beam is supplied through the muzzle, focused as an annulus behind the base of the projectile. The performance of L-RAMAC is analized based on generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relations, suggesting that a superorbital muzzle speed is achievable out of this device. (orig.)

  12. A RAM: Realidade e Utopia

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carlos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Evoluções tecnológicas recentes, nomeadamente em matéria de electrónica e de informática, e a busca de conceitos operacionais adaptados às novas tecnologias estão a revolucionar a arte da guerra. O êxito da “Tempestade no Deserto”, em 1991 e das sucessivas intervenções militares dos EUA nos anos seguintes mais reforçaram a ideia de que se estava perante uma verdadeira revolução – É a Revolução nos Assuntos Militares (RAM). Na realidade, a RAM é um fenómeno comple...

  13. Mohan Ram, Prof. Holenarasipur Yoganarasimham

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Ram, Prof. Holenarasipur Yoganarasimham Ph.D. (Delhi), FNA, FNASc, FNAAS Council Service: 1983-88; Vice-President: 1986-88. Date of birth: 24 September 1930. Specialization: Plant Growth & Development and Economic Botany Address: No. 174, SFS DDA Flats, Mukherjee Nagar, Delhi 110 009, U.T.

  14. Time-bin quantum RAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, E. S.; Moiseev, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have proposed a compact scheme of quantum random access memory (qRAM) based on the impedance matched multi-qubit photon echo quantum memory incorporated with the control four-level atom in two coupled QED cavities. A set of matching conditions for basic physical parameters of the qRAM scheme that provides an efficient quantum control of the fast single photon storage and readout has been found. In particular, it has been discovered that the efficient qRAM operations are determined by the specific properties of the excited photonic molecule coupling the two QED cavities. Herein, the maximal efficiency of the qRAM is realized when the cooperativity parameter of the photonic molecule equals to unity that can be experimentally achievable. We have also elaborated upon the new quantum address scheme where the multi-time-bin photon state is used for the control of the four-level atom during the readout of the photonic qubits from the quantum memory. The scheme reduces the required number of logical elements to one. Experimental implementation by means of current quantum technologies in the optical and microwave domains is also discussed.

  15. Nepheline Crystallization in Nuclear Waste Glasses: Progress toward acceptance of high-alumina formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Vienna, John D.

    2011-01-01

    We have critically compiled and analyzed historical data for investigating the quantity of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) precipitation as a function of composition in simulated nuclear waste glasses. To understand composition we used two primary methods: (1) investigating the Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O ternary with filtering for different B2O3 levels and (2) creating a quadrant system consisting of compositions reduced to two metric numbers. These metrics are (1) the nepheline discriminator (ND) which depends only on the SiO2 content by weight normalized to the total weight of the Al2O3-SiO2-Na2O sub-mixture and (2) the optical basicity (OB) which contains contributions from all constituents in the glass. Nepheline precipitation is expected to be suppressed at high SiO2 levels (ND >0.62) or at low basicities (OB 5 wt% B2O3. The OB concept can help further refine regions of nepheline-free glass formation.

  16. HyRAM Testing Script.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, Owen

    2014-12-01

    The testing script is to provide a method of inspections to HyRAM (v1.0.0.244 Alpha) application features. This document will lead participants through the use of the application to make sure the application performs as designed. If a feature of the application becomes non-working, this script will relay useful information back to the designers of the application so that the feature can be fixed. This is essential to keep the application updated and performing as designed so that the users of this program can be satisfied. There will be frequent updates of this document to ensure proper testing of future application versions.

  17. Ram and Buck Breeding Soundness Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TIBARY

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Male breeding soundness examination (BSE is an important component of sheep and goat farming. BSE is best performed 2 months before the breeding season and is based on clinical and physical examination as well as sperm abnormalities detection. Rams are classified based on physical examination and semen evaluation finding in one of 4 categories: Unsatisfactory, questionable, satisfactory, and excellent. The satisfactory rams will achieve good reproductive performance if joined to ewes at a ratio of 1:50 for 60 days. However exceptional rams are expected to achieve good reproductive performance at a ratio of 1 ram to 100 ewes. For Buck, scrotal circumference should be at least 25 cm for breeds weighing more than 40 kg. Buck is deemed satisfactory breeder if he passes the physical examination, and has an ejaculate with at least 50% progressively motile spermatozoa and less than 30% total sperm abnormalities. This paper reviews factors affecting fertility, sperm production and quality as well as libido and mating ability in the ram. Details of genital examination and semen evaluation and interpretation of results are discussed. Classification of rams according to their reproductive potential is presented. Specific recommendations, when available for the buck, are highlighted. The main genital diseases are presented. The most frequent culling reason for ram is epididymitis due to Brucella ovis. Systematic culling of rams with epididymitis improves flock lambing rates by 10 to 15%. Overall, the examination of the reproductive capacity in the ram and the buck is an important tool for improvement of flocks/herds fertility and prevention of contagious or hereditary diseases.

  18. Energy-Saving RAM-Power Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Alan Roy

    1987-01-01

    Reverse-flow HEXFET(R) minimizes voltage drop and power dissipation. HEXFET(R) scheme reduces voltage drop by approximately 80 percent. Design for power tap for random-access memory (RAM) has potential application in digital systems.

  19. RAMS (Risk Analysis - Modular System) methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Strenge, D.L.; Buck, J.W. [and others

    1996-10-01

    The Risk Analysis - Modular System (RAMS) was developed to serve as a broad scope risk analysis tool for the Risk Assessment of the Hanford Mission (RAHM) studies. The RAHM element provides risk analysis support for Hanford Strategic Analysis and Mission Planning activities. The RAHM also provides risk analysis support for the Hanford 10-Year Plan development activities. The RAMS tool draws from a collection of specifically designed databases and modular risk analysis methodologies and models. RAMS is a flexible modular system that can be focused on targeted risk analysis needs. It is specifically designed to address risks associated with overall strategy, technical alternative, and `what if` questions regarding the Hanford cleanup mission. RAMS is set up to address both near-term and long-term risk issues. Consistency is very important for any comparative risk analysis, and RAMS is designed to efficiently and consistently compare risks and produce risk reduction estimates. There is a wide range of output information that can be generated by RAMS. These outputs can be detailed by individual contaminants, waste forms, transport pathways, exposure scenarios, individuals, populations, etc. However, they can also be in rolled-up form to support high-level strategy decisions.

  20. Progress of ram acceleration with ISL's RAMAC 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, F.; Patz, G.; Smeets, G.; Srulijes, J. [French-German Res. Inst., Saint-Louis (France)

    2000-11-01

    G. Smeets (1988) published a new concept for a ram accelerator with guiding tube rails for firing rail stabilized projectiles. This concept replaces fin stabilized projectiles accelerated in a cylindrical bore. The rail tube idea offers some advantages, e.g., no sabot is necessary as required for fin guided projectiles, simple projectile geometry, and possibility of varying the inner tube geometry. This principle was tested in 1993 and 1994 in rail tube version I and is now again under investigation since the beginning of 1997 in our RAMAC 30 in version II. In the rail tube concept, circular and finless projectiles are guided in a ram-tube equipped with five inner rails. At the moment we use a ram-section with a length of about 4.8 meters. A conventional powder gun serves as pre-accelerator. In the gun tube with a length of 2.8 meters, projectiles of about 150 grams are accelerated to a muzzle velocity of approximately 1800 m/s which is the initial velocity at the entrance of the ram-section. For successful operating a ram accelerator, the heat release must be limited to avoid ''thermal choking'' followed by an ''unstart''. This choking phenomenon will be investigated in detail in this paper from the gasdynamic point of view in order to predict the right mixture for the given flow conditions around the ram projectile. Moreover, to avoid a firing failure, the material point of view must also be considered. Some recent firings have been done using aluminium, titanium and steel as test materials and its behaviour is discussed herein in detail. The first outcome is for example, for a given projectile geometry and a given gas mixture with a steel cowling no ignition occurs, whereas with aluminium or titanium as combustor surface material the ignition starts well followed by a projectile acceleration. (orig.)

  1. FPS-RAM: Fast Prefix Search RAM-Based Hardware for Forwarding Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Koji; Kuroda, Yasuto; Inoue, Kazunari; Ata, Shingo; Oka, Ikuo

    Ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) is becoming very popular for designing high-throughput forwarding engines on routers. However, TCAM has potential problems in terms of hardware and power costs, which limits its ability to deploy large amounts of capacity in IP routers. In this paper, we propose new hardware architecture for fast forwarding engines, called fast prefix search RAM-based hardware (FPS-RAM). We designed FPS-RAM hardware with the intent of maintaining the same search performance and physical user interface as TCAM because our objective is to replace the TCAM in the market. Our RAM-based hardware architecture is completely different from that of TCAM and has dramatically reduced the costs and power consumption to 62% and 52%, respectively. We implemented FPS-RAM on an FPGA to examine its lookup operation.

  2. RAMS data collection under Arctic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabadi, Abbas; Tobias Gudmestad, Ove; Barabady, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Reliability, availability, maintainability and supportability analysis is an important step in the design and operation of production processes and technology. Historical data such as time between failures and time to repairs play an important role in such analysis. The data must reflect the conditions that equipment has experienced during its operating time. To have a precise understanding of the conditions experienced, all influence factors on the failure and repair processes of a production facility in Arctic environment need to be identified and collected in the database. However, there is a lack of attention to collect the effect of influence factors in the reliability, availability, maintainability and supportability database. Hence, the aim of this paper is to discuss the challenges of the available methods of data collection and suggest a methodology for data collection considering the effect of environmental conditions. Application of the methodology will make the historical RAMS data of a system more applicable and useful for the design and operation of the system in different types of operational environments. - Highlights: • The challenges related to use of the available RAMS data is discussed. • It is important to collect information about operational condition in RAMS data. • A methodology for RAMS data collection considering environment condition is suggested. • Information about influence factors will make the result of RAMS analysis more applicable

  3. Using Oblivious RAM in Genomic Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karvelas, Nikolaos P.; Peter, Andreas; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Navarro-Aribas, Guillermo; Hartenstein, Hannes; Herrera-Joancomarti, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Since the development of tree-based Oblivious RAMs by Shi et al. it has become apparent that privacy preserving outsourced storage can be practical. Although most current constructions follow a client-server model, in many applications, such as Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), it is desirable

  4. National RAM transport regulations implementation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief review is given of the main provisions of the state regulation and safety assurance of RAM transport in Russia. This appears to be useful to various persons and organisations abroad, concerned with such transport in Russia. Two aspects of the system are presented - regulatory documents (normative-technical documentation) and regulatory and control activities of state organisations. (Author)

  5. Rumenolith formation in a Bapedi ram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda Leask

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During a routine flock visit, a farmer observed that one of the eight tooth Bapedi rams had been losing body condition despite being separated from the flock and fed supplementary feed. The ram’s body condition score was assessed as 2 out of 5 (one point less than the average of the rest of the rams and the teeth appeared normal with no excessive wear. The rumen was assessed by auscultation, palpation and ballottement where a foreign body (approximately 20 cm × 5 cm – 10 cm was clearly palpated and ballotted. A rumenotomy was performed and a large mass of tightly compacted foreign matter and plant material was removed. The mass consisted of synthetic fibre, plant material and calcium phosphate (50.5%. It appeared to have formed as the result of the ingestion of a synthetic fibre which formed the nidus of a concretion. This was probably the result of deficient nutrition, with the rams eating the synthetic fibre in an attempt to increase feed intake. The ram recovered uneventfully after the rumenotomy was performed and supplementary feeding.

  6. Perfectly Secure Oblivious RAM without Random Oracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm for implementing a secure oblivious RAM where the access pattern is perfectly hidden in the information theoretic sense, without assuming that the CPU has access to a random oracle. In addition we prove a lower bound on the amount of randomness needed for implementing...

  7. Semen Characteristics of the West African Dwarf Rams in The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WAD) rams in Makurdi. Semen samples were collected from five rams twice a week by electroejaculation method over a period of two months (September to October). The ejaculate volume, concentration, mass activity, progressive motility, the ...

  8. Alpha particle induced soft errors in NMOS RAMs: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, P.M.; Wilkins, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper aims to explain the alpha particle induced soft error phenomenon using the NMOS dynamic random access memory (RAM) as a model. It discusses some of the many techniques experimented with by manufacturers to overcome the problem, and gives a review of the literature covering most aspects of soft errors in dynamic RAMs. Finally, the soft error performance of current dynamic RAM and static RAM products from several manufacturers are compared. (author)

  9. Parental Sources of High-Alumina Alkaline Melts: Nd, Sr, Pb, and O Isotopic Evidence from the Devonian Kiya-Shaltyr Gabbro-Urtite Intrusion, South Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Gertner, I. F.; Chugaev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The isotope geochemistry (ɛNd( t) 4.8-5.4, 206Pb/204Pb in 18.05-18.36, 207Pb/204Pbin 15.53-15.57, 208Pb/204Pb in 37.59-37.83, 87Sr/86Sr( t) 0.7048-0.7057, δ18OSMOW 8-10.5‰) and trace element composition of the Kiya-Shaltyr gabbro-urtite pluton allow us to suggest a heterogeneous source and complex geodynamic settings of the Devonian alkali magmatism in the Kuznetsk Alatau. It is assumed that its evolution took place under conditions of partial mingling of matter of the depleted (PREMA) and enriched (EM) mantle with crustal contamination of the evolving melt. Such an interaction could have been a result of superposition of a mantle plume and an active margin (OIB and IAB components). In fold belts this led to the formation of hybrid high-alumina foidoite magmas.

  10. A comparison of RAM importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.; Wolford, A.J.; Wright, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper measures of importance of components and cut sets of a system are reviewed. The measures considered are based on reliability, availability, and maintainability, the three elements of the acronym RAM. They follow the approaches of Fussell and Vesely and of Birnbaum. A new Birnbaum-type unmaintainability importance measure is proposed. The measures are compared in a simple example, and the appropriate use of unmaintainability importance is discussed

  11. Design of a ram accelerator mass launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Michael; Armerding, Calvin; Berschauer, Andrew; Christofferson, Erik; Clement, Paul; Gohd, Robin; Neely, Bret; Reed, David; Rodriguez, Carlos; Swanstrom, Fredrick

    1988-01-01

    The ram accelerator mass launch system has been proposed to greatly reduce the costs of placing acceleration-insensitive payloads into low earth orbit. The ram accelerator is a chemically propelled, impulsive mass launch system capable of efficiently accelerating relatively large masses from velocities of 0.7 km/sec to 10 km/sec. The principles of propulsion are based on those of a conventional supersonic air-breathing ramjet; however the device operates in a somewhat different manner. The payload carrying vehicle resembles the center-body of the ramjet and accelerates through a stationary tube which acts as the outer cowling. The tube is filled with premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixtures that burn in the vicinity of the vehicle's base, producing a thrust which accelerates the vehicle through the tube. This study examines the requirement for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500 km circular orbit with a minimum amount of on-board rocket propellant for orbital maneuvers. The goal is to achieve a 50 pct payload mass fraction. The proposed design requirements have several self-imposed constraints that define the vehicle and tube configurations. Structural considerations on the vehicle and tube wall dictate an upper acceleration limit of 1000 g's and a tube inside diameter of 1.0 m. In-tube propulsive requirements and vehicle structural constraints result in a vehicle diameter of 0.76 m, a total length of 7.5 m and a nose-cone half angle of 7 degrees. An ablating nose-cone constructed from carbon-carbon composite serves as the thermal protection mechanism for atmospheric transit.

  12. Effect of breed and age on sexual behaviour of rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Deligeorgis, Stelios G; Bizelis, Joseph A

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to highlight the problems that arise during the reproduction between thin-tailed rams and fat-tailed ewes. At the same time, particular emphasis laid on the influence of sheep breed, sheep age, time after ram introduction and day of the ewe estrus cycle on ram and ewe sexual behaviour. Rams were subjected to sexual performance tests by being individually exposed to 12 ewes for 3 h daily, 19 consecutive days. The 16 rams of the experiment were separated according to their age (9 and 21 months old) and breed (Chios and Karagouniki), and the 96 ewes of Chios fat-tailed breed, were divided by age (9 and 21 months old). The main characteristics of courtship behaviour, like sniffing, nudging, flehmen response and following were recorded and studied in detail. Mature Chios rams, which were the only one with previous experience of Chios ewes, exhibited higher rates of sexual interest per ewe than the other rams (P nudged more young than mature ewes (P behaviour when they courted with Chios fat-tailed ewes in comparison with Chios rams (P behaviour components decreased (P < 0.001). Finally, the effect of the day of the experiment was only significant in the case of sniffing, which increased during the first 2 days and then declined and stabilized (P < 0.01). As it was demonstrated, ram age and ram breed played a fundamental role in the exhibition of sexual interest elements.

  13. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  14. Effects of Agricultural Byproducts in Ration on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Saidi Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Megahed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of selected agricultural byproducts supplementation to feed rations on the ram's body gain, reproductive performance, and subsequent fertility were investigated. Forty Saidi rams were divided into 4 groups (n = 10. Group 1 (control was fed 500 g/head/day concentrate feed mixtures (CFM plus wheat straw ad libitum. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed 500 g/head/day CFM plus corn cobs or sugar cane tops or sugar cane bagasse (these roughages were treated with 1% urea, respectively. Serum testosterone, glucose and total cholesterol levels were determined and semen evaluations were carried out every 15 days. Testicular size, scrotal circumference and body weight were recorded each month. At the end of the experiment, 12 rams were allowed to mount 114 healthy ewes to evaluate the pregnancy rate for each group. The results have shown that the body weight, daily body gain, testicular size and scrotal circumference increased (p p p < 0.01 as compared with group 1 (1.76 ± 0.09 ng/ml. Moreover, supplementation of treated agricultural byproducts had a significant improving effects on the semen quality. The semen volume increased, along with individual motility and live sperm percentages. Pregnancy rate in this study indicated that rams of groups 2, 3 and 4 yielded a higher pregnancy rate (83.33%, 86.67% and 81.48%, respectively than group 1 (74.07%. Agricultural byproducts such as corn cobs, sugar cane tops and sugar cane bagasse treated with 1% urea had a beneficial effect on the daily body gain and improved the reproductive performance and subsequent fertility of Saidi rams, compared to wheat straw.

  15. RAM-efficient external memory sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Thorup, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a large number of problems have been considered in external memory models of computation, where the complexity measure is the number of blocks of data that are moved between slow external memory and fast internal memory (also called I/Os). In practice, however, internal memory time...... often dominates the total running time once I/O-efficiency has been obtained. In this paper we study algorithms for fundamental problems that are simultaneously I/O-efficient and internal memory efficient in the RAM model of computation....

  16. Radiation-hardened nonvolatile MNOS RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, T.F.; Dodson, W.H.; Hash, G.L.; Jones, R.V.; Nasby, R.D.; Olson, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation hardened nonvolatile MNOS RAM is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The memory organization is 128 x 8 bits and utilizes two p-channel MNOS transistors per memory cell. The peripheral circuitry is constructed with CMOS metal gate and is processed with standard Sandia rad-hard processing techniques. The devices have memory retention after a dose-rate exposure of 1E12 rad(Si)/s, are functional after total dose exposure of 1E6 rad(Si), and are dose-rate upset resistant to levels of 7E8 rad(Si)/s

  17. CEPRAM: Compression for Endurance in PCM RAM

    OpenAIRE

    González Alberquilla, Rodrigo; Castro Rodríguez, Fernando; Piñuel Moreno, Luis; Tirado Fernández, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    We deal with the endurance problem of Phase Change Memories (PCM) by proposing Compression for Endurance in PCM RAM (CEPRAM), a technique to elongate the lifespan of PCM-based main memory through compression. We introduce a total of three compression schemes based on already existent schemes, but targeting compression for PCM-based systems. We do a two-level evaluation. First, we quantify the performance of the compression, in terms of compressed size, bit-flips and how they are affected by e...

  18. Ferroelectric materials for FeRAMs; FeRAM yo kyoyudentai zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasaka, Y [NEC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Studies to utilize bistable spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric materials for non-volatile memory have already been started in the 1950`s. Recently, a possibility was indicated on a high-speed non-volatile RAM (FeRAM) with memory cell configuration combined with switching transistors as in DRAMs. This situation has led to performing very active studies on ferroelectric materials and electrode materials used in ferroelectric film cell capacitors. This paper summarizes the above research and development circumstances, as well as their future problems. On the other hand of having shown excellent fatigue resistance in the SrBi2Ta209(SBT) system, improvement has progressed steadily on the Pb(ZR, Ti)03 (abbreviated to PZT) system, which retains the mainstream position as the ferroelectric material for FeRAMs. Aiming at realizing a high integration FeRAM in the future will require discussions on property changes due to use of lower temperature and micronization in film formation, further improvement in relation with degradation such as in imprint, and elucidation of the mechanism. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  19. SeaRAM: an evaluation of the safety of RAM transport by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Sorenson, K.B.; Carter, M.H.; Keane, M.P.; Keith, V.F.; Heid, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    SeaRAM is a multi-year Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to validate the safety of shipping radioactive materials (RAM) by sea. The project has an ultimate goal of developing and demonstrating analytic tools for performing comprehensive analyses to evaluate the risks to humans and the environment due to sea transport of plutonium, vitrified high-level waste (VHLW), and spent fuel associated with reprocessing and research reactors. To achieve this end, evaluations of maritime databases and structural an thermal analyses of particular severe collision and fire accidents have been and will continue to be conducted. Program management for SeaRAM is based at the DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration. Technical activities for the project are being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Several private organizations are also involved in providing technical support, notably Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc. (ECO). The technical work performed for SeaRAM also supports DOE participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Program (CRP) entitled Accident Severity at Sea During Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper discusses activities performed during the first year of the project

  20. The Development of Male-Oriented Behavior in Rams

    OpenAIRE

    Roselli, Charles E.; Reddy, Radhika; Kaufman, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The sheep offers a unique mammalian model in which to study paradoxical same-sex sexual partner preferences. Variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously with as many as 8% of rams in a population exhibiting a sexual preference for other rams (male-oriented). The current review presents an overview and update of the male-oriented ram model and discusses several theories that have been invoked to explain same sex preferences in this species. Although our understanding of the bi...

  1. Membangun Sistem Linux Mandrake Minimal Menggunakan Inisial Disk Ram

    OpenAIRE

    Wagito, Wagito

    2006-01-01

    Minimal Linux system is commonly used for special systems like router, gateway, Linux installer and diskless Linux system. Minimal Linux system is a Linux system that use a few facilities of all Linux capabilities. Mandrake Linux, as one of Linux distribution is able to perform minimal Linux system. RAM is a computer resource that especially used as main memory. A part of RAM's function can be changed into disk called RAM disk. This RAM disk can be used to run the Linux system. This ...

  2. HyRAM V1.0 User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zumwalt, Hannah Ruth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Andrew Jordan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen Risk Assessment Models (HyRAM) is a prototype software toolkit that integrates data and methods relevant to assessing the safety of hydrogen fueling and storage infrastructure. The HyRAM toolkit integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing the impact of hydrogen hazards, including thermal effects from jet fires and thermal pressure effects from deflagration. HyRAM version 1.0 incorporates generic probabilities for equipment failures for nine types of components, and probabilistic models for the impact of heat flux on humans and structures, with computationally and experimentally validated models of various aspects of gaseous hydrogen release and flame physics. This document provides an example of how to use HyRAM to conduct analysis of a fueling facility. This document will guide users through the software and how to enter and edit certain inputs that are specific to the user-defined facility. Description of the methodology and models contained in HyRAM is provided in [1]. This User’s Guide is intended to capture the main features of HyRAM version 1.0 (any HyRAM version numbered as 1.0.X.XXX). This user guide was created with HyRAM 1.0.1.798. Due to ongoing software development activities, newer versions of HyRAM may have differences from this guide.

  3. THE EFFECT OF NANO-TITANIA ADDITION ON THE PROPERTIES OF HIGH-ALUMINA LOW-CEMENT SELF-FLOWING REFRACTORY CASTABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Otroj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The self-flow characteristics and properties of high-alumina low-cement refractory castables added with nano-titania particles are investigated. For this reason, the reactive alumina in the castable composition is substituted by nano-titania powder in 0-1 %wt. range. The microstructures, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of these refractory castables at different temperatures are studied. The results show that the addition of nano-titania particles has great effect on the self-flow characteristics, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of these refractory castables. With increase of nano-titania particles in castable composition, the self-flow value and working time tend to decrease. With addition of 0.5 wt.% nano-titania in the castable composition, the mechanical strength of castable in all firing temperatures tends to increase. It is attributed to the formation of CA6 phase and enhanced ceramic bonding. Nano-titania particles can act as a nucleating agent for hibonite phase and decrease the formation temperature of hibonite. Because of perovskite phase formation, the addition of 1 wt.% nano-titania can decrease the mechanical strength of castable after firing.

  4. The Effect of TiO₂ Doped Photocatalytic Nano-Additives on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland and High Alumina Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Nicolás, María; Navarro-Blasco, Íñigo; Fernández, José M; Alvarez, José Ignacio

    2017-10-14

    Mortars with two different binders (Portland cement (PC) and high alumina cement (HAC)) were modified upon the bulk incorporation of nano-structured photocatalytic additives (bare TiO₂, and TiO₂ doped with either iron (Fe-TiO₂) or vanadium (V-TiO₂)). Plastic and hardened state properties of these mortars were assessed in order to study the influence of these nano-additives. Water demand was increased, slightly by bare TiO₂ and Fe-TiO₂, and strongly by V-TiO₂, in agreement with the reduction of the particle size and the tendency to agglomerate. Isothermal calorimetry showed that hydration of the cementitious matrices was accelerated due to additional nucleation sites offered by the nano-additives. TiO₂ and doped TiO₂ did not show pozzolanic reactivity in the binding systems. Changes in the pore size distribution, mainly the filler effect of the nano-additives, accounted for the increase in compressive strengths measured for HAC mortars. A complex microstructure was seen in calcium aluminate cement mortars, strongly dependent on the curing conditions. Fe-TiO₂ was found to be homogeneously distributed whereas the tendency of V-TiO₂ to agglomerate was evidenced by elemental distribution maps. Water absorption capacity was not affected by the nano-additive incorporation in HAC mortars, which is a favourable feature for the application of these mortars.

  5. The Effect of TiO2 Doped Photocatalytic Nano-Additives on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland and High Alumina Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez-Nicolás

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mortars with two different binders (Portland cement (PC and high alumina cement (HAC were modified upon the bulk incorporation of nano-structured photocatalytic additives (bare TiO2, and TiO2 doped with either iron (Fe-TiO2 or vanadium (V-TiO2. Plastic and hardened state properties of these mortars were assessed in order to study the influence of these nano-additives. Water demand was increased, slightly by bare TiO2 and Fe-TiO2, and strongly by V-TiO2, in agreement with the reduction of the particle size and the tendency to agglomerate. Isothermal calorimetry showed that hydration of the cementitious matrices was accelerated due to additional nucleation sites offered by the nano-additives. TiO2 and doped TiO2 did not show pozzolanic reactivity in the binding systems. Changes in the pore size distribution, mainly the filler effect of the nano-additives, accounted for the increase in compressive strengths measured for HAC mortars. A complex microstructure was seen in calcium aluminate cement mortars, strongly dependent on the curing conditions. Fe-TiO2 was found to be homogeneously distributed whereas the tendency of V-TiO2 to agglomerate was evidenced by elemental distribution maps. Water absorption capacity was not affected by the nano-additive incorporation in HAC mortars, which is a favourable feature for the application of these mortars.

  6. Ramón Cote Baraibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gustavo Cobo Borda

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Hijo de poeta, como María Mercedes Carranza y Santiago Mutis, Ramón Cote nació en Cúcuta el 19 de mayo de 1963- Su primer libro fue publicado en 1984 por ediciones Arnao, de Madrid, donde se graduó en historia del arte en la Universidad Complutense. Al instalarse en Colombia, se dedicó a la publicidad. Ha publicado ensayos sobre poesía colombiana en revistas como ínsula, y en 1992, con el título de  |Diez de ultramar publicó una muestra de joven poesía latinoamericana que abarcaba nombres como José Luis Rivas, Coral Bracho, Raúl Zurita, Fabio Morabito, Yolanda Pantin y Eduardo Chirinos. Entre la nueva poesía colombiana, su voz es una de las más reconocibles. Vale la pena, entonces, repasar la totalidad de su trayectoria.

  7. Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

  8. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  9. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted eight (8) weeks was carried out to determine the intake and nutrient digestibility by growing Yankasa rams fed graded levels of Tamarindus indica leaves. Twelve Yankasa rams with average liveweight of 17.40kg were randomly allocated to three treatments of four replicates in a Randomized ...

  10. Seasonal variation in semen quality of Dorper rams using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in semen quality of Dorper rams using different collection ... libitum throughout the trial, and all rams being fed a 2.5 kg maintenance diet per day. ... quality collected by the AV versus the EE collection method was recorded.

  11. Design and verification of a self-timed RAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a self-timed static RAM. A single bit RAM is described in the design language SYNCHRONIZED TRANSITIONS and using the verification tools supporting this language, it is shown that the design is speed-independent. Furthermore, a transistor level implementation of the design...

  12. Radioactive material (RAM) accident/incident data analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerson, E.L.; McClure, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the development of the Radioactive Material Transportation Accident/Incident Data Base (RAM-AIDB), which contains information on the occurrences of transportation accidents and incidents, for radioactive materials (RAM) that are involved in the process of transportation, loading and unloading operation, or temporary storage. These transportation operations are in support of the nuclear fuel cycle for electrical energy generation. This study analyzes in some detail basic accident/incident statistical data, RAM packaging accident response data, and the health effects associated with RAM transport accidents/incidents. This report presents a summary of US RAM transport accident/incident experience for the period 1971 through December 1981. In addition, a sample annual summary of accident/incident experience is presented for the calendar year 1981

  13. De las Greguerias: Ah, Ramón, Ramón...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Navarro

    1964-11-01

    Full Text Available Yo me pregunto qué hará a hora Ramón detrás del biombo irreversible de la muerte. Me lo figuro de espaldas a la pared, con el rostro de simulada contrición y en las manos un blok sobre el que escribe eternamente, renglón tras renglón, las palabras de castigo: "No volveré a hacer burla de las cosas trascendentes". Lope, Quevedo, Goya, Solana y el Marqués de Bradomin, liberados ya de sus respectivos sambenitos en el tiempo metafísico de los muertos, intercederán por el castigado colocando en la terrible Balanza de los Cielos, a favor de Ramón, los libros ejemplares en que este habla de aquellos. Dirán al unísono: todos hablaron de mí, pero ninguno me conoció; solo Ramón.

  14. MEMBANGUN SISTEM LINUX MANDRAKE MINIMAL MENGGUNAKAN INISIAL DISK RAM

    OpenAIRE

    Wagito, Wagito

    2009-01-01

            Minimal Linux system is commonly used for special systems like router, gateway, Linux installer and diskless Linux system. Minimal Linux system is a Linux system that use a few facilities of all Linux capabilities. Mandrake Linux, as one of Linux distribution is able to perform minimal Linux system.         RAM is a computer resource that especially used as main memory. A  part of RAM’s function can be changed into disk called RAM disk. This RAM disk can be used to run the Linux syste...

  15. Recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Emilia; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2014-01-01

    No molecular cloning technique is considered universally reliable, and many suffer from being too laborious, complex, or expensive. Restriction-free cloning is among the simplest, most rapid, and cost-effective methods, but does not always provide successful results. We modified this method to enhance its success rate through the use of exponential amplification coupled with homologous end-joining. This new method, recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning, significantly extends the application of restriction-free cloning, and allows efficient vector construction with much less time and effort when restriction-free cloning fails to provide satisfactory results. The following modifications were made to the protocol:•Limited number of PCR cycles for both megaprimer synthesis and the cloning reaction to reduce error propagation.•Elimination of phosphorylation and ligation steps previously reported for cloning methods that used exponential amplification, through the inclusion of a reverse primer in the cloning reaction with a 20 base pair region of homology to the forward primer.•The inclusion of 1 M betaine to enhance both reaction specificity and yield. PMID:26150930

  16. The rapid mode of calcium uptake into heart mitochondria (RaM): comparison to RaM in liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntinas, L; Gunter, K K; Sparagna, G C; Gunter, T E

    2001-04-02

    A mechanism of Ca(2+) uptake, capable of sequestering significant amounts of Ca(2+) from cytosolic Ca(2+) pulses, has previously been identified in liver mitochondria. This mechanism, the Rapid Mode of Ca(2+) uptake (RaM), was shown to sequester Ca(2+) very rapidly at the beginning of each pulse in a sequence [Sparagna et al. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 27510-27515]. The existence and properties of RaM in heart mitochondria, however, are unknown and are the basis for this study. We show that RaM functions in heart mitochondria with some of the characteristics of RaM in liver, but its activation and inhibition are quite different. It is feasible that these differences represent different physiological adaptations in these two tissues. In both tissues, RaM is highly conductive at the beginning of a Ca(2+) pulse, but is inhibited by the rising [Ca(2+)] of the pulse itself. In heart mitochondria, the time required at low [Ca(2+)] to reestablish high Ca(2+) conductivity via RaM i.e. the 'resetting time' of RaM is much longer than in liver. RaM in liver mitochondria is strongly activated by spermine, activated by ATP or GTP and unaffected by ADP and AMP. In heart, RaM is activated much less strongly by spermine and unaffected by ATP or GTP. RaM in heart is strongly inhibited by AMP and has a biphasic response to ADP; it is activated at low concentrations and inhibited at high concentrations. Finally, an hypothesis consistent with the data and characteristics of liver and heart is presented to explain how RaM may function to control the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in each tissue. Under this hypothesis, RaM functions to create a brief, high free Ca(2+) concentration inside mitochondria which may activate intramitochondrial metabolic reactions with relatively small amounts of Ca(2+) uptake. This hypothesis is consistent with the view that intramitochondrial [Ca(2+)] may be used to control the rate of ADP phosphorylation in such a way as to minimize the probability of

  17. Atomistic mechanisms of ReRAM cell operation and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sumeet C.

    2018-01-01

    We present results from first-principles-based modeling that captures functionally important physical phenomena critical to cell materials selection, operation, and reliability for resistance-switching memory technologies. An atomic-scale description of retention, the low- and high-resistance states (RS), and the sources of intrinsic cell-level variability in ReRAM is discussed. Through the results obtained from density functional theory, non-equilibrium Green’s function, molecular dynamics, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations; the role of variable-charge vacancy defects and metal impurities in determining the RS, the LRS-stability, and electron-conduction in such RS is reported. Although, the statistical electrical characteristics of the oxygen-vacancy (Ox-ReRAM) and conductive-bridging RAM (M-ReRAM) are notably different, the underlying similar electrochemical phenomena describing retention and formation/dissolution of RS are being discussed.

  18. A fully operational 1-kb variable threshold Josephson RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, I.; Nakagawa, H.; Aoyagi, M.; Kosaks, S.; Takada, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the first fully operational Josephson RAM in LSI level integration. The chip was designed as a 4-b x 256-word data RAM unit for a 4-b Josephson computer, The variable threshold memory cell and the relating memory architecture were used. They are so simple in structure that the fabrication is satisfied by the current Josephson junction technology. A directly coupled driver gate for a resistive bit line applies an accurate and stable driving current to the memory cell array. The RAM chip was fabricated with a 3-μm Nb/Al-oxide/Nb junction technology. For obtaining reliable RAM chips, a plasma-enhanced CVD silicon dioxide layer was introduced for insulation between the ground plane and the base electrode. The thermal uniformity of the wafer was improved during the oxidation process for making a tunnel barrier in this work

  19. Study of seasonal sexual activity variations in Algerian rams: Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benia

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... testosterone in sheep, even for Rembi rams, in our .... Blood samples were then transported to the laboratory, centrifuged at 3000 rpm/min for 20 min. ... homogeneity of the data was assessed and conformed to the model.

  20. Proteomics analysis of ram sperm by heavy ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yuxuan; Li Hongyan; Zhang Hong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the proteome changes induced by heavy ion radiation using irradiated ram sperm by a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The 2D gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue. Differentially expressed proteins were detected by PDQuest 8.0 software and subjected to ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a surveyor HPLC system, and differential protein spots were identified. Results showed there are five differential protein spots in irradiated sperm gels, four up-regulated protein spots and one spot missed. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified to be two up-regulated proteins including enolase, and enolase 1. It was concluded there was proteome changes induced by heavy ion radiation in ram sperm, which may be useful to clarify the physiology state of ram sperm in heavy ion radiation and provide a theoretical basis for radiation ram breeding. (authors)

  1. Hydraulic ram analysis = Analyse du bélier hydraulique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspuy, C.; Tijsseling, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    A simple mathematical model describing the operation of a hydraulic ram is presented. Predictions of the model are compared with measurements done in an earlier stage of the project. The model is used to perform a parameter variation study.

  2. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  3. Radiation response of two Harris semiconductor radiation hardened 1k CMOS RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abare, W.E.; Huffman, D.D.; Moffett, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the testing of two types 1K CMOS static RAMs in various transient and steady state ionizing radiation environments. Type HM 6551R (256x4 bits) and type HM 6508R (1024x1 bit) RAMs were evaluated. The RAMs are radiation hardened versions of Harris' commercial RAMs. A brief description of the radiation hardened process is presented

  4. PREPARATION OF TEASER RAMS BY LATERAL DEVIATION OF PREPUCE AND PENIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahmad

    2003-01-01

    For oestrus detection in sheep while in flocks, limited exposure is given to rams with tied apron in front of their prepucial opening. For better and un-feared use of rams for oestrus detection and for effect of , ram exposure on postpartum reproductive characteristics of ewes, rams before the attainment of puberty and those sexually mature (adult rams) were operated for lateral deviation of prepuce and penis. The operations were successful, no post operative complications were recorded and t...

  5. Elastic moduli, damping and modulus of rupture changes in a high alumina refractory castable due to different types of thermal shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, A. H. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The work herein verifies the changes of the elastic moduli, damping and modulus of rupture (MOR of a high alumina refractory castable due to heating, cooling and heating-cooling thermal shock damage. Twelve prismatic specimens were prepared for the tests and divided into four groups. The thermal shocks were performed on three groups, each containing three specimens having abrupt temperature changes of 1100°C during heating in the first group, during cooling in the second and during heating followed by cooling in the third group. The fourth group, which was taken as a reference did not receive any thermal shock. The elastic moduli were measured after each thermal shock cycle. After 10 cycles, the MOR, the damping and the damping dependence on excitation amplitude were measured at room temperature for all specimens. The elastic moduli showed a similar decrease and the damping a similar increase due to the cooling and heating-cooling thermal shocks. The heating thermal shocks caused no significant changes on the elastic moduli and damping. However, the MOR appeared to be sensitive to the heating thermal shock. This work also shows that the damping for the studied refractory castable is non-linear (i.e., amplitude of excitation sensitive and that this non-linearity increases when the damage level rises.

    En este trabajo se investigaron las alteraciones de los módulos elásticos dinámicos, del amortiguamiento y del módulo de rotura (MOR de un material refractario moldeable de alta alúmina después de recibir choques térmicos de calentamiento, enfriamiento y calentamiento seguido de enfriamiento (calentamiento-enfriamiento. Para ello se prepararon doce cuerpos prismáticos dividiéndolos en cuatro grupos. Los choques térmicos se le aplicaron a sólo tres grupos, cada uno con tres muestras. Al primer grupo se le aplicó un cambio brusco de temperatura de 1100 °C en calentamiento, en enfriamiento al segundo grupo y calentamiento seguido

  6. Ram Pressure Stripping Made Easy: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, J.; Jáchym, P.; Taylor, R.; Palouš, J.

    2018-06-01

    The removal of gas by ram pressure stripping of galaxies is treated by a purely kinematic description. The solution has two asymptotic limits: if the duration of the ram pressure pulse exceeds the period of vertical oscillations perpendicular to the galactic plane, the commonly used quasi-static criterion of Gunn & Gott is obtained which uses the maximum ram pressure that the galaxy has experienced along its orbit. For shorter pulses the outcome depends on the time-integrated ram pressure. This parameter pair fully describes the gas mass fraction that is stripped from a given galaxy. This approach closely reproduces results from SPH simulations. We show that typical galaxies follow a very tight relation in this parameter space corresponding to a pressure pulse length of about 300 Myr. Thus, the Gunn & Gott criterion provides a good description for galaxies in larger clusters. Applying the analytic description to a sample of 232 Virgo galaxies from the GoldMine database, we show that the ICM provides indeed the ram pressures needed to explain the deficiencies. We also can distinguish current and past strippers, including objects whose stripping state was unknown.

  7. Grouting mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyusov, A A; Bakshutov, V S; Kulyavtsev, V A

    1980-10-23

    A grouting mixture is proposed for low-temperature boreholes. The mixture contains cement, beta gypsum polyhydrate, and calcium chloride, so as to increase the water resistance and strength properties of expanding brick at conditions from 20 to -5/sup 0/ C, the components are in the following ratios: (by wt.-%): cement, 77.45-88.06; beta gypsum polyhydrate, 9.79-19.36; calcium chloride, 2.15-3.19. Grouting mortar for cold boreholes serves as the cement.

  8. The Influence Of Loam Type And Cement Content On The Compressive Strength Of Rammed Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narloch P. L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a worldwide dynamic rise of interest in using soil as a construction material can be observed. This trend is evident in the rapid rise of the amount of standards that deal with soil techniques. In 2012 the number of standards was larger by one third than five years prior. To create a full standardization of the rammed earth technique it is necessary to take into account the diversity of used soil and stabilizing additives. The proportion of the components, the process of element production and the research methods must also be made uniform. The article describes the results of research on the compressive strength of rammed earth samples that differed from each other with regards to the type of loam used for the mixture and the amount of the stabilizer. The stabilizer used was Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. The research and the analysis of the results were based on foreign publications, the New Zealand standard NZS 4298:1998, the American Standard NMAC14.7.4 and archival Polish Standards from the 1960’s that dealt with earth material.

  9. Rational mapping (RAM) of in-core data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, R.A.; Kherani, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    A unique processing of in-core flux detector data is described and demonstrated, such that the detailed in-core power distribution can be derived with great accuracy by combining a speciall ''smoothed-out'' set of in-core data with neutron diffusion theory. Rational Mapping (RAM) is designed in such a way that erratic detector signals are recognized very efficiently and can be eliminated from the experimental data set: This is achieved by modal expansion of the difference between theoretical fluxes and experimental fluxes at the detector sites. Sensitivity studies have shown that RAM is quite stable, does not absorb the ''wild'' detector error in the mapping procedure, and results in mapped fluxes with errors about three times smaller than would be obtained by direct interpolation of detector readings. A new method is described to infer corrections to theoretical core parameters based on the difference between the RAM fluxes and the theoretical fluxes

  10. La Palabra de Ramón Frediani: Las Retenciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coser

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del programa "Prisma Económico" del Instituto de Economía y Finanzas (IEF, Marcelo Coser, su conductor, consulta al Profesor Ramón Osvaldo Frediani, docente de la asignatura “Economía Regional y Urbana” e investigadordel Instituto. Durante la nota, Ramón Frediani nos da sus conceptos sobre las debatidas retenciones y los propósitos que éstas persiguen, brindando su visión respecto al accionar del Gobierno Nacional.

  11. RAM R-200 - A Portable Ruggedized Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Mazor, T.; Assido, H.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.; Shani, G.

    1999-01-01

    RAM R-200, a new generation of ruggedized portable radiation-monitoring systems, is presented. The system which is a result of interdisciplinary research, was developed at the NRCN in collaboration with Ben-Gurion University. It consists of RAM R-200 - a portable radiation meter, and a variety of external probes for wide range gamma radiation fields and beta-gamma contamination detection and measurement. The meter or each one of the external probes can be used as a portable system or a stand-alone radiation measurement station. All the system's components were specially designed to meet severe environmental conditions

  12. PREPARATION OF TEASER RAMS BY LATERAL DEVIATION OF PREPUCE AND PENIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahmad

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available For oestrus detection in sheep while in flocks, limited exposure is given to rams with tied apron in front of their prepucial opening. For better and un-feared use of rams for oestrus detection and for effect of , ram exposure on postpartum reproductive characteristics of ewes, rams before the attainment of puberty and those sexually mature (adult rams were operated for lateral deviation of prepuce and penis. The operations were successful, no post operative complications were recorded and these rams exhibited normal libido and were found efficient for oestrus detection in ewes.

  13. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of rams brought into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an effort to gain a better understanding into the role played by food animals in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites, we assessed the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in different breeds of rams brought into Abeokuta during a festive season by ... The only protozoan parasite identified was Eimeria spp.

  14. Timber management planning with timber ram and goal programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Field

    1978-01-01

    By using goal programming to enhance the linear programming of Timber RAM, multiple decision criteria were incorporated in the timber management planning of a National Forest in the southeastern United States. Combining linear and goal programming capitalizes on the advantages of the two techniques and produces operationally feasible solutions. This enhancement may...

  15. Minsk ja RAM 7 / Evelyn Müürsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Müürsepp, Evelyn

    2005-01-01

    Minskis toimunud RAM 7-st (Reapproaching New Media. Models of Collaboration / Ümberhinnates uut meediat. Koostöömudelid". Korraldajad Tatjana Dushina ja Denis Romanovski üritavad luua uue meedia keskust Valgevene kunstiakadeemiasse. Eestit esindasid Evelin Müürsepp ja John Grzinich (modereeris vabade ülikoolide kursust). Osalemisest fotomängus "FotoOhota"

  16. Performance and carcass characteristics of Yankasa ram fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... were randomly assign to the 5 dietary treatment with four rams per treatment. ... estimate dry matter intake (g/d /W 0.7 kg), daily mean life weight gain ... 1.78%) and rib eye area (6.06 and 8.29) which were obtained from the ...

  17. Measurement and analysis of the water hammer in ram pump

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the results of experimental research of the phenomena occurring in water ram during a single cycle of its operation. Apart from a brief introduction and description of the test stand and data recording system, the work includes a broad interpretation of the obtained results. Based on the pressure ...

  18. Detecting danger labels with RAM-based neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.; Christensen, S.S.; Andersen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing system for the automatic location of danger labels on the back of containers is presented. The system uses RAM-based neural networks to locate and classify labels after a pre-processing step involving specially designed non-linear edge filters and RGB-to-HSV conversion. Result...

  19. The neurobiology of sexual partner preferences in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-05-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep does not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol.

  20. A realization of the RAM digital filter. [Random Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, S.

    1976-01-01

    The digital filtering algorithm of W. D. Little, which employs a large RAM to obtain high speed, is implemented in a simple hardware configuration. The nonrecursive version of this filter is compared to the counting digital filter and found to be competitive for low-order filters up to order 7 (8 coefficients).

  1. The sexual cycle of the Impala ram Aepyceros melampus Lichtenstein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sexual cycle of the Impala ram Aepyceros melampus Lichtenstein. J.D. Skinner. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  2. The Neurobiology of Sexual Partner Preferences in Rams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E.; Stormshak, Fred

    2009-01-01

    The question of what causes a male animal to seek out and choose a female as opposed to another male mating partner is unresolved and remains an issue of considerable debate. The most developed biologic theory is the perinatal organizational hypothesis, which states that perinatal hormone exposure mediates sexual differentiation of the brain. Numerous animal experiments have assessed the contribution of perinatal testosterone and/or estradiol exposure to the development of a male-typical mate preference, but almost all have used hormonally manipulated animals. In contrast, variations in sexual partner preferences occur spontaneously in domestic rams, with as many as 8% of the population exhibiting a preference for same-sex mating partners (male-oriented rams). Thus, the domestic ram is an excellent experimental model to study possible links between fetal neuroendocrine programming of neural mechanisms and adult sexual partner preferences. In this review, we present an overview of sexual differentiation in relation to sexual partner preferences. We then summarize results that test the relevance of the organizational hypothesis to expression of same-sex sexual partner preferences in rams. Finally, we demonstrate that the sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in sheep do not depend critically on aromatization of testosterone to estradiol. PMID:19446078

  3. Design and analysis of hydraulic ram water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, N. S. M.; Gamil, S. A.; Amin, N. A. M.; Safar, M. J. A.; Majid, M. S. A.; Kazim, M. N. F. M.; Nasir, N. F. M.

    2017-10-01

    The current pumping system (DC water pump) for agriculture is powered by household electricity, therefore, the cost of electricity will be increased due to the higher electricity consumption. In addition, the water needs to be supplied at different height of trees and different places that are far from the water source. The existing DC water pump can pump the water to 1.5 m height but it cost money for electrical source. The hydraulic ram is a mechanical water pump that suitable used for agriculture purpose. It can be a good substitute for DC water pump in agriculture use. The hydraulic ram water pumping system has ability to pump water using gravitational energy or the kinetic energy through flowing source of water. This project aims to analyze and develop the water ram pump in order to meet the desired delivery head up to 3 meter height with less operation cost. The hydraulic ram is designed using CATIA software. Simulation work has been done using ANSYS CFX software to validate the working concept. There are three design were tested in the experiment study. The best design reached target head of 3 m with 15% efficiency and flow rate of 11.82l/min. The results from this study show that the less diameter of pressure chamber and higher supply head will create higher pressure.

  4. Semen characteristics of pubertal Yankasa rams fed Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is consumed by humans and has been reported to possess medicinal uses. It possesses androgenic property with significant increase on male reproductive parameters. This study assessed the reproductive performance of Yankasa rams fed diets supplemented with different levels of ginger ...

  5. Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena leucocephala forage. I.V. Nsahlai, B.K. Byebwa, M.L.K. Bonsi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 111-112). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Panagiotopoulou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Herman Melville’s novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L. sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the “spermaceti organ” and “junk,” that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of the total length of the whale. Recognized as playing an important role in echolocation, previous studies have also attributed the complex structural configuration of the spermaceti organ and junk to acoustic sexual selection, acoustic prey debilitation, buoyancy control, and aggressive ramming. Of these additional suggested functions, ramming remains the most controversial, and the potential mechanical roles of the structural components of the spermaceti organ and junk in ramming remain untested. Here we explore the aggressive ramming hypothesis using a novel combination of structural engineering principles and probabilistic simulation to determine if the unique structure of the junk significantly reduces stress in the skull during quasi-static impact. Our analyses indicate that the connective tissue partitions in the junk reduce von Mises stresses across the skull and that the load-redistribution functionality of the former is insensitive to moderate variation in tissue material parameters, the thickness of the partitions, and variations in the location and angle of the applied load. Absence of the connective tissue partitions increases skull stresses, particularly in the rostral aspect of the upper jaw, further hinting of the important role the architecture of the junk may play in ramming events. Our study also found that impact loads on the spermaceti organ generate lower skull stresses than an impact on the junk. Nevertheless, whilst an impact on the

  7. Prenatal programming of sexual partner preference: the ram model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, C E; Stormshak, F

    2009-03-01

    In our laboratory, the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that approximately 8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurones of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurones constitute a nascent oSDN as early as day 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by day 135 of gestation when it is two-fold larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from days 30-90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram foetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving

  8. Architecture of the sperm whale forehead facilitates ramming combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Spyridis, Panagiotis; Mehari Abraha, Hyab; Carrier, David R; Pataky, Todd C

    2016-01-01

    Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick was inspired by historical instances in which large sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus L.) sank 19th century whaling ships by ramming them with their foreheads. The immense forehead of sperm whales is possibly the largest, and one of the strangest, anatomical structures in the animal kingdom. It contains two large oil-filled compartments, known as the "spermaceti organ" and "junk," that constitute up to one-quarter of body mass and extend one-third of the total length of the whale. Recognized as playing an important role in echolocation, previous studies have also attributed the complex structural configuration of the spermaceti organ and junk to acoustic sexual selection, acoustic prey debilitation, buoyancy control, and aggressive ramming. Of these additional suggested functions, ramming remains the most controversial, and the potential mechanical roles of the structural components of the spermaceti organ and junk in ramming remain untested. Here we explore the aggressive ramming hypothesis using a novel combination of structural engineering principles and probabilistic simulation to determine if the unique structure of the junk significantly reduces stress in the skull during quasi-static impact. Our analyses indicate that the connective tissue partitions in the junk reduce von Mises stresses across the skull and that the load-redistribution functionality of the former is insensitive to moderate variation in tissue material parameters, the thickness of the partitions, and variations in the location and angle of the applied load. Absence of the connective tissue partitions increases skull stresses, particularly in the rostral aspect of the upper jaw, further hinting of the important role the architecture of the junk may play in ramming events. Our study also found that impact loads on the spermaceti organ generate lower skull stresses than an impact on the junk. Nevertheless, whilst an impact on the spermaceti organ would

  9. The behavioral component of the ram effect: the influence of ram sexual behavior on the induction of estrus in anovulatory ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, A; Fitzgerald, J A

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether the sexual behavior of the ram affects the ram effect. Rams exhibiting either high (HP) or low (LP) levels of sexual performance (on the basis of serving capacity tests) were exposed to 89 anestrous ewes for 28 d. Thirty-two anestrous ewes were not exposed to rams. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of estrus induction by HP (n = 4) vs LP (n = 4) rams. Plasma progesterone concentration was used as an index of ovarian activity. Groups of ewes were exposed to either an HP or an LP ram in a .32-ha pasture. Courtship behaviors of rams were recorded for 6 h on the initial day of exposure and for 30-min periods on alternate days thereafter. A greater percentage of ewes exposed to HP rams ovulated (95%) compared with ewes exposed to LP rams (78%) (P sexual behavior. These data imply that in addition to a pheromone the sexual behavior of the ram may be important in initiating ovarian cycle activity.

  10. Windsock memory COnditioned RAM (CO-RAM) pressure effect: Forced reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Z.; Facskó, G.; Khodachenko, M.; Honkonen, I.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) is a key physical concept explaining the addition of magnetic flux to the magnetotail and closed flux lines back-motion to the dayside magnetosphere. This scenario elaborated by Dungey (1963) can explain many aspects of solar wind-magnetosphere interaction processes, including substorms. However, neither the Dungey model nor its numerous modifications were able to explain fully the onset conditions for MR in the tail. In this paper, we introduce new onset conditions for forced MR in the tail. We call our scenario the "windsock memory conditioned ram pressure effect." Our nonflux transfer-associated forcing is introduced by a combination of the large-scale windsock motions exhibiting memory effects and solar wind dynamic pressure actions on the nightside magnetopause during northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Using global MHD Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation version 4 simulation results, upstream data from Wind, magnetosheath data from Cluster 1 and distant tail data from the two-probe Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun mission, we show that the simultaneous occurrence of vertical windsock motions of the magnetotail and enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure introduces strong nightside disturbances, including enhanced electric fields and persistent vertical cross-tail shear flows. These perturbations, associated with a stream interaction region in the solar wind, drive MR in the tail during episodes of northward oriented interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We detect MR indirectly, observing plasmoids in the tail and ground-based signatures of earthward moving fast flows. We also consider the application to solar system planets and close-in exoplanets, where the proposed scenario can elucidate some new aspects of solar/stellar wind-magnetosphere interactions.

  11. Identification of sexually low-response rams using a libido test and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    higher levels of sex-like behaviour with their pen mates. (monosexual groups) during rearing than did normal rams. These workers thus suggested that the poor performance of such rams when exposed to an oestrous ewe was due to their inability to interpret sexual cues correctly. Working with. Karakul rams, Le Roux and ...

  12. Hydric characterisation of rammed earth samples for different lime concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudani, Lucile; Fabbri, Antonin; Woloszyn, Monika; Grillet, Anne-Cécile; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2018-04-01

    The rehabilitation of ancient rammed earth houses, as well as the use of earthen materials in modern constructions, are a growing matter of concern, especially in area such as Rhône-Alpes, France, where 40% of old constructions are in rammed earth. A current pathology observed for this type of construction is related to the rising damps, for which the water from the ground is absorbed by the wall. This situation leads to a very saturated state. As it has been proven that the compressive strength is altered by the presence of water in the pores, a better understanding on high relative humidity range is necessary to be able to predict the mechanical behavior of buildings and thus ensure a better risk assessment. The present study describes experimental results of the water uptake experiments and moisture storage at high relative humidities.

  13. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval: A Ram Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Fedder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14 compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm.

  14. Performance modeling in critical engineering systems using RAM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajiv Kumar; Kumar, Sunand

    2008-01-01

    Reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) analysis of system is helpful in carrying out design modifications, if any, required to achieve minimum failures or to increase mean time between failures (MTBF) and thus to plan maintainability requirements, optimize reliability and maximize equipment availability. To this effect, the paper presents the application of RAM analysis in a process industry. Markovian approach is used to model the system behavior. For carrying out analysis, transition diagrams for various subsystems are drawn and differential equations associated with them are formulated. After obtaining the steady state solution the corresponding values of reliability and maintainability are estimated at different mission times. The computed results are presented to plant personnel for their active consideration. The results proved helpful to them for analyzing the system behavior and thereby to improve the system performance considerably by adopting and practicing suitable maintenance policies/strategies

  15. RAtional Mapping (RAM) of in-core data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, R.A.; Kherani, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes and demonstrates a unique processing of in-core flux detector data, such that the detailed in-core power distribution can be derived with great accuracy by combining a specially 'smoothed-out' set of in-core data with neutron diffusion theory. RAM is designed in such a way that erratic detector signals are recognized very efficiently and can be eliminated from the experimental data set: this is achieved by modal expansion of the difference between theoretical fluxes and experimental fluxes at the detector sites. Sensitivity studies have shown that RAM is quite stable, does not absorb the 'wild' detector errors in the mapping procedure and results in mapped fluxes with errors about three times smaller than would be obtained by direct interpolation of detector readings

  16. Consideraciones sobre Infortunios de Alonso Ramírez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Taiano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to provide new perspectives for approaching the study of Infortunios de Alonso Ramírez. Several researches about the text have given to Sigüenza y Góngora a character of strangeness to it, which would reduce him to the role of mere amanuensis, indicating that the discursive elaboration belongs to Ramirez. In view of that, I have performed a textual analysis, supported on the book's title and the final passage of the account, that I consider important elements that can offer a new perception on this issue. I base my research, additionally, on the study of its context of publication under the patronage of the New Spain viceroy, as well as the similarities of Infortunios de Alonso Ramírez with other contemporary texts.

  17. PLC based control system for RAM assembly test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Kumar, Vinaya; Chandra, Umesh

    1994-01-01

    The flexibility, expandability, ease of programming and diagnostic features makes the programmable logic controller (PLC) suitable for a variety of control applications in engineering system test facilities. A PLC based control system for RAM assembly test facility (RATF) and for testing the related hydraulic components is being developed and installed at BARC. This paper describes the approach taken for meeting the control requirements and illustrates the PLC software that has been developed. (author). 1 fig

  18. A 1K shadow RAM for circumvention applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that circumvention applications require a memory that retains data through radiation (total dose and transient) and loss of power. Various memory technologies have been reviewed and none, as yet, can meet, these requirements. However, if complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) and silicon nitride oxide silicon (SNOS) memories are combined in a shadow RAM (random access memory) configuration, the requirements can be fulfilled

  19. Automatic track counting with an optic RAM-based instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staderini, E.M.; Castellano, Alfredo

    1986-01-01

    A new image sensor, the optic RAM, is now used in a microprocessor controlled instrument to read and digitize images from CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors. The system performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation in a fully automatic way, not requiring an optic microscope, nor photographic or television devices. The proposed system is a very compact and low power device. (author)

  20. The effect of cushion-ram pulsation on hot stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Dirk; Rautenstrauch, Anja; Kunke, Andreas; Polster, Stefan; Kriechenbauer, Sebastian; Mauermann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Hot stamping is an important technology for manufacturing high-strength components. This technology offers the possibility to achieve significant weight reductions. In this study, cushion-ram pulsation (CRP), a new technology for hot stamping on servo-screw presses, was investigated and applied for hot stamping. Compared to a conventional process, the tests yielded a significantly higher drawing depth. In this paper, the CRP technology and the first test results with hot stamping were described in comparison to the conventional process.

  1. Investigating EMIC Wave Dynamics with RAM-SCB-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, V. K.; Fu, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S.; Welling, D. T.; Yu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The distribution of ring current ions and electrons in the inner magnetosphere depends strongly on their transport in realistic electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields and concurrent energization or loss. To investigate the high variability of energetic particle (H+, He+, O+, and electron) fluxes during storms selected by the GEM Surface Charging Challenge, we use our kinetic ring current model (RAM) two-way coupled with a 3-D magnetic field code (SCB). This model was just extended to include electric field calculations, making it a unique, fully self-consistent, anisotropic ring current-atmosphere interactions model, RAM-SCB-E. Recently we investigated electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability in a local plasma using both linear theory and nonlinear hybrid simulations and derived a scaling formula that relates the saturation EMIC wave amplitude to initial plasma conditions. Global dynamic EMIC wave maps obtained with our RAM-SCB-E model using this scaling will be presented and compared with statistical models. These plasma waves can affect significantly both ion and electron precipitation into the atmosphere and the subsequent patterns of ionospheric conductance, as well as the global ring current dynamics.

  2. Ram-pressure feeding of supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggianti, Bianca M; Jaffé, Yara L; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Radovich, Mario; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Fritz, Jacopo; Bettoni, Daniela; Vulcani, Benedetta; Fasano, Giovanni; Bellhouse, Callum; Hau, George; Omizzolo, Alessandro

    2017-08-16

    When a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy accretes matter, it gives rise to a highly energetic phenomenon: an active galactic nucleus. Numerous physical processes have been proposed to account for the funnelling of gas towards the galactic centre to feed the black hole. There are also several physical processes that can remove gas from a galaxy, one of which is ram-pressure stripping by the hot gas that fills the space between galaxies in galaxy clusters. Here we report that six out of a sample of seven 'jellyfish' galaxies-galaxies with long 'tentacles' of material that extend for dozens of kiloparsecs beyond the galactic disks-host an active nucleus, and two of them also have galactic-scale ionization cones. The high incidence of nuclear activity among heavily stripped jellyfish galaxies may be due to ram pressure causing gas to flow towards the centre and triggering the activity, or to an enhancement of the stripping caused by energy injection from the active nucleus, or both. Our analysis of the galactic position and velocity relative to the cluster strongly supports the first hypothesis, and puts forward ram pressure as another possible mechanism for feeding the central supermassive black hole with gas.

  3. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O and M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis

  4. Effects of breed and ram exposure on Spring estrous behavior and Summer fertility in domestic ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Russell A., III

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to check the effects of acute ram introduction into a flock of anestrus ewes in Virginia. Ewes were bled via jugular venipuncture twice weekly and serum samples were radioimmunoassayed for progesterone (P4) content as an indicator of estrous activity. All rams were fitted with crayon equipped marking harnesses for use as an indicator of mating behavior in ewes. The first study tested the effects of introduction of vasectomized rams in...

  5. Effect of heterologous seminal plasma and semen extenders on motility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Mataveia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ram seminal plasma increases the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix. The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of ram seminal plasma to that of bull seminal plasma, dog prostatic fluid, protein-free TALP, TrilEq (Triladyl with 0.5 mℓ of Equex STM paste added to each 100 mℓ and heat-treated skim milk on longevity and percentages of progressively motile and aberrantly motile frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa. Three ejaculates from each of 6 rams were extended in TrilEq, pooled and frozen in straws as a single batch per ram. One hundred and eight straws (3 straws from each ram for each fluid were thawed in random order. Once thawed, a straw was emptied into a tube with 0.85mℓ of the appropriate fluid at 37 °C and kept at that temperature for 6 h. Motility was assessed at x200 magnification immediately (time zero and 2, 4 and 6 h after thawing. Progressive motility decreased from each time to the next (P < 0.05 and was 39.0% (0 h, 26.0% (2 h, 19.6% (4 h and 12.6% (6 h; SEM 1.24, n=108 for each group. Ram seminal plasma resulted in higher progressive motility than bull seminal plasma, lower than milk, and similar to the other fluids. Ram seminal plasma resulted in lower aberrant motility than protein-free TALP and similar aberrant motility to other fluids. The effect of ram seminal plasma and dog prostatic fluid was very similar. The effect of ram seminal plasma on the fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa deposited into the cervix is not due an exceptionally beneficial effect on the motility of spermatozoa.

  6. Preliminary study on removing Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ by activated porous calcium silicate-A by-product from high-alumina fly ash recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingying; Wang, Rong; Chen, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺-containing radioactive wastewater is one of the most important problems that the world has been facing with. A by-product, activated porous calcium silicate, is generated at high levels by the pre-desiliconizing and soda-lime-sintering processes for producing Al₂O₃from high-alumina fly ash. In order to examine if this by-product could be used as an absorbent for removal of ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺ from radioactive wastewater, various parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration, were discussed. Results indicated that the equilibrium reached in about 2 hr. Activated porous calcium silicate was highly pH sensitive and able to remove Cs(+)/Sr²⁺ in a near-neutral environment. The adsorption equilibrium was best described by Freundlich isotherm equations, and the adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ was a physical process. The adsorption kinetic data could be better fitted by the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption was controlled by multidiffusion. Current study showed that activated porous calcium silicate has a good adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ for their removal. However, other characteristics, such as selectivity because of coexisting cations, elution and regeneration, thermal stability, and acid resistance, should be discussed carefully before using it in an actual field.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation of ram extrusion of bread dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Wanigasooriya, L.; Charalambides, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    An experimental and numerical study on ram extrusion of bread dough was conducted. A laboratory ram extrusion rig was designed and manufactured, where dies with different angles and exit radii were employed. Rate dependent behaviour was observed from tests conducted at different extrusion speeds, and higher extrusion pressure was reported for dies with decreasing exit radius. A finite element simulation of extrusion was performed using the adaptive meshing technique in Abaqus. Simulations using a frictionless contact between the billet and die wall showed that the model underestimates the response at high entry angles. On the other hand, when the coefficient of friction value was set to 0.09 as measured from friction experiments, the dough response was overestimated, i.e. the model extrusion pressure was much higher than the experimentally measured values. When a critical shear stress limit, τmax, was used, the accuracy of the model predictions improved. The results showed that higher die angles require higher τmax values for the model and the experiments to agree.

  8. The modification and application of RAMS computer code. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, T.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) has been utilized in its most updated form, version 3a, to simulate a case night from the Atmospheric Studies in COmplex Terrain (ASCOT) experimental program. ASCOT held a wintertime observational campaign during February, 1991 to observe the often strong drainage flows which form on the Great Plains and in the canyons embedded within the slope from the Continental Divide to the Great Plains. A high resolution (500 m grid spacing) simulation of the 4-5 February 1991 case night using the more advanced turbulence closure now available in RAMS 3a allowed greater analysis of the physical processes governing the drainage flows. It is found that shear interaction above and within the drainage flow are important, and are overpredicted with the new scheme at small grid spacing (< ∼1000 m). The implication is that contaminants trapped in nighttime stable flows such as these, will be mixed too strongly in the vertical reducing predicted ground concentrations. The HYPACT code has been added to the capability at LANL, although due to the reduced scope of work, no simulations with HYPACT were performed

  9. Characterization of Malaysian Trichoderma isolates using random amplified microsatellites (RAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Tan, Soon Guan; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Fatihah, Nur Hasan Nudin; Hasan, Md Mainul

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are commercially applied as biocontrol agents against numerous plant pathogenic fungi due to their production of antifungal metabolites, competition for nutrients and space, and mycoparasitism. However, currently the identification of Trichoderma species from throughout the world based on micro-morphological descriptions is tedious and prone to error. The correct identification of Trichoderma species is important as several traits are species-specific. The Random Amplified Microsatellites (RAMS) analysis done using five primers in this study showed different degrees of the genetic similarity among 42 isolates of this genus. The genetic similarity values were found to be in the range of 12.50-85.11% based on a total of 76 bands scored in the Trichoderma isolates. Of these 76 bands, 96.05% were polymorphic, 3.95% were monomorphic and 16% were exclusive bands. Two bands (250 bp and 200 bp) produced by primer LR-5 and one band (250 bp) by primer P1A were present in all the Trichoderma isolates collected from healthy and infected oil palm plantation soils. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA of the RAMS marker data showed that T. harzianum, T. virens and T. longibrachiatum isolates were grouped into different clades and lineages. In this study we found that although T. aureoviride isolates were morphologically different when compared to T. harzianum isolates, the UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the majority isolates of T. aureoviride (seven from nine) were closely related to the isolates of T. harzianum.

  10. Differential gene expression by RamA in ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    Full Text Available Overexpression of ramA has been implicated in resistance to multiple drugs in several enterobacterial pathogens. In the present study, Salmonella Typhimurium strain LTL with constitutive expression of ramA was compared to its ramA-deletion mutant by employing both DNA microarrays and phenotype microarrays (PM. The mutant strain with the disruption of ramA showed differential expression of at least 33 genes involved in 11 functional groups. The study confirmed at the transcriptional level that the constitutive expression of ramA was directly associated with increased expression of multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC and decreased expression of porin protein OmpF, thereby conferring multiple drug resistance phenotype. Compared to the parent strain constitutively expressing ramA, the ramA mutant had increased susceptibility to over 70 antimicrobials and toxic compounds. The PM analysis also uncovered that the ramA mutant was better in utilization of 10 carbon sources and 5 phosphorus sources. This study suggested that the constitutive expression of ramA locus regulate not only multidrug efflux pump and accessory genes but also genes involved in carbon metabolic pathways.

  11. Design of a 16 kbit superconducting latching/SFQ hybrid RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Shuichi; Hasegawa, Haruhiro; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Hideo; Miyahara, Kazunori; Enomoto, Youichi

    1999-01-01

    We have designed a 16 kbit superconducting latching/SFQ hybrid (SLASH) RAM, which enables high-frequency clock operation up to 10 GHz. The 16 kbit SLASH RAM consists of four 4x4 matrix arrays of 256 bit RAM blocks, block decoders, latching block drivers, latching block senses, impedance matched lines and the powering circuits. The 256 bit RAM block is composed of a 16x16 matrix array of vortex transitional memory cells, latching drivers, SFQ NOR decoders and latching sense circuits. We have also designed and implemented an SFQ NOR decoder that is composed of magnetically coupled multi-input OR gates and RSFQ inverters. (author)

  12. Laser Boost of a Small Interstellar Ram Jet to Obtain Operational Velocity. Implications for the DM Rocket/Ram Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott Beckwith, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    In other conference research papers, Beckwith obtained a maximum DM mass/energy value of up to 5 TeV, as opposed to 400 GeV for DM, which may mean more convertible power for a dark matter ram jet. The consequences are from assuming that axions are CDM, and KK gravitons are for WDM, then ρWarm-Dark-Matter would dominate not only structure formation in early universe formation, but would also influence the viability of the DM ram jet applications for interstellar travel. The increase in convertible DM mass makes the ram jet a conceivable option. This paper in addition to describing the scientific issues leading to that 5 TeV mass for DM also what are necessary and sufficient laser boost systems which would permit a ram net to become operational.

  13. Reversible harmless interruption of testicular blood supply in the ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vliet, J.; De Ruiter-Bootsma, A.L.; Oei, Y.H.; Hoekstra, A.; De Rooij, D.G.; Wensing, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    An effective method of interrupting testicular blood flow temporarily and repeatedly in the ram has been developed. Blockade of flow has been achieved mechanically by an inflatable occluder placed around the testicular artery at the level of the spermatic cord. The effect of the blockade on total testicular blood supply was investigated using Doppler flowmetry and a percutaneous Xenon-133 injection method. With both approaches, the blood flow changes after inflation or deflation of the occluders could be estimated satisfactorily. A substantial decrease of testicular blood flow was achieved in eight of the 10 testes with inflated occluders. However, there were indications that in the remaining two testes blockade of the arterial flow was not complete. After deflation of the occluders, blood flow was restored rapidly and completely in all testes. Macro- and microscopic examinations revealed no long-term damage to the testis after blood flow interruptions lasting 30 or 60 minutes

  14. High-speed nonvolatile CMOS/MNOS RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenwick, G.F.; Dodson, W.D.; Sokel, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A bulk silicon technology for a high-speed static CMOS/MNOS RAM has been developed. Radiation-hardened, high voltage CMOS circuits have been fabricated for the memory array driving circuits and the enhancement-mode p-channel MNOS memory transistors have been fabricated using a native tunneling oxide with a 45 nm CVD Si 3 N 4 insulator deposited at 750 0 C. Read cycle times less than 350 ns and write cycle times of 1 μs are projected for the final 1Kx1 design. The CMOS circuits provide adequate speed for the write and read cycles and minimize the standby power dissipation. Retention times well in excess of 30 min are projected

  15. A simple parameterization of aerosol emissions in RAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Theodore

    Throughout the past decade, a high degree of attention has been focused on determining the microphysical impact of anthropogenically enhanced concentrations of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) on orographic snowfall in the mountains of the western United States. This area has garnered a lot of attention due to the implications this effect may have on local water resource distribution within the Region. Recent advances in computing power and the development of highly advanced microphysical schemes within numerical models have provided an estimation of the sensitivity that orographic snowfall has to changes in atmospheric CCN concentrations. However, what is still lacking is a coupling between these advanced microphysical schemes and a real-world representation of CCN sources. Previously, an attempt to representation the heterogeneous evolution of aerosol was made by coupling three-dimensional aerosol output from the WRF Chemistry model to the Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) (Ward et al. 2011). The biggest problem associated with this scheme was the computational expense. In fact, the computational expense associated with this scheme was so high, that it was prohibitive for simulations with fine enough resolution to accurately represent microphysical processes. To improve upon this method, a new parameterization for aerosol emission was developed in such a way that it was fully contained within RAMS. Several assumptions went into generating a computationally efficient aerosol emissions parameterization in RAMS. The most notable assumption was the decision to neglect the chemical processes in formed in the formation of Secondary Aerosol (SA), and instead treat SA as primary aerosol via short-term WRF-CHEM simulations. While, SA makes up a substantial portion of the total aerosol burden (much of which is made up of organic material), the representation of this process is highly complex and highly expensive within a numerical

  16. First Exploratory Study on the Ageing of Rammed Earth Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quoc-Bao; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Rammed earth (RE) is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its “green” characteristics in the context of sustainable building. In this study, the ageing effects on RE material are studied on the walls which have been constructed and exposed for 22 years to natural weathering. First, mechanical characteristics of the “old” walls were determined by two approaches: in-situ dynamic measurements on the walls; laboratory tests on specimens which had been cut from the walls. Then, the walls’ soil was recycled and reused for manufacturing of new specimens which represented the initial state. Comparison between the compressive strength, the Young modulus of the walls after 22 years on site and that of the initial state enables to assess the ageing of the studied walls. PMID:28787920

  17. NGC 4438: Ram pressure sweeping of a tidally disrupted galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, J.E.; Vangorkom, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    NGC 4438 is the highly HI deficient peculiar spiral in the center of the Virgo cluster. Observations are given of the neutral hydrogen emission obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA) in the D-array configuration. These observations map out the total HI as determined from single dish measurements, and show the hydrogen to be confined to a region about one third the size of the optical disk and displaced to the side of the galaxy opposite M87. The hydrogen content of the galaxy is over an order of magnitude less than that expected for a galaxy of its type. The data suggest that the HI deficiency is a result of ram pressure stripping of the gas in the outer regions of the galaxy by the hot intracluster medium after being tidally perturbed

  18. NGC 3312: A victim of ram pressure sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmahon, P.M.; Richter, O.G.; Vangorkom, J.H.; Ferguson, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are undertaking a volume limited survey of the Hydra I cluster in neutral hydrogen using the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Large Array (VLA). The main purpose is to study the effects of a dense environment on the gaseous component of the galaxies. Observational evidence has been accumulating recently that ram pressure sweeping does occur in the centers of clusters, but it is possible that tidal interactions play a role as well. Results of high resolution HI imaging of NGC 3312, the large peculiar spiral near the cluster center are presented. Hydra I (= A1060) is the nearest rich cluster beyond Virgo and, as such, presents a unique opportunity to do a complete survey of a cluster. It is similar to the Virgo cluster in many of its general physical characteristics, such as size, x ray luminosity, velocity dispersion, and galaxy content (high spiral fraction). However, Hydra I appears to be more regular and relaxed. This is evident in the x ray distribution in its central region, which is radially symmetric and centered on the dominant galaxy, NGC 3311, a cD-like elliptical. The observed x ray luminosity implies a central gas density of 4.5 x 10 to the 3rd power cm(-3). Gallagher (1978) argued from optical images of NGC 3312 that this galaxy might be an ideal candidate to directly study effects of the ram pressure process; it might currently be undergoing stripping of its interstellar medium. The researchers' data are consistent with this suggestion, but other origins of the peculiar appearance cannot yet be ruled out

  19. Effect of semen extender and storage temperature on ram sperm motility over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage of ram semen for long period of time depends on a number of factors, including type of extender and storage temperature. A study compared the effect of semen extender and storage temperature on motility of ram semen stored for 72 h. Semen collected via electroejaculator from 5 mature Katahd...

  20. Uudised : Hortus Musicus Moskvas. TPÜ naiskoor koorikonkursil. RAM samal laval Mark Knopfleriga. "Tuuleveskid. Kerkokell" / Joosep Sang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sang, Joosep

    2000-01-01

    Hortus Musicus esines 23. ja 24. nov. Moskvas. TPÜnaiskoor võitis II preemia XVII rahvusvahelisel F.Schuberti nim. koorikonkursil Austrias. RAM esineb 8. dets. Helsingis Hartwall Areenas heategevuskontserdil. RAM esineb 6. dets. Estonia kontserdisaalis kavaga "Tuuleveskid. Kerkokell"

  1. RANGE RAM: a long-term planning method for managing grazing lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricus C. Jansen

    1976-01-01

    Range RAM (Resource Allocation Method) is a computerized planning method designed to assist range managers in developing and selecting alternatives in spatial and temporal allocation of resources. The technique is applicable at the frest or district management levels, or their equivalents. Range RAM can help formulate plans that maximize the production of range outputs...

  2. A Simplified Model of an Offset Ram Press for Sunflower Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a simplified model of a ram press. The design of the ram press is based on the classical slider-crank mechanism. A force analysis of the press was performed for several successive positions of the driving lever (handle) and for a range of values of certain dimensionless ...

  3. Comparison of sexual performance and testicular characteristics of melatonin treated Kivircik and Charollais rams during the non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cevik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin implantation on basic testicular characteristics and reproductive performance of Kivircik and Charollais rams and ewes during the non-breeding season. In this study, 8 Kivircik and 6 Charollais rams were used. Rams were implanted with 54 mg melatonin according to the manufacturer's instructions. At melatonin implantation and at ram introduction the reproductive performance and testicular characteristics were evaluated. Throughout the experimental period, rams were permanently kept outdoors under conditions of natural day length and at ambient temperature. The effects of exogenous melatonin treatments on the reproductive performances of rams and ewes, estrus response, pregnancy rate, litter size and twinning rate of ewes were evaluated in all groups. Libido values were significantly higher in Charollais rams compared to Kivircik rams (P<0.001. Testicular volume (TV was increased in both ram breeds. Scrotal length (SL was also increased in both Kivircik and Charollais rams (P<0.01. In conclusion, we showed that the treatment of rams with slow release melatonin implants increased scrotal diameters and testicular volumes in both Kivircik and Charollais rams. Furthermore, melatonin implantation improved the reproductive performances of ewes naturally mated with these melatonin implanted rams during non-breeding season.

  4. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  5. Effect of Three Days Storage of Coated Spermatozoa at Cooling and Adding Seminal Plasma on Ram Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vaferi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Artificial insemination (AI has only been used as a supplement to natural mating. AI, when used in conjunction with accurate progeny testing schemes, can substantially increase the rate of genetic progress compared with that of natural service. Moreover, the use of AI causes the limitation of the transmitted diseases. Cervical insemination with frozen-thawed ram semen has not been widely adopted, probably because of the relative poor fertility obtained. Thus using fresh and diluted semen is only approach for performing AI. AI is currently limited by the poor fertility achieved after cervical insemination with the storage of liquid semen at sub-ambient temperature. The success of this procedure in sheep is restricted by the short length of time that ram sperm can be stored in a liquid state. Moreover, the effect of cooling on sperm differs depending on species. It is also well known that ram spermatozoa are more sensitive to cold-shock stress than those of other species. Seminal plasma, as physiological secretion, is a complex mixture of secretions originating from testis, epididymis and accessory sex glands which is mixed with epididymal sperm at ejaculation; it serves as the carrier of sperm to the female genital tract. This mixture contains numerous factors such as organic and nonorganic material which play an important role in the final maturation of the spermatozoa through hormonal, enzymatic and surface-modifying events. During natural mating, a mechanism may be activated to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma. After being ejaculated into the vagina, sperm swim through cervical mucus and enter the uterus within minutes (>30 min; cervical mucus acts as a barrier for seminal plasma. In the artificial insemination industry, seminal plasma with all the useful and harmful components is not removed from semen and is in contact with sperm throughout cooling, freezing and storage. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that the

  6. Continuous exposure to sexually active rams extends estrous activity in ewes in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Flores, J A; Keller, M; Duarte, G; Forcada, F; Delgadillo, J A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual activity in sheep is under photoperiodic control, which is the main environmental factor responsible for the seasonality of reproduction. However, other natural environmental factors such as presence of conspecifics can slightly influence the timing of onset and offset of the breeding season. In goats, we have found that the continuous presence of bucks that were rendered sexually active out of season by previous exposure to long days, prevented goats from displaying seasonal anestrus, which suggests that the relative contribution of photoperiod in controlling seasonal anestrus should be reevaluated in small ruminant species. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of sexually active rams that had been stimulated by artificial photoperiod and melatonin implants, reduces seasonal anestrus in sheep, by prolonging ovulatory activity in spring. Ewes were assigned to one of two groups (n = 16 and 15), which were housed in two separate barns, and kept in contact, either with the treated or the control rams between March and July. Vasectomized rams were either exposed to 2 months of long days followed by the insertion of three subcutaneous melatonin implants (treated rams, n = 8), or exposed to natural light conditions (control rams, n = 2). Estrus was monitored daily, and weekly plasma progesterone analyses indicated ovulatory activity. Ewes that were exposed to treated rams exhibited a higher proportion of monthly estrus than ewes exposed to the control rams (P ewes (one ewe was not considered because of the presence of persistent CL) exposed to stimulated rams exhibited estrous behavior in a cyclic manner. In contrast, all ewes exposed to control rams stopped estrous activity for a period of time during the study, such that this group exhibited a significantly longer anestrous season (mean ± standard error of the mean 89 ± 9 days) than did the ewes housed with treated rams (26 ± 10 days; P ewes housed with treated rams, 13 of

  7. Heart rate patterns during courtship and mating in rams and in estrous and nonestrous ewes ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, A; Omaña, J C; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the heart rate (HR) patterns in rams mated with estrous or nonestrous ewes and in mated estrous and nonestrous ewes () during courtship and mating. For this purpose, HR and behavior were recorded using a radio telemetry recording system and a closed-circuit television system with video recording, respectively. Rams were joined with either an estrous ( = 10) or a nonestrous ( = 10) ewe that was restrained in a stanchion by the neck. Data were continuously recorded until each ram performed 3 ejaculations. Eight days later, the HR of the 10 estrous and 10 nonestrous ewes was recorded during mating. Although the time between entrance into the yard and the first ejaculation was similar across rams, rams that mounted estrous ewes were faster at attaining their second (3min5s ± 17 s vs. 5min28s ± 18 s) and third (7min58s ± 45 s vs. 12 min ± 1min14s) ejaculations (all ewes. In all cases, HR reached maximum values immediately after each ejaculation and the HR pattern was similar across ejaculations (first, second, and third). Although HR was similar between estrous and nonestrous ewes before mating, nonestrous ewes had higher HR ( ewes displayed shorter interejaculation periods but HR did not differ between groups of rams during any ejaculation (first, second, or third), 2) HR for both groups of rams peaked shortly after each ejaculation, and 3) HR increased more in nonestrous than in estrous ewes while mating.

  8. Aspects of Toxoplasma Infection on the Reproductive System of Experimentally Infected Rams (Ovis Aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight reproductive rams with no prior reproductive disease were distributed into three groups of infection with T. gondii: GI, 3 rams, 2.0×105 P strain oocysts; GII, 3 rams, 1.0×106 RH strain tachyzoites; GIII, 2 control rams. Clinical parameters were measured and serological evaluations (IIF were performed. Presence of the parasite in the semen was investigated by PCR and bioassay techniques. The rams presented clinical alterations (hyperthermia and apathy related to toxoplasmosis in both groups infected with Toxoplasma gondii. All the inoculated rams responded to antigenic stimulus, producing antibodies against T. gondii from postinoculation day 5 onwards. In ovine groups I and II, the greatest titers observed were 1 : 4096 and 1 : 8192, respectively. In semen samples collected from these two groups, the presence of T. gondii was detected by bioassay and PCR. This coccidian was isolated (bioassay and PCR in tissue pools (testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and prostrate from two rams infected presenting oocysts and in one presenting tachyzoites.

  9. RAMS - Regional Atmospheric Modelling System for decision support system SWD-WJ/RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, M.; Potemski, S.; Galkowski, A.; Zelazinska, B.

    1999-01-01

    Presented is report aimed at implementation of RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System) to the decision support system SWD-WJ/RODOS. A comprehensive analysis has been made of different meteorological codes, both local and regional. RAMS code, developed at Colorado State University and Aster Division of Mission Research Corporation, has been selected for reasons presented in this report. RAMS has been adjusted to Polish conditions. Necessary data as topography and surface characteristics (roughness, land percentage, see surface temperature, land cover, soil type, etc.) have been obtained from US Geological Survey and NOAA ARL, Washington DC. Numerical tests have been performed on two nested grids, one covering large part of Europe, the other one covering Polish territory. RAMS requires meteorological input from global model and/or from local meteorological stations. Use has been made of data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, and from European Center for Medium Range Forecast (ECMWF, Reading). For the later RAMS acted operationally what means that global data were delivered every 12 h from Reading via Internet to Swierk and subsequently 12 h weather forecast was calculated by RAMS. In a separate experiment RAMS forecast has been benchmarked with a forecast by UMPL code operated routinely at Warsaw University. Results of all of those test are presented in the report. Finally, some suggestions concerning further work has been put forward. (author)

  10. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  11. Shear Ram Verification Test Protocol (VTP) Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, Roy A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Braun, Joseph C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A blowout preventer (BOP) is a critical component used on subsea oil and gas wells during drilling, completion, and workover operations on the U. S. outer continental shelf (OCS). The purpose of the BOP is to seal oil and gas wells, and in the case of an emergency well-control event, to prevent the uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons. One of the most important components of the BOP is the hydraulically operated blind shear ram (BSR) that shears drilling-related components, such as drill pipes, casings, tubings, and wire-related tools that may have been placed in the well. In addition to shearing these components, the BSR must form a seal to keep hydrocarbons within the well bore, even when under the highest well-fluid pressures expected. The purpose of this document is for Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide an independent view, based on current regulations, and best practices for testing and confirming the operability and suitability of BSRs under realistic (or actual) well conditions.

  12. Fort St. Vrain fuel-handling system RAM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizi, S.M.; Berg, G.E.; Burton, J.H.; Durand, R.E.; Larson, E.M.; Pepe, D.J.; Rutherford, P.D.; Novachek, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Public Service of Company of Colorado (PSC) is planning to decommission its Fort St. Vrain plant in 1990. This requires removal of 1,500 separate assemblies from the core. With the low historical availability of the fuel-handling system (FHS), defueling time was estimated at 36 months. With plant expenses of approximately $1.6 million per month during defueling, this would mean a schedule cost of $58 million. With their contractor, Rockwell International, PSC embarked on a reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis to reduce projected defueling time. Key elements included (a) estimating availability of the FHS using a limited historical record, (b) assessing the defueling critical path, and (c) proposing and evaluating design/operational improvements. The most cost-effective improvements are being implemented and are expected to provide a reduction of >18 months in schedule and a net savings of $20 to 25 million. The paper describes the FHS design and operation, major problems associated with fuel-handling operations, and results and recommendations

  13. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills G, Scott; Neuhauser, Sieglinde

    2000-01-01

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale

  14. Asymmetric Star Formation Efficiency Due to Ram Pressure Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Troncoso Iribarren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous works have shown that a dense cluster environment affects satellite galaxy properties and accelerates or truncates their evolutionary processes. In this work, we use the EAGLE simulation to study this effect, dissecting the galaxies in two halves: the one that is falling directly to the cluster (leading half and the one behind (trailing half. Considering all galaxies within the virial radius of the most massive groups and clusters of the simulation ( M h a l o > 10 13 . 8 [ M ⊙ ] , we find that on average the leading half presents an enhancement of the star formation rate with respect to the trailing half. We conclude that galaxies falling into the intra-cluster medium experience a boost in star-formation in their leading half due to ram pressure. Sparse observations of jellyfish galaxies have revealed visually the enhancement of the star formation in the leading half. In order to confirm this effect statistically using observations, different cases must be investigated using the simulation as a test dataset.

  15. Geographic Resolution Issues in RAM Transport Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Transport risk analyses based on the RADTRAN code have been met with continual demands for increased spatial resolution of variations in population densities and other parameters employed in the calculation of risk estimates for transport of radioactive material (RAM). With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs) large quantities of data required to describe transport routes, which may extend to hundreds of kilometers, with high resolution (e.g. 1 km segments) can be handled without inordinate expense. This capability has raised a question concerning the maximum resolution of available input data and compatibility with RADTRAN computational models. Quantitative examinations are presented of spatial resolution issues in the calculation of incident-free doses and accident dose risks. For incident-free calculations, the effect of decreasing route-segment length on accuracy, in view of the model employed, is examined, and means of reducing total data input to the RADTRAN calculations, without loss of meaningful resolution of population concentrations, are presented. In the case of accident-risk calculations, the ability to detail population density under very large dispersal plumes permits comparison of plume modelling to actual data. In both types of calculations, meaningful limits to geographic extent are suggested. (author)

  16. A Minimum Leakage Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Teman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As SRAMs continue to grow and comprise larger percentages of the area and power consumption in advanced systems, the need to minimize static currents becomes essential. This brief presents a novel 9T Quasi-Static RAM Bitcell that provides aggressive leakage reduction and high write margins. The quasi-static operation method of this cell, based on internal feedback and leakage ratios, minimizes static power while maintaining sufficient, albeit depleted, noise margins. This paper presents the concept of the novel cell, and discusses the stability of the cell under hold, read and write operations. The cell was implemented in a low-power 40 nm TSMC process, showing as much as a 12× reduction in leakage current at typical conditions, as compared to a standard 6T or 8T bitcell at the same supply voltage. The implemented cell showed full functionality under global and local process variations at nominal and low voltages, as low as 300 mV.

  17. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations

  18. MHD simulations of ram pressure stripping of a disc galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martínez, Mariana; Gómez, Gilberto C.; Pérez-Villegas, Ángeles

    2018-05-01

    The removal of the interstellar medium (ISM) of disc galaxies through ram pressure stripping (RPS) has been extensively studied in numerous simulations. Nevertheless, the role of magnetic fields (MFs) on the gas dynamics in this process has been hardly studied, although the MF influence on the large-scale disc structure is well established. With this in mind, we present a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation of face-on RPS of a disc galaxy to study the impact of the galactic MF in the gas stripping. The main effect of including a galactic MF is a flared disc. When the intracluster medium wind hits this flared disc, oblique shocks are produced at the interaction interface, where the ISM is compressed, generating a gas inflow from large radii towards the central regions of the galaxy. This inflow is observed for {˜ } 150 {Myr} and may supply the central parts of the galaxy with material for star formation while the outskirts of the disc are being stripped of gas, thus the oblique shocks can induce and enhance the star formation in the remaining disc. We also observed that the MF alters the shape and structure of the swept gas, giving a smooth appearance in the magnetized case and clumpier and filamentary-like morphology in the hydro case. Finally, we estimated the truncation radius expected for our models using the Gunn-Gott criterion and found that that is in agreement with the simulations.

  19. Investigation on MCU Clustering Methodologies for Cross-Section Estimation of RAMs

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, A; Tsiligiannis, G; Javanainen, A; Kettunen, H; Puchner, H; Saigne, F; Virtanen, A; Wrobel, F; Dilillo, L

    2015-01-01

    During irradiation testing of RAMs, various failure scenarios may occur which may generate different characteristic Multiple Cell Upset (MCU) error patterns. This work proposes a method based on spatial and temporal criteria to identify them.

  20. The influence of exercising rams on the lambing performance of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obtained in body mass between the exercised and non-exercised rams. ... Several aspects of male fertility, viz. testis size, mating behaviour, libido ... no differences in the feeding status existed due to a possible difference in .... output in cattle.

  1. C-RAM: breaking mobile device memory barriers using the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Pamboris, A; Pietzuch, P

    2015-01-01

    ?Mobile applications are constrained by the available memory of mobile devices. We present C-RAM, a system that uses cloud-based memory to extend the memory of mobile devices. It splits application state and its associated computation between a mobile device and a cloud node to allow applications to consume more memory, while minimising the performance impact. C-RAM thus enables developers to realise new applications or port legacy desktop applications with a large memory footprint to mobile ...

  2. Radiation immune RAM semiconductor technology for the 80's. [Random Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, W. A.; Panagos, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents current and short term future characteristics of RAM semiconductor technologies which were obtained by literature survey and discussions with cognizant Government and industry personnel. In particular, total ionizing dose tolerance and high energy particle susceptibility of the technologies are addressed. Technologies judged compatible with spacecraft applications are ranked to determine the best current and future technology for fast access (less than 60 ns), radiation tolerant RAM.

  3. Beta irradiation as a method of the static MOS RAM memories processing and circuit design verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wislowski, J.; Jagusztyn, M.

    1985-01-01

    1K NMOS RAM's in plastic packages were investigated after beta irradiation up to 100 Gy (Si) total dose. The memory samples differed as regards processing details and circuit design. Radioisotope beta sources were used for irradiation as the most safe and least expensive. A new version of the model of radiation-induced functional degradation of MOS RAM's has been proposed. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  4. The use of silicon devices (diodes, RAMs, etc.) for alpha particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Foglio Para, A.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon electronic devices (diodes, random access memories (RAMs), etc.) can be employed in alpha particle detection and spectroscopy with a good energy resolution. The detection mechanisms are first discussed; the performances of these devices operating in the pulse and in the current mode are then described starting from the pioneering works of the last decade. Some peculiar applications of RAMs are finally reported. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  5. the effect of freezing method on the survival of ram spermatozoa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sci.2l, 351. SALAIIiON, S., 1970. The survival of ram spermatozoa following pellet freezing below-79oC. Aust- .1. hiol..n'r. 13. 459. SALAMON, S. & BRANDON, M.R., l97l . Effect of compcition of thawing solution on sunrival of ram spernntozoa iroznn by the pellet method. Aust. J. biol. Sci. 24,355. SALAMON, S. & VISSER, D., ...

  6. Consignor's part and multimodality of the packages of RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the essential principles of Safety in transport of RAM as it was carried on, until the present days, is that the safety comes firstly from the packaging, and not from a special consideration of the mode of transport or anything else. A natural consequence was that the packaging remains the same, whatever is the used mode of transport, another that the transport mode does not take part, otherly than by its normal safety in the carriage itself in the protection against the radioactive hazard. Some recent actions, nevertheless, could be considered as putting some doubt on the implementation of this principles in the regulations and sometimes on these principles themselves. However, these latter come from the fact that the safety of the transport lays essentially in the hands of the consignor. He is indeed the only one who knows well enough the material and who is able to assess the adequation of the packaging and to warrant it to the Competent Authority when necessary. Besides, the packaging is the only direct grasp he has on the shipment, outside the special case of exclusive use. This situation is not completely incompatible with a new possible graduation of the packaging according to the transport mode, under the condition that this graduation be unidimensional which means the same in every field of testing. The consignor must, then, select the packaging corresponding to the most demanding of the possible modes. It is certainly much more difficult to adapt the mode of transport to the shipped materials themselves. All the transport has then to be in the hands of the consignor. That perhaps, can be relevant to industrial nuclear transport (eg: irradiated fuels, wastes), but not to the carriage of radioactive materials in general, which is the scope of IAEA regulations. (author)

  7. Expression of basal cell marker revealed by RAM11 antibody during epithelial regeneration in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Cichocki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RAM11 is a mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit macrophage antibody recognizing connective tissue and vascular macrophages. Our previous report showed that RAM11 reacted with basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia of rabbit skin, oral mucosa and esophagus. The aim of the present study was to follow the appearance of RAM11 immunoreactivity in basal cells of regenerating oral epithelium in rabbits. No RAM11 immunostaining was observed in the regenerating epithelium examined on days 1 and 3 of wound healing. A weak immunofluorescence first appeared on day 7 in single basal cells and 32% of RAM11- positive basal cells were observed on day 14. These findings indicate that expression of the antigen recognized by RAM11 antibody is a transient event in the differentiation of oral keratinocytes which not always occurs during epithelial repair, although it is a constant feature of epithelial turnover in mature epithelium. Therefore this antigen can be regarded as basal cell marker only in mature stratified squamous epithelia.

  8. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  9. A ram-pressure threshold for star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    In turbulent fragmentation, star formation occurs in condensations created by converging flows. The condensations must be sufficiently massive, dense and cool to be gravitationally unstable, so that they start to contract; and they must then radiate away thermal energy fast enough for self-gravity to remain dominant, so that they continue to contract. For the metallicities and temperatures in local star-forming clouds, this second requirement is only met robustly when the gas couples thermally to the dust, because this delivers the capacity to radiate across the full bandwidth of the continuum, rather than just in a few discrete spectral lines. This translates into a threshold for vigorous star formation, which can be written as a minimum ram pressure PCRIT ˜ 4 × 10-11 dyne. PCRIT is independent of temperature, and corresponds to flows with molecular hydrogen number density n_{{H_2.FLOW}} and velocity vFLOW satisfying n_{{H_2.FLOW}} v_{FLOW}^2≳ 800 cm^{-3} (km s^{-1})^2. This in turn corresponds to a minimum molecular hydrogen column density for vigorous star formation, N_{{H_2.CRIT}} ˜ 4 × 10^{21} cm^{-2} (ΣCRIT ˜ 100 M⊙ pc-2), and a minimum visual extinction AV, CRIT ˜ 9 mag. The characteristic diameter and line density for a star-forming filament when this threshold is just exceeded - a sweet spot for local star formation regions - are 2RFIL ˜ 0.1 pc and μFIL ˜ 13 M⊙ pc-2. The characteristic diameter and mass for a prestellar core condensing out of such a filament are 2RCORE ˜ 0.1 pc and MCORE ˜ 1 M⊙. We also show that fragmentation of a shock-compressed layer is likely to commence while the convergent flows creating the layer are still ongoing, and we stress that, under this circumstance, the phenomenology and characteristic scales for fragmentation of the layer are fundamentally different from those derived traditionally for pre-existing layers.

  10. Kinematics of ram filter feeding and beat-glide swimming in the northern anchovy Engraulis mordax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2017-08-01

    In the dense aquatic environment, the most adept swimmers are streamlined to reduce drag and increase the efficiency of locomotion. However, because they open their mouth to wide gape angles to deploy their filtering apparatus, ram filter feeders apparently switch between diametrically opposite swimming modes: highly efficient, streamlined 'beat-glide' swimming, and ram filter feeding, which has been hypothesized to be a high-cost feeding mode because of presumed increased drag. Ram filter-feeding forage fish are thought to play an important role in the flux of nutrients and energy in upwelling ecosystems; however, the biomechanics and energetics of this feeding mechanism remain poorly understood. We quantified the kinematics of an iconic forage fish, the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax , during ram filter feeding and non-feeding, mouth-closed beat-glide swimming. Although many kinematic parameters between the two swimming modes were similar, we found that swimming speeds and tailbeat frequencies were significantly lower during ram feeding. Rather than maintain speed with the school, a speed which closely matches theoretical optimum filter-feeding speeds was consistently observed. Beat-glide swimming was characterized by high variability in all kinematic parameters, but variance in kinematic parameters was much lower during ram filter feeding. Under this mode, body kinematics are substantially modified, and E. mordax swims more slowly and with decreased lateral movement along the entire body, but most noticeably in the anterior. Our results suggest that hydrodynamic effects that come with deployment of the filtering anatomy may limit behavioral options during foraging and result in slower swimming speeds during ram filtration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Proposed Model for Integrating RAMS Method in the Design Process in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Jibouri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend in the Netherlands for outsourcing public construction activities to the private sector through the use of integrated contracts. There is also an increasing emphasis from public clients on the use of RAMS and life cycle costing (LCC in the design process of infrastructural projects to improve the performance of designed systems and optimize the project cost. RAMS is an acronym for `reliability, availability, maintainability and safety' and represents a collection of techniques to provide predictions of the performance targets of the required system. Increasingly, RAMS targets are being specified in invitation to tender or contract documents and the parties responsible for the design are required to provide evidence of its application in their design. Recent evidence from practice, complemented with a literature study, has shown that the knowledge and application of RAMS in infrastructural designs are in their infancy compared with other industrial sectors and many designers in construction do not have the necessary knowledge and experience to apply it. This paper describes a proposed model for the integration of RAMS and LCC into the design process in construction. A variation of the model for the application of RAMS in `design, build, finance and maintain' (DBFM contracts that include maintenance requirements is also proposed. The two models involve providing guidelines to simplify the application of RAMs by the designers. The model has been validated for its practicality and usefulness during a workshop by experienced designers. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0100 Published in the Journal AEDM - Volume 5, Number 4, 2009 , pp. 179-192(14

  12. Recognition of a heritage in danger: rammed-earth architecture in Lyon city, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Dorothée

    2018-04-01

    Historically, man has built with what he had underfoot: if the earthen construction is a tradition of 11 000 years old, the technique of the rammed earth (earth rammed in a formwork) is relatively new since it appeared for the first time in Tunisia in 814 BC. Exported in France, rammed earth is established mainly in Rhône-Alpes Region which has an ideal soil, rich in gravel, sand, silt and clay. Traditionally associated with the rural world, rammed earth heritage is also present in urban centers. The city of Lyon is one of the rare European cities to concentrate a large proportion of rammed earth buildings: the inventories made show that they are present in almost all the districts as well as in the suburban areas. This high density could be explained by the phenomenon of rural exodus experienced by Lyon during the nineteenth century. The agricultural populations, attracted by the prosperity of the city, then settled at the doors of this city, bringing their know-how by building with the cheaper and easier material available: earth. Rammed earth buildings are therefore located on bounder areas between the countryside and the city. They are thus found on lands that were once outside the city walls. With the advent of the industrial era at the end of the 19th century and the appearance of concrete, rammed earth constructions gradually disappeared. The constructions that we see today are therefore prior to 1900. Varied, ranging from detached houses to the 6-storey buildings, they stand as a testimony to a know-how that finds a particular resonance today, while the environmental and economic concerns are at the forefront. Little known, they constitute a heritage in danger that should be rediscovered.

  13. State-Transition-Aware Spilling Heuristic for MLC STT-RAM-Based Registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel Cell Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (MLC STT-RAM is a promising nonvolatile memory technology to build registers for its natural immunity to electromagnetic radiation in rad-hard space environment. Unlike traditional SRAM-based registers, MLC STT-RAM exhibits unbalanced write state transitions due to the fact that the magnetization directions of hard and soft domains cannot be flipped independently. This feature leads to nonuniform costs of write states in terms of latency and energy. However, current SRAM-targeting register allocations do not have a clear understanding of the impact of the different write state-transition costs. As a result, those approaches heuristically select variables to be spilled without considering the spilling priority imposed by MLC STT-RAM. Aiming to address this limitation, this paper proposes a state-transition-aware spilling cost minimization (SSCM policy, to save power when MLC STT-RAM is employed in register design. Specifically, the spilling cost model is first constructed according to the linear combination of different state-transition frequencies. Directed by the proposed cost model, the compiler picks up spilling candidates to achieve lower power and higher performance. Experimental results show that the proposed SSCM technique can save energy by 19.4% and improve the lifetime by 23.2% of MLC STT-RAM-based register design.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF FAT-TAILED RAMS FED COMPLETE FEED BASED OIL PALM FRONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamidah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of fat-tailed rams fed complete feedbased oil palm fronds (OPF. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRDwith 5 treatments and 4 replications i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of OPF substituting fields grass incomplete feed for A, B, C, D and E treatments, respectively. Twenty fat-tailed rams were fed twice at08.00 and 14.00 with pellet of complete feed for 4 months. The result of this experiment showed thatOPF significantly influenced nutrient consumption, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency ratio(FER. Oil palm fronds significantly affected (P<0.05 fat-tailed rams’s dry matter intake (DMI, organicmatter intake (OMI, crude protein intake (CPI, ADG and FER. The highest DMI, OMI, CPI, ADG, andFER of fat-tailed rams was in C treatment and significantly different from the others. It was concludedthat C treatment was the best treatment which can give the best fat-tailed rams performance. The OPFcan be used to replace the field grass as feed up to 75% proportion in complete feed and could increasethe performance and productivity of fat-tailed rams.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF FAT-TAILED RAMS FED COMPLETE FEED BASED OIL PALM FRONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamidah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of fat-tailed rams fed complete feed based oil palm fronds (OPF. This experiment was arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 treatments and 4 replications i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of OPF substituting fields grass in complete feed for A, B, C, D and E treatments, respectively. Twenty fat-tailed rams were fed twice at 08.00 and 14.00 with pellet of complete feed for 4 months. The result of this experiment showed that OPF significantly influenced nutrient consumption, average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency ratio (FER. Oil palm fronds significantly affected (P<0.05 fat-tailed rams’s dry matter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, crude protein intake (CPI, ADG and FER. The highest DMI, OMI, CPI, ADG, and FER of fat-tailed rams was in C treatment and significantly different from the others. It was concluded that C treatment was the best treatment which can give the best fat-tailed rams performance. The OPF can be used to replace the field grass as feed up to 75% proportion in complete feed and could increase the performance and productivity of fat-tailed rams.

  16. Ageing of fibre reinforced polymer composite selected as a bearing material for Rams of 540 MWe fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced-polymer-composite material has been suggested as a bearing material to overcome tribological problems witnessed during the testing of Ram assembly of the 540 MWe fuelling machine at RTD. After successful trials at B-Ram the composite material has been adapted for B-RAM, C-Ram and RDB head at fuelling machines being tested at RTD, Hall 7 and at Tarapur. Laboratory evaluations were also carried out at Tribology Lab RTD to study effect of radiation on the composite. Paper deals with the various aspects of life prediction of this material in term of wear and radiation damage. (author)

  17. A study of environmental radon levels in rammed earth dwellings in the south west of Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Jennings, P.

    2002-01-01

    Indoor radon and thoron progeny Equilibrium Equivalent Concentrations (EEC) were measured with a portable 'Radon Sniffer' in 10 rammed earth dwellings and 10 conventional dwellings in Margaret River in the South West of Western Australia. Natural background gamma radiation was also measured within the dwellings. The results of this study show that the mean indoor radon progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings was 24 Bq m -3 EEC and 9.3 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The mean indoor thoron progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings was 3.9 Bq m -3 EEC and 0.8 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The ranges of combined indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings were between 2.1 and 76 Bq m -3 EEC and 2.0 and 27 Bq m -3 EEC respectively. The mean annual effective radiation dose equivalents from combined indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations EEC using UNSCEAR's (1982) conversion factors in rammed earth and non-rammed earth dwellings were 4.1 mSv y -1 and 2.2 mSv y -1 respectively. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  18. Nb multilayer planarization technology for a subnanosecond Josephson 1K-bit RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, S.; Wada, Y.; Tsuge, H.; Hidaka, M.; Ishida, I.; Tahara, S.

    1989-01-01

    Nb multilayer planarization technology has been developed. This planarization technology consists of an etch-back technique using 2000-molecular weight polystyrene and SiO/sub 2/ for the junction layer and wiring layers, and a tapered edge etching technique for contact between individual wiring layers. A Josephson 1K-bit random access memory (RAM) has been fabricated using this planarization technology. Excellent planarity, wherein level differences in all step areas are reduced to less than 1/20th of their original value, was achieved in the multilayer structure of the RAM. Moreover, appropriate RAM operations, with 570ps minimum access time and 13mW power dissipation, were confirmed

  19. Array-level stability enhancement of 50 nm AlxOy ReRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tomoko Ogura; Ning, Sheyang; Yamazawa, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Ken

    2015-12-01

    ReRAM's low voltage and low current programmability are attractive features to solve the scaling issues of conventional floating gate Flash. However, read instability in ReRAM is a critical issue, due to random telegraph noise (RTN), sensitivity to disturb and retention. In this work, the array-level characteristics of read stability in 50 nm AlxOy ReRAM are investigated and a circuit technique to improve stability is proposed and evaluated. First, in order to quantitatively assess memory cell stability, a method of stability characterization is defined. Next, based on this methodology, a proposal to improve read stability, called ;stability check loop; is evaluated. The stability check loop is a stability verification procedure, by which, instability improvement of 7×, and read error rate improvement of 40% are obtained.

  20. GTL Based Internet of Things Enable Processor Specific RAM Design on 65nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moudgil, Aditi; Garg, Kanika; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we are making Energy Efficient Internet of Things (IoTs) Enable RAM. In order to make it energy efficient, we are using Gunning Transceiver Logic (GTL) IO Standard and Gunning Transceiver Logic Plus (GTLP). We are using the 4 different members of GTL and GTLP IO standards family...... and searching the most energy efficient among them. We observed that when we use 3.6 GHz operating frequency, there is 90.2% reduction in I/O power when we used GTL instead of GTLP_DCI. We are inserting 128-bit IP address in RAM to make internet of things enable RAM. Finally, we are operating our IOTs Enable...

  1. Transport of RAM in tanks: how to fit into the IAEA safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Forberg, B.; Ulrich, A.

    1983-01-01

    The transport of radioactive materials (RAM) in tanks will become a field of increasing interest. Especially for substances with low radioactive hazard but may be with subsidary risks which can overrule the RAM-philosophy. The IAEA should pay attention to the problem whether to take over a more active part in the non-nuclear field of transport regulations by influencing and using the outcome of RAM transport conditions or to incorporate some or all provisions for tank transport in their own regulations. The necessity to solve the problems of shipments of substances with low radioactive hazards but high chemical hazards is highlighted by the requirements for UF 6 -cylinders. Up to now UF 6 is listed in class 7 only, but the IAEA requirements for large UF 6 cylinders don't come up to the level of requirements needed for the toxic and corrosive nature of UF 6 . 5 references

  2. Review of radiation effects on ReRAM devices and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Velo, Yago; Barnaby, Hugh J.; Kozicki, Michael N.

    2017-08-01

    A review of the ionizing radiation effects on resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology and devices is presented in this article. The review focuses on vertical devices exhibiting bipolar resistance switching, devices that have already exhibited interesting properties and characteristics for memory applications and, in particular, for non-volatile memory applications. Non-volatile memories are important devices for any type of electronic and embedded system, as they are for space applications. In such applications, specific environmental issues related to the existence of cosmic rays and Van Allen radiation belts around the Earth contribute to specific failure mechanisms related to the energy deposition induced by such ionizing radiation. Such effects are important in non-volatile memory as the current leading technology, i.e. flash-based technology, is sensitive to the total ionizing dose (TID) and single-event effects. New technologies such as ReRAM, if competing with or complementing the existing non-volatile area of memories from the point of view of performance, also have to exhibit great reliability for use in radiation environments such as space. This has driven research on the radiation effects of such ReRAM technology, on both the conductive-bridge RAM as well as the valence-change memories, or OxRAM variants of the technology. Initial characterizations of ReRAM technology showed a high degree of resilience to TID, developing researchers’ interest in characterizing such resilience as well as investigating the cause of such behavior. The state of the art of such research is reviewed in this article.

  3. Performance analysis of STT-RAM with cross shaped free layer using Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat Kumary, Tangudu; Ghosh, Bahniman; Awadhiya, Bhaskar; Verma, Ankit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of a spin transfer torque random access memory (STT-RAM) cell with a cross shaped Heusler compound based free layer using micromagnetic simulations. We have designed a free layer using a Cobalt based Heusler compound. Simulation results clearly show that the switching time from one state to the other state has been reduced, also it has been found that the critical switching current density (to switch the magnetization of the free layer of the STT RAM cell) is reduced.

  4. Optical RAM-enabled cache memory and optical routing for chip multiprocessors: technologies and architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleros, Nikos; Maniotis, Pavlos; Alexoudi, Theonitsa; Fitsios, Dimitris; Vagionas, Christos; Papaioannou, Sotiris; Vyrsokinos, K.; Kanellos, George T.

    2014-03-01

    The processor-memory performance gap, commonly referred to as "Memory Wall" problem, owes to the speed mismatch between processor and electronic RAM clock frequencies, forcing current Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) configurations to consume more than 50% of the chip real-estate for caching purposes. In this article, we present our recent work spanning from Si-based integrated optical RAM cell architectures up to complete optical cache memory architectures for Chip Multiprocessor configurations. Moreover, we discuss on e/o router subsystems with up to Tb/s routing capacity for cache interconnection purposes within CMP configurations, currently pursued within the FP7 PhoxTrot project.

  5. TiO$_2$-based Memristors and ReRAM: Materials, Mechanisms and Models (a Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Ella

    2016-01-01

    The memristor is the fundamental non-linear circuit element, with uses in computing and computer memory. ReRAM (Resistive Random Access Memory) is a resistive switching memory proposed as a non-volatile memory. In this review we shall summarise the state of the art for these closely-related fields, concentrating on titanium dioxide, the well-utilised and archetypal material for both. We shall cover material properties, switching mechanisms and models to demonstrate what ReRAM and memristor sc...

  6. Error analysis and prevention of cosmic ion-induced soft errors in static CMOS RAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, S.E.; Ochoa, A. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Koga, R.; Kolasinski, W.A.

    1982-06-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with memory cells are known to cause temporary, random, bit errors in some designs. The sensitivity of polysilicon gate CMOS static RAM designs to logic upset by impinging ions has been studied using computer simulations and experimental heavy ion bombardment. Results of the simulations are confirmed by experimental upset cross-section data. Analytical models have been extended to determine and evaluate design modifications which reduce memory cell sensitivity to cosmic ions. A simple design modification, the addition of decoupling resistance in the feedback path, is shown to produce static RAMs immune to cosmic ray-induced bit errors

  7. Integrating RAMS engineering and management with the safety life cycle of IEC 61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann; Rausand, Marvin; Utne, Ingrid Bouwer

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines a new approach to reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) engineering and management. The new approach covers all phases of the new product development process and is aimed at producers of complex products like safety instrumented systems (SIS). The article discusses main RAMS requirements to a SIS and presents these requirements in a holistic perspective. The approach is based on a new life cycle model for product development and integrates this model into the safety life cycle of IEC 61508. A high integrity pressure protection system (HIPPS) for an offshore oil and gas application is used to illustrate the approach.

  8. Growth and Carcass Physical Components of Thin Tail Rams Fed on Different Levels of Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Rianto, E; Lindasari, E; Purbowati, E

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of rice bran supplementation on live weight gain (LWG), the proportion of carcass meat, bone and fat of Thin Tail Rams. Twelve thin tail rams, aged about 12 months, weighed 20.95 ± 1.52 kg (CV = 7.26%) were allocated into a Randomized Block Design with 2 blocks and 3 treatments. The treatments applied were levels of rice bran supplementation, i.e. Napier grass ad libitum without rice bran (T1), Napier grass ad libitum and 200 g rice bran (T2...

  9. Software for dimensioning of hydraulic ram; Software para dimensionamento de carneiro hidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina, CE (Brazil); Borges, Grace Anne Pontes [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Processamento de Dados; Borges, Everton Pontes [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Curso Tecnologia em Automacao Industrial

    2004-07-01

    The search for new renewable energy sources sometimes takes us always from existing solutions applications. The hydraulic ram is equipment developed in 1796, used to water pumping, without using electricity energy and can be used for small rural producer in places where the conventional electricity grid access is limited. The objective of this work is Software introducing, developed to help a commercial hydraulic ram dimensioning, which isn't necessary previous hydraulic knowledge, and can also be used as a didactic resource at technicians and technologists courses in subjects as hydraulics or irrigation. (author)

  10. Purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase and beta-galactosidase from ram testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J C; Roston, C P; Jevons, F R

    1966-02-01

    1. The presence of beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of beta-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of beta-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the beta-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the beta-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated.

  11. Design of data transportation based on dual-port RAM in IMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guohui; Li Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) is a rugged, portable, sensitive, low cost, field instrumental technique capable of trace organic detection and monitoring for environmental pollutants, pesticides, explosives, narcotics, and other analytes, hence it is of great significance to social security and stability. High rate data transmission mechanism between DSP processor and ARM core is required in the electronic system of IMS. After careful comparison of UART and dual port RAM, a new design based on dual port RAM that can be applied to other similar systems. (authors)

  12. Dose calculation for atmospheric releases from a nuclear accident using RAMS/HYPACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Junji; Tomita, Kenichi; Homma, Toshimitsu

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of uncertainties in the structure of the atmospheric dispersion/deposition model used in the probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, OSCAAR. To investigate these uncertainties, we have introduced the more sophisticated computer codes, RAMS and HYPACT, which were widely used in the research field of atmospheric phenomena. In this work, the capabilities of the HYPACT model were extended for use in accident consequence assessments. The preliminary comparison between the predictions by OSCAAR and those by RAMS/HYPACT were conducted for both individual and collective consequences in terms of probabilistic results. (author)

  13. TiO2-based memristors and ReRAM: materials, mechanisms and models (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Ella

    2014-10-01

    The memristor is the fundamental nonlinear circuit element, with uses in computing and computer memory. Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) is a resistive switching memory proposed as a non-volatile memory. In this review we shall summarize the state of the art for these closely-related fields, concentrating on titanium dioxide, the well-utilized and archetypal material for both. We shall cover material properties, switching mechanisms and models to demonstrate what ReRAM and memristor scientists can learn from each other and examine the outlook for these technologies.

  14. TiO2-based memristors and ReRAM: materials, mechanisms and models (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, Ella

    2014-01-01

    The memristor is the fundamental nonlinear circuit element, with uses in computing and computer memory. Resistive Random Access Memory (ReRAM) is a resistive switching memory proposed as a non-volatile memory. In this review we shall summarize the state of the art for these closely-related fields, concentrating on titanium dioxide, the well-utilized and archetypal material for both. We shall cover material properties, switching mechanisms and models to demonstrate what ReRAM and memristor scientists can learn from each other and examine the outlook for these technologies. (invited review)

  15. Reliability and Maintainability Model (RAM): User and Maintenance Manual. Part 2; Improved Supportability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the procedures for utilizing and maintaining the Reliability & Maintainability Model (RAM) developed by the University of Dayton for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose of the grant is to provide support to NASA in establishing operational and support parameters and costs of proposed space systems. As part of this research objective, the model described here was developed. This Manual updates and supersedes the 1995 RAM User and Maintenance Manual. Changes and enhancements from the 1995 version of the model are primarily a result of the addition of more recent aircraft and shuttle R&M data.

  16. Integrated approach for combining sustainability and safety into a RAM analysis, RAM2S (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Sustainability and Safety) towards greenhouse gases emission targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Tobias V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Hovik, Oslo (Norway)

    2009-07-01

    This paper aims to present an approach to integrate sustainability and safety concerns on top of a typical RAM Analysis to support new enterprises to find alternatives to align themselves to the greenhouse gases emission targets, measured as CO{sub 2} (carbon dioxide) equivalent. This approach can be used to measure the impact of the potential CO{sub 2} equivalent emission levels mainly related to new enterprises with high CO{sub 2} content towards environment and production, as per example, the extraction of oil and gas from the Brazilian Pre-salt layers. In this sense, this integrated approach, combining Sustainability and Safety into a RAM analysis, RAM2S (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Sustainability and Safety), can be used to assess the impact of CO{sub 2} 'production' along the entire enterprise life-cycle, including the impact of possible facility shutdown due to emission restrictions limits, as well as due to the occurrence of additional failures modes related to CO{sub 2} corrosion capabilities. Thus, at the end, this integrated approach would allow companies to find out a more cost-effective alternative to adapt their business into the global warming reality, overcoming the inherent threats of greenhouse gases. (author)

  17. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Mélanie K; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-08-08

    Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots. We have carried out a transcript profiling experiment by RNAseq of mycorrhizal plants vs. non-mycorrhizal controls in wild type and ram1 mutants. The results show that the expression of early genes required for AM, such as the strigolactone biosynthetic genes and the common symbiosis signalling genes, is independent of RAM1. In contrast, genes that are involved at later stages of symbiosis, for example for nutrient exchange in cortex cells, require RAM1 for induction. RAM1 itself is highly induced in mycorrhizal roots together with many other transcription factors, in particular GRAS proteins. Since RAM1 has previously been shown to be directly activated by the common symbiosis signalling pathway through CYCLOPS, we conclude that it acts as an early transcriptional switch that induces many AM-related genes, among them genes that are essential for the development of arbuscules, such as STR, STR2, RAM2, and PT4, besides hundreds of additional RAM1-dependent genes the role of which in symbiosis remains to be explored. Taken together, these results indicate that the defect in the morphogenesis of the fungal arbuscules in ram1 mutants may be an indirect consequence of functional defects in the host, which interfere with nutrient exchange and possibly other functions on which the fungus depends.

  18. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W function. Mixture components, whose weights become negative during iterative procedure, are pruned by setting corresponding mixture weights to zeros. In addition, multiple mixture components with similar parameters describing the same PHD peak can be merged into one mixture component in the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is superior to the typical pruning algorithm based on thresholds.

  20. A Novel Nondestructive Bit-Line Discharging Scheme for Deep Submicrometer STT-RAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeinali, Behzad; Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Raghavan, Praveen

    . In this paper, we propose a novel non-destructive self-reference sensing scheme for STT-RAM. The proposed technique overcomes the large bit-to-bit variation of MTJ resistance. In the proposed scheme, the stored value in the STTRAM cell preserves, hence, the long write-back operation is eliminated. Besides...

  1. Evaluation of semen extenders for short-term storage of ram semen at 4° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary studies found that progressive motility of ram sperm declined ~75% when stored at 4° C for 24 h, and continued to decline over time when using extenders supplemented with 5% egg yolk. The current study evaluated the effects of different combinations of extenders, ethylene glycol (EG), eg...

  2. CRYOPRESERVATION OF RAM SPERM FROM AUTOCHTHONOUS BREEDS DURING A NON-MATING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milko SABEV

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to collect and successfully cryopreserve ejaculates in a non-mating season from rams of the autochthonous breeds Karakachan, Cooper-red Shumen and Karnobat-local, raised in Bulgaria. Studies are in progress aiming the elaboration of optimal cryoprotective extenders and freezing technology.

  3. Integration of RAMS in LCC analysis for linear transport infrastructures. A case study for railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Cordón, Álvaro; Jiménez-Redondo, Noemi; Morales-Gámiz, F. J.; García-Villena, F. A.; Garmabaki, Amir H. S.; Odelius, Johan

    2017-09-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis is an economic technique used to assess the total costs associated with the lifetime of a system in order to support decision making in long term strategic planning. For complex systems, such as railway and road infrastructures, the cost of maintenance plays an important role in the LCC analysis. Costs associated with maintenance interventions can be more reliably estimated by integrating the probabilistic nature of the failures associated to these interventions in the LCC models. Reliability, Maintainability, Availability and Safety (RAMS) parameters describe the maintenance needs of an asset in a quantitative way by using probabilistic information extracted from registered maintenance activities. Therefore, the integration of RAMS in the LCC analysis allows obtaining reliable predictions of system maintenance costs and the dependencies of these costs with specific cost drivers through sensitivity analyses. This paper presents an innovative approach for a combined RAMS & LCC methodology for railway and road transport infrastructures being developed under the on-going H2020 project INFRALERT. Such RAMS & LCC analysis provides relevant probabilistic information to be used for condition and risk-based planning of maintenance activities as well as for decision support in long term strategic investment planning.

  4. Comparing interfertility data with random amplified microsatellites DNA (RAMS) studies in Ganoderma Karst. Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudin, Nur Fatihah Hasan; S, Siddiquee

    2012-03-01

    The taxonomy of the causal pathogen of basal stem rot of oil palms, Ganoderma is somewhat problematic at present. In order to determine the genetic distance relationship between G. boninense isolates and non-boninense isolates, a random amplified microsatellites DNA (RAMS) technique was carried out. The result was then compared with interfertility data of G. boninense that had been determined in previous mating studies to confirm the species of G. boninense. Dendrogram from cluster analysis based on UPGMA of RAMS data showed that two major clusters, I and II which separated at a genetic distance of 0.7935 were generated. Cluster I consisted of all the biological species G. boninense isolates namely CNLB, GSDK 3, PER 71, WD 814, GBL 3, GBL 6, OC, GH 02, 170 SL and 348781 while all non-boninense isolates namely G. ASAM, WRR, TFRI 129, G. RES, GJ, and CNLM were grouped together in cluster II. Although the RAMS markers showed polymorphisms in all the isolates tested, the results obtained were in agreement with the interfertility data. Therefore, the RAMS data could support the interfertility data for the identification of Ganoderma isolates.

  5. Ramón y Cajal erroneously identified as Camillo Golgi on a souvenir postage stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on a philatelic oddity that erringly identifies a picture of Santiago Ramón y Cajal as that of Camillo Golgi, this brief article examines official and unofficial stamp issues honoring the two great neuroanatomists, one from Spain and the other from Italy, who were early Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine.

  6. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Bagherian Khosroshahy

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts. Keywords: Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA, Majority gate, Random access memory (RAM, Energy efficiency

  7. CMOS/SOS RAM transient radiation upset and ''inversion'' effect investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Poljakov, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor/Silicon-on-Sapphire Random Access Memory (CMOS/SOS RAM) transient upset and inversion effect were investigated with pulsed laser, pulsed voltage generator and low-intensity light simulators. It was found that the inversion of information occurs due to memory cell photocurrents simultaneously with the power supply voltage drop transfer to memory cells outputs

  8. On the sexual cycle of mature bachelor bontebok rams at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the sexual cycle of mature bachelor bontebok rams at the Bontebok National Park, Swellendam. J.D. Skinner, H.M. Dott, V de Vos, R.P. Millar. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  9. SSTL based thermal and power efficient RAM design on 28nm FPGA for spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, D. M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an approach is made to design a Thermal and Power efficient RAM for that reason we have used DDR4L memory and six different members of SSTL I/Os standards on 28nm technology. Every spacecraft requires most energy efficient electronic system and for that very purpose we have designe...

  10. A new procedure for static RAM evaluation under x-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marec, R.; Gaillard, R.; Mary, P.; Fairbank, X.; Ferrant, R.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J.

    1994-01-01

    An original method, to identify the initial patterns that are the most favorable to obtain upsets under X-ray pulses, has been developed on Static RAMs in the standby mode. The results obtained with these initial patterns are interesting in order to analyze the radiation induced failures

  11. Species-specific nested PCR as a diagnostic tool for Brucella ovis infection in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate a species-specific nested PCR based on a previously described species-specific PCR for detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples of experimentally infected rams. The performance of the species-specific nested PCR was compared with the results of a genus-specific PCR. Fourteen rams were experimentally infected with the Brucella ovis REO 198 strain and samples of semen and urine were collected every week up to 180 days post infection. Out of 83 semen samples collected, 42 (50.6% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, and 23 (27.7% were positive for the genus-specific PCR. Out of 75 urine samples, 49 (65.3% were positive for the species-specific nested PCR, whereas 11 (14.6% were genus-specific PCR positive. Species-specific nested PCR was significantly more sensitive (P<0.001 than the genus-specific PCR in semen and urine from experimentally infected rams. In conclusion, the species-specific nested PCR developed in this study may be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of B. ovis in semen and urine samples from suspected rams.

  12. Reproductive performance of postpartum ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Silva, J C; Basto, Srl; Tenório Filho, F; Moura, M T; Silva Filho, M L; Oliveira, Mal

    2017-08-01

    The reproductive performance of postpartum Santa Inês (SI) and Morada Nova (MN) ewes treated with insulin or progesterone hormones in association with ram effect was evaluated. Ewes from SI (n = 69) and MN (n = 69) breeds were randomly allocated to three groups of each breed (T1-ram effect only; T2-ram effect + insulin; T3-ram effect + progesterone). Progesterone concentrations (ηg/ml; mean ± SD) before and after introduction of rams (n = 6) were 0.51 ± 0.22 and 3.78 ± 0.68 (T1), 0.65 ± 0.21 and 3.77 ± 0.78 (T2) and 0.52 ± 0.21 and 3.84 ± 0.84 (T3) in SI ewes and 0.74 ± 0.19 and 3.71 ± 0.56 (T1), 0.70 ± 0.21 and 3.79 ± 0.75 (T2) and 0.81 ± 0.14 and 3.87 ± 0.80 (T3) in MN ewes, respectively. Thus, lower progesterone concentrations were found before the introduction of rams (p ewes and at 64 (T1), 40 (T2) and 44 (T3) hr in MN ewes. The mean number of ovulations was similar between groups (p > .05), was 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.5 ± 0.54 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in SI ewes and 1.3 ± 0.51 (T1), 1.6 ± 0.51 (T2) and 1.6 ± 0.51 (T3) in MN ewes. In conclusion, the ram effect alone is effective at inducing and synchronizing oestrus in sheep under postpartum anoestrus, irrespective of hormone treatments. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area of rams with high or low libido-A role for dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A C; Mirto, A J; Austin, K J; Roselli, C E; Alexander, B M

    2017-12-01

    Dopamine synthesis in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is necessary for the reinforcement of sexual behavior. The objective of this study determined if sexual stimuli initiates reward, and whether reward is attenuated in sexually inactive rams. Sexually active rams were exposed to urine from estrous (n=4) or ovariectomized (n=3) ewes with inactive rams (n=3) exposed to urine from estrous ewes. Following exposure, rams were exsanguinated and brains perfused. Alternating sections of the VTA were stained for Fos related antigens (FRA), tyrosine hydroxylase, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity. Forebrain tissue, mid-sagittal ventral to the anterior corpus callosum, was stained for dopamine D 2 receptors. Concentrations of cortisol was determined prior to and following exposure. Exposure to ovariectomized-ewe urine in sexually active rams did not influence (P=0.6) FRA expression, but fewer (PSexually inactive rams had fewer (Psexually active rams following exposure to estrous ewe urine. VTA neurons staining positive for dopamine beta-hydroxylase did not differ by sexual activity (P=0.44) or urine exposure (P=0.07). Exposure to stimulus did not influence (P=0.46) numbers of forebrain neurons staining positive for dopamine D2 receptors in sexually active rams, but fewer (P=0.04) neurons stain positive in inactive rams. Serum concentrations of cortisol did not differ (P≥0.52) among rams prior to or following stimulus. In conclusion sexual inactivity is unlikely due to stress, but may be partially a result of decreased tyrosine hydroxylase and/or the response to dopamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical RAM row access using WDM-enabled all-passive row/column decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Alexoudi, Theoni; Kanellos, George T.; Miliou, Amalia; Pleros, Nikos

    2014-03-01

    Towards achieving a functional RAM organization that reaps the advantages offered by optical technology, a complete set of optical peripheral modules, namely the Row (RD) and Column Decoder (CD) units, is required. In this perspective, we demonstrate an all-passive 2×4 optical RAM RD with row access operation and subsequent all-passive column decoding to control the access of WDM-formatted words in optical RAM rows. The 2×4 RD exploits a WDM-formatted 2-bit-long memory WordLine address along with its complementary value, all of them encoded on four different wavelengths and broadcasted to all RAM rows. The RD relies on an all-passive wavelength-selective filtering matrix (λ-matrix) that ensures a logical `0' output only at the selected RAM row. Subsequently, the RD output of each row drives the respective SOA-MZI-based Row Access Gate (AG) to grant/block the entry of the incoming data words to the whole memory row. In case of a selected row, the data word exits the row AG and enters the respective CD that relies on an allpassive wavelength-selective Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) for decoding the word bits into their individual columns. Both RD and CD procedures are carried out without requiring any active devices, assuming that the memory address and data word bits as well as their inverted values will be available in their optical form by the CPU interface. Proof-of-concept experimental verification exploiting cascaded pairs of AWGs as the λ-matrix is demonstrated at 10Gb/s, providing error-free operation with a peak power penalty lower than 0.2dB for all optical word channels.

  15. RAMS - Regional Atmospheric Modelling System for decision support system SWD-WJ/RODOS[34 refs, 26 figs, 4 tabs]; RAMS - numeryczne prognozowanie pogody dla systemu wspomagania decyzji SWD-WJ/RODOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiewicz, M; Potemski, S [Inst. of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Galkowski, A [Inst. Fizyki Plazmy i Laserowej Mikrosyntezy, Warsaw (Poland); Zelazinska, B [Inst. of Geophysics, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1999-07-01

    Presented is report aimed at implementation of RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modelling System) to the decision support system SWD-WJ/RODOS. A comprehensive analysis has been made of different meteorological codes, both local and regional. RAMS code, developed at Colorado State University and Aster Division of Mission Research Corporation, has been selected for reasons presented in this report. RAMS has been adjusted to Polish conditions. Necessary data as topography and surface characteristics (roughness, land percentage, see surface temperature, land cover, soil type, etc.) have been obtained from US Geological Survey and NOAA ARL, Washington DC. Numerical tests have been performed on two nested grids, one covering large part of Europe, the other one covering Polish territory. RAMS requires meteorological input from global model and/or from local meteorological stations. Use has been made of data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, Warsaw, and from European Center for Medium Range Forecast (ECMWF, Reading). For the later RAMS acted operationally what means that global data were delivered every 12 h from Reading via Internet to Swierk and subsequently 12 h weather forecast was calculated by RAMS. In a separate experiment RAMS forecast has been benchmarked with a forecast by UMPL code operated routinely at Warsaw University. Results of all of those test are presented in the report. Finally, some suggestions concerning further work has been put forward. (author)

  16. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  17. Growth performance and hematology of Djallonké rams fed haulms of four varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Ansah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the chemical composition of the haulms of 4 dual-purpose groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. varieties and their effects on the growth and hematology of Djallonké rams. The groundnut varieties were ICGV 97049 (Obolo, ICGX SM 87057 (Yenyawoso, RMP 12 (Azivivi and Manipinta. Rams (live weight 15.0 ± 3.0 kg were randomly assigned to 4 sole groundnut haulm meal (GHM treatments, with 4 rams each in an individual pen per treatment (total n = 16 rams. Samples of the groundnut haulms were milled and analyzed for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The CP concentration was higher (P  0.05 when the Djallonké rams were fed the haulms. However, significant differences were observed in final live weight and average daily live weight gain. Rams fed the Yenyawoso variety had higher (P < 0.05 final live weight and average daily live weight gain compared with those fed Obolo and Azivivi varieties. Consumption of any of the 4 varieties of groundnut haulms by Djallonké rams did not have any harmful effect on their red and white blood cell numbers and hemoglobin concentration. The study revealed that the different varieties of groundnut haulms differ in nutrient composition and also affect the growth performance of the rams. The Yenyawoso variety may be used as a sole diet for fattening Djallonké rams.

  18. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Melanie K.; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorr...

  19. Identification of Spanish isolates of Rhizoctonia solani from potato by anastomosis grouping, ITS-RFLP and RAMS-fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Elbakali

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Anastomosis grouping, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the ITS regions including the 5.85 rDNA, and random amplified microsatellites (RAMS were used to characterize isolates of Rhizoctonia solani collected from Spain and Finland. There was a high similarity between the results obtained with the three techniques. RAMS markers revealed more genetic variation among isolates of R. solani than RFLP. The anastomosis group (AG–3 isolates were clearly separated from isolates belonging to other AGs by RAMS, RFLPs and anastomosis grouping. Almost all the isolates sampled from potato belonged to AG–3. No differences were observed between Spanish and Finnish AG–3 isolates.

  20. I-optimal mixture designs

    OpenAIRE

    GOOS, Peter; JONES, Bradley; SYAFITRI, Utami

    2013-01-01

    In mixture experiments, the factors under study are proportions of the ingredients of a mixture. The special nature of the factors in a mixture experiment necessitates specific types of regression models, and specific types of experimental designs. Although mixture experiments usually are intended to predict the response(s) for all possible formulations of the mixture and to identify optimal proportions for each of the ingredients, little research has been done concerning their I-optimal desi...

  1. Mixtures and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water can be considered as a complex mixture that consists of tens, hundreds or thousands of chemicals of which the composition is qualitatively and quantitatively not fully known. From a public health point of view it is most relevant to answer the question of whether chemicals in drinking

  2. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and the Spanish school of neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres-Barquin, Pedro J

    2002-11-01

    Advances in neurology are now possible thanks to the endeavours of a few scientists who in the past laid firm foundations for the study of the nervous system. Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) was one such pioneer of brain exploration and is acknowledged as the founder of modern neuroscience. He described the structure and organisation of virtually all parts of the nervous system and developed theories, including the neuron doctrine and the law of functional polarisation, that are the cornerstones of neuroscience. In addition to devoting his life to research, Ramón y Cajal was a dedicated teacher and mentor and created a school that greatly contributed to the flourishing of neurology.

  3. Doctor Ramón Luis Miranda Torres, su relación con las neurociencias

    OpenAIRE

    Hodelín Tablada,Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: en el presente trabajo se reseña la relación del doctor Ramón Luis Miranda con las neurociencias, dirigido a destacar su inclinación por estas disciplinas. Desarrollo: conocido en la historiografía médica como el médico de José Martí el apóstol cubano el doctor Ramón Luis Miranda Torres, se destacó en otros aspectos poco divulgados, por lo que opinamos que no se le ha otorgado su verdadera dimensión. Nacido en la ciudad de Matanzas, Cuba, estudió medicina en Francia y desde sus años...

  4. An automatic analyzer of solid state nuclear track detectors using an optic RAM as image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staderini, E.M.; Castellano, A.

    1986-01-01

    An optic RAM is a conventional digital random access read/write dynamic memory device featuring a quartz windowed package and memory cells regularly ordered on the chip. Such a device is used as an image sensor because each cell retains data stored in it for a time depending on the intensity of the light incident on the cell itself. The authors have developed a system which uses an optic RAM to acquire and digitize images from electrochemically etched CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the track count rate up to 5000 cm -2 . On the digital image so obtained, a microprocessor, with appropriate software, performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation. (orig.)

  5. Purification of β-acetylglucosaminase and β-galactosidase from ram testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, J. C.; Roston, Christine P. J.; Jevons, F. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. The presence of β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) in an acetic acid extract of ram testis is reported. Some properties of the crude enzyme preparation were studied. 2. The purification of β-acetylglucosaminase (EC 3.2.1.30) and of β-galactosidase from the ram-testis extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation and chromatography on a CM-cellulose column is described. 3. The final purifications of the separated enzymes achieved were for the β-acetylglucosaminase 35 times and for the β-galactosidase 99 times. 4. The possibility of using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 to purify the enzymes was investigated. PMID:5949569

  6. Molecular characterization of 93 genotypes of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. with random amplified microsatellites RAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacenia Morillo C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified microsatellite (RAMs markers six were used to characterize 93 genotypes of cocoa in Tumaco (Colombia. Hundred twenty seven bands were generated. The number of polymorphic loci varied between 11 and 25 for the AG and TG primers, respectively. This study differentiated the 93 genotypes into six groups with a 0.53 similarity, 0.28 mean heterozygosity (He for the population, and 0.12±0.02 genetic differentiation coefficient or Fst. A significant level of genetic diversity was evident in the T. cacao genotypes. This resource would benefit selection programs of individual trees or plant breeding programs. The genotypes clustered in a large proportion in accordance with the collection zone. This characteristic was associated with collection zones and along the rivers in the municipality of Tumaco. The RAM technique proved to be a useful tool for the determination of genetic diversity in Theobroma species.

  7. Reliability and Maintainability model (RAM) user and maintenance manual. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the procedures for utilizing and maintaining the Reliability and Maintainability Model (RAM) developed by the University of Dayton for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The RAM model predicts reliability and maintainability (R&M) parameters for conceptual space vehicles using parametric relationships between vehicle design and performance characteristics and subsystem mean time between maintenance actions (MTBM) and manhours per maintenance action (MH/MA). These parametric relationships were developed using aircraft R&M data from over thirty different military aircraft of all types. This report describes the general methodology used within the model, the execution and computational sequence, the input screens and data, the output displays and reports, and study analyses and procedures. A source listing is provided.

  8. Microprocessor- and LSI-based CAMAC RAM controllers in a modular multiparameter instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarda, V.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution deals with the main features and with the hardware modifications of RAM controllers in the dual-port accessed CAMAC memory modules that have been applied in a modular multichannel analyzer instrumentation system. The modules described in this paper are fully compatible with the CAMAC standard EUR 4100 and with the COMPEX draft proposal of the ESONE Study Group, as well. Special attention is paid to the possible application of modern LSI bipolar circuits. (orig.)

  9. Cryopreservation of ram semen in extenders containing soybean lecithin as cryoprotectant and hyaluronic acid as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, A; Najafi, M H; Zanganeh, Z; Sharafi, M; Martinez-Pastor, F; Adeldust, H

    2014-12-01

    A soybean lecithin-based extender supplemented with hyaluronic acid (HA) was assayed for effectiveness to improve the quality of frozen-thawed ram semen. HA has not been tested yet in an extender containing soybean lecithin for freezing ram semen. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of soybean lecithin at 1% or 1.5% along with HA at 0, 0.5 and 1 mg ml(-1) in a Tris-based extender on the motion characteristics, membrane integrity (HOST), viability, GSH peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity, lipid peroxidation and acrosomal status after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from four Mehraban rams during the breeding season and frozen in the six lecithin×HA extenders. The extender containing 1.5% lecithin supplemented with no HA yielded higher total motility (52.5%±1.6), viability (55.8%±1.6) and membrane integrity (44.5%±1.7), but the effects of the lecithin concentration did not reach signification. Linearity-related parameters, ALH, BCF, lipid peroxidation, GSH-PX activity, morphology and acrosomal status were not affected by the extender composition. In general, adding HA significantly decreased sperm velocity (1 mg ml(-1) HA), total motility (only with 1.5% lecithin), viability (1 mg ml(-1) HA for 1% lecithin; both concentrations for 1.5% lecithin) and membrane integrity. In conclusion, adding HA to the freezing extender supplemented with soybean lecithin failed to improve quality-related variables in ram semen. Increasing the lecithin content could have a positive effect, but further studies are needed. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Origin of the OFF state variability in ReRAM cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaoru, Iulia; Khiat, Ali; Li, Qingjiang; Prodromakis, Themistoklis; Berdan, Radu; Papavassiliou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This work exploits the switching dynamics of nanoscale resistive random access memory (ReRAM) cells with particular emphasis on the origin of the observed variability when cells are consecutively cycled/programmed at distinct memory states. It is demonstrated that this variance is a common feature of all ReRAM elements and is ascribed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments that expand across the active core, independently of the material employed as the active switching core, the causal physical switching mechanism, the switching mode (bipolar/unipolar) or even the unit cells' dimensions. Our hypothesis is supported through both experimental and theoretical studies on TiO 2 and In 2 O 3  : SnO 2 (ITO) based ReRAM cells programmed at three distinct resistive states. Our prototypes employed TiO 2 or ITO active cores over 5 × 5 µm 2 and 100 × 100 µm 2 cell areas, with all tested devices demonstrating both unipolar and bipolar switching modalities. In the case of TiO 2 -based cells, the underlying switching mechanism is based on the non-uniform displacement of ionic species that foster the formation of conductive filaments. On the other hand, the resistive switching observed in the ITO-based devices is considered to be due to a phase change mechanism. The selected experimental parameters allowed us to demonstrate that the observed programming variance is a common feature of all ReRAM devices, proving that its origin is dependent upon randomly oriented local disorders within the active core that have a substantial impact on the overall state variance, particularly for high-resistive states. (paper)

  11. A propósito de José Luis Brea: del archivo a la RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Broncano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The philosopher José Luis Brea proposes a notion of memory spread around a network of connections, which reveals a conception of culture based on a RAM structure and contrary to the culture of archive. The underwent changes in the classification of disciplines caused by individual’s attitudes deriving from the new media hyperconnectivity environment will be reviewed here and the relevance in the present humanities of concepts such as exile, frontier and question without answer.

  12. Steady state gamma testing of a 4K NMOS dynamic RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, D.W.; Temkin, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of the Texas Instruments TMS4060JL, 4096 bit dynamic random-access memory (4K RAM) were tested in the ionizing environment of a 137 Ce source. Irradiated in an active condition, the devices were observed to fail at 1 x 10 3 rads (Si). Twenty-four hours after irradiation, 4 of the 5 devices tested were again functional. The devices were not powered and were at room temperature during the 24 hour anneal period

  13. Nano-Ionic Solid State Resistive Memories (Re-RAM): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satyajeet; Prabaharan, S R S

    2017-01-01

    Nano-ionic devices based on modest to fast ion conductors as active materials intrigued a revolution in the field of nano solid state resistive memories (the so-called Re-RAM) ever since HP labs unveiled the first solid state memristor device based on titanium dioxide (TiO2). This has brought impetus to the practical implementation of fourth missing element called “Memristor” correlating charge (q) and flux (φ) based on the conceptual thought by Chua in 1971 completing a missing gap between the passive electronic components (R, C and L). It depicts various functional features as memory element in terms of ionic charge transport in solid state by virtue of external electric flux variations. Consequently, a new avenue has been found by manipulating the ionic charge carriers creating a fast switching resistive random access memory (Re-RAM) or the so-called Memristors. The recent research has led to low power, faster switching speed, high endurance and high retention time devices that can be scaled down the order of few nanometers dimension and the 3D stacking is employed that significantly reduces the die area. This review is organized to provide the progress hitherto accomplished in the materials arena to make memristor devices with respect to current research attempts, different stack structures of ReRAM cells using various materials as well as the application of memristive system. Different synthesis approaches to make nano-ionic conducting metal oxides, the fabrication methods for ReRAM cells and its memory performance are reviewed comprehensively.

  14. RAM, an RGDS analog, exerts potent anti-melanoma effects in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simona Aguzzi

    Full Text Available Peptides containing the RGD sequence are under continuous investigation given their ability to control cell adhesion and apoptosis. Since small peptides are quickly metabolized and degraded in vivo, developing analogs resistant to serum-induced degradation is a challenging task. RGD analogs developed so far are known as molecules mostly inhibiting cell adhesion; this feature may reduce cell proliferation and tumor development but may not induce regression of tumors or metastases already formed. In the current study, carried out in melanoma in vitro and in vivo models, we show that RAM, an RGD-non-peptide Analog-Molecule, strongly inhibits cells adhesion onto plastic, vitronectin, fibronectin, laminin and von Willebrand Factor while it does not inhibit cell adhesion onto collagen IV, similarly to the RGDS template peptide. It also strongly inhibits in vitro cell proliferation, migration and DNA-synthesis, increases melanoma cells apoptosis and reduces survivin expression. All such effects were observed in collagen IV seeded cells, therefore are most likely independent from the anti adhesive properties. Further, RAM is more stable than the template RGDS; in fact it maintains its anti-proliferation and anti-adhesion effects after long serum exposure while RGDS almost completely loses its effects upon serum exposure. In a mouse metastatic melanoma in vivo model, increasing doses of RAM significantly reduce up to about 80% lung metastases development, while comparable doses of RGDS are less potent. In conclusion these data show that RAM is a potent inhibitor of melanoma growth in vitro, strongly reduces melanoma metastases development in vivo and represents a novel candidate for further in vivo investigations in the cancer treatment field.

  15. Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccoli, L.; Müller, U.; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 149, September (2017), s. 29-36 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : rammed earth * pseudo-dynamic loads * shear-compression tests * strengthening * polyester fabric strips Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061817310000

  16. A graphite based STT-RAM cell with reduction in switching current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghani, Ali; Peiravi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) is a serious candidate for “universal memory” because of its non-volatility, fast access time, high density, good scalability, high endurance and relatively low power dissipation. However, problems with low write speed and large write current are important existing challenges in STT-RAM design and there is a tradeoff between them and data retention time. In this study, a novel STT-RAM cell structure which uses perfect graphite based Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) is proposed. First, the cross-section of the structure is selected to be an ellipse of 45 nm and 180 nm dimensions and a six-layer graphite is used as tunnel barrier. By passing a lateral current with a short pulse width (before applying STT current and independent of it) through four middle graphene layers of the tunnel barrier, a 27% reduction in the amplitude of the switching current (for fast switching time of 2 ns) or a 58% reduction in its pulse width is achieved without any reduction in data retention time. Finally, the effect of downscaling of technology on the proposed structure is evaluated. A reduction of 31.6% and 9% in switching current is achieved for 90 and 22 nm cell width respectively by passing sufficient current (100 µA with 0.1 ns pulse width) through the tunnel barrier. Simulations are done using Object Oriented Micro Magnetic Framework (OOMMF). - Highlights: • A new STT-RAM cell structure which uses perfect graphite based MTJ is proposed. • The amplitude of the switching current or its pulsewidth can be reduced without any sacrifice of data retention time. • The proposed design is down-scalable from 90 nm to 22 nm. • Micromagnetic simulations are done with OOMMF

  17. Project and construction of a sequential counter with RAM chips random events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, J.

    1985-01-01

    The project and construction of an electronic system to observe random events, which frequency is registered in successive time intervals with predetermined duration time are presented. The system was developed to study decay of radioactive nuclei with half lives is between 10 -6 s and 10 4 s. The chip MOS RAM - 2114 - 2 which is slow and cheap was used. The register time is twc=200ns. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Is prnt a pseudogene? Identification of ram Prt in testis and ejaculated spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimenta

    Full Text Available A hallmark of prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopaties is the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C, expressed by the prion gene (prnp, into an abnormally folded isoform (PrP(Sc with amyloid-like features that causes scrapie in sheep among other diseases. prnp together with prnd (which encodes a prion-like protein designated as Doppel, and prnt (that encodes the prion protein testis specific--Prt with sprn (shadow of prion protein gene, that encodes Shadoo or Sho genes, constitute the "prion gene complex". Whereas a role for prnd in the proper functioning of male reproductive system has been confirmed, the function of prnt, a recently discovered prion family gene, comprises a conundrum leading to the assumption that ruminant prnt is a pseudogene with no protein expression. The main objective of the present study was to identify Prt localization in the ram reproductive system and simultaneously to elucidate if ovine prnt gene is transcribed into protein-coding RNA. Moreover, as Prt is a prnp-related protein, the amyloid propensity was also tested for ovine and caprine Prt. Recombinant Prt was used to immunize BALB/c mice, and the anti-Prt polyclonal antibody (APPA immune response was evaluated by ELISA and Western Blot. When tested by indirect immunofluorescence, APPA showed high avidity to the ram sperm head apical ridge subdomain, before and after induced capacitation, but did not show the same behavior against goat spermatozoa, suggesting high antibody specificity against ovine-Prt. Prt was also found in the testis when assayed by immunohistochemistry during ram spermatogenesis, where spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, stained positive. These observations strongly suggest ovine prnt to be a translated protein-coding gene, pointing to a role for Prt protein in the ram reproductive physiology. Besides, caprine Prt appears to exhibit a higher amyloid propensity than ovine Prt, mostly associated

  19. Incentives for use of inelastic analysis in RAM transport container design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response ofthe package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structural accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity and/or lower weight. This paper discusses the incentives for using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. Inelastic analysis provides an improved knowledge of the package behavior. It must be demonstrated that the use of inelastic analysis provides a better design to overcome the difficulties associated with this type of analysis. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques for two different types of packages. One is a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail with lead gamma shielding,and the other is a package to transport RAM by truck with depleteduranium gamma shielding. Analyses of the center-of-gravity-over-corner impacts will be compared for each package. The comparisons indicate thata package designed to just meet the elastic design criteria will actually undergo some yielding in the locations of highest stress. This results in two consequences in the predicted behavior of the cask. First,the overprediction of the stiffness of these yielded regions by theelastic analysis technique results in an underestimation of the stresses in other portions of the structure. Secondly, in an inelastic analysis, the yielding of a portion of a structure causes the force in thatregion to rise less rapidly than forces in adjacent regions

  20. System Verification Through Reliability, Availability, Maintainability (RAM) Analysis & Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel Ohene Opare, Jr.; Charles V. Park

    2011-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is authored by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype fourth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. A section in this document proposes that the NGNP will provide heat for process heat applications. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP is expected to meet high performance and availability targets relative to current state of the art systems and technology. One requirement for the NGNP is to provide heat for the generation of hydrogen for large scale productions and this process heat application is required to be at least 90% or more available relative to other technologies currently on the market. To reach this goal, a RAM Roadmap was developed highlighting the actions to be taken to ensure that various milestones in system development and maturation concurrently meet required availability requirements. Integral to the RAM Roadmap was the use of a RAM analytical/simulation tool which was used to estimate the availability of the system when deployed based on current design configuration and the maturation level of the system.

  1. Androgen radioimmunoassay in the ram: results of direct plasma testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone measurement and physiological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, D.-H.; Cotta, Y.; Terqui, M.

    1978-01-01

    Different radioimmunoassays of testosterone (T) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) and 5 α-dihydrotestosterone (5 α-DHT) were investigated for ram plasma. Specificity of the antisera, lack of noticeable binding in plasma, very low levels of other androgens allow direct plasma RIA for DHA and T by the double antibody technique. The levels obtained by this simplified method are in agreement with those found after extraction alone, after extraction and celite chromatography and after quantification with a completely different technique such as gas chromatography. The within assay variabilities for T and DHA were 4.7 p. 100 and 4.6 p. 100 respectively but vary with the level of steroid in plasma. The inter assay variabilities of T were 9.5 p. 100 and 3.2 p. 100 for 1.5 and 11.6 ng/ml of plasma respectively. The antiserum for 5 α-DHT have a specificity such that, even after celite chromatography some androgens (5 β-DHT) may interfere. However determinations of 5 α/5 β-DHT amounts are possible. The physiological validations of direct plasma T and DHA RIA were studied in various conditions. The DHA plasma variations are similar to those of T in Ram from birth to puberty, but the levels are lower. DHA plasma levels show a seasonal variation as does testosterone. Variations within 24 hrs of these two androgens were in synchrony. The direct plasma T and DHA assays are useful and inexpensive tools to characterize ram testicular function

  2. Developing Criteria for Lumbar Spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Using RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshtkaran, Ali; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Ostovar, Rahim; Salari, Hedayat; Farokhi, Majid Reza; Esfandiari, Atefeh; Yousefimanesh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that a large proportion of healthcare offered may be inappropriate or unnecessary. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new and expensive diagnostic technology which has been increasingly used all over the world. Moreover, this trend has been more rapidly increasing in Iran. Low back pain is a common disorder all over the world and MRI technique is one of the several ways to assess its cause. The present study aims to develop scenarios for lumbar spine MRI. In the present study, the RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM) was used in order to reach consensus regarding developing scenarios for lumbar spine MRI. We generated scenarios from valid clinical guidelines as well as the experts’ opinion. The panel members included nine specialists from various medical specialties that had scored scenarios in two rounds, the first of which was without interaction, while the second one was with interaction. We extracted 97 scenarios for the lumbar spine MRI in the scenario extracting phase of the study and the panel members added 18 scenarios. After implementation of two rounds, the scenarios were categorized into three ranges. Sixty seven (58%) of the scenarios were considered as appropriate, 45 (39%) as uncertain, and three (2.6%) as inappropriate. RAM is useful for identifying stakeholder views in settings with limited resources. Since RAM has precise instructions for consensus developing, a large number of scenarios were considered as uncertain. Therefore, more research has to be conducted on the issue

  3. Discovery of Ram-pressure Stripped Gas around an Elliptical Galaxy in Abell 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Kim, Minjin; Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jaffé, Yara; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Nantais, Julie; Candlish, Graeme; Demarco, Ricardo; Treister, Ezequiel

    2017-01-01

    Studies of cluster galaxies are increasingly finding galaxies with spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, suggestive of intense ram-pressure stripping. These so-called “jellyfish” galaxies typically have late-type morphology. In this paper, we present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of an elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670 with long tails of material visible in the optical spectra, as well as blobs with tadpole-like morphology. The spectra in the central part of the galaxy reveal a stellar component as well as ionized gas. The stellar component does not have significant rotation, while the ionized gas defines a clear star-forming gas disk. We argue, based on deep optical images of the galaxy, that the gas was most likely acquired during a past wet merger. It is possible that the star-forming blobs are also remnants of the merger. In addition, the direction and kinematics of the one-sided ionized tails, combined with the tadpole morphology of the star-forming blobs, strongly suggests that the system is undergoing ram pressure from the intracluster medium. In summary, this paper presents the discovery of a post-merger elliptical galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping.

  4. The effect of reactive ion etch (RIE) process conditions on ReRAM device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, K.; Holt, J.; Olin-Ammentorp, W.; Alamgir, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.; Cady, N. C.

    2017-09-01

    The recent surge of research on resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices has resulted in a wealth of different materials and fabrication approaches. In this work, we describe the performance implications of utilizing a reactive ion etch (RIE) based process to fabricate HfO2 based ReRAM devices, versus a more unconventional shadow mask fabrication approach. The work is the result of an effort to increase device yield and reduce individual device size. Our results show that choice of RIE etch gas (SF6 versus CF4) is critical for defining the post-etch device profile (cross-section), and for tuning the removal of metal layers used as bottom electrodes in the ReRAM device stack. We have shown that etch conditions leading to a tapered profile for the device stack cause poor electrical performance, likely due to metal re-deposition during etching, and damage to the switching layer. These devices exhibit nonlinear I-V during the low resistive state, but this could be improved to linear behavior once a near-vertical etch profile was achieved. Device stacks with vertical etch profiles also showed an increase in forming voltage, reduced switching variability and increased endurance.

  5. An energy and cost efficient majority-based RAM cell in quantum-dot cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahy, Milad Bagherian; Moaiyeri, Mohammad Hossein; Navi, Keivan; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    Nanotechnologies, notably quantum-dot cellular automata, have achieved major attentions for their prominent features as compared to the conventional CMOS circuitry. Quantum-dot cellular automata, particularly owning to its considerable reduction in size, high switching speed and ultra-low energy consumption, is considered as a potential alternative for the CMOS technology. As the memory unit is one of the most essential components in a digital system, designing a well-optimized QCA random access memory (RAM) cell is an important area of research. In this paper, a new five-input majority gate is presented which is suitable for implementing efficient single-layer QCA circuits. In addition, a new RAM cell with set and reset capabilities is designed based on the proposed majority gate, which has an efficient and low-energy structure. The functionality, performance and energy consumption of the proposed designs are evaluated based on the QCADesigner and QCAPro tools. According to the simulation results, the proposed RAM design leads to on average 38% lower total energy dissipation, 25% smaller area, 20% lower cell count, 28% lower delay and 60% lower QCA cost as compared to its previous counterparts.

  6. Low-power non-volatile spintronic memory: STT-RAM and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K L; Alzate, J G; Khalili Amiri, P

    2013-01-01

    The quest for novel low-dissipation devices is one of the most critical for the future of semiconductor technology and nano-systems. The development of a low-power, universal memory will enable a new paradigm of non-volatile computation. Here we consider STT-RAM as one of the emerging candidates for low-power non-volatile memory. We show different configurations for STT memory and demonstrate strategies to optimize key performance parameters such as switching current and energy. The energy and scaling limits of STT-RAM are discussed, leading us to argue that alternative writing mechanisms may be required to achieve ultralow power dissipation, a necessary condition for direct integration with CMOS at the gate level for non-volatile logic purposes. As an example, we discuss the use of the giant spin Hall effect as a possible alternative to induce magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions using pure spin currents. Further, we concentrate on magnetoelectric effects, where electric fields are used instead of spin-polarized currents to manipulate the nanomagnets, as another candidate solution to address the challenges of energy efficiency and density. The possibility of an electric-field-controlled magnetoelectric RAM as a promising candidate for ultralow-power non-volatile memory is discussed in the light of experimental data demonstrating voltage-induced switching of the magnetization and reorientation of the magnetic easy axis by electric fields in nanomagnets. (paper)

  7. A graphite based STT-RAM cell with reduction in switching current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghani, Ali; Peiravi, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) is a serious candidate for "universal memory" because of its non-volatility, fast access time, high density, good scalability, high endurance and relatively low power dissipation. However, problems with low write speed and large write current are important existing challenges in STT-RAM design and there is a tradeoff between them and data retention time. In this study, a novel STT-RAM cell structure which uses perfect graphite based Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) is proposed. First, the cross-section of the structure is selected to be an ellipse of 45 nm and 180 nm dimensions and a six-layer graphite is used as tunnel barrier. By passing a lateral current with a short pulse width (before applying STT current and independent of it) through four middle graphene layers of the tunnel barrier, a 27% reduction in the amplitude of the switching current (for fast switching time of 2 ns) or a 58% reduction in its pulse width is achieved without any reduction in data retention time. Finally, the effect of downscaling of technology on the proposed structure is evaluated. A reduction of 31.6% and 9% in switching current is achieved for 90 and 22 nm cell width respectively by passing sufficient current (100 μA with 0.1 ns pulse width) through the tunnel barrier. Simulations are done using Object Oriented Micro Magnetic Framework (OOMMF).

  8. The Effects of Ram Pressure on the Cold Clouds in the Centers of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Ruszkowski, Mateusz; Tremblay, Grant

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the effect of ram pressure on the cold clouds in the centers of cool-core galaxy clusters, and in particular, how it reduces cloud velocity and sometimes causes an offset between the cold gas and young stars. The velocities of the molecular gas in both observations and our simulations fall in the range of 100–400 km s‑1, which is much lower than expected if they fall from a few tens of kiloparsecs ballistically. If the intracluster medium (ICM) is at rest, the ram pressure of the ICM only slightly reduces the velocity of the clouds. When we assume that the clouds are actually “fluffier” because they are co-moving with a warm-hot layer, the velocity becomes smaller. If we also consider the active galactic nucleus wind in the cluster center by adding a wind profile measured from the simulation, the clouds are further slowed down at small radii, and the resulting velocities are in general agreement with the observations and simulations. Because ram pressure only affects gas but not stars, it can cause a separation between a filament and young stars that formed in the filament as they move through the ICM together. This separation has been observed in Perseus and also exists in our simulations. We show that the star-filament offset, combined with line-of-sight velocity measurements, can help determine the true motion of the cold gas, and thus distinguish between inflows and outflows.

  9. Effect of Freezing on Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to the Mountain Ecotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Miclea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the mountain ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in 0.25 ml straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (- 120°C and then plunged into nitrogen. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing sperm morphology was assessed using Hancock’s method and at the same time the endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and HOST tests were performed. The highest motility (0.40 was graded at 30 minutes. It could be correlated with the increased percentage of HOST positive spermatozoa, 27.78%. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was also high (47.89%, 38.44% of them having acrosome flaws. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on the characteristics of sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the mountain ecotype.

  10. A Ramón Valdés, In Memoriam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Prat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available I. Cuando Verena Stolcke y poco después Aurelio Díaz me invitaron a participar en este acto de homenaje y memoria a Ramón Valdés del Toro pensé, en primer lugar,que prepararía algo sobre el papel de Ramón en los inicios de la Antropología española.Comencé a escribirlo pero resultaba un texto demasiado erudito, aburrido y difícil de digerir. En esta situación de stand by agradecí un correo electrónico de Verena en el que se nos instaba a “intervenir a vuestro aire en torno a vuestros recuerdos personales del magisterio y de la obra de Ramón”. Respiré aliviado ya que esto me resultaba mucho más cómodo y gratificante. En las líneas que siguen no he dedicado mucho esfuerzo a disimular el tono coloquial que tuvo la intervención oral.

  11. Discovery of Ram-pressure Stripped Gas around an Elliptical Galaxy in Abell 2670

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Smith, Rory; Yi, Sukyoung K. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Jaffé, Yara [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu/SAp CNRS Universite Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Nantais, Julie [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, 7591538 Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Candlish, Graeme [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Demarco, Ricardo [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Treister, Ezequiel, E-mail: yksheen@kasi.re.kr [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    Studies of cluster galaxies are increasingly finding galaxies with spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, suggestive of intense ram-pressure stripping. These so-called “jellyfish” galaxies typically have late-type morphology. In this paper, we present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of an elliptical galaxy in Abell 2670 with long tails of material visible in the optical spectra, as well as blobs with tadpole-like morphology. The spectra in the central part of the galaxy reveal a stellar component as well as ionized gas. The stellar component does not have significant rotation, while the ionized gas defines a clear star-forming gas disk. We argue, based on deep optical images of the galaxy, that the gas was most likely acquired during a past wet merger. It is possible that the star-forming blobs are also remnants of the merger. In addition, the direction and kinematics of the one-sided ionized tails, combined with the tadpole morphology of the star-forming blobs, strongly suggests that the system is undergoing ram pressure from the intracluster medium. In summary, this paper presents the discovery of a post-merger elliptical galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping.

  12. Quality assurance requirements in the testing of packages to be used for safe transportation of RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe; Nistor, Viorica; Mihaiu, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the Type A, B or C packages used for transport and storage of Radioactive Material (RAM) has to be proved by performing qualification tests in accordance with the Transport Regulations, within the Reliability and Testing Laboratory, Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti, where has designed and developed a new Romanian Testing Facility. The qualifications testing are performed under a strict quality assurance programme based on the specific procedures prior approved by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control). This paper describe the quality assurance programme in accordance with the quality management system developed in order to meet the requirements provided by the national regulations as well as to the requirements of the IAEA's safety standard TS-R-1 related to testing of packages to be used for transport of RAM and also provides an overview of the new Romanian Testing Facilities for RAM Packages, developed by the INR's Reliability and Testing Laboratory within an Excellence Scientific Contract. (authors)

  13. PROPOSAL FOR BUILD A TEST STAND TO THE STUDY WATER RAM BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz GRYGO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was developed of a test stand to a study physics phenomena accruing at work in a ram water based on the construction recommendations. The experience gained by a number of attempts allowed to the developed construction recommendations that allowed to adjust the test stand to perform various studies of physics phenomena occurring at the work of water ram and easy adaptions to the new requirements. The article includes: the review of the test stands on which performed the study in the history and in the present times, description of the construction recommendations of the universal test stand and the proposal of the test stand developed based on the construction recommendations. Motivation to take up this issue follows from the interest of devices that work in an unconventional way, devices used a renewable energy that can be used in household e.g. to improve their energy balance, delivery water to houses, drinking water for animals, fields irrigation, etc. Analysis of the literature of the water ram, test stands and their performance shown that it is small and typically old development in popular science form. In times of intensive search new sources of renewable energy reactivation of this type equipment may be highly probable.

  14. Interaction of milk proteins and Binder of Sperm (BSP) proteins from boar, stallion and ram semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Geneviève; Lusignan, Marie-France; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian semen contains a family of closely related proteins known as Binder of SPerm (BSP proteins) that are added to sperm at ejaculation. BSP proteins extract lipids from the sperm membrane thereby extensively modifying its composition. These changes can ultimately be detrimental to sperm storage. We have demonstrated that bovine BSP proteins interact with major milk proteins and proposed that this interaction could be the basis of sperm protection by milk extenders. In the present study, we investigated if homologous BSP proteins present in boar, stallion and ram seminal plasma display a similar affinity for the milk proteins in order to assess whether the mechanism of sperm protection by milk for these species could be general. Skim milk was incubated with seminal plasma proteins (boar, stallion and ram), chromatographed on a Sepharose CL-4B column and protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. Boar, stallion and ram BSP proteins displayed affinity for a milk protein fraction (F1) mainly composed of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and κ-casein. They also had affinity for another milk protein fraction (F2) composed mostly of casein micelles. However, stallion BSP showed higher affinity for the fraction (F1). These results further extend our view that the association of BSP proteins with milk proteins could be a general feature of the mechanism of mammalian sperm protection by milk to prevent detrimental effect of prolonged exposure of sperm to seminal plasma.

  15. Position sensitive regions in a generic radiation sensor based on single event upsets in dynamic RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darambara, D.G.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Modern integrated circuits are highly complex systems and, as such, are susceptible to occasional failures. Semiconductor memory devices, particularly dynamic random access memories (dRAMs), are subject to random, transient single event upsets (SEUs) created by energetic ionizing radiation. These radiation-induced soft failures in the stored data of silicon based memory chips provide the foundation for a new, highly efficient, low cost generic radiation sensor. The susceptibility and the detection efficiency of a given dRAM device to SEUs is a complicated function of the circuit design and geometry, the operating conditions and the physics of the charge collection mechanisms involved. Typically, soft error rates measure the cumulative response of all sensitive regions of the memory by broad area chip exposure in ionizing radiation environments. However, this study shows that many regions of a dynamic memory are competing charge collection centres having different upset thresholds. The contribution to soft fails from discrete regions or individual circuit elements of the memory device is unambiguously separated. Hence the use of the dRAM as a position sensitive radiation detector, with high spatial resolution, is assessed and demonstrated. (orig.)

  16. Un discurso de Ramón y Cajal sobre El Quijote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Quirós, José Luis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is a brief study to a lecture by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, entitled Psichology of Don Quixote and Quixotism. It is a rather unknown text, as well as one of the main works regarding the topic produced at the time of the 3rd centennary of Don Quixote. The lecture was commissioned by the Medical College of San Carlos, and was read on May 9th, 1905. The existing editions contain quite a few printing errors. Our analysis sets out Cajal’s ideas regarding the situation of Spanish science and the necessary measures that need to be taken. We also put these ideas in comparison with those of Unamuno and Ortega, the two main Spanish authors to write about the same topic in the same years. We emphasize the agreement between Unamuno and Cajal, as well as the radical difference we can find between Ortega’s and Cajal’s approaches to the subject of science.El artículo es un breve análisis del discurso de Santiago Ramón y Cajal titulado Psicología de Don Quijote y el quijotismo, un texto poco conocido que fue una de las piezas principales producida en torno al tema con motivo del III centenario del Quijote. El discurso de Ramón y Cajal le fue encargado por el Colegio Médico de San Carlos, y se pronunció en Madrid el día 9 de Mayo de 1905. Las ediciones existentes contienen algunas erratas e inexactitudes. Nuestro análisis expone las ideas de Ramón y Cajal en relación con la situación de la ciencia española y con los remedios que es necesario poner en práctica y con el espíritu que debe animarlos para poner luego en relación las ideas de Ramón y Cajal con las de Unamuno y Ortega, los dos principales autores españoles que escribieron sobre el tema en aquellos mismos años, subrayando la coincidencia entre Unamuno y Ramón y Cajal y la llamativa distancia de Ortega con las ideas de nuestro histólogo en relación con la ciencia.

  17. The collaborative effect of ram pressure and merging on star formation and stripping fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischko, J. C.; Steinhauser, D.; Schindler, S.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We investigate the effect of ram pressure stripping (RPS) on several simulations of merging pairs of gas-rich spiral galaxies. We are concerned with the changes in stripping efficiency and the time evolution of the star formation rate. Our goal is to provide an estimate of the combined effect of merging and RPS compared to the influence of the individual processes. Methods: We make use of the combined N-body/hydrodynamic code GADGET-2. The code features a threshold-based statistical recipe for star formation, as well as radiative cooling and modeling of galactic winds. In our simulations, we vary mass ratios between 1:4 and 1:8 in a binary merger. We sample different geometric configurations of the merging systems (edge-on and face-on mergers, different impact parameters). Furthermore, we vary the properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) in rough steps: the speed of the merging system relative to the ICM between 500 and 1000 km s-1, the ICM density between 10-29 and 10-27 g cm-3, and the ICM direction relative to the mergers' orbital plane. Ram pressure is kept constant within a simulation time period, as is the ICM temperature of 107 K. Each simulation in the ICM is compared to simulations of the merger in vacuum and the non-merging galaxies with acting ram pressure. Results: Averaged over the simulation time (1 Gyr) the merging pairs show a negligible 5% enhancement in SFR, when compared to single galaxies under the same environmental conditions. The SFRs peak at the time of the galaxies first fly-through. There, our simulations show SFRs of up to 20 M⊙ yr-1 (compared to 3 M⊙ yr-1 of the non-merging galaxies in vacuum). In the most extreme case, this constitutes a short-term (<50 Myr) SFR increase of 50 % over the non-merging galaxies experiencing ram pressure. The wake of merging galaxies in the ICM typically has a third to half the star mass seen in the non-merging galaxies and 5% to 10% less gas mass. The joint effect of RPS and merging, according

  18. Methodology for assessing the safety of Hydrogen Systems: HyRAM 1.1 technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, Katrina; Hecht, Ethan; Reynolds, John Thomas; Blaylock, Myra L.; Erin E. Carrier

    2017-03-01

    The HyRAM software toolkit provides a basis for conducting quantitative risk assessment and consequence modeling for hydrogen infrastructure and transportation systems. HyRAM is designed to facilitate the use of state-of-the-art science and engineering models to conduct robust, repeatable assessments of hydrogen safety, hazards, and risk. HyRAM is envisioned as a unifying platform combining validated, analytical models of hydrogen behavior, a stan- dardized, transparent QRA approach, and engineering models and generic data for hydrogen installations. HyRAM is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U. S. De- partment of Energy to increase access to technical data about hydrogen safety and to enable the use of that data to support development and revision of national and international codes and standards. This document provides a description of the methodology and models contained in the HyRAM version 1.1. HyRAM 1.1 includes generic probabilities for hydrogen equipment fail- ures, probabilistic models for the impact of heat flux on humans and structures, and computa- tionally and experimentally validated analytical and first order models of hydrogen release and flame physics. HyRAM 1.1 integrates deterministic and probabilistic models for quantifying accident scenarios, predicting physical effects, and characterizing hydrogen hazards (thermal effects from jet fires, overpressure effects from deflagrations), and assessing impact on people and structures. HyRAM is a prototype software in active development and thus the models and data may change. This report will be updated at appropriate developmental intervals.

  19. Mixture based outlier filtration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecherková, Pavla; Nagy, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2006), s. 30-35 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA MDS 1F43A/003/120 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : data filtration * system modelling * mixture models Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20060165.pdf

  20. The RAM +L analysis methodology: the refinery plants case study; Analise RAM +L: um estudo integrado de varias unidades de producao de uma refinaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Bretas, Rogerio [PETROBRAS S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Refinaria Gabriel Passos (REGAP)

    2008-07-01

    The RAM (Reliability, Availability and Maintainability) main objective is assess the system and equipment performance in order to identify the critical issues to implement system's improvements. The first step is define equipment failure modes and it's PDF as well as repair time for each failure mode. The second step is modeling system regarding diagram block logic dependency among equipment and its failures which cause system production losses. The third step is simulating model in defined period of time in order to identify critical equipment to propose system improvement. Despite being having been used constantly to assess system performances, those methodology do not consider the logistic complex assumptions in so many cases to huge systems and it RDB logic do not represent the real effect in production losses. Even if that good enough to perform system analysis it's not quite enough to complex system with logistic resources regarding system's products efficiency. By the other way round, in logistic complex system analysis methodologies, equipment failures details are not regarded in so many times, showing that there's a necessary improvement in those analysis. Therefore, the RAM + L analysis is a methodology which regards all equipment failures issues as well as logistic assumptions being a more realistic analysis. The refinery case study Will be propose to demonstrate a new vision of two recognized methodologies regarding a complex system with over than 200 equipment comprising two tanks, two pumps and five Unit Plants as Vacuum Distillation, Atmospheric Distillation, Hydrogen Generation, Diesel Hydrotreating Unit and DEA. (author)

  1. Variabilidad genética de Hartón del Valle mediante RAM Genetic variability of Harton del Valle by RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Piedrahíta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Hartón del Valle (HV hace parte de las siete razas criollas de ganado bovino colombiano y de acuerdo con los criterios de la FAO está considerado como vulnerable. Para estudiar su variabilidad genética fueron muestreados 33 individuos HV y tres animales de la raza Holstein, como control externo. Se extrajo ADN utilizando el método de Salting Out y las muestras fueron analizadas mediante la técnica molecular RAM (Randon amplified microsatellites. Se utilizaron los cebadores CGA, CCA, TG, y CT. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad esperada fue de 0.26 y el F ST fue 0.39 ± 0.03. Con el índice de Dice-Nei Li y agrupando con el método UPGMA se distinguieron dos grupos: uno integrado por dos hatos de conservación y el otro por cuatro fincas que han compartido reproductores.Harton del Valle (HV breed belong to the seven Creole breeds of the Colombian bovine livestock, according to FAO criteria it is considered as vulnerable. To study its genetical variability, 33 HV animals and three and 3 animals of Holstein breed as a external control were sampled. Simples of DNA were isolated using the Salting Out method and RAM (Random amplified microsatellites technique was used. CGA, CCA, TG and CT primers were used. The mean value of expected heterocigozity was 0.26 and F ST fue 0.39 ± 0.03. Using Dice-Nei Li index and UPGMA clustering method, two groups were distinguished: the first one integrated for two conservation herds and other one by tour faros that have been sharing breeding bulls.

  2. Mixture for plugging absorption zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinkov, G V; Kovalenko, N G; Makarov, L V; Zinnatulchin, Ts Kh

    1981-01-17

    A mixture is proposed for plugging absorption zones. The mixture contains synthetic polymer and a solvent. So as to increase the penetrability of the mixture through a reduction in its viscosity and an increase in insulation properties, the compound contains either Capron or Neilon as the synthetic polyamide resin polmyer, and concentrated chloride as the solvent. The mixture is prepared in a special AzINMASh-30 unit (acid cart). After the mixture has been produced, it is injected into the borehole by means of an acid cart pump. So as to prevent coaggulation at the point when the mixture in injected into the stratum through tubes, the mixture is placed betwen chemically inert fluids, for example, a clay mortar. The inert and compressed fluids are injected by means of a cementing unit. The entire process of production and application of the mixture is simple and fully automated through the use of well-known equipment.

  3. Ram booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Vance D. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter Ray (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is a space launch system and method to propel a payload bearing craft into earth orbit. The invention has two, or preferably, three stages. The upper stage has rocket engines capable of carrying a payload to orbit and provides the capability of releasably attaching to the lower, or preferably, middle stage. Similar to the lower stage, the middle stage is a reusable booster stage that employs all air breathing engines, is recoverable, and can be turned-around in a short time between missions.

  4. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  5. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar t...

  6. Quality improvement of melt extruded laminar systems using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasa, D; Perissutti, B; Campisi, B; Grassi, M; Grabnar, I; Golob, S; Mian, M; Voinovich, D

    2015-07-30

    This study investigates the application of melt extrusion for the development of an oral retard formulation with a precise drug release over time. Since adjusting the formulation appears to be of the utmost importance in achieving the desired drug release patterns, different formulations of laminar extrudates were prepared according to the principles of Experimental Design, using a design for mixtures to assess the influence of formulation composition on the in vitro drug release from the extrudates after 1h and after 8h. The effect of each component on the two response variables was also studied. Ternary mixtures of theophylline (model drug), monohydrate lactose and microcrystalline wax (as thermoplastic binder) were extruded in a lab scale vertical ram extruder in absence of solvents at a temperature below the melting point of the binder (so that the crystalline state of the drug could be maintained), through a rectangular die to obtain suitable laminar systems. Thanks to the desirability approach and a reliability study for ensuring the quality of the formulation, a very restricted optimal zone was defined within the experimental domain. Among the mixture components, the variation of microcrystalline wax content played the most significant role in overall influence on the in vitro drug release. The formulation theophylline:lactose:wax, 57:14:29 (by weight), selected based on the desirability zone, was subsequently used for in vivo studies. The plasma profile, obtained after oral administration of the laminar extruded system in hard gelatine capsules, revealed the typical trend of an oral retard formulation. The application of the mixture experimental design associated to a desirability function permitted to optimize the extruded system and to determine the composition space that ensures final product quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  8. The ram effect: New insights into neural modulation of the gonadotropic axis by male odors and socio-sexual interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDE eFABRE NYS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction in mammals is controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis under the influence of external and internal factors such as photoperiod, stress, nutrition, and social interactions. Sheep are seasonal breeders and stop mating when day length is increasing (anestrus. However, interactions with a sexually active ram during this period can override the steroid negative feedback responsible for the anoestrus state, stimulate LH secretion and eventually reinstate cyclicity. This is known as the ram effect and research into the mechanisms underlying it is shedding new light on HPG axis regulation. The first step in the ram effect is increased LH pulsatile secretion in anestrus ewes exposed to a sexually active male or only to its fleece, the latter finding indicating a pheromone-like effect. Estradiol secretion increases in all ewes and this eventually induces a LH surge and ovulation, just as during the breeding season. An exception is a minority of ewes that exhibit a precocious LH surge (within 4h with no prior increase in estradiol. The main olfactory system and the cortical nucleus of the amygdala are critical brain structures in mediating the ram effect since it is blocked by their inactivation. Sexual experience is also important since activation (increased c-fos expression in these and other regions is greatly reduced in sexually naïve ewes. In adult ewes kisspeptin neurons in both arcuate and preoptic regions and some preoptic GnRH neurons are activated 2h after exposure to a ram. Exposure to rams also activates noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and A1 nucleus and increased noradrenalin release occurs in the posterior preoptic area. Pharmacological modulation of this system modifies LH secretion in response to the male or his odor. Together these results show that the ram effect can be a fruitful model to promote both a better understanding of the neural and hormonal regulation of the HPG axis in general and

  9. Reassessment of LRF radioimmunoassay in the plasma and hypothalamic extracts of rats and rams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraty, A.; Reviers, M.-M. de; Pelletier, J.; Dubois, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for LRF was applied to the measurement of endogenous LRF in various hypothalamic extracts. Specific antiserum was obtained by injecting LRF conjugated to human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin, oxytocin, noradrenaline, LH, FSH and cortical extracts did not appear to affect the assay, and the maximum cross-reaction observed with the LRF analogs tested was 8.5% with LRF 2-10. The best detection limit (0.4 pg/tube) was usually obtained when the labelled LRF had been purified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Within and between-assay coefficients of variation were 8.0 and 12.6% respectively (from B/Bo=20 to 80%). Synthetic LRF administered to rams by intravenous injection was readily detectable in the peripheral plasma. However, the direct measurement of plasma endogenous LRF may give misleading results due to non-specific interference by plasma factors. No endogenous LRF could be detected in plasma methanol or acetone extracts obtained from rats and rams in various physiological conditions. The inhibition curves parallel to the synthetic LRF curve were obtained by diluting the crude hypothalamic extracts of rams and rats, and a good correlation (r=0,997) with the Ramirez-McCann bioassay resulted, indicating that using radioimmunoassay to determine hypothalamic LRF content may be fruitful in studying hypothalamo-pituitary gonad interactions. The LRF content of rat and ovine hypothalami ranged from 2-8 to 20-80 ng of LRF, respectively

  10. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  11. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  12. SeaRAM: A DOE evaluation of maritime accident risk assessment data and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Ammerman, D.J.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The SeaRAM Program conducted for the US Department of Energy by Sandia National Laboratories has developed estimates of the frequencies of occurrence of ship fires and ship collisions, the fraction of all ship fires and ship collisions that might be sufficiently severe to challenge the integrity of a Type B spent fuel transportation cask, the magnitude of the radioactive source terms that might be released from a Type B spent fuel transportation cask due to loss of cask integrity, and the magnitude of the radiological consequences that might be caused by the radioactive release

  13. The TN-RAM - a new cask for shipping high activity irradiated hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, T.; Hanson, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Transnuclear, Inc. has developed a Type B(U) radioactive material transport packaging designed specifically for the transport of dry, irradiated, non-fuel bearing components (NFBC). The TN-RAM is a transport cask in the configuration of a right circular cylinder, fabricated from lead and stainless steel, with wood-filled impact limiters attached at both ends. The lead and stainless steel construction of the lid, walls, and bottom provides a shielding effectiveness of approximately 7.1 inches (18 cm) lead equivalent. (J.P.N.)

  14. SeaRAM: A DOE evaluation of maritime accident risk assessment data and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Ammerman, D.J.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The SeaRAM Program conducted for the US Department of Energy by Sandia National Laboratories has developed estimates of the frequencies of occurrence of ship fires and ship collisions, the fraction of all ship fires and ship collisions that might be sufficiently severe to challenge the integrity of a Type B spent fuel transportation cask, the magnitude of the radioactive source terms that might be released from a Type B spent fuel transportation cask due to loss of cask integrity, and the magnitude of the radiological consequences that might be caused by the radioactive release.

  15. The Literary Criticism and Memoirs of Juan Ramón Jiménez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W. Phillips

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Equally as demanding of others as he was of himself, Juan Ramón Jiménez conceived of literary criticism as a serious and exacting task. The critic and the poet, standing side by side, are devoted to complementary activities of mutual enrichment. However fragmentary and partial the critical opinions of Juan Ramón may be (also outspoken and polemical in nature, they are invaluable as a personal historical and aesthetic guide to about fifty or sixty years of Hispanic literary development (1900-1960. Not to take them into account is to fail to recognize a highly important aspect of his total artistic personality. These varied critical texts are a product of a first rate intelligence and the sensibility of a writer of consummate discrimination who was endowed not only with an excellent memory but also a very special talent for appreciating the authentic. Juan Ramón as a critic is quick to praise (San Juan, Bécquer, Dario, Unamuno and Machado and at the same time strong in his censure of certain contemporaries. Several recently collected volumes of miscellaneous critical materials have resolved the bibliographical muddle for the initial study of this fundamental aspect of the poet, but still particularly important are the expressionistic portraits of Españoles de tres mundos , longer tributes to Valle, Ortega and Villaespesa as well as the extensive lectures delivered in his latter years. Examination of these pages gives us an historical and creative overview of the period in which he lived and worked in addition to original considerations about the evolution of Hispanic poetry. Of course, one of the constant focal points of his literary criticism was the modernist epoch of his early days, a movement or attitude which he considered to be a modern twentieth century renaissance. Together with detailed study of these two areas of historical and aesthetic nature, in the ensuing pages some conclusions are pointed out as to the essence of poetry

  16. Mentira y Verdad en tres Novelas de Sergio Ramírez: Algunos Procedimientos de Verosimilitud

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sancho, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Con base en la narrativa del nicaragüense Sergio Ramírez, se efectúa un análisis sobre algunos procedimientos de verosimilitud utilizados por el escritor en tres de sus novelas: Tiempo de fulgor (1970); ¿Te dio miedo la sangre? (1977) y Un baile de máscaras (1995). La evaluación de los textos busca comprender los niveles en que el escritor hace uso de ciertos procedimientos de verosimilitud para contarnos algunas mentiras verdaderas como él mismo lo ha llamado, en su ensayo: Mentiras verdader...

  17. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and three-dimensional cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarén, Juan Fernández

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I present and comment on two unpublished letters written by the Spanish engineer Carlos Mendizábal Brunet to Santiago Ramón y Cajal informing him of the development of a new device for three-dimensional cinema and asking for his approval. Fortunately, the answers given by Cajal to these two letters have also been preserved, and they reveal his interest in three-dimensional cinema; in the letters, he reported that he himself had designed a prototype capable of creating on a screen a feeling of 3-D relief, a subject about which he was always passionate.

  18. Trayectos de lectura de Espacio, de Juan Ramón Jiménez

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Atienza, Ángel Luis

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de Espacio, de Juan Ramón Jiménez, a partir de la teoría cognitiva de las metáforas conceptuales y la fusión de dominios conceptuales (blending), en confluencia con la filosofía heideggeriana, descubre en el poema dos movimientos contradictorios: el de la fuga y de la búsqueda de un centro, que se pueden poner en relación con dos trayectos de lectura y dos tendencias hermenéuticas: la modernista y la post-modernista. En este contexto se tratan de explicar las paradojas y complejida...

  19. Experimental investigation of the flow near the ram element in the brush turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmirler M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the investigating of the parameters of the fluid flow around the brush turbine ram element. The flow field was evaluated qualitatively by observing changes in density using a Schlieren method. It was also evaluated the influence of the element geometry on the total aerodynamic force of the element. The aerodynamic force was measured directly using a special aerodynamic balance. The aim of the project was to find the simplest element geometry with a maximum force effect and achieve an increase in overall efficiency and reduce the manufacturing costs.

  20. Test CMOS/SOS RAM for transient radiation upset comparative research and failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Poljakov, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    The test Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor/Silicon-on-Sapphire Random Access Memory (CMOS/SOS RAM) with eight types of memory cells was designed and tested at high dose rates with a flash X-ray machine and laser simulator. The memory cell (MC) design with additional transistors and RC-chain was found to be upset free up to 2 x 10 12 rad(Si)/s. An inversion effect was discovered in which almost 100% logic upset was observed in poorly protected memory cell arrays at very high dose rates

  1. Development and realization of the new state system of account and control of RAM and RAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.; Shilko, V.; Syssoev, M.; Ershov, V.; Yanovskaya, N.

    1998-01-01

    In the article the principles of organization, organizational structure and main functions of the automated system of the state account and control of radioactive material (RAM) and waste (RAW), which is developed now in Russia, are presented. On the base of analysis the existing ( >) system the acute necessity in automation of processes of an account and control DA and DAI, based on use of modern information technologies is shown. There are presented a structure and content of normative - legal, program and information parts of the system and milestones of designing it. (author)

  2. Serum testosterone level and affecting factors in Syrian Awassi ram lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results showed that testosterone exists in the blood of ram lams as early as the first month of age with no significant difference between single and twin births. This level, however, increased gradually with advancing age of ram lambs, indicating that the gonads (testes) of these growing lambs were active in secreting testosterone hormone after birth, but the rate of secretion differed with age of the lambs. A sharp increase in testosterone level was recorded at age of 8 months in twin births (5.32 ± 20.99 nmol/l) and in single births (7.26 ± 3.29 nmol/l). Throughout the study period, mean testosterone serum level was 3.29 ± 2.73 and 2.54 ± 2.15 nmol/l for single and twin births, respectively, as compared with an overall mean of 3.00 ± 2.49 nmol/l. However, the monthly difference in testosterone level between single and twin births was not significant (P>0.05) throughout the study period (10 months). Results also indicated an increase in live weight of lambs with advancing age, and live weight in single births was higher, but not significantly, than in twin births throughout the study period. Results of the study showed a sharp increase in the mean live weight of single births at age of 8 months (48.5 ± 10.8 kg) as compared with an overall live weight of the lambs (35.8 ± 15.2 and 32.7 ± 15.4 kg for single and twin births, respectively). A positive and significant correlation (r= 0.95, P>0.0001) was found between serum testosterone level and lamb live weight during the first 10 months of their age. Finally and for the first time, normal serum testosterone levels in Syrian Awassi ram lambs were determined during early stages. It was concluded, based on both, testosterone level and lamb live weight, that puberty in Awassi ram lambs could be reached at 8 months of age with a mean live weight of around 47 kg. Type of birth, lamb birth weight or weaning weight had no significant effect on testosterone level. (author)

  3. Genetic variability of Harton del Valle by RAM Variabilidad genética de Hartón del Valle mediante RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Franco Luz Angela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Harton del Valle (HV breed belong to the seven Creole breeds of the Colombian bovine livestock, according to FAO criteria it is considered as vulnerable. To study its genetical variability, 33 HV animals and three and 3 animals of Holstein breed as a external control were sampled. Simples of DNA were isolated using the Salting Out method and RAM (Random amplified microsatellites technique was used. CGA, CCA, TG and CT primers were used. The mean value of expected heterocigozity was 0.26 and FST fue 0.39 ± 0.03. Using Dice–Nei Li index and UPGMA clustering method, two groups were distinguished: the first one integrated for two conservation herds and other one by tour faros that have been sharing breeding bulls.El Hartón del Valle (HV hace parte de las siete razas criollas de ganado bovino colombiano y de acuerdo con los criterios de la FAO está considerado como vulnerable. Para estudiar su variabilidad genética fueron muestreados 33 individuos HV y tres animales de la raza Holstein, como control externo. Se extrajo ADN utilizando el método de Salting Out y las muestras fueron analizadas mediante la técnica molecular RAM (Randon amplified microsatellites. Se utilizaron los cebadores CGA, CCA, TG, y CT. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad esperada fue de 0.26 y el FST fue 0.39 ± 0.03. Con el índice de Dice–Nei Li y agrupando con el método UPGMA se distinguieron dos grupos: uno integrado por dos hatos de conservación y el otro por cuatro fincas que han compartido reproductores.

  4. Research of Deformation of Clay Soil Mixtures Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Romas Girkontas; Tadas Tamošiūnas; Andrius Savickas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine clay soils and clay soils mixtures deformations during drying. Experiments consisted from: a) clay and clay mixtures bridges (height ~ 0,30 m, span ~ 1,00 m); b) tiles of clay and clay, sand and straw (height, length, wide); c) cylinders of clay; clay and straw; clay, straw and sand (diameter; height). According to the findings recommendations for clay and clay mixtures drying technology application were presented. During the experiment clay bridge bear...

  5. Seasonal variations of melatonin in ram seminal plasma are correlated to those of testosterone and antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiño-Blanco Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some breeds of sheep are highly seasonal in terms of reproductive capability, and these changes are regulated by photoperiod and melatonin secretion. These changes affect the reproductive performance of rams, impairing semen quality and modifying hormonal profiles. Also, the antioxidant defence systems seem to be modulated by melatonin secretion, and shows seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma and their variations between the breeding and non-breeding seasons. In addition, we analyzed the possible correlations between these hormones and the antioxidant enzyme defence system activity. Methods Seminal plasma from nine Rasa Aragonesa rams were collected for one year, and their levels of melatonin, testosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GRD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT were measured. Results All samples presented measurable quantities of hormones and antioxidant enzymes. Both hormones showed monthly variations, with a decrease after the winter solstice and a rise after the summer solstice that reached the maximum levels in October-November, and a marked seasonal variation (P Conclusions These results show the presence of melatonin and testosterone in ram seminal plasma, and that both hormones have seasonal variations, and support the idea that seasonal variations of fertility in the ram involve interplay between melatonin and the antioxidant defence system.

  6. Delayed puberty caused by hyperthyroidism in ram lambs is not a result of suppression in body growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Y; D'Occhio, M J; Setchell, B P

    1986-03-01

    Over a period of 8 weeks ram lambs (16 weeks old) were made hyperthyroidal (serum thyroxine approximately equal to 150 ng/ml, compared with control approximately equal to 48 ng/ml) by daily subcutaneous injections of thyroxine or maintained at a constant body weight by restriction of the feed intake. Hyperthyroidal and restricted-intake lambs remained at a constant body weight during the period of treatment whilst control rams gained body weight. Testicular growth was normal in restricted-intake lambs but was suppressed in hyperthyroidal animals. Hyperthyroidism, but not feed restriction, was also associated with decrease in LH pulse frequency (1.3 +/- 0.3/12 h compared with controls 4.8 +/- 0.9/12 h. Hyperthyroidal lambs showed normal LH responses to exogenous LHRH. After cessation of treatment testicular growth continued to be suppressed for up to 16 weeks in previously hyperthyroidic rams; thereafter testes began to increase in size but at 30 weeks after treatment were still smaller than those of control rams. It is concluded that elevated thyroxine concentrations directly influence sexual maturation in ram lambs through actions at hypothalamic and/or higher brain centres which control LH secretion. Transient hyperthyroidism during sexual maturation may cause permanent impairment of sexual development.

  7. Mutagenicity of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelroy, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of coal-derived complex chemical mixtures on the mutagenicity of 6-aminochrysene (6-AC) was determined with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Previous results suggested that the mutagenic potency of 6-AC for TA98 in the standard microsomal activation (Ames) assay increased if it was presented to the cells mixed with high-boiling coal liquids (CL) from the solvent refined coal (SRC) process. In this year's work, the apparent mutational synergism of CL and 6-AC was independently verified in a fluctuation bioassay which allowed quantitation of mutational frequencies and cell viability. The results of this assay system were similar to those in the Ames assay. Moreover, the fluctation assay revealed that mutagenesis and cellular toxicity induced by 6-AC were both strongly enhanced if 6-AC was presented to the cells mixed in a high-boiling CL. 4 figures

  8. Effects of Aflatoxin on Liver and Protective Effectiveness of Esterified Glucomannan in Merino Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Colakoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of total aflatoxin (AF given orally on liver in Merino rams were studied. In addition, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of an esterified glucomannan (EG for protection against aflatoxicosis. One-year-old 32 Merino rams were divided into four equal groups. The control group (C was fed with the commercial feed. The AF group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF. The EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 2 g/day of EG. The AF + EG group was fed with commercial feed plus 250 μg/day of total AF and 2 g/day of EG. After feeding period, tissue samples were taken from the liver in order to perform histological analyses. Vacuolar degeneration with small and large droplets and hydropic degeneration in hepatocytes were observed in the AF group. The ceroid pigmentation was observed in macrophages in groups or one by one. It was observed that the fat rate in hepatocytes was 2.6% in the C group, 35.5% in the AF group, 2.9% in the EG group, and 9.6% in the AF + EG group. In conclusion, the adverse effects caused by aflatoxicosis on the liver could be ameliorated by adding EG to the ration.

  9. The ties that bind? Galactic magnetic fields and ram pressure stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Stone, James, E-mail: stonnes@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    One process affecting gas-rich cluster galaxies is ram pressure stripping (RPS), i.e., the removal of galactic gas through direct interaction with the intracluster medium (ICM). Galactic magnetic fields may have an important impact on the stripping rate and tail structure. We run the first magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of RPS that include a galactic magnetic field, using 159 pc resolution throughout our entire domain in order to resolve mixing throughout the tail. We find very little difference in the total amount of gas removed from the unmagnetized and magnetized galaxies, although a magnetic field with a radial component will initially accelerate stripped gas more quickly. In general, we find that magnetic fields in the disk lead to slower velocities in the stripped gas near the disk and faster velocities farther from the disk. We also find that magnetic fields in the galactic gas lead to larger unmixed structures in the tail. Finally, we discuss whether ram pressure stripped tails can magnetize the ICM. We find that the total magnetic energy density grows as the tail lengthens, likely through turbulence. There are μG-strength fields in the tail in all of our MHD runs, which survive to at least 100 kpc from the disk (the edge of our simulated region), indicating that the area-filling factor of magnetized tails in a cluster could be large.

  10. The Ties that Bind? Galactic Magnetic Fields and Ram Pressure Stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Stone, James

    2014-11-01

    One process affecting gas-rich cluster galaxies is ram pressure stripping (RPS), i.e., the removal of galactic gas through direct interaction with the intracluster medium (ICM). Galactic magnetic fields may have an important impact on the stripping rate and tail structure. We run the first magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of RPS that include a galactic magnetic field, using 159 pc resolution throughout our entire domain in order to resolve mixing throughout the tail. We find very little difference in the total amount of gas removed from the unmagnetized and magnetized galaxies, although a magnetic field with a radial component will initially accelerate stripped gas more quickly. In general, we find that magnetic fields in the disk lead to slower velocities in the stripped gas near the disk and faster velocities farther from the disk. We also find that magnetic fields in the galactic gas lead to larger unmixed structures in the tail. Finally, we discuss whether ram pressure stripped tails can magnetize the ICM. We find that the total magnetic energy density grows as the tail lengthens, likely through turbulence. There are μG-strength fields in the tail in all of our MHD runs, which survive to at least 100 kpc from the disk (the edge of our simulated region), indicating that the area-filling factor of magnetized tails in a cluster could be large.

  11. Effects of supplemental humic acid on ruminal fermentation and blood variables in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurten Galip

    Full Text Available In this study, we particularly aimed to research the effect of supplemental humic acid on ruminal fermentation and blood variables in rams. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of humic acid (HA on protozoa count, percentages of different protozoa types and blood parameters. Three male Kivircik rams with ruminal cannula were used in a Latin square design, during 22 days periods (15 days for adaptation, 7 days for collection. They received 0 control group (CG, 5 g/day or 10 g/day of HA (HA5, HA10, assay groups. HA were added to the ration with grain diet. Ration was consisted of 5% grain diet and 95 % alfalfa hay. Rumen contents collected before, 3h and 6h after morning feeding on days 1 and 7 in each collection period were analyzed. Blood samples were also collected the same days. No significant difference in biochemical and hematological parameters (except eosinophils levels, P<0.05, variables of ruminal fluid (except sodium levels before feeding and species of rumen protozoa organism (except the percentage Epidinium spp. were evidenced with the addition of HA. In conclusion, we think that they might have been true the widely use in animal food of humates which don’t have any negative effect on biochemical and hematological parameters in particular.

  12. GAS LOSS BY RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING AND INTERNAL FEEDBACK FROM LOW-MASS MILKY WAY SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerick, Andrew; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Grcevich, Jana [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Gatto, Andrea [Max-Planck-Institute für Astrophysik, Garching, bei München (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites in the Milky Way (MW) is affected by a combination of ram pressure stripping (RPS), tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the MW using three-dimensional, high-resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low-mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that RPS is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that although RPS can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play to reconcile our computed stripping times with the rapid quenching timescales deduced from observations of low-mass MW dwarf galaxies. We discuss the roles additional physics may play in this scenario, including host-satellite tidal interactions, cored versus cuspy dark matter profiles, reionization, and satellite preprocessing. We conclude that a proper accounting of these physics together is necessary to understand the quenching of low-mass MW satellites.

  13. Study of the effects of breed on some innate immunity parameters in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genova Krasimira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on 26 rams from the breeds Karakachan and Copper-Red Shoumen. The non-specific immune parameters, phagocytic activity of leukocytes, bactericidal activity of phagocytes systems (oxygen-dependent and oxygen independent and total plasma protein level were evaluated. Phagocytic response was evaluated against S. aureus 209-P with a certain percentage of active phagocytes (phagocytic index and the number of absorbed particles per one phagocytic cells (phagocyte number. Phagocytosis completion index was defined as the percentage of the microbial cells that have been destroyed by phagocytes after incubation. State of the oxygen-dependent bactericidal systems of phagocytes was assessed in vitro using the NBT test, which reflects the ability of superoxide restore NBT in diphormazane. NBT test was evaluated by the degree of reduction in spontaneous and stimulated reactions, taking into account the intracellular deposits diphormazane. Our studies and results shows that the rams from the two local Bulgarian breeds have a high activity of innate immune parameters and that’s may be useful and important in the breeding programs as an indicator of resistance and highly tolerance to oxidative stress.

  14. RAM investigation of coal-fired thermal power plants: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bose

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous generation of electricity of a power plant depends on the higher availability of its components/equipments. Higher availability of the components/equipments is inherently associated with their higher reliability and maintainability. This paper investigates the reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM characteristics of a 210 MW coal-fired thermal power plant (Unit-2 from a thermal power station in eastern region of India. Critical mechanical subsystems with respect to failure frequency, reliability and maintainability are identified for taking necessary measures for enhancing availability of the power plant and the results are compared with Unit-1 of the same Power Station. Reliability-based preventive maintenance intervals (PMIs at various reliability levels of the subsystems are estimated also for performing their preventive maintenance (PM. The present paper highlights that in the Unit-2, Economizer (ECO & Furnace Wall Tube (FWT exhibits lower reliability as compared to the other subsystems and Economizer (ECO & Baffle Wall Tube (BWT demands more improvement in maintainability. Further, it has been observed that FSH followed Decreasing Failure Rate (DFR and Economizer (ECO is the most critical subsystem for both the plants. RAM analysis is very much effective in finding critical subsystems and deciding their preventive maintenance program for improving availability of the power plant as well as the power supply.

  15. Characterizing material properties of cement-stabilized rammed earth to construct sustainable insulated walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of local materials can reduce the hauling of construction materials over long distances, thus reducing the greenhouse gas emissions associated with transporting such materials. Use of locally available soils (earth for construction of walls has been used in many parts of the world. Owing to the thermal mass of these walls and the potential to have insulation embedded in the wall section has brought this construction material/technology at the forefront in recent years. However, the mechanical properties of the rammed earth and the parameters required for design of steel reinforced walls are not fully understood. In this paper, the author presents a case study where full-scale walls were constructed using rammed earth to understand the effect of two different types of shear detailing on the structural performance of the walls. The mechanical properties of the material essential for design such as compressive strength of the material including effect of coring on the strength, pull out strength of different rebar diameters, flexural performance and out-of-plane bending on walls was studied. These results are presented in this case study.

  16. THE ROLE OF RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING IN THE QUENCHING OF CLUSTER STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, Laura G.; Benson, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent observations of galaxy clusters have shown that environmental effects apparently associated with the cluster begin to lower the star formation rates of galaxies at distances as great as three times the cluster virial radius. These observations may indicate preprocessing of cluster galaxies in groups or in the cluster core for galaxies on highly elliptical orbits, but may also imply that the environmental effects due to the cluster are directly affecting galaxies on their first infall. To explore these issues, we investigate different models of ram pressure stripping (RPS) as it acts on satellite galaxies in clusters and compare to observations of the radial star formation gradient in clusters. We calculate the location of the accretion shock around model clusters and use this as the radius of onset of RPS in the GALFORM semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. Comparison of the results of our model and previously considered, simpler ram pressure models with recent observations indicates that current data are unable to strongly discriminate between models of RPS due to the complex interplay of preprocessing effects at work. However, future observations of a larger sample of clusters will likely be able to place stronger constraints on the process of RPS and its role in shaping radial trends in and around clusters.

  17. Alpha-particle-induced soft errors in high speed bipolar RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsusada, Kazumichi; Kato, Yukio; Yamaguchi, Kunihiko; Inadachi, Masaaki

    1980-01-01

    As bipolar RAM (Random Access Memory) has been improved to a fast acting and highly integrated device, the problems negligible in the past have become the ones that can not be ignored. The problem of a-particles emitted from the radioactive substances in semiconductor package materials should be specifically noticed, which cause soft errors. The authors have produced experimentally the special 1 kbit bipolar RAM to investigate its soft errors. The package used was the standard 16 pin dual in-line type, with which the practical system mounting test and a-particle irradiation test have been performed. The results showed the occurrence of soft errors at the average rate of about 1 bit/700 device hour. It is concluded that the cause was due to the a-particles emitted from the package materials, and at the same time, it was found that the rate of soft error occurrence was able to be greatly reduced by shielding a-particles. The error rate significantly increased with the decrease of the stand-by current of memory cells and with the accumulated charge determined by time constant. The mechanism of soft error was also investigated, for which an approximate model to estimate the error rate by means of the effective noise charge due to a-particles and of the amount of reversible charges of memory cells is shown to compare it with the experimental results. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Interface engineered HfO2-based 3D vertical ReRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, Boris; Wang, I-Ting; Lai, Wei-Li; Chang, Che-Chia; Hou, Tuo-Hung; Jančovič, Peter; Fröhlich, Karol; Mičušík, Matej; Omastová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a double-layer 3D vertical resistive random access memory (ReRAM) stack implementing a Pt/HfO 2 /TiN memory cell. The HfO 2 switching layer is grown by atomic layer deposition on the sidewall of a SiO 2 /TiN/SiO 2 /TiN/SiO 2 multilayer pillar. A steep vertical profile was achieved using CMOS-compatible TiN dry etching. We employ in situ TiN bottom interface engineering by ozone, which results in (a) significant forming voltage reduction which allows for forming-free operation in AC pulsed mode, and (b) non-linearity tuning of low resistance state by current compliance during Set operation. The vertical ReRAM shows excellent read and write disturb immunity between vertically stacked cells, retention over 10 4 s and excellent switching stability at 400 K. Endurance of 10 7 write cycles was achieved using 100 ns wide AC pulses while fast switching speed using pulses of only 10 ns width is also demonstrated. The active switching region was evaluated to be located closer to the bottom interface which allows for the observed high endurance. (paper)

  19. Behaviour and kinematics of continuous ram filtration in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Malene Juul; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2009-01-01

    Balaenid whales perform long breath-hold foraging dives despite a high drag from their ram filtration of zooplankton. To maximize the volume of prey acquired in a dive with limited oxygen supplies, balaenids must either filter feed only occasionally when prey density is particularly high, or they......Balaenid whales perform long breath-hold foraging dives despite a high drag from their ram filtration of zooplankton. To maximize the volume of prey acquired in a dive with limited oxygen supplies, balaenids must either filter feed only occasionally when prey density is particularly high......, or they must swim at slow speeds while filtering to reduce drag and oxygen consumption. Using digital tags with three-axis accelerometers, we studied bowhead whales feeding off West Greenland and present here, to our knowledge, the first detailed data on the kinematics and swimming behaviour of a balaenid...... whale filter feeding at depth. Bowhead whales employ a continuous fluking gait throughout the bottom phase of foraging dives, moving at very slow speeds (less than 1 m s-1), allowing them to filter feed continuously at depth. Despite the slow speeds, the large mouth aperture provides a water filtration...

  20. Spiking Neural Networks Based on OxRAM Synapses for Real-Time Unsupervised Spike Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thilo; Vianello, Elisa; Bichler, Olivier; Garbin, Daniele; Cattaert, Daniel; Yvert, Blaise; De Salvo, Barbara; Perniola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an alternative approach to perform spike sorting of complex brain signals based on spiking neural networks (SNN). The proposed architecture is suitable for hardware implementation by using resistive random access memory (RRAM) technology for the implementation of synapses whose low latency (spike sorting. This offers promising advantages to conventional spike sorting techniques for brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and neural prosthesis applications. Moreover, the ultra-low power consumption of the RRAM synapses of the spiking neural network (nW range) may enable the design of autonomous implantable devices for rehabilitation purposes. We demonstrate an original methodology to use Oxide based RRAM (OxRAM) as easy to program and low energy (Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity. Real spiking data have been recorded both intra- and extracellularly from an in-vitro preparation of the Crayfish sensory-motor system and used for validation of the proposed OxRAM based SNN. This artificial SNN is able to identify, learn, recognize and distinguish between different spike shapes in the input signal with a recognition rate about 90% without any supervision.

  1. Observing RAM Pressure Stripping and Morphological Transformation in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael; West, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The two largest spirals in the Coma cluster, NGC4911 and NGC4921, are being vigorously ram-pressure stripped by the hot intracluster medium. Our HST ACS and WFC3 images have revealed galactic scale shock fronts, giant "Pillars of Creation", rivulets of dust, and spatially coherent star formation in these grand design spirals. We have now obtained HST WFC3 imaging of five additional large Coma spirals to search for and investigate the effects of ram pressure stripping across the wider cluster environment. The results are equally spectacular as the first two examples. The geometry of the interactions in some cases allows an estimation of the various time scales involved, including gas flows out of the disk leading to creation of the ICM, and the attendant triggered star formation in the galaxy disks. The global star formation patterns yield insights into the spatial and temporal ISM-ICM interactions driving cluster galaxy evolution and ultimately transforming morphologies from spiral to S0. These processes were much more common in the early Universe when the intergalactic and intracluster components were initially created from stripping and destruction of member galaxies.

  2. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection on sperm morphology in Yankasa rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyinka O. Okubanjo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of T. congolense on the sperm morphology of Yankasa rams (YKR. Nine YKR aged 24-30 months-old were assigned into two groups of 6 infected and 3 uninfected control and were monitored for 7 weeks. The infected group of YKR was each inoculated with 1 x 106 T. congolense through the jugular vein, while the control group remained uninfected. The entire infected group developed trypanosomosis post infection (pi characterized by sperm morphological abnormalities in the semen. There were significant (P<0.001 increases in the mean percentage of acrosomal, head, middle piece and tail abnormalities. Proximal and distal droplets as well detached heads were also significantly (P<0.001 increased post infection (pi. Acrosomal abnormalities, distal droplet and tail abnormalities increased from week 1 pi till the end of the study, while head abnormalities and detached heads increased from week 2 pi. Middle piece abnormalities and proximal droplets increased from week 3 and 4 pi till the end of the study respectively. The high incidence of morphological defects caused by T. congolense is capable of causing infertility from the first week pi thereby making the rams unfit for breeding at the end of the study.

  3. Effects of supplemental humic acid on ruminal fermentation and blood variables in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Polat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we particularly aimed to research the effect of supplemental humic acid on ruminal fermentation and blood variables in rams. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of humic acid (HA on protozoa count, percentages of different protozoa types and blood parameters. Three male Kivircik rams with ruminal cannula were used in a Latin square design, during 22 days periods (15 days for adaptation, 7 days for collection. They received 0 control group (CG, 5 g/day or 10 g/day of HA (HA5, HA10, assay groups. HA were added to the ration with grain diet. Ration was consisted of 5 % grain diet and 95 % alfalfa hay. Rumen contents collected before and, 3h and 6h after morning feeding on days 1 and 7 in each collection period were analyzed. Blood samples were also collected the same days. No significant difference in biochemical and hematological parameters (except eosinophils levels, P, variables of ruminal fluid (except sodium levels before feeding and species of rumen protozoa organism (except the percentage Epidinium spp. were evidenced with the addition of HA. In conclusion, we think that they might have been true the widely use in animal food of humates which don’t have any negative effect on biochemical and hematological parameters in particular. 

  4. Diversas obras de Maricarmen Sánchez de Ramírez, en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo Editorial

    1981-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with three important works of the Madrid born Venezuelan architect, Mari Carmen Sánchez de Ramírez. The first, and the only one completed at present, are seven onefamily dwellings grouped together in one volumetric and structural unit. The second is a tall office building, triangular in shape and composed of a thirty-two story tower, a ground floor public area and a ten floor mechanically operated parking garage. Third and last is the Multi-purpose Complex, located on the coast. It is made up of commercial areas, residential areas, offices, parking facilities and public areas.

    En este trabajo se recogen tres interesantes obras de la arquitecto venezolana, nacida en Madrid, Maricarmen Sánchez de Ramírez. La primera, única realizada hasta la fecha, trata de la agrupación de siete viviendas unifamiliares en una misma unidad volumétrica y estructural. La segunda corresponde a un alto edificio de oficinas, de sección triangular, y compuesto por una torre de 32 niveles, un cuerpo bajo de espacios públicos y un estacionamiento mecánico de 10 plantas de altura. La tercera y última comprende un complejo multiuso, situado en la costa, formado por zonas comerciales, áreas de vivienda, oficinas, estacionamiento y espacios públicos.

  5. Recent developments in the applications of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) for emergency response planning and operational forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.A.; Tremback, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors will summarize ten years of developing and applying the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to emergency response and operational dispersion forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). RAMS forms the core of two workstation-based operational systems, ERDAS (the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System) and PROWESS (Parallelized RAMS Operational Weather Simulation System) which are undergoing extensive operational testing prior to potential deployment as part of the range forecasting system at KSC. RAMS has been interfaced with HYPACT (the Hybrid Particle and Concentration Transport Model) to produce detailed 3-D dispersion forecasts from a variety of sources including cold spills, routine launch operations, and explosive conflagrations of launch vehicles

  6. Single port-assisted fully laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) with immediate V-RAM flap reconstruction of the perineal defect.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Sayid

    2012-09-01

    Abdominoperineal resection (APR) of anorectal cancers after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy may incur significant perineal morbidity. While vertical rectus abdominis muscle (V-RAM) flaps can fill the pelvic resection space with health tissue, their use has previously been described predominantly in association with laparotomy. Here, we describe a means of combination laparoscopic APR with V-RAM flap reconstruction that allows structural preservation of the entire abdominal wall throughout the oncological resection and of the deep parietal layers after V-RAM donation. Furthermore, a single port access device used at the end colostomy site allows a second senior surgeon assist with an additional two working instruments for the purpose of improved pelvic tissue retraction, especially useful in obese patients.

  7. Recurrent 3-day cycles of water deprivation for over a month depress mating behaviour but not semen characteristics of adult rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khnissi, S; Lassoued, N; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, H

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of water deprivation (WD) on reproductive traits of rams. Ten mature rams were used and allocated to two groups balanced for body weight. Control (C) rams had free access to drinking water, while water-restricted rams (WD) were deprived from water for 3 consecutive days and early on the morning of day 4, they had ad libitum access to water for 24 h, similar to C animals. The experiment lasted 32 days, that is eight 4-day cycles of water deprivation and subsequent watering. Feed and water intake were significantly affected by water deprivation; in comparison with C rams, WD rams reduced their feed intake by 18%. During the watering day of the deprivation cycle, WD rams consumed more water than C rams on the same day (11.8 (SD = 3.37) and 8.4 (SD = 1.92) l respectively; p water deprivation. However, testosterone levels were lowered as a result of water deprivation and average values were 10.9 and 6.2 (SEM 1.23) ng/ml for C and WD rams respectively (p cycles 5 and 8 of water deprivation. Several mating behaviour traits were modified as a result of water deprivation. When compared to controls, WD rams had a more prolonged time to first mount attempt (p Water deprivation may have practical implications reducing the libido and therefore the serving capacity of rams under field conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Complex mixtures biostudies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the project is to identify potential adverse biological activities associated with human exposures to complex organic mixtures (COM) from energy-related industries. Studies to identify the influence of chemical class fractions from a COM on the initiating activity of a known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), demonstrated that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (NPAC) fractions were the most effective inhibitors of initiation. In an effort to determine the contribution of BaP to the initiating activity of the COM, binding of radiolabeled BaP to mouse skin DNA was measured. Results indicated that binding of BaP to DNA decreased in the presence of the COM so that at initiating COM doses, BaP binding was near the limit detection. Addition of unlabeled BaP to the COM at an amount similar to that originally present in the COM did not significantly increase the binding. Studies to determine the rates of disappearance of carcinogenic PAH from the site of application on the skin indicated that half-lives for PAH differed by a factor of about 2. Analytical methods developed to identify PAH from COM which covalently bind to DNA demonstrated that the lower level of detection is approximately 200 picograms. Developmental studies demonstrated that both pregnant rats and mice treated dermally with a high-boiling COM developed fetuses with major malformations including cleft palate, small lungs, edema, and sagittal suture hemorrhages. 3 figures, 5 tables

  9. A WARM MOLECULAR HYDROGEN TAIL DUE TO RAM-PRESSURE STRIPPING OF A CLUSTER GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H.

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered a remarkable warm (130-160 K) molecular hydrogen tail with a H 2 mass of approximately 4 x 10 7 M sun extending 20 kpc from a cluster spiral galaxy, ESO 137-001, in Abell 3627. At least half of this gas is lost permanently to the intracluster medium, as the tail extends beyond the tidal radius of the galaxy. We also detect a hot (400-550 K) component in the tail that is approximately 1% of the mass. The large H 2 line to IR continuum luminosity ratio in the tail indicates that star formation is not a major excitation source and that the gas is possibly shock-heated. This discovery confirms that the galaxy is currently undergoing ram-pressure stripping, as also indicated by its previously discovered X-ray and Hα tails. We estimate that the galaxy is losing its warm H 2 gas at a rate of ∼2-3 M sun yr -1 . The true mass-loss rate is likely higher if we account for cold molecular gas and atomic gas. We predict that the galaxy will lose most of its gas in a single pass through the core and place a strong upper limit on the ram-pressure timescale of 1 Gyr. We also study the star-forming properties of the galaxy and its tail. We identify most of the previously discovered external Hα sources within the tail in our 8 μm data but not in our 3.6 μm data; IRS spectroscopy of the region containing these Hα sources also reveals aromatic features typically associated with star formation. From the positions of these H II regions, it appears that star formation is not occurring throughout the molecular hydrogen tail but only immediately downstream of the galaxy. Some of these H II regions lie outside the tidal radius of the galaxy, indicating that ram-pressure stripping can be a source of intracluster stars.

  10. Component effects in mixture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    In a mixture experiment, the response to a mixture of q components is a function of the proportions x 1 , x 2 , ..., x/sub q/ of components in the mixture. Experimental regions for mixture experiments are often defined by constraints on the proportions of the components forming the mixture. The usual (orthogonal direction) definition of a factor effect does not apply because of the dependence imposed by the mixture restriction, /sup q/Σ/sub i=1/ x/sub i/ = 1. A direction within the experimental region in which to compute a mixture component effect is presented and compared to previously suggested directions. This new direction has none of the inadequacies or errors of previous suggestions while having a more meaningful interpretation. The distinction between partial and total effects is made. The uses of partial and total effects (computed using the new direction) in modification and interpretation of mixture response prediction equations are considered. The suggestions of the paper are illustrated in an example from a glass development study in a waste vitrification program. 5 figures, 3 tables

  11. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class

  12. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  13. Programming scheme based optimization of hybrid 4T-2R OxRAM NVSRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Swatilekha; Kingra, Sandeep Kaur; Suri, Manan

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel single-cycle programming scheme for 4T-2R NVSRAM, exploiting pulse engineered input signals. OxRAM devices based on 3 nm thick bi-layer active switching oxide and 90 nm CMOS technology node were used for all simulations. The cell design is implemented for real-time non-volatility rather than last-bit, or power-down non-volatility. Detailed analysis of the proposed single-cycle, parallel RRAM device programming scheme is presented in comparison to the two-cycle sequential RRAM programming used for similar 4T-2R NVSRAM bit-cells. The proposed single-cycle programming scheme coupled with the 4T-2R architecture leads to several benefits such as- possibility of unconventional transistor sizing, 50% lower latency, 20% improvement in SNM and ∼20× reduced energy requirements, when compared against two-cycle programming approach.

  14. En femenino: Apuntes sobre la obra de Esperanza Barroso y Raquel Ramírez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Leonardo Caballero Piza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo proporciona algunas coordenadas de interpretación para la obra de las artistas santandereanas Esperanza Barroso y Raquel Ramírez, desde los conceptos de currículo oculto y micropolítica, y desde diversas fuentes documentales de carácter historiográfico (catálogos, folletos, recortes de prensa y entrevistas. Mediante el concepto de currículo oculto se reconstruye de forma general el ámbito en que fueron educadas ambas artistas, mientras que con el de micropolítica se inscriben sus obras en las preocupaciones del arte colombiano de los setentas, que giraron en torno de los modos de representación del cuerpo desde el deseo individual, la emancipación subjetiva y las restricciones jurídicas del Estado.

  15. Quality and freezing qualities of first and second ejaculates collected from endangered Gulf Coast Native rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel-Themaat, L; Harding, G D; Chandler, J E; Chenevert, J F; Damiani, P; Fernandez, J M; Humes, P E; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2006-10-01

    The Gulf Coast Native sheep, or Louisiana Native sheep, is an endangered previously feral domestic sheep population of European origin that has been under natural selection pressure for reproductive survival in their transplanted range while roaming in the southern Gulf Coast Region of the United States. This sheep population has an increased natural resistance to internal parasites, breeds year-around and has a greater percentage of live lambs as compared with other breeds of sheep raised in similar environments. To preserve the genetic diversity of this important feral sheep population, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to cryopreservation for subsequent storage in a genome resource bank. Unrelated rams (n=5) were collected 3 days-a-week, allowing at least 2 days of rest between collections. Two ejaculates were obtained from each ram per collection day, with the second collection conducted 10min after the first ejaculation. Semen was processed using the standard Salamon cryopreservation procedure in a Tris-yolk-glycerol extender, frozen in 0.5ml plastic straws using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor and stored in LN(2). Each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, sperm concentration/ml (x10(9)/ml), number of spermatozoa/ejaculate (x10(9)), sperm progressive motility (%) for pre-cooled semen, cooled semen and semen after thawing. For the five rams, each semen variable for the first ejaculate was compared with that of the second ejaculate collected 10min later. The mean semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate obtained from the first ejaculate were significantly greater (P< or =0.01) than those of the second ejaculate (comparisons being 1.62 and 1.06; 3.2 and 1.5; 5.4 and 1.8, respectively). Overall, the mean motility of pre-cooled (22 degrees Celsius), cooled (5 degrees Celsius) and frozen (-196 degrees Celsius) post-thawed spermatozoa was less (P< or =0.01) in the first ejaculate (71.5, 64.8 and 34.1%, respectively

  16. Ramón Torres Méndez y la pintura de tipos y costumbres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Sánchez Cabra

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1940, al anunciar la publicación de 37 "escenas de costumbres" de Ramón Torres Méndez, la revista Cromos lo presentó como "el pintor más famoso de Colombia". A juzgar por casi un siglo de testimonios, Cromos no exageraba. Hasta mediados del siglo XX las "escenas de costumbres" de Torres Méndez fueron uno de los recursos más frecuentemente utilizados en los periódicos y revistas locales para la ilustración de relatos de viajes, descripciones de tradiciones y costumbres bogotanas y aun para la publicidad de industrias y casas comerciales. Hasta mediados del presente siglo, los escasos críticos y comentaristas del arte nacional fueron unánimes en situar a Torres Méndez como el pintor más notable de la Nueva Granada en el siglo XIX.

  17. Forecasting wind power production from a wind farm using the RAMS model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiriolo, L.; Torcasio, R. C.; Montesanti, S.

    2015-01-01

    of the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), whose horizontal resolution over Central Italy is about 25 km at the time considered in this paper. Because wind observations were not available for the site, the power curve for the whole wind farm was derived from the ECMWF wind operational analyses available......The importance of wind power forecast is commonly recognized because it represents a useful tool for grid integration and facilitates the energy trading. This work considers an example of power forecast for a wind farm in the Apennines in Central Italy. The orography around the site is complex...... and the horizontal resolution of the wind forecast has an important role. To explore this point we compared the performance of two 48 h wind power forecasts using the winds predicted by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) for the year 2011. The two forecasts differ only for the horizontal resolution...

  18. Beyond disciplinary borders. H. A. Lorentz and S. Ramón y Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Santarén, J; Kox, A J; Sánchez-Ron, J M

    2014-01-01

    Science is a multidisciplinary enterprise. Mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and many other, perhaps not so " basic ", but not less interesting disciplines form what we call " science ". The task of history of science is to recover and put order in the past of such disciplines. Although, on most the occasions, those histories are limited by the territories of the different sciences, we know that their frontiers are not impermeable, that there are relationships between them. However, it is not frequent to find studies dealing with those relationships, especially dealing with relations among scientists belonging to different fields. In the present paper, we study a case in which two outstanding scientists, a physicist and a histologist (or neuroscientist, as we would say today), the Dutchman Hendrik A. Lorentz and the Spanish Santiago Ramón y Cajal, maintained a, albeit brief, relation. Both being such prominent scientific figures, of worldwide stature, the relation they maintained deserves to be known.

  19. Effect of suction on the mechanical characteristics of uniformly compacted rammed earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajjar, A.; Chauhan, P.; Prime, N.; Plé, O.

    2018-04-01

    Rammed earth, in the current environmental situation, is an alternative construction technique which can help in reducing energy and raw material consumption owing to its “sustainable” characteristics. To fully understand its behavior and properties, recent scientific investigations consider it as a compacted unsaturated material with suction as its one of the main sources of strength. Eathern constructions face, over their lifetime, variations in the suction state which have a significant impact on their mechanical characteristics. In the present contribution, unconfined compression tests are performed, with and without unload-reload cycles, on homogeneously compacted samples subjected to various suction conditions. This study shows that both the unconfined compressive strength and Young modulus reduce with the reduction of suction states. Suction also seems to influence the amount of plastic strains and damage phenomenon. Indeed, the soils analyzed are slightly active and shows both plasticity behavior and damage phenomenon.

  20. Novel Power Reduction Technique for ReRAM with Automatic Avoidance Circuit for Wasteful Overwrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya Handa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-power operations can be great advantageous for ReRAM devices. However, wasteful overwriting such as the SET operation to low-resistance state (LRS device and the RESET operation to high-resistance state (HRS device causes not only an increase in power but also the degradation of the write cycles due to repeatedly rewriting. Thus, in this paper, we proposed a novel automatic avoidance circuit for dealing with wasteful overwriting that uses a sense amplifier and estimated the energy consumption reduction rate by conducting a circuit simulation. As a result, this circuit helped to reliably avoid the wasteful overwriting operation to reduce about 99% and 97% of wasteful energy using VSRC and CSRC, respectively.

  1. RAMS Model for Terrestrial Pathways Version 3. 0 (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebla, E.

    1989-01-01

    The RAMS Model for Terrestrial Pathways is a computer program for calculation of numeric criteria for land application and distribution and marketing of sludges under the sewage-sludge regulations at 40 CFR Part 503. The risk-assessment models covered assume that municipal sludge with specified characteristics is spread across a defined area of ground at a known rate once each year for a given number of years. Risks associated with direct land application of sludge applied after distribution and marketing are both calculated. The computer program calculates the maximum annual loading of contaminants that can be land applied and still meet the risk criteria specified as input. Software Description: The program is written in the Turbo/Basic programming language for implementation on IBM PC/AT or compatible machines using DOS 3.0 or higher operating system. Minimum core storage is 512K.

  2. Ramón J. Sender tra verità e finzione, con epilogo cinematografico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Fiore

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish cultural renaissance of the first three decades of the 20th century was interrupted in 1936, when intellectuals abandoned their aesthetic ambitions to describe war. However, some writers were immune to the aesthetic charm of the period. Ramón J. Sender in the 20s used a testimonial style in his journalistic collaborations and in the 30s approached reality for militant purposes, thus anticipating the hybridization of reality and fiction. He narrated the Casas Viejas anarchist revolt in his news reports (1933 and in two narrative reworks, Casas viejas (1933 and Viaje a la aldea del crimen (1934. Fifty years later, the meeting of fiction and reality and the hybridity of genres will also characterize the narrative approach adopted by cinema in narrating the same facts.

  3. Response of PMHS to high- and low-speed oblique and lateral pneumatic ram impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhule, Heather; Suntay, Brian; Herriott, Rodney; Amenson, Tara; Stricklin, Jim; Bolte, John H

    2011-11-01

    In ISO Technical Report 9790 (1999) normalized lateral and oblique thoracic force-time responses of PMHS subjected to blunt pendulum impacts at 4.3 m/s were deemed sufficiently similar to be grouped together in a single biomechanical response corridor. Shaw et al. (2006) presented results of paired oblique and lateral thoracic pneumatic ram impact tests to opposite sides of seven PMHS at sub-injurious speed (2.5 m/s). Normalized responses showed that oblique impacts resulted in more deflection and less force, whereas lateral impacts resulted in less deflection and more force. This study presents results of oblique and lateral thoracic impacts to PMHS at higher speeds (4.5 and 5.5 m/s) to assess whether lateral relative to oblique responses are different as observed by Shaw et al. or similar as observed by ISO. Twelve PMHS were impacted by a 23 kg pneumatic ram with a 152.4 mmx304.8 mm rectangular face plate at the level of the xyphoid process in either the pure lateral or 30° anterior-to-lateral oblique direction. Because these tests were potentially injurious, only one test per subject was conducted. Normalized responses demonstrate similar characteristics for both lateral and oblique impacts, indicating that it may be reasonable to combine lateral and oblique responses together at these higher speeds to define characteristic PMHS response as was done by ISO. The small number of tests conducted indicates that less chest compression may be required to obtain serious thoracic injury in oblique impacts as compared to lateral impacts at speeds of 4.5 or 5.5 m/s.

  4. Jellyfish: Observational Properties of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping Events in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conor, McPartland; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the physical origin and observational signatures of extreme ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z=0.3-0.7, based on data in the F606W passband obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen ``jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define quantitative morphological criteria to select candidate galaxies which are similar to known cases of RPS. Considering a sample of 16 ``jellyfish" galaxies (10 of which we present for the first time), we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on dynamical features such as apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the observed events occur primarily at large distances from the cluster core and involve infall trajectories featuring high impact parameters. Simple models of cluster growth show that such trajectories are consistent with two scenarios: 1) galaxy infall along filaments; and 2) infall at high velocities (≥1000 km/s) characteristic of cluster mergers. The observed distribution of events is best described by timescales of ˜few Myr in agreement with recent numerical simulations of RPS. The broader areal coverage of the Hubble Frontier Fields should provide an even larger sample of RPS events to determine the relative contributions of infall and cluster mergers. Prompted by the discovery of several jellyfish galaxies whose brightness in the F606W passband rivals or exceeds that of the respective brightest cluster galaxy, we attempt to constrain the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing RPS. The observed significant excess at the bright end compared to the luminosity functions of blue cluster members strongly suggests enhanced star formation, thus challenging theoretical and numerical studies according to which RPS merely displaces existing star-forming regions. In-depth studies of individual objects will help test our

  5. Histopathological changes and inflammatory response induced by Tityus discrepans scorpion venom in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Suze, G; Salazar, V; Díaz, P; Sevcik, C; Azpurua, H; Bracho, N

    2004-12-15

    Anesthetized rams envenomed s.c. with 40 microg/kg Tityus discrepans scorpion venom developed fasciculation, hypothermia, polyuria, pulmonary wet rales, tachypnea, respiratory distress and arrhythmia. Rams developed a cascade of inflammation reactions, characterized by activation of macrophages, fibroblasts and neutrophils, neutrophil infiltration and aggregation, vasculitis, arteritis and abundant fibrin deposition. At the inoculation site, venom was detected by immunohistochemistry in the extra cellular matrix, lymphatic vessels' and venules' lumen, inside macrophages and surrounding nerves. Extra cellular matrix was degraded at the inoculation site perhaps by activated neutrophils. Envenoming produced hepatocytes with Mallory body-like vacuoles which may be due to the increased plasmatic levels of TNF-alpha and IL6. Venom produced degranulation and vacuolization of acinary cells as well as interstitial swelling and necrosis. Necrosis of the Langerhan's islets occurred occasionally. Lungs showed the most deleterious effects developing wall collapse and necrosis, diffuse injury of the alveolar capillary barrier, interstitial and alveolar fibrin deposits with strong neutrophil infiltration. Massive infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophage occurred in the intestinal submucose, to the point that it modified villi and intestinal folding morphology. Envenomation developed a marked leukocyte aggregation surrounding nerves at the inoculation site. This study reveals that beyond its neurotoxicity, Tityus venom produces a severe and widespread inflammatory syndrome, expressed as histopathological changes at the site of inoculation, as well as in remote organs such as pancreas, lungs, intestine and liver. Our results suggest that not all remote targets are directly affected by the venom but that, as proposed earlier, are modified by inflammation by products produced elsewhere.

  6. Evaluating pasture and soil allowance of manganese for Kajli rams grazing in semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Naqvi, Syed Ali Hassan; Seidavi, Alireza; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-03-01

    The current research on the manganese (Mn) transfer from soil to plant as well as to grazing Kajli rams in the form of sampling periods was carried out under semi-arid environmental conditions. Forage, soil and blood plasma samples were collected during 4 months of the year after a 1-month interval, and Mn concentrations were assessed after wet digestion using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that Mn concentration in soil ranged from 48.28 to 59.44 mg/kg, with incoherent augment and decline across sampling periods, and effect of sampling period on soil Mn was also found to be significant (P soil appeared higher than the critical value and sufficient for forage crop requirement. The Mn concentration in forage ranged between 24.8 and 37.2 mg/kg, resulting deficient based on the requirement allowance of Mn for livestock grazing animals, therein with almost unchanged forage Mn concentration. The Mn values in blood plasma of rams varied from 0.066 to 0.089 mg/l, with a consistent increase based on sampling period, and the effect of sampling periods on plasma Mn was found to be highly significant (P soil and plant species amassing capability on the transport of Mn in the soil-plant-animal system. Results indicated a much higher accumulation rate at the sampling characterized by vegetation dominated by legumes in comparison to grasses, crop residues and mixed pasture and a pronounced seasonal supply of Mn at the four sampling period of grazing land of diverse botanical composition.

  7. Carmen de Burgos y Ramón Gómez de la Serna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubach Medina, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carmen de Burgos, born in the southern province of Almería, arrives to Madrid at the beginning of the 20th century. She has decided to maintain her independence after an unhappy marriage and to earn her bread with her writings. She also uses them to promote different social issues, her idea of literature and the young writers who are starting their careers. Ramón Gómez de la Serna, twenty years her younger, meets her in 1908, when he is starting his career. Carmen represents the ideal woman he describes in his conference titled “The New Literature”. Along the next twenty years they share their lives, travels and writing in a rich partnership that ends suddenly in 1929 after the short flirt of Carmen’s daughter with the writer.

    Carmen de Burgos, proveniente de la sureña provincia de Almería, llega a Madrid a principios del s. XX, decidida a mantener su independencia tras un desdichado matrimonio y a ganarse la vida escribiendo, apoyando una serie de causas sociales, su idea de la literatura y los jóvenes valores. Ramón Gómez de la Serna, veinte años más joven que ella, la conoce en 1908, cuando comienza su carrera literaria. Carmen encarna el ideal de mujer que describe en su conferencia sobre “La nueva literatura”. Durante veinte años comparten vida, viajes y escritura en una fructífera compañía que termina bruscamente en 1929 tras la relación fugaz de la hija de Carmen con el escritor.

  8. PC-version of RAM6-code for calculation of parameters of the effective logarithmic boundary condition at the absorbent rod surface in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Ngoc; Ngo Dang Nhan

    1990-01-01

    The RAM-6 code for calculation of parameters of the effective logarithmic boundary condition at the absorbent rod surface in reactor is suitably modofied to work on IBM PC, the instructions for its usage are presented and capabilities of the personal cpmputer oriented RAM-6 code are demonstrated. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs, 2 figs

  9. Temporal concentrations of cortisol and LH in virgin ewes acutely exposed to rams during the transition into the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosh, R B; Berry, E M; Wehrman, M E; Redden, R R; Hallford, D M; Berardinelli, J G

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if exposing seasonally anovular ewes to rams would alter patterns of cortisol concentrations, and if these changes are associated with changes in characteristics of LH concentrations. Seasonally anestrous ewes were assigned to be exposed to rams (RE; n=11) or wethers (NE; n=12). Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals beginning 120 min before introduction of males (time=0 min), and continued for 360 min after male exposure. Characteristics of cortisol and LH concentrations included: mean and baseline concentrations, pulse amplitude, duration, frequency, and time to first pulse. Mean and baseline cortisol concentrations, and cortisol pulse amplitude, frequency, and time to first pulse after male exposure did not differ between RE and NE ewes. Cortisol pulse duration was longer (Pewes than in NE ewes. Mean LH and LH pulse amplitude, duration, and time to first pulse after male exposure did not differ between RE and NE ewes. Baseline LH concentrations and LH pulse frequency were greater (Pewes. In RE ewes, but not NE ewes, LH pulse frequency tended to increase (P=0.06) as pulse frequency of cortisol decreased. In conclusion, exposing ewes to mature rams during the transition into the breeding season increased LH pulse frequency which hastened ovulatory activity. However, the results do not support the hypothesis that changes in cortisol concentrations plays a significant role in the 'ram effect'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative effect of combined cysteine and glutathione in soy lecithin-based extender on post-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhandi, Mahdi; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of combined cysteine and glutathione in soy lecithin-based semen extender on post-thawed ram sperm quality. A total of 28 ejaculates were collected twice a week (from four rams) during breeding season. In each replicate, semen samples (n = 4, one ejaculate for each ram) were pooled and divided into three equal parts, and each part was diluted with one of following extender: (1) soy lecithin-based extender containing no cysteine and no glutathione (C0-G0), (2) soy lecithin-based extender containing cysteine (5 mM) and glutathione (5 mM) (C5-G5), and (3) soy lecithin-based extender containing cysteine (10 mM) and glutathione (10 mM) (C10-G10). After freeze-thawing process, motility and velocity parameters, plasma membrane integrity and functionality, mitochondrial activity, and apoptosis features of spermatozoa were evaluated. The obtained results showed that total and progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality, and live post-thawed spermatozoa was lower in C10-G10 extender compared to C0-G0 and C5-G5 extenders (P 0.05). In conclusion, it seems that high concentration of combined cysteine and glutathione in soy lecithin-based semen extender has a detrimental effect of post-thawed ram sperm quality.

  11. Uudised : Kaheksas "Credo". RAM alustab hooaega. šoti naistrio Eestis. Kingitus operetisõpradele / Joosep Sang

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sang, Joosep

    2001-01-01

    Tallinnas toimuvast VIII rahvusvahelisest õigeusu vaimuliku muusika festivalist "Credo". RAM esineb 23. ja 26. sept. kavaga "Päikese- ja kuuvarjutuse palvelaul". šoti trio esineb Tallinnas ja Tartus ning annab õpitoa Viljandis. 12. sept. esitleti Estonia talveaias K. Karaski CD-plaati "Bajadeer"

  12. Experimental Results and Issues on Equalization for Nonlinear Memory Channel: Pre-Cursor Enhanced Ram-DFE Canceler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; LeBlanc, James

    1998-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of the High Power Amplifier (HPA) and the filters over a satellite or telemetry channel. The Volterra series expression is presented for the nonlinear channel with memory, and the algorithm is based on the finite-state machine model. A RAM-based algorithm operating on the receiver side, Pre-cursor Enhanced RAM-FSE Canceler (PERC) is developed. A high order modulation scheme , 16-QAM is used for simulation, the results show that PERC provides an efficient and reliable method to transmit data on the bandlimited nonlinear channel. The contribution of PERC algorithm is that it includes both pre-cursors and post-cursors as the RAM address lines, and suggests a new way to make decision on the pre-addresses. Compared with the RAM-DFE structure that only includes post- addresses, the BER versus Eb/NO performance of PERC is substantially enhanced. Experiments are performed for PERC algorithms with different parameters on AWGN channels, and the results are compared and analyzed. The investigation of this thesis includes software simulation and hardware verification. Hardware is setup to collect actual TWT data. Simulation on both the software-generated data and the real-world data are performed. Practical limitations are considered for the hardware collected data. Simulation results verified the reliability of the PERC algorithm. This work was conducted at NMSU in the Center for Space Telemetering and Telecommunications Systems in the Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department.

  13. GASP. IX. Jellyfish galaxies in phase-space: an orbital study of intense ram-pressure stripping in clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Yara L.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Moretti, Alessia; Gullieuszik, Marco; Smith, Rory; Vulcani, Benedetta; Fasano, Giovanni; Fritz, Jacopo; Tonnesen, Stephanie; Bettoni, Daniela; Hau, George; Biviano, Andrea; Bellhouse, Callum; McGee, Sean

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that galaxies falling into clusters can experience gas stripping due to ram pressure by the intra-cluster medium. The most spectacular examples are galaxies with extended tails of optically bright stripped material known as `jellyfish'. We use the first large homogeneous compilation of jellyfish galaxies in clusters from the WINGS and OmegaWINGS surveys, and follow-up MUSE observations from the GASP MUSE programme to investigate the orbital histories of jellyfish galaxies in clusters and reconstruct their stripping history through position versus velocity phase-space diagrams. We construct analytic models to define the regions in phase-space where ram-pressure stripping is at play. We then study the distribution of cluster galaxies in phase-space and find that jellyfish galaxies have on average higher peculiar velocities (and higher cluster velocity dispersion) than the overall population of cluster galaxies at all cluster-centric radii, which is indicative of recent infall into the cluster and radial orbits. In particular, the jellyfish galaxies with the longest gas tails reside very near the cluster cores (in projection) and are moving at very high speeds, which coincides with the conditions of the most intense ram pressure. We conclude that many of the jellyfish galaxies seen in clusters likely formed via fast (˜1-2 Gyr), incremental, outside-in ram-pressure stripping during first infall into the cluster in highly radial orbits.

  14. 76 FR 65317 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4184, Risk Management and Analysis (RAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ..., Risk Management and Analysis (RAM) ACTION: Notice of request for public comments. SUMMARY: The... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Risk Analysis and Management. OMB Control Number: None.... Methodology: The State Department, is implementing a Risk Analysis and Management Program to vet potential...

  15. The Two Populations of Kisspeptin Neurons Are Involved in the Ram-Induced LH Pulsatile Secretion and LH Surge in Anestrous Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Cognié, Juliette; Dufourny, Laurence; Ghenim, Meriem; Martinet, Stephanie; Lasserre, Olivier; Lomet, Didier; Millar, Robert P; Ohkura, Satoshi; Suetomi, Yuta

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to a ram during spring stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and can induce ovulation in sexually quiescent ewes ("ram effect"). Kisspeptin (Kiss) present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the preoptic area (POA) is a potent stimulators of LH secretion. Our aim was to investigate whether Kiss neurons mediate the increase in LH secretion during the ram effect. With double immunofluorescent detection, we identified Kiss neurons (Kiss IR) activated (Fos IR) by exposure to a ram for 2 hours (M2) or 12 hours (M12) or to ewes for 2 hours (C). The density of cells Kiss + Fos IR and the proportion of Kiss IR cells that were also Fos IR cells were higher in M2 and M12 than in C in ARC (P populations of Kiss neurons are involved in the ram-induced pulsatile LH secretion and in the LH surge. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  16. A general mixture theory. I. Mixtures of spherical molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Esam Z.

    1996-08-01

    We present a new general theory for obtaining mixture properties from the pure species equations of state. The theory addresses the composition and the unlike interactions dependence of mixture equation of state. The density expansion of the mixture equation gives the exact composition dependence of all virial coefficients. The theory introduces multiple-index parameters that can be calculated from binary unlike interaction parameters. In this first part of the work, details are presented for the first and second levels of approximations for spherical molecules. The second order model is simple and very accurate. It predicts the compressibility factor of additive hard spheres within simulation uncertainty (equimolar with size ratio of three). For nonadditive hard spheres, comparison with compressibility factor simulation data over a wide range of density, composition, and nonadditivity parameter, gave an average error of 2%. For mixtures of Lennard-Jones molecules, the model predictions are better than the Weeks-Chandler-Anderson perturbation theory.

  17. Caracterización de las Reacciones Adversas a Medicamentos (RAMs observadas en una institución asistencial de III nivel de complejidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Arroyo Monterrosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen – Las Reacciones Adversas a Medicamentos (RAMs constituyen un problema de salud pública, acerca del cual han tomado intervención los organismos de Farmacovigilancia de cada país, no solo mediante su notificación sino también por su prevención y educación en el uso de los medicamentos. Objetivo: Documentar retrospectivamente los reportes de RAMs generados en una Clínica de IV nivel en Barranquilla (Atl., Col. Metodología: Se incluyeron todas los reportes de RAMs identificadas por el personal clínico teniendo en cuenta que el proceso en tiempo real al momento de producirse el informe y el actuar del Químico Farmacéutico. Resultado: En un lapso de 15 meses se reportaron 94 RAMs, con un promedio 6,27±4,35 RAMs por cada mes El género femenino fue quien más presentó RAMs (55,32 %, el grupo etario con mayor reporte fue el de 18-44 años (42,55 %. Las RAM de mayor reporte fueron en cuanto a Gravedad, las Moderadas (58,51%, causalidad las Probadas 37,23% y Evitabilidad las Prevenibles 57,45%. Los fármacos con mayor número de RAM fueron los Anti-infecciosos Vía General 31,9%. El personal de Salud que más reportó RAM fueron las Enfermeras (35,11%. Conclusiones: El alto número de RAM referentes a los antiinfecciosos es posiblemente como una consecuencia a sus amplias indicaciones y alto uso, generando un gran espacio de oportunidad de aprendizaje para el Comité de Infecciones para promover su uso seguro.

  18. Positive effects of melatonin treatment on the reproductive performance of young border leicester rams mated to merino ewes in spring: preliminary observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, D O; Kelly, J M; Arney, L J; Farley, I L; Tilbrook, A J; Walker, S K

    2014-12-01

    Poor reproductive performance of Merino ewe flocks when mated to Border Leicester rams during spring may be due to seasonality of the Border Leicester breed. Two approaches were taken to test this assumption. Six young (12 months old) or six mixed-age (12, 24 and ≥36 months old) Border Leicester rams were either treated or not treated with melatonin implants (2 × 2 design) 6 weeks before the four groups of rams were each put with approximately 300 Merino ewes for an 8-week mating period. Implants were inserted in early September (experiment 1). The second approach was to yard or not yard ewes and mixed-age rams on several occasions during the first 3 weeks of the mating period (experiment 2). Pregnancy rate and twinning percentage were assessed by ultrasonography. In experiment 1, melatonin treatment in young rams increased (p pregnancy rate from 5.0% to 92.6%, but mixed-age rams did not respond (90.7% vs 89.5% for melatonin and non-melatonin treatments, respectively). Twinning rate was similar (p > 0.05) for ewes mated to either melatonin or non-melatonin-treated young rams (36.8% vs 40.0%, respectively), whereas melatonin significantly improved (p melatonin treatment, scrotal circumference was greater (p pregnancy rate compared with non-yarded counterparts (89.5% vs 65.5%). Twinning rate was not affected (37.7% vs 36.1%, respectively). In summary, melatonin treatment of Border Leicester rams significantly improved flock reproductive performance in spring due to improved pregnancy rates with young rams and improved litter size with mixed-age rams. © 2014 Commonwealth of Australia.

  19. Comparison of HuRAM+ and HERA for Development of Data Worksheet for Simulator based HERA Databank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sunyoung; Jung, Wondea

    2013-01-01

    We also compared the existing HERA methods and HERA database to select essential data fields. We performed a preliminary study to see the possibility to induce the operator's emergency operating procedure (EOP) noncompliance behaviors under a simulated emergency. The purpose of this paper is to compare the HuRAM + and HERA to obtain an insight into the construction of a data worksheet for a qualitative HERA. In this paper, we performed a case study for applying simulator training data to HuRAM + and HERA. With this insight, as well as the results of the researches mentioned above, we have a plan to develop a systematic and qualitative HERA and a data worksheet for the work. In this paper, we compared HuRAM + and HERA to obtain an insight into the construction of a data worksheet for a qualitative HERA and performed a case study. HERA requires a burden to analyze and input an event data due to too many data fields even though it is well designed to estimate Heaps. It is somewhat more convenient to input data into the HuRAM + ; however, it is difficult to analyze the organization and safety culture factors. We are now trying to develop the framework of a data worksheet for a qualitative HERA based on simulator training data. The purpose of our data worksheet is to provide key information for HEP estimation and to enhance the understanding of an operators' behavior under an off-normal plant status. We aim less encumbered means of obtaining the needed data for HERA by changing the existing data worksheet framework of HuRAM + and HERA and by reducing data fields that require reading the between the lines

  20. Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

    2013-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. The consistent evidence of profound negative impacts on seminal and testicular characteristics as well as the resulting data of no improvement of subsequent growth, thermoregulation, and plasma oxidative status in rams prompts us to tentatively recommend the avoidance of feeding intact Ulva lactuca to lambs.

  1. Natural convection in ternary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, G.M.; Kai, L.

    1981-01-01

    The field equations for a mixture of a viscous fluid, a deformable solid and a non-viscous fluid are studied, based on a linearized theory proposed by Bowen. The fields of density of each constituent, temperature, velocity of each fluid and displacement of the solid are determined, for steady states flow of the mixture between two parallel planes and between two concentric cylinders which are maintained at diferent temperatures. (Author) [pt

  2. Centrifugal separation of mixture gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    An attempt for single centrifugal separation of mixtures with different molecular formula was presented in this paper. The mixtures of SF 6 and CCl 3 F, and SF 6 and CCl 4 were chosen as the processing gases, which were prepared in three mass ratios, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.2, respectively. The separating characteristics such as the overall separation factors and the variation of cuts were studied. (author)

  3. Performance evaluation of Louisiana superpave mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report documents the performance of Louisiana Superpave mixtures through laboratory mechanistic tests, mixture : volumetric properties, gradation analysis, and early field performance. Thirty Superpave mixtures were evaluated in this : study. Fo...

  4. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with LQR resulted in a 17% better efficiency of ME use for gain (P energy retention as fat (P < 0.01). This increased nutritional

  5. Correlation between changes in mechanical strength and damping of a high alumina refractory castable progressively damaged by thermal shock Correlação entre alterações na resistência mecânica e no amortecimento de um concreto refratário de alta alumina com dano progressivo por choque térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. A. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to thermal shock damage is an important characteristic in refractory materials, since it determines their performance and service life in many applications. Therefore, the use of more sensitive techniques is desirable to improve the evaluation of thermal shock damage and monitoring of nucleation and propagation cracks and microcracks.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of damping change characterization to quantify thermal shock damage and to estimate the retained mechanical strength in complement to the dynamic Young's modulus test. Variations in damping and retained Young's modulus and their correlation with the mechanical strength of a high alumina refractory castable were evaluated at different thermal shock temperatures and number of cycles. The changes in damping were proportional to the retained mechanical strength, similarly to the retained Young's modulus. Changes in damping were also detected which were not indicated by the Young's modulus measurements.A resistência ao dano por choque térmico é uma característica importante dos materiais refratários visto que determina o desempenho e vida útil destes materiais em várias aplicações. Portanto é desejável a aplicação de técnicas mais sensíveis para avaliação do dano por choque térmico e monitoração da nucleação e expansão de trincas e microtrincas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial da caracterização da variação do amortecimento para quantificar o dano por choque térmico e para estimar o módulo de ruptura retido, complementarmente à caracterização do módulo de Young dinâmico. Foram estudadas as variações do amortecimento, do módulo de Young retido e a correlação destas variações com a resistência mecânica de um concreto refratário de alta alumina para distintas variações de temperatura e número de ciclos. As alterações encontradas no amortecimento foram proporcionais à resistência mecânica retida

  6. Nonparametric e-Mixture Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Ken; Hino, Hideitsu; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2016-12-01

    This study considers the common situation in data analysis when there are few observations of the distribution of interest or the target distribution, while abundant observations are available from auxiliary distributions. In this situation, it is natural to compensate for the lack of data from the target distribution by using data sets from these auxiliary distributions-in other words, approximating the target distribution in a subspace spanned by a set of auxiliary distributions. Mixture modeling is one of the simplest ways to integrate information from the target and auxiliary distributions in order to express the target distribution as accurately as possible. There are two typical mixtures in the context of information geometry: the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-mixtures. The [Formula: see text]-mixture is applied in a variety of research fields because of the presence of the well-known expectation-maximazation algorithm for parameter estimation, whereas the [Formula: see text]-mixture is rarely used because of its difficulty of estimation, particularly for nonparametric models. The [Formula: see text]-mixture, however, is a well-tempered distribution that satisfies the principle of maximum entropy. To model a target distribution with scarce observations accurately, this letter proposes a novel framework for a nonparametric modeling of the [Formula: see text]-mixture and a geometrically inspired estimation algorithm. As numerical examples of the proposed framework, a transfer learning setup is considered. The experimental results show that this framework works well for three types of synthetic data sets, as well as an EEG real-world data set.

  7. Fos Expression in the Olfactory Pathway of High- and Low-Sexually Performing Rams Exposed to Urine from Estrous or Ovariectomized Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirto, AJ; Austin, KJ; Uthlaut, VA; Roselli, CE; Alexander, BM

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to estrous ewe urine stimulates investigation and mounting activity in sexually active but not sexually inactive rams. It was hypothesized sexual indifference may result from an inability to detect olfactory cues or an interruption of the pathway from detection of the olfactory stimulus to the motor response. Sexually active (n=4) and inactive (n=3) rams were exposed to urine from estrous ewes. An additional group of sexually active rams (n=3) were exposed to urine from ovariectomized ewes. Rams were exsanguinated following 1 h of exposure to stimulus. Neural activity was determined in tissues of interest by the presence of fos and fos-related proteins detected by immunohistochemistry procedures. Sexually active rams exposed to urine from ovariectomized ewes had more (P ≤ 0.05) fos-positive cells in the olfactory bulb, but fewer (P = 0.03) fos-positive cells in the cortical amygdala compared to sexually active rams exposed to urine from estrous ewes. Sexually inactive rams had similar (P ≥ 0.13) numbers of fos positive neurons in the olfactory bulb and medial amygdala but fewer (P ≤ 0.04) in the central amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the medial preoptic area compared to sexually active rams exposed to urine from estrous ewes. Sexual inactivity was not associated with decreased hypothalamic function since fos activity was similar (P ≥ 0.14) among groups in the suprachiasmatic and ventral medial nucleus. Sexual inactivity is not likely due to an impaired ability to detect or process olfactory stimuli by the main olfactory bulb and medial-cortical amygdala. Sexually inactive rams may have reduced attentiveness to sexual stimuli and/or decreased responsiveness of regions in the brain which regulate reproductive behaviors. PMID:28348447

  8. Quasi-open loop hydraulic ram incremental actuator with power conserving properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, E.T.; Robinson, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An electric stepping motor, operated by command signals from a computer or a microprocessor, rotates a rotary control member of a distributor valve, for sequencing hydraulic pressure and hence flow to the cylinders of an axial piston hydraulic machine. A group of the cylinders are subjected to pressure and flow and the remaining cylinders are vented to a return line. Rotation of the rotary control valve member sequences pressurization by progressively adding a cylinder to the forward edge to the pressurized group and removing a cylinder from the trailing edge of the pressurized group. The double ended pistons of each new pressurized group function to drive a wobble plate into a new position of equilibrium and then hold it in such position until another change in the makeup of the pressurized group. These pistons also displace hydraulic fluid from the opposite cylinder head which serves as the output of a pumping element. An increment of displacement of the wobble plate occurs in direct response to each command pulse that is received by the stepping motor. Wobble plate displacement drives the rotary valve of the hydraulic power transfer unit, causing it to transfer hydraulic fluid from a first expansible chamber on one side of a piston in a hydraulic ram to a second expansible chamber on the opposite side of the piston. Reverse drive of the hydraulic power transfer unit reverses the direction of transfer of hydraulic fluid between the two expansible chambers

  9. Historias de dictadura. Primeros cuentos de Sergio Ramírez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Ríos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros textos del escritor nicaragüense Sergio Ramírez presentan algunos elementos que conforman, a manera de mosaico, los principales rasgos de la vida individual y social durante la larga dictadura somocista (1936 – 1979. Poder, violencia, dependencia política, social y económica son algunas de las problemáticas que asoman y su tratamiento se acentúa o modifica entre una publicación y otra más allá del orden de aparición. Asimismo, en el marco de las luchas por la liberación encabezadas por el Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN, se cuestiona la función del arte y del intelectual. Propongo una serie de cuentos incluidos en Cuentos (1963, Nuevos Cuentos (1969 y Charles Atlas también muere (1976 en la que reviso, en primera instancia, la postura en torno al arte y al intelectual que exponen mediante la autofiguración del autor. Luego, exploro algunos elementos que conforman esos mundos narrativos y que funcionan como denuncia político-social al mismo tiempo que imaginan y reivindican una nueva nación en sintonía con los postulados presentes en las luchas revolucionarias.

  10. The effect of cargo on the crush loading of RAM transportation packages in ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radloff, H.D.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    Recent intercontinental radioactive material shipping campaigns have focused public and regulatory attention on the safety of transport of this material by ocean-going vessels. One major concern is the response of the vessel and onboard radioactive material (RAM) packages during a severe ship-to-ship collision. These collisions occur at velocities less than the velocity obtained in the Type B package regulatory impact event and the bow of the striking ship is less rigid than the unyielding target used in those tests (Ammerman and Daidola, 1996). This implies that ship impact is not a credible scenario for damaging the radioactive material packages during ship collisions. It is possible, however, for these collisions to generate significant amounts of crush force by the bow of the impacting ship overrunning the package. It is the aim of this paper to determine an upper bound on the magnitude of this crush force taking into account the strength of the radioactive material carrying vessel and any other cargo that may be stowed in the same hold as the radioactive material

  11. The MONOS memory transistor: application in a radiation-hard nonvolatile RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The MONOS (metal-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon) device is a prime candidate for use as the nonvolatile memory element in a radiation-hardened RAM (random-access memory). The endurance, retention and radiation properties of MONOS memory transistors have been studied as a function of post nitride deposition annealing. Following the nitride layer deposition, all devices were subjected to an 800 0 C oxidation step and some were then annealed at 900 0 C in nitrogen. The nitrogen anneal produces an increase in memory window size of approximately 40%. The memory window center of the annealed devices is shifted toward more positive voltages and is more stable with endurance cycling. Endurance cycling to 10 9 cycles produces a 20% increase in memory window size and a 60% increase in decay rate. For a radiation total dose of 10 6 rads (Si), the memory window size is essentially unchanged and the decay rate increases approximately 13%. A combination of 10 9 cycles and 10 6 rads (Si) reduces the decades of retention (in sec) from 6.3 to 4.3 for a +- 23-V 16-μsec write/erase pulse. (author)

  12. ramón de la sagra: early spanish socialism and educational reform

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    Antón Costa Rico

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution analyses the figure of the ideologist, social theoretician, economist and international comparative education scholar, Ramón de la Sagra (1798-1871. Originally from Galicia and having begun his university studies in Santiago, he soon moved to Madrid, where he would become one of the founders of the Ateneo. University professor and naturalist in Havana. Observer of social reforms in the U.S.A. (1835. Later, he travelled through Europe comparing various attempts at social reform. Writer. Scholar and propagator, as well as a keen attender at intellectual salons, alongside Arhens, Cousin, Hippolyte Colins, Engels, or Proudhon (with whom he was involved in a variety of social undertakings in Paris between 1848 to 1849, as well as other well-known characters in the field of political economy and of social theory. Liberal Spanish member of parliament. Promoter of the first infant schools in Madrid (1839-1842. An idealistic reformer: an attractive and complex figure. One of the most outstanding Spanish intellectuals of the 19th Century but until now largely unknown.

  13. Juan Ramón Jiménez and Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Devlin

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The young Juan Ramón Jiménez shared the enthusiasm for the writings of Nietzsche prevalent among his contemporaries. More significant are the interest in and affinity with Nietzsche which persisted into the poet's maturity. Jiménez found in Nietzsche not only a man of ideas but a poet who claimed to be a potent spiritual force. Both writers held that the modern age could recover a sense of spiritual integrity through the will of the individual to live and interpret human existence as an aesthetic phenomenon. Nietzsche's views on the nature of art and the role of the artist helped to sustain Jiménez' exalted and elitist view of poetry and the poet's mission. Jiménez felt an ethical kinship with the philosopher who asserted the absolute uniqueness of the creative individual, the end of whose existence was self-realization through his art. Nietzsche's doctrine of heroic vitalism as an antidote to chronic spiritual malaise corresponds to Jiménez' revitalized vision of the poetic word proclaimed in the Diario and elaborated in subsequent verse and prose writings.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to predict blasting fragmentation based on the Kuz Ram model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mario A.; Ficarazzo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Rock fragmentation is considered the most important aspect of production blasting because of its direct effects on the costs of drilling and blasting and on the economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of new technologies for blasting applications. These technologies include increasingly sophisticated computer models for blast design and blast performance prediction. Rock fragmentation depends on many variables such as rock mass properties, site geology, in situ fracturing and blasting parameters and as such has no complete theoretical solution for its prediction. However, empirical models for the estimation of size distribution of rock fragments have been developed. In this study, a blast fragmentation Monte Carlo-based simulator, based on the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model, has been developed to predict the entire fragmentation size distribution, taking into account intact and joints rock properties, the type and properties of explosives and the drilling pattern. Results produced by this simulator were quite favorable when compared with real fragmentation data obtained from a blast quarry. It is anticipated that the use of Monte Carlo simulation will increase our understanding of the effects of rock mass and explosive properties on the rock fragmentation by blasting, as well as increase our confidence in these empirical models. This understanding will translate into improvements in blasting operations, its corresponding costs and the overall economics of open pit mines and rock quarries.

  15. Enhanced production of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens MO-1 using ram horn peptone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esabi Basaran Kurbanoglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the production of prodigiosin from ram horn peptone (RHP using MO-1, a local isolate in submerged culture. First, a novel gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, MO-1, was isolated from the body of the grasshopper (Poecilemon tauricola Ramme 1951, which was collected from pesticide-contaminated fields. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA classified the microbe as Serratia marcescens. The substrate utilization potential (BIOLOG and fatty acid methyl ester profile (FAME of S. marcescens were also determined. The effect of RHP on the production of prodigiosin by S. marcescens MO-1 was investigated, and the results showed that RHP supplementation promoted the growth of MO-1 and increased the production of prodigiosin. A concentration of 0.4% (w/v RHP resulted in the greatest yield of prodigiosin (277.74 mg/L after 48 h when mannitol was used as the sole source of carbon. The pigment yield was also influenced by the types of carbon sources and peptones. As a result, RHP was demonstrated to be a suitable substrate for prodigiosin production. These results revealed that prodigiosin could be produced efficiently by S. marcescens using RHP.

  16. Enhanced production of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens MO-1 using ram horn peptone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Esabi Basaran; Ozdal, Murat; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur; Algur, Omer Faruk

    2015-06-01

    This work addresses the production of prodigiosin from ram horn peptone (RHP) using MO-1, a local isolate in submerged culture. First, a novel gram-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strain, MO-1, was isolated from the body of the grasshopper (Poecilemon tauricola Ramme 1951), which was collected from pesticide-contaminated fields. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA classified the microbe as Serratia marcescens. The substrate utilization potential (BIOLOG) and fatty acid methyl ester profile (FAME) of S. marcescens were also determined. The effect of RHP on the production of prodigiosin by S. marcescens MO-1 was investigated, and the results showed that RHP supplementation promoted the growth of MO-1 and increased the production of prodigiosin. A concentration of 0.4% (w/v) RHP resulted in the greatest yield of prodigiosin (277.74 mg/L) after 48 h when mannitol was used as the sole source of carbon. The pigment yield was also influenced by the types of carbon sources and peptones. As a result, RHP was demonstrated to be a suitable substrate for prodigiosin production. These results revealed that prodigiosin could be produced efficiently by S. marcescens using RHP.

  17. Block RAM-based architecture for real-time reconfiguration using Xilinx® FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikus le Roux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advantages dynamic reconfiguration adds to a system, it only improves system performance if the execution time exceeds the configuration time. As a result, dynamic reconfiguration is only capable of improving the performance of quasi-static applications. In order to improve the performance of dynamic applications, researchers focus on improving the reconfiguration throughput. These approaches are mostly limited by the bus commonly used to connect the configuration controller to the memory, which contributes to the configuration time. A method proposed to ameliorate this overhead is an architecture utilizing localised block RAM (BRAM connected to the configuration controller to store the configuration bitstream. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of the proposed architecture, especially for reconfiguring real-time applications. This is done by validating the throughput of the architecture and comparing this to the maximum theoretical throughput of the internal configuration access port (ICAP. It was found that the proposed architecture is capable of reconfiguring an application within a time-frame suitable for real-time reconfiguration. The drawback of this method is that the BRAM is extremely limited and only a discrete set of configurations can be stored. This paper also proposes a method on how this can be mitigated without affecting the throughput.

  18. RAM analysis of earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasel Amini Khoshalan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth pressure balance tunnel boring machines (EPB-TBMs are favorably applied in urban tunneling projects. Despite their numerous advantages, considerable delays and high maintenance cost are the main disadvantages these machines suffer from. Reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM analysis is a practical technique that uses failure and repair dataset obtained over a reasonable time for dealing with proper machine operation, maintenance scheduling, cost control, and improving the availability and performance of such machines. In the present study, a database of failures and repairs of an EBP-TBM was collected in line 1 of Tabriz subway project over a 26-month interval of machine operation. In order to model the reliability of the TBM, this machine was divided into five distinct subsystems including mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and water systems in a series configuration. According to trend and serial correlation tests, the renewal processes were applied, for analysis of all subsystems. After calculating the reliability and maintainability functions for all subsystems, it was revealed that the mechanical subsystem with the highest failure frequency has the lowest reliability and maintainability. Similarly, estimating the availability of all subsystems indicated that the mechanical subsystem has a relatively low availability level of 52.6%, while other subsystems have acceptable availability level of 97%. Finally, the overall availability of studied machine was calculated as 48.3%.

  19. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel–cobalt magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teber, Ahmet; Unver, Ibrahim; Kavas, Huseyin; Aktas, Bekir; Bansal, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, K_u, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under −20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth). - Graphical abstract: Here, we added the graphical abstract that provides summary the contents of the article in a concise pictorial form. - Highlights: • Flexible lightweight, thin, reconfigurable radar absorbing materials are proposed. • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics are coated with nickel, cobalt magnetic materials. • The coating times affects microwave constitutive parameters and absorption. • Microwave absorption measurements were done via transmission line technique. • Microwave absorption is due to dielectric losses rather than magnetic losses.

  20. Effects of diluting medium and holding time on sperm motility analysis by CASA in ram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mostafapor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dilution rate and holding time on various motility parameters using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA. The semen samples were collected from three Ghezel rams. Samples were diluted in seminal plasma (SP, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA and Bioexcell. The motility parameters that computed and recorded by CASA include curvilinear velocity (VCL, straight line velocity (VSL, average path velocity (VAP, straightness (STR, linearity (LIN, amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH, and beat cross frequency (BCF. In all diluters, there was a decrease in the average of all three parameters of sperms movement velocity as the time passed, but density of this decrease was more intensive in SP. The average of ALH between diluters indicated a significant difference, as it was more in Bioexcell in comparison with the similar amount in SP and PBS. The average of LIN in the diluted sperms in Bioexcell was less than two other diluters in all three times. The motility parameters of the diluted sperms in Bioexcell and PBS indicated an important and considerable difference with the diluted sperms in SP. According to the gained results, the Bioexcell has greater ability in preserving motility of sperm in comparison with the other diluters but as SP is considered as physiological environment for sperm. It seems that the evaluation of the motility parameters in Bioexcell and PBS cannot be an accurate and comparable evaluation with SP.

  1. Mitigation of cesium and cobalt contamination on the surfaces of RAM packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, J.; Bonhomme, F.; McConnell, P.; Kapoor, A.

    2004-01-01

    Techniques for mitigating the adsorption of 137 Cs and 60 Co on metal surfaces (e.g., RAM packages) exposed to contaminated water (e.g., spent-fuel pools) has been developed and experimentally verified. The techniques are also effective in removing some of the 60 Co and 137 Cs that may have been adsorbed on the surfaces after removal from the contaminated water. The principle for the 137 Cs mitigation technique is based upon ion-exchange processes. In contrast, 60 Co contamination primarily resides in minute particles of CRUD that become lodged on cask surfaces. CRUD is an insoluble Fe-Ni-Cr oxide that forms colloidal-sized particles as stainless steels corrode. Because of the similarity between Ni +2 and Co +2 , CRUD is able to scavenge and retain traces of cobalt as it forms. A number of organic compounds have a great specificity for combining with nickel and cobalt. Ongoing research is investigating the effectiveness of chemical complexing agent, EDTA, with regard to its ability to dissolve the host phase (CRUD) thereby liberating the entrained 60Co into a solution where it can be rinsed away

  2. Effects of diluting medium and holding time on sperm motility analysis by CASA in ram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapor, Somayeh; Farrokhi Ardebili, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dilution rate and holding time on various motility parameters using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). The semen samples were collected from three Ghezel rams. Samples were diluted in seminal plasma (SP), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Bioexcell. The motility parameters that computed and recorded by CASA include curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), straightness (STR), linearity (LIN), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), and beat cross frequency (BCF). In all diluters, there was a decrease in the average of all three parameters of sperms movement velocity as the time passed, but density of this decrease was more intensive in SP. The average of ALH between diluters indicated a significant difference, as it was more in Bioexcell in comparison with the similar amount in SP and PBS. The average of LIN in the diluted sperms in Bioexcell was less than two other diluters in all three times. The motility parameters of the diluted sperms in Bioexcell and PBS indicated an important and considerable difference with the diluted sperms in SP. According to the gained results, the Bioexcell has greater ability in preserving motility of sperm in comparison with the other diluters but as SP is considered as physiological environment for sperm. It seems that the evaluation of the motility parameters in Bioexcell and PBS cannot be an accurate and comparable evaluation with SP.

  3. Knitted radar absorbing materials (RAM) based on nickel–cobalt magnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teber, Ahmet, E-mail: aht10003@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Unver, Ibrahim, E-mail: iunver@gtu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Kavas, Huseyin, E-mail: huseyin.kavas@medeniyet.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul 34000 (Turkey); Aktas, Bekir, E-mail: aktas@gtu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Bansal, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    There has been a long-standing interest in the development of flexible, lightweight, thin, and reconfigurable radar absorbing materials (RAM) for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based hardware against airborne radar observation. The use of polymeric Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics as a host matrix for magnetic metal nano-particles (either at the yarn-stage or after weaving the fabric) for shielding and absorbing applications has been described in the literature. In our experimental investigation, the relative concentrations of Nickel and Cobalt as well as the coating time are varied with a view to optimizing the microwave absorption characteristics of the resulting PAN-based composite material in the radar-frequency bands (X, K{sub u}, and K). It is found that the PAN samples with the shortest coating time have the best return losses (under −20 dB return loss over a moderate bandwidth). - Graphical abstract: Here, we added the graphical abstract that provides summary the contents of the article in a concise pictorial form. - Highlights: • Flexible lightweight, thin, reconfigurable radar absorbing materials are proposed. • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabrics are coated with nickel, cobalt magnetic materials. • The coating times affects microwave constitutive parameters and absorption. • Microwave absorption measurements were done via transmission line technique. • Microwave absorption is due to dielectric losses rather than magnetic losses.

  4. Un narrador insolidario: el caso de Junta de acreedores de julio Ramón Ribeyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela Garcés

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza al narrador en el cuento “Junta de acreedores” de Julio Ramón Ribeyro incluido en su primer libro Los gallinazos sin plumas. Nuestro propósito es probar que, por lo menos, en este cuento, el autor se aleja de la prédica neorrealista que la crítica le ha atribuido hasta ahora. Cuestionandoeste lugar común, proponemos una nueva lectura que descubre en el texto la defensa implícita de un sistema que valora positivamente la fortaleza de aquellos que saben adaptarse al cambio, frente a los que son vistos como incapaces de tal adaptación (las llamadas víctimas sociales reivindicadas por los neorrealistas. Finalmente se trabaja con un conceptoque críticos como James Higgins utilizan para juzgar los cuentos de Ribeyro: la inhumanidad del sistema. Aquí observamos cómo este concepto entra en crisis al ser aplicado al cuento, sobre todo cuando constatamos que en él,a través del narrador, hay una burla irónica contra el comportamiento de los más débiles. Palabras claves: Ribeyro, neorrealismo, narrador, inhumanidad del sistema.

  5. Molecular characterization with random amplified microsatellites (RAMs of Inchi (Caryodendron orinocense K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Inchi or Cacay (Caryodendron orinocense Karsten is one of the most promising species of the Amazon and Orinoco Colombian. The main product of Cacay are its almonds, from extracted oil cosmetic, phytotherapeutic and food applications, also has a high content of antioxidants such as Omega 3, 6 and 9 and vitamins like A and E. There are no studies on the molecular characterization of this plant genetic resource; therefore the objective of this research was to characterize the genetic diversity using Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs. The similarity analysis to 0.50 formed four groups according to geographical location, being materials from Putumayo, Cacayal 19, Pauna and Castilla lowest similarity. Estimated heterozygosity values were 0.16 and 0.28 for the primers CGA and GT, respectively. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 55% for the primer CGA and 90% for the GT. The average Fst value for the 27 materials studied was 0.35, showing the space-temporal dynamics of materials Caryodendron tend toward genetic differentiation, due to their own evolutionary processes and domestication incidence.

  6. Characterization of Time-Dependent Behavior of Ramming Paste Used in an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orangi, Sakineh; Picard, Donald; Alamdari, Houshang; Ziegler, Donald; Fafard, Mario

    2015-12-01

    A new methodology was proposed for the characterization of time-dependent behavior of materials in order to develop a constitutive model. The material used for the characterization was ramming paste, a porous material used in an aluminum electrolysis cell, which is baked in place under varying loads induced by the thermal expansion of other components of the cell. In order to develop a constitutive model representing the paste mechanical behavior, it was necessary to get some insight into its behavior using samples which had been baked at different temperatures ranging from 200 to 1000 °C. Creep stages, effect of testing temperature on the creep, creep-recovery, as well as nonlinear creep were observed for designing a constitutive law. Uniaxial creep-recovery tests were carried out at two temperatures on the baked paste: ambient and higher. Results showed that the shape of creep curves was similar to a typical creep; recovery happened and the creep was shown to be nonlinear. Those experimental observations and the identification of nonlinear parameters of developed constitutive model demonstrated that the baked paste experiences nonlinear viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior at different temperatures.

  7. SIGNIFICANT ENHANCEMENT OF H{sub 2} FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES UNDER STRONG RAM PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Benjamin; Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-05-10

    We show for the first time that H{sub 2} formation on dust grains can be enhanced in disk galaxies under strong ram pressure (RP). We numerically investigate how the time evolution of H i and H{sub 2} components in disk galaxies orbiting a group/cluster of galaxies can be influenced by the hydrodynamical interaction between the gaseous components of the galaxies and the hot intracluster medium. We find that compression of H i caused by RP increases H{sub 2} formation in disk galaxies before RP rapidly strips H i, cutting off the fuel supply and causing a drop in H{sub 2} density. We also find that the level of this H{sub 2} formation enhancement in a disk galaxy under RP depends on the mass of its host cluster dark matter halo, the initial positions and velocities of the disk galaxy, and the disk inclination angle with respect to the orbital plane. We demonstrate that dust growth is a key factor in the evolution of the H i and H{sub 2} mass in disk galaxies under strong RP. We discuss how the correlation between H{sub 2} fractions and surface gas densities of disk galaxies evolves with time in the galaxies under RP. We also discuss whether galaxy-wide star formation rates (SFRs) in cluster disk galaxies can be enhanced by RP if the SFRs depend on H{sub 2} densities.

  8. TSKT-ORAM: A Two-Server k-ary Tree Oblivious RAM without Homomorphic Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsheng Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes TSKT-oblivious RAM (ORAM, an efficient multi-server ORAM construction, to protect a client’s access pattern to outsourced data. TSKT-ORAM organizes each of the server storages as a k-ary tree and adopts XOR-based private information retrieval (PIR and a novel delayed eviction technique to optimize both the data query and data eviction process. TSKT-ORAM is proven to protect the data access pattern privacy with a failure probability of 2 - 80 when system parameter k ≥ 128 . Meanwhile, given a constant-size local storage, when N (i.e., the total number of outsourced data blocks ranges from 2 16 – 2 34 , the communication cost of TSKT-ORAM is only 22–46 data blocks. Asymptotic analysis and practical comparisons are conducted to show that TSKT-ORAM incurs lower communication cost, storage cost and access delay in practical scenarios than the compared state-of-the-art ORAM schemes.

  9. Hindu Nationalism and the (Not So Easy Art of Being OutragedThe Ram Setu Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Jaffrelot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hindu nationalists have become experts in the art of being outraged after the crystallization of the Hindutva ideology in the 1920s. Articulating a deep rooted inferiority complex, they have tried hard to denounce the disrespectful behaviour of the minorities they feared most – especially the Muslims – in order to mobilize new followers. Such a process was likely to trigger riots and to polarise society along communal lines – and eventually to translate into votes. However, a purely instrumentalist interpretation of the Hindu nationalist use of outrage would be too simplistic. The use of sacred symbols is not that easy, as evident from the case of the Ram Setu movement. It shows that the Sangh Parivar finds it more difficult to mobilize followers when the culprits are not Muslims. It also shows that the exploitation of the outrage is more complicated when its instigators are born Hindus. In any case, the holy character of the outraged symbol is not enough: it has to be historical; and it has to be useful too.

  10. Ethylene glycol, but not DMSO, could replace glycerol inclusion in soybean lecithin-based extenders in ram sperm cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Abouzar; Daghigh-Kia, Hossein; Dodaran, Hossein Vaseghi; Mehdipour, Mahdieh; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glycerol, ethylene glycol or DMSO in a soybean lecithin extender for freezing ram semen. In this study, 20 ejaculates were collected from four Ghezel rams and diluted with soybean lecithin extender with glycerol (7%), ethylene glycol (3%, 5% and 7%) or DMSO (3%, 5% and 7%). Sperm motility (CASA), membrane integrity (HOS test), viability, total abnormality, mitochondrial activity (Rhodamine 123) and apoptotic features (Annexin V/Propidium iodide) were assessed after thawing. There was no significant difference between glycerol and ethylene glycol at different concentrations (3% and 5%) regarding sperm total and progressive motility, viability, and membrane integrity. The least percentages of mitochondrial functionality were observed in samples frozen with all different DMSO concentrations tested (Plecithin extender. We propose that glycerol in a soybean lecithin based extender could be replaced by ethylene glycol at 3% or 5% concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Preparation of conducting solid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spokas, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of conducting plastic mixtures to the fundamental problem of radiation dosimetry is briefly reviewed. A particular approach to achieving formulations with the necessary characteristics is described. A number of successful mixtures are defined for a number of different specific dosimetry situations. To obtain high quality stable materials requires intense blending and working of the materials at elevated temperatures. One machine that succeeds in this task is the Shonka plastics mixer-extruder. The Shonka mixer is described in complete detail. The procedures used in preparing representative formulations with this device are presented. A number of properties of successful conducting mixtures so prepared are summarized. The conditions required for molding such material are given. Several special welding methods for specific application with these formulations have been devised and are described

  13. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  14. Protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica extract on ram sperm quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Öztürk, Mehmet; BenMoula, Anass; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic composition of the acetone extract from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (ACTEX) and its effects on ram semen variables, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage at 5°C for up to 72h in skim milk and Tris egg yolk extenders. Semen samples from five rams were pooled extended with Tris-egg yolk (TEY) or skim milk (SM) extenders containing ACTEX (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%) at a final concentration of 0.8×10 9 sperm/ml and stored for up to 72h at 5°C. The sperm variables were evaluated at different time periods (8, 24, 48 and 72h). Sperm total motility and viability were superior in TEY than in SM whereas the progressive motility, membrane integrity, abnormality and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were greater in SM compared to TEY (P<0.05). The results also indicated that the inclusion of 1% ACTEX in the SM or TEY extender increased the sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, and decreased the abnormality, lipids peroxidation up to 72h in storage compared to control group. Similarly, even at 72h of storage, 1% ACTEX can efficiently decrease the negative effects of liquid storage on sperm DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). In conclusion, SM and TEY supplemented with 1% of ACTEX can improve the quality of ram semen. Further studies are required to identify the active components in ACTEX involved in its effect on ram sperm preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. THE PROPORTION OF X AND Y SPERM, VIABILITY AND MOTILITY OF RAM SPERMATOZOA AFTER SEPARATED WITH WHITE EGG ALBUMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Takdir

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the proportion, viability and motility of X and Y ram spermatozoa separated with egg white albumin. Sperm samples derived from Garut ram, which was collected by using an artificial vagina. Observations were made on spermatozoa fraction above and below each medium fraction treatment. There are treatment egg white albumin as separation medium, each medium consisting of fractions top and bottom fraction with different concentration: 1 P0 = sperma before separation (control; 2 P1 = 10% above fraction + 30% lower fraction; P2 = 25% + 45%; P3 = 25% + 75%. Data proportion of X and Y, viability and motility were analyzed statistically by Completely Randomized Design patern in the direction followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test for data with a real difference. Separation with egg white albumin affect significantly increased the proportion of spermatozoa X and Y (P≤0.05, but tends to decrease the viability and motility of spermatozoa.The proportion of spermatozoa X and Y was highest in treatment P3,76.76% of spermatozoa X (fraction above 25% and 79.81% spermatozoa Y (75% lower fraction, with an average viability obtained respectively 68,9% (fraction above and 59,7% (bottom fraction, motility 77,5% (fraction above dan 84,0% (bottom fraction. It was concluded that the egg white albumin is very effective in changing the proportions of X and Y ram sperm with the quality of spermatozoa after separation feasible for applications insemination or processed into frozen semen.   (Keywords: Garut ram, White egg albumin, Spermatozoa X and Y

  16. The New S-RAM Air Variable Compressor/Expander for Heat Pump and Waste Heat to Power Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Jestings, Lee [S-RAM Dynamics; Conde, Ricardo [S-RAM Dynamics

    2016-05-23

    S-RAM Dynamics (S-RAM) has designed an innovative heat pump system targeted for commercial and industrial applications. This new heat pump system is more efficient than anything currently on the market and utilizes air as the refrigerant instead of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, leading to lower operating costs, minimal environmental costs or concerns, and lower maintenance costs. The heat pumps will be manufactured in the United States. This project was aimed at determining the feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing to make the heat exchanger device for the new heat pump system. ORNL and S-RAM Dynamics collaborated on determining the prototype performance and subsequently printing of the prototype using additive manufacturing. Complex heat exchanger designs were fabricated using the Arcam electron beam melting (EBM) powder bed technology using Ti-6Al-4V material. An ultrasonic welding system was utilized in order to remove the powder from the small openings of the heat exchanger. The majority of powder in the small chambers was removed, however, the amount of powder remaining in the heat exchanger was a function of geometry. Therefore, only certain geometries of heat exchangers could be fabricated. SRAM Dynamics evaluated a preliminary heat exchanger design. Although the results of the additive manufacturing of the heat exchanger were not optimum, a less complex geometry was demonstrated. A sleeve valve was used as a demonstration piece, as engine designs from S-RAM Dynamics require the engine to have a very high density. Preliminary designs of this geometry were successfully fabricated using the EBM technology.

  17. Intake and ingestive behavior of rams fed with increasing inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I in their diet (Orbignya spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sá,Hemilly Cristina Menezes de; Borges,Iran; Macedo Junior,Gilberto de Lima; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Silva,Veridiana Basoni; Sousa,Jhone Tallison Lira de

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed with different inclusions of babassu endocarp meal I. The animals receive isofibrous, isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing the by-product in increasing levels of inclusion (zero; 7,5%; 15%; 22,5%). Twenty rams were used in this study and distributed in four treatments with five repetitions each. The ingestive behavior was conducted over a period of 24 hours, with visual observations at 5 minutes inte...

  18. Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures: A Review of Mixtures Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bjarnason, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    .... Recent advances in disciplines such as genomics, proteomics, metabonomics and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling should assist in the hazard assessment of complex chemical mixtures. However, the process of regulatory assessment of these types of exposures will remain both complex and difficult.

  19. DETERMINATION OF PREDICTION EQUATIONS TO ESTIMATE BODY CONDITION SCORE FROM BODY SIZE AND TESTICULAR TRAITS OF YANKASA RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yakubu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to develop prediction models using stepwise multiple linear regressionanalysis for estimating the body condition score (BCS from the body weight (BW, testicular length(TL, testicular diameter (TD and scrotal circumference (SC of indigenous Yankasa rams. Data wereobtained from 120 randomly selected rams with approximately two and half years of age, from differentextensively managed herds in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Although pairwise phenotypic correlationsindicated strong association (P<0.01 among the measured variables, there was collinearity problembetween BW and SC as revealed by the variance inflation factors (VIF and tolerance valves (T. TheVIT was higher than 10 (VIF = 19.45 and 16.65 for BW and SC, respectively. The Twas smaller than0.1 (T = 0.05 and 0.06 in BW and SC, respectively. BW was retained among the collinear variables, andwas singly accounted for 83.7% of the variation in BCS. However, a slight improvement was obtainedfrom the prediction of BCS from BW and TL [coefficient of determination (R2, adjusted R2 and rootmean squares error (RMSE were 85.3%, 85.1% and 0.305, respectively]. The prediction of the BCS ofYankasa rams from BW and testicular measurements could therefore be a potential tool for sustainableproduction and improvement of small ruminants in Nigeria.

  20. Thermal mixtures in stochastic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, F [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica; Loffredo, M I [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1981-01-17

    Stochastic mechanics is extended to systems in thermal equilibrium. The resulting stochastic processes are mixtures of Nelson processes. Their Markov property is investigated in some simple cases. It is found that in order to inforce Markov property the algebra of observable associated to the present must be suitably enlarged.

  1. Characterization of bioactive mixtures oligogalacturonidos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mederos Torres, Yuliem; Hormaza Montenegro, Josefa; Reynaldo Escobar, Ines; Montesino Sequi, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides are pectic oligosaccharides composed of lineal chains of D-galacturonic acid, linked by α (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Oligogalacturonides' mixtures are obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of pectins of diverse vegetal species. These oligosaccharides unchain a diverse biological activity in plants, which depends mainly on their polymerization degrees. The National Institute of Agricultural Science has a patent technology at national scale that lets to obtain a mixture of oligogalacturonides with different polymerization degree. In this work is presented the characterization of oligogalacturonides by spectrophotometric analysis attending to their uronic acids, reductor sugars, and neutral sugars content. Also the chromatographic profile of samples in study is obtained, using the derivatization with 2-aminobenzamide label and the separation by high pH anion exchange chromatography. It is achieved the separation of at least eight galacturonic acid oligomers with a variable degree of polymerization. On the other hand, the analysis by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed that mixtures were composed by galacturonic acid salts. Results indicated that starting from two pectic acids with different characteristics, mixtures of oligogalacturonides of similar chemical composition could be obtained, but they differ in the proportion that they are presented

  2. Ecological Assembly of Chemical Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human-environment interactions have a significant role in the formation of chemical mixtures in the environment and by extension in human tissues and fluids. These interactions, which include decisions to purchase and use products containing chemicals as well as behaviors and act...

  3. Influence of sexual behavior of Dorper rams treated with glutamate and/or testosterone on reproductive performance of anovulatory ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Leyva, Guadalupe; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Rafael; Angel-García, Oscar; Rivas-Muñoz, Raymundo; Delgado-Bermejo, Juan V; Véliz-Deras, Francisco G

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine if exogenous administration of glutamate and (or) testosterone to male rams during the season of reproductive arrest is able to re-activate male sexual behavior and, later on, to promote through the male effect, both sexual and reproductive competence of anovulatory nulliparous ewes. Therefore, an experiment was performed under long-day photoperiods (spring; photo-reproductive arrest, 26°N). Dorper rams were randomly divided into four homogeneous experimental groups (n = 5 males each) regarding live weight (LW), body condition score (BCS), scrotal circumference (SC) and odor intensity (OI). Then, groups were treated with: i) GG (7 mg kg -1  LW of glutamate, every 4d × 30d, im.), ii) GGT (7 mg kg -1  LW of glutamate every 4d × 30d im + 25 mg of testosterone propionate, every 3d × 15d, im.), iii) GT (25 mg of testosterone propionate every 3d × 15d, im, and iv) GC (1 mL of saline, every 4d × 30d, im.). Thereafter, Dorper rams, (n = 4 per group) were selected and exposed to Dorper anovulatory-nulliparous ewes divided in four groups (n = 14 ewes each), and all the appetitive (ASB) and consummatory (CSB) sexual behaviors and indicators of sexual rest (ISR) were registered during the first 48 h of this male-to-females contact. Thereafter, males continued the male-to-female contact for another 8 d, in order to quantify the ewe's sexual and reproductive response through the male effect. During the sexual behavior tests, the GGT rams showed the highest ASB + CSB frequencies (P ewes exposed to treated rams, the glutamate + testosterone treated males induced not only an increased (P ewes. To conclude, whereas the GG and GGT treatments generated encouraging sexual and reproductive outcomes, our results are also thought-provoking from a comparative sexual behavior perspective while may embrace potential applications to other animal industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CONSTRUCTIVE MODEL OF ADAPTATION OF DATA STRUCTURES IN RAM. PART II. CONSTRUCTORS OF SCENARIOS AND ADAPTATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The second part of the paper completes presentation of constructive and the productive structures (CPS, modeling adaptation of data structures in memory (RAM. The purpose of the second part in the research is to develop a model of process of adaptation data in a RAM functioning in different hardware and software environments and scenarios of data processing. Methodology. The methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructionism was applied. In this part of the paper, changes were developed the constructors of scenarios and adaptation processes based on a generalized CPS through its transformational conversions. Constructors are interpreted, specialized CPS. Were highlighted the terminal alphabets of the constructor scenarios in the form of data processing algorithms and the constructor of adaptation – in the form of algorithmic components of the adaptation process. The methodology involves the development of substitution rules that determine the output process of the relevant structures. Findings. In the second part of the paper, system is represented by CPS modeling adaptation data placement in the RAM, namely, constructors of scenarios and of adaptation processes. The result of the implementation of constructor of scenarios is a set of data processing operations in the form of text in the language of programming C#, constructor of the adaptation processes – a process of adaptation, and the result the process of adaptation – the adapted binary code of processing data structures. Originality. For the first time proposed the constructive model of data processing – the scenario that takes into account the order and number of calls to the various elements of data structures and adaptation of data structures to the different hardware and software environments. At the same the placement of data in RAM and processing algorithms are adapted. Constructionism application in modeling allows to link data models and algorithms for

  5. Marine biodiversity at the end of the world: Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Enric; Bell, Tom W.; Giddens, Jonatha; Henning, Brad; Hüne, Mathias; Muñoz, Alex; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo; Sala, Enric

    2018-01-01

    The vast and complex coast of the Magellan Region of extreme southern Chile possesses a diversity of habitats including fjords, deep channels, and extensive kelp forests, with a unique mix of temperate and sub-Antarctic species. The Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez archipelagos are the most southerly locations in the Americas, with the southernmost kelp forests, and some of the least explored places on earth. The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera plays a key role in structuring the ecological communities of the entire region, with the large brown seaweed Lessonia spp. forming dense understories. Kelp densities were highest around Cape Horn, followed by Diego Ramírez, and lowest within the fjord region of Francisco Coloane Marine Park (mean canopy densities of 2.51 kg m-2, 2.29 kg m-2, and 2.14 kg m-2, respectively). There were clear differences in marine communities among these sub-regions, with the lowest diversity in the fjords. We observed 18 species of nearshore fishes, with average species richness nearly 50% higher at Diego Ramírez compared with Cape Horn and Francisco Coloane. The number of individual fishes was nearly 10 times higher at Diego Ramírez and 4 times higher at Cape Horn compared with the fjords. Dropcam surveys of mesophotic depths (53–105 m) identified 30 taxa from 25 families, 15 classes, and 7 phyla. While much of these deeper habitats consisted of soft sediment and cobble, in rocky habitats, echinoderms, mollusks, bryozoans, and sponges were common. The southern hagfish (Myxine australis) was the most frequently encountered of the deep-sea fishes (50% of deployments), and while the Fueguian sprat (Sprattus fuegensis) was the most abundant fish species, its distribution was patchy. The Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez archipelagos represent some of the last intact sub-Antarctic ecosystems remaining and a recently declared large protected area will help ensure the health of this unique region. PMID:29364902

  6. Identification of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR signalling network: adding new regulatory players in plant stem cell maintenance and cell polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermiani, Monica; Begheldo, Maura; Nonis, Alessandro; Palme, Klaus; Mizzi, Luca; Morandini, Piero; Nonis, Alberto; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The RAM/MOR signalling network of eukaryotes is a conserved regulatory module involved in co-ordination of stem cell maintenance, cell differentiation and polarity establishment. To date, no such signalling network has been identified in plants. Methods Genes encoding the bona fide core components of the RAM/MOR pathway were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) by sequence similarity searches conducted with the known components from other species. The transcriptional network(s) of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR signalling pathway were identified by running in-depth in silico analyses for genes co-regulated with the core components. In situ hybridization was used to confirm tissue-specific expression of selected RAM/MOR genes. Key Results Co-expression data suggested that the arabidopsis RAM/MOR pathway may include genes involved in floral transition, by co-operating with chromatin remodelling and mRNA processing/post-transcriptional gene silencing factors, and genes involved in the regulation of pollen tube polar growth. The RAM/MOR pathway may act upstream of the ROP1 machinery, affecting pollen tube polar growth, based on the co-expression of its components with ROP-GEFs. In silico tissue-specific co-expression data and in situ hybridization experiments suggest that different components of the arabidopsis RAM/MOR are expressed in the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem and may be involved in the fine-tuning of stem cell maintenance and cell differentiation. Conclusions The arabidopsis RAM/MOR pathway may be part of the signalling cascade that converges in pollen tube polarized growth and in fine-tuning stem cell maintenance, differentiation and organ polarity. PMID:26078466

  7. Vaginal mucus from ewes treated with progestogen sponges affects quality of ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Jorgelina; Ríos, Glenda; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-03-15

    The use of intravaginal sponges (IS) to synchronize estrous onset in ewes provokes vaginitis, an increase in the vaginal bacterial load, and growth of bacterial species that are not present during spontaneous estrous behavior. The objective of the study was to compare the functional sperm parameters after incubating it with mucus collected from the vagina of ewes during spontaneous estrus or estrous synchronized with IS. Pooled spermatozoa were co-incubated with: (1) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in spontaneous estrus; (2) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in estrus pretreated with progestogen-impregnated IS; (3) synthetic mucus; and (4) medium without mucus as a control group. Sperm samples were evaluated after incubating it for 30 and 90 minutes. The number of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL), pH, and osmolality were greater in the mucus collected from ewes treated with IS than from those untreated (P = 0.046; P ewes treated with IS than in the other three treatments both, 30 and 90 minutes after incubation (P = 0.0009 and P ewes treated with IS had a lower percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane than all the other treatments (P ewes treated with IS than in the other three treatments (P ewes during their spontaneous estrus (P = 0.0005). The lowest percentages of sperm with acrosome damage were observed in sperm incubated with mucus collected from sheep in spontaneous estrus for 30 and 90 minutes (P ewes treated with IS than in the other three groups (P = 0.0005). The functionality and the viability of ram sperm is negatively affected by the cervical mucus of ewes pretreated with progestagen-impregnated IS used in estrous synchronization treatments. This may partially explain the decrease in conception rate obtained with treatments with IS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Contribution to internal pressure and flammable gas concentration in RAM [radioactive material] transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrant, M.M.; Brown, N.

    1989-01-01

    Various facilities in the US generate wastes contaminated with transuranic (TRU) isotopes (such as plutonium and americium) that decay primarily by emission of alpha particles. The waste materials consist of a wide variety of commercially available plastics, paper, cloth, and rubber; concreted or sludge wastes containing water; and metals, glass, and other solid inorganic materials. TRU wastes that have surface dose rates of 200 mrem/hr or less are typically packaged in plastic bags placed inside metal drums or boxes that are vented through high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. These wastes are to be transported from waste generation or storage sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the TRUPACT-II, a Type B package. Radiolysis of organic wastes or packaging materials, or wastes containing water generates gas which may be flammable or simply contribute to the internal pressure of the radioactive material (RAM) transport package. This paper discusses the factors that affect the amount and composition of this gas, and summarizes maximum radiolytic G values (number of molecules produced per 100 eV absorbed energy) found in the technical literature for many common materials. These G values can be used to determine the combination of payload materials and decay heats that are safe for transport. G values are established for categories of materials, based on chemical functional groups. It is also shown using transient diffusion and quasi-equilibrium statistical mechanics methods that hydrogen, if generated, will not stratify at the top of the transport package void space. 9 refs., 1 tab

  9. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of noni in dilutent for ram semen cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lauren Costa Nascimento

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. is a fruit consumed worldwide because of its nutritional and therapeutic properties resulting from the large amount of phenolic compounds, which has aroused interest of the scientific community. In order to identify new natural sources of antioxidants, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of noni in diluent for ram semen cryopreservation. A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments and three repetitions per treatment was used. The treatments differed in terms of the concentration of the aqueous extract of noni added to the diluent: control, no addition of the extract, and three concentrations (24, 72, and 120 µg/mL. The physical and chemical variables of the mature fruit were evaluated: total acidity (8.78, pH (4.12, and soluble solids (8.18%. The vitamin C content was 309.42 mg per 100 g fresh matter. The aqueous extract of noni was also evaluated regarding the quantity of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity. The aqueous extract contained a moderate amount of phenolic compounds (47.96 ± 1.95 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract. The concentrations of the aqueous extract of 72 and 120 µg/mL in diluent used for semen cryopreservation inhibited lipid peroxidation by 21.75% and 51.32%, respectively. There was no positive effect of the lowest concentration (24 µg/mL. The antioxidant activity index of noni was 33.33, corresponding to very strong antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of noni exhibits very strong antioxidant activity and its addition to the diluent for semen cryopreservation at a concentration of 72 µg/mL is able to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  10. Soy lecithin interferes with mitochondrial function in frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, I; Gómez-Durán, A; Holt, W V; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2012-01-01

    Egg yolk and milk are the 2 major membrane cryoprotectants commonly used in freezing media for the long-term preservation of semen (alone or in combination with others). However, in recent years, there have been increasing arguments against the use of egg yolk or milk because of the risk of introducing diseases through the use of cryopreserved semen. In this study, we analyzed the protective effect of lecithin as an alternative to egg yolk for the cryopreservation of ram semen, using a range of functional markers for sperm viability, motility, apoptosis, and mitochondrial functionality analyses (mitochondrial inner membrane surface [MIMS], mitochondrial inner membrane potential [MIMP], and cell membrane potential) as methods of assessment in samples diluted in 3 different media: Tris-citrate-glucose as control and 2 media supplemented with soy lecithin or egg yolk. The results showed that lecithin was able to effectively protect certain sperm quality characteristics against freezing-induced damage. However, lecithin induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential or mitochondrial loss that was not reflected by modifications in sperm motility in fresh semen. MIMS and MIMP values decreased in thawed lecithin-treated samples, concomitant with a lower (P lecithin may have affected the inner mitochondrial membrane in frozenthawed spermatozoa and confirmed that sublethal damages that seriously affect sperm functionality, not detected by classic sperm quality analyses, can be evidenced by changes in the inner mitochondrial membrane surface. These findings strengthen the relationship between mitochondrial membrane potential and motility and show that the mitochondrial alterations induced by the cryopreservation process could be specific targets for the improvement of semen cryopreservation protocols.

  11. Experimental and simulation study of the effects of cosmic particles on CMOS/SOS RAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, E.; Williams, R.; Groninger, J.

    1990-01-01

    Van De Graaff particle accelerator data was taken on three different CMOS/SOS RAM cells. The resulting LET upset thresholds were then used to calculate the deposited charge needed to upset the cells. Detailed SPICE simulations of the various cells were used to determine the collected charge required for upset. A comparison of the two values indicated that the charge needed to upset the cells was greater than the deposited charge, thus confirming Rollins' results. Shorter channel lengths and higher power supply voltages caused the ratio, M, of upset charge to deposited charge to increase. As a result of this multiplication factor, actual devices are more likely to upset (i.e., upset at lower energy) than expected from an analysis of only the collected charge. A mixed mode simulator was then used to model the charge collection process. This simulator study showed that the M factor is a very fluid number which is dependent on minority carrier lifetime, drain voltage, and the switching dynamics of the cell in addition to the dependence on mobility ratio and channel length. Parasitic bipolar gain at high injection levels appears to be the primary mechanism allowing collected charge to be greater than deposited charge. In conclusion, the simulator and experimental data show that, as floating body static memory transistors are down scaled, the particle energy needed to upset the cell is reduced because of the enhanced parasitic bipolar gain effect as well as a reduction in the node capacitance. This result is shown by simulation to also apply to fully depleted SOI transistors

  12. Jellyfish: the origin and distribution of extreme ram-pressure stripping events in massive galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Conor; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke; Blumenthal, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observational signatures and physical origin of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.3-0.7, based on images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen `jellyfish' galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define morphological criteria to select 211 additional, less obvious cases of RPS. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of 124 candidates so far confirmed 53 as cluster members. For the brightest and most favourably aligned systems, we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on the orientation of apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the onset of these events occurs primarily at large distances from the cluster core (>400 kpc), and that the trajectories of the affected galaxies feature high-impact parameters. Simple models show that such trajectories are highly improbable for galaxy infall along filaments but common for infall at high velocities, even after observational biases are accounted for, provided the duration of the resulting RPS events is ≲500 Myr. We thus tentatively conclude that extreme RPS events are preferentially triggered by cluster mergers, an interpretation that is supported by the disturbed dynamical state of many of the host clusters. This hypothesis implies that extreme RPS might occur also near the cores of merging poor clusters or even merging groups of galaxies. Finally, we present nine additional `jellyfish" galaxies at z > 0.3 discovered by us, thereby doubling the number of such systems known at intermediate redshift.

  13. Investigating Phase Transform Behavior in Indium Selenide Based RAM and Its Validation as a Memory Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Sourav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase transform properties of Indium Selenide (In2Se3 based Random Access Memory (RAM have been explored in this paper. Phase change random access memory (PCRAM is an attractive solid-state nonvolatile memory that possesses potential to meet various current technology demands of memory design. Already reported PCRAM models are mainly based upon Germanium-Antimony-Tellurium (Ge2Sb2Te5 or GST materials as their prime constituents. However, PCRAM using GST material lacks some important memory attributes required for memory elements such as larger resistance margin between the highly resistive amorphous and highly conductive crystalline states in phase change materials. This paper investigates various electrical and compositional properties of the Indium Selenide (In2Se3 material and also draws comparison with its counterpart mainly focusing on phase transform properties. To achieve this goal, a SPICE model of In2Se3 based PCRAM model has been reported in this work. The reported model has been also validated to act as a memory cell by associating it with a read/write circuit proposed in this work. Simulation results demonstrate impressive retentivity and low power consumption by requiring a set pulse of 208 μA for a duration of 100 μs to set the PCRAM in crystalline state. Similarly, a reset pulse of 11.7 μA for a duration of 20 ns can set the PCRAM in amorphous state. Modeling of In2Se3 based PCRAM has been done in Verilog-A and simulation results have been extensively verified using SPICE simulator.

  14. Characterization of Bi and Fe co-doped PZT capacitors for FeRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jeffrey S; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Wada, Satoshi; Chatterjee, Abhijit

    2010-08-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has been in mass production for over 15 years. Higher polarization ferroelectric materials are needed for future devices which can operate above about 100 °C. With this goal in mind, co-doping of thin Pb(Zr 40 ,Ti 60 )O 3 (PZT) films with 1 at.% Bi and 1 at.% Fe was examined in order to enhance the ferroelectric properties as well as characterize the doped material. The XRD patterns of PZT-5% BiFeO 3 (BF) and PZT 140-nm thick films showed (111) orientation on (111) platinized Si wafers and a 30 °C increase in the tetragonal to cubic phase transition temperature, often called the Curie temperature, from 350 to 380 °C with co-doping, indicating that Bi and Fe are substituting into the PZT lattice. Raman spectra revealed decreased band intensity with Bi and Fe co-doping of PZT compared to PZT. Polarization hysteresis loops show similar values of remanent polarization, but square-shaped voltage pulse-measured net polarization values of PZT-BF were higher and showed higher endurance to repeated cycling up to 10 10 cycles. It is proposed that Bi and Fe are both in the +3 oxidation state and substituting into the perovskite A and B sites, respectively. Substitution of Bi and Fe into the PZT lattice likely creates defect dipoles, which increase the net polarization when measured by the short voltage pulse positive-up-negative-down (PUND) method.

  15. Exposure to Photoperiod-Melatonin-Induced, Sexually-Activated Rams after Weaning Advances the Resumption of Sexual Activity in Post-Partum Mediterranean Ewes Lambing in January.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Gómez, Andrea; Palacios, Carlos; Keller, Matthieu; Delgadillo, José A

    2017-01-21

    This study was aimed to determine whether the presence of sexually stimulated rams by photoperiodic and melatonin treatments can advance the resumption of post-partum sexual activity in Mediterranean ewes lambing in January and weaned at the end of the breeding season at 41°N, in March. Rams were exposed to two months of long days (16 h light/day) and given three melatonin implants at the end of the long days (sexually-activated rams; SAR). Control rams (CR) were exposed to the natural photoperiod. Thirty-six ewes weaned on 25 February were assigned to one of two groups. From 1 March to 30 June, one group was housed with four SAR males (SAR-treated; n = 18), and the other group (CR-treated; n = 18) was housed with four unstimulated rams. Ovulation was assessed once per week based on plasma progesterone concentrations. Estrus was monitored daily by marks left on ewes by rams' harnesses. SAR-treated ewes had a shorter ( p ewes (61 ± 17 days vs. 102 ± 47 days; mean date of first estrus after weaning on April 26 and June 6, respectively). The proportion of the ewes ovulating in April or May was higher ( p ewes resumed estrous activity sooner than CR-treated ewes such that, in April, May, and June, the proportion of females that exhibited estrus was higher ( p ewes in spring. The practical implications of this work could be important in ewes adapted for intensive production and accelerated lambing systems.

  16. Endocrine and Ovarian Changes in Response to the Ram Effect in Medroxyprogesterone Acetate-primed Corriedale Ewes During the Breeding and Nonbreeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubianes E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to determine the endocrine and ovarian changes in medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP-primed ewes after ram introduction. Experiment 1 was performed during the mid-breeding season with 71 ewes primed with an intravaginal MAP sponge for 12 days. While the control (C ewes (n = 35 were in permanent contact with rams, the ram effect (RE ewes (n = 36 were isolated for 34 days prior to contact with rams. At sponge withdrawal, all ewes were joined with eight sexually experienced marking Corriedale rams and estrus was recorded over the next 4 days. The ovaries were observed by laparoscopy 4–6 days after estrus. Four weeks later, pregnancy was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In eight ewes from each group, ovaries were ultrasonographically scanned; FSH, LH, and estradiol-17β were measured every 12 hours until ovulation or 96 hours after estrus. The response to the rams was not affected by the fact that ewes had been kept or not in close contact with males before teasing. No differences were found in FSH, LH, estradiol-17β concentrations, growth of the ovulatory follicle, onset of estrus, ovulation rate, or pregnancy rate. Experiment 2 was performed with 14 ewes during the nonbreeding season. Ewes were isolated from rams for 1 month, and received a 6-day MAP priming. Ovaries were ultrasonographically scanned every 12 hours, and FSH, LH, estradiol-17β, and progesterone were measured. Ewes that ovulated and came into estrus had higher FSH and estradiol-17β levels before introduction of the rams than did ewes that had a silent ovulation. The endocrine pattern of the induced follicular phase of ewes that came into estrus was more similar to a normal follicular phase, than in ewes that had a silent ovulation. The follicle that finally ovulated tended to emerge earlier and in a more synchronized fashion in those ewes that did come into estrus. All ewes that ovulated had an LH surge and reached higher maximum FSH

  17. Mixtures in nonstable Levy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, N Cufaro

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the Levy processes produced by means of two interconnected classes of nonstable, infinitely divisible distribution: the variance gamma and the Student laws. While the variance gamma family is closed under convolution, the Student one is not: this makes its time evolution more complicated. We prove that-at least for one particular type of Student processes suggested by recent empirical results, and for integral times-the distribution of the process is a mixture of other types of Student distributions, randomized by means of a new probability distribution. The mixture is such that along the time the asymptotic behaviour of the probability density functions always coincide with that of the generating Student law. We put forward the conjecture that this can be a general feature of the Student processes. We finally analyse the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process driven by our Levy noises and show a few simulations of it

  18. MODERN METHODS OF DESIGN AND ARRANGEMENT OF RAMMING PILES IN PUNCHED HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOTSENKO N. L.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Ramming piles in punched holes (RPPH differ of high degree of use of supporting capacity of base because of forming in it a compacted zone at the expense of displacement of soil in the volume rammer and compacted material of expansion. The method of their construction almost exclude excavation and formwork, reducing the consumption of concrete, metal, accelerates zero cycle compared to the foundations raised and excavation and immersion into the soil of precast elements. The expansion of the normative base, their design and construction should be for further implementation of of natural objects. The correctness of the geomechanical model of plane and spatial version of finite element method (FEM should be proved for the calculation of cooperative work of RPPH as part of grillages with base. The most effective kinds of equipment and technological schemes of construction of RPPH should be noticed. Conclusions. The paper presents the main regulations on the design and the arrangement RPPH, corresponding of construction norms of Ukraine. The results of experimental and theoretical studies conducted by the authors for over thirty years, and the experience of the use of these piles on the objects of civil engineering, industrial and agricultural construction made their base. The use of the elastoplastic model with the criterion of Mohr-Coulomb strength for designing of the system "grillage -RPPH- soil" was substantiated. The designing in plane and spatial problems of FEM is proved that in the distance between the axes of adjacent piles up to five diameters is a correct choice of a flat version and simplifying of calculating scheme to the conventional strip foundation. An improved. The method of calculating of RPPH as part of grillages ribbon, where as the width of the foundation was taken a diameter of the broadening of the pile, and the depth of its inception corresponds to the bottom of it. The supporting layer of base under the

  19. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFORMATIONSTRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF RAMMED MICRO-PILES WITH A BROADENED AGGREGATE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Alekhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Experimental and theoretical determination of dependencies of strength characteristics of bored micropiles with a pedestal formed by rammed rubble on: casing diameter, fraction, and volume of crushed stone for collapsing macroporous clays. Method. Laboratory and field experiments were carried out; numerical calculations in two-dimensional and threedimensional arrangement for the determination of strain-stress analysis of the foundation using a MIDAS GTS_NX software system, implementing the finite element method and developed for complex geotechnical problems; some recommendations for implementation are provided. Results The dependence of the load-bearing capacity of bored micropiles on a broadened base of rammed aggregate with vertical loading is determined. At the maximum broadening diameter of 3.5 of the micropiles shaft the load-bearing capacity of the subsoil is increased by between 1.8 and 6 times compared with micropiles without broadening depending on the diameter of the pile shaft. During the experimental and numerical studies of the dependencies of deformation-strength parameters of the deep foundation works consisting of a bored micropile with a broadened base, namely the pile diameter, aggregate particle size and volume, seal diameter of the subsoil soil half-space, as well as the development of the theory of formation of the end broadening geometry of rammed aggregate in the form of an ellipsoid of revolution were established. Conclusion The full-scale measurements of the broadening of bored micropiles showed that their shape is close to an ellipsoid of revolution, and the ratio of semi-axes is directly dependent on the characteristics of soil and gravel volume, which was taken into account in the construction of the finite element model in the numerical simulation experiment.The results of numerical studies of the bored micropile loading with broadened base on the MIDAS GTS show good agreement with the results of the

  20. The Magellanic Stream System. I. Ram-Pressure Tails and the Relics of the Collision Between the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.; Fouquet, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200-300 Myr ago, which has stripped their gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n h = 10-4 cm-3 at 50-70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L MS. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.

  1. THE MAGELLANIC STREAM SYSTEM. I. RAM-PRESSURE TAILS AND THE RELICS OF THE COLLISION BETWEEN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.; Fouquet, S., E-mail: francois.hammer@obspm.fr [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, Meudon F-92195 (France)

    2015-11-10

    We have analyzed the Magellanic Stream (MS) using the deepest and the most resolved H i survey of the Southern Hemisphere (the Galactic All-Sky Survey). The overall Stream is structured into two filaments, suggesting two ram-pressure tails lagging behind the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and resembling two close, transonic, von Karman vortex streets. The past motions of the Clouds appear imprinted in them, implying almost parallel initial orbits, and then a radical change after their passage near the N(H i) peak of the MS. This is consistent with a recent collision between the MCs, 200–300 Myr ago, which has stripped their gas further into small clouds, spreading them out along a gigantic bow shock, perpendicular to the MS. The Stream is formed by the interplay between stellar feedback and the ram pressure exerted by hot gas in the Milky Way (MW) halo with n{sub h} = 10{sup −4} cm{sup −3} at 50–70 kpc, a value necessary to explain the MS multiphase high-velocity clouds. The corresponding hydrodynamic modeling provides the currently most accurate reproduction of the whole H i Stream morphology, of its velocity, and column density profiles along L{sub MS}. The “ram pressure plus collision” scenario requires tidal dwarf galaxies, which are assumed to be the Cloud and dSph progenitors, to have left imprints in the MS and the Leading Arm, respectively. The simulated LMC and SMC have baryonic mass, kinematics, and proper motions consistent with observations. This supports a novel paradigm for the MS System, which could have its origin in material expelled toward the MW by the ancient gas-rich merger that formed M31.

  2. Photography in the boundaries of the visible. From Santiago Ramón y Cajal to Cecil Frank Powell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López-Cantos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the use of photographic technologies of two renowned researchers whose investigation results would have been impossible to carry out, as occurs in Galileo a few centuries before with the use of imaging techniques, without the use of photography: Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Cecil Frank Powell, Nobel Prize winners in medicine in 1906 and in physics in 1950, respectively. These researchers were selected, first, because of their close relation with photography and, second, to clearly illustrate the gradual transgression of scientific photographic representation starting in the late nineteenth century from the visible to the invisible.

  3. Los Humedales de la Quebrada Estero en San Ramón, Costa Rica: importancia y estado actual.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Arias, Cindy Elena; Silva Benavides, Ana Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Los humedales de la microcuenca alta de la Quebrada Estero, en San Ramón, Costa Rica, son considerados una prioridad de conservación por su representatividad y ubicación que los hace únicos en su tipo. Por eso se planteó el objetivo de conocer su importancia y estado actual para que esta información sirva de base para su recuperación y conservación. Se llevó a cabo la identificación de los servicios ecosistémicos y de las amenazas e impactos que tienen las actividades humanas en ellos mediant...

  4. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM) en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez; Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2008-01-01

    Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM) en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba ...

  5. ramR Mutations Affecting Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility in Epidemic Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky ST198

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eCloeckaert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A screening for non-target mutations affecting fluoroquinolone susceptibility was conducted in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky ST198. Among a panel of representative isolates (n=30, covering the epidemic, only three showed distinct mutations in ramR resulting in enhanced expression of genes encoding the AcrAB-TolC efflux system and low increase in ciprofloxacin MIC. No mutations were detected in other regulatory regions of this efflux system. Ciprofloxacin resistance in serovar Kentucky ST198 is thus currently mainly due to multiple target gene mutations.

  6. SeaRAM: A US DOE study of maritime risk assessment data and methods of analysis. Annex 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammerman, D J; Koski, J A; Sprung, J L [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This annex describes ship collision and fire frequencies, a model of ship penetration depths during ship collisions, finite element calculations that examine the crush forces applied to a RAM cask during ship collisions, shipboard fire tests, modeling of these tests using a computational fluid dynamics code, a simple bulkhead fire spread model that is based on the fire test modeling, a probabilistic ship multi-hold fire spread model, modeling of the release of spent fuel radionuclides to the environment from a Type-B spent fuel transportation cask, and illustrative estimates of the consequences that such a radioactive release might cause. (author)

  7. SeaRAM: A US DOE study of maritime risk assessment data and methods of analysis. Annex 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Koski, J.A.; Sprung, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This annex describes ship collision and fire frequencies, a model of ship penetration depths during ship collisions, finite element calculations that examine the crush forces applied to a RAM cask during ship collisions, shipboard fire tests, modeling of these tests using a computational fluid dynamics code, a simple bulkhead fire spread model that is based on the fire test modeling, a probabilistic ship multi-hold fire spread model, modeling of the release of spent fuel radionuclides to the environment from a Type-B spent fuel transportation cask, and illustrative estimates of the consequences that such a radioactive release might cause. (author)

  8. A Study of the Failure of Joints in Composite Material Fuel Cells Due to Hydraulic Ram Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    H co PSw Z QW <H W CO 33 PS4 o CO O CM \\ Q> 00 vO m CO CM N ra Figure VI.B.l THICKNESS MODEL 55 it acts upon on the membrane, gives the force to be...ability of the joint to carry the loads created by hydraulic ram loading. It would also make the manufacturing procedure easier, less time consuming , and...70 less expensive. Cutting holes and channels in a composite plate not only alters the behavior and load carrying capa- bility of the plate, but it is

  9. Effect of Non-linear Velocity Loss Changes in Pumping Stage of Hydraulic Ram Pumps on Pumping Discharge Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fatahialkouhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ram pump is a device which pumps a portion of input discharge to the pumping system in a significant height by using renewable energy of water hammer. The complexities of flow hydraulic on one hand and on the other hand the use of simplifying assumptions in ram pumps have caused errors in submitted analytical models for analyzing running cycle of these pumps. In this study it has been tried to modify the governing analytical model on hydraulic performance of these pumps in pumping stage. In this study by creating a logical division, the cycle of the ram pump was divided into three stages of acceleration, pumping and recoil and the governing equations on each stage of cycling are presented by using method of characteristics. Since the closing of impulse valve is nonlinear, velocity loss in pumping stage is considered nonlinearly. Also the governing equations in pumping stage were modified by considering disc elasticity of impulse valve and changing volume of the pump body when the water hammer phenomenon is occurred. In order to evaluate results and determine empirical factors of the proposed analytical model, a physical model of the ram pump is made with internal diameter of 51 mm. Results of this study are divided into several parts. In the first part, loss coefficients of the impulse valve were measured experimentally and empirical equations of drag coefficient and friction coefficient of the impulse valve were submitted by using nonlinear regression. In the second part, results were evaluated by using experimental data taken from this study. Evaluation of statistical error functions showed that the proposed model has good accuracy for predicting experimental observations. In the third part, in order to validate the results in pumping stage, the analytical models of Lansford and Dugan (1941 and Tacke (1988 were used and the error functions resulted from prediction of experimental observations were investigated through analytical models of

  10. The utility of system-level RAM analysis and standards for the US nuclear waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rod, S.R.; Adickes, M.D.; Paul, B.K.

    1992-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing a system to manage spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and its subsequent amendments. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is assisting OCRWM in its investigation of whether system-level reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) requirements are appropriate for the waste management system and, if they are, what appropriate form should be for such requirements. Results and recommendations are presented

  11. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  12. Dirichlet Process Parsimonious Mixtures for clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Chamroukhi, Faicel; Bartcus, Marius; Glotin, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    The parsimonious Gaussian mixture models, which exploit an eigenvalue decomposition of the group covariance matrices of the Gaussian mixture, have shown their success in particular in cluster analysis. Their estimation is in general performed by maximum likelihood estimation and has also been considered from a parametric Bayesian prospective. We propose new Dirichlet Process Parsimonious mixtures (DPPM) which represent a Bayesian nonparametric formulation of these parsimonious Gaussian mixtur...

  13. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzcinski, Waldemar A.; Matyas, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E 0 , and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E 0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m -3 . Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities

  14. Determination of the resistance to tensile fracture of refractory mixtures of gunite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Sanchez, A; Tomba Martinez, A.G

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the mechanical properties of cooled refractory mixtures is useful since it allows the materials to be compared for the purposes of selection and reports on their degree of internal cohesion, green or calcination, so that their structural ability can be estimated, especially during installation. Given the testing difficulties originating in the fragility of the ceramic materials, the tension test is not generally used in refractories. However, ASTM C-307 94 determines the tensile strength of cured chemical-resistant materials, for which this work considered the possibility of testing cement-based monolithic refractories in this non conventional condition. The tensile resistance to the fracture of three different refractory mixtures (A, B 1 and B 2 ), used in heat repairing by gunite in coking ovens, that were characterized by chemical, granulometric, and mineralogical analysis pycnometric density measurements. The pieces for the tests ('bone' type: length = 75 mm, maximum width = 40 mm, minimum width = 25 mm, thickness = 10 - 25 mm) were prepared by ramming of mixtures of material/water in a metallic mold; they were sinterized (1200 o C, 1h) and characterized by measures of bulk density, porosity and observation of the surface texture, in green and calcinated. The tensile tests, based on ASTM C-307 94, were performed in an Instron model 4467 machine in open air, at room temperature and position control (0.5 mm/min). The following values were obtained, in kPa: AW347±308; B 1 W738±130; B 2 W604±64. These values were lower than those for the tensile fracture module (MOR), although they displayed an equivalent order: A≤B 2 ≤B 1 . This was related to the characteristics of each refractory mixture and at the end of the pieces tested (CW)

  15. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR REFRIGERANT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of models to predict viscosity and thermal conductivity of refrigerant mixtures is developed. A general model for viscosity and thermal conductivity use the three contributions sum form (the dilute-gas terms, the residual terms, and the liquid terms. The corresponding states model is recommended to predict the dense gas transport properties over a range of reduced density from 0 to 2. It is shown that the RHS model provides the most reliable results for the saturated-liquid and the compressed-liquid transport properties over a range of given temperatures from 0,5 to 0,95.

  16. Nonparametric Mixture of Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mian; Li, Runze; Wang, Shaoli

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by an analysis of US house price index data, we propose nonparametric finite mixture of regression models. We study the identifiability issue of the proposed models, and develop an estimation procedure by employing kernel regression. We further systematically study the sampling properties of the proposed estimators, and establish their asymptotic normality. A modified EM algorithm is proposed to carry out the estimation procedure. We show that our algorithm preserves the ascent property of the EM algorithm in an asymptotic sense. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to examine the finite sample performance of the proposed estimation procedure. An empirical analysis of the US house price index data is illustrated for the proposed methodology.

  17. Developing appropriate criteria for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Surgery Using RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ostovar

    2009-07-01

    .5% were considered as inappropriate. Also 22 cases (7.8% were considered as appropriate indications for drug therapy and none were found to be suitable for waiting and watching. There were 94 scenarios related to surgery that 75 scenarios (80% were grouped in appropriate and 8 scenarios (8.5% identified inappropriate. Conclusion: At the present time, due to the lack of scientific evidence for suitable decision-making in providing health services, methods based upon agreement, including the one used in the present study, and the use of treatment standards derived from similar studies, are amongst the most important measures taken to improve the standard of health, provide suitable health services, and to reduce unnecessary costs. In addition, RAM appropriateness method could be an ideal method in determining the appropriateness of health care and in reducing the rate of inappropriate services provided. The similarity of results derived from other studies performed by the RAND method in determining the appropriateness of benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment with the current study shows the validity and reliability of this method. Keywords: Appropriate criteria, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH, Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE.

  18. Confronting the WRF and RAMS mesoscale models with innovative observations in the Netherlands: Evaluating the boundary layer heat budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, G. J.; Tolk, L. F.; Moene, A. F.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Peters, W.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Regional Atmospheric Mesoscale Model System (RAMS) are frequently used for (regional) weather, climate and air quality studies. This paper covers an evaluation of these models for a windy and calm episode against Cabauw tower observations (Netherlands), with a special focus on the representation of the physical processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In addition, area averaged sensible heat flux observations by scintillometry are utilized which enables evaluation of grid scale model fluxes and flux observations at the same horizontal scale. Also, novel ABL height observations by ceilometry and of the near surface longwave radiation divergence are utilized. It appears that WRF in its basic set-up shows satisfactory model results for nearly all atmospheric near surface variables compared to field observations, while RAMS needed refining of its ABL scheme. An important inconsistency was found regarding the ABL daytime heat budget: Both model versions are only able to correctly forecast the ABL thermodynamic structure when the modeled surface sensible heat flux is much larger than both the eddy-covariance and scintillometer observations indicate. In order to clarify this discrepancy, model results for each term of the heat budget equation is evaluated against field observations. Sensitivity studies and evaluation of radiative tendencies and entrainment reveal that possible errors in these variables cannot explain the overestimation of the sensible heat flux within the current model infrastructure.

  19. CO_2 emissions reduction of Chinese light manufacturing industries: A novel RAM-based global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrouznejad, Ali; Yang, Guo-liang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Chinese government has realized the importance of energy conservation and prevention of the climate changes for sustainable development of China's economy and set targets for CO_2 emissions reduction in China. In China industry contributes 84.2% of the total CO_2 emissions, especially manufacturing industries. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity (MP) index are the widely used mathematical techniques to address the relative efficiency and productivity of a group of homogenous decision making units, e.g. industries or countries. However, in many real applications, especially those related to energy efficiency, there are often undesirable outputs, e.g. the pollutions, waste and CO_2 emissions, which are produced inevitably with desirable outputs in the production. This paper introduces a novel Malmquist–Luenberger productivity (MLP) index based on directional distance function (DDF) to address the issue of productivity evolution of DMUs in the presence of undesirable outputs. The new RAM (Range-adjusted measure)-based global MLP index has been applied to evaluate CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries. Recommendations for policy makers have been discussed. - Highlights: •CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries are measured. •A novel RAM based Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index has been developed. •Recommendation to policy makers for reducing CO_2 reduction in China are given.

  20. GASP. V. Ram-pressure stripping of a ring Hoag's-like galaxy in a massive cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Gullieuszik, M.; Mapelli, M.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Fritz, J.; Biviano, A.; Fasano, G.; Bettoni, D.; Vulcani, B.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2018-04-01

    Through an ongoing MUSE program dedicated to study gas removal processes in galaxies (GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE, GASP), we have obtained deep and wide integral field spectroscopy of the galaxy JO171. This galaxy resembles the Hoag's galaxy, one of the most spectacular examples of ring galaxies, characterized by a completely detached ring of young stars surrounding a central old spheroid. At odds with the isolated Hoag's galaxy, JO171 is part of a dense environment, the cluster Abell 3667, which is causing gas stripping along tentacles. Moreover, its ring counter-rotates with respect to the central spheroid. The joint analysis of the stellar populations and the gas/stellar kinematics shows that the origin of the ring was not due to an internal mechanism, but was related to a gas accretion event that happened in the distant past, prior to accretion on to Abell 3667, most probably within a filament. More recently, since infall in the cluster, the gas in the ring has been stripped by ram pressure, causing the quenching of star formation in the stripped half of the ring. This is the first observed case of ram-pressure stripping in action in a ring galaxy, and MUSE observations are able to reveal both of the events (accretion and stripping) that caused dramatic transformations in this galaxy.

  1. Effects of Oxidized Glutathione, Bovine Serum Albumin, Cysteine and Lycopene on the Quality of Frozen-Thawed Ram Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Uysal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals are known to be involved in lipid peroxidation as well as DNA and sperm membrane damages that may lead to decreased sperm motility or cell death. The balance between free radical production and their detoxification may be an important factor in sperm survival and function before, during and after cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the addition of the antioxidants of oxidized glutathione (GSSG, bovine serum albumin (BSA, cysteine and lycopene to freezing media on the post-thawing sperm characteristics, including motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, viability and membrane integrity. A total number of 42 ejaculates were collected using the artifi cial vagina from 4 Akkaraman rams and 10 replicates of the ejaculates were diluted with a Tris-based extender containing additives and no additives as control. GSSG (5 mM, BSA (20 mg/ml, cysteine (10 mM and lycopene (800 μg showed more positive effects than other concentrations of the supplements and controls in protecting sperm characteristics after the freezing-thawing process (P < 0.001. Many aspects of sperm protection, e.g. sperm motility, viability and membrane stabilisation of the sperm cells during relative cryopreservation, are the key factors in determining the preservation of sperm function. The results of this study provide a new approach to the cryopreservation of sperm from rams and related breeds, and thereby contribute to the improvement of these breeds for the world sheep industry.

  2. Comparison of predictive performance of data mining algorithms in predicting body weight in Mengali rams of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Celik

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed at comparing predictive performance of some data mining algorithms (CART, CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID, MARS, MLP, and RBF in biometrical data of Mengali rams. To compare the predictive capability of the algorithms, the biometrical data regarding body (body length, withers height, and heart girth and testicular (testicular length, scrotal length, and scrotal circumference measurements of Mengali rams in predicting live body weight were evaluated by most goodness of fit criteria. In addition, age was considered as a continuous independent variable. In this context, MARS data mining algorithm was used for the first time to predict body weight in two forms, without (MARS_1 and with interaction (MARS_2 terms. The superiority order in the predictive accuracy of the algorithms was found as CART > CHAID ≈ Exhaustive CHAID > MARS_2 > MARS_1 > RBF > MLP. Moreover, all tested algorithms provided a strong predictive accuracy for estimating body weight. However, MARS is the only algorithm that generated a prediction equation for body weight. Therefore, it is hoped that the available results might present a valuable contribution in terms of predicting body weight and describing the relationship between the body weight and body and testicular measurements in revealing breed standards and the conservation of indigenous gene sources for Mengali sheep breeding. Therefore, it will be possible to perform more profitable and productive sheep production. Use of data mining algorithms is useful for revealing the relationship between body weight and testicular traits in describing breed standards of Mengali sheep.

  3. Extraction of Electronic Evidence from VoIP: Forensic Analysis of A Virtual Hard Disk Vs RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    david irwin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP is increasing as the cost savings and ease of use is realised by a wide range of home and corporate users. However, the technology is also attractive to criminals. This is because VoIP is a global telephony service, in which it is difficult to verify the user’s identification. The security of placing such calls may also be appealing to criminals, as many implementations use strong encryption to secure both the voice payload as well as to control messages making monitoring such VoIP calls difficult since conventional methods such as wire-tapping is not applicable to VoIP calls. Therefore, other methods of recovering electronic evidence and information from VoIP are required.  This research looks at what protocol evidence remains after a VoIP call has taken place examining both a virtual hard disk and the Random Access Memory (RAM. This paper proposes a set of identifiable credentials based on packet header information contained within the VoIP protocol stack. A series of controlled tests were undertaken whereby these credentials were forensically searched for on a virtual machine which was used to make the VoIP call. This experiment was then repeated by a search for the same protocol credentials within the RAM.

  4. Comparative effect of different concentrations of hydro-ethanolic extract of chamomile on freeze-thawn semen quality of rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein daghighkia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress during freeze-thawing process causes reduction in motility, viability, membrane functions and finally sperm fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Chamomile extract as natural antioxidant on quality of cryopreserved ram sperm. In this study semen was collected from five mature rams twice a week using an artificial vagina and the ejaculates were pooled equally in order to eliminate the individual effects. Different levels of extract of Chamomile (0, 50, 66.66, 100 and 200 ml/dl of diluent solution were added to diluent based tris-egg yolk. After cooling, filling and sealing of the samples, they were frozen with nitrogen vapor and immersed in liquid nitrogen and were stored until evaluation time. After thawing, results showed that addition of 66.66 ml/dl of extract increased total motility, progressive motility, curvilinear velocity, straight–line velocity, linearity, viability and plasma membrane integrity of sperm compared to the control and other treatment groups (p

  5. Ramón Franco Bahamonde: l’adesione al golpe, i rapporti con gli italiani e la morte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Grassia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the “second part of his life”, that is to say after his choice of abandoning the Republican front to support the 1936 pronunciamento, Ramón had become an enemy of his former allies and a friend of his former enemies. However as General Alfredo Kindelan said: «nobody shook hands with him nor wanted to have relations with him» among his old enemies. In the group of the newly formed allies there were also the Italian soldiers faithful to Mussolini, that the Spanish pilot wanted to kill only a few years earlier. This article first describes friends and enemies of the Caudillo de España’s brother, the takes into account some documents to give a clear indication of the bad relationships between Ramón Franco and the Italian armed forces, both in Spain and in occasion of his visits to Italy. Moreover, some reflections on the circumstances of the Spanish pilot’s death will be proposed.

  6. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  7. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  8. Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Hegde, Uday G.

    2012-01-01

    The subject presentation, entitled, Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) Experiment, was presented at the International Space Station (ISS) Increment 33/34 Science Symposium. This presentation provides an overview of an international collaboration between NASA and CNES to study the behavior of a dilute aqueous solution of Na2SO4 (5% w) at near-critical conditions. The Supercritical Water Mixture (SCWM) investigation, serves as important precursor work for subsequent Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) experiments. The SCWM investigation will be performed in DECLICs High Temperature Insert (HTI) for the purpose of studying critical fluid phenomena at high temperatures and pressures. The HTI includes a completely sealed and integrated test cell (i.e., Sample Cell Unit SCU) that will contain approximately 0.3 ml of the aqueous test solution. During the sequence of tests, scheduled to be performed in FY13, temperatures and pressures will be elevated to critical conditions (i.e., Tc = 374C and Pc = 22 MPa) in order to observe salt precipitation, precipitate agglomeration and precipitate transport in the presence of a temperature gradient without the influences of gravitational forces. This presentation provides an overview of the motivation for this work, a description of the DECLIC HTI hardware, the proposed test sequences, and a brief discussion of the scientific research objectives.

  9. Towards a Poetry of Silence: Stéphane Mallarmé and Juan Ramón Jiménez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervyn Coke-Enguídanos

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available In an era of apparent dissolution, "la Obra" of Juan Ramón Jiménez, like "l'Oeuvre" of Stéphane Mallarmé, has for its goal the attainment of timelessness. In both poets, the concept of absolute Time—the timelessness of eternal Time—is yoked with the ideal of silence. But this is no ordinary silence, and certainly not the kind that results from inadequacy of expression. It is the silence of perfection, the expression of the ineffable: pure Poetry. Since the poetic language is the silent language of thought, both Mallarmé and Juan Ramón seek to convey the pure idea. In so doing, both must stringently eliminate whatever is not essential in their poetry. The astonishing paradox, central to Mallarmé and Juan Ramón alike, is the urge to create an "unwritten" poetry.

  10. Evaluación de la representación de un sistema convectivo de mesoescala utilizando el modelo RAMS The representation of a mesoscale convective system using RAMS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ruiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúa la capacidad del modelo RAMS en representar un sistema convectivo en mesoescala asociado con la ocurrencia de una intensa corriente en chorro en capas bajas. Para realizar la verificación y debido a las limitaciones de la red observacional operativa, se propone aquí la utilización de productos derivados de sensores remotos de microondas pasivas y activas. También se efectúa un análisis del entorno en escala sinóptica de este evento, con énfasis en el análisis de la evolución de la inestabilidad convectiva y la convergencia en capas bajas. El modelo representa correctamente la circulación de mayor escala, y también simula adecuadamente la precipitación total acumulada. No obstante en las resoluciones utilizadas el modelo presenta dificultad en representar la estructura interna del sistema convectivo. Se considera que la estrategia adoptada para analizar el desempeño del modelo, es útil para identificar los mayores problemas en la reproducción de la distribución de precipitación asociada al sistema convectivo y su ubicación y consecuentemente, para establecer pautas para una mejora de la predicción de los mismos.This work concentrates in the evaluation of RAMS model's representation of a mesoscale convective system associated with a strong low level jet event. Diverse products derived from satellite data are used to measure precipitation amounts and to characterize the system internal structure. The synoptic environment associated to system genesis and growing stages is also analyzed through the description of mechanisms favoring both, convective instability and low level convergence. RAMS model correctly represents the environmental conditions where the system develops, the accumulated precipitation fields and precipitation rates at particular moments when precipitation radar data were available. However the model fails to capture the stratiform precipitation area behind the convective one. It is

  11. [From Algebra as art to School Algebra : The textbooks written by Pierre de La Ramée, Bernard Salignac and Lazare Schöner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, François

    2011-01-01

    Bernard Salignac and Lazare Schöner both published a treatise based on La Ramée's Algebra. Why did they endeavour to republish a book that their master had abandoned ? What changes did they make in the original ? They turned algebra into apedagogical discipline at a time when Ramism was making its presence felt in some Northern European educational establishments. Salignac took La Ramée's thoughts concerning the language of mathematics further and offered an original and precocious contribution to what I call the "scriptural turn" of mathematics at the end of the 16(th) century.

  12. Ramón Reichert and Annika Richterich, eds., Digital Material/ism Vol. 1, Issue 1 – Digital Culture and Society

    OpenAIRE

    Pournara, Lizzy

    2017-01-01

    Ramón Reichert and Annika Richterich, eds., Digital Material/ism Vol. 1, Issue 1 – Digital Culture and Society Bielefeld: [transcript] Verlag, 2015. ISBN 978-3-8376-3153-1. Lizzy Pournara Aristotle University of Thessaloniki The issue Digital Material/ism edited by Ramón Reichert and Annika Richterich inaugurates the first volume of the journal Digital Culture & Society. The significance of this volume’s work lies in its attempt to redress the concept of materiality in digital environments an...

  13. Comparison of hourly surface downwelling solar radiation estimated from MSG-SEVIRI and forecast by the RAMS model with pyranometers over Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Stefano; Torcasio, Rosa Claudia; Sanò, Paolo; Casella, Daniele; Campanelli, Monica; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Wang, Ping; Vergari, Stefania; Diémoz, Henri; Dietrich, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the performance of two global horizontal solar irradiance (GHI) estimates, one derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) and another from the 1-day forecast of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. The horizontal resolution of the MSG-GHI is 3 × 5 km2 over Italy, which is the focus area of this study. For this paper, RAMS has the horizontal resolution of 4 km.The performances of the MSG-GHI estimate and RAMS-GHI 1-day forecast are evaluated for 1 year (1 June 2013-31 May 2014) against data of 12 ground-based pyranometers over Italy spanning a range of climatic conditions, i.e. from maritime Mediterranean to Alpine climate.Statistics for hourly GHI and daily integrated GHI are presented for the four seasons and the whole year for all the measurement sites. Different sky conditions are considered in the analysisResults for hourly data show an evident dependence on the sky conditions, with the root mean square error (RMSE) increasing from clear to cloudy conditions. The RMSE is substantially higher for Alpine stations in all the seasons, mainly because of the increase of the cloud coverage for these stations, which is not well represented at the satellite and model resolutions. Considering the yearly statistics computed from hourly data for the RAMS model, the RMSE ranges from 152 W m-2 (31 %) obtained for Cozzo Spadaro, a maritime station, to 287 W m-2 (82 %) for Aosta, an Alpine site. Considering the yearly statistics computed from hourly data for MSG-GHI, the minimum RMSE is for Cozzo Spadaro (71 W m-2, 14 %), while the maximum is for Aosta (181 W m-2, 51 %). The mean bias error (MBE) shows the tendency of RAMS to over-forecast the GHI, while no specific behaviour is found for MSG-GHI.Results for daily integrated GHI show a lower RMSE compared to hourly GHI evaluation for both RAMS-GHI 1-day forecast and MSG-GHI estimate. Considering the yearly evaluation, the RMSE of daily integrated GHI is at least 9

  14. Effect of adaptation and heat stress on reproductive performances of fat-tail Awassi rams in eastern mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi Saab, S.; Darwish, W.Y.; Aad, P.; Sleiman, F.T.; Kallassy, N.; Aad, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Awassi fat-tail sheep is desired in the Middle East and Sahara for its hardiness and resistance. In this region, the adaptability of Awassi rams to elevated heat stress is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of ambient or testicular 43 deg C heat on semen characteristics. 12 Awassi rams of 1.2 to 2 years were allowed an initial adaptation period (P0), followed by two experimental phases (P1 and P2), each including a period of heat stress (HS1 and HS2) followed by a period of recovery from heat stress (R1and R2). Heat stress conditions were considered when ambient temperature (Group 2) or testicular environment (Group 3) reached 42 to 44 deg C. Control animals (Group 1) were exposed to ambient environmental conditions. Temperature-humidity index (THI) as a relationship of ambient temperature, wet and dry humidity effect along with respiration and pulse rate, body temperature and live body weight (BW) were measured weekly as adaptation parameters. Reproductive parameters assessed included scrotum circumference and testicular volume measured twice per heat stress period, whereas semen volume density,concentration and motility were measured twice weekly. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS under a time series analysis model, with treatment and time nested within period as main effects, and treatment by time within period as interaction terms. Treatment means were separated using Fisher protected LSD. Results showed a THI of 25.7 during therest periods (R1 and R2), 30 during HS1 and 28 during HS2. BW decreased with ambient stress, whereas respiration rate increased during heat stress periods (HS1 and HS2). Testes volume decreased with both ambient and testicular heat stress, whereas testicular circumference was not affected by these conditions. Semen concentration decreased whereas semen volume increased with ambient but not testicular heat stress. Spermatozoa abnormalities increased in R1 following heat stress (HS1

  15. Mixtures and their risk assessment in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Moiz M; Hansen, Hugh; Pohl, Hana R

    2011-01-01

    For communities generally and for persons living in the vicinity of waste sites specifically, potential exposures to chemical mixtures are genuine concerns. Such concerns often arise from perceptions of a site's higher than anticipated toxicity due to synergistic interactions among chemicals. This chapter outlines some historical approaches to mixtures risk assessment. It also outlines ATSDR's current approach to toxicity risk assessment. The ATSDR's joint toxicity assessment guidance for chemical mixtures addresses interactions among components of chemical mixtures. The guidance recommends a series of steps that include simple calculations for a systematic analysis of data leading to conclusions regarding any hazards chemical mixtures might pose. These conclusions can, in turn, lead to recommendations such as targeted research to fill data gaps, development of new methods using current science, and health education to raise awareness of residents and health care providers. The chapter also provides examples of future trends in chemical mixtures assessment.

  16. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially ...

  17. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, Svatopluk [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)], E-mail: svatopluk.zeman@upce.cz; Trzcinski, Waldemar A. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, PL-00-908 Warsaw 49 (Poland); Matyas, Robert [Institute of Energetic Materials, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E{sub 0}, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E{sub 0} values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities.

  18. Method for separating gaseous mixtures of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neimann, H.J.; Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.

    1976-01-01

    A gaseous mixture of isotopes is separated by laser excitation of the isotope mixture with a narrow band of wavelengths, molecularly exciting mainly the isotope to be separated and thereby promoting its reaction with its chemical partner which is excited in a separate chamber. The excited isotopes and the chemical partner are mixed, perhaps in a reaction chamber to which the two excited components are conducted by very short conduits. The improvement of this method is the physical separation of the isotope mixture and its partner during excitation. The reaction between HCl and the mixture of 238 UF 6 and 235 UF 6 is discussed

  19. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  20. Evaluation of mastic in bituminous mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of the asphalt-aggregate bond is one of the key factors which affects the mechanical resistance of bituminous mixtures and a better understanding of its performance allows the behaviour of mixture to be more accurately predicted. The asphalt-aggregate bond depends on the properties of the mastic and the mixture of fine aggregate and bitumen which bonds itself to the larger sized particles within the bituminous mixture. This mastic plays an im-portant role in the asphalt-aggr...

  1. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  2. Review of US accident/incident experience involving the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) 1971-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Emerson, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the transportation accidents and incidents which have occurred in the United States in the period 1971-1980 based upon the information in the Radioactive Material Transportation Accident/Incident Data Base developed by the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. The accident/incident data base incorporates the files of the Hazardous Material Incident Report (HMIR) system operated by the Material Transportation Bureau of the US Department of Transportation (DOT) with additional information obtained from the files of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A principal objective of this paper is to summarize US accident/incident experience for the past ten years, providing a concise statement of radioactive material (RAM) package failure description for the transport modes of truck, rail and air

  3. Naturaleza, montaña, deporte y aventura en la vida de Santiago Ramón y Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Garrido Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Ramón y Cajal fue un hombre excepcional. Su nombre estará siempre unido a la ciencia, pero su vida estuvo comprometida también con otras facetas que son, en general, muy poco conocidas. El deporte, la aventura, la montaña y la naturaleza jugaron un papel trascendental en forjar su personalidad, en el devenir de su salud y en la esencia de su destino científico por el cual es universalmente renombrado. El presente documento se centra en este hecho mediante el análisis del rico legado literario que nos dejó este sabio y, muy especialmente, en lo relacionado con su pasión por la montaña y la naturaleza.

  4. Castigo divino, de Sergio Ramírez, novela policial, folletinesca, satírica y autorreflexiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Kozak Rovero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La historia de Castigo divino, del nicaragüense Sergio Ramírez (1942, podría figurar perfectamente en las páginas de cualquier periódico amarillista. Sexo, dinero, poder, muerte y equívoco son los ingredientes perfectos de un suceso estremecedor capaz de despertar el morbo colectivo: un triple asesinato con estricnina, perpetrado por un joven abogado de veinticinco años en las personas de su propia esposa, una posible amante y el padre de ésta. La novela se construye a modo de expediente del caso, combinando registros diversos y divergentes, propios de la industria cultural y de discursos “no literarios”, como se evidencia sin problemas con un simple repaso de los títulos de las partes y capítulos del texto.

  5. The influence of annealing temperature on ReRAM characteristics of metal/NiO/metal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, H; Kaji, H; Fujii, T; Hamada, K; Arita, M; Takahashi, Y

    2010-01-01

    The resistive switching of NiO sandwiched between Pt bottom and top electrodes are formed by thermal oxidation at the temperature from 300 deg. C to 800 deg. C. The ReRAM characteristics are investigated from the view point of practical applications. The stable and uniform formation of NiO films are revealed by XPS analysis and the chemical compositions of NiO are almost independent of oxidation temperatures. However, the forming voltages of the film prepared at higher oxidation temperature are scattered and reach to high values. This fact indicates that the forming process occurs at the weak spot, and the density of the weak spot is low in the film formed at higher temperature. As a result, the NiO prepared at lower temperature shows stable and lower forming voltages.

  6. A Built-In Self-Test Structure (BIST) for Resistive RAMs characterization: Application to bipolar OxRRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Bocquet, M.; Moreau, M.; Portal, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is a form of nonvolatile storage that operates by changing the resistance of a specially formulated solid dielectric material [1]. Among RRAMs, oxide-based Resistive RAMs (so-called OxRRAMs) are promising candidates due their compatibility with CMOS processes and high ON/OFF resistance ratio. Common problems with OxRRAM are related to high variability in operating conditions and low yield. OxRRAM variability mainly impact ON/OFF resistance ratio. This ratio is a key parameter to determine the overall performance of an OxRRAM memory. In this context, the presented built-in structure allows collecting statistical data related to the OxRRAM memory array (ON/OFF resistance distributions) for reliability assessment of the technology.

  7. Deciding which chemical mixtures risk assessment methods work best for what mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuschler, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The most commonly used chemical mixtures risk assessment methods involve simple notions of additivity and toxicological similarity. Newer methods are emerging in response to the complexities of chemical mixture exposures and effects. Factors based on both science and policy drive decisions regarding whether to conduct a chemical mixtures risk assessment and, if so, which methods to employ. Scientific considerations are based on positive evidence of joint toxic action, elevated human exposure conditions or the potential for significant impacts on human health. Policy issues include legislative drivers that may mandate action even though adequate toxicity data on a specific mixture may not be available and risk assessment goals that impact the choice of risk assessment method to obtain the amount of health protection desired. This paper discusses three important concepts used to choose among available approaches for conducting a chemical mixtures risk assessment: (1) additive joint toxic action of mixture components; (2) toxicological interactions of mixture components; and (3) chemical composition of complex mixtures. It is proposed that scientific support for basic assumptions used in chemical mixtures risk assessment should be developed by expert panels, risk assessment methods experts, and laboratory toxicologists. This is imperative to further develop and refine quantitative methods and provide guidance on their appropriate applications. Risk assessors need scientific support for chemical mixtures risk assessment methods in the form of toxicological data on joint toxic action for high priority mixtures, statistical methods for analyzing dose-response for mixtures, and toxicological and statistical criteria for determining sufficient similarity of complex mixtures

  8. Computer-assisted machine-to-human protocols for authentication of a RAM-based embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissa, Abdourhamane; Aubert, Alain; Fournel, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    Mobile readers used for optical identification of manufactured products can be tampered in different ways: with hardware Trojan or by powering up with fake configuration data. How a human verifier can authenticate the reader to be handled for goods verification? In this paper, two cryptographic protocols are proposed to achieve the verification of a RAM-based system through a trusted auxiliary machine. Such a system is assumed to be composed of a RAM memory and a secure block (in practice a FPGA or a configurable microcontroller). The system is connected to an input/output interface and contains a Non Volatile Memory where the configuration data are stored. Here, except the secure block, all the blocks are exposed to attacks. At the registration stage of the first protocol, the MAC of both the secret and the configuration data, denoted M0 is computed by the mobile device without saving it then transmitted to the user in a secure environment. At the verification stage, the reader which is challenged with nonces sendsMACs / HMACs of both nonces and MAC M0 (to be recomputed), keyed with the secret. These responses are verified by the user through a trusted auxiliary MAC computer unit. Here the verifier does not need to tract a (long) list of challenge / response pairs. This makes the protocol tractable for a human verifier as its participation in the authentication process is increased. In counterpart the secret has to be shared with the auxiliary unit. This constraint is relaxed in a second protocol directly derived from Fiat-Shamir's scheme.

  9. A Theory for Stability and Buzz Pulsation Amplitude in Ram Jets and an Experimental Investigation Including Scale Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpi, Robert L

    1956-01-01

    From a theory developed on a quasi-one-dimensional-flow basis, it is found that the stability of the ram jet is dependent upon the instantaneous values of mass flow and total pressure recovery of the supersonic diffuser and immediate neighboring subsonic diffuser. Conditions for stable and unstable flow are presented. The theory developed in the report is in agreement with the experimental data of NACA-TN-3506 and NACA-RM-L50K30. A simple theory for predicting the approximate amplitude of small pressure pulsation in terms of mass-flow decrement from minimum-stable mass flow is developed and found to agree with experiments. Cold-flow tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of ram-jet models having scale factors of 3.15:1 and Reynolds number ratios of 4.75:1 with several supersonic diffuser configurations showed only small variations in performance between geometrically similar models. The predominant variation in steady-flow performance resulted from the larger boundary layer in the combustion chamber of the low Reynolds number models. The conditions at which buzz originated were nearly the same for the same supersonic diffuser (cowling-position angle) configurations in both large and small diameter models. There was no appreciable variation in stability limits of any of the models when the combustion-chamber length was increased by a factor of three. The unsteady-flow performance and wave patterns were also similar when considered on a reduced-frequency basis determined from the relative lengths of the model. The negligible effect of Reynolds number on stability of the off-design configurations was not anticipated in view of the importance of boundary layer to stability, and this result should not be construed to be generally applicable. (author)

  10. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  11. RAMS+C informed decision-making with application to multi-objective optimization of technical specifications and maintenance using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Villanueva, J.F.; Carlos, S.; Nebot, Y.; Sanchez, A.; Pitarch, J.L.; Serradell, V.

    2005-01-01

    The role of technical specifications and maintenance (TSM) activities at nuclear power plants (NPP) aims to increase reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) of Safety-Related Equipment, which, in turn, must yield to an improved level of plant safety. However, more resources (e.g. costs, task force, etc.) have to be assigned in above areas to achieve better scores in reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS). Current situation at NPP shows different programs implemented at the plant that aim to the improvement of particular TSM-related parameters where the decision-making process is based on the assessment of the impact of the change proposed on a subgroup of RAMS+C attributes. This paper briefly reviews the role of TSM and two main groups of improvement programs at NPP, which suggest the convenience of considering the approach proposed in this paper for the Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision-Making on changes to TSM-related parameters based on RAMS+C criteria as a whole, as it can be seem as a decision-making process more consistent with the role and synergic effects of TSM and the objectives and goals of current improvement programs at NPP. The case of application to the Emergency Diesel Generator system demonstrates the viability and significance of the proposed approach for the Multi-objective Optimization of TSM-related parameters using a Genetic Algorithm

  12. THE EFFECT OF SEMEN WASHING AND SOYBEAN LECITHIN LEVEL ON MOTILITY AND VIABILITY OF RAM SPERMATOZOA STORED AT 5⁰C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salmin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this reserarch were to study the effect of semen washing and soybean lecithinlevel on the motility and viability of ram spermatozoa stored at 5⁰C. Semen was collected from threemature rams by artificial vagina. Semen was evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic. Semen wasdivided into ten tubes, the semen of first five tubes was unwashed (W0 and diluted with extender 0%,1%, 2%, 3% and 4% soybean lecithin (L0, L1, L2, L3 and L4. Semen of another five tubes werewashed (W1 then each diluted with similar extender levels. The diluted semen samples were stored at5⁰C and the sperm motility and viability were evaluated each day. The interaction of the semen washingand soybean lecithin levels were no significant differences (P>0.05 but the single factor of soybeanlecithin level was significant differeNces (P<0.05 and the single factor of semen washing were nosignificant differences (P>0.05 on progressive motility and viability of ram sperm.The best extenderwas 3% soybean lecithin (L3 with the percentage of ram sperm progressive motility was 63.18 ± 3.61%and viability was 71.76±2.32%.

  13. Ces silences de la narration qui rapprochèrent Jean Giono et Juan Ramón Jiménez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to show how JeanGiono discovered a purity of writing inJuan Ramón Jiménez that he practicedhimself in his elliptical narratives. Thus,this purifying desire that both sought intheir writings would be one of the commonpoints that would persuade Jean Giono todo the film adaptation of Platero y yo.

  14. Impact of Intraseasonal Oscillations on the Tropical Cyclone Activity Over the Gulf of Mexico and Western Caribbean Sea in GFDL HiRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Chen, Jan-Huey; Harris, Lucas M.; Lin, Shian-Jiann; Xiang, Baoqiang; Zhao, Ming

    2017-12-01

    The tropical cyclones (TCs) that form over the warm waters in the Gulf of Mexico region pose a major threat to the surrounding coastal communities. Skillful subseasonal prediction of TC activity is important for early preparedness and reducing the TC damage in this region. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a 25 km resolution Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) in simulating the modulation of the TC activity in the Gulf of Mexico and western Caribbean Sea by the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) based on multiyear retrospective seasonal predictions. We demonstrate that the HiRAM faithfully captures the observed influence of ISO on TC activity over the region of interest, including the formation of tropical storms and (major) hurricanes, as well as the landfalling storms. This is likely because of the realistic representation of the large-scale anomalies associated with boreal summer ISO over Northeast Pacific in HiRAM, especially the enhanced (reduced) moisture throughout the troposphere during the convectively enhanced (suppressed) phase of ISO. The reasonable performance of HiRAM suggests its potential for the subseasonal prediction of regional TC risk.

  15. An oxyde mixture fuel containing uranium and plutonium dioxides and process to obtain this oxyde mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.

    1976-01-01

    An oxide-mixture fuel containing uranium and plutonium dioxides having the slage of spherical, or nearly spherical, oxide-mixture particles with a diameter within the range of from 0.2 to 2 mn charactarized in that each oxide-mixture particles is provided with an outer layer comprising mainly UO2, the thickness of which is at least 0.05; whereas the inner portion of the oxide-mixture particles comprises mainly PUO 2

  16. Appetitive and Consummatory Sexual Behaviors of Rams Treated with Exogenous Testosterone and Exposed to Anestrus Dorper Ewes: Efficacy of the Male Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Luz M; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Rivas-Muñoz, Raymundo; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; Carrillo, Evaristo; Mellado, Miguel; Véliz-Deras, Francisco G

    2017-04-01

    We determine whether Dorper rams treated with testosterone in the sexual resting season trigger both appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors and sexual and reproductive outcomes in anestrous ewes at 26° North during March-April. Dorper rams (n = 12, 2.5 years) were randomly divided prior to mating in two groups: GT (treated group; n = 6), treated with testosterone propionate (25 mg i.m. every 3 days × 3 weeks) and GC (control group; n = 6), treated with saline. Thereafter, adult anovulatory Dorper ewes (n = 61) were exposed to the GT-rams while the other group (n = 60) was exposed to the GC-rams. Ram's appetitive sexual behavior was similar (50 %) in both groups, yet the GT-rams exerted 100 % of the consummatory sexual behavior. Sexual and reproductive outcomes of the anestrus females exposed to both male groups considered two phases: 0-15 and 16-25 days from exposure to males. Involved variables were: ewes in estrus, ewes ovulating, duration of estrus, pregnant ewes, and lambed ewes. All the average variables favored those ewes exposed to GT-males: ewes in estrus: 85 versus 40 %; ewes ovulating: 80 versus 53 %; duration of estrus: 37 versus 25 h; pregnant ewes: 60 versus 31 %, and lambed ewes: 57 versus 31 %. Results confirm that adult Dorper rams treated with exogenous testosterone had improved consummatory sexual behavior and induced increased ovulation and pregnancy rates when exposed to anestrus ewes. This feasible and inexpensive testosterone-based protocol through the male effect also enhanced both sexual and reproductive outcomes in previously anestrous Dorper ewes during the natural out-of-season. Results are important to speed up reproductive performance of sheep during the natural anestrous season at this latitude, while also they embrace interesting outcomes from a comparative sexual behavior stand point.

  17. HST IMAGING OF DUST STRUCTURES AND STARS IN THE RAM PRESSURE STRIPPED VIRGO SPIRALS NGC 4402 AND NGC 4522: STRIPPED FROM THE OUTSIDE IN WITH DENSE CLOUD DECOUPLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, A.; Kenney, J.; Crowl, H.; Tal, T.

    2016-01-01

    We describe and constrain the origins of interstellar medium (ISM) structures likely created by ongoing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure stripping in two Virgo Cluster spirals, NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) BVI images of dust extinction and stars, as well as supplementary H i, H α , and radio continuum images. With a spatial resolution of ∼10 pc in the HST images, this is the highest-resolution study to date of the physical processes that occur during an ICM–ISM ram pressure stripping interaction, ram pressure stripping's effects on the multi-phase, multi-density ISM, and the formation and evolution of ram-pressure-stripped tails. In dust extinction, we view the leading side of NGC 4402 and the trailing side of NGC 4522, and so we see distinct types of features in both. In both galaxies, we identify some regions where dense clouds are decoupling or have decoupled and others where it appears that kiloparsec-sized sections of the ISM are moving coherently. NGC 4522 has experienced stronger, more recent pressure and has the “jellyfish” morphology characteristic of some ram-pressure-stripped galaxies. Its stripped tail extends up from the disk plane in continuous upturns of dust and stars curving up to ∼2 kpc above the disk plane. On the other side of the galaxy, there is a kinematically and morphologically distinct extraplanar arm of young, blue stars and ISM above a mostly stripped portion of the disk, and between it and the disk plane are decoupled dust clouds that have not been completely stripped. The leading side of NGC 4402 contains two kiloparsec-scale linear dust filaments with complex substructure that have partially decoupled from the surrounding ISM. NGC 4402 also contains long dust ridges, suggesting that large parts of the ISM are being pushed out at once. Both galaxies contain long ridges of polarized radio continuum emission indicating the presence of large-scale, ordered magnetic fields. We propose that

  18. Process Dissociation and Mixture Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T.

    2008-01-01

    The process dissociation procedure was developed in an attempt to separate different processes involved in memory tasks. The procedure naturally lends itself to a formulation within a class of mixture signal detection models. The dual process model is shown to be a special case. The mixture signal detection model is applied to data from a widely…

  19. Buffer gas cooling and mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David S.; Doyle, John M.

    2018-03-06

    An apparatus for spectroscopy of a gas mixture is described. Such an apparatus includes a gas mixing system configured to mix a hot analyte gas that includes at least one analyte species in a gas phase into a cold buffer gas, thereby forming a supersaturated mixture to be provided for spectroscopic analysis.

  20. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  1. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  2. Fibril assembly in whey protein mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study fibril assembly in mixtures of whey proteins. The effect of the composition of the protein mixture on the structures and the resulting phase behaviour was investigated. The current work has shown that beta-lactoglobulin is responsible for the fibril assembly

  3. Process of decomposing an oil mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubierschky, K

    1917-12-02

    A process is described for the decomposition of oil mixtures, and the like, by means of alcohol, characterized in that the subject mixture is brought into solution in high-grade alcohol, and this solution is washed countercurrent with dilute alcohol.

  4. Mixture Modeling: Applications in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hodis, Flaviu A.

    2016-01-01

    Model-based clustering methods, commonly referred to as finite mixture modeling, have been applied to a wide variety of cross-sectional and longitudinal data to account for heterogeneity in population characteristics. In this article, we elucidate 2 such approaches: growth mixture modeling and latent profile analysis. Both techniques are…

  5. Intelligent gas-mixture flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Fred; Houkes, Z.; van Kuijk, J.C.C.; van Kuijk, Joost

    A simple way to realize a gas-mixture flow sensor is presented. The sensor is capable of measuring two parameters from a gas flow. Both the flow rate and the helium content of a helium-nitrogen gas mixture are measured. The sensor exploits two measurement principles in combination with (local)

  6. Shock formation in mixtures of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgopia, N.; Ferraioli, F.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of weak-discontinuity propagation in mixtures of two ideal fluids is examined. The presence of exchenge of momentum reduces or enhances the time for shock formation depending on the machanism with whom the exchange of momentum takes place. Numerical evaluation are also presented for mixtures of nitrogen and oxygen simulating dry-air models

  7. The Modified Enskog Equation for Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1973-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that a modified form of the Enskog equation, applied to mixtures of hard spheres, should be considered as the correct extension of the usual Enskog equation to the case of mixtures. The main argument was that the modified Enskog equation leads to linear transport

  8. Mixture toxicity of PBT-like chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Dai, Lina; Ramskov, Tina

    addition is a suitable model for default estimations of mixture effects. One of the major challenges is therefore how to select specific chemicals for actual mixture toxicity assessments. Persistant chemicals are likely to be present in the environment for an extended period of time, thus increasing...... the likelihood of them being present in environmentally found mixtures. Persistant, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals are therefore a highly relevant group of chemicals to consider for mixture toxicity regulation. The present study evaluates to what extent a number of PBT-like chemicals posess concern...... beyond that of the individual components. Firstly, the effects of three chemicals with PBT-like properties (acetyl cedrene, pyrene and triclosan) was examined on the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Secondly, mixture bioaccumulation of the same three chemicals were assessed experimentally...

  9. A binary mixture operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hihara, E.; Saito, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of possible binary mixtures as working fluids in high- temperature heat pump applications. The binary mixtures, which are potential alternatives of fully halogenated hydrocarbons, include HCFC142b/HCFC22, HFC152a/HCFC22, HFC134a/HCFC22. The performance of the mixtures is estimated by a thermodynamic model and a practical model in which the heat transfer is considered in heat exchangers. One of the advantages of binary mixtures is a higher coefficient of performance, which is caused by the small temperature difference between the heat-sink/-source fluid and the refrigerant. The mixture HCFC142b/HCFC22 is promising from the stand point of thermodynamic performance

  10. Radiolytic decomposition of water-ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquey, Charles

    1968-07-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the behaviour of binary mixtures submitted to ionizing radiations, and notably aims, by studying the case of water-ethanol mixtures, at verifying solutions proposed by previously published works on the origin of hydrogen atoms and of molecular hydrogen, on the intervention of excited atoms, and on the origin of products appearing under radiolysis. The experimental part of this work consists in the dosing of products formed in water-ethanol mixtures irradiated in presence or absence of nitrate, hydrogen, hydrocarbon, acetaldehyde, 2-3 butanediol and nitrite. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of acetaldehyde efficiency, 2-3 butanediol efficiencies, and hydrocarbon efficiencies in pure ethanol, and in water-ethanol mixtures. The influence of the presence of nitrate ions in mixtures is also discussed

  11. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall characteristics of the mixture. Deformation properties are used as inputs for empirical mixture design, and fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures reflects the parameters of functional tests. Master curves convey properties of asphalt mixtures for various conditions and allow us to evaluate them without the need of time expensive testing.

  12. The Effect of Central American Smoke Aerosols on the Air Quality and Climate over the Southeastern United States: First Results from RAMS-AROMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.; Reid, J.; Prins, E. M.; Szykman, J.

    2004-12-01

    Observation shows that smoke aerosols from biomass burning activities in Central America can be transported to the Southeastern United States (SEUS). In this study, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System - Assimilation and Radiation Online Modeling of Aerosols (RAMS-AROMA) is used to investigate the effect of transported smoke aerosols on climate and air quality over the SEUS. AROMA is an aerosol transport model with capabilities of online integration of aerosol radiation effects and online assimilation of satellite-derived aerosol and emission products. It is assembled within the RAMS, so two-way interactions between aerosol fields and other meteorology fields are achieved simultaneously during each model time step. RAMS-AROMA is a unique tool that can be used to examine the aerosol radiative impacts on the surface energy budget and atmospheric heating rate and to investigate how atmospheric thermal and dynamical processes respond to such impacts and consequently affect the aerosol distribution (so called feedbacks). First results regarding air quality effects and radiative forcing of transported smoke aerosols will be presented from RAMS-AROMA based on assimilation of smoke emission products from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) project and aerosol optical thickness data derived from the MODIS instrument on the Terra and Aqua satellites. Comparisons with PM2.5 data collected from the EPA observation network and the aerosol optical thickness data from the DOE Atmosphere Radiation Measurements in the Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) showed that RAMS-AROMA can predict the timing and spatial distribution of smoke events very well, with an accuracy useful for air quality forecasts. The smoke radiative effects on the surface temperature and atmospheric heating rate as well as their feedbacks will also be discussed.

  13. Resultados del LASIK miópico en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Results of myopic LASIK obtained at “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Lantigua Maldonado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar los resultados y la estabilidad del LASIK miópico realizado en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer". Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y comparativo. El universo estuvo compuesto por los pacientes operados mediante LASIK (4 011 ojos desde el inicio en nuestro centro (2005 de la cirugía refractiva corneal con láser de excímeros. Se seleccionaron los pacientes con estudios realizados un año después de la cirugía. Las variables estudiadas fueron queratometría, mejor agudeza visual sin corrección, mejor agudeza visual con corrección, equivalente esférico, paquimetría y topografía. Se compararon las variables antes de la cirugía y al año de esta. Los resultados se analizaron mediante la prueba t de Student para datos pareados con significación estadística cuando pObjective: To evaluate the results and the stability of the myopic Lasik carried out in “Ramón Pando Ferrer” Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology. Methods: A prospective, descriptive and comparative study was conducted. The universe of study was made up of the patients operated on by LASIK (4011 eyes from the beginning of the corneal refractive surgery with excimer laser in our center in 2005. The patients were selected from those that had been studied for ametropy correction one year after the surgery. The studied variables were keratometry, better visual acuity without correction, better visual acuity with correction, spherical equivalent, pachymetry and topography, and the obtained results were compared before and at one year of the surgery. The paired T test served to analyze the results with statistical significance of p < 0.05. Results: Significant changes took place in keratometry and spherical equivalent that brought about improved visual acuity without correction for distance vision. The best visual acuity with correction remained the same before and after the surgery. Pachymetry remained within safe

  14. Multi-temperature mixture of fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggeri Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a survey on some recent results concerning the different models of a mixture of compressible fluids. In particular we discuss the most realistic case of a mixture when each constituent has its own temperature (MT and we first compare the solutions of this model with the one with a unique common temperature (ST . In the case of Eulerian fluids it will be shown that the corresponding (ST differential system is a principal subsystem of the (MT one. Global behavior of smooth solutions for large time for both systems will also be discussed through the application of the Shizuta-Kawashima condition. Then we introduce the concept of the average temperature of mixture based upon the consideration that the internal energy of the mixture is the same as in the case of a single-temperature mixture. As a consequence, it is shown that the entropy of the mixture reaches a local maximum in equilibrium. Through the procedure of Maxwellian iteration a new constitutive equation for non-equilibrium temperatures of constituents is obtained in a classical limit, together with the Fick's law for the diffusion flux. Finally, to justify the Maxwellian iteration, we present for dissipative fluids a possible approach of a classical theory of mixture with multi-temperature and we prove that the differences of temperatures between the constituents imply the existence of a new dynamical pressure even if the fluids have a zero bulk viscosity.

  15. Probabilistic mixture-based image modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Havlíček, Vojtěch; Grim, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2011), s. 482-500 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Grant - others:CESNET(CZ) 387/2010; GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/11/0335 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : BTF texture modelling * discrete distribution mixtures * Bernoulli mixture * Gaussian mixture * multi-spectral texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/RO/haindl-0360244.pdf

  16. Adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triolo, R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers. The effect of variables such as the concentration of the ion being adsorbed, the concentration of the supporting electrolyte, loading, the values of the capacities and equilibrium constants for the various exchange processes, and the fraction of each adsorber in the mixture on the observed distribution coefficient has been investigated. A computer program has been written to facilitate the calculation of distribution coefficients for the adsorption of an ion on a given mixture of ion exchangers under a specified set of conditions

  17. Principles and practice of mixtures toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mumtaz, Moiz

    2010-01-01

    ... accurate predictions for the adverse effects of mixtures has been limited by the difficulty of acquiring data for all the possible combinations of dose and time that exist even in simple mixtures. Such predictions are also compromised by our use of single-agent toxicity studies since most "realworld" exposures are to mixtures. This has resulted in a variety of approaches (models, protocols, techniques, etc.) to address these issues. These are described in detail in the two dozen chapters of this book along with ca...

  18. Correlation of Adiponectin mRNA Abundance and Its Receptors with Quantitative Parameters of Sperm Motility in Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kadivar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, known as adiponectin system, have some proven roles in the fat and glucose metabolisms. Several studies have shown that adiponectin can be considered as a candidate in linking metabolism to testicular function. In this regard, we evaluated the correlation between sperm mRNA abundance of adiponectin and its receptors, with sperm motility indices in the present study. Materials and Methods: In this completely randomized design study, semen samples from 6 adult rams were fractionated on a two layer discontinuous percoll gradient into high and low motile sperm cells, then quantitative parameters of sperm motility were determined by computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA. The mRNA abundance levels of Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were measured quantitatively using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR in the high and low motile groups. Results: Firstly, we showed that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were transcriptionally expressed in the ram sperm cells. Using Pfaff based method qRTPCR, these levels of transcription were significantly higher in the high motile rather than low motile samples. This increase was 3.5, 3.6 and 2.5 fold change rate for Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, respectively. Some of sperm motility indices [curvilinear velocity (VCL, straight-line velocity (VSL, average path velocity (VAP, linearity (LIN, wobble (WOB and straightness (STR] were also significantly correlated with Adiponectin and AdipoR1 relative expression. The correlation of AdipoR2 was also significant with the mentioned parameters, although this correlation was not comparable with adiponectin and AdipoR1. Conclusion: This study revealed the novel association of adiponectin system with sperm motility. The results of our study suggested that adiponectin is one of the possible factors which can be evaluated and studied in male infertility disorders.

  19. Las culpas del Rey y de su Favorito. El proceso a Alonso Ramírez de Prado (1607-1608

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe MROZEK ELISZEZYNSKI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El enorme poder alcanzado por el letrado Alonso Ramírez de Prado en los primeros ocho años (1598-1606 del reinado de Felipe III fue resultado directodel dominio que su patrón, el duque de Lerma, ejerció sobre la corte y el joven rey. El 26 diciembre de 1606, su repentina detención puso fin a una rutilante carrera política y empezó un proceso, descuidado por mucho tiempo por los historiadores, junto al conde de Villalonga, don Pedro Franqueza. A través del análisis de la documentación oficial relativa a la causa de Ramírez de Prado, el presente trabajo pretende ilustrar las diferentes razones de la acusación y,sobre todo, los argumentos de la defensa, encargada al hijo del acusado, don Lorenzo Ramírez de Prado. El veredicto de culpabilidad emitido al final del proceso parecía anular cualquier argumento de la defensa. Sin embargo, el debate sobre la responsabilidad del soberano con respecto al poder de susfavoritos continuó a lo largo de las décadas siguientes.The huge power achieved by the jurist Alonso Ramírez de Prado in the firsteight years (1598-1606 of the reign of Philip III was a direct result of the supremacy of his patron, the Duke of Lerma, over the whole court and theyoung king. On December 26, 1606, his sudden arrest brought his brilliantcareer in politics to an end and started a trial, overlooked for a long time by historians in favor of the concurrent one against the Earl of Villalonga, PedroFranqueza. Through the analysis of the official documentation about the case of Ramírez de Prado, the article aims to illustrate the many reasons of the prosecution and, above all, the arguments of the defence, entrusted to his son, Lorenzo Ramírez de Prado. The verdict of guilty returned at the end of the process seemed to erase any argument of the defence. However, the debateabout the responsibilities of the sovereign in relation to the power of his favourites was destined to continue in the following decades

  20. Quantiles for Finite Mixtures of Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mezbahur; Rahman, Rumanur; Pearson, Larry M.

    2006-01-01

    Quantiles for finite mixtures of normal distributions are computed. The difference between a linear combination of independent normal random variables and a linear combination of independent normal densities is emphasized. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  1. Shear-induced phase changes in mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romig, K.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory to account for the behavior of liquid mixtures exposed to a shear is developed. One consequence of the theory is that shear-induced phase changes are predicted. The theory is based on a thermodynamics that includes specifically the shear rate in the formalism and is applied to mixtures by a straightforward modification of the corresponding states, conformalsolution approach. The approach is general but is used here for a mixture of Lennard-Jones particles with a Lennard-Jones equation of state as a reference fluid. The results are discussed in the context of the Scott and Van Konynenberg phase classification. It is shown that the influence of a shear does affect substantially the type of the phase behavior. Results from the model mixture are equated loosely with those from real polymeric liquids

  2. A simple approach to polymer mixture miscibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Julia S; Lipson, Jane E G; White, Ronald P

    2010-03-13

    Polymeric mixtures are important materials, but the control and understanding of mixing behaviour poses problems. The original Flory-Huggins theoretical approach, using a lattice model to compute the statistical thermodynamics, provides the basic understanding of the thermodynamic processes involved but is deficient in describing most real systems, and has little or no predictive capability. We have developed an approach using a lattice integral equation theory, and in this paper we demonstrate that this not only describes well the literature data on polymer mixtures but allows new insights into the behaviour of polymers and their mixtures. The characteristic parameters obtained by fitting the data have been successfully shown to be transferable from one dataset to another, to be able to correctly predict behaviour outside the experimental range of the original data and to allow meaningful comparisons to be made between different polymer mixtures.

  3. Model structure selection in convolutive mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Makeig, S.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    The CICAAR algorithm (convolutive independent component analysis with an auto-regressive inverse model) allows separation of white (i.i.d) source signals from convolutive mixtures. We introduce a source color model as a simple extension to the CICAAR which allows for a more parsimonious represent......The CICAAR algorithm (convolutive independent component analysis with an auto-regressive inverse model) allows separation of white (i.i.d) source signals from convolutive mixtures. We introduce a source color model as a simple extension to the CICAAR which allows for a more parsimonious...... representation in many practical mixtures. The new filter-CICAAR allows Bayesian model selection and can help answer questions like: ’Are we actually dealing with a convolutive mixture?’. We try to answer this question for EEG data....

  4. Modelling of an homogeneous equilibrium mixture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Champmartin, A.; Poujade, O.; Mathiaud, J.; Mathiaud, J.; Ghidaglia, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a model for two phase flows which is simpler than the 6-equations models (with two densities, two velocities, two temperatures) but more accurate than the standard mixture models with 4 equations (with two densities, one velocity and one temperature). We are interested in the case when the two-phases have been interacting long enough for the drag force to be small but still not negligible. The so-called Homogeneous Equilibrium Mixture Model (HEM) that we present is dealing with both mixture and relative quantities, allowing in particular to follow both a mixture velocity and a relative velocity. This relative velocity is not tracked by a conservation law but by a closure law (drift relation), whose expression is related to the drag force terms of the two-phase flow. After the derivation of the model, a stability analysis and numerical experiments are presented. (authors)

  5. Viscosities of corium-concrete mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.M.; Ganzhorn, J.

    1997-01-01

    Severe accidents on nuclear reactors involve many situations such as pools of molten core material, melt spreading, melt/concrete interactions, etc. The word 'corium' designates mixtures of materials issued from the molten core at high temperature; these mixtures involve mainly: UO2, ZrO2, Zr and, in small amounts, Ni, Cr, Ag, In, Cd. These materials, when flowing out of the reactor vessel, may interact with the concrete of the reactor building thus introducing decomposition products of concrete into the original mixture. These decomposition products are mainly: SiO 2 , FeO, MgO, CaO and Al 2 O 3 in different amounts depending on the nature of the concrete being considered. Siliceous concrete is rich in SiO 2 , limestone concrete contains both SiO 2 and CaO. Liquidus temperatures of such mixtures are generally obove 2300 K whereas solidus temperatures are ∝1400 K. (orig.)

  6. Negative muon capture in noble gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.; Knight, J.D.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Knowles, H.B.; Reidy, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    We have determined the probabilities of atomic negative muon capture in binary mixtures of the gases He, Ne, Ar, and Kr at partial pressures near five atmospheres. Relative capture rates were deduced from measured muonic X-ray yields. (orig.)

  7. Mixture design procedure for flexible base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This document provides information on mixture design requirements for a flexible base course. Sections : design requirements, job mix formula, contractor's responsibility, and engineer's responsibility. Tables : material requirements; requirements fo...

  8. Predicting skin permeability from complex chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, Jim E.; Brooks, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to topical chemicals is usually in the form of complex chemical mixtures, yet risk assessment is based on experimentally derived data from individual chemical exposures from a single, usually aqueous vehicle, or from computed physiochemical properties. We present an approach using hybrid quantitative structure permeation relationships (QSPeR) models where absorption through porcine skin flow-through diffusion cells is well predicted using a QSPeR model describing the individual penetrants, coupled with a mixture factor (MF) that accounts for physicochemical properties of the vehicle/mixture components. The baseline equation is log k p = c + mMF + aΣα 2 H + bΣβ 2 H + sπ 2 H + rR 2 + vV x where Σα 2 H is the hydrogen-bond donor acidity, Σβ 2 H is the hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity, π 2 H is the dipolarity/polarizability, R 2 represents the excess molar refractivity, and V x is the McGowan volume of the penetrants of interest; c, m, a, b, s, r, and v are strength coefficients coupling these descriptors to skin permeability (k p ) of 12 penetrants (atrazine, chlorpyrifos, ethylparathion, fenthion, methylparathion, nonylphenol, ρ-nitrophenol, pentachlorophenol, phenol, propazine, simazine, and triazine) in 24 mixtures. Mixtures consisted of full factorial combinations of vehicles (water, ethanol, propylene glycol) and additives (sodium lauryl sulfate, methyl nicotinate). An additional set of 4 penetrants (DEET, SDS, permethrin, ricinoleic acid) in different mixtures were included to assess applicability of this approach. This resulted in a dataset of 16 compounds administered in 344 treatment combinations. Across all exposures with no MF, R 2 for absorption was 0.62. With the MF, correlations increased up to 0.78. Parameters correlated to the MF include refractive index, polarizability and log (1/Henry's Law Constant) of the mixture components. These factors should not be considered final as the focus of these studies

  9. On modeling of structured multiphase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobran, F.

    1987-01-01

    The usual modeling of multiphase mixtures involves a set of conservation and balance equations of mass, momentum, energy and entropy (the basic set) constructed by an averaging procedure or postulated. The averaged models are constructed by averaging, over space or time segments, the local macroscopic field equations of each phase, whereas the postulated models are usually motivated by the single phase multicomponent mixture models. In both situations, the resulting equations yield superimposed continua models and are closed by the constitutive equations which place restrictions on the possible material response during the motion and phase change. In modeling the structured multiphase mixtures, the modeling of intrinsic motion of grains or particles is accomplished by adjoining to the basic set of field equations the additional balance equations, thereby placing restrictions on the motion of phases only within the imposed extrinsic and intrinsic sources. The use of the additional balance equations has been primarily advocated in the postulatory theories of multiphase mixtures and are usually derived through very special assumptions of the material deformation. Nevertheless, the resulting mixture models can predict a wide variety of complex phenomena such as the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion in granular media, Rayleigh bubble equation, wave dispersion and dilatancy. Fundamental to the construction of structured models of multiphase mixtures are the problems pertaining to the existence and number of additional balance equations to model the structural characteristics of a mixture. Utilizing a volume averaging procedure it is possible not only to derive the basic set of field equation discussed above, but also a very general set of additional balance equations for modeling of structural properties of the mixture

  10. Muonium radicals in benzene-styrene mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.W.; Stadlbauer, J.W.; Walker, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Muonium radicals were observed through their μ + SR precession frequencies in high transverse magnetic fields in pure benzene, pure styrene and their mixtures, all as liquids at room temperature. In benzene-styrene mixtures, the radicals obtained in each pure liquid are both present, so no slow (10 -9 -10 -5 s) intermolecular exchange occurs; but strong selectivity was found with the formation of the radical from styrene being about eight-times more probable than the radical from benzene. (Auth.)

  11. Isotope mixtures of hydrogen in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking-Schloetensack, P.

    1982-03-01

    The properties of isotope-mixtures of Protium and Deuterium stored in Vanadium have been studied. Protium and Deuterium are existing as interstitial-atoms on tetrahedral sites as well as on octahedral sites in this system. This feature leads to large isotopic-effects between the two isotopes. The dependence of the thermodynamic functions like heat of solution, nonconfigurational entropy, specific heat and ordering temperatures from the composition of the isotope-mixture has been determined. (orig.)

  12. Renzo Ramírez Bacca. Historia Laboral de una hacienda cafetera: La Aurora, 1882-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Fernando Barrios Ordóñez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El libro de Renzo Ramírez Bacca, historiador y profesor asociado adscrito al Departamento de Historia de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín, es el resultado de una investigación profunda y documentada que tiene como propósito analizar los sistemas de organización laboral y las formas de ordenamiento administrativo y productivo en la hacienda cafetera La Aurora, ubicada en el actual municipio de El Líbano, en el departamento del Tolima. Esta hacienda fue una de las mayores del norte del Tolima, en la cual se adoptaron sistemas modernos de producción, relacionados, en un principio, con el sistema de aparcería, categoría de trabajadores permanentes con base en la fuerza de trabajo familiar, bajo la figura de arrendatarios, tabloneros, contratistas, partijeros y agregados. Posteriormente, la tecnificación cafetera se sustituye por la administración directa, que utiliza fuerza de trabajo asalariada temporal, modificando las relaciones laborales de tipo familiar que prevalecían en la hacienda.

  13. High systemic and testicular thermolytic efficiency during heat tolerance test reflects better semen quality in rams of tropical breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahwage, Priscila Reis; Esteves, Sérgio Novita; Jacinto, Manuel Antônio Chagas; Junior, Waldomiro Barioni; Pezzopane, José Ricardo Macedo; de Andrade Pantoja, Messy Hannear; Bosi, Cristian; Miguel, Maria Carolina Villani; Mahlmeister, Kaue; Garcia, Alexandre Rossetto

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the capacity of Morada Nova (MN) and Santa Inês (SIN) rams to maintain body and testicular homeothermy under thermal challenge. For 5 days in the summer, 16 males (SIN = 7 and MN = 9) underwent a heat tolerance test, i.e., period 1—animals maintained in the shade (11 to 12 h); period 2—animals exposed to sunlight (12 to 13 h); and period 3—animals returned to the shade (13 to 14 h). The respiratory rate, heart rate, rectal temperature, and infrared surface temperatures (IRT) of the trunk, back, eyeball, and testicles were assessed in each period. The index of capacity of tolerance to insolation (ICTI), which indicates the animals' level of adaptability, was calculated for each animal. Semen quality and testicular parenchyma integrity were assessed before and after the thermal challenge. Statistical analyses were performed at 5% significance. In period 1, the variables had baseline values for both genotypes. In period 2, the variables involved in thermolysis significantly increased ( P animals were considered resilient to a thermal challenge. In addition, infrared thermography was an efficient tool to verify body and testicular thermoregulation.

  14. Switching characteristics in Cu:SiO2 by chemical soak methods for resistive random access memory (ReRAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Fun-Tat; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Yang, Wen-Luh; Liao, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Li-Min; Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Chao, Tien-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A limited copper (Cu)-source Cu:SiO2 switching layer composed of various Cu concentrations was fabricated using a chemical soaking (CS) technique. The switching layer was then studied for developing applications in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices. Observing the resistive switching mechanism exhibited by all the samples suggested that Cu conductive filaments formed and ruptured during the set/reset process. The experimental results indicated that the endurance property failure that occurred was related to the joule heating effect. Moreover, the endurance switching cycle increased as the Cu concentration decreased. In high-temperature tests, the samples demonstrated that the operating (set/reset) voltages decreased as the temperature increased, and an Arrhenius plot was used to calculate the activation energy of the set/reset process. In addition, the samples demonstrated stable data retention properties when baked at 85 °C, but the samples with low Cu concentrations exhibited short retention times in the low-resistance state (LRS) during 125 °C tests. Therefore, Cu concentration is a crucial factor in the trade-off between the endurance and retention properties; furthermore, the Cu concentration can be easily modulated using this CS technique.

  15. Effects of electrodes on the properties of sol-gel PZT based capacitors in FeRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Jia, Ze; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2009-05-01

    The effects of electrodes on the properties of capacitors applied in ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAM) are investigated in this work. Pt and Ir are used as bottom and top electrodes (BE and TE), respectively, in sol-gel Pb(Zr xTi 1-x)O 3 (PZT) based capacitors. Bottom electrodes are found to play a dominant role in the properties of PZT films and capacitors. Capacitors using Pt as bottom electrode have larger remnant polarization (2Pr) than those using Ir which may result from the different orientations of PZT films. The higher Schottky barrier, more dense film and smaller roughness are believed to be the reasons for the better leakage performance of capacitors using Pt as bottom electrodes. Different vacancies types and interface conditions are believed to be the main reasons for the better fatigue (less than 10% initial 2Pr loss after 10 11 fatigue cycles) and better imprint properties of TE/PZT/Ir capacitors. Top electrodes are found to have smaller impact on the properties of capacitors compared with bottom electrodes. A decrease in 2Pr is found when Ir is used as top electrode instead of Pt for PZT/Pt, which is believed to be caused by the stress resulting from lattice mismatch. The different thermal processes that top and bottom electrodes suffered are believed to be the reason for the different impacts they have on capacitors.

  16. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  17. KISS1 can be used as a novel target for developing a DNA immunocastration vaccine in ram lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanguo; Liu, Guiqiong; Jiang, Xunping; Ijaz, Nabeel; Tesema, Birhanu; Xie, Guangyue

    2015-02-04

    KISS1 gene-encoding kisspeptins are critical for the onset of puberty and control of adult fertility. This study investigated whether KISS1 can be used as a novel target for immunocastration. Human KISS1 was fused with the HBsAg-S gene for constructing an antibiotic-free recombinant plasmid pKS-asd that coded for 31.168 kDa target fusion protein. Six male Hu sheep lambs were divided into two equal groups, treatment and control. The vaccine (1mg/ram lamb) prepared in saline solution was injected into lambs at weeks 0, 3 and 6 of the experiment, respectively. Vaccine efficacy was evaluated in terms of KISS1-specific IgG antibody response, serum testosterone levels, scrotal circumference, testicular weight, length and breadth, extent of testicular tissue damage, and sexual behaviour changes. The specific anti-KISS1 antibody titre in vaccinated animals was significantly higher than that in controls (pvaccinated animals showed lower serum testosterone level, testicular weight and length and smaller scrotal circumference than those in controls (pvaccinated animals was suppressed; sexual behaviours in vaccinated animals were significantly lower (pvaccine induced a strong antibody response and resulted in the suppression of gonadal function and sexual behaviour in animals, demonstrating that KISS1 can be used as a novel target for developing a DNA immunocastration vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A study of the switching mechanism and electrode material of fully CMOS compatible tungsten oxide ReRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, W. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Lai, E. K.; Lee, F. M.; Lin, Y. Y.; Chuang, Alfred T. H.; Chang, K. P.; Yao, Y. D.; Chou, T. H.; Lin, H. M.; Lee, M. H.; Shih, Y. H.; Hsieh, K. Y.; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2011-03-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO X ) resistive memory (ReRAM), a two-terminal CMOS compatible nonvolatile memory, has shown promise to surpass the existing flash memory in terms of scalability, switching speed, and potential for 3D stacking. The memory layer, WO X , can be easily fabricated by down-stream plasma oxidation (DSPO) or rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of W plugs universally used in CMOS circuits. Results of conductive AFM (C-AFM) experiment suggest the switching mechanism is dominated by the REDOX (Reduction-oxidation) reaction—the creation of conducting filaments leads to a low resistance state and the rupturing of the filaments results in a high resistance state. Our experimental results show that the reactions happen at the TE/WO X interface. With this understanding in mind, we proposed two approaches to boost the memory performance: (i) using DSPO to treat the RTO WO X surface and (ii) using Pt TE, which forms a Schottky barrier with WO X . Both approaches, especially the latter, significantly reduce the forming current and enlarge the memory window.

  19. Body weight and reproductive parameters in fast and weak growing Awassi ram lambs during different age stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz; Al-Daker, Al-Moutassem Billah

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on 30 Syrian Awassi ram lambs around 3 months of age. Lambs were divided equally in 2 groups as fast growing (FG) and weak growing (WG) lambs to identify body weight and reproductive parameters in each group during different age stages. Blood samples were collected to determine testosterone and leptin concentrations using radioimmunoassay. At puberty, average body weight and age of FG and WG lambs was 52.4 and 43.1 kg, and 225.9 and 248.0 days, respectively, with a significant (P age (below 1.0 nmol L(-1)) and increased with advancing age with a sharp increase occurring at 7 months of age and at puberty, averages were 12.58 and 11.86 nmol L(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences. At puberty, average leptin concentration was 3.16 and 2.98 ng mL(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) difference.

  20. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, schools and nobel prizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Jairo A; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the "Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid" (Medicine International Congress in Madrid) in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed.

  1. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, Schools and Nobel Prizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Alonso Rozo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid (Medicine International Congress in Madrid in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed.

  2. The dependence of critical current density of GdFeCo layer on composition of thermally assisted STT-RAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, B.; Zhu, J.; Liu, K.; Yang, L.; Han, J.

    2017-07-01

    Amorphous rare earth-transitional metal (RETM) GdFeCo memory layer with RE- and TM-rich compositions was fabricated in stacks of GdFeCo (10 nm)/Cu (3 nm)/[Co(0.2 nm)/Pd(0.4 nm)]6. Their magnetic properties and spin transfer torque (STT) switching of magnetization were investigated. The maximum magneto-resistance (MR) was around 0.24% for the TM-rich Gd21.4 (Fe90Co10)78.6 memory layer and was -0.03% for the RE-rich Gd29.0 (Fe90Co10)71.0 memory layer. The critical current densities Jc to switch the GdFeCo memory layers are in the range of 1.4 × 107 A/cm2-4.5 × 107 A/cm2. The dependence of critical current density Jc and effective anisotropy constant Keff on Gd composition were also investigated. Both Jc and Keff have maximum values in the Gd composition range from 21-29 at.%, suitable for thermally assisted STT-RAM for storage density exceeding Gb/inch2.

  3. Santiago Ramón y Cajal: análisis retrospectivo de un caso de acoso escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Del-Barrio

    Full Text Available Resumen El acoso escolar tiene hoy una vigencia especial, sin embargo, es un problema que con mayor o menor intensidad ha existido siempre. Se presenta un caso especial de acoso que por la relevancia del personaje puede ser una fuente de inspiración para los casos actuales de acoso. El método seguido ha sido analizar, primero las características del acoso recurriendo a expertos y segundo las alusiones que Cajal hace del acoso en su obra especialmente el contenido Recuerdos de mi vida donde se hace una minuciosa descripción de su experiencia. Después se comparan ambas situaciones. En la autobiografía de Santiago Ramón y Cajal, se contienen unas descripciones de ciertos episodios de su niñez que resultan ser unas perfectas definiciones de unos casos de “bullying” vividos por él durante sus años de escolar. Esas páginas tienen además el interés de ofrecer unos agudos análisis sobre las causas de aquellos acosos, y sobre su significado para la vida del niño. Dada la procedencia de estos análisis y soluciones tan diversas en distintas circunstancias, es conveniente que los expertos en acoso escolar las conozcan y tengan en cuenta.

  4. Diario de un escritor: La tentación del fracaso, de Julio Ramón Ribeyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Zanetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza La tentación del fracaso de Julio Ramón Ribeyro (1929- 1994, verdadero diario íntimo de escritor, prácticamente único en la literatura latinoamericana. El taller del artista, las valoraciones de las lecturas cotidianas y las funciones de la literatura, unidas a las preguntas acerca de su condición de escritor voluntariamente marginado y solitario, constituyen temas fundamentales que esta lectura crítica revisa articulándolos con los sentimientos de esterilidad y con la constante reflexión acerca de los sentidos de los diarios de escritor, enmarcados siempre por la escena de la escritura de sus cuentos y novelas tanto como del diario. Los rasgos propios del género, entre ellos la impronta del día a día, las discontinuidades y las tensiones entre escritura, relectura y publicación reciben un tratamiento detenido siempre estrechamente surgido de la consideración del texto.

  5. Structural Interaction Between GFP-Labeled Diazotrophic Endophytic Bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and Pineapple Plantlets 'VitóRia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela Borges Baldotto, Lílian; Lopes Olivares, Fábio; Bressan-Smith, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The events involved in the structural interaction between the diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain RAM10, labeled with green fluorescent protein, and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória' were evaluated by means of bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, combined with scanning electron microscopy for 28 days after inoculation. After 6 hours of inoculation, H. seropedicae was already adhered to the roots, colonizing mainly root hair surface and bases, followed by epidermal cell wall junctions. Bacteria adherence in the initial periods occurred mainly in the form of solitary cells and small aggregates with pleomorphic cells. Bacteria infection of root tissue occurred through the cavities caused by the disruption of epidermal cells during the emergence of lateral roots and the endophytic establishment by the colonization of intercellular spaces of the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, within 1 day after inoculation the bacteria were colonizing the shoots. In this region, the preferred sites of epiphytic colonization were epidermal cell wall junctions, peltate scutiform trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Subsequently, the bacteria occupied the outer periclinal walls of epidermal cells and stomata. The penetration into the shoot occurred passively through stoma aperture followed by the endophytic establishment on the substomatal chambers and spread to the intercellular spaces of spongy chlorenchyma. After 21 days of inoculation, bacterial biofilm were seen at the root hair base and on epidermal cell wall surface of root and leaf, also confirming the epiphytic nature of H. seropedicae.

  6. Structural interaction between GFP-labeled diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the structural interaction between the diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain RAM10, labeled with green fluorescent protein, and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória' were evaluated by means of bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, combined with scanning electron microscopy for 28 days after inoculation. After 6 hours of inoculation, H. seropedicae was already adhered to the roots, colonizing mainly root hair surface and bases, followed by epidermal cell wall junctions. Bacteria adherence in the initial periods occurred mainly in the form of solitary cells and small aggregates with pleomorphic cells. Bacteria infection of root tissue occurred through the cavities caused by the disruption of epidermal cells during the emergence of lateral roots and the endophytic establishment by the colonization of intercellular spaces of the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, within 1 day after inoculation the bacteria were colonizing the shoots. In this region, the preferred sites of epiphytic colonization were epidermal cell wall junctions, peltate scutiform trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Subsequently, the bacteria occupied the outer periclinal walls of epidermal cells and stomata. The penetration into the shoot occurred passively through stoma aperture followed by the endophytic establishment on the substomatal chambers and spread to the intercellular spaces of spongy chlorenchyma. After 21 days of inoculation, bacterial biofilm were seen at the root hair base and on epidermal cell wall surface of root and leaf, also confirming the epiphytic nature of H. seropedicae.

  7. Protective effect of hypoxia in the ram testis during single and split-dose X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, J. van; Wensing, C.J.G.; Bootsma, A.L.; Peperzeel, H.A. van; Schipper, J.

    1988-01-01

    Spertogonial stem-cell survival in the ram was studied after single (6Gy) and split-dose X-irradiation both under normal and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia was induced by inflation of an occluder implanted around the testicular artery. The occluders were inflated about 10 min before irradiation and deflated immediately after. Stem-cell survival was measured at 5 or 7 weeks after irradiation by determination of the Repopulation Index (RI) in histological testis sections. The RI-values after fractionated irradiation were only half those after single dose irradiation. Hypoxia had a protective effect on the stem-cell survival. After split-dose irradiation under hypoxic conditions two times more stem cells survived than under normal oxic conditions; the RI-values increased from 34% (oxic) to 68% (hypoxic). This effect of hypoxia was also found after single dose irradiation where the RI-values increased from 68% (oxic) to 84% (hypoxic). The development of the epithelium in repopulated tubules was also studied. Under hypoxia, a significantly higher fraction of tubules with complete epithelium was found after single (38 vs. 4%) as well as after split-dose irradiation (12 vs. 0%)

  8. Thermodiffusion in multicomponent n-alkane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliero, Guillaume; Bataller, Henri; Bazile, Jean-Patrick; Diaz, Joseph; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Hoang, Hai; Vermorel, Romain; Artola, Pierre-Arnaud; Rousseau, Bernard; Vesovic, Velisa; Bou-Ali, M Mounir; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Xu, Shenghua; Zhang, Ke; Montel, François; Verga, Antonio; Minster, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Compositional grading within a mixture has a strong impact on the evaluation of the pre-exploitation distribution of hydrocarbons in underground layers and sediments. Thermodiffusion, which leads to a partial diffusive separation of species in a mixture due to the geothermal gradient, is thought to play an important role in determining the distribution of species in a reservoir. However, despite recent progress, thermodiffusion is still difficult to measure and model in multicomponent mixtures. In this work, we report on experimental investigations of the thermodiffusion of multicomponent n -alkane mixtures at pressure above 30 MPa. The experiments have been conducted in space onboard the Shi Jian 10 spacecraft so as to isolate the studied phenomena from convection. For the two exploitable cells, containing a ternary liquid mixture and a condensate gas, measurements have shown that the lightest and heaviest species had a tendency to migrate, relatively to the rest of the species, to the hot and cold region, respectively. These trends have been confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. The measured condensate gas data have been used to quantify the influence of thermodiffusion on the initial fluid distribution of an idealised one dimension reservoir. The results obtained indicate that thermodiffusion tends to noticeably counteract the influence of gravitational segregation on the vertical distribution of species, which could result in an unstable fluid column. This confirms that, in oil and gas reservoirs, the availability of thermodiffusion data for multicomponent mixtures is crucial for a correct evaluation of the initial state fluid distribution.

  9. Using Big Data Analytics to Address Mixtures Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assessment of chemical mixtures is a complex issue for regulators and health scientists. We propose that assessing chemical co-occurrence patterns and prevalence rates is a relatively simple yet powerful approach in characterizing environmental mixtures and mixtures exposure...

  10. THE CONVERSION OF LATE-TYPE INTO EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES BY RAM-PRESSURE STRIPPING IN THE FORNAX CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Rijcke, S.; Van Hese, E.; Buyle, P.

    2010-01-01

    We put to the test the hypothesis that the Fornax cluster dwarf galaxies are mostly a relatively recently acquired population, of which the star-forming, late-type members are converted into quiescent, early-type ones by ram-pressure stripping while being on orbits that plunge inside the inner few hundred kiloparsecs of the cluster. We construct dynamical models with different anisotropy profiles for the dwarf galaxy population and show that only extremely radially anisotropic orbital distributions are in agreement with the available morphological, positional, and kinematical data, especially with the radially increasing late-to-early-type ratio. This corroborates the idea that the Fornax cluster dwarfs are an infall population and that environmental factors, in this case ram-pressure stripping, play a prominent role in converting late-type dwarfs into early-type ones.

  11. The electromagnetic Ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-08-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

  12. Electromagnetic ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-01-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield a spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam, which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam, is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by action near the centers of active galaxies

  13. Reacción adversa a medicamentos (RAM) fija generalizada, debido a gemfibrozilo (GMZ): A propósito de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Vial, V; Andino, R; Zegpi, MS; González, S; Conlledo, R

    2014-01-01

    El abuso de la ingestión de drogas y la creación de nuevos medicamentos, ha producido un aumento en la aparición de reacción adversa a medicamentos (RAM), los que deben ser siempre informados dada la importancia de su registro. Un tipo de RAM es la erupción fija medicamentosa (EFM). Se revisará un caso de EFM asociada al gemfibrozilo (GMZ) en un paciente chileno de 75 años, quien presentó en dos ocasiones lesiones dermatológicas en la misma localización anatómica, tras la ingestión de GMZ. EF...

  14. Alterations in the transcription factors GntR1 and RamA enhance the growth and central metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhihao; Liu, Jianming; Chen, Lin

    2018-01-01

    confirmed that the two mutations lead to alteration rather than elimination of function, and their introduction in the wild-type background resulted in a specific growth rate of 0.62h-1. The glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathway fluxes had both increased significantly, and a transcriptomic analyses......% improvement is the highest reported for C. glutamicum to date. By genome resequencing and inverse metabolic engineering, we were able to pinpoint two mutations contributing to most of the growth improvement, and these resided in the transcriptional regulators GntR1 (gntR1-E70K) and RamA (ramA-A52V). We...... was already fast. We also found that the mutations could improve the performance of resting cells, under oxygen-deprived conditions, where an increase in sugar consumption rate of around 30% could be achieved. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that it is feasible to reprogram C. glutamicum into growing...

  15. A turbulence model in mixtures. First part: Statistical description of mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, D.

    1987-03-01

    Classical theory of mixtures gives a model for molecular mixtures. This kind of model is based on a small gradient approximation for concentration, temperature, and pression. We present here a mixture model, allowing for large gradients in the flow. We also show that, with a local balance assumption between material diffusion and flow gradients evolution, we obtain a model similar to those mentioned above [fr

  16. Effect of the infection with the nematode Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida: Trichostrongylidae on the haematological, biochemical, clinical and reproductive traits in rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariem Rouatbi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of Haemonchus contortus infection on rams’ haematological, biochemical and clinical parameters and reproductive performances. A total number of 12 Barbarine rams (control and infected were included in the experiment. The infected group received 30 000 H. contortus third-stage larvae orally. Each ram’s ejaculate was immediately evaluated for volume, sperm cell concentration and mortality rate. At the end of the experiment (day 82 post-infection, which lasted 89 days, serial blood samples were collected in order to assess plasma testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH concentrations. There was an effect of time, infection and their interaction on haematological parameters (p < 0.001. In infected rams, haematocrit, red blood cell count and haemoglobin started to decrease from 21 days post-infection. There was an effect of time and infection for albumin. For total protein, only infection had a statistically significant effect. For glucose, only time had a statistically significant effect. Concentrations were significantly lower in infected rams compared to control animals. A significant effect of infection and time on sperm concentrations and sperm mortality was observed. The effect of infection appears in time for sperm concentrations at days 69 and 76 post-infection. Sperm mortality rate was significantly higher in infected animals at day 46 post-infection when compared to control group (p < 0.05. Finally, plasma testosterone traits (average concentration, cumulated levels during the sampling period and pulse frequency were depressed in infected rams when compared to control counterparts; none of these endocrine traits were affected for plasma LH.

  17. Uudised : Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor Iisraelis. RAM esineb USAs. Suur koorikontsert Kuno Arengu auks. Riho Pätsi mälestuspäev / Leelo Kõlar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõlar, Leelo, 1927-

    1999-01-01

    EFK T. Kaljuste juhatusel annab 28.09-3.10 Abu-Goshi muusikafestivalil Iisraelis kuus kontserti. RAM alustas kahekümnepäevast USA-turneed. 2. okt. toimub Estonia kontserdisaalis kontsert K. Arengu 70. juubeli puhul. Rahvusraamatukogus toimub 4. okt. R. Pätsi 100. sünniaastapäevale pühendatud teaduskonverents "Muusikakasvatuse minevik ja tänapäev"

  18. Automoribundia de Ramón Gómez de la Serna: heterodoxia autobiográfica de un vanguardista insólito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scarano

    2014-06-01

    Ramón Gómez de la Serna wrote a peculiar autobiography called Automoribundia, which embraces sixty years (1888-1948. From Spain to his exile in Argentina, and confronting the ambiguities of his political posture toward the franquista regime, this controversial avant-garde work distorts the conventions of the autobiographical genre to show instead an ars moriendi. We will focus on the singularity of this “automoribundia” machine, that settles the basis of his heterodox reading pact.

  19. Effect of season on scrotal circumference, semen characteristics, seminal plasma composition and spermatozoa motility during liquid storage in INRA180 rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoula, Anass; Badi, Abdelmoughit; El Fadili, Moussa; El Khalil, Kaoutar; Allai, Larbi; El Hilali, Abderaouf; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2017-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of seasons on scrotal circumference, semen characteristics, seminal plasma composition, and sperm motility during liquid storage of INRA180 rams. The semen was collected from five mature INRA180 rams (2-3 years of age) during one year (from April 2014 to March 2015). Scrotal circumferences, semen characteristics, some biochemical parameters of seminal plasma were evaluated. Immediately after collection and evaluation, the semen was pooled and extended in skim milk (SM) at 15°C to reach 0.8×109 spermatozoa/ml. Thereafter, samples were evaluated at different storage times (0, 8, and 24h). The results showed that scrotal circumference, semen quality and the concentration of total protein in seminal plasma were relatively constant during the year (P>0.05). However, total lipid and cholesterol concentrations increased significantly (P0.05). To conclude, the INRA180 rams have the ability to produce semen with high quality all over the year. The only parameters showing seasonal variations are cholesterol, total lipid, and progressive motility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND HI IMAGING OF STRONG RAM PRESSURE STRIPPING IN THE COMA SPIRAL NGC 4921: DENSE CLOUD DECOUPLING AND EVIDENCE FOR MAGNETIC BINDING IN THE ISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Abramson, Anne [Yale University Astronomy Department, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Bravo-Alfaro, Hector, E-mail: jeff.kenney@yale.edu [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS/UPMC, 98bis, Boulevard Arago F-75014, Paris (France)

    2015-08-15

    Remarkable dust extinction features in the deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) V and I images of the face-on Coma cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4921 show in unprecedented ways how ram pressure strips the ISM from the disk of a spiral galaxy. New VLA HI maps show a truncated and highly asymmetric HI disk with a compressed HI distribution in the NW, providing evidence for ram pressure acting from the NW. Where the HI distribution is truncated in the NW region, HST images show a well-defined, continuous front of dust that extends over 90° and 20 kpc. This dust front separates the dusty from dust-free regions of the galaxy, and we interpret it as galaxy ISM swept up near the leading side of the ICM–ISM interaction. We identify and characterize 100 pc–1 kpc scale substructure within this dust front caused by ram pressure, including head–tail filaments, C-shaped filaments, and long smooth dust fronts. The morphology of these features strongly suggests that dense gas clouds partially decouple from surrounding lower density gas during stripping, but decoupling is inhibited, possibly by magnetic fields that link and bind distant parts of the ISM.