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Sample records for high-alcohol drinking lines

  1. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Engleman, Eric A.; Toalston, Jamie E.; McBride, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today’s youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24-h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well. PMID:24290311

  2. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J

    2014-05-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Naltrexone and amperozide modify chocolate and saccharin drinking in high alcohol-preferring P rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, T A; Myers, R D

    1998-06-01

    Previous studies showed that the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, amperozide, is somewhat more potent than the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, in reducing alcohol drinking in high alcohol-preferring (P) rats. The purpose of this study was to determine in the P rat whether the effect of either drug could be due, in part, to an alteration in gustatory function. In an unlimited, 24-h free choice paradigm, P rats were offered water simultaneously with either a highly palatable 0.1% saccharin solution or a 1:4 dilution of Nestlé Sweet Success chocolate drink. Throughout all phases of the study, the P rats always consumed significantly greater volumes of the chocolate drink than of the saccharin solution, i.e., 526 ml/kg vs. 181 ml/kg, respectively. Successive 12-day experimental periods consisted of three phases: a 4-day predrug control interval; 4 days of administration of saline control vehicle or either drug; and a final 4 day postdrug interval. In a counterbalance design, saline, amperozide (1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg) or naltrexone (2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously twice daily at 1600 and 2200 h for 4 days. Amperozide and naltrexone significantly reduced the drinking of chocolate in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, only the two higher doses of amperozide and naltrexone decreased the intake of saccharin significantly. Thus, these findings suggest that different populations of central serotonin and opioid receptors concurrently underpin, in part, the preferences for both palatable and/or nutrient fluids. Finally, because both the opiate and 5-HT2A antagonists reduce the ingestion of saccharin and chocolate solutions differentially, it is apparent that preferences for alternative palatable fluids should be examined when candidate drugs are screened for suppressing alcohol drinking and ultimately the treatment of alcohol abuse.

  4. Alcohol enhances unprovoked 22–28 kHz USVs and suppresses USV mean frequency in High Alcohol Drinking (HAD-1) male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Neha; Reno, James M.; Gonzales, Rueben A.; Schallert, Timothy; Bell, Richard L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened emotional states increase impulsive behaviors such as excessive ethanol consumption in humans. Though positive and negative affective states in rodents can be monitored in real-time through ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions, few animal studies have focused on the role of emotional status as a stimulus for initial ethanol drinking. Our laboratory has recently developed reliable, high-speed analysis techniques to compile USV data during multiple-hour drinking sessions. Since High Alcohol Drinking (HAD-1) rats are selectively bred to voluntarily consume intoxicating levels of alcohol, we hypothesized that USVs emitted by HAD-1 rats would reveal unique emotional phenotypes predictive of alcohol intake and sensitive to alcohol experience. In this study, male HAD-1 rats had access to water, 15% and 30% EtOH or water only (i.e., Controls) during 8 weeks of daily 7-hr drinking-in-the-dark (DID) sessions. USVs, associated with both positive (i.e., 50–55 kHz frequency-modulated or FM) and negative (i.e., 22–28 kHz) emotional states, emitted during these daily DID sessions were examined. Findings showed basal 22–28 kHz USVs were emitted by both EtOH-Naïve (Control) and EtOH-experienced rats, alcohol experience enhanced 22–28 kHz USV emissions, and USV acoustic parameters (i.e., mean frequency in kHz) of both positive and negative USVs were significantly suppressed by chronic alcohol experience. These data suggest that negative affective status initiates and maintains excessive alcohol intake in selectively bred HAD-1 rats and support the notion that unprovoked emissions of negative affect-associated USVs (i.e., 22–28 kHz) predict vulnerability to excessive alcohol intake in distinct rodent models. PMID:26802730

  5. Associations of corticosterone and testosterone with alcohol drinking in F2 populations derived from AA and ANA rat lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, Tiina J; Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Eriksson, C J Peter

    2011-08-01

    In our previous studies on alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) and nonpreferring ANA (Alko nonalcohol) rats, we have observed that the AA rats exhibit lower endogenous levels of corticosterone, higher testosterone levels, and more frequent alcohol-induced testosterone elevations when compared with ANA rats. The objective of the present study was to get more conclusive evidence for the potential role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes in alcohol drinking by using the F2 experimental design. Alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-nonpreferring ANA rat lines were crossbred to form a F1 population from which the final F2 population was derived. Male animals were challenged with a priming alcohol dose after which a 3 weeks' voluntary alcohol drinking period took place. After a washout period of 1 week, one-half of the 40 highest and 40 lowest alcohol drinkers were challenged with a second dose of alcohol and the other half with saline. Serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were measured before and during the test. Higher endogenous testosterone levels were detected in the rats of the high alcohol consumption group compared with the low consumption group. Also supporting the original AA/ANA line differences, a trend for lower endogenous corticosterone levels were measured in the high alcohol consumption group compared with the low consumption group. The alcohol challenge test after the drinking period resulted in a higher frequency (38%) of testosterone elevations in the high drinkers compared with the low drinkers (5%). The present data confirms the validity of the positive connections between testosterone elevation and increased alcohol drinking, as well as between testosterone reduction and decreased alcohol drinking, in AA and ANA rats.

  6. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2016-01-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been...... conditions such as pollution events in drinking water....

  7. Confined Metastable 2-Line Ferrihydrite for Affordable Point-of-Use Arsenic-Free Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avula Anil; Som, Anirban; Longo, Paolo; Sudhakar, Chennu; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Anshup; Sankar, Mohan Udhaya; Chaudhary, Amrita; Kumar, Ramesh; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic-free drinking water, independent of electrical power and piped water supply, is possible only through advanced and affordable materials with large uptake capacities. Confined metastable 2-line ferrihydrite, stable at ambient temperature, shows continuous arsenic uptake in the presence of other complex species in natural drinking water and an affordable water-purification device is made using the same.

  8. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-04-04

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water.

  9. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-04-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water.

  10. Drinking Water Disinfection by In-line Electrolysis: Product and Inorganic By-Product Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, M. E. Henry

    This section covers peculiarities of so-called in-line electrolysis when drinking water is electrolysed to produce disinfection species killing microorganisms. Mainly mixed oxide electrodes (MIO) based on IrO2 and/or RuO2 coatings and boron-doped diamond electrodes were used in the studies. Artificial and real drinking water systems were electrolysed in continuous and discontinuous operating mode, varying water composition, current density and electrode materials. Results show, besides the ability of producing active chlorine, risks of inorganic disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as chlorate, perchlorate, nitrite, ammonium, chloramines, hydrogen peroxide and others. DBPs are responsible for analysis errors using DPD method for active chlorine measurements. Geometry may influence by-product yield. As a conclusion, the necessity of developing test routines for practical cell applications must be underlined.

  11. On-line detection of Escherichia coli intrusion in a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Kosse, Pascal; Ciszek, Robert; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in microbial drinking water quality monitoring are needed for the better control of drinking water distribution systems and for public health protection. Conventional water quality monitoring programmes are not always able to detect a microbial contamination of drinking water. In the drinking water production chain, in addition to the vulnerability of source waters, the distribution networks are prone to contamination. In this study, a pilot-scale drinking-water distribution network with an on-line monitoring system was utilized for detecting bacterial intrusion. During the experimental Escherichia coli intrusions, the contaminant was measured by applying a set of on-line sensors for electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature (T), turbidity, UV-absorbance at 254 nm (UVAS SC) and with a device for particle counting. Monitored parameters were compared with the measured E. coli counts using the integral calculations of the detected peaks. EC measurement gave the strongest signal compared with the measured baseline during the E. coli intrusion. Integral calculations showed that the peaks in the EC, pH, T, turbidity and UVAS SC data were detected corresponding to the time predicted. However, the pH and temperature peaks detected were barely above the measured baseline and could easily be mixed with the background noise. The results indicate that on-line monitoring can be utilized for the rapid detection of microbial contaminants in the drinking water distribution system although the peak interpretation has to be performed carefully to avoid being mixed up with normal variations in the measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Ra?, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual ...

  13. Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from food and drinking water: hemagglutination, hemolysis, and cytotoxicity for a human intestinal cell line (HT-29).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handfield, M; Simard, P; Couillard, M; Letarte, R

    1996-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from food and drinking water was tested for pathogenicity by studying its hemolysis, hemagglutination, and cytotoxicity. Hemolysis, tested on erythrocytes from six different species, was more frequently seen with water isolates (64%) than with food isolates (48%). Hemagglutination was more frequently encountered with food isolates (92%) than with water isolates (73%). Cytotoxicity, evaluated on seven cell lines, was frequently observed with food isolates (92%) and with water isolates (73%). Heat treatment (56 degrees C for 10 min) of culture supernatant fluids inhibited the toxicity of some but not all toxin-producing isolates. Our results suggest that the human intestinal cell line HT-29 could be a useful complement for testing A. hydrophila exotoxins and for studying the enteropathogenicity of this species for humans.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Full and Partial Lead Service Line Replacement on Lead Levels in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Camara, Eliman; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-19

    Lead service line replacement (LSLR) is an important strategy for reducing lead exposure via drinking water, but jurisdictional issues can sometimes interfere with full replacement of the lead line. The effects of full and partial LSLR on lead levels were assessed using 5 × 1-L sample profiles collected at more than 100 single-unit residences. Profiles comprised four sequential standing samples (L1-L4) and a free-flowing sample (L5) drawn after a 5 min flush of the outlet. At 45 sites with full lead service lines, 90th percentile lead levels in standing samples ranged from 16.4 to 44.5 μg L(-1) (L1 and L4, respectively). In the free-flowing sample (L5), 90th percentile lead was 9.8 μg L(-1). Within 3 days, full LSLR had reduced L3-L5 lead levels by more than 50%, and within 1 month, lead levels were significantly lower in every liter of the sample profile. Conversely, partial LSLR more than doubled premises plumbing (L1, L2) lead release in the short term and did not reduce L1, L2 lead release in the long term. Even 6 months after partial LSLR, 27% of first-draw lead levels were greater than 15 μg L(-1) (the U.S. EPA action level), compared with 13% pre-replacement.

  15. Associations of repeated high alcohol use with unsafe driving behaviors, traffic offenses, and traffic crashes among young drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy; Brookland, Rebecca; Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to describe self-reported high alcohol use at each of the 3 licensing stages of graduated driver licensing and its relationship to drink-driving behaviors, intentional risky driving, aggressive driving, alcohol traffic offenses, non-alcohol traffic offenses, and traffic crashes. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a multistage, prospective cohort study of newly licensed drivers interviewed at all 3 stages of the graduated driver licensing system: learner (baseline), restricted (intermediate), and full license. At each stage, alcohol use was self-reported using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), with high alcohol use defined as a score of ≥4 for males and ≥3 for females. Sociodemographic and personality data were obtained at the baseline interview. Alcohol-related, intentional risky, and aggressive driving behaviors were self-reported following each license stage. Traffic crashes and offenses were identified from police records. Crashes were also self-reported. Twenty-six percent (n = 397) reported no high alcohol use, 22% at one license stage, 30% at 2 stages, and 22% at 3 stages. Poisson regression results (unadjusted and adjusted) showed that the number of stages where high alcohol use was reported was significantly associated with each of the outcomes. For most outcomes, and especially the alcohol-involved outcomes, the relative risk increased with the number of stages of high alcohol use. We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviors. Recently introduced zero blood alcohol concentration (BAC) should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders.

  16. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected.

  17. Organic extract contaminants from drinking water activate Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in a human cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2013-05-07

    Traditional risk assessment methods face challenges in estimating risks from drinking waters that contain low-levels of large numbers of contaminants. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of organic contaminant (OC) extracts from drinking water by examining activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response. In HepG2 cells, the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response-measured as Nrf2 protein accumulation, expression of antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated genes and ARE-luciferase reporter gene assays were activated by OC extracts from drinking water sources that detected 25 compounds in 9 classification groups. Individual OCs induced oxidative stress at concentrations much higher than their environmental levels; however, mixtures of contaminants induced oxidative stress response at only 8 times the environmental levels. Additionally, a synthetic OC mixture prepared based on the contamination profiling of drinking water induced ARE activity to the same extent as the real-world mixture, reinforcing our conclusion that these mixture exposures produce responses relevant for human exposure situations. Our study tested the possibility of assessing toxicity of OCs of drinking water using a specific ARE-pathway measurement. This approach should be broadly useful in assisting risk assessment of mixed environmental exposure.

  18. Using an In Vitro Cell Line to Assess Source and Treated Drinking Water Extracts for Estrogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    While in vitro assays have been used to determine presence of estrogenic activity in many types of water, few studies have evaluated the potential estrogenic activity in source and treated drinking water samples. In a collaborative research study the U.S. Environmental Protection...

  19. [Disinfection and degradation of 2,4-DCP with UV-radiation and on-line ozone in drinking water treatmeant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaomin; Song, Qiang; Hu, Chun; Wang, Yizhong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2002-09-01

    A type reactor with on-line O3 was used to do further research of the disinfection of total bacteria, E. coli and degradation of 2,4-DCP. The result was obtained in the following conditions. Only UV-radiation, O3 applied by other machine and by the reactor itself, and other conditions were changed to study the disinfection and degradation. The result showed the satisfied effect of disinfection and degradation would be achieved by using UV/O3 applied outside and when the flow rate was about 400 L.h-1, on-line O3 could be produced and make high efforts to enhance disinfection and degradation. The method of UV/O3 was a promising technology in the treatment of drinking water.

  20. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  1. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-02-04

    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  2. Automatic on-line pre-concentration system using a knotted reactor for the FAAS determination of lead in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Anderson S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, Nucleo de Excelencia em Quimica Analitica da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, Bahia (Brazil); Brandao, Geovani C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, Nucleo de Excelencia em Quimica Analitica da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil); Santos, Walter N.L. dos [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, Bahia (Brazil); Lemos, Valfredo A. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de Jequie, Jequie, Bahia 45206-190 (Brazil); Ganzarolli, Edgard M. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Departamento de Quimica, Rua Presidente Zacarias, 875, CP 33010, 85010-990 Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Bruns, Roy E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Quimica, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, Nucleo de Excelencia em Quimica Analitica da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 (Brazil)]. E-mail: slcf@ufba.br

    2007-03-22

    An automatic on-line pre-concentration system is proposed for lead determination in drinking water using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Lead(II) ions are retained as the 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex in the walls of a knotted reactor, followed by an elution step using 0.50 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid solution. Optimisation involving the sampling flow rate, pH and buffer concentration factors was performed using a Box-Behnken design. Other factors were established considering results of previous experiments. The procedure allows the determination of lead with a 0.43 {mu}g L{sup -1} detection limit (3{sigma}/S) and precisions (expressed as relative standard deviation) of 4.84% (N = 7) and 2.9% (N = 7) for lead concentrations of 5 and 25 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The accuracy was confirmed by the determination of lead in the NIST SRM 1643d trace elements in natural water standard reference material. The pre-concentration factor obtained is 26.5 and the sampling frequency is 48 h{sup -1}. The recovery achieved for lead determination in the presence of several ions demonstrated that this procedure could be applied to the analysis of drinking water samples. The method was applied for lead determination in drinking water samples collected in Jequie City, Brazil. The lead concentration found in 25 samples were always lower than the permissible maximum levels stipulated by World Health Organization.

  3. [Determination of estrogen residues in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction based on sol-gel technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Su, Min; Shi, Xiaolei; Wang, Yana; Wang, Minmin; He, Jinxing

    2014-02-01

    A method for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES), hexestrol (HEX) and dienestrol (DS) residues in drinking water was established by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The material synthesized on the base of sol-gel technology was employed as adsorbent. This material was prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent, and acetic acid as the initiator. The synthesized adsorbent showed outstanding property for the estrogen extraction. The estrogen can be caught effectively from water samples and the extraction can be achieved rapidly. Some important parameters, such as pH of sample solution, eluent solvents, loading flow rate, which might influence extraction efficiency, were optimized. The results indicated that the limit of detection (S/N = 3) of the developed method could reach 0.07-0.13 microg/L under the conditions of pH 7.0 of sample solution, methanol and 1% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as the eluent solvent and the loading flow rate of 2 mL/min. The recoveries of the three estrogens from the water samples at three spiked levels ranged from 82.31% to 99.43% with RSD of 1.61%-7.15%. The method was simple, rapid, and suitable to detect the trace residues of estrogens in drinking water.

  4. On-line capillary isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of bromate in drinking waters in an automated analyzer with coupled columns and photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marák, Jozef; Staňová, Andrea; Vaváková, Veronika; Hrenáková, Martina; Kaniansky, Dušan

    2012-12-07

    A new, sensitive, and robust analytical method based on capillary zone electrophoresis with on-line capillary isotachophoresis sample pretreatment (ITP-CZE) using a column-coupling (CC) arrangement of automated capillary electrophoretic analyzer was developed for determination of bromate in different type of drinking water samples. Both columns were provided with contact-less conductivity detectors and in CZE step UV detection at 200 nm wavelength was used. Electroosmotic flow of the buffer solutions was suppressed with the addition of 0.1% or 0.05% (m/v) methylhydroxyethylcellulose into the leading and terminating electrolyte, respectively. Hydrodynamic and electroosmotic flows of the buffer solutions were successfully suppressed and therefore, only the electrophoretic transport of ions was significant. Limit of detection for bromate approaching 0.6 μg/L was achieved. Good repeatabilities of migration time (RSD less than 0.3%) and peak area (RSD less than 4.0%) at concentration level 1 μg/L were obtained. Robustness of proposed ITP-CZE method and validation parameters were evaluated. Developed automated ITP-CZE method was applied to the determination of bromate in drinking water samples with different content of inorganic macroconstituents without the need of further sample preparation.

  5. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10/17. Drinking patterns vary by age and gender As adolescents get older, they tend to drink ... clear rules against drinking, as well as improve communication between children and parents about alcohol. The Role ...

  6. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Binge Drinking ...

  7. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking (4:23) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Binge Drinking Binge Drinking Transcript [23 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [27. ...

  8. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.

  9. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  10. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSDadditives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials.

  11. Modeling Soluble and Particulate Lead Release into Drinking Water from Full and Partially Replaced Lead Service Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-03-07

    Partial replacement of lead service lines (LSLs) often results in the excessive long-term release of lead particulates due to the disturbance of pipe scale and galvanic corrosion. In this study, a modeling approach to simulate the release and transport of particulate and dissolved lead from full and partially replaced LSLs is developed. A mass-transfer model is coupled with a stochastic residential water demand generator to investigate the effect of normal household usage flow patterns on lead exposure. The model is calibrated by comparing simulation results against experimental measurements from pilot-scale setups where lead release under different flow rates and water chemistry scenarios was reported. Applying the model within a Monte Carlo simulation framework, partial replacement of the LSL was predicted to result in releasing spikes with significantly high concentrations of particulate lead (1011.9 ± 290.3 μg/L) that were five times higher than those released from the simulated full LSL. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the intensity of flow demands significantly affects particulate lead release, while dissolved lead levels are more dependent on the lengths of the stagnation periods. Preflushing of the LSL prior to regulatory sampling was found to underestimate the maximum monthly exposure to dissolved lead by 19%, while sampling at low flow rates (<5.2 LPM) was found to consistently suppress the high spikes induced by particulate lead mobilization.

  12. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  13. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking A Time To ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & ...

  14. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise ... Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you ...

  15. Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  16. Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Energy Drinks Share: © Thinkstock Energy drinks are widely promoted as products that increase alertness and enhance physical and mental performance. Marketing targeted at young people has been quite ...

  17. Binge Drinking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who ... Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies ...

  18. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A Time To Act A Time To Act Injury Prevention Research Injury Prevention Research In the Swim ...

  19. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Harmful and Underage College Drinking Drinking affects college students, their families, and college communities at large. Researchers estimate that ... heavy drinking and alcohol-related consequences because of student expectations and social pressures at the start of the academic year. How ...

  20. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  1. College Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink often do so because their parents discussed alcohol use and its adverse consequences with them. Nighttime restrictions on young drivers and strict license suspension policies, interventions focused ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking. When someone drinks too much and gets alcohol poisoning, it affects the body's involuntary reflexes — including breathing and the ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Alcohol Coping ... College Prom Pressure Abusive Relationships Dealing With Addiction I Think I May Have ...

  3. Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... friends Less interest in activities and/or appearance Alcohol on a young person's breath Slurred speech Coordination problems Memory and/or concentration problems The Role Parents Play Parents can help their children avoid alcohol problems by: Discussing the dangers of drinking Drinking ...

  4. Upward line with integrated circulation pipe. Cost saving in the field of warm drinking water supply; Steigestrang mit integrierter Zirkulationsleitung. Kosten bei der Trinkwarmwasserversorgung sparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arens, P. [Viega GmbH und Co. KG, Attendorn (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    When new buildings are constructed as well as in case of the re-construction of objects constructional measures for the permanent conservation of the drinking water hygiene are very often conflicting with possibly higher investment and operating costs. There is no reason for this concern. This is shown by a closer evaluation of the available installation systems on the market. The overall costs of the inliner system for drinking water grids are lower compared to conventional installation systems not only in terms of primary installation but also in terms of the later operating costs, (orig.)

  5. [Microbial settlement of paint- and building-materials in the sphere of drinking water. 9. Communication: experimental examination of cement mortar for the lining with tiles (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenen, D; Thofern, E

    1981-12-01

    The observation of a microbial growth in form of macrocolonies upon the joints of a tiled drinking water reservoir caused the microbiological testing of different pure mineral and some plastic containing cement mortar. Besides the conditions allowing the growth of macrocolonies on tiled plates with a construction like in a reservoir were examined.

  6. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance.

  7. Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in N.E. Spanish surface waters and their removal in a drinking water treatment plant that combines conventional and advanced treatments in parallel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Cintia; Ventura, Francesc; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; Caixach, Josep

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are two emerging contaminants that have been detected in all environmental compartments. However, while most of the studies in the literature deal with their presence or removal in wastewater treatment, few of them are devoted to their detection in treated drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment. In this study, analyses of PFOS and PFOA have been carried out in river water samples and in the different stages of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) which has recently improved its conventional treatment process by adding ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in a parallel treatment line. Conventional and advanced treatments have been studied in several pilot plants and in the DWTP, which offers the opportunity to compare both treatments operating simultaneously. From the results obtained, neither preoxidation, sand filtration, nor ozonation, removed both perfluorinated compounds. As advanced treatments, reverse osmosis has proved more effective than reverse electrodialysis to remove PFOA and PFOS in the different configurations of pilot plants assayed. Granular activated carbon with an average elimination efficiency of 64±11% and 45±19% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively and especially reverse osmosis, which was able to remove ≥99% of both compounds, were the sole effective treatment steps. Trace levels of PFOS (3.0-21 ng/L) and PFOA (water were significantly lowered in comparison to those measured in precedent years. These concentrations represent overall removal efficiencies of 89±22% for PFOA and 86±7% for PFOS.

  8. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health ...

  9. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Drivers Life Stages & Populations A Killer in Indian Country Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early. Dangerous ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  10. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... A Time To Act Binge Drinking Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Injury Prevention Research In the ... Swim of Things Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge ...

  11. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and discusses effective community prevention strategies such ...

  12. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... 27.9 MB] Open Captioned [12.6 MB] Request a higher resolution file Copy the code below ... Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence More Information Vital Signs Binge Drinking Information Alcohol & Public Health ...

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  15. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Way to Go Way to Go: Many Healthy Returns (4:00) Way to Go: Passport To Health ( ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  16. Binge Drinking

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  17. Binge Drinking

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  18. Binge Drinking

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  19. Binge Drinking

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  20. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... captioning. Videos are prepared for different audiences including, children, parents, and public health professionals. More > Binge Drinking ( ...

  1. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... and HIV/AIDS - and discusses effective community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video ... Alcohol & Public Health Binge Drinking Factsheet Effective Prevention Strategies Send Us Feedback What do you think of ...

  2. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Passport To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish ... video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  3. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Streep (:30) Version B Your Wake-Up Call Common Conditions A Change for Life Arthritis Pain Reliever ... taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is ...

  4. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-05

    This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death.  Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/5/2010.

  5. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment

  6. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses in the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja) of the Cameroon Volcanic Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Nkeng, George Elambo; Fantong, Wilson Yetoh; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Roger, Ntankouo Njila

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater quality of the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja-Cameroon) was assessed for its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses. A total of 67 groundwater samples were collected from open wells, springs, and boreholes. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major ions, and dissolved silica. In 95% of groundwater samples, calcium is the dominant cation, while sodium dominates in 5% of the samples. Eighty percent of the samples have HCO(3) as major anion, and in 20%, NO(3) is the major anion. Main water types in the study area are CaHCO(3), CaMgHCO(3), CaNaHCO(3), and CaNaNO(3)ClHCO(3). CO(2)-driven weathering of silicate minerals followed by cation exchange seemingly controls largely the concentrations of major ions in the groundwaters of this area. Nitrate, sulfate, and chloride concentrations strongly express the impact of anthropogenic activities (agriculture and domestic activities) on groundwater quality. Sixty-four percent of the waters have nitrate concentrations higher than the drinking water limit. Also limiting groundwater use for potable and domestic purposes are contents of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO(3) (-) and total hardness (TH) that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Irrigational suitability of groundwaters in the study area was also evaluated, and results show that all the samples are fit for irrigation. Groundwater quality in the Banana Plain is impeded by natural geology and anthropogenic activities, and proper groundwater management strategies are necessary to protect sustainably this valuable resource.

  7. Binge Drinking

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  8. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... Go: Passport To Health (4:17) Vital Signs High Blood Pressure Spanish Diseases & Conditions Hablemos de la Influenza Influenza ... allowfullscreen> The video explores the health risks of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted ...

  9. Binge Drinking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it.  Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  10. Binge Drinking

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    Full Text Available ... this video: